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aithgein,

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aithgein, or dil.ie/2656

 

Forms: aithgin, -ene, -ine, -ena, -ina, aithghin

n. vn. of ad-gainethar. Also aithgin. g s. -ene , -ine, -ena, -ina. aithghin f., IGT Decl. § 13 .

(a) rebirth, regeneration: ? ba hed aithgin ṁbetha `rebirth of the world', Fél. Ep. 240 . comdis ellma . . . fó athgin in erruigh archinn by the following spring, CCath. 169 . tucusa gein ┐ a.¤ duit i.e. enough and to spare, Acall. 7813 . In religious sense (of baptism): in baisted .i. in a.¤ , LB 257b73 . tria aithgin a mbathis, PH 3812 .

(b) likeness, equivalent. With gen. the like of: athgein hūi Luirc the like of O Larc, Ält. Ir. Dicht. 41 § 32 . is uád fessin no bíad a athgein i.e. a warrior such as he could be born only of him (of Cú Chulainn), LU 10167 . th'aidgin-siu a warrior like thee, TBC-LL¹ 4050 . Art Aoínfhear bhur n-aithghin-si you can be compared only to, O'R. Poems 31 . ríg-athgein meic Airt Óenḟir / ní fríth, Metr. Dinds. i 36.104 . ag iomfhuirech la haithghin an dúin bai ann roimhe do thurccbháil, AFM vi 2210.10 . a aithghin oile do ingrinntidh, BS 63 . With DO: aithghin do Eochaidh Mumhó, ML 22.4 . Note also: as nach féidir ál acht aithghin `thence there cannot issue a brood unlike the parents', Ó Bruad. ii 62 xxviii . úir Pharthais nó a haithghin í paradise or something very like it, TD 11.10 . aithgin .i. cutruma, ut est: nicon tarla a mBoinn riam ná iarom a n-aithgin .i. nichor teilgus tar in Boinn roime ná 'na degaid a cutruma ima mét, H 3.18, 62a7 ( O'Curry 80 ).

(c) analogy, comparison: imtha an a.¤ . . . lemlacht la mac . . . imtha samlaidh ben la fer, Leb. Gab.(i) 30.5 . gurab fíoghair ┐ aithghein don tsacraimint so an plúr neamhdha, Eochairsg. 70.10 . aithgin don chomhnaidhe symbolum . . . quietis, TSh. 5287 .

(d) Legal. Technical term translated `restitution', `compensation', Laws; `Rückerstattung oder Ersatz in gleichen Gegenständen', Thurn. ZCP xiv 346 ; `restitution in kind, equivalent', Críth Gabl. The meaning restitution or compensation to the full value of that which has been lost, damaged, etc. is implied by a number of exx. from the text of the Laws: scarait amail condrecat; in da beir cach lais cusanaile, a marthar de issed beres lais fri himscarad, na (nó?) aithgin dia torad muna marathar `an equivalent of its produce if it is not living', Laws ii 394.26 . is aithgin muna marathar feib ro ratha, cen fuilliud leo, 338.18 `Ersatz (der Werte)', ZCP xiv 392 . aithgin do flaith acht trian facaib dib, Laws ii 318.5 ( ZCP xiv 385 ). díre a ṡabaill cóic ṡéoit ┐ aithgein co nneoch robronntar and making good of any damage done, Críth G. 244 (co neoch = neich, Notes). aithgin somaine, Laws ii 332.10 ( ZCP xiv 390 ). trian naithgina ar mifagbail, 56.19 (cf. the smaller subdivisions in follg. Comm.). Also prob.: aithg[e]in tuige making good the thatch, Críth G. 213 . dírech n-imda[e] . . . diam tochur tar cenn, sét ind ┐ a.¤ , 233 . óg n-innraic n-aithgena, 275 `a perfect fullness of equivalent', notes. cach a.¤ iar n-indrucus every `a.¤' in full(?), ZCP xvii 59 § 76 . Note also (Comm.): ba trom re dainib a naithgin ┐ a tintud for culu (of restoring perishable pledges), O'D. 950 ( H 3.17, c. 664 ). aithgin ngnima ro leic in brathair ar a ceili, Laws i 128.9 Comm. (of work carried out on behalf of another). In literary texts: aithgen in t-sheoit fén, PH 7561 . a ṡeacht n-aithghine d'ḟagháil, TD 9.17 . Distinguished from taisec in Laws text: ni faid nech na seotu so cin naidm a taisic no aithgina `without security for their restitution or compensation' (of things liable to be lost or destroyed while on loan), Laws v 278.7 . (`taisec restitution of the actual article, a.¤ the payment of an equivalent', Plummer MS. notes. Cf. taisic .i. cia mairit . . . aithgin .i. muna mairit, Laws v 278.11 Comm. At Laws v 402.19 Comm. taissecc is glossed .i. aithgena). In follg. classed as an `éraicc': cetheora eirca . . . aithgin ┐ dire, etc., Laws i 258.26 . ? Cf. cach diri iar n-aithgenib id laim bodein, ZCP xvii 58 § 75 . The a.¤ could be doubled: ni teid aithgin tar diablad, Laws v 448.17 . ? [dl]igur taisiuc diabul aithgina, ii 80.8 . cach n-aninraic n-anfoit cona diablad aithgene, ZCP xiv 346 § 7 ( Laws ii 232 ). diablud naithgina nech robriathra (leg. -ar?), Laws ii 68.11 . Various: aithgin mblechtai, Laws i 168.5 . fidbretha . . . a naithgin for uin, 182.2 . aithgin gach edge, ii 54.13 . ni lais dire a seoit, acht colainn aithgena nama `das Corpus (der Gegenstand) des Ersatzes' (of a `fuidir'), Ir. Recht 63 § 1 .

In Comm. often treated as name of some kind of fine or mulct. Cf. in the passage in Laws iv 146 ff. the elaborate distinction drawn between díre and (the smaller) a.¤ with regard to different categories of trees. Here a.¤ means `only a diminished amount of fine' (Laws Gl.). Somet. of one of the seven `cumals' which make up the `corpdíre' (wergild) the remaining six forming the `díre', Thurn. ZCP xv 356 , Binchy, Ériu xii 99 . Cf. cumal aithgena, ┐ cutruma . . . do na sé cumala[ib] dire, Laws iv 244.24 Comm. ben tēit di thairr a cāin lānamna, slān cen dīri [no] aithgin i.e. the husband is not liable for `corpdíre', ZCP xv 355 § 43 Comm. Note also: bo a ndire cach ae ┐ ní thuc a naithgin ar aird he does not mention their compensation (of the liability incurred by mutilating certain trees), Laws iv 148.8 Comm. In the follg. there is no indication as to the exact sense: i n-aís ícca aithgina, i 98.3 Comm. ar in athgabail gabar im aithginib na con sin the compensation for each of these herding-dogs, 144.9 Comm. gl. im conbuachaill cacha cethra, 126.8 . nocho nícctar acht certaithghin ris ón fhlaith, O'D. 908 ( H 3.17, 648 ) (Comm.). seachta cach aithgheana every restitution sevenfold, Leb. Cert. 140.1 , see Ériu xvi 182 § 29 .

áru

Cite this: eDIL s.v. áru or dil.ie/4349

 

Forms: áraind, arainn, árann, áirne, Árne, airni, airne, Aru

n n, f., but gender not well attested. n du. di áraind , Ériu iv 152 § 32 . g du. da arainn , Laws ii 238.24 Comm. Pokorny, KZ l 46 ff. postulates an orig. ā-stem árann and connects with áirne. Note g s. Árne, Fél. March 21 . airni, Laws ii 238.y Comm. n p. airne, Laws iii 354.16 Comm.

Kidney: á.¤ gl. rien, Sg. 96b4 . cum renibus .i. cusnahairnib, Gild. Lor. 175 . rén .i. ára, Ir. Gl. 1011 . lapifulta .i. lécc in árain, 246 . leighes bhrisis cloch na náronn (gl. lapis renum), O'Gr. Cat. 209 § 9 . do inntó se a airne ris in croich, Smaointe B. Chr. 4008 . a cressa dar a n-áirnib, PH 5103 . ic sadhadh a slegh . . . ina n-airnip, CCath. 5756 . co n-deachaidh [an lamh-gai] is in arainn, MR 286.2 . is me teid a nairnib na nadaltrach (spoken by a fiend), Laud 610, 8b (cited from Plummer MS notes). is amlaid atá Temair ┐ hUisnech . . . amail bit a di áraind a mmíl indile, Ériu iv 152 § 32 . doigh ag iomghoin ar mh'árainn, DDána 77.10 . ar chéibh dtigh go hárainn n-úir `in her thick mass of hair reaching to her fair waist', Magauran 994 . ó na hairnibh gonuige na slíasta, Exodus xxviii 42 . laim risna hárannuibh, Levit. iii 4 . Of sexual organs: áirne toile .i. magarrla, O'Dav. 159 . cum genuclis .i. cus na hairnib toli no cusna farclib glun, Gild. Lor. 183 . na hairne toile ┐ in toil-feith, cid be dib bentar ar tus, Laws iii 354.16 Comm. ma ro ben auptha . . . a tolfeith don fir no airne toile don mnai, O'Curry 674 ( H 3.18, 329 ). ? airned a gail(i)e, RC xii 84 § 85 . Note also: ní cúl rinn áradh is cóir `love and truth protect me not', Ó Bruad. ii 162 § i (árach?).

In comic n. pr. meic hítha, meic ārand, MacCongl. 33.21 .

As n. loc. Aran: macc Commain a hÁrainn, Fél. Nov. 21 . a Maig Ene, a hAraind, Ériu iv 146 § 24 . Aru name of a hill, Fél. 244.6 . See Hog. Onom.

baléne

Cite this: eDIL s.v. baléne or dil.ie/5297

 

Forms: -éne

n given as ex. of diminutive in -éne , Corm. Y 1301.

bélrae

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bélrae or dil.ie/5638

 

Forms: bérla, bélre, bellrae, mbéelre, mbélre, bélri, bérli, belrai, bélru, belru, il-bélre, mbélre, il-béelre, il-bélrib, béarlaoi, berla

n io, n. also bérla (note -rl- in Wb. ex. cited below, see GOI 113 ). Later m.(bél). n s. bélre n-echtrann, Wb. 12c46 . cech mb.¤ , Ml. 42c12 , bellrae, 53d3 . a s. a mbéelre , Wb. 12d6 , mbélre, 13a2 . g s. bélri, Wb. 12a10 . bérli, 12d4 , belrai, Ml. 31b23 . d s. bélru, Wb. 12b23 , Sg. 31b13 , belru, Ml. 42c14 . a pl. il-bélre, Wb. 12c19 . g pl. inna mbélre , Wb. 13a26 . il-béelre, 12d7 . d pl. il-bélrib, 12b24 . Cf. a pl. béarlaoi, Timth. 1916, 38 , 38 § 14.

I

(a) speech, language: in belrai gl. ling[u]æ, Ml. 28b13 . máel dub fair ┐ belra formend leiss `stammering speech', BDD 114 ( LU 7599 ). ro chren a berla cach ṁbrúit his words (?) provided every history, LL 4424. bídh . . . / sbéis ag mnáibh i mbēarla mBriain, Magauran 230 . aslinge .i. absque linga .i. cen bērla nó tengaid, O'Mulc. 66. dúil bélrai glossary (belonging to the curriculum of the eighth year of poetic training) : duili bélraí (berla, v.l.) sicut est duil dromma cett (see 3 dúil) `Glossare' (182.21), IT iii 50 § 92.

(b) Of specific languages: ataat ilchenéle bérli isin biuthso gl. multa . . . genera lingarum, Wb. 12d4 . du cach belru la grecu `to every dialect among Greeks', Thes. ii 226.23 (PCr.). cech deidbli fil i mbērlæ is -ān nō -ēne dofūarusccuib, Corm. Y 1301. ced belrai inso (i.e. Latin), Trip. 128.7 . cen berla i tirib aneóil, SR 3448. gach son fordorcha gach berla `every obscure sound of every language', Auraic. 11. na dá bérlai (berla, v.l.) sechtmogat, Ériu iv 136.16 . ro fogluim an berla nEgebtacca, Laws i 20.9 Comm. tresan mberla Scoiteagdha, BB 38a30 . isin berla Grecdaí, ZCP xxx 101.6 . condat lia na cenela inaid na berlada, BB 3a9 . gen bérla in tíri i ndechatar, Celtica iv 18.10 . in berla i-n ro-genamar our native language, PH 5380. na berla ro cúmscaigit . . . ico'n tur, 5456 . o'n berla Ebraide, 5487 . o bélraib aingel (= 1 Corinth. xiii 1 ), 5909 . in Tenga Bithnua labhrustair o berlu angelacda `in the language of angels', Ériu ii 104 § 15.

Of the noises of animals: do berlaib cech mil bladmair, SR 7263. belra dligthech (spoken by birds) rational language, Ériu ii 118 § 54. béarla na n-éan, Measgra D. 56.23 .

Hence people, nation : ceneel na [= ná] belre, Wb. 28b1 . tuucthar hi cech belru gl. cunctis gentibus nota est, Ml. 42c2 . in lín catrach in cech threib ┐ in lín mbélra in cech cathraig, ┐ in lín doine im (leg. in ?) cech mbelra, LB 132b30 .

(c) In the mod. period specially of (the) English (language) : 'san mbérla, RC xxv 388 § 2. a hucht a bérla `relying on . . . her knowledge of the English language', AFM v 1530.12 . riaghail . . . S. Clára arna tionntúdh i ngaoidhilcc as bérla, Ériu xv 6 title. croinic Bhéarla Stanihurst, Keat. iii 5462. i Laidin i Scoitic ioná i mBéarla, Flower Cat. 574.z ( GJ xiv 714.67 ).

II In various technical phrases of special forms of language. Of the five divisions of Gaelic: cia lin cenel n-anmann . . . forsin ngaeidilg ? . . . a cóic .i. gaeidelg ┐ bérla teibide ┐ bérla Feni ┐ bérla n-etarscartha iter na feadaib aire[g]daib ┐ in gnath-bérla fognus do chach olcheana, Lec. Gl. 209. an Ghaedhealg . . . 'n-a cúig codchaibh, mar atá Béarla na Féine, Béarla na bhFileadh, Bearla an Eadarscartha, Béarla Teibidhe is Gnáithbhéarla, Keat. ii 140. b.¤ (Féine) (the language of) the Laws ; law, the legal enactments : epscop ┐ saoi berla féne, AFM ii 636.12 . brathchai .i. bretho Cai, ainm aicepta bēlri `a reading of law' (Index), O'Mulc. 125. condelg mbélri (mbearla, mberla, v.ll.), O'Dav. 843. roslá bérla breithemhan, LL 386a36 = sós la . . ., Leb. Cert.² 160.2 . suí Berla a doctor of the `Bérla Féine', Laws i 16.23 Comm. (of a Leinster king) ba hollom berla Féne, Metr. Dinds. iv 344.29 . Crith Gablach graece crisis .i. iudicium, nomen aiciuchta bēlrai, O'Mulc. 229. is e sin othrus is luga isin mberla, O'Curry 587 (H. 3.18. 290). Cf. Keat. ii 140 cited above.

For b.¤ (bán) biait see biait. Note also: imróefet fri berla / o Róim (glossed .i. imrádfit berla Románach), LU 9841.

b.¤ n-etarscartha: berla n-edarscartha etir na feadhaib language of separation between the vowels, Auraic. 210. See etarscarad. b.¤ (na filed) a poetic jargon, an artificial language practised by the poets, `part of the sixth year's course of the student-fili,' fili (for poems in B. na f. see Meyer, ZCP v 482 - 490 ; RC xi 125 , xiii 220 ). (of the ánrad poet) belru na filedh as a naicillidh cách dib aloile, O'D. 1214 (H. 2.15, 84a). b.¤ fortchide see 1 fortchide. b.¤ teipide, tóbaide the selected language, Gaelic , see teipe, teipide, tóbaide: go bhfuilid focail as gach aointeangaidh ar airleagadh san cheathramhadh mír don Ghaedhilg ré ráidhtear Béarla Teibidhe, Keat. ii 948.

cen

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cen or dil.ie/8581
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: cin, can, gen, gin, gan, chen, cen suidib, cen(a)e, cena, cenut, c(h)enae, cenuib, cenaib, c(h)ene, c(h)ena(e), ceni, cheana, cenae, cenco

later cin, can, gen, gin, gan (usual modern form). Prep. with accus., leniting. See GOI 111 , 273 , 501 . chen, Sg. 75a1 , 78b2 , 147b3 (so also chen(a)e (see below) regularly in Sg. as against c- in Wb. and Ml., see Thes. ii 154 ). With dat. cen suidib, Ml. 20d3 , and cf. cenaib with 3 pl. suff. pron. below. With accus. in class. lang.: a bheith gan bhú (: chlú), O'R. Poems 252 . In later Vn. constructions of the type: gan an bás . . . do dhol, TSh. 2703 takes noun in nom. (`takes art. + noun in the form of nom., as verbs do', TSh. Gloss.). See TD 3.15 and note. Duan. F. iii s.v. gan.

For usage of late MSS. in matter of follg. lenition see Aithd. D. s.v. gan. cuiridh `gan' séimhioghadh, gion go ttuigthear do gháoidheilg ┐ gion go habuirthear (sic) d'ogham é, IGT Introd. § 7 . In class. lang. does not prefix t to ṡ, §§ 67 , 70 . Note alliteration in: mé gan ṡeise ó ṡain a-nall, DDána 77.3 , gan ḟolta gan imreasainn, 70.16 .

With suff. pron. in O.Ir. only (apart from 3 s. cen(a)e, cena, for which see below), and rare even here with no forms occurring for 1 s. and pl. 2 s. cenut, Wb. 6b25 . 3 s. m. and n. c(h)enae. 2 pl. cenuib, Wb. 9c2 . 3 pl. cenaib, Ml. 20d4 . Later with follg. indep. pron. (in 3 pers. é, í, iat).

Orig. on this side of (see GOI 501 , Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 197 ), hence apart from, besides etc. (see I(a) and III below). The usual meaning at all stages of the language is without, deprived of, not having, -less. Freq. with follg. Vn. with which, in its verbal function, it serves as neg. particle (see II).

I

(a) apart from, besides, except : atá brithem and cenutsu gl. omnes enim stabimus ante tribunal Dei, Wb. 6b25 . atá brithem lasuidib cenuib-si gl. Deus iudicabit, 9c2 . tāthut bith[ḟ]laith . . . / cen a tír i fail do rúaim apart from, Hail Brigit 26 . cé atchetha óinchairptech / . . . / fil mór d'echaib . . . / cen suidi (-e, v.l.) nad aicci-siu besides him, Imr. Brain 39 . ni ettis nech cena domanches except in the case of, LU 3488 ( SCC 26 ). i n-atconnarc . . . / bes atcoad cena slúag in the absence of his army(?), 3323 ( SCC 11 ). cen airitin a cobsen `short of receiving his confession', Mon. Tall. 147.30 .

(b) without, not having, -less (of things, objects, persons): buith cenchlaind, Ml. 23d12 . buith cen chomaccomla, 28d6 . buid cen sétchi, Wb. 10a17 . cen intertpersin, Sg. 161a4 . ni farcbad nech cen dire la Fēne, BCrólige 56 . ro sai cen usci `returned without water', RC xxiv 198.11 . nī anab gan é fēin, Fianaig. 80.4 . bheith don Bhanbha gan bhuachail, TD 10.19 . cin cennaib, cin tsúilib, Maund. 174 .

(c) With noun as in (b) and follg. prep. indicating position, accompaniment, possession: cennech n indib són `without anyone in them', Ml. 131d7 . cenchaille fora ciunn, Wb. 11c9 . cengutai ṅetarru, Sg. 7a4 . cen chonsin re n-os , 105b5 . cenbriathra leo, 215a6 . cona rabi aithles . . . cen mac i n-inad a athar, MU² 133 . gan cheó ortha acht aghaidh each, TD 11.12 .

(d) With abstracts (incl. vnn.): cennach n-astud, Ml. 15a15 . cen fodrúbu gl. sine deflexionum moris, 22a6 . cennach n-indlach gl. sine ulla interruptione, 32a1 . centosach cenforcenn, 110d15 . cen chumsanad gl. sine intermisione, Wb. 25c23 . trechosc conacarbi cenchinta, 27c6 . cen ḟortacht indanmma aili (with subj. gen.), Sg. 30a2 . eitir codlad ┐ cen cotlatt `whether he be asleep or awake', Mon. Tall. 152.4 . dia lleictir can imcoimet `if (such women) be let go without guarding', BCrólige 37 . In sense of unimpaired by, untroubled by etc. see LU 2294 - 99 ( FA 35 ). cen nach tairmesc netir, Hib. Min. 9.279 . bás . . . cen bethaid, PH 4320 . tilid Éirinn gan ainimh, TD 10.11 . 'n-a adhbar rīg gan [fh]resabra, ML² 30 . gan í without it (umhla), RSClára 158a . gan iad, 104b . gan amhrus undoubtedly , Párl. na mB. 6 . gan mhoill immediately , 164 .

(e) With fis: cen fius scél uáibsi `without tidings from you', Wb. 25a5 . cenfius dúib, 25c4 . cen ḟis cen airḟis, Anecd. i 3.8 ( SCano 50 ). cen a fis doibsom `without their knowledge', Mon. Tall. 146.31 . gan fhios do féin unknown to himself, unwittingly , Párl. na mB. 1385 . gurab gan fhios do ionnsuidh Samson na Filistínigh unexpectedly , TSh. 767 .

(f) Freq. in verse in chevilles and quasi-adj. phrases: ind fir cen uaill, Blathm. 13 . slóig Íssu cen escur, Fél. Prol. 63 . regmi cen nach díchiul, 291 . ceithre fedha, fāth gin gheis . . . , ZCP viii 107.10 . slōg ōss a ucht cen nach socht, 108.15 .

(g) With abstr. and follg. preposition: cen fortacht nachaili oco, Ml. 53a9 . cenfochraic n dam gl. infructuosse, 91b5 . cenchol, fair, 93d1 . nā bī gan gart at gnīomh nglē, ZCP viii 109.9 . cen smacht ríg forro, LU 3441 ( SCC 21 ). ó dho bhí tuigse . . . ag an duine . . . ┐ gan í anois aige, TSh. 2909 . dia mbeth gan do righe la C. acht na nai righa . . . `if C. had no realm save . . . ', ZCP i 402.19 .

II In a variety of constructions with vnn.

(a) With Vn. with verbal force, the whole phrase having the value of an adj. or adv.: nísechmalfam ní and centadal, Ml. 25a3 . canim[ebol] lib ambuid [li]b cenprecept doib ref. to ignorantiam enim Dei quidam habent, Wb. 13c17 . it cairigthi inmaicsi et intuistidi cendethidin dissi `when they do not take care of her', 28d22 . cen tairmthecht opersin dialaili gl. intransitiuum, Sg. 189a7 . uar rombi ind fit . . . cin cumscugud, Mon. Tall. 147.14 . téora bliadna doib . . . cen teacht as, Anecd. i 11.24 ( SCano 356 ). fada an treimhse ataid re a chois / gan tocht dá dtíribh, TD 4.38 . soinend no doinend na haimsire do bidh gan techt, BCC 416.18 . fá h-ár gan áireamh it was a slaughter incalculable, ML 130.24 .

(b) With Vn. and obj. gen.: cenaéitsecht gl. non . . . audire, Ml. 21b11 . batrom foraib són centíchtain átíre fadesin they were distressed at not reaching their own land, 34d12 . cen foraithmet ananmae . . . dam gl. ut etiam uocabula eorum obliuioni tradam, 37c13 . cen a chomallad gl. sub Lege (fuerunt), 76a15 . cid atobaich cendílgud cech ancridi gl. quare non magis iniuriam accipistis? Wb. 9c20 . cena aetarcne riam gl. sine praeiudicio, 29a20 . cenacomol naich aili do gl. `ipse' quoque in tertia persona per se, Sg. 197b17 . cen imcabáil . . . cum nobis do epirt, 203a8 . cia beith cen (gin, MS) gabáil n-orbai, Críth G. 69 . cen a coisecrad `without being reconsecrated', Mon. Tall. 153.15 . ō ro-gabus gāi im láim nad-raba cen guin duini I have never failed to slay a man, Sc.M² 16 . bi gan a thabairt do not swear it (an oath), PH 7343 . gan oba gliadh, TD 26.40 .

(c) With follg. noun or pron. and prep. DO with Vn. (for case of noun in later lang. see above): foilsigthi feisin cen ainm dothórmuch fris `without the addition of a noun to it', Sg. 211a8 . ma ro látar ce[n] ní do ḟacbáil leo, Ériu xvii 66 § 4 . afuine . . . / cenachnáma dobrissiud, SR 3904 . in fer nār c[h]otail énoidchi ríam gan maithes Gall da innluccud da dúintib, ZCP viii 111.13 . ata recht ocaind .i. cen luige do thabairt, PH 2684 . can T. . . . do thegmail dó, TTebe 987 . gan é d'áireamh oramsa, TD 14.9 . Similarly, without vn.: trágh. ráth . . . , inann ┐ so sís acht gan so sís do bainindscne except that the following are not feminine, IGT Decl. § 38 . gan mé aniogh san mhín mhaighrigh since I am not(?), Studies 1921, 568 § 23 . With follg. acht in sense of except that, only , etc.: gan acht coibhche . . . do dháil di `provided he gave her a marriage-portion', Keat. ii 4642 . gan é acht i naois óiglenaib still of tender years, O'Gr. Cat. 381.13 . gan acht neart aoidheadh orra, Content. xxx 26 . do-ghéubha tú sail ad tshúil féin 's gan achd brodh a súil Pharaon only a mote, Mac Aingil 904 .

In a number of exx. in the early lang., and with increasing frequency in the later, the clause introduced by cen assumes the character of a nominal clause functioning as the subject or object of a verb, as a case governed by a preposition, and occasionally even as a genitive depending on a noun. For class. lang. see the analysis in TSh. s.v. gan.

(d) As subject of a verb: isingir lem cenchretim dúib, Wb. 4b28 . isaithiss doibsom cid anísiu .i. cenprecept dondaís anfiss their failure to preach . . . discredits them, 13b11 . cen buith i bar ṅgnáissi / is mór fodom-glúassi, Fél. Ep. 375 . ba imned la F. cen acallaim na ingine F. was anxious to speak with the girl, TBFr. 155 . fonascar fair can tudecht, LU 5943 . mad dia m-beith at cumang, a ben, ol C., in ghein fil fat bruindi gan a breith có abhárach, RC vi 175 § 55 . ba dogessib conculainn cenadall fulachta diachathim, iii 176.17 . ba col cen a choemna not to protect him, Gorm. March 15 . ata is-in recht cen mnái do gabail i fhiadnaise, PH 2794 . nár dhamhsa gan dol red chois, TD 14.32 . an cóir gan síodh d'fhagháil uadh? Aithd. D. 63.5 . is truag duind gan E. acar n-imdidin, Stair Erc. 745 .

(e) As object: fobithin adrimet som deit su armelacht cen arṅ ditin ni `not to protect us', Ml. 129d22 . madh ro achtaigh cín ar, ┐ rohairedh, Laws iv 132.25 . fonaiscid C. forrosom cen curadmir do chosnam, LU 9025 ( FB 77 ). na lécob d'Ultaib cen taidecht lim, MU² 182 . foracaib . . . can a n-uilc do dígail dóib, LU 3117 (see Duan. F. iii 8 - 9 ). cid fodera . . . cen Crist do-t furtacht-su?, PH 738 . asbert an file fris cen ní don bradan do tomailt, RC v 201.23 . gan chrích Néill fút ná fulaing, TD 6.16 . do cheannuigh Dia . . . / gan mo bheith i mbrugh Ifeirn, Dán Dé v 45 . mar do chonn-cadar cliatha na Cruithnigh gan iad féin líon cathuighthe ris that they were not strong enough to fight him, Keat. ii 1779 . orduighmid . . . gan labhairt dona Sethrachaibh `that the Sisters keepe silence', RSClára 102b .

(f) With vbs. of forgetting, preventing , etc. the prep. merely reinforces the meaning of the main verb: arnabé anfochell leu cenatlugud buide diasoirad so that they may not neglect to return thanks, Ml. 117b7 . cenasechim gl. uestigia relinquere, Sg. 30a20 . rothairmisc . . . in scel sin fa P. . . . gan sid re brathair, TTebe 2767 . a Bhē-binn, bean ar do mac / gan mhnāi trīallfas dó tochmarc, ZCP xiii 167.1 . léigfeamaoid dínn . . . gan teacht tarsa, TSh. 294 `which we shall avoid treating of', Gloss. tug i ndearmad gan maith na n-Éireannach do mhaoidheamh he has forgotten to, Keat. i 56.25 . nīr dhermait . . . in doirseóir gan in custam d'iarraidh ┐ d'fagáil `the keeper did not neglect demanding and receiving it', Fl. Earls 90.5 . Cf. Ml. 25a3 cited under (a).

(g) As case governed by prep.: tré gan rabhadh do chur dho through failing to warn him, Content. xvi 71 . fá gan fearthuinn do dheanadh, Donlevy 440.30 . déinig faire . . . chum gan tuitim a ttemptásion so as not to enter into temptation, Párl. na mB. 789 . maille ré gan é d'fhaigsin, TSh. 6387 .

(h) As gen.: d'easbaidh gan an creideamh do bheith aca because they have no faith, TSh. 4784 (where gan merely reinforces meaning of easbhaidh). The phrase introduced by gan is technically gen. also in: rún do ghlacadh gan tuitim to resolve not to fall, Donlevy 448.19 .

III With suff. pron. 3 s. m. n. c(h)ene , c(h)ena(e), ceni, cheana (usual mod. form). On O.Ir. cene, cenae see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 346 . In class. verse may be stressed or unstressed, Aithd. D. 25.19n.

(a) In more or less literal sense in addition to it, without him or it, besides, apart from this. As shown by occas. exx. of cenae referring to f. or pl. nouns the word had even in O.Ir. begun to have the force of an indep. adv. besides, in addition, moreover, anyway . In literal sense: huare is lán chiall indib chenae gl. uerba non egent casu, Sg. 140b3 . ní laimtis cena they dared not omit to do it, Sc.M² 20 , cf. ní étaim-sea chena I cannot help it (gan a dheanamh, v.l.), TBC-LL¹ 6080 . cía nocarainn cách chenae besides him, Liad. and Cuir. 24.21 . nícon bíad cenae, 24 `without him . . . it will not live', Murphy Lyrics 35.10 . ceni beth nach aili isin tig cenae acht hé a oenur, BDD² 1086 `any other save he', Gloss. ní fuil aurlabraidi . . . leo chenae besides him, MU² 986 .

(b) In more general sense: cenitormastar homéit istrom cenae ho aicniud in any case, Ml. 20a20 . bamór fechtae cenae `there were many times besides', 39a3 . legi enim Dei non est subiecta (of sapientia carnis) .i. atá dethiden fuiri cene `besides', Wb. 3d34 . barafie dúib darígente cene cenimmormus nachmór, 11d5 . apronomen asberr eiusdem ┐ cach pronomen dono chene `besides', Sg. 203b1 . os me chene am faelid `I too', Thes. ii 293.25 . at-béla chenaeo (sic), BDD² 1438 `in any case', Gloss. sáeilim nem cena I am looking forward to heaven as it is, BColm. 68.22 .

Following f. and pl. nouns: ni reccar ales dano epistle uáibsi arrofitemmar cene `without it' (ref. to epistil, f.), Wb. 15a5 . runsluinfemni didiu cene fanisin (ref. to epistolis), 15a4 . etar fileda ┐ áis ṅdénma sairse chenae `and other artists', Sg. 212a11 . atethatár eóin damsa chena other birds will be caught for me, LU 3276 ( SCC 7 ). ní lamhat eonu na fiadhmhilu cena beth for an sliab sin `nor other wild animals', ZCP i 254.6 .

(c) Hence of actions and states of being already, previously : nírecat . . . les tintuda . . . ataat iltintudai leu cene, Ml. 3a14 . tanice-side céne `He hath come already', Wb. 4d26 . adib eolaig and cene, 33c19 . ar biid iouis cene nominatiuo , Sg. 99a3 . ar ní thucad dó chena hí, LU 3168 . ag feoilgherradh in ridiri ata marbh chena, Stair Erc. 758 . cheana `alwaies' (= hitherto, Ed.), RSClára 81a . ? Cf. cheana no archeana .i. o sin amach, O'Cl.

(d) More vaguely as adv. of asseveration moreover, indeed, of a truth, then, so (see PH, TSh.): ni réid chene, Sg. 238b1 . saībse, céni, i m-bith chē, Imr. Brain 45 `moreover', Murphy Lyrics 39.13 . ní boí isin bith frisa samailte chena there was indeed nothing with which it could be compared, LU 3378 ( SCC 16 ). ceist cena . . . cid as áil dúib?, MU² 332 . ó racuala in maith cena, cid ar ná cechlaind in saith?, Airne F. 237 . cia airm itá do thigerna-su chena ale?, TBC-LL¹ 1418 . ní fitir in challech nach do fhoigdi chena tánic in giIla that it was not simply to beg the servant came, Ériu i 132.81 . leicem as ar n imram . . . acht in chonair beras ar curach sind cheana, YBL 87a44 . nocha lám chena ná cos / do géba, O'Gr. Cat. 367.17 . an chloch cheana . . . on the other hand, TSh. 64 . gidhedh chena, BCC 124.30 . With ocus at beg. of sentence: ┐ chena bid lat ┐ lad chlaind co brath in rigi, RC xxiv 200.14 . ┐ cena ni . . . , TTebe 4293 . V. freq. with prec. acht: acht chena is . . . , LU 3914 ( SCC 43 ). acht chena ro-diultais etc., PH 601 . acht cheana do ghabhadar etc., Párl. na mB. 3947 . acht atā ni cena moreover, ZCP viii 111.14 .

Cf. archena, olchena.

IV Freq. with follg. co as conjunction without that, though . . . not, in some uses replacing O.Ir. ceni. Not found in O. Ir. glosses. See Phil. Soc. Trans. 290 § 56 . cenco is perh. rather to be explained from *ceni-co, O'Rahilly, Celtica ix 113 - 34 . In class. Ir. gion etc. go (see DDána), which appar. no longer felt as containing the prep. cen (gan). Form somet. influenced by cían (céin), q.v.

(a) without that, apart from the case that, because of the fact that not (with indic. and subj.): bid messu dúib . . . céin co tísaid lim it will be the worse for you if you do not come with me, LU 8082 ( FB 6 ). ní eicsind uile cenco cumhsanaind icca aisneis ria mbrath I could not relate it all short of keeping at it till doomsday, Ériu ii 136 § 120 . gén cu taibre ar hanmuin / let a talmain nisbera short of giving it (worldly goods?) for your soul, 228.17 . cumma lem etir / cen co tīas ilLaighnib I care not at all if I go not into L., ZCP viii 110.8 . cóir, cen co beth biad ocut `right then is it that food should fail thee', PH 1312 . nír bó toil do A. sin, gen gur triall la hI. do Roimh A. was unwilling not to go with I. to Rome, BNnÉ 4.25 .

Usually though . . . not.

(b) With indic. Rare in older lang.: cenco n-acatár though they did not see (her), LU 10010 . cín co fetar cia tu though I don't know who you are, RC v 200 § 15 . achd gin gur fheith iad, DDána 3.29 . comhla gen go bī (sic leg.) rem baeis, ACL iii 236 § 9 . gion gur chomhmaoidh sin though she boasted not of it, Dán Dé ii 5 . gion go ttuigthear do gháoidheilg ┐ gion go habuirthear d'ogham é, IGT Introd. 5.1 . gin co fuil, CF² 585 . cin co híbhitt na Serrisdínig fín, Maund. 61 . gin cur chaith . . . caithfet-sa `though no one has eaten', Ériu iii 158 § 10 . génco faicidhisi é, RC xxiv 371.26 . gion go ffaicfit mo chorp . . . docífitt m'fiorta ┐ mo miorbuile, BNnÉ 267 § 235 (fut. replacing subj.?). Cf. gion go bhfaicfear (-cthear, v.l. ). Dán Dé v 35 .

(c) With subj.: acht ropom airdricse, maith lim cen co bend būan acht ōenlāa even though I should live only one day, TBC-I¹ 572 . cen cop mōr mo thuasa, Mór M. 6 . cen co pat comṡáeglaig, Airne F. 19 . cenco n-essara though you eat not, Sc.M² 3 . as a rad ata a nadmaim cin co be saying untruthfully that it is . . . , Laws iv 52.30 . cian combat lia iar n-umir though they be not more in number, Rawl. 70b22 . ra raidsebair cenco tucaind ar áis doberaind ar écin that I would take it willy-nilly, LL 7685 ( TBC-LL¹ 150 ). cia fogabad cenco fagbad whether he got it or not, 7328 . cen co dernad, CRR 18 . cinco dernadais na Masilecdha do maith . . . acht . . . if the M. did no other good than . . . , CCath. 1751 . gion go dtí riomsa . . . / Dia do dhearmad, Dán Dé xxv 9 . do rígh gion go rabhtha id mhac even wert thou not a king's son, DDána 91.15 .

Occas. with loss of negative sense: gion go mbiadh gnúis gheanamhail . . . ag fear na ceilge though the deceiver should have. . . , TSh. 8965 (see Vocab.). atá ár sáith d'íoc againn gin gurab deired dúinn féin taréis na deithbire so `though immediately upon termination of this quarrel we ourselves too made an end', Caithr. Thoirdh. 119.24 .

cluicíne

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n io, m. (cloc) Also -éne , -ín, little bell : in tan mbenir clucīne proinntige, ZCP xiii 29 § 21 (cluiceni, v.l. 23 N 10 ). an uair fá mithid an deoch do bheannachadh do beantaoí an cluigine, Rule of Tallaght 95 . cluigin, 92 . Bethechan clocc Pátraic, cluccene becc íairnd, Trip.² 2929 . Used in cursing: clocc na fferce Adomnāin .i. cluicīn mēsi Adomnāin, Cáin Ad. 17 . ben in cluiccīn for Domnall, / nā rup comlann a blīadain, 20 . A warning bell hung around a dog's neck: cluigin ima bragait, O'Dav. 471 . Cf. cluicine for cind cacha suainemna, Anecd. i 1.11 ( SCano 11 ). Used to adorn horse-trappings and garments: maelland arggait co cluciniu óir fo brágit cech eich, TBFr. 29 . cantais céola clucíní (i.e. on Aaron's hood), SR 4504 . a chochall . . . cona chluicínib . . . don ór derg, Alex. 81 . cona c[h]luchín (sic) . . . asin munci, cona thengaid do métail . . . asin clucín sís, MacCongl. 89.23 , 25 .

1 deidble

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n , f. (dedbol) diminutive: uibne .i. nomen do lestor bic . . . ar cech deidbli fil i mbérlae is -ān nō -ēne dofuarusscuib, Corm. Y 1301 .

do-fúarascaib

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Forms: tuarascbat, tuarascbait, rotuarascaib, rotuarascfat, túarascbáil

v (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 528 ) discloses, reveals, describes, makes known, characterizes. Indic. pres. 3 s. imbass forosnae .i. d.¤ sec[h]ip rēt bas maith lasin filid ┐ bes adlaic dó d' foillsiugad, Corm. Y 756 . cach deidbli fil i mbērlae is -ān no -ēne dofuarusccuib characterizes, 1301 . d.¤ a soas, Laws i 42.36 Comm. is de dofuarasgaib in flaith, O'Dav. 822 . 3 pl. nís tuarascbat feisin cen gutai they do not express themselves without vowels gl. consonantes sine vocalibus immobiles sunt, Sg. 7a11 . trí tuarascbait cach ngenmnaide three things that characterize every chaste person, Triads 187 . Cf. also 189 , 190 . Pret. and perf. 3 s. rotuarascaib ind echlach disi et roinnis scéla . . . dó-som, TFerbe 515 . ? ised a cenel-sin dofhorgascaib in indsi-sea diar ceneol-ni (of the Síl Nemid), Lec. 350a25 . ? Pass. co rotuarascfat adi i mBuirind Connacht, ACL iii 326.6 .

Vn. túarascbáil. IGT Vbs. § 100 .

eréne, éirín(e)

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n m. chicken (see Ériu xiii 148-49 ), chick, pullet: brister coss erēne (erin, eirini, v.ll.) circe, Fing. R. 311 (Orgain Denna Ríg) (= cos na circe, 315 ). ? ar cech deidbli fil i mbērlæ is -ān nō -ēne dofūarusccuib, ut est ferān, segēne, balēne, erēne., Corm. Y § 1301 (but see also erén). is comhlogh in cerc mór ┐ in t-eirín...in deithbhir itá itir in mboin mbicc ┐ in bó mór gurab hí in deithbhir cétna bes itir in eirín ┐ in rércerc, O'D. 1979 = Laws iii 380 Comm. eirín ceirce, SG i 410.21 . ac cengal choise ind eirín, 410.22 . iter in circ moir ┐ int airin o gebus aimsir iunta, CIH iv 1209.6 .

es(s)én

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Forms: eiss-

n m. an unfledged bird, a nestling: esen .i. es ┐ en. es didiu fo diultad, essen didiu ni hen chadacht no ni hen clumda cedacht not yet a bird, or not yet a fledged bird YBL 265c9 = Corm. Y 511 . a n-isseniu (gl. pullos suos) Ml. 80a6 [leg. eiss- ?]. amail esene fiach unfledged ravens Corm. Y 731 . ni frithidi bid esine éim (.i. ni hinann so ┐ eun do gabail a sás), ZCP ix 141 x = TBC-I¹ 797 (frithid bid eissine). go luth eisine with (but) the vigour of a nestling Anecd. ii 21.1 . il-leith eiseine, 22.24 . téit in banchorr isin fairrgi síar do duth, co toét cona heisínib essi, Triads 237 . Cf. intī nar leic essin mil maigi do sil T. `never yielded even the leveret of a hare' Cog. 66.11 (éis an ghiuilgennaigh v.l.).

ferán

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Last Revised: 2019

 

n o, m. (dim. of 1 fer) a little man, a mannikin: gl. masculus Sg. 46a1 . cech deidbli ... is —ān no —ēne dofuarusccuib, ut est ferān, Corm. Y 1301 . in ferán doid a mbec sechom-sa ... no-íssad a mmór 'the small (petty ?) man who ate the little on me ... would eat the much', Tall. Étair 49.189 . In the name of a bird , see eiden(n).

2 ferg

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n a warrior, hero (prob. same word as 1 ferg): f.¤ .i. laech, unde dicitur: comaid f.¤ foebar, Corm. Y 648 . O'Dav. 839 (comadh f.¤ f.). fearg .i. laech, Lec. Gl. 156 . fearg féne .i. láoch eireannach, O'Cl. in f.¤ fēne, IT i 97.13 = LL 112a27 . cf. ferg f éne do muintir E. Fedhlig, O'Dav. 839 .

ían

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ían or dil.ie/26928
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: īan, īan, ian, iain, ian, ian, íand, ene, eine, éne, eini, ían, iana, eana, ena, ian, hēnaib, iain

n ā, f. (? orig. n. īan mbille, Corm. Y 187 ). n s. īan, Corm. Y 167. ian, Críth G. 74. iain (v.l. ian), IT iii 191 § 20. a s. ian, Lism. L. 2952. íand, FDG 118. g s. ene , Laws i 166.22 . eine, Críth G. 74. éne , O'Dav. 1123. eini, Laws i 106.23 Comm. d s. asan ían , Ériu iv 134.17 (MS. iain, v.l. ein). n p. iana, Laws v 94.9 Comm. eana, 392.12 Comm. a p. ena, LU 1626. g p. ian, Acall. 756. d p. hēnaib, Corm. Y 414. n du. dí iain , Críth G. 184.

a wooden vessel (see Ériu iv 134. 16 ff. and note p. 166 ), a drinking vessel: crand-lestra .i. iana ┐ dromlacha ┐ dabcha darach, Laws v 94.9 Comm. intreb tige .i. tulchuba ┐ eana ┐ dromlacha, 392.12 Comm. sechta seotu airech ... caire, dabach, escra, ian ..., i 134.11 Comm. tucad chucu a n-éna ┐ a ndabcha ┐ a n-iarnlestair, TBC-LL² 56 . .vii. ndabcha ┐ .vii. n-éna, Loinges mac nDuíl Dermait 52 § 1 . airdiena (v.l. ardíana) ibardha, Anecd. ii 58.16 . ballān .i. bill-īan .i. lestar ḟir thrūaig, Corm. Y 167. tabhur i.¤ measctha .L. do lind doibh, Lism. L. 2952. bíit dí iain in[n]a thig do grés, i.¤ aiss ocus i.¤ chorma[e], Críth G. 184. fogabat íand lan de uigib géd ann, FDG 118. tuarascbháil a cuach ┐ a corn ... ┐ a hi.¤ , Acall. 756. lan eini in bochtain do loim .i. lestar bec, ocus da lan dec uidi circi isedh teit ind, Laws i 106.23 Comm. lān n-éne oil, O'Dav. 1123. iain do línta do dubrota ┐ do gual, IT iii 191 § 20. ni h-eanna aen laime ` vessels (formed by) one hand,' MR 144.14 . nī bītis ōi for na hēnaib ar tūs there used to be no handles on vessels in the beginning, Corm. Y 414.

indesc

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n a milch-cow ? : indesc .i. bleghnach, ut est lan n-éne oil de tri[b] indescaib .i. bleaghnachaib, O'Dav. 1123.

lainnín

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n also -éne (lann): im laind, im lainnin, Laws i 126.5 . lann ┐ lainnene, v 406.16 . Lit. little blade, explained in Comm. as the griddle-slice with which the cake on the griddle was turned : im laind .i. in gretal; im lainnin .i. in tslis in (leg. in tslisin) gretli .i. oc impud na bairgine .i. benus don gretil, Laws i 142.28 Comm . lainnene .i. in slisi, v 406.19 Comm . Also in list of smith's implements as fig. nn. loc.: a hOrd slatir in Indiu[in], o Indeoin co Lainnin. nicon bia tairisium fair, LU 4476 ( ZCP xxvii 43.y ).

1 leccach

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adj o, ā (lecc) stony, strewn with slabs of rock . In n. loc. o Árd Lecach i Maigh Ene , Gorm. 20 gl. l .

roptine

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x see roibtine.

séigéne

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n (1 séig) a small hawk : séighéne .i. seabhcán, O'Cl. s.v. séigh. cech deidbli fil i mbērlae is -ān nō -ēne dofūarusccaib, ut est . . . segēne, Corm. Y 1301 .