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Cite this: eDIL s.v. aidbsiu or


Forms: aidbsen, , aidbsena, aidbsina

n n, f. g s. aidbsen , aidbsena, aidbsina. Vn. of ad-fét.

(a) Precise meaning doubtful in follg. Perh. relating, reciting, setting forth (see also s.v. aidbse): ecis aidbsin .i. fili comgan bhís la righ, O'Curry 473 (H 3.18, 248). cia céda dar haisnédhedh tre uadh n-aidhbhsion?, Ériu xiii 38.24 . ar dlighidh in arduibh aidhbsion aireachaibh, 39.20 . cingidh adesa dlighidh fria dechmhaidh fria harda aidhbhsiona, 23 . In phr. tús n-aidbsen(a) of a privilege of the flaith geilfine: is é ní dliges inti dlegur d'airitniugud isin flaithes ngelfine .i. in cumal tsenorba ┐ tus n-aibsin ┐ tus n-urlabra the right to expound his views first(?), Cóic Con. 45 § 72 (`den Vortritt bei der Anzeige(?)') ( Laws ii 280.26 ) = tus n-aibsena, 16 § 3 n.8 . Note also: tathat lium dais logh sinnsir tus naidbsina, tus nurlabra, Laws iv 372.13 Comm. = tus naidhbdhen, ZCP xii 365.14 (see aidbden).

(b) showiness, ostentation, pride (see taidbsiu): d'éis bhainnse d'óigh d'ullmhughadh / ní cóir aidhbhse ar anmhuirear one should not be surprised at an excessive number, Aithd. D. 60.7 . atá d'aidhbhse ar Fhionn-ghualainn `F.'s splendour is so great', 18.20 . méad bhar n-aidhbhse is aithne dhamh / ar leith Mogha . . . `I see how excessive is your pride in L.M.', Content. iv 50 . aidhbhsin .i. taidhbsin, O'Cl.

1 airchetlaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 airchetlaid or


n i (airchetal) singer, reciter, poet: Ua ind ecis . . . aircetlaid maith e, Fél. 70.2 . a aircheatlaidh cacha rainde, O'Curry 1997 (H. 4.22, p. 28).

? comgan

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? comgan or


ind ecis aidbsin .i. fili c.¤ bhís la righ, O'Curry 473 ( H 3.18, 248 ). Cf. canaid?


Cite this: eDIL s.v. cuthchaire or
Last Revised: 2013


n [io, m.] us. translated trapper, hunter : īasciri cuthguiri etarpuigi, Ériu xix 83 § 16 . écis is cudchaire / ┐ mná glana gribda, LU 2882 ( BB 249a6 ). Coba cu[th]chaire Eirimon . . . Is e cétna ro indlestar . . . cuithigh `pitfall-maker', Dinds. 93 (cf. cuithe). feiss drūadh feiss cerda feiss cuthchoire, ZCP vi 258.20 . dibfergaig ┐ fodlaidi ┐ cudcaire, xiii 260.8 . ba cerd is ba c.¤ `trapper', Metr. Dinds. iv 122.4 . muinnter d' Eiremhon caem Cobha / cudc[h]airi do mill caeb cian, Ériu x 81 § 48 . in cuchaire thechta; ni thic chuici acht in fiad gairmeas, Laws iii 456.19 Comm. meracht a cuchaire, 23 Comm.

ba cuchtaire (c.¤, v.l.) ar chuanaib `kitchener', Metr. Dinds. iii 298.17 . cuthgaire Gainn ┐ Sengaind, LL 22234 ( SG ii 478.22 ). fo dáig feraind cuthgaire ┐ deogbaire, 22236 ( 25 ). brechta druad ┐ arad ┐ c.¤ ┐ deogbaire, 1059 . cornaire ┐ cuthbaire, 3746 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. decmaing or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: dĕggṁaing, decming, degming, decmaing, deacmaing, -gg, decmaic, decmaic, decmuic, decmuici, deacmaicc, deacmaic, deachṁaing, decmuccu, decmaicci

i, i.e. dĕggṁaing, adj. A -ng: decming, Wb. 14 b 4 . 17 c 7 . 21 a 13 . degming, 13 d 20 .— decmaing, LL 125 b 1 f.b. 251 a 30 . 277 a 36 . Ériu iv 108. 19 LL. Cog. 122. 10 (14th-century MS). O'Dav. 184 , 655 . TBFr. 150. 24 . deacmaing, Fél. Ep. 172 v.l. and late lexicographers (O'Cl., Lhuyd, P. O'C. , &c.). B -gg. Though not found in the Glosses, decmaic, as proved by Fél. Ep. 172 , existed as early as the late 8th century (cf. Oir. cumac). As the consonant-groups prevent the syncope of the second syllable, -gg has arisen by analogy. decmaic: Fél. Ep. 172 (= O'Dav. 184 , 655 . H 3.18, 541 ). O'Dav. 688 (old quotation). Laws iv 382. 3 f.b. (main text); v 276. 1 Comm. AFM A.D. 1516 . O'Mulc. 331 . decmuic, Fél. l.c. (v.l.). d s. Laws v 272. 9 (main text). d p. decmuici, Eg. 1782, 87 b . deacmaicc, O'D. Suppl. deacmaic, AFM i 56. 11 . O'Cl. O'R. As to O'R.'s deachṁaing, v. dechmaing supra.—INFLEX. All forms given above, where not otherwise marked, are in the n s.—COMP. decmuccu, decmaicci, BDD § 87 .

Latest instances noted: LL 34 b 1 f.b. , poem ascribed to Cuan Hua Lothcháin (†1024), and Cog. 122. 10 (11th-century composition). The word went out of use during the 11th century, and words like deccair, doccair, &c., took its place. Its occurrence in the FM is of no consequence.

ORIGIN: From †di-ecmaing, i.e. privative di- + ecmang, vn. of 1 ad-cumaing `it happens, takes place,' the o-stem passing into an i-stem in composition, cf. deccair, 1 deithbir, deolaid, díáirim, Díarmait, and especially the synonymous díing.

SENSES: A Definitions given by Ir. lexicographers:

(a) decmaic .i. ingnad ut est dobur cach decmuic .i. is dorcha gach ní is ingnad leis féin, O'Dav. 688 . deacmaing .i. iongnadh, O'Cl., Lhuyd. a wonder or surprise P. O'C. decmaic .i. is ingnadh nó is égen, gl. ad, AFM v 1336. 17 (O'Curry Transcr.).

(b) ding .i. decmaic, O'Mulc. 331 (YBL). H 3.18, 68 . As O'Mulc.'s Glossary is to a great extent based on Old- and early Mid.-Ir. vocabularies, the occurrence of d. in it is not against the statement made above as to the time when d.¤ became obsolete.

(c) decmaic .i. doilig, docamlach: dobur cach decmuic... is amail ní dorcha (i.e. dobur) gach ní is doilig, O'Dav. 688 . deacmaic .i. docaṁlach nó doilidh, O'Cl. Ir. MSS. Ser. ii 292 . O'Don. Suppl. (O'Rody).

(d) decmaic .i. síst a while, opp. dogrés, O'Dav. 655 , ib. 184 . Opp. dognáth, H 3.18, 541 (O'Curry's Transcr.).

B Meanings drawn from literature.

I †di-ecmaing, orig. that is not likely to be, to happen or come true, i.e. unlikely, improbable, impossible, strange . Only in this sense in the Glosses, translating Lat. mirus. Paulus apostolus ... et Timotheus frater .i. ... bráthir i nhiris. nípu decming cid i colinn, Wb. 14 b 4 . corruptibile hoc induere incorruptionem .i. is uisse intoichther a ndrúailnithe so hón nebdrúailnithiu. níbu degming donetad som a chorp fadessin issuidiu, ib. 13 d 20 . níbo decming rombed imthanad hi suidib (sc. isnaib grádaib nemdib), 21 a 13 . et non mirum ipse enim Satanas transfigurat se in angelum, gl. ní decming transfiguratio in apostolos , 17 c 7 .— fidh cain cin mecna mes ina dos decmaic .i. is decmaic mes do beith ar dos mana fuil freṁ aigi, Laws iv 382 3 f.b. (main text). decmaic le techt cuice she thinks it unlikely or impossible, ib. v 272. 9 . la bethaid a anmae la Críst...a beith slán ní decmaic with the life of his soul by Crist he is sure to be saved Fél. Ep. 172 , quoted twice in O'Dav. : .i. ní decmaing bias sláinte dó acht dogrés (v.l. dognáth, H 3.18, 541 ), Fél. Ep. 184 ; cf. ib. 655 . ó doléicter immasech cranna fianna for cach leth. nípo decmaic (-ait, facs.) casal cró for crand a duirnd Diarmató, LU 117 a 17 = LL 277 a 36 (d.-aing).—Here also the quotation: decmaic (.i. ingna) fer cen enech, O'Dav. 655 .

II Unlikely to be done, impossible or hard to do; impossible, difficult . Sometimes hardly distinguishable from I. —

(a) adj. nochon robai ní ba decmaic (-ach, MS) do dénam, Ériu ii 106.6 . becc nachimrala uathbás oc imcaissiu in trír sin. ní fail ní bas decmaicci, BDD § 87 (p. 75. 14). is tacair duit ni ḟorbara anfót do rád. is decmaing ón ol seseom, LL 125 b 1 f.b. is aire condegar chucut úair is decmaing because it is impossible, ib. 251 a 30 . TBFr. 150. 24 . ropo ní do dáil decming (: clainn), Ériu iv 108. 19 LL. cid decmaing déntar bar síd, Cog. 122. 10 . deacmaicc freasdol a ḟéile: ge ueith Éire dá thinnreaṁ, O'D. Suppl. (S. O'Mulconry).—Occasionally = scarcely : as decmaic má robái isin aimsir sin caislén dobadh crúaidhe cosnaṁ there was scarcely AFM v 1336. 17 (cf. A a supra). ba deacmaic don connall a ioth diomḟulang ina flaith the stalk could scarcely sustain its corn, ib. i 56. 11 . forellsid inn écis for mianuib decmuici ar dáig enich Gúairi do brith, 'desires that are difficult to fulfil' Eg. 1782 87 b = ACL iii 3.10 , ZCP x 381 .

(b) subst. something not likely to happen, something impossible or hard to do, an impossibility : dobur .i. dorcha nó doilig ut est: dobur cach decmuic .i. is amail ní dorcha gach ní is doilig, O'Dav. 688 . ben dofairged (sic leg.) ar decmuic (.i. ar choibchi ingnath nó doilig .i. lán duirn do deargnadaib, &c., Comm. 276. 4 ), Laws v 272. 9 , quoted by O'Dav. 655 . condat é tri decmainge in domain .i. tír aca mbí flaith do dílsi &c. , Laws v 426. 3 .

1 do-ella

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 do-ella or


Forms: doella, dilled, do-n-ella, dhella, ndillem-ni, -derellat, du-n-ellad, du-n-eltis, da-eltais, diellfa, dureill, doréll, doellsit, doelsat, dorellsat, direllsat, do-n-elltar, doellatar, duellatar, duelltis, dillithi, díall

v (* di-ell-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 510 ). Indic. pres. 3 s. doella, LU 4896 = TBC-I¹ 410 . Impf. 3 s. ní dilled , Enchir. Aug. 76a ( ZCP vii 482 ). Subj. pres. 3 s. do-n-ella, Sg. 114a4 . ní dhella , Leb. Cert. 192 . 1 pl. nad ndillem-ni , Ml. 106c4 . (with -ro-) -derellat, O'Curry 477 ( H 3.18, 248 ). Impf. 3 s. du-n-ellad, Ml. 83b6 . 3 pl. du-n-eltis, 78d6 . da-eltais, Sg. 75b3 . Fut. 3 s. diellfa, Rawl. 125b21 . Pret. and perf. 3 s. dureill, Ml. 54d8 . doréll, Trip.² 478 . 3 pl. doellsit, IT iii 240.169 . doelsat, i 74.2 . dorellsat, Ml. 36c22 , cf. 105b18 . direllsat, BCr. 37c2 . Pass. pres. s. do-n-elltar, Sg. 148b9 . pl. doellatar, ib. Subj. pres. pl. ma duellatar , Sg. 4b1 . Impf. pl. ma duelltis , Sg. 4b4 .

Vbl. of necess. dillithi, Ml. 29d6 . Vn. díall. See also díallaid. IGT Verbs § 80 .

I As intrans. vb.

(a) turns aside, deviates, bends: gl. deviare, Ml. 29d6 , 36c22 , 78d6 ; BCr. 37c2 ; Enchir. Aug. 76a ; diversari, Ml. 54d8 , 83b6 . Cf. tabraid lamdia chucaib . . . ┐ dellaid fria die Noe, Lec. 543a42 = delligh, Leb. Gab.(i) 10 . dellid fris an Coimdhe, ib. (cf. deiligidir?).

(b) Esp. in moral sense goes astray, errs, degenerates: adropart Noe . . . edpart . . . don Comdid | fri fégad cach druing dorhell, SR 2619 . mairg toichles in dagḟorcetul ┐ doeall i saeibe, LB 12 marg. inf. inda sacairt doellad priests who go astray, Mon. Tall. 134 . ? ni ellastar cloénchleir; doellar fo inmuilg `who turned aside under instruction', ACC 95 ( RC xx 272 ). gabhaid tuaristal ó thellach ná fill ┐ ná dell a Dia which has not . . . turned away from God, Leb. Cert. 110 . imsoa ria Teamhair-mhuigh, ní dhella do bhráthairsi `he shall not abandon it to his relations' (shall not swerve from, forsake?), Leb. Cert. 192 = nit-fella for brathairsi, LL 385b22 . doellsit iarum gumtar dā hsiabur they changed (i.e. for the worse) and became, IT iii 240 .

(c) do-ella for (with vn.) turns to, takes to (usually in bad sense): doréll for écnuch na Trínóti, Trip.² 478 = doraell, ACL iii 14 § 28 , cf. Lat. Lives 6 . forellsid inn ēcis for mianuib decmuici ar dāig enich Guairi do brith began to make exorbitant demands, ACL iii 3 . uair roscáich dóib fiadach in tṡlébe, doelsat for cethra fer nAlban do thabairt chucu, IT i 74 (do-rellsat, Eg.).

(d) doella for turns on, assails: doellasom forsin macraid sechnon in taigi, TBC-I¹ 410 . dofell ar cóerchu na bantrebthaigi, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 28 . o na fuair a daithin doḟeall ara oidi, Dinds. 148 = imsói fria haiti, LL 168b41 .

Note also: rotaisced a cuid proinne . . . ┐ doréll for cruime it turned to worms (became worm-eaten), Fél. p. 92 , cf. BNnÉ 300 .

(e) doella fri takes after, resembles: Eochaid Mogmedon . . . a bhruinne frisin rí[g] rodell, a mhedhon frisin mogh, Cóir Anm. 117 . nír deall re[a] ré sái ris-sin no sage of his time was like him, Ériu iv 224 .

II Trans.

(a) turns aside, deflects: gó ┐ peccad na ndaene dorelsat a nert ┐ a mbrigh asin talmain, ACL ii 136 . rathrian cach múir . . . | . . . radiall secharaile separated the three sections of the wall, SR 428 .

(b) Esp. as gramm. term declines; gl. declinare, Sg. 114a4 . in chruth do-n-elltar `mús', is samlaid doellatar monosyllabae , 109a4 , cf. 148b9 etc.

1 echlasc, echlaisc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 echlasc, echlaisc or
Last Revised: 2013


n f. (cf. ech-flesc, s. ech, compds.) a horse-switch ; some of the exx. suggest that being thrust into the ground, it was also utilised as a tethering post (cf. 2 echlasc): eachlasg .i. slat, O'Cl. echlasg, eachluisc (ón tslait), IGT, Decl. § 12 , § 13 . congnaid ech .i. aiten nó echlasc, Anecd. iii 43 (= echlaisg, Auraic. 4297 ). sadid eclasc ann ropu dos iarum, Trip. 158.23 . coica echlasc findruini co mbaccánaib óir ina lamaib, TFerbe 37 . cach bail roṡáid a echlaisc, TBC-LL¹ 2046 (= echfleisc, TBC-I¹ 1353 ). ro gab echlaisc di plied a horse-switch on her RC xiii 381.15 . MacCongl. 17.21 . flescbemnech na slat ┐ na n-echlasc i lámhaibh na laech oc gresechtlaighiudh na ndam ┐ na n-ech ┐ na n-assán, CCath. 1836 . IGT, Decl. exx. 554 . 584 . marcach an eich... | con echluisc ina leth-laimh, BCC § 338 . eachlasg fuinnsionn, ML 32.15 . SG 245.29 . bile sa barr bunchasda | idhe and is eachlusca IGT, Decl. ex. 553 . Of equipment of a poet: a(i)thgabál ecis: togt(h)ar inn echlaisc 'to distrain a poet: let his [poetic] stave (?) be taken away' Celtica x 78 § 7 . Of gestures, as sign of allegiance : a eachlusc dara gualaind do ríg Eóganacht '"his whip over his shoulder" to the king of the Eóganacht' Celtica vi 186.25 . ba iad gialla fhir an ionbhaidh sin a eachlaisc tar ais, LMuimhneach 98.18 . ba hiad gialla Dál gCais an-eachlasca tar a n-ais, 109.23 . pn As plant-name: reghia .i. eachlasca ban sithi .i. bernan muc, ACL i 334.47 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. éices or


Forms: éces, éice, t-eigess, écis, éicis, ecis, eiciss, eceis, eceis, ecis, egsi, éigse, éicsiu, ecsiu, éicse, éicseo, éigse, heicsiu, hexe, hexi, heicsi, hécseo, éces, eges, éigeas, eicsi, écsib, eixibh, éigsibh

n o, m. n s. éces, éice, Corm. Bodl. s. lethech . in t-eigess , Corm. Y p. 90.25 . g s. ind écis , Metr. Dinds. i 50.67 . ind éicis , Corm. Bodl. s. lethech . n p. ind ecis , Corm. Y, p. 91.7 . ind eiciss , p. ix 27 . and eceis, p. x 22 . an eceis , Dinds. 64 (v.l. in ecis BB. in egsi , Lec.). éigse TD 8.16 (but this may be collect.; cf. éicse). v p. a éicsiu hÉrenn, Ériu vii 220.10 . a ecsiu Fail, ZCP viii 105 y . a éicse Banbha, Metr. Dinds. iv 316.19 . a éicseo (: so) 316 z . a éigse , Keat. ii 1641 . a p. inna heicsiu , Corm. Y p. 93.2 (= inna hexe , p. x 14 . na hexi , p. xv 27 , inna heicsi , Bodl.). lasna hécseo , Metr. Dinds. iii 146.12 . g p. éces LL 128a1 = MacCarthy 166 . eges, Corm. Y p. 91.3 (= écces, p. viii z ). éigeas, TD 3.10 . d p. eicsi, Auraic. 2120 . écsib, Metr. Dinds. iii 104.9 . eixibh, ZCP viii 109.23 . éigsibh, TD 11.15 .

The word may be cognate with (do)-écci, and the original meaning is probably seer (see éicse), but though this would suit the context in many exx. it is commonest in the general sense of scholar, learned man, sage, poet ; often used as an equivalent of fili , but the latter is (in Middle and later Irish, at least) a more specialized term: eces .i. ecmacht-ces .i. ecmacht a ches d[o] airiuc i cetheora rannaib fis filidechta, Corm. Y 538 . fofuair clocenn ind oirci ┐ dobert hi ceist dond filid...tethnæ iarum in t-éces tre tenm laido conepert cáin, etc. cend moga heime inso, Corm. Bodl. s. Mugeme . eraicept na n-eiges (.i. na n-ai gan ches .i. na bfiled), Auraic. 2260 - 3 . la heigius .i. filid, 2794 . drecht d'écsib... cardáis tractad cech cetail, Metr. Dinds. iii 104.9 . laidh... is dir...d'éicsib ocus d'ḟileadaibh d'aisneis, MR 92.4 . éices ocus filid in rig .i. Dub Diad Drai a ainmside, MR 46.5 . écess óenmná `a sibyl' Ériu iv 100 . an t-eigeas, ML 22.13 = an draoi, 20.23 . an t-ord éigius `the bardic order' Ériu ix 164 § 14 . Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1919, 92 § 5 . Studies 1925, 403 . is iomdha leabhar sgríobhtha síos ag éigsibh ar éachtaibh Ḟinn..., Oss. iv 272 .

Of a member of a bardic retinue: in t-eigess di muinthir Senchain, Corm. Y p. 90.25 s. prull (= intecsine, Bodl.). coíca écces a líon cenmotha eixíni, Corm. Y viii z . ni ruc (Senchán) co Guaire acht tri chaegad éceas agus tri chaegad eicsín, Oss. v 38.6 .

As title after npr.: Senc[h]an eices hErenn uili, Corm. Y p. x 16 (= eges, p. 93.3 ). Seanc[h]an eiceas, file agus primhollamh Con[n]acht, Oss. v 32.9 . Torna éces, LU 38a22 . YBL 188b8 . do réir Thorna Éigeas, Keat. ii 5462 .

COMPDS. (a) éices-mac: in t-éigess-mac | dá ngoirthí Daighre Dúanach, Duan. F. p. 10 x . (b) éicsfili: budh iomdha...éigsḟilidh dá riar, Ó Héodhusa, Ir. Monthly 1920, 651 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. éicsíne or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: exine

n io, m. a learner of `éicse'; a student of poetry, a poet's pupil or apprentice: luid (Cruitene) do thig alaile écis ┐ a gilla leis .i. écsini side co menmain fithidrea, Corm. Bodl. (lethech) . filidh amra...eicsine laisidhe oc frithgnam, ZCP vii 305.10 . ro rathaigestar in t-éices mormenmain ind eicsine ┐ laget a frithgnama, Corm. Bodl. (s. lethech) . do p[h]romad ind eicsine, ib. O'Gr. Cat. 94. 17 . oc tuidecht écsi dia écsinib imparting wisdom to his pupils RC xxvi 12.9 ; 22 n. 9 . cóeca eices a llín cenmotha éicsiniu, Corm. Bodl. s. prull . int ecsine di muintir S., ib. = exine, Corm. Y p. xiii 21 . eigess, p. 90.25 . foric in n-écsíne oc múnud a aiciuchta, LU 11002 . airacept na neicsiné (v.l. na hécsene), IT iii 32.3 (part of first year's course). Cf. éicsín.

enechgreiss, ainechgreiss

Cite this: eDIL s.v. enechgreiss, ainechgreiss or


Forms: enechgris, enechgris, enechgressa, inechgreso, ainechgres, enechgrís, enechruice, enechgrisi

n n s. enechgris, Laws v 96.6 . a s. enechgris, FB 71 . a p. enechgressa, IT i 325.29 . inechgreso, 141.27 ; 142.21 . g p. ainechgres, Thes. ii 292.10 . enechgrís, rendering enechruice in commentary ZCP xv 348.21 . g s. enechgrisi ( Laws ii 204 x ) is apparently a distinct word, a comparatively late compd. of 1 enech + grís.

(a) an attack (direct or indirect) on one's honour, an attempt to humiliate, a slander (cf. 1 enech II): cultech ndemin...rugnith ar chiunn ainechgres a storehouse...made as a defence against slanders (i.e. filled with provender so that the host need never blush at lack of refreshment for his guests, cf. enechrucce B) Thes. ii 292.10 . forellsid inn ēcis for mianuib decmuici ar daig enich Guairi do brith, ┐ rofrestuil in Cuimdiu inechgresa in rig tar a chent the poets set themselves to demand impossible boons in order to take away G.'s honour, but the Lord warded off the attacks on the king's repute ACL iii 3.11 . forriuth a n-enech ┐ a n-inechgreso, IT i 141.27 . dofich uar n-inechgreso huili he avenges all affronts to your honour 142.21 . 325.29 . difichim a n-enechgresa ulie, ZCP iii 236.22 . Cf. engress.

(b) the compensatory payment due for an attempt to defame, the fine for an attack on a person's honour; ⅟21 of `eneclann': teora fodla fuil for inchaib duine .i. enicland ┐ enechruice ┐ enechgriss (.i. trian ┐ in t-aenmad rann fichit), Laws v 96.6 . teora eirce... .i. eneclann ┐ dire ┐ aithgin .i. eneclann ┐ enechruice ┐ enechgris, iii 26.27 Comm. arm bes fiu a enechgris do cach aen no ina aenmad rann fichet dia enechlaind `when they amount to each one's blush-fine or the twenty-first part of his honour price' ii 256. 12 Comm. (where the transl. takes the word as enechgrís). When O'Curry, Manners and Customs iii 471 defines enechgris as `a dishonour such as that of receiving stolen goods' he refers to the following: enechgris i n-innib foglad amal rogab set nach aili gatar as do thir na gaibter fort comairce no do snadug, H 3.18, 120 = enechgris a n-indaib ind foghla. is cubaidh iarom ind innalaill .i. ind érco i n-ind foghla, amail rongab: sēt nach aile gadar as do thir nat gaibe, etc. Corm. Y 533 (for: ind fogla see ZCP xvi 267 ).


Cite this: eDIL s.v. fechtas or


Forms: fechtusa, fechtais, fechtusaib

n u, o, m. (fecht)

I A journey, expedition (of a peaceful or warlike nature): décai dámsa ... co bbia mo ḟ.¤ how will my expedition fare? LU 4528 (= fecht-sa, TBC-I¹ 280 ). luid in fer a f.¤ , LU 11017 = Imr. Brain i 53 . cech fer teged dia tochmarc ... rogonta fer dia muintir; do dearbad in fechtais dognitea sin as a proof of (having made) the expedition RC v 202.18 . bid trúag in f.¤ fír-feirggisea this wrathful expedition LL 236b14 ( TTr. 1453 ). ? dochuaid dano C. cor fectais do a thaigsidi, Corm. Bodl. s.v. mug eme = cor fechtas, Corm. Y 883 . dolotar ... cor fechtas hi crich Lagen for creich, Hib. Min. 70.13 (= lotar fecht i tir L. for creich, 70.1 ).

II A turn, time, occasion (used like fecht, but less common): fechtas luid do thig alaile écis once upon a time Corm. Bodl. s.v. lethech ( Corm. Y 825 ). feachtus docuaidh Cir do triall forbuse i nEdail, IT iii 69 § 17 . do luid feachtus n-ann dar A., BDD 1 (fecht v.l.). fechtus dia mbui Eachaid hi Frémainn co ndernad oenach, IT i 128.14 . bai fechtas ic hingaire he was once herding SR 5714 . bámar-ni feachtus i m-mórdáil fer nÉreand, Ériu iv 138.22 . badus[s]a fechtus ┐ dail mor imum, MR 74.17 . f.¤ and tra fertha óenach la hUltu LU 3228 ( SCC 2 ). fechtus ann (= quadam die) Lat. Lives 110 . atbertsom fechtus ele on another occasion PH 3339 . ropo rí foraind fechtus n-aile t'athair once, formerly 4472 . fechtus do Adamnan ... oc imticht a conairi once as A. was going ... Cáin Ad. 6 . sain muinter cach la fechtus beress a tochell alternately Corm. Y 607 (cach la fecht LB). fri fechtus fadésin `in his own turn' Laws i 224.21 Comm. ar m'ḟechtus `in my turn' Metr. Dinds. iii 62 . g s. atharrach fechtusa eile another turn, once more Laws i 98.23 Comm. Adverbial g s. cacha fechtais no theigead, BDD 19 . pl. i tri fechtusaib at three different times Laws ii 266z . in lin fechtus teid forsin talmain the number of times it alights Ériu viii 123.10 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. fo-ella or


Forms: forellsid

v in B. na f. = 1 do-ella turns aside: pret. forellsid inn ēcis ... for mianuib decmuici the poets extravagated in desires hard to satisfy ACL iii 3.10 (but here it may simply = feccaid, q.v.).

1 in

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 in or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: int, -nt, -(s)int, int, na, inna, inna, in, -n, ind, in, ind, int, ind, int, int, ind, s-, -ss-, ocin(d), immin, immun, indá, dundaib, -b, -b, inna, na, na, in, in, na, ind, in, int, inna, na, a n-, a, a, -(s)naib, -(s)na, -d, na, inna, in, ind, an, an t-, in, int, ind, ind, a n-, in, mbúaid, a, in, ind, in, in, na, inna, inda, ind, indá, inna, na, inna, na, na, inna, na, ina, inna, na, in, -n, in, in, in, in, in, in, in, isin, isin, ind, na, in, in, na, na, na, in, in, na, na, na, an, na, ind

def. art. the. See GOI § 467 ff . Zeuss pp. 210 - 217 . Paradigm in O.Ir. Masc. Fem. Neut. Sing. N. in, int ind', in', int a n- A. in n-, -(s)in n- in n-, -(s)in n- a n-, -(s)a n- G. ind', in', int inna, na ind', in', int D. in' -(s)ind', ind', -(s)ind', in', ind', int, -(s)in', -(s)int, -(s)in', -nd', -n' -(s)ind', -(s)in', -nd', -n', -nt -(s)int, -nd', -n', -nt Plur. N. ind', in', int inna, na inna, na A. inna, na, -(s)na G. inna n-, na n- for all genders D. -(s)naib

The forms int, -nt, -(s)int are used before ṡ, except int of n s. masc. which occurs before vowels.

The forms na, inna g s. fem., n p. fem. and neut., and a p. of all genders, geminate follg. consonants and prefix h to vowels (but this h is very rarely written in O.Ir. Cf., however, inna hirise, Sg. 209b24 ).

Before the dual the art. always has the form in, -n except ind da la, Thes. ii 33.21 (Bv.).

The dat. forms without preposition, in, ind, int, occur in the formation of advv., see II (a) below.

Irregularities are not uncommon, e.g. ind for int, int for ind, etc. See Strachan, ZCP iv 62 - 3 and Zeuss, loc. cit.

The original initial s- appears only in the dat. and acc. after prepositions which originally ended in a consonant, with which it unites to produce -ss-, e.g. cossin n-óin, Wb. 2a21 . isin anmim, 9c30 . The s- does not remain after OC though this does not lenite a follg. subst. TRE lenites a subst. but the s- of the art. remains, perhaps through analogy. After FOR, which did not originally lenite, occur forms both with and without -s-, those with -s- being the more usual: forsin dígail, Wb. 1d2 . fornaib gnímaib, 5a5 . After prepositions originally and in O.Ir. ending in vowels both the initial s- and the vowel of the article are lost: ón bunud, Sg. 33b2 . dind insci, Wb. 5c16 . dont lathur, ib. With OC occur ocin(d) (so always in Wb.) and ocon(d); with IMM, immin and immun.

In medial position -nd- had become -nn- by the O.Ir. period but in a few archaic examples, -nd- is written: indá érrend gl. stigmata, Wb. 20d5 (a prima manu). inda fodb gl. exuias, Thes. ii 47.24 (see Thurneysen, ZCP iii 53 ). dundaib abstolaib, Thes. ii 247.12 (Camb.). dendibh Airgiallaib, AU i 178.8 (A.D. 726) . After prepositions the -n- is single even between vowels: cosnaib, frisna, donaib.

Occasionally even in the O.Ir. glosses the first syllable of the dissyllabic form is dropped, and this becomes the rule later: na teora persana, Wb. 9c30 . na cétne tuisten, 21b4 . na cetnae rainne, Sg. 18b1 . For other exx. see below. In the follg. instances from Sg., in (acc.) seems to have dropped out after -r and before a numeral, leaving an eclipsing n. etar ṅdi rainn `between the two parts,' Sg. 2b2 . etar ṅdá n-ulla , 45b19 . far n-óeṅdeilb `according to the same paradigm,' 90b2 . for n-óin ṅdeilb, 201b6 .

The forms in -d (ind, -sind, -nd) remain only before vowels and before lenited f, r, l, n and, in Wb., sometimes also before lenited m and b.

In forms such as dinab fochidib, Wb. 11b4 , dinab gabalib, 13d33 , arnab uilib cumactib, 21a13 , the quality of the final -b of the article is assimilated to that of the following initial. d p. forms without the final -b developed from such examples as donaballaib, Wb. 12b2 , huana fochaidib, Ml. 54a18 , hona mainénaib, 69c5 , where the final of the article became assimilated to a following initial labial. These forms, however, are still infrequent in the O.Ir. period. Three times in the glosses the n p. fem. and neut. form occurs as masc.: inna leomain, Ml. 80a10 . na tri recte, Wb. 29a16 . na sothe, Sg. 64a14 (see GOI § 309 ).

The art. is regularly sg. before collectives and personal numerals.

When an ordinal numeral adj. follows the art., in the older texts the inflection is regular: na dechmaide bliadna, IT iii 54 § 99. inna treisi dūalchae, ZCP iii 25.35 (but see 2 tress). inna cōicthe dūalche, 26.26 ; but later it varied, the masc. form of the art. being somet. used before a fem. noun: n s f. in ochtmad taidbsi, PH 6716 ; but cf. in cethramad taidbsi, 6702 . is í so in t-ochtmad plāg, 7653 . g s f. na hochtmadi oesi, 3582 . i gcionn an treas bliadhna, Keat. iii 1919.

The chief changes occurring in the form of the article in Mid.Ir. are

(i) The n p. masc. forms ind, in, int gradually disappear and are replaced by the forms common to the fem. and neut., inna, na.

(ii) By 1000 A.D., a n- in the n s. and a s. neut. has virtually disappeared, the only certain examples in SR being: a lleth n-aill, SR 5152 , a mbé, 5974 (see Strachan, Phil. Soc. Trans. p. 7 ).

(iii) -(s)naib in the d p. gives way to -(s)na.

(iv) the -d forms are less common.

(v) the monosyllabic na tends to displace inna.

In Mod. Ir. in, ind > an, an t-.

I Forms (divided into (a) forms from O.Ir. glosses, (b) forms from other texts).




(a) in fer, Wb. 22c9 . in corp, Ml. 22d9 . in ball, Wb. 12b11 . in senduine, 27b8 . int athir, 4b13 .

(b) int othrus, Críth G. 47. in sluag, LU 4563. in t-ara, 4507 . in cing, 347 . in fer, PH 92. in t-espuc, 25 . in slog, 7237 . an samhradh, TSh. 6345. an t-adhaltrach, 6482 . an ciste, 2951 .


(a) ind leire, Wb. 13d15 . ind nóibe, 9c30 . ind rún, Ml. 45a3 . ind fáilte, Wb. 16b2 . in fírinne, 9c30 . ind almsan, 17a3 . in ben, 22c9 . ind bendacht, 19b15 . in tol, Ml. 18c9 . in chiall, Sg. 27a8 . int ṡillab, 25a1 . cf. ind sillab, 26a4 .

(b) ind ḟlaith, Críth G. 573. ind ingen, LU 4525. ind rígan, 5205 . ind lánamain, 5403 . in tslige, 5077 . inn orcuin, BDD² 493. ind aimser, PH 5032. in eclais, 86 . in tslanti, 275 . in rīghan, ML² 45. an aislinge, 69 . an chiall, TSh. 985.


(a) a n-accobor, Wb. 3d3 . a mbás, 15b28 . a teg n-oiged, 4a7 . a ndede n-isiu, Ml. 62c3 . a laithe, 21c3 . a folad, Sg. 3a2 . a rrind, 70b7 . a nnu-iedniss, Wb. 15b2 .

(b) a n-ag, LL 112b31 (Sc.MMD). a n-ude, LU 4866. a llá-sa, 5039 . in laa, 5057 . a llathe, 9743 . a n-ainm, 6182 . in n-écosc, PH 6442. a sessed ngrad, 6246 . (Cf. in t-ochtmad grad, 6251 ). in ainm, 672 . in iach-lind, 381 . in ní, 897 . ind ni, 5251 . an ni, 6194 .


masc. and fem.

(a) frissin popul, Ml. 46b26 . trisin recht, 46c20 . in digail, 40c3 . in soscéle, Wb. 18c10 . frisin n-iarfaigid, Ml. 20c9 . in n-almsin, Wb. 16d7 . tresin n-aimsir, Sg. 188a26 .

(b) fón slóg, LU 4654. lasin n-íngin, 4522 . in domon ndron, 3566 . in mbelra, PH 2619. frisin ṅdeilb, 125 . in anmain, 2068 . romolsadar in t-ardrīg, ZCP v 25 § 10. ro gab naire in t-airdrigh, Stair Erc. 1135. gurab é Dia ... do-rinne an bás, TSh. 1052. an cheist, 2855 .


(a) a mbúaid , Wb. 11a6 . tresa n-acomol, Sg. 32a8 . trissa ndede-se, Ml. 123c5 . cossa laa-sa, Wb. 23a17 .

(b) isa tír, Imr. Brain § 62. a fér, LU 4733. lasa comérge, 4880 . isin n-ármag, 4943 . issa sudiu, 9080 . isi[n] sudi, 9082 . in n-aicned doennai, PH 179. in mboimm, 2373 .


masc. and neut.

(a) in betho, Wb. 1a3 . in cháich, 2b11 . ind lóge, 3c1 . ind rechto, 15a34 . ind fir, 13a12 . ind ḟolaid, Sg. 28b19 . ind apstail, Ml. 26a2 . int soirtha, 46b26 . (cf. ind senduini, Wb. 27b8 . ind ṡrotho, Sg. 35b7 ). int srotho, Ml. 93b11 . in tairmchrutto, Wb. 15b6 .

(b) in muilt, Críth G. 73. in tairb, LU 4610. in chon, 5013 . in pheta eóin, 5289 . ind ríg, 4757 . in rothclessa, 8844 . ind laí, 4858 . in locha, 9098 . ind athig, 4684 . ind fir, 4765 . in tṡeuin, 4508 . ind rig, PH 4365. an fhir, 1177 . in apstail, 1991 . ind ecraibthig, 6062 . ind imdibe, 5652 . in t-sacairt, 2508 . in slaníceda, 5146 . an fhedhma, ML² 20 . ind fhir, TTebe 1544 . and fhir, 2433 . inn eich, 2278 . en foulachtae, CMT² 60 § 133 . an bhrátha, TSh. 1014. an tsein-reachta, 404 .


(a) inna deacte, Wb. 5c16 . inna flaithemnachtae, Sg. 2a1 . inna aidche, Ml. 21c3 . na aimsire, Sg. 188a28 . inna hirise, 209b24 .

(b) na llongsi, IT i 77.3 . na mmucci, LL 112b43 ( ScM. § 8 ). inna conaire, LU 4710. na glassi, 4797 . na haidche, 9058 . ina óidche, PH 1490. na hindsci, 6213 . na colna, TSh. 947. na haithne, 1009 .

Dat. m., f. and n.

(a) isin chétne tuiste, Wb. 1a1 . forsind immarmus, 1d2 . dind fiur, 22c9 . dind failti, Ml. 21c3 . isin anmim, Wb. 9c30 . huant firinni, Ml. 57d8 . isind laithiu, 21c3 . dont lathur, Wb. 5c16 . isint saltair, Ml. 23c19 . isind salm, 50d4 . isin biuth, Wb. 12c16 . dind béstatu, 5c16 . don duini, 4b3 . dond macc, 7c13 .

(b) don chath, LU 4557. isin phupull, 4620 . iarsind frecra, 4772 . don tslúag, 4570 . don ṡlúag, 4748 . dond ríg, BDD² 99. don ríg, 85 . asind aimsir, PH 4928. isin eclais, 3181 . don tsacart, 3140 . assin sinagoig, 110 . asind lucc, 4099 . donn ītadhach, ZCP viii 215 § 75. don fhíréan, TSh. 1146. don pheacthach, 1137 . don tsaidhbhir, 954 . san bhioth, 832 . (cf. san mbioth, 837 . san Sabboit, 4114 ).




(a) in phreceptori, Wb. 5a2 . in chnamai, Ml. 22d7 . in pecthaig, 55d11 . ind rig, 85d10 . ind apstail, 42b7 . ind fir, Wb. 5a5 . ind ḟilid, Sg. 162a3 . int soirthi, Ml. 19b11 . inna leomain, 80a10 . na tri recte, Wb. 29a16 .

(b) na trí maccáin, Fél. Aug. 2. inna druing-sea, Fél. Ep. 285. (All other examples in Fél. follow strict O. Ir. paradigm, Stokes). inda sacairt, Mon. Tall. 134.11 . in doíni, TBFr. 55. na doíni, 306 . in maic, LU 4900. ind eich, 4733 . na heich, 5070 . in tṡlóig, 4609 . inn óicc, BDD² 896. na heóin, 142 . ind eolaig, PH 7313. in augtair, 6944 . na noim, 3649 . na hapstail, 1826 . inda hapstail, 5371 . ind apstail, 6720 . ind ēcis uile, Anecd. iv 93.10 (Corm.). na tri coicait, LL 114a29 ( ScM. § 21b ). na trenmilid, TTebe 4478 . na cinn, TSh. 73. na haidhmillte, 6088 .

fem. and neut.

(a) indá érrend (gl. stigmata), Wb. 20d5 (a prima manu). inna briathra, Ml. 22c5 . inna ancride, 27b15 . inna anmmann, Sg. 28b18 .

(b) na tigi, IT i 74.7 . inna buidne, LU 4685. na bai, 5398 . na cenna, 4806 . na mna, PH 4997. na créachta, TSh. 1013.

Acc. m. f. and n.

(a) inna fíraingliu, Wb. 9c10 . frisna preceptori, 14d37 . lasna fileda, Sg. 63b4 . na rúna, Wb. 12c11 . lasna anmmann, Sg. 51b10 .

(b) na firu, LU 4626. inna heonu, 5159 . inna echraidí, 4712 . na pecdachdu, PH 3619. na briathra, 3660 . na cóic ṡéotu, Críth G. 162. inna .vii. sa, 307 . na teasta, TSh. 6771.

Gen. m. f. and n.

(a) inna ndóine, Wb. 5c16 . inna fer, 7c8 . inna mban, 22c10 . na n-abstal, 18d14 . na sacardd, Sg. 54a11 . na conson, 9a19 . na forcetal, Wb. 16a12 . inna rrath, 15c3 .

(b) ina ndescipul, Hib. Min. 54. inna muccaide, LU 4670. na nGalión, 4648 . na fíren, PH 437. na ḟer (sic leg.), 1017 . na mbeo, 3648 . na n-ilberla, 5484 . airdena ana cóic la ndéc ria mBrath, RC xxviii 310 § 1. inna fer, TTebe 1845 . na n-ánrad, 951 . na bpeacthach, TSh. 991. na sácramainteadh, 1561 .

Dat. m. f. and n.

(a) donaib ballaib, Wb. 7d14 . donaballaib ailib, 12b2 . arnab uilib cumactib, 21a13 . dinaib fochaidib, Ml. 19b11 . isnaib consonaib, Sg. 9a22 . donab huilib doinib, 189b9 . forsna huilib remṡuidigthib, 212a13 . ocnafothaircthib palnacdib, 217a4 . honai gabalaib, Ml. 54b25 . donab nemindithib, Thes. ii 33.28 (Bv.).

(b) oconaibh insibh, AU 851. donaib Galionaib, LU 4659. dinib collaib, 4937 . dona druídib, 5061 . dina lecaib, 5889 (H). forna bochtaib, PH 3603. dona noemaib, 3620 . donaib maithib ┐ dona holcaib, Ériu iii 2.13 . fornaib coic cathrachuib, ii 140.5 . dona hōgaib, ML² 173. dona daoinibh, TSh. 968. arna heasbadhaibh, 973 .


(a) In the O.Ir. glosses, before the dual, the art. always has the form in, -n: Nom. m. in da fersin, Ml. 58a11 . f. in di bai, 2b11 . n. in da n-ainm, 34d6 . Acc. m. in da airdigtha, Sg. 77a8 . f. etir in dí ṡillaib, 59a17 . Gen. m. cechtar in da popul, Ml. 46b30 . n. cechtar in da leithe, Sg. 25b6 . Dat. f. isin dib bliadnib, Thes. ii 30.35 (Bcr.). n. isin dib desmrechtaib-so, Ml. 114b1 . ( ind da la occurs in the Vienna Beda, Thes. ii 33.21 .).

(b) Later the art. preceding the dual is sometimes na, but in remains more common: in dá erred (g.), LU 8057. na dá ech (a.), 8590 . na da ban (g.), 8375 . na dá Maine (n.), BDD² 106. in da gilla chétna (a.), TBC-LL¹ 677. túath in dá Maine (g.), BDD² 210. na da ánrath ┐ na da rind n-agha (n.), TTr.² 583. na dá n-ug n-urchoidech (g.), MR 110.4 . na dá neirrech (g.), Laws iv 336.16 . an dā rīg (na, v.l.) (n.), ML² 776. asna dib berlaib, Lec. 167d31 . don da thóisech, Ériu v 152.126 .

II Article used in formation of adverbs ( GOI § 251.3 and § 379 , § 382 . Zeuss 608 - 9 ).

(a) When nouns of time and manner are used adverbially in the dat. sg., they may be preceded by the article, e.g. in chruth as coir, Wb. 7b1 . in chruth sin, 7d16 . ind echt sa, 3a7 ; but cf. cruth ro pridchissem, 24c17 . inni rombatar riam hí tempul, Ml. 62b2 .

(b) In O. and Mid. Ir. the article (but see alternative explanation, GOI § 379 ) was used with an adj. in the dat. sing. neut. and with some participles in -de to form an adverb. The follg. list is illustrative only: in biucc gl. paulatim, Sg. 12b1 . in mór, Wb. 14b21 . in már gl. adeo, Sg. 8a2 . in deurb ` certainly ,' Ml. 70b2 . ind fír ` truly ,' Wb. 14c32 . ind ḟír, Sg. 106a5 . in demin gl. quidem, Ml. 37a13 . int soer gl. libere, 31b18 . int sainriud, 54a22 . in chomocus ` nearby ,' Sg. 188a19 . ind imdu gl. passim, Ml. 35b5 . in fortgidiu ` covertly ,' 30a3 . in chlidiu, 50c13 . in chotarsnu gl. e contrario, Sg. 17b9 . ind ulcc male, Hib. Min. 432. ind infholach secretly , PH 6085. in infholuch, 7998 . In a few exx. the form of the adj. is that of the nom.: ind utmall, Wb. 26b10 (but this form may also have been used for dat.). in madae, 19d16 . ind immdae, Sg. 26a5 . Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii § 419 explains this as being due to the similarity of nom. and dat. masc. and neut. forms in some adjj. Cf. also: in tsainrethaig, LU 5514.

With compar. and superl. of adjj. to form comparative advv.: ind ichtarchu gl. inferius, Ml. 24d30 . int serbu gl. amarius, 24c10 . in máam gl. primum, Wb. 1c20 . ind luindiu gl. commotius, Ml. 32d1 . ind feliu gl. uericondius, 58b1 . ind lugu gl. minus, 123c12 . in mó ┐ in mó, Trip.² 2108 , 2628 . in mor-mo, PH 3369 , 3605 . See GOI § 382.

(c) In the case of adjj. in -d(a)e (except imdae) and participles in -th(a)e (but see in fortgidiu, in chlidiu, above), instead of the dative a form in -id, -ith combines with the art. to form the adv. A few instances also occur of advv. formed in this way from substantives. From adjj.: in doracdid `in the Doric fashion,' Sg. 204b9 . in chorpdid gl. corporaliter, Wb. 27a12 . ind óindid once , Ml. 29a3 . int slanidid ` salutarily ,' 71a1 . in tuailngigthid ` deigningly ,' 78c1 . ind inchlidid gl. latenter, 100c7 . in tuasailcthid ` absolutely ,' 32d5 . From substt.: in mesid (<mess) gl. iudicialiter, Ml. 51c21 . ind frithoircnid (<frithorcun) ` offensively ,' 127c23 . in diglaid (<dígal) gl. ulciscenter, 62d3 . ind áirmith (<árim) ` numerically ,' Sg. 27a17 .

III Usage.

The article is always proclitic and is used before a substantive to express the definite character of that substantive unless this is already apparent either from the nature of the substantive itself, as in the case of proper names, or from some accompanying defining word or phrase, e.g. when the substantive is followed by a definite genitive, or preceded by a possessive adjective.

A Exx. of the ordinary use of def. art.: accaldam auctor ind recto `an address to the teachers of the Law,' Wb. 3c4 . risiu rocloammar in fogur `before we hear the sound,' Ml. 112b12 . intan labratar ind ḟilid `when the poets speak,' Sg. 162a3 . oc déscin na macraide, LU 4859. in trénfir ┐ ind láith gaile, 8104 . an cúigeadh cinéal, na mairtírigh, TSh. 4842. In: amal in scrissid .i. amal in n-altain n-áith `as a scraper i.e., as a sharp razor,' Ml. 72b8 , translate: as the scraper etc., regarding it as a type of instrument rather than a single instrument of its kind?

The article is used

(a) in the sense of each, every, also a single in such phrases as: ced fan fer, Stair Erc. 1471. 1532 . berad-sa anam a flaithess duit a n-agaidh an ruainde da fuil ad brat `for every thread in thy cloak,' BCC 358.14 . is assu duinni in fer cech laí andás a cét cach n-aidchi one man every day, LU 5622.

(b) sometimes with cách, when this is followed by a relative clause: ní lat in cách forsa mmitter `not thine is everyone on whom thou passest judgment,' Wb. 6b22 . úar in cách dodechaid úad, Trip.² 1198. congnamh lásan ccách nó chathaighfeadh dar cenn an chreidimh, AFM vi 2290.22 .

(c) with oen-, intensifying the idea of singleness: nabīd D. fut ind ṡamlāi oc breith na hēnbrethi `giving a single judgment,' ZCP xiii 179.1 . con-accai ni ... .i. in n-aenmnái for fertais in charpait, TBC-LL¹ 202. hespach do neoch a thríall acht dond oen ḟialluch, 415 .

(d) in speaking of two things (cf. Fr. l'un, Germ. der eine): focherded a líathróit ┐ focherded a loirg ... Níbo moo in band oldas a chéle one stroke was not greater than the other, LU 5006. timchillid a teach ón dorus colaile, RC xxiv 145.14 . dā ṡenrand ... dun rand díb ... don rund aile, Fianaig. 48 § 14 , § 15 .

(e) frequently, and particularly after verbs of seeing, before a noun which is logically indefinite to draw attention to it and to render the narrative more vivid (for an alternative explanation see GOI § 470 ): co facatar in tsentuinne they saw an old woman, Corm. Y 1059.43 . co n-acca ara chind in fer ┐ leth a chind fair, LU 4933. co n-aca Cú in n-ócben cuchi, 6082 . co n-acca in tech find, MacCongl. 67.12 . co n-accas na trí coícait ban co n-inaraib corcraib, TBFr. 258. rataiges in triar marcach dochom in tige, LU 6779. is and dosnarraid in fer máeldub, 6820 . doringni in mac bec in tres gním `eine dritte That,' TBC-LL¹ 1068. duscōtar īarum condusrulai isin mag n-ālaind co n-acatar an rīghrāith isin [maig], ZCP iii 459.18 . is iarum bert in Liath Macha na tri dergruathra, RC iii 181.36 .

(f) before nouns followed by the demonstratives so, sin, tall, ucut: in chrud sin, Wb. 13a6 . tarsin corp sin 15c16 . in teintide tall, ZCP v 25 § 7. isin tsalm tall, Ml. 58a11 . don mac so, BDD² 107. in tan sin, 130 . in triar ucut, 295 .

B The article is not usually used before

(a) personal names. In O. Ir. names of individuals take the article only when they are qualified by an adj. or a demonstrative, or when used as common nouns (e.g. á ṅIacob the name Jacob, Ml. 34d6 ): ol Duaid, Ml. 95d7 . mad la Cirine `according to Jerome,' 74d13 . ho Isaác, Wb. 4c7 . for érlam Patraic, Thes. ii 305.5 ; but: in Scip Emelendae gl. Emilianus Scipio Sg. 31a2 . in Caesar Octauienda gl. Octauianus Caesar, 31a3 . in Fiac sin, Thes. ii 307.3 . co tech in Dubthaig sin, ib. 9 . Exceptionally: Nabál sin slebi Carmil, SR 6307. In Mid. Ir. it is somet. used with anaphoric force: a n-Inis meic Uchen robai in Gartnan, Anecd. i 1.3 . in Cathal, MacCongl. 41.28 . iman Mormael, Ériu xii 190 § 23. do marbsad in tEochaid andsin, ZCP viii 274.13 . ba rí hi Temair in Fīachu Sraptine amal adrubrumar, 317.16 .

(b) place-names: i Corint, Wb. 14b5 . i nEgipt, Ml. 88a12 . téicht do Róim, Thes. ii 296.3 . co nōgaib Hérenn, 306.1 ; but: ind Róm fil hí Constantinopoil ... inna Rómae, Sg. 174a1 . In Mid. Ir. the article became more common particularly before a noun in the genitive, but the omission of the article was still much more frequent than its use: ind Eriu, LU 4042. íar sligi na Temrach, BDD² 131. do Themraig, 149 . fonaidm ṅgíall Temrach, 164 . sethnu na Hérind, 608 . i tír Hérend, 690 . i nOenuch na Crúachna, LU 2888. hi cathair Cruachna, 2886 . isin Taltin, 2894 . hi Taltin, 2896 . In Mod. Ir. some geographical names regularly take the article, e.g. an Fhrainnc, an Spáinn. Others sometimes take the article, but in the gen. only: Éire, i nÉirinn, tír na hÉireann. Alba, muinntear na hAlban; but cf. lucht cuarta Éireann, Dáil Éireann (Dinneen, s.v. Éire).

(c) names of peoples and patronymics: arindí atrebat Romáin and, Sg. 33a11 . atrebat Laitnóri and, 14 . di Romanaib, 33a10 . Romoldai, 31b4 . la Ebreu, Ml. 26c1 . di Iudéib, Wb. 27d4 . fri Saxanu, Críth G. 523. la hUltu, BDD² 977. do ríg Rómán, LU 6389 ; but: ind Romain, Sg. 31b5 . int Ṡabindai, 28a10 . forsna Egiptacdu, Ml. 96c11 . do choscc inna nIsrahélde, Wb. 5a16 . na nDéisi, Thes. ii 297.5 . in Galióin, LU 4656. co tríchait chét na nGalión, 4648 . The absence of the article would seem to be the earlier usage, cf. la Féniu (a phrase common throughout the law-tracts), Críth G. 125. chórus Féne, 588 .

(d) nouns that refer to things of which there is one only, or one outstanding example (these nouns approach in meaning to proper names): is samlid dano gniith demun, Wb. 21b2 . amal indocbáil dáe, 21a10 . as tualang deacht todiusgud Crist `the Godhead,' 13c15 . i tempul, 26a8 . hi fudumnaib talman, Ml. 40d16 . di chosecrad tabernacuil, 48b11 . gein maicc hua athair `the birth of the Son from the Father,' 85b11 . conapad firdía mac `that the Son should not be true God,' 21c12 . amal as toisegiu grián indáas laithe, 85b11 . o hescgu co grein, SR 113. o thosuch domuin, 517 . dochuaid diliu don domon, 2592 . co lluid trít co talmain, LU 5767. do diabul, PH 4889. nī dlig sāire ... i tūaith nā i n-eclais amongst the laity or in the church, Ériu i 218 § 2. roaithbeōaig Cairbri ō marbaib from the dead, ACL iii 225.v . Siuir agus Máigh ag gréin dá ngeimhliughadh, DDána 109 § 11. for fairgi, Corm. Y 1059.14 . fri tīr, ib. 15 . slánaigh le hóigh t'oileamhain `make good to the Virgin her nursing of Thee,' Aithd. D. 67 § 26.

Here belong the names of parts of the body: ho giun et ... hi cridiu, Wb. 5d14 . ind foisitiu i ngiun `the confession in the mouth,' 4d33 . a n-asberid hó bélib, 7d10 . a lleth o laim deiss `the half from the right hand,' Sg. 17b2 . risiu rocloammar in fogur hua chluasaib with the ears, Ml. 112b12 . anuas co imlind, LU 5780 ; but cf. intan citambí ind lám in terochraic, Ml. 36b1 . in geno gl. oris, 82c5 .

(e) a noun occurring in apposition to a proper name as a sobriquet: for Lomnae Drúth, BDD² 705. Suibne Geilt, Thes. ii 294.10 . for Tamun drúth, LU 6670. Cauland cerdd, 4975 . aided Redg cáinte, 5803 .

(f) the names of abstract ideas, virtues, vices, etc.; nachin rogba úall `that pride may not seize us,' Wb. 15d40 . is asse dúib maid do denum, 4a4 . inne maith ł uilcc, Sg. 39a32 . nephdenum neich di ulc fri nech dogní olc frit, Ml. 23c20 . dechair eter olcc is maith, SR 1255. erig, ... córu achāch duit mormenma, TBC-LL¹ 3978. ni rabi a samail ... ar maisse ┐ míne ┐ mórdacht, TTr. 621. ní fhuil nert agud gun techt lium, ZCP vi 48.12 . na ndenad (leg. denad) uaill na diumus, PH 4255. Exx. with the article are: ind huall gl. arrogantia, Ml. 51a11 . gl. elatio, 28a1 . frisin noibi ┐ in glaini, 98d2 . ised a nnert foirbthe imgabail cech huilc this is perfect virtue, 35d14 . immeradi a n-olc, 33d2 . a mundit[i]a .i. ōn gloine, Corm. Y 900. attach inísel ... tairnid in díumus `superbiam excludit,' PH 8035. sanntaiged in rig ... in fírinde, 4254 . ro coimnertaigiss an coir `thou hast strengthened justice,' Stair Erc. 429.

(g) a subst. followed by a definite genitive. (The article is used when the gen. is attributive rather than defining, e.g. á cenele ndoine, Wb. 5c16 . a llaa mbrithemnacte sin, 6b26 . forsa cenélae metir sin, Sg. 8a13 . in Briccriu Conaill Chernaig (name of a shield), BDD² 977. in Brug mna Elcmair, Ériu viii 175.9 . an Iodh Morainn, Keat. ii 3659. as an gCraoibh Dheirg Chonchubhair, ib. 3086 ).

The gen. is a proper name: ar iriss Crist, Wb. 25a10 . di doiri Babelon, Ml. 46b26 . ó Thuind Clidnai, BDD² 1087. la firu Hérenn, 123 ; or approaches in meaning to a proper name: precept soscéli, Wb. 1b10 . Exceptions are rare: in tṡlóig Herend, LU 4609. gol mo matharsa so ┐ na mban mBoine, TBFr. App. § 20 (= ... ┐ bantrochta Boínni, text).

The gen. is preceded by the def. art.: ar meinci inna indithme, Ml. 85d1 . ardlathi in betho, Wb. 1a3 . dar cenn ind Iudidi, 2a4 . tri hiris in cháich, 2b11 . fri bás inna clóen, Thes. ii 320.1 . for lorg in tslóig, LU 4782. lucht in baile, PH 49. In O. Ir. there are a great many exceptions to this rule but in Mid. Ir., comparatively few, and fewer still in Early Mod. Ir.: inna ndánae in spirito, Wb. 21c2 . in pian inna diglae, Ml. 28c19 . din chamull in diumsa, Tur. 60. in dluthe ind flechuid, Ml. 81c8 . in dán inna litredachte, Sg. 33a28 . an fír-thsochraidecht an bethadh suthain, Ir. Lit. 26.18 . leth in orba in athar, Laws iv 46.24 Comm. in prīm-cathraig mōrglain ... in dúnaid, MacCongl. 87.27 . an dara cuing an catha, Irish Texts ii 9 § 24. issind aurlaind in dúine, TBFr. 60. isin sinagoig moir na nEbraide, PH 48. na cuic cuicidh na hEirenn, ZCP xi 43 § 31. oc saigid na cána in domnaig, Ériu ii 208.15 . in mér medhon na láime clí, O'Gr. Cat. 270.29. in fer na tocla, TTebe 1601 . ingen in rig na nEberda, 4645 . In PH there are two cases where this rule does not apply (a) when the governing noun has a demonstrative suffix ¤sa or ¤sin, (b) when it is defined by an ordinal. Exx. (a) na scéla-sin in aingil, PH 2975. in rath-sa na n-ilberla, 5484 . cf. O. Ir.: don dlúim máir sin inna pecthach, Wb. 9d5 . in gnim sin in tengad, Ml. 31b24 . (b) in cetna mís na bliadna, PH 3516. isin tress uair ina óidche, 1490 . In TTebe, s.v. in , Calder notes that while a few instances of the double use of the article occur this is especially the case when the governed noun is followed by sin. The use of the double article when the governing noun is defined by an ordinal though very common is not invariable: cosin tres mac imlesan na hoensúla, BDD² 641. in treas rann sesgat ind uile, Laws ii 370.21 - 22 Comm. an tres gaisgedach na Tiabanda, TTebe 4879 ; but cf.: dorumalt Moisi ... | ann tresraind a aimsire, SR 3784. tres ṅdírime na tána, TBC-LL¹ 2656. i tres boin in brugad, Laws v 402.7 Comm.

The gen. is preceded by a possessive adj.: di foirbthetu for nirisse, Wb. 1a9 . lóg a pecthe, 1c3 . do thudidin do menman, 1c15 . do ind a oenláime, TBC-LL¹ 676. lín a teglaich, TBFr. 8. Exception: lasin flaith far mbretha ifos, SR 1215.

The gen. is defined by cech (Mid. Ir. cach), nach: du thuistin cech dulo, Ml. 85b16 . imfolang nach gnima, 80d2 . tri thesbaid naich baill, Sg. 5a5 . fo cosmailis nacha cat[h]rach, Hib. Min. 219. céol cach ḟir, LL 207a18 . cend cech ḟir díb, TBC-LL¹ 682. i tossuch cach dúnaid, 571 .

The gen. is defined by a further definite genitive: ó soilsi deachte Crist, Wb. 26a17 . irchre fla[tho] Román, 26a5 . co maithib fer nÉrenn, BDD² 1441. An exception is: dar fíartharsna in dunaid fer nÉrend, LU 6291.

C The article is optional before an ordinal adjective: isin chétne tuiste, Wb. 1a1 . cetnae accuis inso `this is the first cause,' Ml. 118d12 . co nómád n-aó `to the ninth generation,' Críth G. 327. cetna gnim gnisset, SR 4197. cethramad gnim, 4209 . (The omissions in SR are necessitated by the metre). Cf. in chethramad accuis, Ml. 118d18 . ón chétna duini, SR 7889. in tres gnim, 4205 . Cf. ll. 83 ff. col. 183 above.

D As a rule substantives defined by a relative sentence take the art. unless they are preceded by is é, conid é, is inunn, etc. (However, before words like airm, baile used adverbially the article is omitted: ría ríg Hérenn airm hi foí, BDD² 488. co ránic na díberga baili i rabatar, 647 . tancattar na hingena airm a mbói Hiruath, PH 905. bail hita a athair, 1380 ): dund óis nad chaithi cach tuari, Wb. 6c11 . a forcell doberam, 25d21 . isind huiliu labramar-ni, Ml. 31b23 (exceptionally: ra mbía ... carpat bas dech bess i n-Aii, LU 5587 ); but: is hé cruth inso áem no-s-messammar, Wb. 9c10 . is inunn chiall isindi as scit ┐ as nōuit , Ml. 114b1 . issí inne fil hi cechtar de, 114b1 . is he titul fil i ndreich ..., Hib. Min. 1. is é óencharpat insin nad foglentais dirmand na hecrada, LU 10177 - 8 . is tú láech as dech fil i nHerind, 5768 . is ed gen n-imarbága fil la firu Hérind, BDD² 1135. is é céadchrann tarla dhó, soileach, Keat. ii 2687. is é áit ar ghabhadar tír, i gCúan an Bhainbh, iii 5055 . is e recht ro buí isin Libia in n-inbuidh sin, Stair Erc. 1101. When the antecedent of the relative sentence is qualified by an ordinal the article sometimes occurs: fá hé Colum ... an céadduine do thógaibh mainistear i n-oiléan Í, Keat. iii 1344. ionnus gurab é an treas fear do chreid ..., ii 5372 . conidh e sin an cedcath do cuir Ercuil, Stair Erc. 966 ; but: gurab é C.C. céaddoctúir do chuaidh, Keat. iii 1347. is si sin cedmainistir caillech ndub ro buí isin Teib, Stair Erc. 890.

úa, óa, ó

Cite this: eDIL s.v. úa, óa, ó or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: hau, haue, hauc, hua, hú, úa, óa, hūä, ua, au, aua, hue, hUae, O, hoa, hUa, ua, Ua, , Oa, U, ua, húa, ūë, haui, hu, hú, ú, o, hai, hui, hua, uí, ūï, au, hoi, hui, Í, u, huu, h, uu, Oa, Ó, Ua, hU, U, ua, Ú, Ó, ua, Ó, háu, aui, Ui, Huí, Uí, U, Oi, hu, Ui, Í, hue, Ú, Húu, Úa, Á, hÚ, auu, u, hU, Ou, U, h-Ua, U, Hua, Óe, Óe, Óa, O, Oa, , hUe, huae, huae, u, hU, ó, aui, Uíb, Uib, hUíb, I, uaib, auib, Oai, uib, Oib, hUib, auae, ua, ua, huae, aeu, úa, úa, haue, U, Ui, Uí, Huí, Huí, Ui, Uí, Huí, Ui, auu, Aú, Uu, Úu, Úu, Úu, hÚ, Úu, Úa, Húu, Úu, Ua, Ua, Ua, Óa, Ua, Hua, Úa, Úa, Óa, Óa, Óe, Úa, Óe, nhUib, Huib, nUib, nUib, Uib, nOib, Ib, Uíb, Uib, hUíb, Uíb, .h., O, hU, Ó, Ó, Ó, Í, Ó, Ú, Ó, Ú

n (earlier aue) io, m. (somet. f. see IGT, Decl. § 98 and exx. below):

n s. hau, Sg. 29a10 . haue (hua, hoa, hue, v.l.), Fél. Feb. 8 . hauc (hua, ua, huae, v.l.), ib. Apr. 11 . hua, SR 2754 . 3866 . hú, Trip.² 958 . úa, 2522 . óa, 2533 . hūä, Hail Brigit, § 6 , § 22 . ua, Laws ii 330.16 Comm. PH 4298 . au, AU 646 . aua, 744 . hue, 780 . hUae, 767 . O, 762 . hoa, 795 . hUa, 617 . ua h-, 919 . Ua, TD 34.30 . , TD 34.1 .

a s. Oa (eclip.), AU 948 . (for) U , 1024 . v s m. a ua , TD 22a14 . v s f. a húa , SR 6006 . a ūë , Hail Brigit § 26 (where ūë is a disyllable).

g s. haui (hui, hoe v.l.), Fél. May 16 . hu, SR 3006 , 3110 . hú, Three Historical Poems 202 q. 38a; 206 q. 50b . ú, LL 1403, 17349 . o, Trip.² 3058 . hai, Laws v 512.2 . hui, i 182.26 Comm. hua, ib. 156.29 . uí, LL 147a4 . ūï, Bruchst. i 53 § 117 . au, AU 706 . hoi, 675 . hui, 653 . Í (asp.), TD 28.40 .

d s. u, Laws i 274.10 Comm. (dia) huu , BB 440a21 . h, AU 617 . uu, 810 . Oa, 912 . Ó (asp.), 1038 . Ua, 1012 . hU, 1039 . U, 1053 . ua, TD 6.3 . Ú (asp.), 15.44 . Ó (asp.), 17.30 . ua (eclip.), 21.28 . Ó (eclip.), 31.12 .

n p. háu, Sg. 30b12 . aui, ib. Ui, Trip.² 2117 . Huí, 2147 . Uí (asp.), 2336 . U, Laws v 218.30 Comm. Oi, AU 840 . hu, 769 . Ui, 1037 . Í (asp.), TD 16.52 . (ind) hue , Auraic. 5146 (LL). uea, 5151 .

a p. Ú, Trip.² 2156 , 2205 etc. Húu, 1185 . Úa, 2379 . Á, 1540 . (la) hÚ , 716 . auu, Thes. ii 241.6 (Arm.). auu, AU 742 . u, 589 . hU, 666 . Ou, 849 . U, 743 . (la) h-Ua , 811 .

g p. U, Trip.² 2025 . Hua (eclip.), 2178 . Óe, 2125 . Óe (eclip.), 1915 . Óa (eclip.), 2211 . 1091 . O, AU 740 . Oa n-, 794 . , 881 . hUe, 771 . huae n-, 648 . huae, 646 . u, 644 . hU, 736 . ó (eclip.), TD 8.16 .

d p. aui, Sg. 28a20 . Uíb, Trip.² 2191 . Uib, 2202 . hUíb, 2272 . I, Laws v 264y . uaib, PH 4246.4249 . auib, AU 756 . Oai, 789 . uib, 562 . Oib, 819 . hUib, 913 .

n du. da auae , AU 743 . da ua , 780 . a du. da ua , 776 , da huae , 817 . g du. da aeu , 571 .

A grandson : úa m., IGT, Decl. § 108 . ūa .i. oo ē oldās in mac ┐ in t-athair, ar is tōisechu mac et athair oldās úa, Corm. Y 1277 . haue (gl. nepos), Sg. 29a10 . háui ... aui, 30b12 . do maccaib ┐ auib, 28a20 . haue (hua, ua, huae, v.l.) ... | do Dunlang, Fél. Apr. 11 . m'athair ba húa do Abrám, SR 3302 . Sennar mac Sem ... | hua do Noe mac Lamiach, 2754 . hua Iobe ... | dorinnscan bathis, 7497 . dá mac dec sin ... | Iacoib hui Abaráim, 3006 . Cf. 3110 . gabais hÉrinn hūäe Luirc, Hail Brigit § 6 . hūäe hūäe, ib. § 22 . Dungalach mac Faelgusa | úa Nad Froích fír, Trip.² 2522 = Trip. 214.3 . bá húa Coirpri mallachtai baí inna brú, 958 = Trip. 86.25 . Soergus óa Mail E., 2533 . athair ┐ mac ┐ ua, Laws i 214.5 Comm. mac flatha, ┐ ua araile, ii 330.16 Comm. is anad a mic ┐ a hui for treisi, i 182.26 Comm. im cinaid ... do huai, ib. 156.29 . ni hicca cinaid a mic, nach a hai, v 512.2 . cethruime eneclainne i n-ua, i 274.10 Comm. curub si bes for a mac ┐ for a ua dogres, v 292.3 Comm. ni ren int athair ni sech macu, sech ua grandsons , iv 286.8 . beit a macc ┐ a ua i n-a chomorbus, PH 4298 . millid [flaithius] im a maccaib ┐ im a uaib dia essi, 4246 . bruidhean núa gá dénaimh dhó | méraidh dá úa is dá íarmó, IGT, Decl. ex. 1800 .

A granddaughter : úa f., IGT, Decl. § 98 . cid daas in chaillech ? ól P. ... óa dam-sa sin, ól ind oclach, Trip.² 267 = Trip. 28.19 . ua da hathair, RC xii 237.6 ( LL 136b ). ua do Candí ingen Berrsan, BB 230b21 (YBL however has: is uad Coindi). Derb-áil deg-úa Áeda Oirdnidi, RC xlvii 311 ( LL 141a1 ). Dub Daire úa Tigernaig, Mórthimch. Erenn § 56 (ed. Hogan) . v s. a ūë Bresail maic Dēin, slán seiss, a Brigit co mbūaid !, Hail Brigit § 26 (ūë is a disyllable here. See Wortk. 124 ). a Míchol mer ... | a húa engach Athemas, SR 6006 .

Of a swarm of bees: in baili a nabair 'secht saithe' tall is amlaid rosoich: cetsaithi ┐ a mac ┐ a ua 'the place where it says 'seven swarms' above, it extends thus: the first swarm and its 'son' (i.e. secondary swarm) and its 'grandson' (i.e. tertiary swarm)', Bechbretha 184 (c) ​​​​​.

a male descendant : haue (v.l. hua, hoa, hue) án ind ecis , Fél. Feb. 8 . féil án haui (v.l. hui, hoe) Súanaig, ib. May 16 . haue deochain Odissi (hóa v.l.), Hy. ii 4 . aue Muiredaich ... | ... | aue ..., Thes. ii 295 10 - 11 . Adamnán óa Tínni, Trip.² 3059 = Trip. 256.12 . Ultan mac oí Chonchobair, ib. 3058 = Trip. 256.12 .

a female descendant : banua Í Ruairc bhuig bhronntaigh, | deaghua Í Néill is Í Bhriain Bhreagh 'descendant of lavish, generous Ó Ruairc, this goodly descendant of Ó Néill and of Ó Briain of Breagha', O'Hara 286 § 6​​​ .

a spiritual descendant , e.g. a man ordained by Patrick is P.'s úa : bid limm, ol Pátraic, cena .i. úa dam-sa ┐ duit-siu bías and .i. epscop Coirpre, Trip.² 1942 = Trip. 166.18 . Patraic dano dorat grada for epscop Brugach, conid úa do Patraic asin dúal sin, ib. 1946 = Trip. 166.24 .

In the phr.: gusin nomad nó as far as the 9th generation (see 4 nó): itir clainn ┐ geinelach | cusin nómad n-ó, O'Dav. 547 = gusin nomad no, ACL iii 315 n. 21. 4 .

pn In the formation of sept-names the plural of úa is found folld. by the gen. of the eponym, e.g. Ui Néill, Ui Fidgente. Accord. to Professor Mac Neill these belong to a later fashion of nomenclature than collective-names (see McNeill Pop.-Groups p. 82 seq.). `In the genealogies, but not in general usage, there is a partial revival of sept-names in Ui, probably in the eleventh century, perhaps due to professional familiarity with the early nomenclature.' The eponym can be feminine. e.g. Ui Bairrche, Ui Brigte. Professor MacNeill knows no instance of a sept-name derived from a female ancestor within the documentary period. He thinks that the feminine sept-eponyms had a religious, not a genealogical, import. The follg. exx. are illustrative merely: n p. U Barrche (Oe Barche, v.l.), Thes. ii 307.4 (Fiacc's Hymn). Ui Failge, ib. 344.36-7 (Broccán's Hymn). Uí Chúanach, Trip.² 2336 . Huí Failán ┐ Huí Duib Dáre, Trip.² 2787 = Trip. 234.28 . Ui Tarrorrae, Trip.² 2117 = Trip. 180.21 . Uí Lilaig, Trip.² 2144 = Trip. 182.22 . cf.= Huí Lilaig, Trip.² 2147 . amail atait Ui Ceindselaig, Laws v 218.30 Comm. a p. la auu censelich, Ardm. 11 ( Thes. ii 241.6 ). la Aú Amalgada, Trip.² 1540 . fri Uu Ailello, 1051 . la Úu Censélaig, 2220 , 2260 . la Úu Cremthain, 2251 . la Úu Cúanach, 2320 . la hÚ Dortháin, 716 . for Úu Hercán, 2205 . cu Úa Fidgente, 2379 . itir Húu Mane, 1185 . Úu Néill, 3013 . coro bendach Firu Cúle .i. Úu Segain, 2156 . g p. (i ndesciurt) Ua Censelaig, Thes. ii 341.35 (do rig) Ua Culduib, 347.35 cf. 37 . i crich Ua Néill, 329.38 . Ua Briuin, Trip.² 2025 . Óa nAilello, 1091 . Ua Cremthaind, 2039 . Hua nGarrchon, 2178 . Úa Lilaig, 2151 . Úa Méith, 2114 . 2129 . Óa nErecán, 2211 . Óa Fiachrach, 1597 . Óe Méith, 2125 . Úa Folgi, 2574 . Óe nDarca Chéin, 1915 . d p. hi nhUib Amalgada, Thes. ii 313.46 . a Huib Briuin, ib. 334.39 . i nUib Failge, 329.36 . Cf. 336.42 ; 338.28 . i nUib Garchon, 312.37 . d'Uib Lescain doib, 343.26 . i nOib Muredaig, 342.20 . i n-Ib Conaill Gabra, Laws v 264 y . do Uíb Garrchon, Trip.² 2191 . di Uib Hercán, 2202 . for hUíb Censélaig, 2272 . di Uíb Bresail, 2782 . In Classical Irish, petrified d p. is used for n p., a p. and g p. of sept and territorial names: Foráois na horcra Íbh Eathach, Bardic Miscellany 248 . do loisg tú ... Íbh Ethach, Ériu lxiii 122 . feólfhuil uíbh Néill, Éigse xiii 218 § 29 .

Surnames in Ua commence to be used in the 10th century: Comaltan H. Cleirigh, AU 980.6 .

pn In surname (used as title): .h. Ciardai, AU i 470 z (an. 953) . O Ruairc, ib. 470 y (an. 953) cf. an. 964. o hU Ruairc, ib. 506.1 (an. 998) . n s. Ó Néill, TD 7.6 etc. Aodh ... do ghabháil ríghe ... bliadhain is fiche ina Thigherna, ina Ó Néill, agus secht mbliadhna 'na iarla tar éis Ó Néill do ghairm de, L. Cl. A. B. 38.9 - 10 . Máire, inghean Chuinn Uí Néill dar goireadh Ó Néill i nÉirinn, 53.29 . Cf. 35 . Ó Doma Í Dhomhnaillhnaill, ib. 41.26 . Ó Súillemháin, 39.20 . v s. a Í Dhomhnaill, TD 2.34 . a s. dlighidh ... Ó Néill do chonnmháil an fad as áil leis, L. Cl. A. B. 43.26 . g s. Tighearnus Uí Néill ar Chóigeadh Uladh, 41.2 . gnúis ... Í Néill, TD 7.43 . file Í Dhomhnaill, 3.10 . d s. d'Ó Néill, 8.19 . d'Ú Néill, ib. 36 . d'Ó Dhomhnuill, 15.6 . d'Ú Chonchobhair, ib. 44 . Diarmaid ... 'na Ua Conchubhair nDonn, L. Cl. A. B. 2.16 . Tadhg Óg ... ina Ua Conchubhair Ruadh, ib. 18 .