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1 airc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 airc or dil.ie/1659

n f. : maic, LL 18305 , : ailt, 6389 , -cairt, O'Hara 1100 . Other rhyming examples noted infra. difficulty, strait: a.¤ .i. docamhal, O'Cl. na ha.¤ na écen na écendál, TBC-LL¹ 2895 . cá cath . . . nach diṅgbad cét in cach a.¤ , LL 6403 . ropsam grind grind ri harcaib (: fortail) (B. na f.) `fierce, fierce I was in straits(?)', Ériu i 72 § 3 . fri cocad ┐ cech n-aircc na haimsire sin, LB 123b42 . a.¤ abstinence(?), Fél.² lxxxv § 10 . fria cech necóir fri cech na.¤ , LB 262a31 . doconnairc Brénainn an a.¤ do bói orra, BNnÉ 52.z . trocaire do dénamh forra on a.¤ (on eigin sin v.l.) ina rabhatar, 9 § 31 . a n-a.¤ d'fóirighin to aid their difficulty, Ériu iv 224 § 47 . ua C . . . . dfurtacht . . . as an a., AFM vi 2122.17 . ó ata an t-en becc isin a.¤ ud uma heinaibh, CF 982 . bādar i n-a.¤ bhetha in want, Cín Lae Ó Meall. 44.6 . do taithmigeadh a ha.¤ ibh / a ghlainchineadh Airt Énfhir, IGT Verbs ex. 556 . do-bhéara Críosd, cruaidh an a.¤ / dúin-ne an t-achmhusán orrdhairc (of the last judgement), DDána 29.24 .

In phrase is a.¤ do is in a difficult situation: maith tra is a.¤ dúnn cia do-[g]nemis comairle, Anecd. i 4.8 `we need to take counsel', S Cano 90 n. in trath bad a.¤ do i comlonn, TBC-LL¹ p. 313 n.l . cia mbad a.¤ duit, LL 285a6 . is a.¤ . . . do Molling `M. is in a strait', RC xiii 114 § 158 . rob a.¤ det san usce fūar, ZCP vii 307.2 . Note also: o rogabad a.¤ de amlaid sin `when difficulty had been experienced therefrom', Aen. 2332 .

? As adj. fatal, mortal(?): ? fri gnim n-aircc n-íd, SR 6603 . manip enghel amail chailc fri huair na.¤ , LB 108b47 . tarlaic Cairpri aurchur n-a.¤ , LL 20162 .

Perh. also in: dāl armairc meeting in battle stress, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. v 1919, 93 § 33 .

Cf. 2 airc.

airlithe

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airlithe or dil.ie/2220

adj io, iā (cf. 1 airle) obedient, submissive, docile: combat irlithi geinti do hiris gl. ad obaeditionem fidei in cunctis gentibus, Wb. 7c14 . robtar irlithi ar [mog]e dúnn résiu tised hiress robtar anirlithi, 27c8 , 29b2 . ma[nba]d irlaithi, 27c11 . munter umal aurlaithe (aurlatid, urlataid, urlaitad v.l.) nád epir `ní reg', Ériu iii 106 § 45 . ferthaiges umal aurlithe (aurlaiti, urlat, v.l.), 106 § 40a . urlaiti .i. umhaloid, ut est, aes fognama urlaiti, O'Dav. 1608 Cf. ao[s ?] fognuma urrlaite edir ced ┐clog ┐salm, O'D. 2189 ( Nero A vii 132a ) (perh. to be referred to aurlatu). ropsa becda athar-umal aurlaite, O'Curry 51 ( H 3.18, p. 18b ). urlaithe .i. ésgaidh, O'Cl. ? As subst. slán gach airlithidh, O'Gr. Cat. 99.27 .i. is slan don cach doni in tuasal-liu[d] ara cheile, O'Curry 2498 (Eg. 88, 40(41)c) (cf. liïd).

Compar. armbat irlithiu, Wb. 22d2 .

See airlataid.

arafia

Cite this: eDIL s.v. arafia or dil.ie/3944

(see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 271 - 272 ). In phr. is a.¤ do one has it in one's power: isara fia dom gl. numquid manducabo carnem, Thes. i 3.9 . isara fie dúnn gl. non possuit nos Deus in iram, Wb. 25c9 . is farafie duib ni dóir far mbethu gl. vos autem in carne non estis sed in spiritu, 4a3 . barafie (= ba a.¤) dúib darígente `ye had it in your power to do it', 11d5 . is arafíad duitsi, Lism. L. 2180 .

Cf. ar-tá.

ar-áili

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ar-áili or dil.ie/3954

Forms: eráil

v early form of eráilid. Us. depon. in pret. and perf. See ZCP xxii 135 - 137 and Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 676 .

(a) enjoins, urges an action etc. on (for) a person: nech fodordai . . . ┐ aridaile for nach n-aili `anyone who murmurs . . . and who prompts another to do so', Ériu vii 162 § 7 . issed chetarráli diabul for Adam `it was this sin . . . that the Devil first prompted in Adam', 164.5 . conéráli debuid forsna hanchraidi `so that it causes strife [even] among anchorites', 164 § 11. inti arali mesca `he who causes his tipsiness', 146.z.

(b) induces, causes, brings about: ba hé aridralastar `he it was that had arranged(?) it', Thes. ii 318.3 . in Satan aridralastar (arítralastar, MS) insin dot astad etir tuaid `who has arranged(?) that', Ériu ii 222.6 (cf. iii 207). demmun aridralistar sin, Mon. Tall. 153.27 (§ 66) . ised a[ri]drali (sic leg., Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 676 ) `has caused it', Mon. Tall. 149.8 (§ 59) . cía cruth aralad sin, Trip. 28.21 . cía cruth arrálad a thabairt ass, TBFr. 328 . níba meth n-einig dúnn . . . tucht arandálfarsa the way I shall manage it, 193 . ara ralastair mo ri `my king prepared it' (of miracle of loaves and fishes), Blathm. 131 . ba millsiu cach biud fo mil / araralad mac Usnig, IT i 78.16 `sweeter was . . . what the son of U. had contrived', LMU² (see note). dia glēodh dūs . . . cia ro-s-aralta `how they were arranged(?)', Ériu viii 156.22 . Eogan . . . ro rīgad / ūaig ar rálad ri ré da fichet būan blīadan perfectly has it been settled for a period of forty years(?), Arch. Hib. ii 48 § 2 . Cētain Find feb ro fīrad / cētaīn Cūscraid arrāllad (`who was slain'), Jn. Celt. Stud. i 84 § 15 . ? pass. sg. or depon. 2 s. (see St. fr. Táin and ZCP xxii 135 - 137 ) ni maith arrailter (airrailter, LU) in macroth (macrad LU), TBC-I¹ 401 ( LU 4889 ). ? tossach miarli malartcha árrali maith mesrugud moderation effects good(?), LL 345b 38 = araile maith mesrugud, Anecd. iii 16 n.11 . adroāirle hūë Bricc būaidriss has caused confusion, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 40 § 8 . Note also: ni maith far-arlith in cath., TBC-LL¹ 2760 = nofichid, TBC-I¹ 2059 .

Vn. eráil.

2 cía

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 cía or dil.ie/8966
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: ce, ci, cení, ceni, cini, céa, gia, ga, cethuc, ciaso, ciarba, ciaso, cia, cesu, ceso, cinidlúith, cinid, cinith, cenid, cenid, cenutad, cenotad, cenuded, cetothóisegu, cetu, ceto, ciato, ciabaderóil, ciabaloingthech, ciafa, cid, cith, ced, ceith, ceth, cinip, cenip, cenib, cit, cinbat, cenibed, citis, cetis, ciabsa, cepu, ciabu, cíabo, ciaptar, cebtar, céptar, cíaptar, ciarpsa, cíarbu, cíarbo, cinirbo, gidh, cíasa, cidat, cesu, cīas, cíammin, gidat, ge, gé, gé, ceinip, cenip, cér, cepsi, cíamtis, cía, cíambad, ciambad, cemadh, gembo, gémadh, ciamdis, cíamtis, cenptís, ciarb, cer, gér, gér, gé, cersat, cid

conj. (a use of 1 cía, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 206 , Bergin, Ériu xii 206 . Not a use of 1 cía, Greene, Ériu xxi 92 - 3 ) In O. Ir. also ce ( GOI 34 ). Before initial vowels also ci. Neg. cení, ceni, cini ( GOI 561 ). céa, Trip.² 444 . gia, SR 2885 . ga, LL 8354 (TBC). In later lang. gé ( GOI 111 ). giodh re hucht n-innsgne ┐ molta ┐ bfocuil, ┐ gé re hucht n-oibrighthe, acht gurab cóir giodh gonta no a leithéid eile, IGT Introd. 8.1 (for giodh see infra). On gé do in past tense in class. lang. see Duan. Finn Gloss. gér chreid, Dán Dé xx 38 . gé go ttainic, Duan. F. ii 368 § 26 . In later lang. often reinforced by acht: acht gé tá, DDána 20.17 . acht ge bhadar, Stair Erc. 1471 . As a rule unstressed, cf. TD 15.28 note. But the form giodh is in list of words which may rhyme, Bard. Synt. Tr. 30.27 , the sense in available exx. being even (see infra): giodh: miodh, 39 = DDána 84.18 . As a rule leniting, GOI 561 . But not in copula forms ce-pu, cia-ptar. Isolated exx. with gemination (no ref.), GOI 145 . Not a conj. particle, and takes absol. and deut. form of vb. in O. Ir. (though it takes conj. form of pret. of copula, GOI 491 ). Cf. also: cethuc, Thes. ii 225.19 (PCr.). cé betis secht tengtha / im gin, Fél. Ep. 125 . See Mulchrone, Celtica v 143 . Occasionally folld. by rel. clause: ciararubartat biuth, Ml. 91b1 ( GOI 320 ). Cf. acht gé bhíos 'na bheathaidh, TSh. 1222 .

Somet. replaced as simple conj. by cid etc. (presum. cía + subj. pres. 3 s. of copula, see infra): ced donecmai, Mon. Tall. 146.19 . cid dognether ess usci, 143.18 . cid arfaomtar ní, 148.17 . cid fogluasa though . . . may, 152.1 . cid chodala a lórtid, 161.27 . cid ro chloí, LL 521 . gidh atá, ML 56.11 . gidh atáid, RSClára 54a . acht gidh do bhí, Eochairsg. 31.3 . acht cid bíd, Maund. 215 .

Forms with copula. Indic. pres. 2 s. ciaso, LL 344a32 = ciarba, Tec. Corm. 12.7 . 3 s. (leniting) ciasu, Wb. 11c17 . 12a5 . 19a20 . Ml. 26c4 . 26d12 . 67a4 . 67d24 . ciaso, Wb. 28c14 . Sg. 211b7 . cia so, 204a8 . cesu, Wb. 21d13 . Sg. 38a1 . 41b10 . 59a6 . 78b2 . 90a5 . 91a3 . 137b2 . 158a2 . 217b12 . ceso, 21a1 . 206a3 . With neg. cinidlúith lib, Wb. 12b9 . cinid airi, Sg. 35b13 . cinith mút, 5b4 . cenid, Ml. 42b7 . 44c26 . cenid, Sg. 181b4 . 202a5 . 2 pl. cenutad, Wb. 4a10 . cenotad, 33b8 . cenuded, Thes. i 713.25 . (archaic, GOI 485 ). 3 pl. cetothóisegu, Wb. 18d14 . cetu chummascthai, Sg. 62a2 . ceto écintecha, 203b10 . ciato chomṡruithi, Críth G. 493 . Subj. pres. 1 s. ciabaderóil, Wb. 18a7 . 2 s. ciabaloingthech, Wb. 6c9 . ciafa firián, Ml. 36a32 . 3 s. cid, cith, ced, ceith, ceth passim (see below). cinip, Wb. 11d15 . cinip . . . cenip , Ml. 59a23 . cenib, 24d22 . 3 pl. cit, Wb. 4d4 , 5 , 9a12 . 12a13 . Sg. 207b11 . cinbat, Wb. 4d6 . Subj. impf. 3 s. ce bad hé frisandénte, Wb. 9c24 . cenibed áainmsom bes foir, Ml. 23d17 . 3 pl. citis, cetis cited GOI 490 . Pret. 1 s. ciabsa .i. ge do bhí mé, O'Cl. 3 s. cepu, Wb. 2c25 . 4c35 . ciabu, Ml. 24c12 . cíabo cited GOI 491 . 3 pl. ciaptar, Ml. 98c5 . cebtar, Wb. 4a8 . céptar, Fél. Prol. 74 . cíaptar, Ep. 14 . Perf. 1 s. ciarpsa, Wb. 30a6 . 3 s. cíarbu, 13b8 . cíarbo, ibid. cinirbo, 24c22 .

Forms from later sources. Indic. pres. 1 s. gidh um, RSClára 55b . 2 s. cíasa, Trip.² 1282 . cidat, TFerbe 638 . 3 s. cesu, LU 3799 ( SCC 37 ). MacCarthy 400.6 . cīas, Sc.M² 22d . 1 pl. cíammin, BDD² 329 . 3 pl. gidat, Anecd. ii 24 § 14 . Subj. pres. 3 s. ge, ZCP viii 116.28 . gé mídhiongmhála mé, RSClára 39a . gé leor, TD 20. 13 v.l. (more correctly giodh as in text, IGT Introd. cited above). ceinip, IT iii 239.122 . cenip, MU² 905 . cér' maith dogné, MacCarthy 66.4 . ? cepsi derb `of a sooth', Arch. Hib. iv 206 § 16 . Impf. 3 s. (cíambad, cíamtis perh. from cía no bad, betis, IT i Wtb. s.v. 3 cia ; modelled on díambad, Bergin, Ériu xii 206 n.2 ): cíambad, MU² 140 . ciambad, Airne F. 89 . cemadh, CCath. 5415 . gid mad, TTebe 1011 . ? gembo, IT iii 94.12 . In later lang. freq. gémadh. 3 pl. ciamdis, Anecd. i 21.5 . cíamtis, LU 2285 ( FA 34 ). cenptís, Fing. R. 230 . Pret. and perf. 3 s. ciarb, LL 22662 (CRR). cer gním, 28196 ( Metr. Dinds. ii 74.30 ). gér mhaith, TD 14.29 . gér ba, SG 168.z . gé gurb, Dánfhocail 64 . cérbat, LB 138a23 ( Todd Lect. vi 64 ). cersat, 4a5 ( PH 250 ).

I With follg. subjunctive.

(a) if, even if, in the case that, in the event that (often almost identical in meaning with má, Bergin, Ériu xii 206 ): ceimroimsimmis `if we should sin', Wb. 9c10 . batorad saithir dúnn . . . cedumelmis cechtuari et cedugnemmis andugniat ar céli, 10c21 . cia sulbiriger gl. si orem lingua, 12d10 . ceni-thaisid ar ois `unless ye go thus willingly', Ml. 33b15 . cenis-nícae `if Thou save them not', 88b7 . ci insamlar gl. si eos imitor, Sg. 1b1 . ceni et huaitsiu if I don't get (it) from you, Vita Br. 25 . trí toichnedai . . . cia be[i]th rí etc. (one is) the case in which a king is . . . , Críth G. 548 . cenis beith biad acht rusbeth deog, Vita Br. 23 . ceni therna if he should happen not to return, Irish Texts i 21 § 17 . cia dogne ín bean cinnta should the woman commit crimes, Laws iv 60.26 Comm. ni imdich cia beth cuit do indib `it shall not shelter him that he has a share in them', iv 202.2 . cia fo-certa míach . . . for a mullach if, BDD² 347 . sund cia no chráidem in Ríg / batin aithrig is tir thall, Ériu i 68.14 . ciathias ann, LB 126b33 . ro badh iongnadh . . . / gémadh . . , DDána 42.34 . cía . . . cía, ceni, cen co whether . . . or (not): cenonmolid cenon airid `whether ye praise us, whether ye blame us', Wb. 16a1 . ciatroillet ciniarillet `whether they deserve it, or deserve it not', 31c23 . gerbh āil gin corb áil leō whether they liked it or not, ACL iii 5.33 . cia fogabad cenco fagbad, LL 7328 .

(b) As explic. and final conj. that (but see Ériu xlii 53 ) (frequ. in clauses depending on words meaning good, fitting, permissible , etc. See ZCP xxix 181 . Somet. with perfective subj., GOI 343 , 562 ): is cett lem don aegaire / cía nobeth sund co sona that he should be here happily, BColm. 98.7 . bacoir cena-chomalnithe, Wb. 13a33 . cubaid . . . cé mad i lub-gort, PH 3020 . is dedbir duib ciforrgot `that they destroy', Thes. i 714.14 . badethbir do cinifesed . . . , 3.39 . is dual ┐ is duthaig duib ciadogneiti calma, BB 429b41 . isfo lium ciarafesid `that ye should know it', Wb. 14b20 . immaircide . . . cerubet ipéin ladiabul, 26a23 . cia dulogae doib a nuili torgabala on gl. licet indulgenter omnia contuleris semel electis, Ml. 138b7 . is licet cia nospromae, Ériu i 202.7 . ba loür . . . / . . . comrac frium / ceni lomardais tre barr / mo dá n-ó dim chiunn, Blathm. 94 § 17 . ni maith less cia gabthar do, Wb. 29b5 . nec mirum .i. ciasingbat árim déṡillabche compariti ┐ superlati, Sg. 44b3 . ní mebul lemm ciafadam `I am not ashamed that I suffer it', Wb. 29d27 . ní mór duib cia chomallaide aní . . . `that ye fulfil', Ml. 95c3 . ciat ngneitis niba romh `they should have recognized him immediately', Blathm. 391 . Note also: nísnain ciasberat níntánicc recht the fact of their saying . . . will not protect them, Wb. 1d1 . amal nandéni mascul dindí as auxilium cebeith genitor áarrad the fact of its being accompanied by g. does not make a. a masculine, Sg. 125a6 (alternatively: a. does not become masculine even though accompanied by g.).

(c) although, in spite of the fact that, even though ( GOI 561 ): bésu dagduine ciniestar cachtúari, Wb. 6b23 . ciachondesin farsúli `though I had asked for your eyes', 19d24 . cini eperthe frinn `even though it should not be said to us', 19a5 . cenitormastar homéit istrom cenae ho aicniud even without its being increased, Ml. 20a20 . ciarubé cenní diib nirubai cenaib huli, 20d4 . cechonístis nombetis archuit analoige `though they might be as regards analogy', Sg. 138a9 . canair son ce beith tuaslucud `it is sung, though there be a relaxation', Mon. Tall. 139.4 . cīa dofaetsad nem for talmain, BColm. 104.17 . ? céini rogalta in fēin `though thou hadst not promised', Fianaig. 12.18 . darbord cia bé `haughty though he was', MacCarthy 186.7 . ge deach rī Conaill a ccēin, ZCP viii 116.21 . gé bheith duine go díomhaoin, Dán Dé xxii 5 .

Very freq. with subj. pres. 3 s. of copula cid though (it be), granting that it is: ced nessa cenél neich alailiu, Ml. 115d7 . cid doib doarrchet, Wb. 5a16 (where cid is perh. used as indic., GOI 484 ). cidmebul lib, 3b30 . cith .m. namma scríbthar and, Sg. 28a15 . ceith dichrai a ndaithrigi `however fervent their penitence', Mon. Tall. 134.12 . cid dīthrub Temair, Thes. ii 317.7 (Hy. ii). cit (pl.) réidi reba, Trip.² 1278 . cenid mé in murgelt már, LU 3022 . gidh aoibhneas an domhan mín, Dán Dé xxiii 35 . ciodh glan mo chrábhadh, Keat. iii 1703 . Perh. also: cid etir in fact, indeed, LL 31730 (TTr.). cidh on in any case, O'D. 39 ( H 3.17, 35 ). Note also: gidhedh nogabdais / ō Bh. co B. though they should go from B. to B., ZCP viii 110 § 7 . ní thiobhra an corp cead a mhúinte / a mhacnas orm gidh eadh raibh though that is what I desire, Dán Dé xix 6 . ? cipithair mo mac inn nī romarbthar though my son come, ZCP xiii 178.19 (cf. cid bé s.v. 1 cía ?). With impf. gémadh naomh even though he be a saint, Dán Dé vii 29 . gemadh fili, Stair Erc. 1231 (even ? see infra).

cid . . . cid whether (it be) . . . or: cidcían cidgair, Wb. 3c5 . cid in imniud cid hisocumail beusa, Ml. 53b8 . cid bec cid mar, Sg. 2a7 . ceith mín cid anmín `slightly or strongly', Mon. Tall. 148.24 . cidh islip cidh uaislibh `whether they be plebeians or nobles', Laws iv 26.20 Comm. ainmne is umaldóit certae / cid maith, cid saich, cid bochtae `which set right good and evil and poverty', Ériu iii 104 § 38 . gidh sunn, cidh tall no mairmis, BNnÉ 313 § 5 . With gé: ge garid gé étgene / dit álaib fo chen, LU 10429 ( ZCP iii 258.9 ). With ellipse of second cid: cid cian gairit, IT i 118.13 (TE Eg.). gidh mór beag do bhéaradh sibh be your gift great or small, Dán Dé vi 21 .

Hence in adv. phr. (┐) cid ed however, nevertheless : ┐ cided ón nislán térnatar, LL 256b26 ( TFerbe 429 ). gided tarcid C., LL 11391 (TBC). cid edh, CCath. 3004 . is gidh eadh, DDána 91.12 . gidheadh ag nach bí éinní `yet hath nothing', Proverbs xiii 7 . ┐ gideth, ZCP vi 34.10 . cid ed, CRR 26.3 . ged ed, TTebe 2092 . In narrative: cērbh eadh, Feis Tighe Chonáin 518 .

With subj. pres. 3 s. of copula in sense even (somet. as mere emphasising word). Twice with pl. ending in Wb.: bieit cit geinti hiressich, 4c40 . muscreitfet cithésidi, 5c2 . Apart from these exx. cid is used irrespective of number of follg. noun or pronoun (see GOI 562 ): corrici cíth besti béoa, Thes. i 4.31 . ba apstal cidmoysi `Moses too was an apostle', Wb. 32d14 . ní comalnatsom cid feissne recht `even they themselves fulfil not the Law', 20c22 . amal dundgniat indfilid linni cid insin `even as the poets with us do', Ml. 26b10 . cid na hualcha gl. superba (loquentes), 31c22 . cidnanguide gl. etiam supplicationum (similitudine), 32c18 . cid ostú a Dé `even Thou, O God', 43a18 . cid inna hí ata beca, 62b10 . iscuse cidedon gl. et id actenus, Enchir. Aug. 72b ( ZCP vii 480 ). ceth anísiu `even this', Ériu ii 224.3 . ro thóraind gid tige in dúine sin, FDG² 30 .

Hence in isolated glosses on Lat. particles: cith gl. et, Wb. 22a5 (a prima manu). cid gl. et, Ml. 14a1 . gl. etiam, 24c2b ; Sg. 9a4 . gl. etsi, Ml. 23c4 . gl. iam, 15b2 . 48b14 . gl. quamlibet, 46c16 . gl. quamuís, 55c12 . gl. (iusti)que, 38d3 . gl. quidem, 14a15 . gl. quippe, 127a8a . gl. quoque, 101a13 . Sg. 16a2a , see Études Celt. xi 112 . gl. saltim, Ml. 86c7 . gl. uel, 99a1 .

With follg. prep. and noun: cid cossin nóin, Wb. 2a21 . ceith cenmathá integdais nucut `even besides yonder house', 33a4 . cid etir na cumcai, Ml. 18d24 . cid a techtugad tire, Laws iv 24.20 Comm. nī tibur-so in tinnscra sinee (leg. sin ?) cid ar Meidb Crūachan feissin, ZCP iv 39.9 = ní thibrind i tindscra cid Meidbi insin, TBFr. 185 . cid aire sin namá if only for that reason, Ériu ii 194 § 7 . cid īarna ētsecht `even after his death', BColm. 98.25 .

With adv. cid indemin `even assuredly', Wb. 9c18 . cid inbiucc, Sg. 39a25 . ceit co matain till morning, Mon. Tall. 152.6 .

With verb: cid átrebfea gl. et habitaturum, Ml. 36b14 . cid reminota .i. cid remínetarcnaigedar `that it even prenote', 18c12 . cithisse gl. et qui, Wb. 22a7 (a prima manu). Usually with clause introduced by conj.: cidamba cocuibsid, Ml. 32b21 . asber cid arind molatar inna nime fesin `he even tells the heavens themselves to praise Him', 145d4 . cidrisíu robǽ cland les, Wb. 29d23 . cid co tisad gáeth etorro ┐ talam even to the extent that, LU 8389 ( FB 26 ). is bec cid dia fesstar a chenél `his kin will be almost unknown', RC xxiv 176.5 . cid intan ná torsed F. chucu `even if Ph. should not return', Ériu iv 142.7 . níor fhás giodh acht cáora con not even (?), Bard. Synt. Tr. 30.38 .

With follg. itir: génnti na rochretset cid itir at all, RC xii 426 § 13 . is fodāig na mnā cid etir roferfaider si (sic) fāilti frit `that you get a welcome at all', ZCP v 501.30 . fri re naenuaire cidh itir `even', Ériu 22.31 . acht másu ḟerr cid etir do ḟlaithseo, LL 278b49 .

In more generalized meaning of as to, as regards, as for : ceth Máolruoin nipo calad `as for M. he was not stiff', Mon. Tall. 135.24 . cid aidchi lúoin ma dorona `as to Sunday night, he is to do so if he can', 132.28 . ceith dand erán ┐ den seildind imbe `both as to the bread and the "selann" of butter', 151.24 . is cid Nuadu Necht . . . / romarb Eterscél . . . / . . . is cid Fergus mac Róig, LL 6429 ff. cid cath Ailbe as for, LL 4127 ( RC xxiii 312 ). cid C. dana as regards, TFerbe 326 . In later lang. somet. very vaguely applied. Cf. atbath cidh araill dibh dfuacht, AFM iii 250.5 . ciodh iar ttriol `not long afterwards', 312.11 .

In later lang. somet. with supporting pron.: gidh é doighech na ndernann even the pang, IGT Decl. ex. 799 . cidh iad fiora F. tugadh éccendáil forra, AFM ii 1042.x . ┐ gidh esidhe ni tearna uadh, v 1484.x . Meic Mh. fós—gidh iad ann, TD 4.15 (see note).

With subj. impf. of copula: gembad gar even for a short time, Metr. Dinds. iv 52. 133 .

II With indic. (see GOI 561 . As a rule concessive in this use, but cf. Wb. 16b9 cited below).

(a) With inf. pron. (on the form of 3 s. m. n. see GOI 269 ): cinid arillset, Wb. 4c39 . ciasidroilliset `though they have deserved it', Ml. 77a15 . ni indráigne dúib cininfil lib it is no detriment to you that we are not with you, Wb. 16b9 . cenis pendid `though they do no penance', Mon. Tall. 135.13 .

(b) Where the sense does not require an inf. pron. a particle -(i)d- is infixed, if necessary by means of no- (see GOI 269 , 324 -5). cerudglanta tribathis, Wb. 4a6 . ciarud chualatar ilbélre et cenuslabratar, 12d28 . cinidfil chairi linn, Ml. 30a2 . cenidfetarsa andliged nisin, 55d21 . ciaridberam a céill `although we express their sense', Sg. 26b2 . cenod filchotarsnataith etarru, 29b17 . cenodfil, 192b5 . quanquam .i. cinud, 17a3 . cenit fregart mac ind righ, Blathm. 96 § 24 . méti cénid chocerta, LU 8899 ( FB 68 ). Note also (with subj.): cinidaccastar `though he be not seen', Wb. 26a12 (see note).

Somet. without infix in O. Ir.: ciasbiursa deus etc., Wb. 2b18 . cerubaid fopheccad `though ye were', 3b19 . ciadurat som digail forassaru, Ml. 94c17 . ciabatar degtacrae les `though he had good arguments', Tur. 81 . So regularly in later sources: cení frecmairc coibsina `though he does not ask for confessions', Mon. Tall. 135.15 . cé dogénsam ainmne, ACL iii 295 § 22 . gé ro sgoilt cuirr a chroidhe, Dán Dé xx 29 . gé 'tú, TD 25.42 . gé a-tád, DDána 3.32 . ge ro baoi, AFM v 1734.13 .

cóir

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cóir or dil.ie/10380
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: co(a)ïr, cooir, cáir, cocorib, cáir, -a, -e

adj i Orig. co(a)ïr ( coair: doaib, Fél. Ep. 432 (coir MSS), cooir, SR 1102 ). Later often cáir (see Bard. Synt. Tr. cited below). See OIPG 20 .

1 In physical sense even, well-proportioned, straight : mná córi, LU 3887 ( SCC 40 ). fer c.¤ cutrumma, LL 11917 (TBC). a dá malaig chóiri, BDD² 853 . do grúadaib córaib, Ériu iii 100 § 25c . mani dirgisiu corop c.¤ unless you right it (a leaning house), LU 8394 ( FB 27 ). lenti . . . cori, Cog. 160.y . in cruindi cōir, ZCP viii 114 § 1 .

2 proper, correct, right; suitable, fitting, just : int ord coir, Ml. 29a6 . tara cricha corai, 51d3 . a siansu corai (a p.), 94c3 . taithesc coir, Wb. 27c29 . ? cocorib gl. congruentibus (uerbis), Enchir. Aug. 81a ( ZCP vii 483 ). ríasind trath c.¤ , Mon. Tall. 131.19 . cách 'na cert c.¤ , ZCP viii 200.4 . a comairci cāir, BColm. 88.24 . cauraid cára (: rodána), Rawl. 158.17 . is anima as choair hi sunt a. is the correct form, Ml. 130c10 . ba hed ón ba ch.¤ , Wb. 10b9 . ar ni c.¤ in fotha utmall, Sg. 4b3 . ind pennit bes ch.¤ fort-su `the penance that is meet for thee', Mon. Tall. 130.23 . damadh c.¤ é if it was right (a grammatical procedure), IGT Introd. 29.33 . bés nī bat cōrai just (of persons), ZCP viii 318.32 . Legal: teora tomalta ata chórai, Críth G. 502 . flaith ciniuil coir, Laws ii 202.24 . a mama core, BCrólige 43 . eallach déne cóire, Ériu xiii 18.16 . With n. pr. in voc. a mmo ch.¤ Cathaīr, Fing. R. 484 . a Ch. chóra (: chróda), CRR 26.y (ch.¤ , 4.11).

3 is c.¤ with follg. verbal or vn. clause: is coir a tuic i ndiad á prosperum , Ml. 84c19 . is coir a thabairt doib (sc. tributa), Wb. 6a21 . ni coir descad pectho do buith i sollumun, 9b13 . ba coir ce na chomalnithe you ought to fulfil it, 13a33 . is c.¤ apronomen diainchosc, Sg. 208a4 . is cōir cīa noderba it is fitting that you should confirm it, ZCP viii 108.9 . gan caoineadh na gcorp is cáir, Ó Bruad. ii 122.9 . c.¤ with semi-adverbial force: mé Eba . . . c.¤ is me dochóidh 'sa crand `by rights 'tis I that should have gone upon the cross', Ériu iii 148 § 1 . cáir do-chuaidh na chomhoideacht fittingly , DDána 73.21 . c.¤ do ghabh T. ré dtaoibh, Content. iv 44 . Cf. is coir do marbhus, Stair Erc. 2215 . See compds. with vbs. With added DO: ni coir do neuch rosacht ronícad Duaid one should not hesitate, Ml. 18d20 . doadbadar híc as coir do chách guide dée lia chéle, Wb. 7a13 . ba coir dúibsi cia doberthe testas dinni you should bear witness, 15d8a . amal as coir domsa gl. sicut est mihi iustum, Wb. 23a21 . c.¤ dhó dol 'n-ar sealbha, Dán Dé viii 17 . With LA: ní coair leu a denum gl. minus dignum est, Ml. 48a8 . issed is choir lais . . . inda sacairt doellad . . . arna tiagsad fo graid nepscuip in his opinion erring priests should not become bishops, Mon. Tall. 134.11 .

4 Compar. and superl. ba coru tra bid adnuntiabit no beth híc a. is the better form here, Ml. 45b14 . conid córu suiscélaigthi da rád fris quam fáith, Trip.² 12 . eirg do Themraig . . . Is córu deit, BDD² 149 . nech dar córa creidemain (with intensive force?), BNnÉ 227 § 130 . cára almsa lem anmuinn, Hackett li 16 . coraite a taithmech `it is all the more proper', Ériu xvii 66.19 . go madh córaide dhó sin do dhéanamh `that he might the more easily do this', Keat. ii 3495 . ba sí . . . as córam, BDD² 41 .

5 Adv. co c.¤ gl. effecax, Ml. 69d12 . go c.¤ properly , Celtica i 95.238 . Without co: ferr co mbad chōir nogabtha | comarbus in Rīg, ACL iii 316 § 45 , CMCS i 50 . ? cōic bliadna cethrachat cōir, Arch. Hib. ii 85 § 46 .

As subst. i, f. (in older lang. often with nasalisation of follg. vowel; n., Críth Gabl.). c.¤ , cáir f., IGT Decl. § 42 (g s. -a, -e). Only c.¤ (as against cáir) correct in verse in phrases ar c.¤ , c.¤ gháoithe, Bard. Synt. Tr. 5.29 . Freq. with k- inflection in later lang.

6 rightness, justness, propriety; that which is right or proper; right, due, justice : ro laad cech alt asa choir dam gl. totus resolutus sum, Ml. 44d2 . find cach c.¤ , ACL iii 229.126 . cona tochmaghad a choir cirt, Ériu xiii 17.16 . do ná gaibhter a coir chirt, 31.5 . coir iar n-ecoir, Laws i 254.12 . do reir cora, v 62.33 Comm. do reir coir, 132.10 Comm. ma dognethea a choïr if you did right, ZCP vii 498.7 . fa cheart córa mo bhaile, KMMisc. 56.11 . a coraigh ┐ a n-egoraigh, Hy Maine 161.3 . fer . . . congbala corach for in popul `maintaining the law', PH 2578 . fagháil na cóire, IGT Decl. ex. 1166 . ag cosnamh a gcórach, 1170 . ar an córaidh right (in their teaching), Mac Aingil 6696 . más í a ch.¤ for that is fitting (chev.), SG 390.6 . ar son . . . na cōra, Beatha S. F. 356 . dí maithtear c.¤ na cána the full amount(?), A. Ó Dálaigh vii 8 . an ch.¤ the correct (weight), TSh. 3636 . atorra sin atá in ch.¤ `between them is the golden mean', SG 242.7 . Cóir Anmann `Fitness of Names' (title of tract), IT iii . In phr. tar in cóir: maoin tar an ccóir 'more wealth than you should have', Ériu lxiii 56 § 30 .

7 See also s. córanna. In sense of claim, due, tribute; hence recompense, compensation, penalty, retribution, punishment (partic. in relig. class. verse): ba mor a chair ┐ a chonach, YBL 159b15 . gan coir as O. . . . ar son mairt do gait T. O. not to be held liable for(?), Trans. RIA xv 19 . do ch.¤ aca nī anfodh, O'R. Poems 2254 `what is justly yours', Gloss. da ndernum cáir if I claim my due, Ériu iv 220.17 . ata coir fer talman air ┐ ní fail a coir ar aennech acu, Stair Erc. 702 . gurab orra sin amháin bhíos a ch.¤ (of death), TSh. 754 (`power, authority', Gloss.). do gheabhadh sé c.¤ it ḟeirg `will bring on you punishment', Content. xix 6 . sgaoil do ch.¤ an chíghshéala `lessen the just claim', A. Ó Dálaigh xxxi 7 `requital for', Gloss. c.¤ ghuine Dé the price to be paid for, Aithd. D. 64.25 . na lean c.¤ meidhe an mheasa, Dán Dé vii 16 . maithiomh cóire m'anma `the offences of (claims against) my soul' (notes), LBranach 3616 .

8 Freq. with follg. gen. correctness, correct form (of); proper (legal) arrangement (for); procedure, device, means (of doing someth.): tre cōir bæguil ar demhan a chance of catching the devil napping, Irish Texts i 42.z . coir n-urnadhma `das Ordnungsmassige' (`hier ist es vornehmlich materiell zu verstehen'), Stud. in E. Ir. Law 109 . nídamcuirfe ar ch.¤ cháirde `reduce me to terms of postponement' SG 111.44 . inna coir chétmuinterasa as an accredited c.¤ , Críth G. 200 . dún iona cáir cinnlitre `a fort as it were a capital letter', Ériu v 60.4 . c.¤ clann a chúil arrangement of locks, Magauran 906 . co na hirmaised coir a dhenma the right method of making it, Anecd. ii 7.3 . ní hí an choir égára is fherr unfair method(?), Rel. Celt. ii 291.10 . c.¤ gaíthe favourable wind: techt la reith choir gaithe `with an unfavourable wind', Ml. 126a5 (leg. la frithchóir gáithe ? note). dorala coir gaethi dóib, LL 1654 . coir na gaithi, Ériu v 156.179 . So also: robu ḟearr in choir dunn co S. inas co hE. etir risin gaeth sin, BB 459a39 . coir seolta, 450a20 . c.¤ gáoidhilge correct pronunciation, IGT Introd. 14.z . dēni cōir ṅgaiscid frim fight fair, TBC-I¹ 1289 . c.¤ n-imdegla means of defence, LL 8437 (TBC). tri chōir nindlaig ┐ imc[h]osāidi in order to create division and strife, TBC-I¹ 2237 . c.¤ irnigde `the right way of prayer', Wb. 4a27 . hi coir lanamnusa `in a proper union, BCrólige 56 . coir molta .i. molad laech do forlaéch, BB 301b46 . c.¤ ortagraiph (sic leg.), Corm. 8 s.v. Cormac = ordagraiffe cōir, Corm. Y 204 . tre ch.¤ séisi `skilful arrangement', ZCP i 64 § 81 . coir cach troiscthe `das ist ordnungsmässig bei jedem Fasten', xv 262.1 . c.¤ tuarastail a fair recompense, Metr. Dinds. iii 352.54 . Perh. with ellipse of noun in: dochansaidhe c.¤ , Ériu xiii 42.17 . canaid c.¤ / coscrach cridemail, LU 8694 ( FB 52 ) (perh. adv.). With adj.: c.¤ tessaide `a febrile (pestilence)', Ann. Inisf. 1093. 10 . See athchomarc, athgabáil, cethrochair, comrád etc.

9 In prep. phrases (see Celtica i 349 and comair): ar ch.¤ choróine in the form of, Dán Dé xx 21 . ? fótha ar c.¤ troda, IGT Decl. ex. 1049 . do coir a coinghilla `by right of', Laws i 266.7 . dá coir near it, BCC 51 . ó nach fuil comhghar dhar gc.¤ (: seanóir), Ériu i 16.15 . cunnig dam mnaí menmnag móir / bess ria c.¤ mo theglaich thúaid, LL 29524 `who can watch over', Ériu vii 232 . re c.¤ mara (: dóibh) beside, LBranach 778 . re coir a cheilebartha `for the purpose of', MR 300.12 . a gc.¤ feadhma ready for, LBranach 6246 . a c.¤ (ar ch.¤, v.l.) druidealta ar dorchacht like, IGT Decl. ex. 672 . tiagait . . . A. ┐ S. a coir a seda co sruth A., Aen. 1311 . tangattar i cc.¤ thurasa d'fios a ttíre fén on a journey, BNnÉ 12.10 . Cf. iar coir Parduis towards P., SR 1180 .

10 In adv. phrases: ní thaudchaid a brú for c.¤ never recovered, LU 6078 (TBC). a thabairt fór c.¤ , PH 2128 . co ná rabhadar rechta nó cinnti senaidh ar coir occo `were rightly with them', CCath. 251 . nī bīat rīg is nī bīat suïdh for a coïr as they should be, ZCP viii 195.12 . fon c.¤ cetna in the same way, Rawl. 87a48 . cona facbatís cnáim . . . i c.¤ re cheli, LB 154a61 . gan clērca iar cōir `without proper clergy', Ériu xviii 60 § 12 . co no fil iar n-a choir, PH 4239 .

11 Compds. With nouns: coir aisneis, Laws i 80.27 Comm. a chóirchloch `o chiselled stone', O'Gr. Cat. 492.33 . i gcóirchuibhreann, DDána 20.24 . coirdírgi, BDD² 31 . coirseis gl. corus, Laws i 132.3 Comm. With adj.: cúinge an chreidimh chóirshlighthigh, Ó Bruad. iii 80.24 . With vb. cairemain .i. is coir-fuaiprid (etymol. gl.), Laws v 106.21 Comm. cōir fūaigt[h]er, Corm. Y 340 (crūach). Perh. as conj. Part. in: nad coir canad do chennaibh, Ériu xiii 17.5 (= c.¤- chanat ?). niba hegna nad coir coiccerta canoin, 31.13 .

1 crúach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 crúach or dil.ie/13167
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: cruach, cnoc, carn

n ā, f. stack of corn; rick : frith ina cruaich (cruaith, v.l.) isin gurt hé (of wheat), IT iii 196.z . bec leis dúnn ri cond crúaiche `when the corn-rick is roofed', Metr. Dinds. iv 160.215 . med do cruaiche, Laws i 134.13 Comm. dīre do daise .i. it cruaich arba, 170.27 Comm. mo cheas beach mo chruach mo chrann (of Christ), Dán Dé xxiv 18 . luath a cruach ó Chailligh Dé `quickly sinks her cornstack', Aithd. D. 1.9 . cruach na cliabh arbha, AFM iii 288.7 . Also heap, conical pile : crícha cech cóicid fo chrúaich marked by a stone rick, Metr. Dinds. i 14.23 . cruacha dhóibh ga ndoinndeargadh (piles of corpses), Aithd. D. 20.27 . biáidh an foghmhar na chruaich = a heap, Isaiah xvii 11 . sreath cláraigh . . . / . . . mun gcruaich `round its top' (of castle), DDána 119.7 . Transfd. c.¤ sgeimhle ó chrúas do chaingne, IGT Decl. ex. 1373 . Mountain, hill : lucht na cruaiche críne (of the Túatha D.D.), ZCP xiii 361 § b . imasoich crúas ciuil croich (a s.), RC v 202.3 `vigour of music surrounds the hill (?)', Ériu xvii 90 § 8 . lengait eóin ciúin crúaich `gentle birds leap upon the hill', Four Songs 20 § 2 . cruach, cnoc, carn, Eg. Gl. 161 .

In nn. loc. ar mullach Cruaiche Mhártain, CF Eg. 66 . Especially of Croaghpatrick: argain na Cruaiche, RC xvii 413.24 (Tig.). dia mbai Pátric . . . / for Crúaich, Metr. Dinds. iii 378.6 . Cf. attágar techt hi cruaich cruind, / druing cen crabad, Trip.² 1315 . an chruach ┐ an críoch i dtarla, PBocht 10.28 . See Hog. Onom.

In plant-name: cruach Patraic gl. plantago, ACL i 330 § 1 . sugh teinegail . . . cruaiche Padruig, Rosa Angl. 102.17 . 110.3 .

Compd. crúach-bás (cruaidbas, v.l.) ` heaped slaughter ', Metr. Dinds. iii 242.14 . crúachbhás .i. deargbhas, O'Cl. (? cf. 3 crúach).

dairid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dairid or dil.ie/14285

Forms: dairid, nodaired, dart, dairidar, dairim, doirim

n pr. i. Bulls. pr. ind. 3 sg. dairid. ipf. 3 sg. nodaired. pret. 3 sg. dart. pass. pr. ind. 3 sg. dairidar. ipf. nodairthea.— in tarb cetamus is cuma dairi[d]side a ceathra fadesin, Laws iv 100. 26 . colpaich ó méid dairidar, ib. 18 . cóiea samaisce nodaired cach lái, TBC-LL¹ 1530 . dart .i. dair, gur dhart bhoin .i. go ndearna bó do dháir, O'Cl. co ndart boin dia buaib, Dinds. 159 . dofucusa in mboinsea ...condarodart (condorodart, Eg.) in Dub Cuailnge, TBR 5 ( IT ii2 245. 10 ). condarodart in Donn Cuailnge, IT ii2 240 n. . condrodart in Dunn Cuailgne, RC x 222. 12 . nodairthea in laeg i cinn a ráithe ana ré, CF 73. 6 . —MOD. dairim, doirim. Cf. dáir, darmna, do-dair.

1 derc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 derc or dil.ie/15580

Forms: derc, Dercce

n o, n., later ā, f. Cf. derc f., IGT Decl. § 39 . hole .

(a) Of an aperture: a da laim tria d.¤ (tre deirc, Y) a sedlaig immach, BDD 2 = tria derca ṡedluch al-lenith immach, TE 4 ( IT i 119.24 ) = a di laim tria deirc a sedlai amach .i. tria brollach a leineadh, H 3.18, 528.y . bói dercc tresan comluith, RC ix 468.5 . for deirc cuislinde by the hole of a pipe, Ériu ii 134 § 113 . d.¤ a tona, O'Dav. 572 .

(b) Of a cavity, hollow: ronighed in d.¤ fas the empty eye-socket, BB 383a38 = Dinds. 64 ( RC xv 462.6 ). i nd.¤ a oxaile armpit , TBC-I¹ 1327 . ón deirc ochsaile co 'roile, Dinds. 6 ( RC xv 296.3 ). hole or pit in the ground: ben dia claite d.¤ , Cáin Ad. 2 (cf. asin pull talman, ib.). dogníthe d.¤ don chetfóit ┐ cliatha tairsiu, RC xiii 454 § 48 . gur thuit i bhfairthis nó i ndeirc dhomhain, TSh. 576 . ar ghrinneall na deirce, 579 . Of a grave: eisg ar cend do cholla resiu doberthar issa nd.¤ , LL 278b24 = resiu dorattar isin deirc, Lism. L. xii 21 . feis la marb i ndeirc, RC xv 488 § 8 . Of a well, pool, etc.: tuc Eochaid a chend . . . fon topor | corbo chroderg in d.¤ dron | d'fuil ríg, LL 157b40 ( Metr. Dinds. iii 344.83 ). D.¤ ṅdub (name of a well), LL 30a51 = D.¤ dub, Dinds. 1 § 10 ( RC xv 281 ). Of a cave: dearc .i. uagh no úaimh, O'Cl. dochum na derca a cotlad in luch dunn , Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 28 § 10 . pn Freq. in place-names: D.¤ (Dercc) Corra, RC xxv 346 § 2 . D.¤ Ferna, g s. uath Dercce Ferna, LL 189c28 . i ndorus Derci Ferna, 44a21 .

diúltad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. diúltad or dil.ie/16976

Forms: díltud, díltod, diúltadh, díltadh

u, m. O.Ir. díltud, díltod. Vn. of do-sluindi. diúltadh, díltadh, IGT Verbs § 98 .

(a) In Wb. used to translate scandalum, etc.: diltuth, Wb. 6c2 (a prima manu). in díltod, 5b7 . ma imfolṅgi díltud dun brathir gl. scandalizare, 10c13 , cf. 14 .

(b) = Lat. negare, denying the truth of, refusing to believe in: diltud esærgi, Ml. 15d2 (cf. Wb. 13b18 ). díltud remdeicsen Dǽ, 91a21 . díltod Dé, Wb. 1d12 . desperatio .i. in dilthut veritatis, Enchir. Aug. 75b ( ZCP vii 482 ). do dichor eirsi Maicedoin .i. diultad in spiruta noib, Lec. 301a16 . Hence gramm. negation, a negative: ar díltud ata in- gl. intolerabilius, Sg. 95a4 . fo diltud inso in negation gl. neque, Ml. 55c8 . ac[c] . . . nego latine .i. diultad, Corm. Y 96 . di-ainmne .i. di- fo diultad, 407 , cf. 78 , 504 , 506 . indigu .i. in- ic a diultad co nach digu hē, 759 , cf. 92 . dini[n] disail .i. di fo diultad and co nach nin, Auraic. 1566 . an diúltadh coitcheann `universal negative', TSh. 3232 . IGT Verbs passim .

(c) rejecting, refusing to acknowledge, refusing admittance, disowning: issé ar ndiltuth dūnn fanissin our denial of ourselves (i.e. self-abnegation), Thes. ii 245 (Camb. Hom.). diultad bathis, Corm. Y 756 (= d.¤ do baithis, LB). diultad diabuil con-a aslaigib, PH 8332 . dogéntai-si uli mo d.¤-sa ol Ísu, 3002 . icca ndlomad ┐ icca ndíulta uad, 6163 . antan bhíos ag diúltadh aneith budh mhaith dhó do ghlacadh, TSh. 8250 . With various prepp. DO: ar ngabhail lais an ccreittemh ccatolica ┐ ar ndiúltadh dá Prionnsa, AFM v 1736 . ag d.¤ d'fháis-chreideamh Calvin, TSh. 6109 . FOR: diultad for rig n-angel n-úag, SR 4117 . FRI: ni radligiusa diultud frim i Temraich I deserved not to be refused admittance to T., LL 51b9 . iar loscud dia muntir Dromma Liss ar ndiultud friu after his monks had burnt D. L. on being refused admittance, 369 marg. inf. isé . . . dorad fāilti do ḟileadaib Erend iar ndiultad friu do Aed mac A. a mōrdāil Droma Ceata, Lec. 286b5 . RÉ N-: diultad re ndāim fechta feile to refuse hospitality, Laws v 174.21 Comm. iar ndiultad dó roimh Padraic, MacCarthy 396 .

(d) refusing, declining to grant or to do: nar bh'áil liom thusa do diulte to refuse your request, Ériu vi 125 . diúltadh cáigh lé ní léamha `He will not dare to refuse her anyone', A. Ó Dálaigh vii 7 . ní bhfuilim ag diúltadh bás d'fagháil, Acts xxv 11 . nochan fhuil finghal ná feall | doirr na diultadh ná doichell, ZCP ix 486 .

1 do

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 do or dil.ie/17096

Forms: dond, donaib, dunaib, donab, dona, dond, donaibhí, dunaibh, donahí, dom, domsa, damsa, duit, dait, deit, det, dit, duid, daid, duitt, duitsiu, deitsiu, detsiu, détso, detsi, dutsi, d, do, dóu, dou, dáu, dossom, dosom, d, di, díi, disi, dúnn, dunn, duún, dúun, dún, dun, duin, dú(i)nn, dúnni, dunni, dúni, dúinniu, dúnai, dúib, duib, duíb, dib, dib, daoibh, dúibsi, dúbsi, dóib, doib, duaib, dáib, doaib, doibsom, dom, dum, dot, dut, dot, dod, do, do, dia, doa, diar, dear, dar, dia n-, doa n-, dua, dá, dia n-, da, dona, donach, do

prep. with dat., leniting (see GOI §§ 435 . 832 ).

Forms: do (usual at all periods); du often in O.Ir., Wb. 5c14 , 33b6 ; Ml. 15a16 , 16a7 , 90a7 , b13 ; Acr. 13b3 ; Thes. ii 240.16 , 241.4 , 242.10 (Ardm.), 294.4 ( SP ii 16 ), 45.29 ; du Chaissil, AU 714 ; du for fogail, SCC § 13 . dó, Ml. 15d3 . dú, Wb. 5d19 .

In Mid and early Mod. Ir. often da, dá, esp. before cech: da cech tráth, LB 261b38 ; dá cech duine, PH 3985 ; dá bar n-óid, 5963 ; da gach nduine, Keat. iii 2087 (poem).

Vowel generally elided before vowel of f: d'agbáil, SCC § 29 . d'is cech réta, § 32 ( do facbail, Laws iv 206.14 ; do foghnumh, 250.6 Comm. ).

Freq. confused with 1 de, di, q.v.

With article: sg. dond irsolcoth, Wb. 22d27 . dond lethtomus, BCr. 31b3 . dund fercach, Ml. 22d13 . Thes. i 498.21 (Ardm.). dund insi, SCC § 17 . dunt foirbthetaid, Ml. 14c8 . dunt imluad, 15a17 . don chomursain, PH 2748 . don fhairind, 4959 . pl. donaib, Wb. 7b1 , Sg. 69b7 . dunaib, Acr. 8a2 . Thes. i 497.16 (Ardm.). dundaib (archaic), Thes. ii 247.12 ( Cambr. 38a ). donab, 33.28 . Mid. and mod. Ir. dona.

With art. and í: dond, Wb. 3c31 . pl. donaibhí, Sg. 156b7 . dunaibh, Wb. 2c10 . donahí, Ml. 46c7 .

With pron. suff.: 1 s. dom (usual in Wb. and Sg.), dam (in Ml.). domsa, Wb. 3c33 , etc. damsa, TBC-LL¹ 1110 . 2 s. duit (usual in Wb. and Sg.). dait common in Ml., TBC-I¹ 1056 , 1209 , 1334 (LU). deit, Wb. 6a11 , 12 ; 28d15 , etc. LL 275a50 . det, Wb. 5b29 . dit, 5b32 . Sg. 179a4 . TBC-I¹ 1056 , 1209 , 1334 (YBL). duid, TBC-I¹ 531 . daid, 1042 (YBL). duitt, PH 7915 . duitsiu, Wb. 6b14 . deitsiu, 30a8 . detsiu, 32c12 . détso, 6c7 . detsi, IT i 130.27 . dutsi, PH 4092 . 3 s. m. and n. commonly d, Wb. 1c12 ; 1d20 , etc. do, 2a2 ; 2c6 , etc. dóu, Trip. 218.24 . dou, Todd Lect. vi 57.10 . dáu, Trip.² 2862 . Trip. 338.22 . Thes. ii 294.3 ( SP ii 15 ). With emphasizing part. vowel usually short: dossom, Wb. 6d10 ; 9d8 . dosom, 3b7 , etc., Ml. 14a4 . f. d, Wb. 11c13 , etc. di, 7b3 . díi, Fél. 4.9 . With emphasizing part.: disi, ACL iii 309.10 . 1 p. dúnn , Wb. 2d13 ; 25c9 , etc. dunn , 26b1 . duún, 3a12 ; 4b10 ; 25c10 . dúun, 4b11 ; 10c21 . dún, 14c8 ; 20d15 , etc. dun, 14c9 . duin, FB § 49 . In later lang. dú(i)nn. With emphasizing part.: dúnni, Wb. 1a3 ; 3c15 . dunni, Ml. 110d12 , 13 . dúni, 121b13 . dúinniu, IT i 129.2 . dúnai (: clūdhai), ACL iii 298 § 58 . 2 p. dúib, Wb. 3b8 , 12 ; 6c25 , etc. duib, 13b3 ; 33b8 . duíb, 24a26 . In Mid. Ir. also dib, PH 761 , 1075 ; dib, 1433 . In later lang. daoibh. With emphasizing part.: dúibsi, Wb. 3b13 . dúbsi, 15d8 (a prima manu). 3 p. dóib, Wb. 6c24 ; 30d8 , etc. doib, 1d6 ; 12b2 . duaib, Thes. ii 238.13 ; 240.17 (Ardm.). dáib, PH 7392 . doaib, Sg. 50a3 . AU 687 , 797 . SR 7272 (sic leg.). With emphasizing part.: doibsom, Wb. 13a31 . ¤sem, 28d19 .

With poss. 1 s. dom: dum, Thes. ii 241.12 ; dumm imdídnaad, 13 . 2 s. dot: dut, Ml. 2d5 . Mid. Ir. dot, dod, do do. 3 s. dia; doa, Anecd. iii 48.5 ; 58.9 . 1 p. diar, Wb. 2d2 . dear (archaic), Thes. ii 245.8 (Cambr.) Mid.Ir. also dar: dár ṅdeeb-ni, PH 709 . 2 p. do far fírianugud, Wb. 3b27 . do bor mbrethugud, FB § 57 . do bar taig, SR 4829 . dia bhar saighidh, BNnÉ 303 § 12 . 3 p. dia n-. doa n-, Fianaig. 34.12 . Mon. Tall. § 59 , 62 . dua, RC xi 452.141 . Later also dá. See ZCP xxiv 227 ; xxv 254 .

With rel. dia n-: indí dia ruchretsid-si, Wb. 8c11 . intí dia ndílgid-si, 14d24 . secht mbráthre dia mbo . . . carcar, Fél. July 10 . dua mberar, Mon. Tall. § 11 . See 1 is. Mid. Ir. also da (dá): dontí da tucus, IT i 124.22 . With neg. dona, donach: dona-robu gnath, Ml. 129d3 . fer . . . dunar-ructhae act oentuistiu, Thes. ii 241.9 (Ardm.). do nach bis on to him who has it not, Laws iv 240 .

With alaile (araile): dialailiu, Ml. 87d13 . IT i 67.8 . díarailiu, FB § 55 . diaroli fir, PH 1483 .

To, for, etc. Used in O.Ir. Glosses (a) to translate Lat. ad, Wb. 3b14 ; 30d10 ; 16b5 (cid do uáir gl. etsi ad horam, the Lat. being literally translated), Tur. 35 . Ml. 15a16 ; 16a8 . Sg. 3b30 ; 67b10 ; 188a18 ; 217a7 . Thes. i 498.23 . (b) to render a dat., Wb. 9b8 ; 18c2 ; 28a5 . Ml. 2d10 ; 15b8b ; 17c11 . Sg. 20a6 ; 41b12 ; 69b7 ; 193a3 ; 209b6 ; 214a3 . Acr. 8a2 ; 13b3 . PCr. 65b2 . Thes. ii 34.29 ; cf. Caeur .i. do Chaieur (Cáieur being explained as dat. of Cáier), Corm. Y 698 . Hence:

A Introducing the terminus ad quem; in phrases expressing purpose, etc.

I Of destination after vbs. of motion, etc.: cumtach don fothu building to the foundation, Wb. 8c18 . téicht do Róim, Thes. ii 296.3 . lotar dia crích, FB § 56 . eirg dot thoigh, BS 44 . ho persin do persin, Sg. 209b12 . o thír do thír, SR 6835 . a inad d'inad, Laws iv 36.12 . With ellipse of vb. of motion: co cúalatar culgaire carpait dund insi (coming) to the island, SCC § 17 . Hence with pron. 3 s. n. expressing motion, see 2 dó. With abstracts: massu thol atomaig do that drives me to it, Wb. 10d26 . adcuiretar do hógi they return to integrity, Sg. 73b2 . Similarly in expressions like téit do applies to, téit do láim, gaibid do láim; dabeir d'a óid, etc. (see 1 téit, gaibid, lám, etc.).

II With follg. vn. in phrases expressing purpose.

(a) Prec. by vb.: is do immarchor chóre dotíagat it is to carry peace they come, Wb. 5a5 . todiusgadar ind anim do dénum maith, 5c18 . ní du for fogail dodeochammar-ni, SCC § 13 . dul d'fhios na sagart dá nglanadh, TSh. 375 . Cf. further: indíi adchobra-som do hícc those whom he desires to save, Wb. 28b1 . cid comarlecther foraib do daul immach that leave should be given them to go out, Mon. Tall. § 53 .

In prayers, wishes, etc., with ellipsis of vb.: Día dom chobair ar cech ṅguasacht (may) God (come) to my aid, Hy. vi 3 . cíall Dé dom imthus, Thes. ii 356.8 . dó (do +3 s. neut. pron.) to that end, for that purpose , anticipating a follg. vn. or clause or referring to a foregoing one: is do arroiéit-sa gratiam, do precept do chách, Wb. 6d14 . dó dobreth biad la Duid, | dia nertad, SR 6450 . acht má dothisad Arddrí secht nime dó ní reg-sa I will not go though . . . should come to force me, Trip.² 1355 . is do dodeochadsa . . . con-écius duib a scel-sa, Ériu ii 104 .

(b) Prec. by noun: dliged remdeicsen do dechrugud etir maithi ┐ ulcu a law of providence to distinguish between good and bad, Ml. 19d2 . huare nád robatar suin do shlund in dúildetad, Sg. 45b1 . nidat uain dia n-airlegunn thou hast no leisure to read them, Anecd. v 2 .

(c) Prec. by adj.: irlaim do dul bais, Wb. 16a3 . gilla comadas do faire dūine ríg, FB § 89 . is saidbir in spirut nóeb do thídnocul cecha maithiusa, PH 5454 . ni bfuil rí . . . is fearr do thabairt tuarustail, Ériu viii 136 . Cf. also: batar inricci du báas worthy of death, Wb. 5c14 .

III In follg. in sense of Eng. as (lit. for the purpose of being, to serve as): bíid-son do thogarthid this then is (for) a vocative, Sg. 78a2 . pauper laṡuide do fhemun he regards p. as a feminine, 64b5 . bíit a triur do anmaim ind eiúin gl. vultur et vulturus et vulturius, 93a2 . non fit do anmimm díles, 31b21 . conid riagolda caro dond ainmmnid c. is regular as the nominative, 93b5 ; 104b5 . mōrthar occa Cathluain . . . do rig foraibh, Todd Nenn. 140 . daine chaithit do biudh they eat human beings as food, RC xxxiv 308 . ó taoi dam' iarraidh d'óglách since you want me for a servant, A. Ó Dálaigh l 16 .

IV With vn. to express the idea of entering upon or continuing in a state or action: a mbátar do lepthugud when they were (on the point of?) going to bed IT i 67 . cid 'mo atai diar lenamuin? why art thou pursuing us? SR 1722 . mun beith cailleach an mhuilinn d'atach Christ frim, BS 122 . Impers.: do muintir in fhir atathar do crochad, PH 3172 . Used redundantly: int Ísu oc a raba Hiruath d'iarraid, 2841 . in banliccerd occatathar d'iarraid, Anecd. iv p. xvi = oc atathar cuingidh, p. 93 .

With poss. in passive sense: an uair bhíos dá chor amach when he is being evicted, TSh. 794 . go raibhe dá ilchéasadh so that he was being tortured, 564 .

V The construction subst. + do + vn. In sentences of the type (a) ansu liumsa ind oís anechtir dia fius it is more grievous to me that the outland folk should know it, Wb. 16d12 (where ind oís is virtual subject of the vn.) and (b) ní date leu in coimdiu do crochad it is not agreeable to them that the Lord was crucified (lit. to crucify the Lord), 8a6 (where in coimdiu is virtual object of the vn.), the O.Ir. construction is identical; in both sentences the case of the nouns oís , coimdiu is determined by their syntactical relation to the whole sentence, that of subject, while do + vn. stands in syntactical relation not to the whole sentence but to the noun, its function being that of a gerund. Similarly in the sentence: cocarad chaingnimu du denum he loved to do good deeds, Ml. 14a8 , the subst. caingnímu is the object of the sentence while du denum has the meaning for the doing, to be done. Exceptions are, however, frequent, see below. In each of the sections 1-4 the subsection (a) consists of exx. where the subst. is the virtual subject of the vn., (b) of exx. where it is the virtual object.

1 Subst. is subject of the whole sentence and therefore nom. case.

(a) dofórmaich fochricc dosom sochude do creittim tria precept that a multitude has believed through his preaching increaseth the reward for him, Wb. 1b5 . issed as brig la Dia menmae do biuth hi figraib that the mind should be in the symbols, Thes. ii 255.13 . saoth lem int aos leigind do dul ind ifern, ZCP viii 470 . ba lonn lais in mnai cuil do bith oc Hiruath he was indignant that the adulteress should be with H., PH 861 . (Infl. of Lat. accus. and infin. constr.?)

(b) is maith int óis éula do accaldam, Wb. 3c4 . is bésad leusom in fid do thóbu, 5b42 . nipu techta in briathar diadhai . . . do scriphund ind oenluc, Hib. Min. 96 . is cóir ind almsu do thabairt, PH 6136 . With accus. of subst. (in first two exx. perh. dat. for nom.): is ferr dó in almsain do thabairt, PH 4969 (= melius est elimosinam dare, LB 47b55 ). dlegar dínn ar n-imcaissin do thimorcain, PH 6870 . ba machtnadh lasna Felistindaibh na fioru nomarbdais d'faicsin do cathughadh friu, Leb. Gab.(i) 146 .

2 Subst. as object of sentence (rarer in O.Ir.).

(a) nisn-águr dom díchill I do not fear that they will neglect me, Hy. v 105 . rocúala in n-eress cetna do fhorbairt, Thes. ii 311 . ni fitir in mnai dia brath he knew not that the woman was betraying him, SR 3207 . rocuala Sattan in uli noemu do shubugud, PH 3819 . With nom. for accus.: cuirfid [diabul] na boill d'fhognum do fén, 7799 . atfét Lucás aingil do thidecht do nim, 3043 .

(b) cocarad chaingnimu du denum, Ml. 14a8 . itconnacabar bar náimtiu do bádud, PH 1713 . forcongair D. cnamu do thabairt hi cuthi, 1219 . With nom. for accus.: atbert fria múintir int apstal do thuarcain, PH 2141 . atbert Ner na hapstail do cúibrech, 1858 . atcondairc-som ind figeill . . . do dílgud, Mon. Tall. § 22 .

3 Subst. is governed by a prep.

(a) for riaguil do buith isnaib anmanaib-se dotėt híc he touches on the fact that there is a rule, Sg. 108a3 . fre terci . . . do tecmung, Mon. Tall. § 12 .

(b) hua anmmaim ailiu do thórmuch friss, Sg. 30b4 . Cain Patraic . . . cen chleirciu do marbad, Thes. ii 306 . tria doirse . . . na cathrach do forbrissiud, SR 5348 . ar meisge ó chaoraibh na fíneamhna d'ithe, TSh. 8421 .

4 Subst. in genitive relation to sentence.

(a) cui[n]chid flaithiusa Dé do thuidecht, PH 7907 .

(b) cen imcabáil `cum nobis' do epirt, Sg. 203a8 . ruc leis tásc a muintiri do marbad do E., FB § 69 . tar cend cissa ┐ indmussa do thabairt do, PH 51 . ré linn choróine do chur ar an impire, TSh. 661 .

5 The construction subst. + do + vn. may be used absolutely with force of the Lat. gerundive: ind .u. do accomol frisin fers ṅdédenach the `u' is to be added, Sg. 136a2 . um do glanad i nderiud ferso `um' is to be elided, 136a1 . Hence in continuation of prec. clause: dia n-oscailter in chomla sa ┐ diabul do ligad istech if . . . and the devil be admitted, PH 7797 . is mairg thic annsa saegul-sa ┐ na huilc-si do thecht trit, 7791 .

6 Subst. + do + vn. replacing finite tenses (esp. in annals): Góidil immorro do rad dib o Goediul Glas they are called G., Thes. ii 316 . Lugaig du gabail rige nErenn took the kingship of Ireland, MacCarthy 306 . bellum do madhmaim for hU Fiachrach, AU 815 .

B Introducing a dative.

I Introducing indirect object (generally name of a person).

(a) With trans. vbs. denoting giving, granting, assigning, offering, etc.: do-beir, daimid, do-indnaig, dálaid etc. (see under individual vbs.). With vbs. of telling, revealing, promising, etc.: in-fét (ad-fét), as-indet, (Mid. Ir. indissid), do-adbat, do-airchain, etc. Under the same head may be placed cases like: hore doninfedam etargne Crist do chách we inspire in all, Wb. 14d32 ; do Christ cachain ailli unto C. he sang praise, Fél. Apr. 26 . Exceptionally with as-beir says: asbert G. do na feoldenmaigib, PH 1432 . With vbs. of ordering, commanding, advising, etc.: lasse forcongur fírinni dúib, Wb. 19d25 . rohordaig in guth dona nemdaib, SR 606 . ro erb don mac mebrugud a aiccepta, Fél. p. 12 . molaid do advises (but molaid + acc. praises ). With vbs.of forgiving, remitting: dorolaig Dia do in n-uaill dorigni, Ml. 50d15 . romaith C. a dá trían . . . dá thigernu, LL 111b40 ( RC xiv 430 ). With vbs. of asking, entreating, praying, etc.: frecre do neoch immechomarcar duit, Sg. 197b10 . condartin do arrogáid dom what he asked of me, 209b26 . cech ní rochuinges do Dia, Thes. ii 318.39 . With vbs. of ascribing, referring, imputing, etc.: a n-adruirmed do Abracham what has been reckoned unto A., Wb. 2d7 . duaisilbi do a scribend, Thes. ii 225.28 . So also with as-beir ascribes; assigns (a name), calls: asbeir-som a n-accobor don spirut, Wb. 4b3 . ní eperr acht hilar dóib do-gres (referring to Gemini), Sg. 73a11 . is airi asberthe emisarius don buc the goat was called `emissarius', Tur. 110e . Similarly with vbs. of naming, gairmid, ainmnigid. With vbs. of allowing: issamlid léicfimmi-ni doibsom aisndis, Ml. 14d10 . nir fulaing d'ēnduine a glacudh, ZCP ix 248 . With vbs. of causing, doing (someth. to someone): imfolngi comrorcain do sochaidi, Ml. 56b9 . dogní trumai ndo causes heaviness to it, 20a19 . Of comparing, adapting, etc.: ithé sidi conṅdelggaddar do persanaib, Sg. 39a11 . dligid is entitled to takes do (later de) of pers. (see dligid).

(b) Freq. in intrans. constr. with vbs. denoting to serve, yield, obey; rule; oppose, injure, offend; satisfy, please; believe, trust; thank (atluchedar buide); assent; greet; answer, correspond; suit; indulge, spare, pity, etc.; deny, refuse (a number of these verbs show other constructions also, see s.v.): bad dú Dia fognem gl. Domino servientes, Wb. 5d19 . roirladigsetar genti do hiriss, 7c16 . sléchtid Isserninus du Pátricc, Thes. ii 241 . Currech Life . . . is terc rí dia rodamain to whom he yielded, Metr. Dinds. iii 234 . tigernaigit ┐ follamnaigit do na cóic gradaib, PH 6242 . cor urchoidigh a truma dóibh, CCath. 2075 . manu toltnaiged do, Sg. 72b6 . rochreitset do precept, Wb. 24d23 . atluchur do Dia, 3b19 . an olcc dia cocéitbani to which thou consentest, 1c10 . co robennach cach díb dia chele, Thes. ii 335 . frisgair in testemin-se dondaib dligedaib, Sg. 193b6 . immidaircet do Christ which are appropriate to C., Ml. 2d4 . arcessi do neoch bes meldach less, Wb. 4c19 . dlomis Fíacc dóib, Thes. ii 242 . Also with vbs. of happening, befalling, meeting, etc. , including certain cases of intrans. vbs. of motion: ni do cach brethir tecming persona not all vbs. have personal inflection, Sg. 161a1 . is ann dorala dosom a denam, Thes. ii 299 . amal forcoémnacair do Loegairiu, FB § 83 . doroacht saegul sír damsa, Ériu iv 132 . intan tanic dó lobrai, Thes. ii 318 .

(c) With many adjs. and abstracts denoting proximity, likeness, equality, identity and their opposites; relationship; figurative relations (fitness, propriety, possession, etc.) and feelings (in sense towards, Lat. erga). In many cases it is hard to decide whether the ex. belongs to this or the following section (II): is nesa do geintib, Wb. 2b17 . fri praenomen cosmail do, Sg. 28a15 . is cotarsne don dúalig in sualig, Wb. 9b8 . immar-bdais meic dó, PH 4097 . húere atta mbrāthir dūnd since they are kinsmen of ours, ZCP viii 316 . combat irlithi geinti do hiriss obedient to the faith, Wb. 7c14 . is do is dír anní is psalmus , Hib. Min. 281 . is foluss dún it is evident to us, Sg. 40b14 . rop trócar rí nime dún, Hy. vi 23 . do bhádar cennsa do Chiarán, SG 3 . serc Dǽ dúibsi et for serc-si do Dia `God's love to you' (rather your love for God, etc. , see III (c) below), Wb. 18b21 . is miscuis do Dia, 3d33 . écennais . . . do na pecdachaib, PH 3478 . do marbadh iad ó esgcáirdib dhóib by enemies of theirs, SG 7 .

(d) After certain interjections: monuar dhamh, BS 40 . ach ach do ail alas for the stone! LL 181a32 . ach do phéin, ACL iii 236 § 10 . uch d'aithis, LB 106b57 . uchachan . . . don gabad fil ar mo chinn, ACL iii 233 . fochen duit a Loig, SCC § 16 (cf. fochen Conall . . . fochen Cet, IT i 103 , 104 ). mochen duib, IT i 99 .

II Introducing the person (or thing) interested in an action, state, event, or circumstance.

1 Dat. of interest in strict sense (including the dativus commodi vel incommodi) after vbs., substantives, and adjs.

(a) fo besad fir trebuir crenas tíir dia chlaind, Wb. 29d23 . condaig indocbáil dia thigerni et non sibi ipsi , 8d20 . roshuidig . . . manistir dó (= sibi monasterium conlocavit), Lat. Lives 91 . tafnetar coin alta dí wolves hunted (it) for her, Hy. v 60 . ni accim maith dúib I see no good for you, TBC-LL¹ 1780 . noco treciub duit . . . immāin tāna bó Cualṅge I will not abandon for thy sake, 1661 . dona hurtroighib rodolba Banba do macaib Miled which B. fashioned for (= against) the sons of M., Corm. Y 949 (dat. incomm.). nech diuscai debuith dia brathair who stirs up mischief against, Ériu vii 162 . cuimnigidh . . . do clandaibh Cuinn a n-anuabhar remember against, ZCP xiv 229 .

Freq. with parts of body, somet. in combination with a poss. pron.: ní forroim cid drisiuc for toind dó, TBC-I¹ 1206 . co rogab sonn in dúne dóib dar sróin, Metr. Dinds. iii 82 . gebid dúrna dar a gnúis dó, PH 2331 .

The dat. incommodi is freq. after vbs. (both trans. and intrans.) denoting a hostile movement, attack, etc.: dosleic dóib he shoots at them, SCC § 7 . focherd N. aurchor dó, TBC-I¹ 1292 . rodibairg in ngai dó, RC iii 178 . atraig cech fer di alailiu, IT i 67 . dús in fagbad . . . taidbsiu (leg. taidbsin?) do thir na talmain, SR 2584 , cf. 5823 . mairfit Ulaid a mblechtach do gressaib ┐ glammaib . . . dar cend a n-enig the U. will kill their milch-kine (to ward off) attacks and lampoons (in Folge von Beleidigungen und Satiren, Wind.), TBC-LL¹ 1737 .

(b) After nouns and adjs.: rop ámm tusmeda do mnái in rig, Lat. Lives 66 . oénach diar n-ócaib a gathering-place for our youths, Metr. Dinds. ii 80 . lx bliadan robo lān do Patraic, Thes. ii 313 . ba terc cach n-adbar dó, Imr. Brain i 52 . in lám is dílmain dom my disengaged hand, Fél. p. 200 . Esp. after a subst. employed as pred. with the copula: sóire do chách ar sóire-ni, Wb. 14b11 . togu damsa aní sin, Thes. ii 225.18 . issi in bānmartre du duiniu, 247 . ní lesainm dait Cuculaind, FB § 11 . anas muir glan don nói . . . is mag meld . . . damsa, Imr. Brain § 34 .

Note also: attroilli dúnn delegi (= diligi) a nobis he deserves of us to be loved by us, Wb. 2d13 . is doib-sin rochan in senchaid of them the shanachie has sung, Fianaig. 4 . sir in baile . . . don litin search the town for the porridge, SG 243 . do bhatur . . . ag iarraidh Erenn do scela Tana, ZCP ix 244 . atcondairc-siom ind figeill . . . do dílgud i Tamlachti do Chaindech excused for (in honour of) C., Mon. Tall. § 22 .

2 After the copula folld. by an adj. or abstract denoting what is desirable, advantageous, usual, fit, lawful, right, indifferent, necessary, etc. , or the reverse, for a person, the virtual subject being generally a vn., infinitive phrase or clause, e.g. is áil (maith, olc, mairg, bés, gnáth, cet, cóir, dliged, geiss, cumme, écen, etc.) dó; further in a variety of expressions such as: is fír (gó) dó; is cian (éim, fota, mithid) dó. For exx. see these words, and cf. further: nír fhírda dó dul don chath, SR 6903 . ba féliu duit th'immfholuch oldás teiched it were nobler for you to hide yourself, TBC-LL¹ 1973 . is col dúin dia foirglem it is a sin for us to assert it, Fél. Ep. 98 . cathugud ceilgi as clē dūind, ACL iii 327 § 30 . ni hidan lais dondhí da taberr a thaechtad he does not consider it clean dealing for the person . . . to keep it, Mon. Tall. § 41 . Contrast: is maith dom it is good for me with is m. limm I deem it a good thing: is lesc lim-sa inní sin, bar C., teiched ria n-oenfer . . . Ni lesc ám duit-siu ón, bar F., dáig techfet-sa remut-su, TBC-LL¹ 2875 . ní ba fochen leu a forcital the teaching will not be welcome to them, Wb. 30d7 . is fochen dóib they are welcome, IT i 99 . is ced dó a bith marb masa ced ra Dia let him die (lit. he has leave to die) if God permits, Moling § 62 . in annso is áil duit airisiumh? — Massedh as áil le Dia, as ann, BNnÉ 17 § 30 . in tol damsa . . . anadh sunn? is it (God's) will for me to remain here? 79 § 152 .

3 Used as the Lat. dativus ethicus (dative of pers. interested in a statement) with an imperative; only with pronouns: an dún we pray thee to wait, CRR § 6 . apair dam fri mac Saráin, Ériu iii 96 § 1 . teilg-su dún orchur forru, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 32 . ling dūinn lēim dona lēimennuibh sin rolingthea, BS 62 .

4 Used with subst. vb. to denote loosely possession, appurtenances, etc. ; freq. with an adv. of place, in which case it is hardly to be distinguished from cases given under II 1 (a) above: issed file do hodie this is (the form) it has at present, Sg. 140a3 . ataat ilsenman dosuidiu it has many sounds, Wb. 12c46 . dechor inna pían bete donaib pecthachaib, 13c26 . fail a mor-abba dam I have good cause, TBC-LL¹ 219 . ni bia tarba do draidechta duit, PH 2187 . ni be mundteras dó fri banscala let him have no friendship with women, Mon. Tall. § 61 . Exceptionally with copula: ? combed doib foraithmet bed torbach that there should be to them a profitable recollection, Ml. 23a2 . bid duit rige Lagen co brath, Thes. ii 341.19 . céinmair dia mba findchride, Imr. Brain § 28 .

5 With subst. vb. in the idiom: atú dó I am concerned with him, have to deal with him, generally with hostile significance I am angry with him, have something against him; oft. in impers. constr.: ished inso romboth dossom that is why they were angry with him, Wb. 19a9 , cf. 5b31 . is hed dathar dún gl. maledicimur quod speramus, 28d4 , cf. 21c9 . ni nach cin aile notaid dom it is for no other fault you are hostile to me, 19d26 . cid tai-siu don mac? what have you against the lad? TBC-LL¹ 1041 , cf. 940 , 1144 . rohinnisedh dó in fāth 'ma rabas dó, Moling § 51 . cidh 'ma bfuile damh?, ZCP x 10 . tacram a scel . . . atái dam `the matter with which thou reproachest me', Ériu vii 225 . The idiom: cid di atái? what ails thee? LL 202a9 , where do is used with neut. rel. pron., may perhaps rather be explained as an elliptical construction under the head A II; as also the later idiom: gá táim dó (why should I dwell on it?): furtacht Banba . . . gá ttá mé dho . . . ag so an té dar tairrngireadh, 3 C 3, 633.11 .

6 Used with ellipse of copula in the interrogation cid dó . . . ? why (does) he . . . ? (lit. what is it to him? with emphasis on pron.): cid dait gan a gabail aní gabas cách? why dost thou not take . . . ? TBC-LL¹ 3042 . cid dún can techt i n-agid Conculaind? why should we not go? TBC-I¹ 1484 (LU). cid duit mo ṡarugadh-sa do dhenamh?, ZCP viii 553 . cid dait-siu ná bad lat in curathmír why shouldst not thou have the champion's bit? FB § 8 .

7 Often used in impers. constr. after the copula to introduce the virtual subj. when the predicate is (a) an adverbial expression, or somet. (b) an adj., or (c) an interrog. adv.

(a) ní úainni duib-si ye are not from us, Wb. 18b9 . ní i n-óen diaithir doib they are not in one orbit, BCr. 18d5 . fora fóessam dún may we be under their protection, Hy. v 106 . bá doigh leo comad a sídib di, TE § 5 ( IT i 120 ). fa righ ┐ sagart Melcisideic ┐ mar an gceudna do Chríost, Eochairsg. 26 . Especially after DE followed by noun in pl. to denote class to which the virtual subject belongs (see Bergin, Ériu xi 149 ): de Iudéib do Barnaip, di geintib do Thit B. was a Jew, T. a Gentile, Wb. 18d6 . di Grecaib dóib huili, Sg. 31b2 . robo do mnáib glicca in domain di, Acall. 7426 . Note also: is de corpore dissi (i.e. the eye), Wb. 12a26 . Freq. joined with expressions of time, the copula being omitted: bliadain lan dó oc tinól na flede, FB § 1 . for tuili doib . . . cethracha lá ┐ aidche, SR 2523 , cf. 4820 .

(b) ní segda dom, Trip.² 1765 . madh calma duitsiu inā dósom if thou art more valiant than he, Ériu v 152 . conadh treisi don toictiu inas duin that Fate is stronger than we, CCath. 4072 .

(c) can duibse? whence are ye? Sg. 242a2 . can deit a ingen? TE § 5 ( IT i 120 ). cinnas do a rad . . . ? why should he say . . .?, Thes. ii 311.19 . cinnus do sluagh tire Temrach? how is it with the host . . .?, Snedg. u. Mac R 12 .

8 Freq. used after vbs. in impers. construction, esp. compds. with imm- denoting reciprocal action: ní 'manacige dó frim-sa he shall not see me, Ériu ii 194 . comorogaib dóib a ndís the pair grappled with each other, Metr. Dinds. iii 82 . imatarla doib, Anecd. v 11 . imatarraid dūn, ib. immotaéth dóib both sides will fall, LL 275a30 . immacomsinitar dóib, FB § 38 . With intrans. vbs.: ó thánic dóib co dérgud, FB § 80 . ó do chomraic dóib i n-aeninud when they met, SG 360 . anais don Caillin i Tul[aig] C. remained, Fen. 180 . With subst. vb.: fil dún ó thossuch dúle cen áiss we are without age, Imr. Brain § 44 . fochtus Diarmait innus na bé ndi, RC xi 129 . Cf. further: robá-sa i n-imṡnim mor . . . co roglé dam till I arrived at a decision, IT i 98 . co roglé dó a caithim uile, BNnÉ 300 . co tair damh-sai aislingi . . . d'indisin duit till I have finished telling you my dream, MacCongl. 117 . With ellipse of vb.: as tir duit get thee out of the country, RC xx 24 . dún sís dond ath down with us to the ford, TBC-I¹ 1193 . dochum na chuchdiri dóib, Mon. Tall. § 12 .

III Introducing agent after passive (finite), verbal of necess., and (most freq.) vn.

(a) After pass. vb.: imberthar fidcella dún let us play chess, SCC § 3 . toirimt[h]er tōraind in lis don mnái, Corm. Y 502 . doberar dam duid gid ni nar chuindgis thou shalt receive from me, YBL 167a4 . doces do co roba ben he perceived (it seemed to him?) that it was a woman, Todd Nenn. 210 . cumachta na flatha dia tardad in fín, LL 282b3 `by whom the wine was given', Meyer, GJ iv 217 .

(b) After verbal of necess. and participial adjs. compounded with in-: ní tabarthi dímess do neoch for nach n-énirt, Wb. 6c19 . ni denti duib-si anisin, Ml. 82a7 . connarb inríata dó in chonar, FB § 36 . is inchreidte dóibh they ought to believe, Eochairsg. 21.34 .

(c) After vn. both of trans. and intrans. vbs.: airitiu colno do Christ, Wb. 31d2 . tre atlogud buide donaib nóibaib thanksgiving by the saints, 17a3 . slige dund aingiul inna nAssar the slaying of the A. by the angel, Ml. 16c12 . rena richtin du Pool before P. reached it, Thes. i 495 ( Ardm. 107b ). fer do marbad do Moise, SR 3726 . scrin Dochoma do briseadh doaibh, AU 797 . (Intrans. vb.) magthad lasuidiu cretem do geintib, Wb. 5a1 . oc techt dam dar Maig L., SCC § 34 . buid domsa i n-iriss, Wb. 5b20 . iure feidligthe disi i n-ógi by the principle of its remaining in integrity, Sg. 16a14 .

With IAR and vn.: iarna grísad dond araid on being urged on by the charioteer, FB § 43 . iar ndiultad do Petar a thigerna, PH 605 . iar mbeith ceangailte d'ár lámhaibh (= ligatis manibus), TSh. 6762 . ar gclos a anma d'Éirinn, SG 1 .

do-futhraccair

Cite this: eDIL s.v. do-futhraccair or dil.ie/17715
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: -thracc-, -tharc-, -thrac(c)-, daduthraccar, dūthraccair, duthraccar, dodúthracair, dodúthracar, duthracmar, duthraicmit, dofuthractar, dudfutharcair, dufutbarctar, doduthris, duthairsir, duthairser, dufuthairsetar, du[duth]airsetar, duthrised, duthras, mídúthrastar, mídusthrastar, midúthracair, dunfutharset, duthraigim, dúthracht

v (* dí-fo-tracc-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 653 ) desires, wishes . A `preterite-present', GOI § 619 (see also 543, 694), `Prat. (meist mit Präs.-Bedeutung)', Ped. Deut. forms in O.Ir. glosses show -thracc- in present meaning, -tharc- in pret. meaning in indic. In later lang. only -thrac(c)- appears. Sigmatic forms have both ¤ra- and ¤ar-.

(a) As indic. pres. 1 s. ni luct Corint nammá dia nduthraccar sa a maith si[n] acht daduthraccar donaib huilib nóibaib file in Achaia, Wb. 14b6 (on repetition of preverb see Ped.). duthracar . . . cach ní bad tol duitsiu do dénam, LL 228b18 ( TTr. 845 ). duthracur-sa dul lett, Lat. Lives 82.7 . is dait don-úthracar-sa it is thou I wish to have it, FB § 9 . dúthracur-sa a Dé, comptís dírge mo shéta, PH 4007 . 2 s. ní nach dūthraccair (na duthraccar, v.l.) duit fēin . . . do duine ní accobra, ACL iii 312.y = ni na duthairsir deit fén, LB 261a9 . 3 s. feba tūaithi don mac dodúthracair (dodúthracar , LU), TBC-I¹ 1048 . duthracair a thomailt dia coemsad, PH 8367 . 1 pl. ní na dáil duthracmar ar cara do thuidecht, TBC-LL¹ 3181 . cach maith duthraicmit fein, CCath. 5135 . 3 pl. dofuthractar for nimdibesi they desire that ye should be circumcised, Wb. 20c23 . rel. doduthractar olcc dunn , 26b1 .

(b) As pret. 3 s. cia dudfutharcair a bas though he desired his death, Ml. 52 . duthracair Michol . . . a mbith i cairddes, SR 5941 . ni duthracair marbadh, Laws i 244.8 Comm. duthracair coirm do dénum dona heclasib, Lat. Lives 72.1 . roba maircc daerbrathair dodhuthraccair duinemharbhadh a dherbrathar, AFM v 1804 . is é duthracair a malairt féin forna bráthrib . . . he was willing to accept his own ruin . . ., PH 1672 . 3 pl. dufutbarctar som ol[c] doib ceruptar enartu they wished evil to them, Ml. 49a17 . dúthracdar uili thocht lais `all longed to go with him', Ir. Review 1912, 248 § 8 . co dutrachtachatar (sic) comad rig . . . doib, BB 412a40 .

(c) Sigmatic forms. Subj. pres. 1 s. doduthris, Wb. 20b9 . dofuthrisse a biuth im gnáis féin gl. quem volueram mecum retinere, 32a9 . bid lais cenco dūthras dó 'it will be his though I desire it not for him' Ériu xx 192 § 7 . 2 s. ní dúthrais a bithingnais, Thes. ii 291 § 4 . ní ná duthairsir (nó duthairser) deit fén, LB 261a9 . ? 3 s. ní do c[h]arait ní dūthriss, ZCP vi 267 § 5 . 3 pl. air ci[a] dutairsetar (leg. dufuthairsetar, du[duth]airsetar?) som ingraim inna firían ní chumgat . . ., Ml. 56c7 . Impf. 3 s. ar na tomnitis . . . nad duthrised a nícc, Wb. 4d17 . ? Pass. bid lais cen co duthras dó though it has not been wished for him, PRIA xix 540 § 7 ( LL 146b14 ). Fut. 3 s. ar cech ṅduine mídúthrastar (mídusthrastar, MS. midúthracair, v.l.) dam . . . who shall wish me ill, Thes. ii 356.19 (Hy. vii). intí dudrastar ní don mac so `who would wish (to do aught) for this boy', BDD § 8 . 3 pl. huare dunfutharset because they will desire it, Ml. 54a28 . In later lang. as active vb.: dūthraiccim dul béo a ttalmhoin, KMMisc. 358 . duthraigim, Lib. Flav. i 11vb34 . amal dúthracait, PH 6249 . mairg enfear dodūthraig sin, ZCP viii 229 § 5 . mairg dodhúthraigh dath nár thuill, 3 C 13, 838.1 .

Vn. dúthracht.

2 donn

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 donn or dil.ie/18206

Forms: duind, dunn, duinn

I subst. o, m. chief, noble, ruler (poetic): d.¤ .i. uasal no brithem no rígh, O'Dav. 700 . d.¤ na ndūl (i.e. God), ZCP iii 378 . gur thuit . . . an d.¤ geal, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 156.21 . détla in d.¤, garg a ghleo, SG 349.40 . an d.¤ diadha, AFM vi 2298.12 (poem). g s. dithle duind theft from a chief, Laws v 440.2 . mac in duind, Fen. 376.1 . deise an doinn, Ó Bruad. ii 102 . d s. a secht mblíadna déc don dunn (sic leg.), Rawl. 163b30 . naoi mic déag ag an d.¤ , Keat. ii 4228 (poem). moladh don d.¤ fheardha fhionn (of Deity), A. Ó Dálaigh xx 9 . pl. luaidhit duinn .i. luaidhit na huasail, O'Dav. 700 . a donda (a hadhanta, v.l.), Ériu iv 148 § 27 .

II As adj. o,ā princely, noble (?): Congalach . . . dían a buille, dond a dál, Metr. Dinds. ii 16.86 . in deil degrach d.¤ , iii 194.23 . fuigell bendachtan Dé duind, Leb. Cert. 54.1 . ó chlannaib an Daghdha duinn, Keat. ii 1410 (poem). saegal Abbáin delbda duind, Fél.² lxiii 43 . do marbad Neill raduind ruaid, Lec. 139a14 . ? cles dond (one of Cú Chulainn's feats), FB § 24 . Some of the exx. given under 1 donn may belong to this word.

do-sluindi

Cite this: eDIL s.v. do-sluindi or dil.ie/18466
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: disluindi, dosluindi, díltai, disluindet, dosluindet, derlind, ndíltad, dorusluind, durusluind, do-d-rolluind, dorusluindset, doríltiset, dosloinnter, dosluindfider, diultaidi, diúltad, diúlt-, dílt-

v (* di-sluind-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 632 ). Indic. pres. 3 s. disluindi, Ml. 44b12 , 50b1 . dosluindi, Wb. 6c13 . ní díltai , Sg. 201b10 . 3 pl. disluindet, Wb. 13b18 . dosluindet, 30a20 . Subj. pres. 3 s. arna derlind , Wb. 10c14 . Impf. 3 s. ara ndíltad , Wb. 17d11 . Perf. 3 s. dorusluind, Ml. 58a11 . durusluind, 93c8 . do-d-rolluind, Tur. 118 . 3 pl. dorusluindset, Ml. 90rb7 . doríltiset, Wb. 5c11 , 25b13 (back-formation from prot. forms). Pass. pres. s. dosloinnter, O'Dav. 826 . Fut. s. dosluindfider, Wb. 28c14 . Vbl. of necess. diultaidi, Trip.² 898 . Vn. diúltad. In later lang. as simple vb. with stem diúlt-, dílt-. See also diúltaigid.

(a) denies (i.e. refuses to believe): gl. negare, Ml. 93c8 ; scandalizare (offend, cause to stumble, i.e. cause to deny the faith), Wb. 6c14 , 10c14 , 17d11 , cf. Tur. 118 . arna derlind .i. arna rimfolṅgar díltod do, Wb. 10c14 . ar díltud ata .in. `in-' is for negation, Sg. 95a4 . diultaid an fhírinde, PH 724 . mani diúltat a nDúileamain, Ériu i 219 . doríltiset som et rochrochsat Crist, Wb. 5c11 . donaib hí dosluindet hesseirge, 30a20 . ní diltai in cetbuid nísiu does not deny this opinion, Sg. 201b10 . dorusluindset són remdéicsin dæ du buith dúb they had denied that there was any providence for them, Ml. 90b17 . Used absolutely: rodíultai Bresal ┐ romallach Pátraic, Trip.² 2065 . is and radiult Petar, Ériu iii 116 . diultais Petar co a luigi, PH 3184 . Folld. by obj. clause with neg. conjunction: dia rodiult Petur co bras | nad rabe 'n-a muinteras when P. denied that he had been, SR 7747 . ag a dhiúltadh nach aon rug Macha acht dias, Keat. ii 2426 . muna ndiúlta sibh . . . nach é Torna as bharanta unless you deny that T. is guarantee, Content. xvi 21 ; cf. 23 .

(b) denies, i.e. rejects, renounces: rodiultsat a nDia ṅdil, SR 2685 . an ben diultus a fer fein ar gradh fir ele, 3 B 22, 14b10 . an nemhann trér dhiult duine | sealbh a thoiced ttalmhaidhe, Ó Héodhusa 3 . rodiultsat ┐ rodilsigset tu-sa don turus-sa, MR 296 . an cloch do dhiúltadar na saoir, Psalms cxviii 22 . ailimse gurab í th'fhairchesa cét-fhairche dhiultfaidear a nEirinn, SG 69 . ar ndiultad an tsaoghail dó féin after he had renounced the world, Ériu i 94 .

(c) refuses (a request, gift, etc.) with AR or DO of pers.: is ed insin dorosloinn íc n-erum-sa, ised insin dorosluind cainchomrac ar mu chnamaib-se that denied healing to me . . . that denied peace to my bones, Ml. 58a11 . nocho rodiultus ar na bochtaib in ní conatchitis form, PH 6031 . inné in talam diultfas a fās ┐ a ith?, CCath. 1021 . do bhadus . . . re merrdrechus coidcind ┐ nir diultus me fein do neoch, Lib. Flav. ii 43rb34 . comairghe dhaoibh ní dhiultfainn, Content. viii 29 . in tan diultar in fual, 3 C 19, 204va1 . Declines: du-s-rad eochracha in baile go hUa Ne[i]ll. Diultaiss Ó N. na heochracha, Fl. Earls 44 . Rarely with accus. of pers. and prep. of thing refused: mairg do diult rena dathad | derbráthair a degathar alas that she refused to give it to her noble father's brother, Metr. Dinds. iii 58 . níor diúltadh riamh i nEamhain | éinneach um dhuais, Content. xxviii 53 . Folld. by vn. phrase refuses (to do something): ní obann nó ní diultann neach do ditan ar bās, Laws iv 236 . ní diultab-sa . . . mo bith cristaide I will not refuse to be a Christian, Anecd. iii 73 . ris an nglóir do dhiúlt se roimhe d' ḟaigsin which he had refused to see, TSh. 2048 . gach duine do diúltas éisteacht ris an eaglais, Donlevy 114 . do dhiult seision ithe, 2 Samuel xiii 9 . do dhiultadar imtheacht iona dhligheadh, Psalms lxxviii 10 .

(d) Intrans. with prep. DO denies, renounces, rejects: isee ar ndiltuth dunn fanissin, mani cometsam de ar tolaib this is our denial of ourselves, Cambr. 37c ( Thes. ii 245.7 ). ro diúlt a athair di ┐ nir leic cuci hí, LU 3185 . diultaim-si dóibhsin (i.e. heathen gods), ZCP vi 88 . rodiult [Sir G.] don ingin refused (in marriage), 83 . Maolruanadh . . . do dhiultadh do'n tsaoghal, Ériu i 104 . madh é in tighearna dhiultus don bhuanna fa gan a fhostad i n-athráithe (sic leg.) (Hugh O'Neill's procl.), Ulster Journ. of Arch. vi 60.4 . gur dhiúlt sé d'áineas an tsaoghail, TSh. 411 . ionnus go ndiúltfamaois . . . d'ar dtoil ┐ d'ar gclaontaibh, Donlevy 146 . mairg dhiúltas d'inghin Anna, A. Ó Dálaigh l 1 .

With FOR: diultud for ríg n-angel n-uag, | ba mór in gnim don morsluag, SR 4117 . troiscid ar na manc[h]aibh | diultfaid for ind ecclais who renounce the church (disobey?), ZCP x 44 = BNnÉ 309 .

With FRI: nā diultaidh frim-sa, RC xiv 40 . coru díultai fri Pátraic imma fleid he would not invite P. to his feast, Trip.² 2179 . do diultsat fre P. immon bhfleidh, Lism. L. 407 . rodiultsat fir hÉrenn fria filedu, RC xx 42 . Bres . . . do dhiult frisin tí ba glice bēl i ndErind .i. an t-ardollamh Cairpre, Leb. Gab.(i) 158 n. 5 . nír diult Dia fri ndeirc nduine, Hy Maine 119a . radiult Lamidóin riu a purt na Tróe turned them away from, LL 222a39 ( TTr. 375 ). mhic Eoghain nar dhiult re dáimh who never refused hospitality to poet-band, Ériu v 86 . no condiultat tall rem' dāim, Fen. 220 . Note also: nior dhuilt (leg. dhiult) Fionn roimh nech, Rel. Celt. i 139 . do ṡeirc Dé nár díltar róm, IGT Verbs ex. 891 .

2 ecna(e)

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 ecna(e) or dil.ie/19606

Forms: ecnu

adj manifest, clear, visible: ní ecne dúnn (gl. per fidem ambulamus et non per speciem; `it is not knowledge to us', Thes., but the meaning seems to be it is not known or manifest, visible, to us) Wb. 15c18 . d s. ecnu (gl. scitā [figurā]) Ml. 129d1 . nir faei i tig as mbi eggna suillsi tenead immach...┐ i mbi ecnai dammuig visible YBL 92a50 = BDD 16 . LU 99a33 . is ecna in mír sin doberat inna mbéolo co teit sech a n-imlind sís, BDD 94 . búi dia domne co narbo hecno don anuim a ḟorcend, Aisl. Tond. 97.22 . conadcorastar i ṅgen ṅgaire acht naptar ecnái a scaim, RC xiii 438.12 = LL 288b18 . ecna do thír ocus muir, Metr. Dinds. iv 306.38 . Cf. andath .i. dub, ut est fri hoile ecnam andath doberar, O'Dav. 52 , which may be an ex. of the superl. ecna .i. follus, O'Dav. 785 , seems from what follows to be a mistake for 2 ecnach.

fadéin, féin

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fadéin, féin or dil.ie/20990

Forms: cadéin, céin, fad—, fod—, bad—, bod—, bud—, cad—, fad—, bod—, cad—, feis—, fadessin, fodessin, fessin, —dessid, féssin, fadéin, féin, céin, faden, féin, fade(i)ssin, fadesin, fadesine, fe(i)ssin, fé(i)sin, fein, cadessin, fadisin, fadeissne, feisin, féisin, fessine, feisine, feisne, féisne, fanis(s)in, fesin, fesine, fésine, chanisin, fadisin, fadéisne, fesin, fésin, féis(s)ne, fadesin, fedesin, fade(i)sine, fadésne, fes(s)in, fesine, fésine, feis(s)ne, féis(s)ne, cades(s)in, cadésin, cadessine, fadisin, fanisin, fadéin, ba—, bo—, bu—, fadesin, fes(s)in, fesne, faden, fadesin, féin, fadéin, fodéin, —dén, fadessin, bo—, bu—, fes(s)in, féin, fén, féin, péin, fodéne, ba—, bu—, féine, fessin, fodeisne, feisne, budein, budeisin, badeisin, fadesin, fesine, feisne, féin, fesine, feisne, féisin, cadéin, cade(i)s(s)in, césin, céin, f—, cadessin

cadéin, céin, etc. adj. and pron.; fad— (later fod—, bad—, bod—, bud—) is taken by Pedersen Vgl. Gr.(i 271 , ii 153 ) to be an element of the verb to be. For cad— see below. The stress falls on the second syllable in the forms beginning with fad— (fod—, bod— etc.), cad—; in fan—, can— the position of the stress is undetermined. In feis— it falls on the first syllable.

The following forms are found in the Glosses. The absence of the mark of length may be accidental in some cases. The following rimes have been noted: fadessin: sessir ZCP iii 43 § 11 . fodessin: dessid (perf. of saidid) SR 1388 . fessin (with masc. poss.): —dessid, Metr. Dinds. ii 4.38 . féssin (fem.) : dēiscin, SR 2138 .

1 s. fadéin, féin, céin 2 s. faden, féin 3 s. m. n. fade(i)ssin, fadesin, fadesine, fe(i)ssin, fé(i)sin, fein(?), cesin, cadessin. 3 s. f. fadisin, fadeissne, feisin, féisin, fessine, feisine, feisne, féisne. 1 pl. fanis(s)in, fesin, fesine, fésine, chanisin. 2 pl. fadisin, fadéisne, fesin, fésin, féis(s)ne. 3 pl. fadesin, fedesin, fade(i)sine, fadésne, fes(s)in, fesine, fésine, feis(s)ne, féis(s)ne ( fēin, LU 159 , SR 4466 ). cades(s)in, cadésin ( cadesne, LU 1773 , cadessine, Rawl. 118b47 ).

There is no certain instance in the Glosses of 1 s. fade(i)s(s)in. In Ml. 66d13 the edd. of Thes. say that `fadesin' seems meant for `mea', but it is more likely that it belongs to `exercitui.' Cf. iudicio .i. fadesin, 51b16 . In later documents we have noted: ni fliuchaim fadesin ..., TBC-LL¹ 1307 . missi fodessin, 1005 . corbom gaeth fodeissin, BDD 15 . See also II (f) below.

The forms fadisin (3 s. f. and 2 pl.) and fanisin (1 pl.) are early lost; fadéin (fo—, ba—, bo—, bu—), fadesin and fes(s)in or fesne continue in use throughout Mid. Ir., but lose their specific characters, being employed indifferently in all persons and both numbers and genders. In Auraic. 650 the form faden is given for sing., fadesin for pl., in combination with a pers. pron.: me faden, etc., sinni fadesin, etc. During the Mid.-Ir. period féin comes more and more into use in all persons, genders and numbers and finally survives alone in the mod. language. In PH fadéin (—dén, fodéin, —dén) occurs 37 times and fadessin (fo—) 14 times, besides corresponding forms in bo—, bu—; fes(s)in 37 times; while féin (fén) is very frequent. LB favours the spelling fén instead of the more usual féin (LU, LL); dom péin occurs LB 134b30 . Other Mid. Ir. forms are fodéne (bo—, ba—, bu—) and féine.

I As subject of copula clause:

A (from Glosses): ni arddu feisin quam a chocéle, Sg. 161b9 . cf. uilc féssine `evil themselves' (gl. errantes 2 Timothy iii 13 ) Wb. 30c26 .

B (from later MSS): ansruth a athir ... ┐ ansruth fadesin, Bürgschaft 13 § 45 . roptar scítha som fadessin, TBC-LL¹ 3619 . cf. corbom gaeth fodeisin `that I myself may be wise' BDD 15 (Y: badessin St.).

II As emphasizing pron. or adj. ( my, thy, etc.) —self. The exx. below are arranged in each section under persons (1 s., 2 s. etc.) and under each person instances of the longer forms are given first. For A, B see above under I.

(a) referring to subj. of vb.:

1 s.

A fadéin (gl. ipse) Ml. 23c1 . in tain ronicub féin when I myself shall come Wb. 18b14 .

B bet fessin i n-aentaid in Athar ..., MacCongl. 41.15 . dogén féin mo chomtocbáil, SR 854 . na dern féin forcraid 1583 . forglim féin, LU 10271 . itchonnarcsa fen hí, PH 99 . atchonnacsa feine F., ZCP xiii 169.13 . Cf. muna beinn badh dheine were it not for me Duan. F. i 192 .

2 s.

A im ní nad techtai féin, Ml. 56b33 .

B coiste fadein (impv.) SR 1151 . nosnicfae fadein, Bürgschaft 27 § b . dia ndingbaitea fessin he, LU 5962 . oldá-su fessin, MacCongl. 23.21 . troisc-siu fessin (impv.) MacCongl. 61.14 . tair-siu féin, TBC-LL¹ 106 . do neoch tharradais féin, Bor. 95 . na ciniudha rogabhais féin, CCath. 563 . mid fen pass judgement thyself PH 609 . in tan tucais fén tú isin croich, 172 . an t-ech ro ainciss feine which thou thyself hast saved BColm. 90.14 .

3 s., m. and n.

A ní doromlad fadesin, Ml. 36a29 . oldaas fadeissin, Wb. 33d9 . tuicci feissin, Wb. 12c26 . daucci feissin tantum, 13a8 . indaas cech terchital dunairc[h]echainn som fesin (contr. with `nach fáith aile') Ml. 64c22 . oldaas fessin, Wb. 24c15 . foilsigthi feisin `it demonstrates it itself' Sg. 211a8 . See also under II (c). (cf. bristi fadesin, Ériu vii 148 § 13 ; hicthi fadesin, Bürgschaft 33 § 3 ).

B pendeth (impv.) fadesin, Ériu vii 168 § 12 (Penit.), dogeni fadesin ind tiuglagin allae sin, Mon. Tall. § 52 . cf. dessid mo rí reil | fodessin, SR 1388 . luid sís fadessin, LL 116b19 ( RC viii 56 ). tucc fadessin a thēig ... chuca, MacCongl. 13.6 . co n-epert budessin, 21.21 . saidis foden, MacCongl. 65.4 . amal chomaides-som fodéin, PH 5310 . co rabe fesin lomnocht, SR 1316 . dorairgertsom fessin dóib anísin, LU 1960 ( FA 2 ). diluidsiom feisin ar a cend, Anecd. v 10 = ticseom féin immach, LL 112b8 ( ScM. 5 ). irbbad (impv.) fessin (f.) fair, TBFr. § 21 (fodesin Y. fodeisne, ZCP iv 42.17 ). cusin aimsir sin a mbui feisne (m.) Anecd. ii 43.1 . amal asbert féin, LU 4067 . ni thic do neoch acht mad doneth féin, LU 2021 . rogab fein for dian-aithrige, Bor. 100 . sáidis fén in crand, MacCongl. 29.11 . ruc fen breith fair he himself has passed judgment on himself PH 603 . ni dlig feine eneclann, ACL iii 223.21 . ro tinntó féin docum na Rómha, CCath. 146 . gach fer ... no aisnedheadh scela C. d'araili dobered fen fuillead friu, 765 . cristaidi nochanadh fein fris called himself a Christian Marco P. 64 .

1 pl.

A runsluinfemni didiu cene fanisin, Wb. 15a4 (cf. b below).

B as diliu lind oldammit fadessin dearer to us than ourselves TBC-LL¹ 199 (= ina sind fen St).

2 pl.

A daberidsi féissne you yourselves give it Wb. 24c16 .

B cinnus doghníthi fēin fiadhach ?, Acall. 884 . ní thibér ferann dáibhsi, cosnaidh fein ferann dáibh `win lands for yourselves' (O'G.) Acall. 372 .

3 pl.

A (for Glosses see cadessin below).

B atchonncatar buden, PH 108 . nach feadadar fen, Bor. 129 (Lec.). rothomailset fén ní, MacCongl. 31.7 . cuirid féine a gceart ar gcúl, TD 26.15 . amhail do-rónsad féin, TSh. 154 .

(b) referring to a foregoing infixed pron. (when the latter is reflexive this case is not always easily distinguished from the preceding).

1 s.

B nimfogluasfind féin, LU 5960 .

2 s. B toing ... not-geibhid [leg. —gēbe] fadein frisna gnimusin, Bürgschaft 23.1 . dadotfail fodein, SR 1747 . lepaid ratfiasu féine thou shall have a couch LL 297a45 . uair nachat filsiu fein hi cutrummus, LU 8823 .

3 s.

A amal nach fuar fessin inneuch as I found not himself in anything Ml. 57d3 . darrat fessin hi croich, Wb. 28b4 . adidnopair fessin du Dia, Ml. 66b4 . adcomla friu fessin he joins himself to them Wb. 3c13 . nodmoladar fesin who praises himself 17b21 . amal ronsoír fesin soírfed cách crettes and, Wb. 32d13 .

B farrolaig ... Cruitine fadeisin i maig, Corm. Y 825 (fadesin, Bodl.). o chanasca (cutnasca v.l.) fadesin, Aipg. Cr. 18 ( ZCP iii 451 ). nech nothoirc [leg. nodnoirg) fadesin, Ériu vii 166 § 5 . ronoirnecht fadesin ib. rasgeoguin fodessin (his arrow) wounded himself PH 6306 . dia nustarda fadéin ingáibthib, 4859 . cf. falloing túath fadessin, Críth G. 599 cited below under (g) (β) B.

3 pl.

A nístuarascbat feisin cen gutai they do not express themselves Sg. 7a11 .

B nísfáelsad féin nach in curach, LU 1888 . in [ḟ]oirend rosmarb buden who killed themselves Aen. 1364 .

(c) ref. to suff. pron. (?): 3 s. gníthisium fadesin `he makes himself' Ml. 30b20 (but the correct transl. is more probably he himself makes him and the ex. belongs to II (a).

(d) With independent pron. (cf. Auraic. 649 : etargoire n-inchoisc persainni, me faden, tu faden, sinni fadesin, sibsi fadesin, siatsom fadesin. The corresp. text 3271 ff . has budein in sg. and budeisin, badeisin in pl.):

1 s.

A is me féin asbiur i tossuch (gl. per me et Silvanum) Wb. 14c30 . amal bid me féin notheised cucut (gl. suscipe illum sicut me) 32a17 .

B missi fodessin, TBC-LL¹ 1005 (= misi am aonar, St.). ni ba nech aile ... acht me féin, LL 296b22 . messe féin, 304a25 . na hadair dee bréci, acht me féin, PH 7310 . me fen nicon tibér `as for myself, I will not give it' MacCongl. 33.5 . misi féin as meallta, Acall. 982 . do Gaidhealuib mé fene, BCC § 278 .

2 s.

A cani tú féin, Wb. 8d27 .

B tussu fadéin, LL 247a44 ( IT² 208a ; fodein v.l.). tu fodén im fail-sea, MacCongl. 57.12 . in tú féin, LL 300b45 . tú féin, Acall. 353 . cia thu féin ?, 877 .

3 s.

A ni he fessin dobeir grad fair, Wb. 33c3 . he fesin as choimsid, Thes. ii 294.3 . f. sí feisine (gl. L manet per se) Sg. 165b3 .

B amhail bid e feissin, Corm. Y 825 . conid hé féin mac Dé, LU 1426 . ┐ hé fein eturru, LL 298a47 . conid rig he fén, PH 2586 . gur ferr é fein iná thusa, Acall. 2365 . tabhuir armgaisced mh'athar dhamh. dobhér ..., dōigh ba fialnár ... hé féin, 2012 . ba lan d'omun hé fein ┐ a righa, Marco P. 129 . diultadh se e fein, BCC § 4 (= dhó féin, Matthew xvi 24 ). med an tshaethair do bi se fein d'fagail uatha BCC § 33 . f. conid si fein ro innis, LU 2968 (H). i rraba sí fein, Thes. ii 337.33 ( Hy v 38 Comm ).

1 pl. B da deirbṡiair sinn féin, Acall. 398 . nach cumhachtach sinn féin ris aní se do chuireamair romhainn do chríochnughadh, TSh. 30 .

3 pl.

A nandat hae fessin, Ml. 130a8 .

B eter a feraib ┐ siat fesni, LU 8419 . iad féin, TSh. 5492 .

With nech oneself: B a mesrugud do neuch tra buddesin one should regulate it for oneself Mon. Tall. § 63 . faisidin na pecadh nach dernadh nech féin d' faisidi, RC xxviii 320§ 43 . nech féin go mór da mholadh | céim as lór da lochtoghadh, 23 L 17, 149a .

(e) With prep. and pron. suff.:

1 s.

A erum féin, Ml. 86b1 . form féin, Wb. 7d15 . 8d26 . leim féin, Sg. 209b30 . uaimm fein Wb. 11c1 .

B immon ní is leamm fodén, MacCongl. 45.4 . uaimm fodén, 111.7 . damh bodéin, RC xxvi 370.13 . damsa fodéni, IT i 125.19 . formsa fein, LU 5963 . damsa féin, LL 302a31 .

2 s.

A det faden, Thes. ii 258.22 (bis). deit féin, Wb. 28d15 .

B deit fadéin tantum, Mon. Tall. § 37 . duit fadéin LU 11011 . let fessin, LU 8831 . fort féin, TBC-LL¹ 1187 . SR 6258 . ocut fen, PH 2350 . lat fén, MacCongl. 61.8 . can deitt fén 75.5 .

3 s. m. and n.

A do fadesin, Ml. 61b17 . friss fadesin, Wb. 6c18 . tarais fadeissin, 33d10 . de fessin, Ml. 65a1 . dó fessin, Wb. 23c16 . do fesin, 23c13 . etir fessin et doíni, 28b3 . foir feisin, Sg. 209b12 . fris fessin, Ml. 12d11 . fris fesin PCr. 59a2 . and feissin `in itself ' Sg. 50a2 . ind fessin (gl. in se) Ml. 129d18 . lais feisin, Sg. 153b7 . tríit fessin, Sg. 43a3 . triit feissin, 73b7 . huad fessin, Ml. 108b17 . huaid fessin 35c23 . uad feisin, Sg. 209b12 .

B dó fadeisin, Críth G. 73 . dosom fadesin, Mon. Tall. § 4 . cf. cono fadesen ` inclusive ' BCrólige § 39 . lais fodēin, SR 6859 . fris fudein, Ériu vii 144 § 26 . uad fodén, MacCongl. 31.19 . do fadéin, PH 5972 . chuige fodéin, 6169 . dó féin, LU 8920. 2310 . Acall. 920. 1216 . ind féin, LU 2584 . fairseom fessin, 2279 . úad fessin, LU 10167 . dó féine, TD 34.9 . nach ann fein do bi a anam acht a mbethaidh in Tigerna, BCC § 7 . nech...do derrscnugud de féin, CCath. 277 . rocinn aici féin nach rachadh, 396 .

3 s. f.

A lee fadeissne (gl. anima patitur) `by herself' Acr. 11c1 . forrae fadisin, Tur. 79 . huadi fadisin, Ml. 133c10 . di feisne, Sg. 199b6 . inte feisne, 159a4 . friae fessine, Ml. 130c9 . di féisin, Sg. 199b10 . fuiri féisin, 209b34 . fuiri feisin ib. 28 . trée feisin, 25b14 .

B forri fadeisne, Bürgschaft 26 § 74 . anas dír dí fadesne, Ériu vii 138.3 (Penit.). di fodéin, PH 5918 . cruit ar timpan sin, nó cruit uirri bodein YBL 204a40 = BB 347b32 .

1 pl.

A frinn fanisin, Wb. 17b10 . dunn fanissin, Camb. Hom., Thes. ii 245.7 . frinn fesine, Wb. 17b12 .

B triund fodesin, LU 9241 . ca tir trebfaither linn fesin, CCath. 605 . dún fessin, MacCongl. 29.4 . din féin, Acall. 228 .

2 pl.

A triib fadéisne, Wb. 3b22 . duib fadisin, Ml. 68b3 . airib féisne, Wb. 27c19 . diib féisne, 13a26a0 . lib fesin 9d11 . uaib fesin, 27d6 .

B tucabair fuath dib fein = teipsum odio habuisti BCC § 18 .

3 pl.

A dib fadesin, Ml. 31b10 . doib fadesin, 72c14 . intiu fadesin, 53b11 . dib fesin, 129c18 . doib fesin, 53b11 . intiu fesin, Ml. 53d17 . 61b17 . leo feissin, Sg. 71b3 . leu fessin, Ml. 91a10 . treo fesin, Sg. 4b4 . uadib fesin, 188a20 . forru fesin, Ml. 73b17 . friusom fesin, 54c18 . samlaib som fesin `like themselves ' Ml. 57c5 . uadib féissne, Sg. 144a1 .

B fer dib buden one of themselves PH 141 . cech óenchéol ... dibside fessin, LU 2035 . intib féin, LU 2557 . 2633 . forru fein, for a sluagaib, SR 4466 . etarru fein ┐ eter a tuisechu, CCath. 254 .

(f) Following a subst. preceded by poss. pron. (exx. are arranged according to person and number of pron., but the adj. occasionally seems rather to agree with the noun, e.g. Wb. 33c5 (a doenacht fesine), and at least for some of the forms this may be the original usage. See Pedersen, Asp. i Irsk 93z ).

1 s.

A mo slántu fadéin ┐ slántu amicorum , Acr. 6b1 . mo saithar féin, Wb. 7a1 . im augtortas féin, 9b5 . manid chretim a esséirge et mo esséirge féinn, 13c10 . mo muinter féin, 14a5 . dofuthrisse a buith im gnáis féin ara hireschi (gl. quem ego uolueram mecum retinere) 32a9 .

B mo derbmbleoghan budhessin, ZCP iv 31 (scribe in Eg. 1782 , Flower Cat. 261 ). tar mo chend uodessin, YBL 327a39 . form ḟeoil fodein, SR 1542 . com thrichait chét fadéin, LU 4648 . mo ainm fodéin, TBC-LL¹ 1053 . láeg mo bo fadéin, CRR 3 . dim glinni fadein, LU 4696 . form dreichsea fodéin, 3892 . mo chuit fodéin, MacCongl. 95.2 . m'ainmsi fodén, 79.3 . mo thustidi féin LU 1682 . m'ainmse féin, 334T0 mo chubrendsa fein, LL 303a43 . mo chrod féin, 304a20 . mu rath féin, Acall. 371 . acam athair féin, 2270 . mo lebar fen, BCC § 34 .

2 s. B im do bruinnedalta uadhessin ; imot noebmathair uadhessin ; im do noebapstalu uadessin, YBL 326b33 ; 36 ; 53 ( Otia ii 94 § 9 , § 11 ; 95 § 19 ). im do noebhdisciplu fadein, Otia ii 95 § 19 . a forus do thigi fadein, Bürgschaft 27 § c . fogéba do dun fadéin, LU 208 . do brathair fadéin, LL 112b32 . cia hainmsiu fodén ?, MacCongl. 77.25 . do thorba fadeine, ZCP iii 29.28 . ni bé dot réir fodéne, Ériu i 197 § 15 . do gnima fessin, LU 10270 . dit daig fesni, 3372 . lessaig do sluaig [sic] fein, SR 3843 . dot imdegail féin LU 5027 . molad do gnima feine | tathair gnima do cheile, Ériu ii 228.5 . do mhathair feine, ZCP viii 109.11 .

3 s.

A ho[a] degnim som fadesin, Ml. 20b3 . a senchassom fadesin `his own tradition' Wb. 30c17 . ara foirbthetu fadesin, 6c19 . a chorp (acc.) fadesin, 13d20 . ho[a] faithsini fadesin, 33c17 . duarbaid a noibi fadessin Ml. 46d15 . dobert goiste imma bragait fadesin, 23b10 . is a indocbál fessin condieig cách acht Tiamthe, Wb. 23d5 . na cuinged a thoil fessin `let him not seek his own desire' 11b18 . mad cumme imned á cheli et a imned fessin, 20c6 . ni as a persain fessin rogab in salmso `it was not in his own person that he sang this psalm' Ml. 90b15 . nítat á airiltin fessin donarbaid in popul, 108b8 . taiccéra cách dara chen fessin, Wb. 6b28 . di hilib a cheneiuil fessin, Sg. 40a8 . a ai[n]mm féssin, 6a7 . di hilib a cheneiuil feissin, 40a6 ; 7 ; 11 ; 17 . as máthir a ṡotho feissin cach n-óenchrann, Sg. 65a6 . ni bu fua reir fesin boi som, Ml. 14b13 . nadndechuid ... huadsom dochum nDae acht duintarrae inna ucht fesin iterum, Ml. 54d3 . issa thorbe feisin són nammá `it is his own profit only' Wb. 12c25 . diróscai di hilib a cheneiuil feisin, Sg. 40a18 . inna aicniud feisin `in its own nature' 209b35 . a folud feisin, 211b3 . a ancride feisin immeḟolṅgai césad dó, 209b18 . ni a doenacht fesine rudanordan acht deacht, Wb. 33c5 (fem. agreeing with doenacht, Ped., Asp. i Irsk 93z and Thes. Suppl. Cf. 28d21 cited below under 3 pl. ). (f.) a ggnim feisne its [lit. her] own action Sg. 199a2 .

B fria menmain fadesin, Mon. Tall. § 21 . ina insi fadessin, § 4 . for a anmain fadesin ZCP iii 451.25 . a setig dano do pennait tar a cend fadesin ┐ dara cendsom that his wife also should do penance on her own behalf and on her husband's Mon. Tall. § 86 . an tíi connessai a pectha fadesin, Ériu vii 170 § 18 . tara thúaith fadesin, Críth G. 28 . a thir (a less) fadesin, 251 ; 252 . cóic ṡeóit a thige fadessin, 395 . nan inraic nech ina chais fadesin, Bürgschaft 21 § 62 . a charpat fadessin TBC-LL¹ 771 . lucht a chrichi fadessin, LL 262a14 ( MU² 42 ). cf. a sretha sét fadessnei, Críth G. 244 (poss. seems to refer to `āith' kiln). .l. ban a mná fodéin, LU 8375 . fó a réir fodein, 8622 . a gilla fadéin, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 6.23 . co dún a athar budhéin, Acall. 1199 (verse). o[a] chotib fadén, MacCongl. 51.1 . ina beol (beolu) fodén, 65.9 ; 65.19 ; 67.9 . tria thóebán fodéne (fadéne, bodéine, budheine, v.l.), Fél. 352 . gaibid dó a chlaideb fessin attacks him (viz. Goliath) with his own sword SR 5874 (deibhidhe rime with : sin). a ara fessin, LU 8805 . coa mnaí fessin, 3267 . a aicned fessin, 9792 . tanic ... coa ferand duthaig fesin 3199 . tuargaib a tech ... co riacht a dirgi fesin inna cetna 8402 . dia argat fesin, AU 963 . roráidset ... a muinter féin fri Dauíd, SR 6358 . go rogaid Moisi ... forsin Ríg ... | coro léiced dó a chosc fein | 'sa timargain dia uagréir, 4127 . dia brathrib fein, 3147 . a chommaín féin, LU 2286 ( FA 34 ). béim da bíail féin, LU 8028 ( FB 77 ). a n-aimsir a bais fen BCC § 34 . fer a inaid fein, § 27 . cindus do beidis ... ina diaidh fen, § 33 . rena beo fen ib. (f.) a derbhráthair féin , Acall. 541 . a cuit féin, 2341 . léna muintir féin, 2162 . a cóir féine her own rights TD 24.1 .

1 pl.

A cf. ara[r] pecthaigi dano fesin, Ml. 105a4 .

B diar lessugud fodein, PH 6121 . dar ndeoin buden of our own free will Aen. 1575 . láeg ar mbó féin, CRR 5 . ar n-athair féin, Acall. 398 . asar ndúchus féin, CCath. 607 .

2 pl.

A for n-airchinnech féisne, Wb. 5a11 .

B do for feraib fodeisne, LU 1777 (= do for fer fodein, YBL 4b29 ). far n-ósarbráthair fodéin, SR 3587 . for n-eitteire féin SR 3504 . bhur bhfir féin, Acall. 976 .

3 pl.

A ised asbertis ba [a] nert fadesin immefolnged choscur doib ni bu Dia, Ml. 95a5 . dia luc fadesin, Sg. 154b1 . cen tíchtain á tíre fadesin, Ml. 34d12 . a rriuth aicneta fedesin, BCr. 18b12 . fo a réir fadésne, Wb. 5b3 . nach du Dia ... acht is dia neurt fessin, Ml. 46d10 . inna n-aicniud feisin, Sg. 188a18 . in teist dorat a fili fésine, Wb. 31b19 . a mmuintire fesine `of their own household' 28d21 (her ? Ped. takes fesine as fem. here, Asp. i Irsk 93y ). acuit inna forciunn feisne on their own termination Sg. 213a8 . is sairiu doib fognam dona ballaib ailib doib oldaas cid a fognam féisne, Wb. 12b2 . a tola féisne, 30d8 .

B a ndochoisci fadesin, Aipg. Cr. § 18 ( ZCP iii 451 ). inda leth fadessin, Mon. Tall. §64 . im rennaib ... a n-arm fodessin, LU 6287 . a n-echrada fadesin, 10591 . a n-indmassa dilse fadeissin, PH 6132 . do reir a n-uird uodessin, 336 . re comalta bodéin, Acall. 2145 . dia fíadnaib fein, LU 8550 ( FB 40 ). triana sualchib ... féin 2393 . assa corpaib fodéin, MU² 276 . ara bferaibh féin, Acall. 988 .

(g) After subst.

(α) preceded by article:

A act in duine fadesin (gl. quis enim scit hominum ... ?) Wb. 8b8 . in popul fadesin, Ml. 34d7 . in doini adordais inna idlu nō ind idail fadesin, 36d16 . ind nime fadesin `of the heaven itself' 51c27 . caingníme na forcitlaide fadesine `of the good deeds of the teachers themselves' Wb. 31d17 . as in talam fessin `from the earth itself' Ml. 45d13 . is dund salm fessin is ainm lessom `titulus', 74b1 . it hé inso boill ind senduine et is hé in senduine fessin, Wb. 27b8 . don chrunn fésin is nomen `buxum' ... ni don torud, Sg. 61b13 (cf. do chrunn fessin 61b8 ). atbelat sidi ┐ inna soinmecha fesin, Ml. 57a3 . tresin n-aimsir feissin .i. amal bid ind aimsir feisin, Sg. 188a26 . Cf. is nomen du[n?] chathraig fissin, Ml. 131c3 .

B forsin duini fadesin `the man himself' Ériu vii 138.4 . in file fodhesin, IT iii 96y . ar chairiguth ind uilc fadesin `to correct the evil itself' Ériu vii 162 § 5 . do laim in choimded uodessin PH 4770 . in Fathliaig fodessin, MacCongl. 93.7 . is i so in anamhain fodhen, IT iii 97 § 157 . lucht inotachta na cathrach badhdein those who enter the city itself Fl. Earls 100.6 . in cepp i mbai ind inneoin | is ind indeoin fodēine (: nārfēile), Rawl. 139b27 ( Ériu iv 110 = ┐ ind i. féni, LL 35a6 ). slān uaim don bith budhdēine | la Rīgh ngrēine os mithid, RC xxxvii 352 § 13 . fáilte in Comded fessin, LU 2125 . tri la ria samfuin ┐ tri laa iarma ┐ lathe na samna feisne, 3223 . in Comdiu féin, 2757 . forcraid cech baill do thinól ... corop isin bul[l]sa fein fogaba ciped ... dliges, 2584 . cidat falsi araile di ruinib na esergi ar is todochaide n-airchend ind esergi fein, 2614 . pl. Tuadhmhumha ... d'orccain lá Conchobhar M. ┐ la Gallaibh. na Goill feisne do theacht leis co Ross C., AFM iii 68.15 .

(β) without art.:

A (cf. qui in rectum non iudicio (.i. fadesin) ducuntur Ml. 51b16 , where the meaning may be `their own judgement or reason,' i.e. that of the mules ( Psalms xxxi 9 ); the ex. then belongs to f). cosmil fri Crist fessin a athir nemde, Wb. 13d13 . ol Priscien feissin `saith P. himself' Sg. 40a12 . i fogur Dae fessin, Wb. 25b19 . foirbthetu neirt fesin, Ml. 128d18 .

B airecht fodesin, one of the five `cenéla airechta': airecht fodesin, is a suidhi bīt brethemain co sē līnaib deec airecta umpu, ZCP xii 360 ( O'Curry 74 < H 3.18, 57b ). bairdne fadessin name of a metre, or a class of metres: IT iii 14 § 27 . admall ..., is bairdne fadeisin a ruidles .i. blogbairdne ┐ brecbairdne, etc. 22 § 67 . cf. 43 § 52 ( ar bairdni fesin, 109.17 ). duan fadesin name of a metre: duan fadesin ┐ duan cenélach ┐ forduan, etc. IT iii 12 § 18 ( duan fen, § 21 ; in 22 § 67 , 41 § 46 , this is simply duan) : cf. rii tuaithe, di feraib deacc do lessaib tuaithe folloing tuath fadessin fria taiscedhi `a king of a tribe, twelve men are supported by the territory on his excursions for the good of the territory' Laws iv 338.21 = Críth G. 599 , where the ed. reads: folloing ... thaiscidi, and renders `the tuath maintains himself (the king alone) for his private affairs' Mac Neill renders: `whom the tuath itself sustains' PRIA xxxvi C 306 . With npr., etc.: im Pettar fadheissin, Otia ii 95 § 23 . íasacht ṁbliadna do Dund Cualnge, ┐ ragaid lóg a íasachta dó ... .i. coíca samaisci ┐ Dond Cualnge fadessin, TBC-LL¹ 93 . Concobar fodessin, LU 8205 ( FB 15 ). is Día fadesne chuirius nech i bpianaibh, Aisl. Tond. 106 § 6 (= as e Dīa fein cuires pian ar duine, 132 ). bid marb Iacob fodein, SR 3603 . ro iarfacht Forainn fadein do | fiad in tṡlúag, 3293 . cortrascair grianan Bricrend ... co torcair Bricriu fodein ┐ a rigan, LU 8379 ( FB 25 ). Bricriu fodein LU 8178 . atrachtatar Ulaid im Chonchobar ... luid Conchobar fodein ... co D., MU² 191 . ro gaet Connla ic Ath leathan ocus Áth lethan bodhéin ... is Dun E. ... caidhi fochaind a claechlóigh?, Acall. 1189 (verse). Dia fa dhéin, , Dán Dé xxvi 39 . intan baí ic deiscin na n-én | Eua féssin, SR 2138 . Medb fessin, LU 8840 ( FB 62 ). marbais in Liath M. ... ech Ercoil ┐ noscengland Cu Ch. Ercoil fessin, LU 8929 ( FB 70 ; similarly LU 8922 ). Cu Chulaind fessin ┐ a ara, 10176 . Mac Dathó fessin, ScM. 6 . Forgall fessin, LU 10265 . fri tressaib Forgaill fessin, 10267 . pl.: iomaireacc ... eitir Chonnachtaibh féisin , AFM i 402.8 (= inter Connachta inuicem AU 798 ). Adam fein, SR 1303 . gaisced Conchobair féin LU 5048 . Dia féin, PH 7378 . ro chuirestair Eochaid eclacha ... d'iarraidh a mnae. dochuaidh Eochaid fein iar sin d'iarraidh Etaine, IT i 129.14 . adubairt Find féin, Acall. 1401 . fian Conáin. fian Oisín ... fiann Find féin, 1399 . pl. D., ri Alban, do marbad la hAlbanchu fein, AU 966 .

III In sense even: na cnuic fen even those hills BCC 18.4 . ar laoidh féin ni fagthar dath not even a poem is credited Content. vi 13 . aniu féin even now xxii 11 . With demons. : ni beith an dinite sin féin even that dignity BCC § 1 . an talam ud fein, § 26 .

The forms cadéin, cade(i)s(s)in, césin, céin, etc., are explained by Pedersen Vgl. Gr. (ii 153 ) as containing cia or cid with pron. and demons. They disappear early. In tabulating the forms according to usage the arrangement of the f— forms above is followed. The rendering even, also suits several of the exx.

I As subject of (virtual) copula clause:

3 s. B baí brathair laiss Long mac Ebonis cadessin, LU 6107 . Cf. is amlaid no imthiged Medb ┐ nói carpait fóthi ... da charpat rempe díb ┐ da charpat na diaid ┐ da charpat cechtar a da táeb ┐ carpat eturru ar medon cadessin, TBC-LL¹ 697 (Windisch supplies (a) before the last `carpat' and renders `ihr eigener Wagen in der Mitte zwischen ihnen'; the meaning will be brought out better if we add a comma after `eturru' and render and (her) chariot between them, that (was) in the middle).

3 pl. B Dal Cormaic Luisc in tres primslonnud eirrid cadesin Dál C. L. the third principal stem, these were chariot fighters Rawl. 118b42 (= errid cid in sin, LL 312a11 ). Ethne mathair ... Cormaic ┐ Niad Chuirp ┐ eirrid cadessine ib. 47 (= errid chatha sin, LL 312a17 . Cf. oldaas cid a fognam féisne, Wb. 12b12 . ro ergiset Conall ┐ Eogan. & cid iatside ropsat láma in net nathrach, LL 304b19 ( Bor. 113 )).

II

(a)

1 s.

A fuachaidsem ... fuachimm chein, Thes. ii 293.23 .

B atchí Bran | lin tond ... | atchiu cadéin (budhen v.l.) ... scotha, Imr. Brain 35 .

3 s.

A caraimse fos ... oc mu lebran ... caraid cesin a maccdán, Thes. ii 293.17 .

B dagéini dano Lethan fora áth ... anais cadessin ara chind Con C., LU 5314 . guitter dano Lath ... ara chend ... datuitside dano cadessin, 5986 . imtéit cadesin, Críth G. 601 . asbeir cadisin, Bürgschaft I § 53 . crich ína coisce guire noise ... adsuighe crích cadesin, Laws iv 142.24 . cf. ad-suide cadeissin, ZCP xvi 212.7 . indfine co .vii. firu dec: conranna [leg. —t ?] cadeissin finteda, Laws iv 284.7 .

3 pl.

A [cf. ni comalnatsom cid feissne recht, Wb. 20c22 ].

B imcomaircid na fāithe ele ... ┐ asbertatar cadissin: ticfa, etc. ZCP viii 312.32 . foíte días día thabairt ass ... fecsit cadesne for coí, LU 1773 . Cf. doforbartatar in dunat cadeissin, IT iii 239.145 .

(b) ref. to preceding infixed pron.:

? 1 s. B fritamgair céin, ACL iii 294 § 11 .

(c) ref. to suff. pron. 3 s. A gabsi cadessin abbaith `took himself as abbot' Thes. ii 242 ( Ardm. 18b1 ). But possibly the subj. of the verb is emphasized and the ex. belongs to II (a).

(d) in apposition to independent pron.

1 s.

A [cf. os me chene, Thes. ii 293.25 ].

3 s.

B [cf. laech uathmar ... folt dondchas fair, ossē lethgloir cadissin, TBC-I¹ 3302 (om. LL).

(e) after prep. pron.

1 pl. A is comadas duun chanisin, Thes. ii 246.4 (Camb. Hom.).

3 pl. A indib cadesin, Sg. 150b2 . ataat tuisil indib cadésin, 188a2 .

(f) after subst. preceded by poss.

1 s. A mu menma céin, Thes. ii 293.15 . im lín chéin ib. 21 . for mu mud cein, 294.4 .

3 s. B 'na mennat ceisni (: Feirtsi), Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1919 v 93 § 54 (an archaising form on pattern of cadessin, Ed.).

fairthe

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fairthe or dil.ie/21173

adj prepared, provided (?), hence As subst.

(a) that which is provided ; preparation, provision, entertainment: fairthe .i. fleadh, O'Cl. tarla ar a chinn f.¤ fled `festal preparation' Metr. Dinds. iii 56.35 . a fled ... ba hed f.¤ a foruime `the entertainment his journey gained' 58.52 (: aithle). tairge[d] fri fóir fri f.¤ dóib cach aidche Samna it (i.e. corn and milk) was delivered up to them for (their) aid and entertainment (?) LL 7a25 . Leb. Gab.(i) iii 174 ( ITS xxxix ) = tarced fri coir fairche, BB 28b36 . fri foir a ffairthi, Leb. Gab.(i) i 104 , with gl. : da bfoiridhin [sic MS) i bfaírthe [see below] dochum a fleidhe. Cf.? ticfa in donn ... furthe celg, ZCP xiii 26.17 .

(b) i f.¤ in readiness (?) hence promptly, speedily: comrac dunn fria fairthe .i. co luath no co moch, O'Curry 1296 (< H 3.18, 539 ). O'Curry 1473 (< H 3.18, 653 ). f.¤ no a bfairthe .i. go luath, O'Cl. rob e do lecht hi fairthi (robé ... farthe LU) iar do neit soon after thy death wound ACC 2 Comm. (with gl. : .i. i traiti, Eg., immochai LU). faidis an D. Ealcmar n-uad for turus ... dogeine an D. tincheadla mora for E. ... cona tisad i fairthi .i. a muichi, Ériu xii 142.10 = co na tísadh a fairthi (.i. lúath), ZCP v 523.7 . iar n-orgain an Tuir i ffartha (with gl. : i n-ullmha no i ndendais fledhughadh) Leb. Gab.(i) i 108.15 . Cf. otchonncatar na piana fairi doib, PH 1121 .

See fuiride

1 fochell

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 fochell or dil.ie/22437

Forms: foichell, faich—, foichill, focuil

n ā, f. (vn. of fo-cíallathar) occurs only once in Glosses, Wb. 15c24 . In later Mid. Ir. foichell (faich—), n s. sometimes foichill.

(a) attending to; attention, heed, respect (?); possibly in follg. exx.: is tacaír dúnn a chaínf.¤ asar corp (gl. omnes nos manifestari ante tribunal Christi oportet, ut referat unusquisque propria corporis sui) Wb. 15c24 ; `ihn gut zu ehren' Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 484 ; `meet for us is its fair wage out of our body' Thes. (see 2 fochell); to pay good heed to Him (? it) out of (i.e. while in) our body (?). Cf. ticfa [Crist] dia brátha ... is tacair do chách a f.¤ (ḟocholl, foichill, ḟochaill v.l.), Ériu ii 194 § 7 . in tan fondailter fochall | do chách iarna mes ` reward ' Ériu iii 102 § 27d (monastic rule). ní dleaghair gan í d'ḟaichill one should be on guard against it (of a missile) Ir. Monthly 1927, 190 . can chagill [gan faichill v.l.] can aititin can chadus ... do Dia no da duni, Cog. 152.2 . intí nach tug daditín na dachill [dḟaicill v.l.; leg. d'aititin ná d'ḟaichill] do Maelsechlaind ... ed risa n-imred oencluchi do fidchill ..., 66.3 . conid de asberar Achell ar Themair ... daig na ḟaichle bae ar sūil ind rig, Rawl. 131b37 (of Cormac m. Airt; because of the importance attached to the king's [wounded] eye ?).

(b) anticipating, preparing for; of being in readiness for; being prepared to face (dangers, enemies, etc.), with obj. gen.: badar ... tri bliadna ic airithin ┐ ic foichill na fledi sin, BB 255a40 = ro.bás hi fochill na fleidhe sin fri ré teora lethbliadhan ZCP xi 61.6 . ba heigen doib faichill ḟuilaing fer nÉirend to make provision for the support of Ériu iv 124 § 1 . adfíadar dóib ind [ḟ]áilte [?] do ḟochaill inna dubthíne (that there was) hospitality [?] prepared beforehand against the hard season ZCP viii 313.2 . Cf. d'ḟaichill gorta to guard against famine Content. vi 80 . roboth sect mbliadnai oca foichill (of preparations for war) RC xii 82 § 83 . bid maith fri foichill bratha ... discáil céille din domun, ZCP vii 298.14 . mithig faichill tiuglaithi it is time to prepare for ACL iii 311 § 7 = focuil, AFM ii 618 . is ferr a fochill do chēin (of an approaching calamity) LB 242b = O'Curry MS. Mat. 633 (cf. is cáir dot onáir mh'ḟaithchill, Ir. Monthly 1920, 52 ). biaid cech fer i fochill araile (gl. arfoichlifet fir firu men will be on their guard against one another) RC xxvi 47 n. 6 . baoí sidhe co feithmheach ... i foichill a iondsaigthe dia easccairdibh, AFM vi 1956.22 . ro bhaoí ócclach ... i ffoichill a n-éludha awaiting their escape 1898.8 . ag foichill écc gach aonlaithe expecting 2218.13 . With AR (FOR): hi ffoichill ḟorra ready to meet them (enemies) AFM vi 2010.14 . na daoine a mbíonn eagla Dé 'na gcroidhthe, ┐ i mbionn faithchill ┐ roimhfeacháin aca air, Corp. Astron. 68 . Cf. bói an manabail lais i n-aichill Báithin in readiness for B. BNnÉ 328 § 58 .

2 fochell

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 fochell or dil.ie/22438

n ā, f. (prob. same word as preceding, the orig. sense being provision made by employer for employee) hire, wage, reward: fachell .i. fo cheill in gillae dia tabar bīs a mēit, Corm. Y 633 . fochraic .i. focheill (a s.) O'Dav. 865 (gl. on Ériu xiii 22.16 ). foicheall .i. formáil no luach saothair dogheibh duine ar son a oibre sa ló, O'Cl. faichill .i. tuarastal. go bfaichlibh .i. go dtuarastlaibh ib. (see Metr. Dinds. iii 60 cited below). Cf. is tacaír dúnn a chaínf.¤ asar corp, Wb. 15c24 , cited under 1 fochell. cid cu faicill cid can faicill whether on pay or not Laws v 72.25 Comm. amus tathuighe co bfaichell, ii 24x Comm . cen cin[n]edh foichle `without fixed wages' ib. y 0 . fer taithigt[h]i cin faichill .i. in gille turusa, i 190.19 Comm . do mna fochraice .i. ... ben bis for foichill acat who is on hire with thee i 160.24 Comm . ar ḟaichill duine airithi in the hire of any particular person iii 384.17 Comm . ro tuill mís fri faichill ┐ combuitecht mbliadne `against a year's hire' Dinds. 22 = BB 363a8 ( Metr. Dinds. iii 68 has `mí bendachtan' in the corresponding passage). bói i faichill ri bliadain ... ac tuilliud óen-bó, Metr. Dinds. iii 310.91 . Cairpre N. co faichlib `giver of wages' 60.71 (see cit. from O'Cl. above). tech foichle Hérenn Fernae `the House of wages' Triads 13 (glossed: eircille ar grádhuibh dar ndóigh fa tuarasdul giolla foic[h]le, nó tuarastail, p. 36 ). fer foichle a wage-earner Laws ii 284.9 , cf. in fear foichli a focheall d'fagail (gloss on: in-saig fochrach fochraic, Ériu xiii 22.16 ), O'Dav. 865 . in gilla faithle ... beiridh a faithchill uili lais, 23 P 3, 20ra8 , 11 . gēmadh gilla faichle an fear, IGT, Decl. ex. 1991 . ma tā ... neach acan dingbala dō coimitecht do dénum, masa fer coimitechta hé, no faicheill, masa fer doní faichell, O'D. 2246 (< Rawl. B 506 f. 18a ) = aichill ... faichell, O'Curry 368 ( H 3.18, 206 ).

fo-fera

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fo-fera or dil.ie/22675

Forms: foíred, fufirim, foferai, fofera, -fúiri, fodera, fuddera, fotera, faeram, foíret, furea, foírin, fuerad, foired, fofertís, forfertis, foirfea, foḟirfea, fofirfe, fo-d-irfe, furuar, foruar, fodruar, foruar, foruair, forḟuair, fo-fúair, foferthar, fofertais, fomfirfider, foroired, forúired, foruiredh, fonroireth, foroerath, -foruireth, -roerad, faíred, fuired, ffoferta, fuar, fúr, foruirich, fonruirith, fo-fera, fodera, .fo.

v protot. -foír-, -fuir-. O.Ir. forms: Imperat. 3 s. foíred, Ml. 43c3 . Pres. 1 s. fufirim, Thes. i 497.5 ( Ardm. 177b1 ). 2 sg. foferai, Ml. 121b17 . 3 s. fofera, Wb. 2a17 . Cf. -fúiri, Ériu vii 148 § 10 (simple vb. ?). (rel.) fodera, Wb. 3c33 . fuddera, 33c12 . fotera, LU 3099 (see below). 1 pl. (with inf.) faeram, Wb. 15d3 . 3 pl. ni foíret , 27d24 . subj. pres. 3 s. nāt furea , Mon. Tall. § 63 . subj. past 1 s. arna foírin se Wb. 14d3 . 3 s. fuerad, 33b13 . mani foired , Sg. 157b11 . 3 pl. ma fofertís , RC xii 62 § 24 . Cf. amail forfertis , Mon. Tall. § 25 . fut. 3 s. foirfea, Wb. 11d3 (rel., = foḟirfea). fofirfe, TBFr. § 25 . fo-d-irfe, LL 8b28 , 145b18 . perf. 3 s. furuar Wb. 2a18 . foruar, 8b5 . 14c43 . Tur. 48 . fodruar, Ml. 20b17 . In Mid. Ir. foruar freq. becomes foruair, forḟuair (cf. fo-fúair perf. of fo-gaib).

Pass. pres. s. foferthar, ZCP xi 90 § 29 . O'Dav. 54 : (.i. fuirither) 874 . Imperf. pl. fofertais, Ériu iv 163.3 (Laud 610). fut. s. fomfirfider sa, Ml. 33b10 . perf. s. foroired [sic leg.] AU 777 (poem) = foraeradh, AFM 773 . forúired, PH 3644 . foruiredh, Ériu iii 4.28 . fonroireth, TBFr. § 28 . Cf. foroerath, IT iii 237.63 . -foruireth, TBFr. § 28 . LL 246b25 . -roerad, IT iii 237.62 (= róer, LL 246b25 ). ro faíred , LU 2344 . ro fuired , 2324 . pret. pl. ffoferta, Ériu iv 163.26 . Part. foiride q.v.

Vn. fuar, later fúr. Cf. fáer.

I In general sense prepares, provides, brings about: gl. parare Thes. i 497.5 . gl. praeparare Wb. 8b5 . Ml. 33b10 . praebere Ml. 121b17 , gl. praestare (= furnish, provide) 43c3 . Wb. 27d24 .

(a) in special sense prepares, provides: mad hé in firchumsanad fuerad Iessu, Wb. 33b13 (refers to: si ... requiem praestitisset). foruar inna inbotha he had prepared the nuptials Tur. 48 . fúir ┐ urlamaig thu do gabail Crist chugat get ready LB 225b43 . fuired a chride corba hattreb ... don spirut nóeb (= paret hospitium spiritui) PH 5599 . isin purgatoir suthain rofuired do diabul, 4308 . isin tenid ... rofaíred do Díabul, LU 2344 . teni foruiredh do diabul `qui praeparatus est' Ériu iii 4.28 (= foruireg, ZCP iv 243.4 ). in flaith forruired duib o thosach domain, Ériu iii 6.11 (= foruirec ZCP iv 243.19 ). cichib róer[ad] ? nin foruireth na mmaith nothing good has been prepared (i.e. is in store) for us LL 246b25 ( IT iii 244.48 ). cíchíb foruireth ? ol si. Fon-roireth imned, ol C., TBFr. § 28 = foruirich ... fonruirith , RC xxiv 153 (Edinb.).

(b) causes, produces, brings to pass , folld. by acc., (with or without vn. phrase) or subord. clause, with DO of pers. nech praindes co fúiri galar ndó till he makes himself ill Ériu vii 148 § 10 . forúer imneth fota, ZCP viii 308.12 . conid ead fofuoair cess for Ulltoip, 120.24 . in mé fódrúar was I the cause of it? LU 5693 (= TBC-I¹ 1218 ). Cath Seghsa, ben ... fordoruair [leg. -ruär: Duäch], RC xvii 123.20 (Tig.) = fodruair, AFM 499 . ardscél ... foruair mór n-uile, AFM ii 572 . dosfrecmairc doib cid foruair doib bith oc toirrse, Anecd. i 59 § 75 (leg. cid foruär | bith, etc. ? Meyer would omit first doib and read foruar doïb, ZCP xi 153 ). is mōite fofera saeth dait, ZCP iii 29.11 . is ed forḟuair do A. in luathtinol sa do dénum, Alex. 77 . With ellipse of vn.: ar imbud fodruair fo recht nóeb the multitude he caused (to be) under the holy law ACC § 100 ( RC xx 274 ).

With inf. pron. obj.: cach imsnim fogebthai is misi fodera daib, YBL 159a45 . mo thaebh, a Dé fodera, | bidh cael, bidh cré, bidh crumhae (= my flesh, O God who causest it, will turn to dust and worms) ACL iii 216 § 5 .

(c) in sense causes fofera in rel. clauses is commonly used with petrified infixed -d- even when folld. by the obj.; this usage goes back to the Glosses: ined fodera báas domsa?, Wb. 3c33 . coni[d]hed fodera fáilti dúibsi, 14c42 . as n-ed fodera emnad that causes doubling Sg. 120a4 . cid fotera na scéith ... intib?, LL 264b46 ( MU² 376 ). cid fotera duit bith amlaid sin?, LU 3099 . int ṡualaig fodera [fofera v.l.] dídnad which works consolation Ériu i 196 . cid fotera Oengus ... do bith 'sin Bruig? why is O. in vii 220 § 11 . cid fotera nach isin Bruig no hadnaictis na rig? why were not the kings buried? LU 4077 . is ed uadera dosom gan ainm a athar do rāda, TTebe 565 . ni tre diomdha ... fodero damh dul ... acht grādh it is not dissatisfaction but love ... that makes me go ZCP viii 222 § 5 . The -d- is less common in other tenses: fodirfe ar n-ēc [sic leg.], LL 145b18 (appar. not rel.). gnim fodirfe imbad ṁbróin, 8b28 . fodirfed feib ndoib, that it would work prosperity for them O'Mulc. 497 . cid fódruair lat su ... mo dímiad sa?, LU 3901 ( SCC 41 ). ised fodrúair a orcain hi cinta Echdach (= he was destroyed in satisfaction for E.'s crimes) LU 8014 . in mac ... fodúair imned, Metr. Dinds. iii 106.35 . fath fotruair gan m'iomraissi, ZCP vii 305.27 .

II In later language fo-fera becomes obsolete, but the form fodera (in some MSS., e.g. LB, usually contracted .fo.) continues in use:

(a) as vb. in rel. sent. with force either of pres. or pret., which causes (caused): is í fa deara dúnn gan labhairt i ló an bhráith, Dán Dé x 19 . dá chúis fá deara briseadh ... d'ḟearaibh Mumhan, Keat. iii 3217 . is é ... ba deara dosum Eri d'fágbháil, MR 110 8 . atbert gur bo hé feissin fodera that he himself was the cause AFM vi 2218 . as iad fo deara dósomh iliomat na n-edarnaighe it was because of them that his ambuscades were so numerous 2214 . nā measadh gur daille ... fa dearadh dhamh á choimhdireolsin dhobair dfuraladh ..., Luc. Fid. 2.9 . With AR of pers.: as é so fa deradh ar na creidmhechuibh ... urnaighthe ... do dhénamh, Luc. Fid. 236.11 (for tug fad. ? see next section).

(b) the orig. significance of fo-dera (fa deara) being lost, it was regarded as a prep. phrase and used with another vb. DO-BHEIR FO (FA) D. (FA ND.), CUIRIDH FO D. (cf. umla) causes (something to be done), orders (= Fr. laisser, Germ. lassen with inf.) an té ... do ní piseóga ... nó dobeir fá dera a ndénamh dhó, Ó Héodhusa 135 . tug fá deara corp an leinbh do bhreith 'na ḟochair, Keat. iii 608 . tugsad fo deara ar Bhreatainibh cloidhe do dhéanamh, i p. 6 . doratsat ... fodera sepel ... do thogbail, Fl. Earls 34.6 . tucc fó deara mac Ui M. do dhalladh, AFM iii 214 . tabhair fa deara a chluinsin cause it to be heard Isaiah x 30 . assí fós do thuc fandear an leabar ... do sgribad, L. Chl. S. § 51 . gur chuir A. fá deara na clocha ... do thógbháil, Keat. ii 6155 . do bheir fa ndeara orainn bheith coimhneathach, Stapleton's Catechismus 130 . à chur fa deara ar an bpobal ... an manna ... do ithe ib.

(c) DO-BHEIR FA D. observes, notices (a still later use): dá ttugdaois faderadh é go maith, do chifidis ..., Luc. Fid. 259 .

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