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2 a

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 a or dil.ie/3
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: á, e, a, a

In O.Ir. also á (see Celtica ii 339 - 40 ), e ( GOI 285 ). Poss. pron. (proclitic form of , q.v.) of 3 s. m. and n. (leniting), 3 s. f. (geminating) and 3 pl. of all genders (nasalising). When a numeral intervenes between poss. and noun the usage fluctuates. The older is represented by a nda ara. LU 4729 , the later by a da nduma, LL 1541 , where the initial of the noun is mutated independently of the numeral. The poss. of the third person is also used in combinations such as adám my two, adád your two, adár our two. Similarly with trí. See Ériu xi 146 ff. and the numerals , trí.

For the forms in combination with prepositions see the several prepositions.

I Denoting possession, ownership, relationship, connection, etc.

(a) a thuaithe of his folk, Wb. 5a23 . a bullu `His members', 9d4 . a chnámi, 4d15 . á luum `their pilot', 4a14 . irroimed cách a chéele, 6d4 (see céile). ní diá geneluch, Trip.² 78 . a hétach her clothes, TBFr. 232 . a mmod ┐ a fit `her portion', Mon. Tall. 149.14 (§ 60) . inna mbossán, LU 3231 ( SCC § 2 ). al-lorga ┐ a mbachla their croziers, PH 5103 . gan fios a gcéille, Donlevy vi 9 . co cend a seacht mbliadan till he was seven, ZCP xi 134. 31 .

With adjj. used substantivally. iss é a fír `that is the truth of it', BColm. 100.7 . ēill ngēisi . . . cia de bud ferr la hUltu a mbeō na a mmarb do brith dōib, TBC-I¹ 692 (perh. to be referred to II). bit lía a mairb and andat a mbí, LU 8266 ( FB 21 ).

(b) With copula in relative clauses expressing genitival relation ( GOI 321 - 2 ). Cf. issa gl. quorum, Ml. 90c3 . intí asa ainm bís isnaib titlaib, 2c3 . Tenobi ata (= ata a) scél ro-c[h]lotha `of Tenobius whose tidings have been heard', Fél. Aug. 24 . in fer asa erbaid aire, Trip.² 408 . bennachais in ríg bá (= ba a) gaisced he blessed the king whose armour it was, LU 5048 (TBC). an mhaighden-so 'sa hainm an Tnūith this maiden whose name is envy, Desid. 1652 . Occasionally also with intervening adj.: na féle assa fortrén taitnem `of the feasts whose radiance is mighty', Fél. Prol. 330 . ata (= ata a) n-aidbli bríga `whose vigours are vast', Ep. 34. nocon ḟetar cúich in Cu/Culaind asa caini clú, LU 4561 (TBC). Note also: a bronnad aineclann cháich as a aí the honour price of each person who owns it (of a mill), Críth G. 240 , ( GOI 322 ).

With dat. of accompaniment, a oenur, a ndíis, a triur etc., see these words. On the construction tá sé ina ríg see Dillon ZCP xvii 307 ff. and prep. i.

(c) With nouns indicating quantity, portion (of something), likeness, etc. (for fuller treatment see the nouns concerned): ni ro-pheccaig . . . a becc in the smallest degree, PH 2622 . a bheag nó a mhór do thoirthibh, TSh. 3751 . denum-ne a choibes ┐ a macsamla, PH 119 . a thri chomméit three times as much, LU 8248 ( FB 19 ). nochon accasa riam a chutrumma anything to equal it, TBFr. 50 . ní áirmhim a leth nó a thrían gach a fúaras ó sin siar, ZCP viii 220 § 22 . tria tharmcruthugud a letheti `the like of it', PH 3091 . ara lin do gablaibh i fodlait(h)er grā[d] túa[i]the, Críth G. 4 . is e a mét ro-s-lín oman, PH 1121 . a shamail-seo do clochad, 7328 . dā dabaigh décc do lionn maith/a thrí urdāil do deghbraith, ZCP viii 116.1. i n-urmhōr the greater part of them, ML². 1825 . So also with adjj. compounded with com- e.g. a chomglan so, Maund. 22 .

II As objective gen. with vnn. of transitive verbs: á híc `his salvation' (that he has been saved), Wb. 2b11 . a marbad `killing them', 4a12 . ní arilset geinti a fírianugud, `the gentiles have not deserved to be justified' 4d10 . a chomalnad `to fulfil it', 5d10 . ma ad-ced torbe inna thec[h]t `if ye should see benefit in its going' (i.e. in so going), 11b22 . a bronnad, Críth G. 240 . a indarpae `he must be banished', Mon. Tall. 147.32 (§ 54). dénam-ne an degaithris, let us worthily imitate them, ZCP viii 216.15 . dutracht lim a nguidhe I wish to pray to them, Ériu i 226. § 1 . ro-gab Petar uad-som a chairiugud Peter accepted his reproval (of himself) from him, PH 5892 . ada fis . . . araen . . . ada nanfis . . . imaraen, the knowledge . . . ignorance of both of them, Laws iii 276.18 . Hence in construction OC + vn.: occá sirḟegad imme anair, LU 2028 ( FA 10 ). aga thabhairt fo dera coimhéud na bochtaine, RSClára 41a .

With DO introducing agent: massu ed béso mó a fius dúibsi `the knowledge of it that ye have', Wb. 19b11 . act cuit a scribint domsa, 13a23 . ní fitir nech díb for araile a n-imchossait do Bricrind, LU 8251 ( FB 20 ). in pendit nopeinebad ind laoch . . . a denam do a mac tar a cend, Mon. Tall. 163.17 (§ 86) . With LA: ro aduim Sinoip a claí la hErcuil `that she had been defeated', Stair Erc. 1138 . With ó: ro-p áil dó a aimsiugud o diabul, PH 2020 .

With other nouns (with wide variation in the force of the poss.): a lóg the reward for it, Wb. 5d35 . a lúach soin don rí ní rug, IGT Decl. ex. 1271 . ricfaither a les do gille, Sc.M² § 7 (see less). dommanic amh a hadbur cause for it, Ériu v 72.15 . go dtugsad a rige do D. they gave the kingship of it to D., Ériu i 102 § 60 . bid lia turim a chath the combat for him, Sc.M² § 3 . nī cōir a chuma to grieve for him, ACL iii 221.24 . a húamun fear of him, ZCP viii 218 § 20 . co naca fir Erenn . . . a reir uaimsea so that the men of Ireland may see me submitting to him, Ériu v 240.132 . d'fulair a grádh ar hIrúath by imposing love for herself on Herod, Ériu iv 178 § 29 . ferr les a sidh na a cocudh `that he would rather be on peaceful than on hostile terms with them', Stair Erc. 1859 . a aitherrach sin do fregra, Maund. 27 . aenduini nach fuair a soludh who did not profit by him, CCath. 1188 . pontifex a grēc p. is the Greek for it, ZCP viii 113.25 .

As subjective gen. with vnn. of intrans. vbs.: á buid `that it is', Wb. 11d3 . a mbith samlaid, Laws iv 212.2 . a éc he died, Ann. Inisf. 1075.2 . a ndul coríg Locha Léin that they should go, ZCP viii 316.7 . in gabul tirimm a beth fo blath, PH 1317 .

III In prolepsis.

(a) With follg. noun in gen. a dénum in maid sin, Wb. 1d7 . a masse in choirp `its, the body's, beauty', 28c25 . a n-athir inna fer, 4c1 . a ndírmann / in tríir imrádam, Fél. Oct. 11 . a cathim na raod sin, Mon. Tall. 132.22 (§ 13) . a n-andord mac n-Usnig, IT i 72.4 . dia fholcud a chind, TBFr. 256 . romórad dano a ainm Dé ┐ Colmáin, BColm. 54.6 .

Later also with nom.: nipa mor a glanad deitsiu ind chomairle dobeir Findio deit, Mon. Tall. 154.5 (§ 67) . mairg dá dtig a seac[h]na so / an teaghdhais i dtá Íosa, Dán Dé v 31 . a innisin . . . na hoibreacha, RSClára 19a . With follg. DI (partitive): a foróil bess lib dinaib anib, Wb. 16c22 . is mór a thorbe de dúnni, 1a3 .

(b) With abstract noun forming adverbial phrase modifying verb of follg. rel. clause: is e a erat fritammiurat `that is the (lit. its) length of time they will hurt me', Ml. 33a1 . a lére ropridchissi, Wb. 24c17 . ba sed a barbardacht atraachtatar, MU² 494 . ara ḟoillsi ┐ ara imchuibde ro indis scéla Crist, Trip.² 13 . a imisle ro bui sé isin comlunn, Stair Erc. 1134 . a dhoimhne do chuaidh an cló, Dán Dé xxiii 24 . fo bhīthin a onōraighi airmitnighi rothaisspēin a s[h]upāilce mōrthrōcairecha dhōip, Fl. Earls 170.22 . In the follg. the phrase is adjectival rather than adverbial: a lomnachtaighe fhágbhas an bás iad, TSh. 657 . a threise atá an chlí, Dán Dé xxiii 10 .

(c) Anticipating a following clause. With finite verb: is mó a fius deitsiu a ndo-rigeni di maith, Wb. 30a8 . a dérbad co n-id fír na hí atberimsi, PH 2036 . a lorgairecht cionnus congbhaidhther . . ., RSClára 135b . a mheas gur dlisdionach, Donlevy vi 20 . Note also: aní rongéni ho gnimaib á epert , Ml. 31b24 . With vn.: dorucadar a buideachus risna deithib Ercuil d'iaraidh a n-ingine, Stair Erc. 937 . a thecht dim bas d'faghail don te, 2549 . a theacht de sin é do chailleamh an ghill, TSh. 10638 .

Common in compd. prepp., see dáil, 1 degaid, 1 deóin, dochum, éis, 1 muin, 1 son, etc.

1 aicde

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 aicde or dil.ie/769
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: aice

n also aice , f. perh. vn. of ad-guid see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 551 . bond, surety, security: a.¤ .i. trebaire ┐ desmirecht air, a.¤ mac .i. mac nascaire, O'Curry 2077 (H. 4.22, f. 67). cu na dleiste do dune gumud cuma a epert ┐ a a.¤ acht do grádh sechta i.e. certain grades made themselves liable by simply giving verbal undertakings(?), O'D. 943 ( H 3.17, 660 ). duine bud cuma epirt ┐ a.¤ i.e. a man whose word is as good as his bond, Laws iii 326.26 Comm. ; 4.15 Comm. Cf. O'Dav. 795 . isit esinnricc manib cuma a n-epert ┐ a n-aice, Laws v 358.20 Comm. (cf. innann a nepert ┐ a narach, O'Curry 535 ( H 3.18, p. 265b = CIH iii 795.33 )). cred é cuma epert ┐ aige? . . . .i. commór a apart do féin ┐ ba huca thoghaidhe leis trebaire aire, O'Curry 1383 ( H 3.18, p. 629a ). aicc macu hi fiacha . . . do neoch imme fuigle in aicdiu from someone who gives decisions in matters affecting security, Laws ii 130.10 . dairt for a roach (.i. for a fiadnaise), colbdach for a aiciu (leg. aicdiu Thurn. ZCP xv p. 366 ) (.i. for a naidm) bo for a aitire, ZCP xiii 24.6 . ni direnaiter ni herenaiter aigde, O'Curry 824 ( H 3.18, p. 379a ). ni saigh ni a aicdiu .i. . . . ni astait ní na aitire, O'Curry 1990 (H. 4.22, p. 25). nach fer aici ┐ comit[h]echta, Anecd. iii 24.23 . mar do beith araind urradh / fan cunnradh do chenglamair / as i aice as annsa ann / damsa is caite re chomhall, 23 E 29, 81.4 . aicdhe .i. comhall, O'Cl. Note also aice .i. treabh (for trebaire?), ib. ?fochraic aicidi .i. log na haici ma diubart iar fis ┐ trebaire, O'Curry 1989 (H. 4.22 , 25 ). ? haice .i. ecaidhe nó deroil no eraise, ut est haice cach rath co rath tire .i. . . . is deroil cach ni doberar isin rath co tir, O'Dav. 1069 .

1 airle

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 airle or dil.ie/2185

Forms: airli

, f. Also airli ( d s. for n s.?). Used as vn. of airlithir.

(a) act of advising, giving counsel; counsel, advice: ecnaid cráibthech dot airli advising thee, Ériu i 197 § 15 . do a.¤ comairli duid-siu, IT ii2 190.26 ( do thabuirt comuirli duit-si, v.l.). cate for n-arle?, MU² 969 . tāthut a.¤ lim-sa fris, Sc.M² 3 . tathut a.¤ limsa de, LU 9668 . cade do airlisiu immi, 9750 . ni fo airmirt ind a.¤ , YBL 136b12 . is hī mo a.¤ dūib . . ., ACL iii 3.27 . cen a a.¤ dam without his being advised by me, Lism. L. 184 . ba hí a.¤ ro cinnsiot, AFM vi 2060.1 . measam airli iargāis wisdom after the event is the most useless kind of advice(?), ACL iii 230.152 . ar it ferr airli oldās a.¤ for the counsels of many are better than the advice of one, ZCP xi 86 § 42 . Liag ropo lán d'arlib, LL 205bz . airle .i. comhairle, O'Cl.

(b) act of deliberating, considering, taking counsel: a mbath . . . ac arle ind rig `while they held counsel about a king', Ériu vi 134.32 . bátar a chéli oc airli a n-airle immuich their enemies were considering their plan outside, MU² 977 . ro tinoilet in uile rigraid . . . do denum a n-a.¤ a naenbaile, BB 426a22 .

(c) handling, management, treatment: arna érbarthar o chretsit nintá airli armban gl. subditas uiris suis `we have not the management(?) of our wives', Wb. 31c7 . issed as doirbem de uerbo airli sechmadachti foirbthi gl. cuius difficillime est tractatio `the treatment(?) of the perfect preterite', Sg. 168a1 . dligid rimæ oc airli kal—`the law of calculating in settling(?) the kalends', 181a8 . issí ar [n]daga.¤ (sic leg.) gl. contenti sumus, we are well provided for, Wb. 29b17 . ba móu epert in cach ré / a.¤ Dé fri hErind [n-]ūaig, Hail Brigit 2 . forbond dodomanic as dom moo áirli as dom moo cumachtu, LU 10012 = ZCP xviii 197 (`welche gewaltiger ist als meine Handlungs-fähigkeit').

airm

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airm or dil.ie/2231

Forms: armand

n f. n p. armand, LU 11056 . place: is sruith ind a.¤ indid epiur, Wb. 4b26 . isind airmm gl. ubi, 4d2 . hu a.¤ gl. e rigione, Ml. 119a8 . a.¤ cussu rucad i slait / is í tuc ainm dond Eoraip, LL 16354 . rancatar co a.¤ i mboí F., LU 3350 ( SCC 14 ). acht co fíasur in n-a.¤ atá, 3373 (ib. 16). dia cloisir do guth cosin a.¤ seo, Laws v 190.7 Comm. Compd. 'na harmfocus `near at hand', Ériu xvi 161 § 8 . a.¤ .i. ionadh, O'Cl.

With the interrog. part. cía a.¤, cairm in what place? where?: ni fiastar som cia a.¤ indid immaircide do epert amén, Wb. 12d18 . cairm (.i. ubi .i. cid cairm .i. ubi) i cúala clūas `where hath ear of anyone heard it? Thes. ii 332.5 (Hy. v). cairm in tibre dam? where wilt thou give (it) to me? Trip.² 1939 . cisi a.¤ hi táside?, LU 3346 ( SCC 13 ). indid damse cit n-armand / hi fil chend erred Ul[ad], LU 11056 . ro chanustar C. ca ha.¤ a fuil D., MR 178.17 .

As conj. where (see GOI p. 546 ): a.¤ i fuirsitis in torcc arimbad and furruimtis a praintech there where they should find a boar, there they should put their refectory, Thes. ii 242.4 (Ardm.). a.¤ i naisṅdethat de dubiis generibus `the place in which they treat of double genders', Sg. 70b13 . a.¤ hi foí, BDD² 488 . a marbadh a.¤ ar saraigh comurba Brigde, RC xvii 381.9 . dóig rafetatar a.¤ condricfaitis na da curaid, LL 10234 . a.¤ .i. baile no inad . . . muna bat reille relltecha a.¤ concurtar cuir, O'Dav. 158 . nach a.¤ wherever: nach a.¤ indatochrathar im imséna `wherever they may happen to be concerned about a conflict of evidence', Críth G. 418 and n. nach a.¤ ata homo his isin scriptuir is do tormach aprisce doen da scripthuir, Hib. Min. 13.454 . nach a.¤ im mbid naidm, Laws v 368.12 Comm.

? 1 amall

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? 1 amall or dil.ie/3075

n roart lessom epert friusom intsamli dæ statim act cid a.¤ is hed dodechuid de `though slowly this is what has come of it' (i.e. this is the result, though it may be slow), Wb. 24c10 . See Celtica i 339 and cf. 1 admall.

1 ansae

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ansae or dil.ie/3771
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: ins(a)e, ins(a)e

(ass(a)e). Also ins(a)e, see GOI 544 . Always ins(a)e in Wb. in positive copula sentences, Thurn. ZCP i 5 .

I Adj. io, iā. Not used attrib. in O. Ir. Glosses.

(a) hard, difficult (to do): is insæ in ball do thinchosc neich asberad cenn, Wb. 13a19 . Frequ. in phr. is a.¤ do: nipa anse dúib mo intsamil, Wb. 19d18 . niba anse duit, 29d21 . amal nách nannse ṅdúib, 6d9 . is inse a ndímiccem, 4c2 . is inse ṅduit, 5b28 . ba inse dún epert gue, 14c29 . ni anse són, Ml. 45d20 . ba ansa dóib immthecht i tír, Trip.² 1525 . cid ansa don curp `if it is hard for the body', Mon. Tall. 149.22 (§ 60) . bá ansa damsa óenadaig / la demon co n-ír, LU 9441 . is andso (.i. is dolig) dam-sa ém a brethugud, 8777 . atá nech risnid andsa (.i. risnad dolig), 4004 ( SCC 45 ). is indsa don memor cachtad in cind, Laws iv 54.22 Comm. mo thaeb dess is mo tháeb clé / andsa mess for cechtar de, LL 9463 . dambad fherddi in cóiced a bith ace ra blíadain ni hindsa a bith ace it is not impracticable for him to have it, MU² 84 . Adv. ní géis co ansa do not make a difficult request, LU 3487 ( SCC 26 ). Of persons hard (to cope with), troublesome: dindí as na.¤ . . . á cenél sin `for that that nation is troublesome', Ml. 104a6 .

The phrase ní ha.¤ is commonly used to introduce an answer to a question in meaning well, as a matter of fact: cannas ro hainmniged? nī hannsa. Léna mac R. . . ., Sc.M² 23 . cid ara n-eperr Críth Gablach ? ní anse: arindí crenas . . ., Críth G. 1 . ced ón, cía sút ? ní hannsa . . . Conchobar . . ., MU² 550 . cindus nodngebtar ? . . . ninsa, Mon. Tall. 140.27 (§ 33) . cait a mbi si . . . ninsa .i. ni handsa, Laws v 2.7 Comm.

(b) hard in sense of unpleasant, unfortunate, sad: an cádhus do chleacht idir / ionnsa a dhul a ndímhigin (of poetry), Studies 1923, 421 § 3 . ionnsa don truaill-se atá umainn / an lá fhuair-se urraim uain `bad for this body of mine the day I spared it', Dán Dé xix 3 . ionnsa saor-shlat gan a síol / sníomh liom-sa th'Aonmhac, a ógh `sad that branch robbed of its seed', xxvi 37 . mar tám is ionnsa lem aithghin `my state is hard for one like me', Studies 1919, 74 § 13 . innsa re n-áes cumtha cóir / . . . / a dal ar lúi mara móir, BNnÉ 97 § 3 . cid innsa oc Mongḟind though it be unpleasant for M., Ériu iv 96 § 20 .

(c) In attrib. use: in leó húathmar a.¤ formidable , BDD² 515 . laech ansa do dingbail a gasciud fon samail, LU 6205 (TBC). tír ṅdúaig . . . co n-ócaib ansib, TBFr. 386 . ruc mac n-annsa die muintir troublesome(?), Corm. Y 878 . dús in [n]dernsaid nach gním n-insa `evil deed', Celtica iv 20.240 . a Comgaill cáid annsa 'o dear holy Comgall' Éigse xiv 20 § 7 .

Compar. ansu, Ml. 85c14 ; 95d13 ; 131b4 (see Suppl.) gl. gravius, cf. 133a4 . ánsu de (andsati v.l.), Trip.² 2593 . iss andsu dúib ind naithir fail ocon dún, TBFr. 414 . ba handsu dó meic Nectain / do chur assa prímlepthaib, TBC-LL¹ 1479 . imraidset . . . nípád ansu C. acht tuctha a cletíne airi, LU 5802 (TBC). andso dóib ma tát i péin / cen adrad Ríg roithes gréin things will be more difficult for them if they fail to . . ., LL 4167 . comtis annso a phiana oldas mar ata, Ériu ii 142 § 152 . gnim rob indsa dún, LB 116b46 .

Superl.: a n-as ansam diib (of difficulties), Wb. 10b1 . cid as andsam (.i. dolgi) lib ropridchastar in clerech, LU 9746 . inn é sin as andsam fil la Ultu hardest to deal with, 4837 . tene bas andsom lat dod loscud `the fire thou most dreadest to burn thee', Mon. Tall. 136.16 (§ 24) . andsum dire treibdire most difficult to assess or give a ruling on, Laws iii 458.12 . secht frithberta . . . ada andsum do ursciathu[d], v 290.17 . annsom i notrus . . . biatad ┐ tarrsunn `most difficult in nursing', BCrólige 24 . it e . . . ata andsam . . . oc sáigded, Alex. 504 . cid as andsom leat tucais? `what was hardest for thee to bring?', ZCP i 459.10 . ? Attrib. fer croda annsam chain . . ., TBC-I¹ 3169 . mac dorighne écht n-annsom, Cóir Anm.² ii 46 § 162 .

II As subst. difficulty, trouble: nacham tair olc na hindsa, LB 106b48 . luach é gan ionnsa, BNnÉ 204 § 49 . da indsa dec in domain abuses, Flower Cat. 489.3 . ní eadar gá ionnsa as mhó what greater difficulty(?), Dán Dé xxvi 28 . is cead liomsa a Dhé mo dhul / beag n-ionnsa é do eadar I know it is not difficult to say, xxv 17 . uch cid ro batar dam-sa / na ro ḟegsat ardinsa `great vexations', TFerbe 479 . Superl. used as subst.: dethfir itir in andsum ┐ in ecmacht: in t-annsum .i. is doiligh do neoch an fadbail, Laws v 222.7 Comm.

apartu

Cite this: eDIL s.v. apartu or dil.ie/3870

n n. See LEIA Translated blessing on basis of Laws Comm. im abartain .i. iman nemabartain, im nembendachad, O'D. 501 (H 3.17, 404) = im opartain, Laws i 124.2 = ium opuirtuin, O'D. 62 (H 3.17, c. 54) = im fopartain .i. sechtmad fairirid neich isin opertain, O'Curry 792 ( H 3.18, 369a ); cf. abbartu .i. sechtmad fuiririth in duine gaibther isin apartain, is sī a epert tēchta. Is ar a epert didiu namā dober in duine diaraile sin, nī ar airilliud chenae, acht epert dó fria cēle: notgaibim i n-apartain. Ar chobele didiu doberar, Corm. Y 61 . sechtmadh lanbiata in graid na derna in bendachadh na h-aicdi . . . gabar isin apartain, Laws i 132.25 Comm. and n. athgabail . . . im apartain, 150.4 .i. sechtmadh lanbiata na mna na derna in bennachadh . . . .i. nembennachadh doni in ben ar aicdi na mna eile, 152.7 Comm.

1 ar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ar or dil.ie/3902

Forms: ar, air, er, eir, air, er, ar, arin,, airind, air, airnaib, armo, aire, aratobarr, arandéntar, arambiat, ara, armbad, ara, arindepur, aridlabrathar, arna, áirium, erum, erumm, erom, erut, ærut, airiut, airut, airiut, aurut, airiu, airi, airi, erre, airri, airre, airthe, erunn, erund, erond, airiund, airriun, airund, airib, airibsi, airiubsi, airiuibsi, eruibsi, erru, erriu, erro, airriu, airiu, erthu, airthiu, airtho, airib, airaib, or(u)m, or(u)t, air, uirre, orainn, oirinn, oraib, orru, orrtha

prep., leniting, with accus. and dat. See GOI § 823 , Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 150 , Frazer, ZCP viii 5 , Williams, Celtica ii 305 ; IGT Introd. § 130 .

Usually spelt ar. air, Ml. 51c2 , 2d2 ; er, 122a16 , BB 449a10 ; eir, Ériu iv 180 § 39 . The spellings air, er, etc. (more freq. in later lang.) and the modern pronunciation show that O. Ir. ar as simple prep.was replaced by a conflation of airi and fo(i)r (3 s. n. of 1 ar and 1 for).

In Mid. Ir. 1 for and 1 íar are frequently spelt ar. See III, IV below and the articles on these words.

With article arin, -int, -a, etc. Note also airind, Ml. 31b17 , air ind, 53a15 . arndi (= arindí), Ériu vii 138.4 . airnaib, Ml. 110d9 .

With poss. armo (m'), -do (t'), -a, -ar, -far (-bar) etc. Note also ar mh'éigse, Content. ix 26 . aire slicht, L. Chl. S. 2 .

With rel. part. ara: aratobarr, Wb. 12d29 . arandéntar, 2a10 . cid arambiat , Ml. 56b9 . ara n-eperr, Críth G. 1 . With copula: cid armbad , Wb. 11a19 . cidar impotabis, Ml. 56a13 . cid arnabu son, ib. ardott áigthe, LU 5656 = arṅdotāigi, TBC-I¹ 1178 (taking áigthi as vbl. of necess.). ara trēn, ACL iii 239 § 32 . ara n-amra, ZCP vii 312 § 26 . Before inf. pron. arindepur, Wb. 5a31 . aridlabrathar, 7d2 . With neg. arna airecht, Sg. 198b3 . arnach faca, ZCP xiii 169.13 .

With pron. suff. Early forms. 1 s. áirium, Wb. 7a12 . erum, LL 286a25 . erumm, PH 1397 . erom, 1503 . 2 s. erut, Wb. 27d19 , 29d7 , YBL 326b42 , PH 6565 . ærut, Ml. 2d8 . airiut, Blathm. 569 , LL 289b30 . airut, LU 8086 . GOI § 437 also gives airiut, aurut without reff. as `old forms which occur only in later sources' ( p. 272 ). 3 s. m. and n. GOI § 437 gives airiu as the dat. form (cf. airiu, O'Dav. 22 ?), airi as the accus. airi is the usual form passim in the early language. Cf. áiri, Wb. 11b21 . f. (accus. and dat. not distinguished) erre, Irish Texts i 3 § 8 (sic MS. See Ir. Hist. Stud. i 347 ). airri, SR 405 (emended to airre, GOI § 437 ). airthe, LL 286a7 . 1 pl. erunn, Wb. 15d13 , Ériu ii 124 § 65 . erund, LU 597 . erond, 588 . airiund, TBC-I¹ 170 . airriun, ZCP xi 110 § 26 . airund, LU 593 . 2 pl. airib, Wb. 20a3 , 22d25 , 27c19 , Metr. Dinds. iv 232.33 . airibsi, Wb. 14d25 , a33 , 16a26 . airiubsi, 15c1 , 17a5 . airiuibsi, 16c23 . eruibsi, 27d7 . Ml. 2a11 . 3 pl. acc. erru, Wb. 4d20 , 11a29 ; ZCP ii 315.26 . erriu, Wb. 9c8 , 11a20 . erro, LL 289b30 . airriu, Wb. 15a23 , 21d11 , O'Dav. 985 . airiu, Wb. 11d11 , Laws iv 176.7 . erthu, LL 280a1 . RC viii 154 § 5 . airthiu, LU 4915 . ZCP viii 310.22 . airtho, TBC-I¹ 409 . dat. airib, Laws iv 162.2 . airaib, 114.21 Comm.

In later lang. all pronominal forms influenced by those of for, giving or(u)m, or(u)t, air, uirre (uirthe), orainn (oirn. oirinn, O'Gr. Cat. 556.25 ), oraib ( oirb, BColm. 100.3 ), orru (orra, orrtha), etc.

The presumed distinction between ar with accus. when motion is implied and with dat. when no motion is implied ( Zeuss 622 ; with reservations Vendryes Gramm. § 283 ; see also Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 73 - 74 , Williams loc. cit.) appears most clearly in the stereotyped phrases ar chenn towards, ar chiunn ahead of, before (see 1 cenn): ar beolu towards, ar bélaib before, in front of (see bél). The dat. is usual in ar cach láu daily (see ) and in ar thosuch ( Sg. 203a7 , see tosach). Usage is less clear outside fixed phrases, and that of the various collections of O. Ir. glosses differs (the available material is also much reduced by the frequent identity of form of a s. and d s. of nouns). The accus. is regular in Wb. in senses of taking away from and counting as , and also in glosses on Lat. ob, the dat. where the meaning is with regard to, instead of and in glosses on Lat. super. Both cases are found where the meaning is for the sake of, because of . In Ml. accus. is constant only in set phrases. The dat. is usual in meaning counts as , do-beir ar (for?) calls and in glosses on Lat. dat. without preposition (ar gentib gl. gentibus, 78a12 , 89c2 ) and where a Lat. compd. noun is treated as two words (arintinmlegun gl. promulgatione, 71c18 ). In general use the meanings saving from, instead of, in meaning of, in return for, on account of, because of, for the sake of, for the purpose of are all found both with accus. and dat. In Sg. the meanings instead of and on account of are found with both cases. See also IGT Introd. § 130 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 2 - 4 , 17 , 20 (where detailed rules are given for accus. and dat. both with simple ar and for compd. preps. such as ar aghaidh, etc.).

I

(a) Much less freq. in concrete or physical meanings than in more abstract ones. Perh. before, in front of in (case of follg. noun not certain): dá [n]dorus [n-]and, comla[e] ar ala n-aí, clíath ar alailiu (-e, MS.) `in front of' (Gloss.), Críth G. 100 . ar Tuatha Dé Danann `before the T.D.D.', Ériu xii 152 § 15 (TE). cethridoruis airri (recte airre) im-mach, SR 405 . ó beit fíanna fer nÉrenn ┐ Alban do Chonaire ar thig, BDD² 1416 . Cf. 1081 , 1400 , 1492 . ? airiu . . . iarmo in front of it . . . behind it(?), O'Dav. 22 . Cf. airber .i. frit anair bere .i. eter do dī lāim, ar is fort muin bere ere [n-]aile, Corm. Y 58 . Acc. to Binchy, SCano p. 33 , frequent in meaning east of, the only example cited being: acon loch ar Mag Aí `by the lake east of Mag Aí', Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 32 § 2 (`on'). Cf. Airbri .i. fri Bri Eli anair, O'Mulc. 70 = Dinds. 16 ( RC xv 308 ). ? a nAicill ar Temair, Anecd. i 17.1 . Cf. perh. Síd ar Femin, LU 7846 ( BDD 140 ), etc. (or for al?). Perh. orig. with concrete force also in: do té(i)t aitire ar ḟer feras in fuil, Críth G. 52 `goes surety for', Gloss. Concrete meaning is perh. also to be assumed in the phrases agaid ar (late, orig. for?), ar agaid, ar amus, ar beolu, ar bélaib, bél ar bél, ar chenn, ar chiunn, ar dorus, ar dreich, ar fed, ar gnúis, ar leth, ar medón, ar ṡúil, ar thosuch, ar thús, ar úairib. See under the nouns concerned. With more abstract force in ar aí, ar apu (see 3 aí, 1 apa). Here may also be included: doire acummisc arúir `of their being mixed with mould', Wb. 13d3 . úachtar ar lemlacht dó mixed with, Críth G. 63 . loim midc do chumasc ar usciu `to mix a sip of whey with water', Mon. Tall. 143.25 . ba fial ṅdō buith arnaib ōcaib, cēin dogēni calma among, TBC-I¹ 1266 = LU 5739 . ? tiucfa in mac cētna ar bar cloind, ZCP viii 563 § 27 (for?). Perh. for for in: ó fó-certa a ṡrúb ar géscoe against a branch, BDD² 349 (= ar gésce, 355 ). conadh ar x. míli cathrach do shiublaighdis techta Magnuis Cam . . . ō maduin co fescor `to ten thousand cities', Marco P. 96 .

Rarely of time. See ariu before .

(b) In the follg. exx. the meaning is also more or less concr., though the precise meaning of the prep.is obscure, and it would be possible to consider them as early exx. of the replacing of for by ar (see III, and fo-ceird III): arnarala for cubus áiri, Wb. 11b21 (see note). Cf. focheird mo menma airi `my mind is set on him', Ériu ii 92 § 2 . ón lá tarrla ar n-airi air, iv 220.27 . torala dia archeill do degnimu su `let God bring to mind thy good deeds', Ml. 43b15 . iscor lame ardodced buith ocairbiathad sainte gl. nam qui volunt divites f[i]eri, incidunt in temptationem, Wb. 29b18 . ? Cf. ni comarleiced (.i. nir cetaig) dó cor lamha aire (.i. dul do sacarbhaic) cin foghlaim, Trip.² 243 . mabeidní dirúnaib dothéi armenmuin indfir, Wb. 13a12 . Note also: arnaib réib ilib gl. et qui ascendit super omnes caelos, 22a8 .

(c) In compd. numerals (with dat., see Celtica ii 312 ): a n-óen ar fichit (fichet, MS) the twenty-one, Ml. 2d2 . cóic míli ochtmugat ar chét one hundred and eighty five thousand, 34b17 . a ocht deac ar chét, BCr. 32d2 . deichinbair ar dib fichtib ar trib cétaib, Trip.² 3104 . secht cathae ar chetharchait / ar secht cétaib is huilliu, ZCP viii 313.34 . cōicer ar ceithri fichtib, 219.29 . fer ar sheisir seven men, Celt. Rev. x 348.23 . fri re tri n-aidhche ar mís, RC xviii 162.32 . Note also: tāinic buiden mōr . . . dōig lim is ar trichaid cēt inti approximately(?), TBC-I¹ 3142 (text perh. faulty).

II In a wide variety of abstract meanings for the most part deriving independently from those given under I.

(a) for, for the sake of, on behalf of, etc. (often gl. Lat. pro) (with accus. and dat. See Celtica ii 309 ): cia dudrigni dia mór di maith erriu, Wb. 11a20 . innahí dorigeni Día ar maccu Israhel, 30 . mirabilia dorígeni Dia ar maccaib Israhel, 28 . massu arinbethid . . . dagníu, 13c11 . mor ní as dénti ní airriu, 15a23 (in sense of mod. déanaim rud ar I obey, see Thes. Suppl. 51 ). niarséuti . . . robcarsi tíamthe, 23d4 . ar erchru gl. pro defectu, Ml. 31a4 . dusrigeni dia erru amal robu thol doib, 54a34 . fri assaru ar maccu israhel gl. rerum gestarum (testimonio), 94d2 . ara bǽsaib som .i. ar denum a thule gl. pro suis ritibus laborantes, 87b20 . a ndorigēnai in rí / do ḟertaib ar ṡanct Brigti, Thes. ii 332.4 (Hy. v). or ar Bran nailither, 286.34 (inscr.). lānamain . . . nī fil etarscarad dōib acht ar Dia, Corm. Y 824 . léicfider cach bean do mnáib airiut thou wilt be preferred to all other women, BDD² 59 . ar ghaol for the sake of relationship, Studies 1918, 99 § 15 . dorindedh mainistreacha ┐ sepeil le ar anmain Gyi `for the soul of G.' ZCP vi 90.11 . See also under meince, 1 pairt. Freq. in sense of (praying) for, see airnigde, guide, guidid, oráit.

(b) for the sake of, by in adjurations and invocations: dilig dam . . . / ar Maire n-amra n-Ingin, SR 7820 . ar do chumachtae . . . tesaircc dam-sa mo chūrcha, BColm. 54.3 . ar do thrīnōiteacht, a Thrīnōit, ACL iii 241 § 2 . ar t'fhírinni riutsa, na furáil etc. by thy honour, CCath. 1659 . ar na deib rib, TTebe 4025 . síol Ádhaimh . . . / ar do thocht díobh slánaigh sinn, Dán Dé ix 22 .

(c) on account of, because of (with accus. and dat. Glossing Latin ob, pro, propter): ar ar comoicsi do bás on account of, Wb. 14b25 . aracethardese gl. quam ob causam, 31b24 . ob mirationem .i. airinn adamrugud, Ml. 61a15 . ar chosmaili ind fochuinn diaragbtha gl. causae uicinitate, 35b24 . ar ét im chrabud gl. pro zelo religionis, 36d24 . arna lithu gl. propter cultús diuini festa, 47b2 . arna pecthu immefolngat guasacht do anmin gl. propter animae pericula, 7 . cid arnaibhisiu .i. arnaib hi forodamarsa gl. ob ista, 58d13 . ní ar pianaib do thabairt forru `not on account of the infliction of punishments upon them', 114b7 . ara foirbthetu fadesin, Wb. 6c19 . tocombaig a ṡlán ara ḟornert because of, Críth G. 415 . ar ṡóethaib because of grievances, 581 . ar ilar a imarbus, ZCP viii 104.7 . Corco Bāiscind ar a nert / nī damaid cert d'Eoganacht, v 500.16 .

With a variety of nouns in more or less stereotyped phrases: ar na h-ádhbharaibh sin for those reasons, ML 58.11 . ar[a] airmitin som through respect for him, Ériu iv 30.23 . ar t'ḟuath, i 97.32 . ni diles ni doberar ar uathbas `nothing is lawful which is given out of terror', Laws iv 286.25 . See also under áis, cairde, 1 cúis, 1 écndairc, éicen, ecla, 1 gart, midlachas, miscais, omun, sant, serc, úacht, etc.

Common with abstr. nouns from adjj. in the construction: nīr fētatar a tōcbāil ar a truma because of her weight = because she was so heavy, Anecd. iii 9.8 . ar dúire a drochdelba, Ériu iv 102.16 . ar ḟebus na cuidechtae because the company was so excellent, BColm. 78.18 . ar a laechdacht, ZCP viii 318.12 . ar cumga in puill nír féd dul amach, Ériu v 49.7 . in senadh ic á adhradh ar a uaisle, CCath. 334 . ar ghoire do ghaoil, Dán Dé xi 11 . Without poss. or gen.: cona tisa . . . in dam tarais ar airdi (a fence), Laws iv 76.19 Comm.

Freq. in advv.and conjj. in O. Ir. glosses. 3 s. n. as adv. on account of it, therefore: fristemlighter cid ind aier airi, Ml. 73c2 . ni bad pronomen airi, Sg. 203b2 . isairi doroigu dia geinti hore . . . this is why . . . because, Wb. 5b12 . is airi inso rogabad som hi rige, Ml. 14a4 . cinid airi doberr desimrecht acht ar atrebthach nand, Sg. 35b13 . With article and i: arindi gl. eo, Sg. 190a4 . ni arindí . . . sed quia not because . . . but because, 5a4 . arindisin gl. ei, Ml. 54c6 . arndi furumai sár for cach toil, Ériu vii 138.3 . With se: ní nád ṁbed arse di chorp gl. ideo, Wb. 12a22 . arse gl. ob hoc, Ml. 18d15 , gl. qua re, 29d1 . isarse gl. quo circa, Enchir. Aug. 70b , 81b ( ZCP vii 480 , 484 ). airechas ceneóil airsiu (leg. airsin? edd. airriu, Ped. MS Index to Wb. glosses) ní airechas fidei, Wb. 1b12 . Later: air sin on account of that, CCath. 2350 . Note also: ar a smuaintighib do beith . . . a mbeat[h]aidh an tigerna so that his thoughts might be in, etc., BCC § 5 (cf. ara).

(d) instead of, in place of, as substitute for, in meaning of (meaning confined to O. Ir. glosses. With dat., occas. with accus.): arnab geintib huilib taken as referring to all the Gentiles gl. Iudeos et Grecos omnes, Wb. 2a15 . foirbthe ar anfoirbthu gl. decem milia, a perfect (number) for an imperfect, 9a10 . corda .i. arin duiniu huli lesom gl. a parte totum, Ml. 53a2 . todochide ar sechmadachtae n-anfoirbthe gl. commotatio . . . temporum `future for imperfect', 62a16 . arnaib bolcaib gl. pro uesicis, 99a4 . fogur cechtar de ar alaliu ┐ fogur na liter naile airriusom, Sg. 4a8 . ni roscríbad ar naill (leg. ar na aill, edd.), 6b3 . a ṡuidigud ar anmmaimm dílius, 27a1 .

Often with as-beir, do-beir etc.: dobeir inso arnab uilib cumactib gl. supra omnem principatum et potestatem et uirtutem et dominationem, Wb. 21a13 . epert innan (MS. inna) aisndisen arnaib gnimaib gl. dicit autem non quia talia locuti sunt Scribae . . . sed quia talia fecerint, Ml. 16d3 . a ndurigni duaid in gnim sin in tengad do airbirt ar gnimaib in choirp, 31b24 . intan asmbersom pes ┐ manus nochis arnaib gnimaib són dungniat som honaib ballaib hisin atbeirsom, 56b3 . tri suidigud dosom inna cluas arin chorp huiliu, 60b16 . arnaib fedaib sonartaib ardaib gl. pro terribilibus arbustís cedros possuit, 146a6 .

The idiom ad-rími ar counts as (with accus. and dat.) is prob. to be assigned to this section: ní ármisom ar chumactte, Wb. 6a1 . cenid ar chomsuidigthib adrímther inna fortórmach so, Sg. 202a5 . See ad-rími. With LA: petra les arin trediusa sís he takes petra as standing for, Ml. 60a7 . in loc lesom híc arnaib aitrebthidib gl. a loco habitatores intellegite, 144c3 .

(e) in return for, in exchange for, as price of, in payment for, as equivalent of (with accus.): airitiu lóge ar mo precept in return for, Wb. 10d31 . rotbīa a lōg airi you shall have a reward for it, TBC-I¹ 585 . is lá cach(a) tíre do-tét dlega(i)r aire `is due for it', Ériu xvii 70.4 . Freq. do-beir lóg etc. ar: ainm indlóge doberr domiledaib armílte, Wb. 3c1 . intan dobera Dia fochraicci ar degnimu, Ml. 90c14 . screpul doberar do gilli . . . ar comaitecht do neuch o pecad `a groat that is given to a lad for accompanying someone in a sin', Mon. Tall. 143.9 . nī tibur-so in tinnscra sin(ee) cid ar Meidb C. feissin I wouldn't give a brideprice like that for M. herself, ZCP iv 39.7 (cf. TBFr. 185 ). ní conrogab terochraic . . . ar forbrissiud fir truaig `reward for oppressing a wretched man', Ml. 36a32 . ni riat na dánu diadi ara n-indeb domunde sell for, Wb. 28c2 . ríthæ . . . ar ech ndonn, Thes. ii 240.1 (Ardm.). tale damsa a log ar epert do firinne lat, Ml. 36a32 . síodh Dhé 'gá ceannach ar chrodh being bought for herds, Dán Dé xxvii 33 . With vbs. of leaving, abandoning: ni dérsid for sóiri ar fognam, Wb. 20b10 . roleicc creitim ar in paganacht he left the faith for paganism, Anecd. iii 72.28 . as uime do trēig Temraigh / ar Chend Maghair, ZCP viii 108.19 . Denoting preference: ragaid duit aire . . . rígi hÉrend in preference to him, BColm. 68.18 . do mholfuinn fear an leithléighinn 'gá mbíadh beatha ghlan . . . arfhear láinléighinn 'gá mbíadh beatha némhthromdha, Mac Aingil 4782 .

(f) for the purpose of, in order to obtain (as far as the exx. serve with accus. in Wb. and dat. in Ml. The exx. from Wb. given here, however, could equally be referred to the preceding section): precept arbiad in order to obtain food, Wb. 10d13 . madarlóg pridchasa, 23 . is arnach nindocbáil móir fodaimim se inso, 23b12 . asberat isar indeb isdénti tol dǽ, 29b12 . arind etarimdibiu (arindetar imdibiu, MS.) gl. pro interfectione aduersariorum, Ml. 36b23 . ar chuindriug pectho gl. instrumentum est divinae iustitiae `for the correction of sin', 49b7 . gabthe dunad les fris arinoillus for protection, 55c1 . asberar ar thormuch pectha for the purpose of increasing sin(?), 76a5 . bliadain lán dano do M. [┐] a muindtir uli for usciu ┐ bargin ar tuaslucud anmae B. `to obtain the release of the soul of B.,' Mon. Tall. 133.29 . serc fochraici ara n-as[c]nam, piana do imchaisiu ara n-imgabail in order to avoid them, Ériu vii 138.28 . is rimsa . . . rohérbad ar eisnéis it is to me it was entrusted for relating, iv 144.21 . annsa lebur tuc sé dóib ar choimét a ndligid feín `for keeping', Maund. 61 . Also perh. in phrase ar olc fri, see olc (because of?).

(g) by virtue of, by means of, through (dat.): condenad fingail ar chuinged soinmige do gl. mercari peccato securitatem, Ml. 39a6 . ? ar gressaib gal / glenaid luch inna línsam `by feats of valour', Thes. ii 293.20 . ni ar lín óc brister cath, Ériu ix 47 § 18 . ar neart a n-engnama by dint of their prowess, ML² 286 . gaibsit tír and ar chlaideb by the sword, ZCP viii 313.21 .

(h) In general sense of in respect of, with regard to, in the matter of, relating to, etc. (appar. with dat.) (the ascription of some exx. to this section is tentative): desmrecht insin ar aimsir deirb that is an example of, Sg. 66b17 , cf. exemplum ara airiuc far diull tanaisiu, 106b20 , exemplum inso ara rangabalda asrubart, 39a5 . annsom hi taurgillib tairgille ar bechaib, Laws iv 162.1 . rucus tairgilli ar bechaib `für Bienen ist ein `tairgille' . . . zu stellen', ZCP xv 319 § 12 . ? isam ómun ar a aisnéis I am afraid to relate it, LU 5349 . is fon samla-sin . . /gníth . . . a cét-chumma / Temrach . . . / ar áibnius in beauty, Metr. Dinds. i 10.64 . fear feadhma deas ar gach ndān in every art, ZCP viii 562 § 16 . bean as ghloine ar ghníomharthaibh `purest in deeds', A. Ó Dálaigh xv 15 . issí eisimplair Crist . . . do lenfadís ar míne ┐ ar buaine, ar deirc ┐ ar trocaire, Maund. 123 . ro derscnaigh d'ógaibh a chomaoisi ar goil ┐ gaisccedh, Leb. Gab.(i) 200.7 . Also in phr. ar chuit, see cuit. For do-beir teist ar see teist. See airbág.

Common in phr. of type: teine . . . ar thes crabaidh (of a person) a fire . . . in heat of piety = a paragon of piety, Anecd. iii 5.19 . Muridach, ba muir ar crūa[i]s, ZCP viii 299.34 . deochain ar grādaib ┐ sacart ar ūaisle a deacon in rank and a priest in reputation, BColm. 82. 15 - 16 . ba laech ar gaisced, RC xxiv 184.4 . a éan choluim ar cheannsa, Dán Dé i 19 . mar lile ar lí, Dánta Gr. 30.14 .

(i) about (of stories, books, reading, etc. In late exx. only. Perh. orig. for in this meaning): iomda ar Lasair ferta amhra many wonderful miracles (are said to have been performed) by L., Ériu v 90.4 . is mebair linn . . . / in seanchus fil ar Mag Ráin the lore about M., iv 156.18 . Leabhar Oiris ┐ An[n]ála ar Cogthaibh . . . Éireann, i 78 . craoibsgaoileadh ar chath Cluana Tairbh description of the battle of C., 16 n. léighmid ar Alexander n-uaibhrech, etc., Mac Aingil 872 . léan ba sgéal ar fianaibh Fáil, Magauran 2790 . Cf. sgriobhthar ortha go . . ., Ó Héodhusa 68.16 .

(j) With verbs of depriving, stealing, hiding, lacking, etc. from (accus. and dat.): tri airchellad donaib sommaib a n-anae airnaib bochtaib, Ml. 90a11 . is amne asruluús airi, Wb. 17d16 . a manaig do béim ar Lommān, BColm. 84.16 . ní bēram-ne t'áthius ort we shall not take thy victory from thee, 74.22 . ni cumscaichthi cumachtae nairi gl. hoc potestatem literae motare non debuit, Sg. 6a5 . ni fil nach díchlith airi, Wb. 1a4 . tesbanat boíll aíriu, 11d11 . in dá ṡét tesbanat airi, Críth G. 130 . ní gette na brithemnachta becca erriu you would not snatch the petty judgements from them, Wb. 9c8 . nī gatar a forgall ar domun degmnā, Cáin Ad. 4 . a tellad errusom, Wb. 11a29 . dives cui (.i. isar) clam tollitur , Enchir. Aug. 76b ( ZCP vii 482.27 .)

(k) With verbs of protecting, saving from , defending against (accus. and dat.): ainsium Crīst ar cech nernbās, Thes. ii 352.4 (Hy. vi). Dīa dom chobair . . . / ar cech ṅgúasacht, 350.16 (ibid.). dia dítin ar in pecthach, Ml. 57c4 . dia diden . . . ar náimdib, Thes. ii 354.2 . airnaib imnedaib doneimni a dǽ, Ml. 110d9 . fri himdegail cuirp . . . ar demnaib, Thes. ii 354.4 . diar snádud . . . / ar gábud, 359.6 . for soirad ar senachrib, Ml. 33b21 . air ni bói numsoiradsa ar chumachtae ṅduini, 74b13 . Continuing a Latin construction: ar thes inna gréne són ┐ ara naimtib gl. quae etiam inumbraret eos et regeret, 97c4 . arnaib cumachtgaib gl. difensionem, 103c7 . arnaib hi sin gl. ut illis eripiat, 117b4 . defensionis . . . ar maccaib israhel, 124b10 . Note also: comad chādus ar cach ngúasacht that it might be a halidom against every danger, BColm. 96.10 . tucc dam a Dē mōir / . . . / ar pīanu na plāg / tonna dīana dēr, ACL iii 232 § 1 .

III In later lang. ar and for become a single preposition (often with surviving difference in follg. mutation, see the examples in Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 2 ff. ). The follg. are exx. of ar for earlier for. Of local relations (for I): imda gol gargc ar a brú many a fierce wail in its lap, BColm. 100.6 . ar saebchoire in a maelstrom, 94.12 . tarrúd úire ar airib / for leccaib ar láech-maigib, Metr. Dinds. iv 232.34 . seóit Cluana maic Nóis do foillsechadh ar Gallaib Luimnigh `were discovered with', RC xviii 53.12 . Of quasi-local relations, etc. (II). Of point of time (c): ar na tri soldomnaib `on the three chief feasts', Mon. Tall. 129.27 . ar notlaice ┐ caiscc ┐ cengciges, Ériu vii 150.30 . Of rule, sway, over (f): ba rī tenn ar Tūathmumain, ZCP viii 119.28 . flaithius ┐ forlamhus ar crichaib . . . na cruinne, CCath. 1 . In addition to (g): cotardda trá ar se mo chendsa ardo chend my head in addition to thine, RC iii 185.8 . credo ┐ pater . . . ar cech m-biait, xv 490 § 26 ( for cach mbiait, § 32 ). Affecting, afflicting, etc. (h): bíd oirb oman Dé do neim, BColm. 100.3 . trom orm a innisi, ZCP viii 200.25 . duaithnid ar dainib in domain incomprehensible to, Fen. 38. 16 . Subsisting on (j): ar geilt féoir feeding on grass, Ériu iv 156.12 . ar usci ┐ bairgin, RC xv 491 § 30 , cf. for usci ┐ bairgin, 490 § 26 . In a state or condition (k): na biad ar in mbreith sin `that she would not abide by that judgement', RC xxiv 196.1 . nírbo borg báeth ar bruidin it was not a foolish castle engaged in brawling, Metr. Dinds. i 32.46 . With vb. of motion: ge deach rī Conaill a ccēin / ar slūaiged rí Temhra tréin, ZCP viii 116.21 . To express the dativus incommodi (m): adbathadar uile thorad parrthais ar Adam `were forfeited by Adam', Laws iv 266.14 . adbathadar ar Aongus a thire, 15 . rogabsat tech air they stormed the house in which he was, BColm. 72.4 . ni cloifithir oirb bar cath, YBL 314b55 . Perh. also: ben clucc ar Cellach against, Cáin Ad. 18 . cogadh mór le Domnall . . . ar Brian, Ériu i 78.5 . In phrases (p): ar bith c[h]é on this earth, BColm. 100.3 . ar comairci C. under the protection of C., 86.28 . ar debaid in haste, LL 7493 . ar lár cháich in the midst of everybody, Ériu iv 222.28 . ar neam in heaven, Anecd. i 39.114 . ar ṡeilbh (sic leg.) éicsi, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1919, v 92 § 9 . With verbs (III): dorad min aire `put meal over it', Mon. Tall. 147.11 . dobert trian forcridi . . . ar chuid cach lae `added one third of water to the daily allowance', 7 . do thabairt geinti ar ireis, ZCP iii 22.6 .

Note also: rostatlaig ar thenn-medón he clasped her by the sturdy waist, Ériu iv 104.8 . roghabh nathraigh mbí ar bolgán `by the belly', CCath. 4194 .

IV Replacing ÍAR. Of time (I): ar cath Ch. after the battle of C., ZCP viii 314.18 . arsin, Ériu iv 132.1 . is ar sein anid sí co arnabárach thereupon she remains till the morrow, ZCP viii 309.20 . ar n-ēirghi grēine at the rising of the sun, ML² 1333 . sóaidh co brónach dia taigh ar marbadh a maic, RC xviii 45.31 . ar tteacht ór tticch, ZCP viii 219 § 13 . do bātar ar n-a crēchtnugad, ML² 386 . ar ngabāil gīall for Mumain, ZCP viii 119.31 . Of place (II): arsin t[s]eit along the way, Mon. Tall. 153.20 . ar slige Póil is Petair in the track of Paul and Peter, Ériu v 24.24 . According to (III): suidfither gach aon duine . . . ar miadh ┐ ar dligedh ┐ ar a sognim[r]adh, RC xxviii 22 § 49 . ar a fidhair fen do cruthaigh Día é in His own image, BCC § 408 .

For use as conjunction see 2 ar, 1 ara.

1 ard

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ard or dil.ie/4041
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: árd, árt, art, arad, arad, arrad, arruidṡliocht

also árd. árt, Wb. 24d9 . art, Thes. ii 235.15 . Somet. arad metri gratia, esp. in later lang.: arad, IT iii 104 § 202 . arrad, Ó Bruad. i 32 § xiv . arruidṡliocht, 23 G 24, 239.4 .

I Adj. o, ā

(a) Of objects not in contact with ground high: innahí ruptar ardda dunnai (of planets), Thes. ii 11.42 (BCr.). In compds. tri ardlémend, LU 4021 ( SCC 47 ). ard-luth a eich high motion, CCath. 4712 . ardnem na náemh, RC xxiv 372.25 . Cf. airdrenn, 2 airdrech.

(b) high above ground, elevated, lofty . Of a place: huand luc digas no a.¤ gl. e loco editiore, Ml. 58a12 . 47c19 . isna lucu arda, 23d23 . Of a mountain etc.: hi tilchaib ardaib, Ml. 14a9 . iter da sliab arda, TTebe 898 . Of a building etc.: gríanána . . . ardda, MU² 201 . i n-iomdhaidh aird raised high from floor(?), Magauran 1380 . Cf. compd. ¤-lepaid: iomdaighe ┐ árdleapthacha, RC xiv 30 § 12 . go rabat ind (leg. id ?) ardleabaidh / a mna a meic may they be in Thy high bed (place of honour ?), Anecd. ii 33 § 17 . mairidh an fhithchioll eagair / do h-imbearthaoi a n-áirdleabaidh, ML 50.6 . Of a tree tall: ind huinnius ardd, Sg. 67a11 . arnaib fedaib sonartaib ardaib, Ml. 146a6 . crann a.¤ , Stair Erc. 384 . Of a vessel in compds.: fó inbiur in ardchori `lofty cauldron' (deep ?), MacCongl. 39.17 . airdiena (ardíana v.l.) ibardha deep(?) yew vessels, Anecd. ii 58 § 20 . Cf. 1 ardán.

(c) Of the sea: cathair ṡlúaigh do airg d'ḟoiléim / a ngoibéil chúain aird ainiúil deep(?), IGT Decl. ex. 518 . In compds.: an ardmhuir thened high sea, ocean (?), Ériu ii 124 § 68 (calque from Lat. altum mare , Deutsche, Kelten und Iren 99 ). tar ard mhuir cciachdhuibh `tossing', Ir. Review 1913, 624 § 16 . dún is inber is ard-ler, Metr. Dinds. iii 112.34 .

(d) Of sounds loud: a.¤ aniu . . . gáir guil, Cog. 96.3 . frecra n-a.¤ n-obéle loud answer, Tec. Corm. § 25.12 . traetaít na ciulu islí na ciuil arda, BB 327b33 . In compds.: blūsair .i. nuall ardegóir, O'Mulc. 180 = O'Dav. 329 . firfid Findbennach fri dond Cúalnge ardburach loud bellowing, LU 10401 . ag Eochaid Ardghair `of the loud cry', Ériu i 81 § 11 . ardghaire mbaeth loud foolish laugh, Fél. 206.y . do breth a hardguth for aird, LL 9226 (TBC). árdghothach ┐ easurramach loud and stubborn, Proverbs vii 11 .

(e) Of colour: fual . . . á.¤ , Rosa Angl. 188.4 .

(f) In fig. usage. Of rank or superior quality noble, dist- inguished: aire ardd, one of the grades of nobility , Críth G. 368 and p. 69 . Andreas a.¤ a ordan, Fél. Feb. 6 . bit áird úas dind ḟlatha exalted (of saints), Prol. 155. a bhanaltra charthannach an Chomhachtaigh aoird mighty(?), Hackett xix 41 . óclách a.¤, imnair, IT i 79.2 . art .i. uasal, Metr. Gl. 27 § 35 . Stowe Gl. 22 . Of foundations, institutions etc. ba cóir ceniptis árdda do chongbala-su, Trip.² 1564 . bid á.¤ bid úasal do chathir i talum, 472 . abb ecailse ardae, Fél. Jan. 2 . sacramaint ro-a.¤ a cuirp fein august, Smaointe B. Chr. 3324 . Of a place: bátir Érenn ardae / la m'Luóc . . . / grían Liss móir de Albae they were of noble Ireland, Fél. June 25 . Of a feast: ré Notlaicc aird aurgaiss, Fél. Nov. 13 . In compds.: domhnaighe . . . ┐ airdfheile, AFM ii 952.15 , casc . . . ardshollumun na bliadne principal festival, Lism. L. 323 . Gramm. ón táoibhréim a. iollraidh i.e., the g p. in a dental, IGT Introd. § 142 (see ísel).

In phr. ardu árosc, see árosc.

(g) great, extensive(?): ba ha.¤ in coscur .i. ba mor, Thes. ii 334.1 (Hy. v). a.¤ .i. mor nó sochaide, ut est a.¤ in athlighi .i. sochaide facbhuit ina lige, O'Dav. 21 .

(h) proud: ná bísi ard nó íseall, L. Cl. A. B. 132.58 . atbert athesc a.¤ proud answer, LL 19874 .

(i) difficult, laborious, arduous (based on Lat. arduus JCL ix 44 ): is rét a.¤ .i. foglaim inna hirisse foirbthe gl. res ardua atque difficilis, Ml. 14c10 . roart lessom epert friusom intsamli dæ, Wb. 24c10 .

Equative: ardithir . . . seólcrand prímlui[n]gi, LU 6474 (TBC). airdithir neolla nime gach fer dib, RC xvii 416.38 . goma hairdithir re h-én, MR 300.11 .

Compar.: cia thes hi loc bes ardu ní ardu de, Ml. 23d23 . ni arddu feisin quam a chocéle, Sg. 161b9 . ni artu ní nim `nothing is higher than heaven', Thes. ii 248.3 . arddu (arddiu v.l.) dōinib / acht nōibrī nime, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 10 § 4 . airdiu cach múr araile, LU 2037 ( FA 11 ). airddiu, IT i 77.13 . harda (: Alba = Albu), ZCP viii 197.11 . airdi sa hairdi `higher and higher', Études Celt. i 87.23 . As superl. caithir fhionn as airde múr, DDána 119.19 .

Superl. dobeir grád as ardam, Fél. Ep. 207 . ardam dossaibh highest of bushes, Auraic. 5548 . ardam iactadh loudest of groanings, 5575 .

Adv.: eigis co ha.¤ , TTebe 4407 . ? teist dober cu arad ort / tu labor olcc eltaide edranach, IT iii 104 § 202 . is a.¤ do ghradaigh si sibh she has loved you much, Smaointe B. Chr. 4970 . ag foillsiughadh go ha.¤ showing openly, Donlevy 62.28 . In phrase ós a.¤ : gan feis lé fear ós a.¤ `publicly', Keat. ii 2924 , cf. 1 aird.

II Subst. o

(a) high place, height: etir fán ┐ ardd, Ml. 140a2 . conid Temair a hainm ind aird sin, ZCP viii 313.29 . cit n-é . . . ardae ┐ indbera do-riadhad ? BDD² 456 . rith fri ha.¤ , Tec. Corm. § 21.8 . tar Echtge na n-a.¤ 's na n-áth, ZCP viii 222.8 . triall . . . ó arduibh iarthuir Eireann `hills', Ir. Review 1913, 624 § 16 . bás an daig[h]f[h]ir . . . / do theilg thuinn a n-aighidh aird, Bard. Synt. Tr. 24.28 . gan leath-trom learg d'fhán nó d'a.¤ (: bard), DDána 119.18 . eirnithe cach na.¤ (of a wound. Cf. cnocbéim), BCrólige 64 . ní léimid na héisc le hárdaibh eas, Hackett xv 12 . mar do ghabh sruth Iordan . . . a n-aghaidh áird i.e. flowed backwards, up-stream? Eochairsg. 66.2 (cf. Joshua iii 16 ). Frequ. in nn. loc: Ard nGabla, Metr. Dinds. i 40.29 . Ard n-Umai, RC xvi 79.20 . For further exx. see Hog. Onom.

(b) Of persons: isel fri art `lowly towards the high' (proud ?), Thes. ii 235.15 . in t-a.¤ . . . Ailill na n-áth, LL 4207 . tú in t-a.¤ ós gach iomaire, O'R. Poems 26 . a n-aird ┐ a n-airdirc, CCath. 4409 . ? ní cria . . . di ardd (di aird v.l.) `do not buy . . . from a superior', Tec. Corm. § 19.7 . art fine, one of the titles of the head of the `fine' (`den aus der oder über die `fine' Hervorragenden', Thurn., Mélanges ... à H. Pedersen 302 . In this phrase always with final -t. Cf. 1 art etc.): a.¤ uasal, unde dicitur a.¤ fine, Corm. Y 26 . in t-a.¤ fine .i. inti is airdi don fine, O'Dav. 486 . dia mbe a.¤ fine ar aird . . . is a.¤ fine icus, Laws v 224.14 Comm. dia tisad a.¤ fine fae, 13 Comm.

(c) Various: is caín cech a.¤ , LU 3915 ( SCC 43 ). a.¤ n-athe (of a king), ZCP viii 108.6 . tomus fri arddu (a sign of bad pleading), LL 345e14 ( Tec. Corm. § 22 n.12 ). ní guais áidh . . . / do bheanfodh dhe dol ar a.¤ (: Tadhg) `from growing to be great', O'Hara 4400 . In phrase a.¤ i n-a.¤ fri see 1 aird.

(d) Metrical term for a final rhyming or consonating syllable in the metre rinnard , see RC vi 273 , 298 ; vii 87 ff. ; Murphy Metrics 28 , 35 . rindaird dá n-a.¤, rinnaird tri n-a.¤, rinnaird iiii n-a.¤ , Fél. 4.z ., IT iii 137 . fil and mór nard ṅáille (of the metre of the Fél.), Fél. Ep. 83 . In compd. ¤-breccad internal assonance, IT iii 87 § 95 .

Compds. Used with nouns, adjj. and verbs. Besides its use in literal sense often indicates pre-eminence in rank or excellency over others of the same designation e.g. ardrí over-king (see ). ardḟlaith (flaith. ardlathi ` chief princes ', Wb. 1a3 ). ardap (ap) chief abbot (of the a. of Clonmacnoise, RC xviii 287.15 Tig.). ardepscop (epscop) archbishop . ardṡuí (suí) chief sage. ardáenach (óenach, of Taillte, Keat. ii 3851 ). ardídal ( ídal. á. na Héirenn .i. Cenn Crúaich, Trip.² 1005 ). Cf. ardchaerich adobcomnaicsi, ardlias duib, lias bec anisiu, caerig beca ann you are important sheep and have a great fold; this is a small fold with small sheep in it, Anecd. i 41.25 . Frequ. a mere intensive or alliterative prefix adding little to the meaning. A representative selection is given below. Some compds. have been included above to illustrate meanings.

(a) With nouns. ¤-aicned haughtiness: nír dhénta uaill na ardaignedh, Études Celt. i 85.28 . ¤-ammus judgement, estimate (interchanges with airdmes), O'Curry 1063 ( H 3.18, 439a ) = airdmes, O'D. 1629 (H. 5.15, 16b). O'D. 542 ( H 3.17, 434 ). O'Curry 2578 ( Eg. 88, 49(50)a ). ¤-broenud gl. imber, Metr. Gl. 5.2 , RC xx 276.23 (ACC). ¤-chell chief church: na tri haird-cealla (Maedóc's settlements), BNnÉ 260 § 220 . ? ¤-chellach incumbent of an ardchell(?): Adamnan ardcellach, Flower Cat. 490.30 . ¤-chend, as adj. having a lofty head: ech . . . ardchend, LU 8661 ( FB 49 ). da ech . . . ardchind, 8592 (ib. 45 ). for echaib ardchendaib, Alex. 253 . a Brain ardchind, LL 306a7 . As subst. a. iarthair Eorpa ar . . . ecna, AFM ii 838.2 . Moling 50 . ¤chless juggling in the air: ardchless co n-ublaib 'juggling in the air with balls' Celtica viii 149 (Mellbretha) . ¤-chustal: a. ┐ drochgné fair, LU 10829 `his loins girt(?)', Ériu xii 178 § 9 (TE). ¤-chor: ardchur ag an bpríomháid air while the primate had authority over him, Keat. iii 303 . árdchor aige ar na Scotaibh he had supremacy over the Scots, i 14.16. ¤-gabáil: gabaid a lēnid i n-ardgabāil `tucked up his shirt', MacCongl. 9.25 . in ardgabail-sea doníat in cuanairt . . . `high-catching', Acall. 7385 . claideb . . . i n-a. gaili fora chris raised, uplifted (for action), LU 6561 (TBC) = i n-ardgabail churad bar a chlíu, TBC-LL¹ 5340 . So also RC xliii 82 § 84 . seol grás uaidhe ar ardghabháil `a sail of graces is hoisted by Him', Aithd. D. 60.5 . do ardgabalaib in domuin chief conquests, ZCP iii 17.2 . ¤-gal: go gclos go nemh an a., Duan. F. i 32.9 . As n.pr. co teach Eachdach meic Ardgail, ZCP viii 219.27 . ¤-gním breast-work, rampart: airdgníma (adhgnímha v.l.) caelaig, CCath. 1394 . ¤-mac : ardmhac oglaig (oppd. to certmac o.), O'Curry 285 (H 3.18, 157) `chief son', Plummer MS notes. crichaireacht ... a taiseach, ┐a n-ard mac n-oglach, ┐ a n-olloman, Iar Conn. 368 (H. 2. 17, 188b). ¤-menma: dimus ┐a. arrogance, CCath. 3868 . ¤-mess: nir nanacht airdmes roclos / no chairdes no condolbos great esteem did not save him, SR 3135 . tria na n-a. ra halta / a cairdes bud ceṅgalta, LL 7134 . ¤-nemed: atnaig tar fót crúach i n-a. di[a] díte he conveys him over the bloody ground into full sanctuary for his protection, Críth G. 54 . ¤-nert superior power: ardneart Muman do gabail dó, AFM ii 1098.8 . ¤-nós: alladh ┐ ardnos, AFM vi 2368.4 . As n.pr. Grigair mac Ardnōis, ZCP viii 114.25 . ¤-phersa : techtiri ártphersine gl. Christi apostoli, Wb. 24d9 . ¤-radarc : ed ardradairc . . . úan fa deas atá `of a great prospect', Ériu iv 142.16 . gurab eissan ardriaghlaightheoir nimhe & talmhan e, Adtimchiol 27b11 . ¤ríge high kingship : debthaig immonn-ardríge, SR 6538 . ¤-scél : innisim dó mh'airdsgēla great news, ZCP viii 220.40 . ¤-ṡreb : ō chéibh īochtuir airdshreibhi, O'R. Poems 204 . ¤taoiseach 'haut chef' Études Celt. xii 514 . ¤-thuile : abann ard-tuile in full spate, BNnÉ 108 § 33 .

(b) With adjj. ¤-aicentach: do bhádar árdaigeantach haughty, Ezekiel xvi 50 . ¤érmach, éirmech: an agh fholuaimneach ard-érmeach, Acall. (Leabh. ó Laimhsgr.) ii 27.22 . ¤-mór : esculus . . . .i. fid arddmár `a very high tree', Sg. 53a7 . ar muraib ardmoraib an baili, TTebe 4453 . trí chert Amairgen ardmóir, LL 1762 . ¤-menmnach : airecht . . . a. high-spirited, CCath. 5362 . ¤-medrach sportive (of a wave), ML 94.16 . ¤-mín : a ingenraid n-a. tall and gentle, LU 3601 ( SCC 30 ). óclach seta fata . . . n-a., LL 11793 . ¤-réil : co sleib n-Ailp n-a. lofty and bright, Rawl. 78b35 . ¤-úallach high and haughty. As n.pr. a. ingen Ḟind, Acall. 6453 . ¤-úasal : a ardrí . . . a., MU² 834 . cech etha ardūasail imbeth, ZCP xi 92 § 19 .

(c) With vbs. ¤-chuirid : d'ardchuir m'atuirse which increased my sadness, Hackett xii 29 . ¤-ḟodlaid : maith fáth ro hardfódlad de was nobly divided(?), LB 185a21 . ¤-gaibid : ro ardgaib Assal, Fen. 342.20 . ¤-légaid : airdleghais B. . . . an leabar ngreccda read aloud, BNnÉ 84 § 169 (cf. ar-léga). ¤-lesaigid ir: ro hoiled ┐ ro hardleasaidhedh í (of Mary), Ev.Inf. (LFF) 171 § 24 . ró hoiled ┐ rohardleasáigiodh iad educated to a high standard, RC xiv 28 § 6 . ¤-mesaid : ar a eól is ardmesta `for his knowledge he deserves high esteem', Metr. Dinds. iii 438.8 . ¤-rígaid: airdrīghaigh rí, ZCP viii 205.4 . ¤-thidlaicid: ro edhbair ┐ ro ardthiodhlaic he nobly bestowed, Anecd. iii 6. x .

as-beir

Cite this: eDIL s.v. as-beir or dil.ie/4383
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: adeir, adubart, adebart, adébart, adobart, adóbart, -dubart, -ebert, -ebart, -ébart, -debart, -débart, -óbart, -dobart, -dóbart, adubart, adobart, adóbart, adébart, asbiur, -epiur, -epur, asbirsiu, asṁbirsiu, asbir, -apir, -epir, asbeir, asṁber, assidbeir, adbeir, atbeir, -epir, -epeir, -eiper, -eper, asberam, -eprem, asberid, asndonberat, asberar, asberr, asmberr, asber, -eperr, -aiperr, asbertar, -epertar, asrobair, asrobar, atrobair, asberinse, asberinn, asbered, asberad, atbeirmis, asbertis, asbeirtis, asberthe, asṅdanbertheni, epred, eprid, asber, -eper, asbere, asbera(su), asbera, atbera, asmberamni, asberaid, asberat, -epret, asberthar, -epert[h]ar, -erbora, -ǽrbara, -erbara, -érbarid, -érbarat, -ērbrat, asrobarthar, -érbarthar, asberin, asberinn, asbertha, -epertha, asberad, atberad, -epred, -epreid, -aipred, asbermis, -epertais, asberthe, asberthae, -eperthe, -erbartha, -erparta, asindrobrad, -ærbarad, -erbarad, asndarobartis, asbǽr, asbéer, asbér, -épéer, -epér, -eper, asbéra, asbéram, asbérat, asbérthar, asbertar, -erbǽra, -eperth, asbert, asmbert, -epert, asindbertatar, -epertatár, asbreth, asruburt, asidruburt, asidrubart, -ǽrburt, -erbort, asrubart, autrubert, asrubartmar, asrubartmmar, adrubartmar, arrubartait, asrubartatar, asinrubartat, -ærb[art]atar, asrobrad, asrobrath, -erbrad, -érbrath, -érbrad, atbiur, adbirsa, atberim, atiur, natiur-sa, tiur-sa, attear, atderim-sea, aderim, adearaim, adirim, -apur, -abbair, -apraim, -abraim, -dirim, at-beire, atberi, at-biri, natbere, ateri, adere, aderi, adir, -abbrai, -abra, atbeir, itbeir, atber, atbir, adbeir, adeir, ader, -abair, -abrann, atberam-ni, adearam, adireim-ne, adermait, idermaidne, adeirmíd, adearmuid, adirmid, -abramait, atberid, atberthe, atberthai-si, atberthi, itirid-si, -aparthi, -aparthai, -abraid, -aburth, atberat, adberuid, atberait, aderait, aderaid, adeirit, adeirid, -abraid, atberar, atberair, aderar, aderair, iderar, dearair, adirthir, adirthear, adeirthear, deirthear, -eperar, -ebarar, -apar, -abar, -aburar, -abairthear, -abarthar, atbered, adbered, atdeired, a-deireadh, conaprad, adeirdis, atberthea, adberta, atberte, aderthai, n-aburti, apursiu, apair, abbair, abair, aprad, abradh, apraid, abraid, aprit, abraid, abarthar, atber, -apror, -abra-sa, therar, ciadera, -eibre, -aprai, -apra, -abra, -erba, adbera, -epre, -eperta-som, -apra, -epram, -apraid, -abairthe, -abrat, -aprat, -ebarthar, -abartar, -abruinn, at-bertha, aderthe, -ebertha, -erbarta, erbartha, atberad, -ebrad, -aprad, -abradh, atbermais, aderdáis, -abbraitis, -hapraitis, -abartháoi, -erbrad, at-bēr, atér, adér, adéar, -eibér, -aibéar, atbēra, atbéra-su, adbera, -adéruir, atbera, adēra, adéara, adérus, -epri, -ebre, -aibéra, -aibeóraidh, adéaraim-ne, déaram, -aibéaram, atberat, adēraitt, -aibeórait, atdérthar, -habeórtar, adearainn, -eibrinn, atbertha, -ebertha, -aibeorta, ádertha, atbered, adberad, atberad, adéaradh, -ebéredh, -ébradh, -eibreadh, -aibeoradh, adéarmais, adiartáis, adérdáis, adéarthaoi, adéartha, -aibértaide, -aibeorthaoi, atbert, adbert, itbert, atbert sib, atbertatar, atbertar, atrubart, adrubairt, atrubairt, adrubairt, atrubartmar, atrubrumar, adrubramar, atrubrabar, atrubartatar, atrubratár, atrubartar, adrubrad, atrubrad, atubart, adubhart, adubairt, atubairt, gitubairt, dubairt, itubairt, adubert, dubairt, adubairt, duibhert, adeibairt, -dubhairt, -dobort, -dóbart, -debhairt, -debert, -débairt, -débuirt, adubramar, adubrumar, adubramair, dubrumur, -dubhramar, -dubhramair, -dobramair, -dobhramair, adubratar, dubrudar, -dubhradar, adubhradh, dubradh, -dubradh, -debhradh, -déabhradh, -óbart, -éabhart, -eabert, -ebert, -ebairt, -ébairt, -éabhairt, -ebradar, -ebrad, -ebrath, -ébrad, condérbairt, -derbertatar, asroepred, atbertus, adubartus, atbertais, adubartais, adobhartois, -ebartais, -dhébartais, atbertsat, asbertsit, atbertsatar, -epertsat, -ebertsat, -ebirtsit, adubortas, -ebras, -erbertus, atrubairtais, -erbortaiss, atrubhairtset, epert, abairt, abarta

v (* ess-ber-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 466 ). IGT Verbs § 6 . In the prot. -epir there is some fluctuation between e- and a-, see GOI p. 54 , 508 and forms infra.

In Mid. Ir. a form atbeir (prot. -epir, -ap(a)ir) replaces as-beir, see GOI p. 268 . Later this becomes a(t)deir (prot. -apair) and is the usual form in late Mid. and Mod. Ir. Occasionally adeir (sometimes deir) is given the endings of a simple verb, see infra. The early conjugation (ā-subj., ē-fut., t-pret.) continues with Mid. Ir. personal endings. In the pret. new stem-formations appear: adubart (< adrubart); adebart, adébart (? conflation of adubart and -epert ); adobart, adóbart. In depend. position -dubart; -ebert, -ebart, -ébart, -debart, -débart; -óbart, -dobart, -dóbart. In classical verse (IGT loc. cit.) adubart, adobart alliterate with d; adóbart, adébart with a vowel and with d.

Early forms. Indic. pres. 1 s. asbiur, Wb. 8a9 . -epiur, Wb. 4b26 . -epur, 5a31 . 2 s. asbirsiu, Wb. 12d17 . asṁbirsiu, Sg. 208b5 . asbir, 66b10 . -apir, ibid. -epir, TBC-LL¹ 1763 . 3 s. asbeir, Wb. 5a1 . asṁber, 10b13 . With rel. inf. pron. assidbeir, 20a10 . With neut. inf. pron. adbeir, 5a11 . atbeir, 10d5 . -epir, ibid. -epeir, 17d11 . -eiper, 33b7 . -eper, Ml. 69a21 . 1 pl. asberam, Ml. 14a19 . Sg. 55b1 . -eprem, Sg. 208a7 . 2 pl. asberid, Wb. 5a31 . 3 pl. with rel. inf. pron. asndonberat, Wb. 2a12 . Pass. sg. asberar, Wb. 3c21 . asberr, 21c7 . asmberr, 33a18 . asber, Ml. 110d16 , 114a2 . -eperr, Sg. 73a11 . -aiperr, Ml. 14d13 . Pass. pl. asbertar, Wb. 28a20 ; Ml. 123c8 . -epertar, Sg. 3b6 . With inf. ro: 3 s. asrobair, Sg. 198a18 . ? asrobar, Ml. 17b23 . With inf. neut. pron. atrobair, Sg. 190b4 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. asberinse, Ml. 54c26 ; asberinn, 91b10 . 3 s. asbered, Wb. 15a18 ; Ml. 54c18 , 23 , 55c17 ; asberad, 53d6 . 1 pl. With neut. inf. pron. atbeirmis, Wb. 26b19 . 3 pl. asbertis, Wb. 25b27 . asbeirtis, 4c23 , Ml. 106d3 . Pass. sg. asberthe, Thes. i 492.25 . With inf. pron. 1 pl. asṅdanbertheni, Ml. 114a7 .

Ipv. 3 s. epred, Wb. 10a16 . 2 pl. eprid, TBFr. 396 . TBC-I¹ 1570 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. asber, Wb. 16a24 . -eper, 32a20 . 2 s. asbere, Wb. 12d13 . asbera(su), Sg. 209d30 . 3 s. asbera, Wb. 22b23 . With inf. neut. pron. atbera, 12a4 . 1 pl. asmberamni, Wb. 2a13 . 2 pl. asberaid, Wb. 7d10 . 3 pl. asberat, Wb. 1d1 . -epret, Wb. 7d8 . Pass. sg. asberthar, Wb. 10a12 . -epert[h]ar, Wb. 5a5 . With inf. ro 1 s. -erbora, LU 6659 (TBC). 2 s. -ǽrbara, Sg. 209b30 . -erbara, LL 286a1 . 2 pl. -érbarid, Wb. 13c13 ; 15d6 . 3 pl. -érbarat, Wb. 27c8 . -ērbrat, Sc.M² 1R . Pass. sg. asrobarthar, Thes. ii 17.34 . -érbarthar, Wb. 10d13 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. asberin, Wb. 14c23 ; asberinn, 17b1 . 2 s. asbertha, Sg. 217b15 . -epertha, TBC-LL¹ 2161 . 3 s. asberad, Wb. 13a13 , 19 ; Ml. 59a7 , 67a8 , 95b7 . With inf. pron. 3 s. n. atberad, Ml. 62c2 . -epred, 28b11 , 69a21 . -epreid, 70a6 . -aipred, 33c17 . 1 pl. asbermis, Wb. 18a18 . 3 pl. -epertais, Ml. 28d8 . Pass. sg. asberthe, Wb. 15d20 . asberthae, Ml. 77a6 . -eperthe, Wb. 19a5 ; 23d25 . With inf. ro 2 s. -erbartha (-erbarta v.l.), Alex. 829 . -erparta, BB 498a4 . 3 s. with rel. inf. pron. asindrobrad, Ml. 50b8 . -ærbarad, Ml. 31b20 , 24 . -erbarad, SR 5642 . 3 pl. asndarobartis, Ml. 31b22 .

Fut. 1 s. asbǽr, Ml. 91b10 . asbéer, Wb. 32a22 . asbér, TBFr. 168 . -épéer, Wb. 32a20 . -epér, SR 1309 . -eper, PH 2382 . 3 s. asbéra, Wb. 12d6 . 1 pl. asbéram, Wb. 17c23 . 3 pl. asbérat, Wb. 12d12 . Pass. sg. asbérthar, TBFr. 177 . Pass. pl. asbertar, Sg. 73b8 . With inf. ro 3 s. -erbǽra, ZCP vii 484.25 (Enchir. Aug.).

Condit. pass. sg. -eperth, Ml. 127d14 .

Pret. 3 s. asbert, Ml. 16c10 , Thes. ii 241.12 ; 242.3 , 6 . asmbert, Ml. 58c6 , 124d9 . -epert , Thes. ii 242.15 (Ardm.). 3 pl. with rel. inf. pron. asindbertatar, Ml. 124d9 . -epertatár, LU 8079 ( FB 5 ). Pass. sg. asbreth, Ériu iii 137.52 .

Perf. 1 s. asruburt, Sg. 91a3 , Ml. 50d7 . With rel. inf. pron. asidruburt, Sg. 58b1 , 75b2 . asidrubart, Ml. 3a15 , 66c1 . -ǽrburt, 44b19 . 2 s. -erbort. Ériu xii 166 § 5 (TE). 3 s. asrubart, Wb. 4d16 , autrubert, Thes. ii 246.14 (Cambr.). -érbart, Wb. 13c12 . 1 pl. asrubartmar, Wb. 8d26 . asrubartmmar, Sg. 55b5 . adrubartmar, 197b16 . 2 pl. arrubartait (sic), RC iii 345.16 . 3 pl. asrubartatar, Wb. 18d1 . With rel. inf. pron. asinrubartat, Ml. 131d12 . -ærb[art]atar, 29a4 . Pass. sg. asrobrad, Wb. 3c31 , 5a4 , 10d8 , 12d26 , 33b16 . asrobrath, Ériu ii 104 § 15 . -erbrad, Wb. 32c8 , -érbrath, Sg. 220a10 . -érbrad, Ériu iii 137.52 . -éabrad, Celtica xiii 13.248 .

Later forms. Indic. pres. 1 s. atbiur, TBC-LL¹ 610 . adbirsa, Mon. Tall. 154.23 . atberim, SR 1873 . atiur, TBC-LL¹ 2990 etc., natiur-sa, 4269 . tiur-sa, 2975 . attear, 3180 . atderim-sea, 4403 . aderim, PH 2760 . adearaim, DDána 113.29 . adirim (: eisinill), IGT Verbs ex. 84 . -apur, Mon. Tall. 140.24 . -abbair, Ériu ii 92 § 6 . -apraim, PH 2188 . -abraim, TSh. 2694 . -dirim, Content. xxix 10 . 2 s. at-beire, SR 1268 . atberi, Trip.² 584 . at-biri, Sc.M² 3 . natbere, TBC-LL¹ 1679 . ateri, MU 420 . adere, PH 2712 . aderi, 2705 . adir (: fir), IGT Verbs ex. 83 . -abbrai, Ériu iv 98.7 . -abra, DDána 37.17 . 3 s. atbeir, SR 4169 . itbeir, Trip.² 64 . atber, TBC-LL¹ 430 . atbir, 1222 . adbeir, ZCP viii 109.10 . adeir, PH 2714 . ader, 2688 . -abair, TSh. 127 . -abrann (: cablom), IGT Verbs ex. 87 . 1 pl. atberam-ni, TBC-LL¹ 5017 . adearam, DDána 42.30 . adireim-ne, 70.1 . adermait, PH 2685 . idermaidne, YBL 142b19 . adeirmíd, TSh. 5863 . adearmuid (: dhuid), Dán Dé xv 22 . adirmid (: sirmid), IGT Verbs ex. 76 . -abramait, PH 2666 . 2 pl. atberid, PH 297 . atberthe, TBC-LL¹ 861 . atberthai-si, 1959 . atberthi, PH 5268 . itirid-si, TBC-LL¹ 1636 . -aparthi, PH 5268 . -aparthai, 2362 . -abraid, -aburth, CCath. 601 . 3 pl. atberat, Trip.² 1175 . TBC-LL¹ 2659 . adberuid, Laws i 34.4 Comm. atberait, PH 6985 . aderait, 2676 . aderaid, CCath. 1700 . adeirit, Ériu xv 14 § 1 . adeirid, TSh. 751 . -abraid, 2514 . Pass. sg. atberar, BDD² 582 . TBC-LL¹ 843 etc. atberair, PH 2870 . aderar, 7396 . aderair, 7345 . iderar, CCath. 722 . dearair, DDána 48.10 . adirthir (: sligthiph), IGT Verbs ex. 93 . adirthear, DDána 78.12 adeirthear, TSh. 2515 . deirthear, 5652 . -eperar, Laws ii 254.6 . -ebarar, ACL iii 247.5 . -apar, MU² 265 . TBC-LL¹ 1148 . -abar, DDána 23.18 . -aburar, Maund. 8 . -abairthear, Ó Héodhusa 50.16 . -abarthar, TSh. 1924 .

Indic. impf. 3 s. atbered, TBFr. 223 . adbered, Ériu i 46.10 . atdeired, TBC-LL¹ 2854 . a-deireadh, DDána 52.17 . conaprad, Ériu iv 32.4 . 3 pl. adeirdis, Maund. 16 . Pass. sg. atberthea, TBC-LL¹ 1453 . adberta, Ériu ii 176.5 . atberte, CCath. 4446 . aderthai, Irish Texts i 22 § 5 . frisi n-aburti , Ann. Conn. 1310.3 .

Ipv. 2 s. apursiu, Mon. Tall. 150.22 . apair, TBFr. 323 . abbair, SR 1213 etc. abair, PH 351 . 3 s. aprad, PH 1768 . abradh, Ériu xv 14 § 5 . 2 pl. apraid, TBFr. 144 . abraid, Ériu iv 140.18 . aprit si, Mon. Tall. 131.31 . 3 pl. abraid, RSClára 7b . Pass. sg. abarthar, RSClára 4a .

Subj. pres. 1 s. atber, Ériu v 30.4 . -apror, LU 6662 (TBC). -abrur, LB 141a28 . -abra-sa (abru-sa v.l.), CCath. 3340 . cia therar , Ériu i 227.5 . 2 s. ciadera, Metr. Dinds. iv 356.58 . -eibre, Laws iv 108.1 . -aprai, Fing. R. 381 . -apra (-aprae v.l.), CCath. 4209 . -abra, PH 431 . -erba, 3155 . 3 s. adbera, Laws i 120.27 Comm. -epre, Ériu iii 106 § 41b . ? -eperta-som, TBC-LL¹ 2153 . -apra, IT i 128.26 . 1 pl. -epram, PH 6887 . 2 pl. -apraid, LU 4009 ( SCC 45 ). -abairthe, TTr.² 337 . 3 pl. -abrat, Sc.M² R 20 . -aprat, PH 7891 . Pass. sg. -ebarthar (- erbarthar MS), Ériu iv 24.3 . -abartar, RSClára 103a .

Subj. impf. 1 s. -abruinn, KMMisc. 354.17 . 2 s. at-bertha, Sc.M² 3 . TBC-LL¹ 1730 . aderthe, ZCP vii 301 § 7 . -ebertha, TBC-LL¹ 1730 . -erbarta, Anecd. v 2.10 = erbartha, Alex. 829 . 3 s. atberad, LU 2511 . -ebrad, IT i 175.16 . -aprad, Fing. R. 30 . -abradh, TSh. 2509 . 1 pl. atbermais, Trip.² 63 . 3 pl. aderdáis, Fianaig. 70.27 . -abbraitis, TBC-LL¹ 3592 . -hapraitis, 3291 . Pass. sg. -abartháoi, RSClára 77b . With inf. ro 3 s. -erbrad, IT i 175.31 .

Fut. 1 s. at-bēr, Fing. R. 971 . atér, LL 298b40 . adér, BNnÉ 252 § 207 . adéar, DDána 67.7 . -eibér, FDG² 57 . -aibéar (: caigéal), Content. xxiv 10 . 2 s. atbēra, SR 8133 . atbéra-su, Trip.² 1141 . adbera, Laws i 302.26 Comm. -adéruir, Laud 610, fo. 18d (cited from Plummer MS notes). 3 s. atbera, PH 2038 . adēra, ZCP viii 212.23 . adéara, DDána 29.24 . rel. adérus, RSClára 152a . -epri, LU 2513 . -ebre, IGT Verbs ex. 82 (subj. ?). -aibéra, ZCP viii 212.30 . -aibeóraidh, TSh. 534 . 1 pl. adéaraim-ne, DDána 67.35 . déaram, ML 120.15 . -aibéaram, DDána 95.18 . 3 pl. atberat, TBC-LL¹ 1613 . adēraitt, RSClára 22a . -aibeórait, 14a . Pass. sg. atdérthar, RC xx 12 § 21 . -habeórtar, Maund. 268 .

Condit. 1 s. adearainn, DDána 59.26 . -eibrinn (: deighgreim), IGT Verbs ex. 91 . 2 s. atbertha, TBC-LL¹ 1730 . -ebertha, 1730 . -aibeorta, TBC-LL¹ p. 221 n.4 . ádertha, ibid. 3 s. atbered, SR 5903 . adberad, CCath. 754 . atberad, 755 . adéaradh, DDána 94.13 . -ebéredh, BNnÉ 323 § 33 . -ébradh (: érlam), IGT Verbs ex. 86 . -eibreadh (: fleadh), ex. 81 . -aibeoradh, Keat. i 62.17 . 1 pl. adéarmais, DDána 99.43 . 3 pl. adiartáis, TBC-LL¹ 4018 . adérdáis, ZCP viii 223.20 . Pass. sg. adéarthaoi, DDána 21.22 . adéartha, 11.33 . -aibértaide, Maund. 55 . -aibeorthaoi, Keat. i 234.16 .

Pret. and perf.

(a) 3 s. atbert, Trip.² 168 . TBC-LL¹ 962 etc. adbert, Mon. Tall. 136.18 . itbert, CCath. 412 . 2 pl. atbert sib, PH 1384 . 3 pl. atbertatar, TBC-LL¹ 456 etc. atbertar, TTr.² 560 .

(b) 1 s. atrubart, PH 1548 . 3 s. adrubairt, Anecd. i 11.13 ( -a(i)rt, SCano 309 ). atrubairt, SR 1325 . adrubairt, Trip.² 554 . 1 pl. atrubartmar, CCath. 2865 . atrubrumar, PH 554 . adrubramar, 3460 . 2 pl. atrubrabar, PH 2774 . 3 pl. atrubartatar, LL 401b42 . atrubratár, TBC-LL¹ 2076 . atrubartar, TTr. 422 . Pass. sg. adrubrad. Trip.² 1392 . atrubrad, PH 107 .

(c) 1 s. atubart, TBC-LL¹ 4110 . adubhart, DDána 39.14 . 3 s. adubairt, TBC-LL¹ 1494 . atubairt, 956 . gitubairt, 3764 (ce dubairt , v.l.). itubairt, RC xlvi 227.19 . adubert, ZCP xiii 182.26 . dubairt, PH 7464 . adubairt, IGT Verbs ex. 80 . duibhert, Rel. Celt. ii 190.33 . adeibairt (idubairtt v.l.), Ériu ii 184.16 . -dubhairt, TSh. 3198 . -dobort (: comolc), IGT Verbs ex. 88 . -dóbart (: cródhacht), ex. 89 . -debhairt, CCath. 421 . -debert, RC xiv 46 § 54 . -débairt, TTr.² 245 . -débuirt (: énuilc), IGT Verbs ex. 75 . 1 pl. adubramar (atrubhamar v.l.), CCath. 2641 . adubrumar, Laws i 92.9 Comm. adubramair, 42.21 Comm. dubrumur, 142.27 Comm. -dubhramar, TSh. 1158 . -dubhramair, 99 . -dobramair (: gormlannaig), IGT Verbs ex. 79 . -dobhramair, DDána 101.25 . 3 pl. adubratar, PH 2679 . dubrudar, RC xlix 5 § 2 . -dubhradar, TSh. 3210 . Pass. sg. adubhradh, DDána 21.7 . má dubradh , IGT Verbs ex. 80 . -dubradh (: chunnradh), ex. 90 . -debhradh, Lism. L. 3310 . -déabhradh (: téarnamh), DDána 108.3 .

(d) 1 s. -óbart, IGT Verbs ex. 85 . -éabhart, Content. viii 4 . 3 s. -eabert, Ériu ii 186.13 . -ebert, CCath. 4061 . -ebairt, TBC-LL¹ 137 . -ébairt (: mérailt), IGT Verbs ex. 74 . -éabhairt, DDána 97.24 . 3 pl. -ebradar, Ériu ii 180.10 , Pass. sg. -ebrad, Fing. R. 1030 . -ebrath, ZCP viii 313.30 . -ébrad, IT i 132.19 .

(e) 3 s. condérbairt, TTr.² 1764 . 3 pl. -derbertatar, BS 50.30 . Pass. sg. asroepred, Mon. Tall. 159.4 .

Pret. and perf. with s-pret. endings. 1 s. atbertus, PH 1517 . adubartus, 1785 . 2 s. atbertais, TBC-LL¹ 1414 . adubartais, PH 3332 . adobhartois, Desid. 799 . -ebartais, Fen. 300. x . -dhébartais, ZCP viii 552.14 . 3 pl. atbertsat, LU 9223 ( FB § 77 ). asbertsit, Alex. 690 . atbertsatar, PH 2743 . -epertsat, PH 750 . -ebertsat, 2305 . -ebirtsit, TBC-LL¹ p. 649 n.7 . Pass. sg. adubortas (: bfoltchas), IGT Verbs ex. 78 . -ebras, Ériu vii 225.6 .

Also 1 s. -erbertus, PH 4958 . 2 s. atrubairtais, PH 5046 . -erbortaiss, Ériu xii 166.30 (TE). 3 pl. atrubhairtset, Leb. Gab.(i) 244.9 .

Vn. epert . abairt, IGT Verbs § 6 .

Part. of necess. abarta, Anecd. ii 20 § 4 .

Says, speaks (folld. by direct obj., verbal clause or vn. clause): dogníthe a n-asbered Moysi, Wb. 15a18 . arna epret is ara miscuis in cúrsachad, 7d8 . ní arindí asndarobartis . . . inna briathra hisin, Ml. 31b22 . atbeir C. . . . inní so, Trip.² 10 . in ferand . . . a n-apar a mbith, 43 . ní abbair acht fírinne `I say only the truth', Ériu ii 92.15 . intan promthar epred ced, ZCP vii 312 § 24 . asrubairt ni regad co rrucad mo chendsa, TBC-I¹ 1219 . adbert co ndingnead, Ériu ii 180.9 . brat an druadh adir an leabhar / 'na smual ón tigh theineadh, Dán Dé xii 23 . dā n-abruinn gurab dubh an fíach, / adēardis Laighnigh gur geal, KMMisc. 354.17 . ná habair 's ní aibéar-sa / m'ainm, Dánta Gr. 95.13 . adeirid uile, crochtar é, TSh. 3196 . an madradh adeir sé do bheith i n-ifreann, 1030 . an dream adeirmíd do mharthain quos vivere dicimus, 5863 . In phrase a.¤ bréithir (bríathar) gives one's word: asbir mo bríathar . . . beith ré dosom ría n-ecaib ┐ ní dognéa . . . `by my word', Mon. Tall. 141.6 . natiur-sa brethir manu thísat . . . is missi conairgeba bás, TBC-LL¹ 4269 . asbiur mo bréithir . . . narb' ail damh nech d'anacal, RC xxvii 268 § 16 . In sense of orders, commands: asbert Colmán a scor reme C. ordered it to cease, BColm. 58.22 . má adubhairt cairt a roinn ribh / an tírse `if some charter orders you to divide this country', Aithd. D. 30.32 . céard gach fhir do dhíol adeir he orders the craft of every man to be rewarded, DDána 91.45 . adeirim ris an saoghal cromadh, TSh. 190 . sings, chants Celtica xxi 62 : co n-ebert an laoidh, BS 17.487 .

With prepp. With FRI says to, calls: amal asindbertatar som fris, Ml. 124d9 . is sain indí asidrubart ┐ indí frisa n-érbrath, Sg. 220a10 . asbert D. fri Pátricc, Thes. ii 241.12 . eprid frie for toisc, TBFr. 396 . Rí frisin-erbairt in slúag, SR 7689 . Conall C. atubrad rium-sa do gabáil ann `I was told that C. would settle there', Ériu xvi 67.93 . ní apur frit ol M. ní fodgní lind `I do not tell thee (to do so) says M., such is not our practice', Mon. Tall. 140.24 . notaitchim ar Dia . . . co n-erba rind . . ., PH 3155 . adbirsa fritsa cuicc bliadna dec pendi `I pronounce upon thee fifteen years of penance', Mon. Tall. 154.23 . apraid ríu . . . anat dina cuínib co fodailter dóib, TBFr. 144 . coimhlíonaid . . . mar a dubhradh riú `as it hath byn commanded them', RSClára 114b . is airi asbiur frit stultam, Wb. 8a9 . as uime adeirthear neamhghlan rú this is why they are said to be impure, IGT Introd. 5.12 . Druim C. risa n-apar Áni Clíach which is called, MU² 294 . as ris aderthai Mac Duinnshleibhe, L. Chl. S. 17 . mac do Fíachaig Mullet[h]an risinnabar Fer da Líach, ZCP viii 303.29 . an ced earnail dib re nabar morbus uniuersalis, RC xlix 3.4 .

With DO gives as a name to, applies to, calls: conna epreid ainm dia ndoib, Ml. 70a6 . ání as deus is du folud nephchumscaigthiu asberr, 110d16 . conepertar doib ylementa , Sg. 3b6 . ní eperr acht hilar dóib `only the plural is used of them', 73a11 . cid ara n-eperr fer midboth don[d] ḟi[u]r so ? Críth G. 30 . is hé in suide itberar doib, Trip.² 40 .

With DI calls: is de atberthe in siriti de ara met no delbad i n-ilrechtaib, LU 9008 ( FB 75 ). is airi adberta Furbaide de, Ériu ii 176.5 . cia tugaid ara n-ebarar berla tobaide din Gaedilg ?, Auraic. 2.10 . Says of: issed asberedsom desuidiu `this is what he used to say of this', Mon. Tall. 142.18 . is don ingen siu atrubrath cruth cach co hEtain, IT i 120.12 . conadh aire atberar in foranmach de .i. Nuada Find Feimin, ZCP xiii 197.15 . cé dearaid cách éag re hadhart / d'onchoin R. . . ., Magauran 1172 .

With ó names from: iar marbhadh . . . Charolusa . . . ó n-abarthar cloidheamh Charolusa from whom the sword of C. is named, Ériu i 80 § 8 . cia ó ndubhradh ainm gacha litre, IGT Introd. § 1.4 . Féine ó Fhéinius atbearta, Keat. ii 319 . Aed mac . . . Fergail on abar h. Fergail, Ann. Conn. 1232.2 .

as-ingaib

Cite this: eDIL s.v. as-ingaib or dil.ie/4443

v (* ess-in-gaib, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 529 ).

(a) goes beyond; surpasses, exceeds: cosind epert asingaib méit `that exceeds quantity', Ml. 23a13 . asingaibside mod as choir do thabairt diglae (cf. ultra mensuram in Comm.), 57d16 . epert asingaib fir inso, 89d8 . a.¤ .i. is huilliu in trocaire oldatae ar n-airilltin-ni, 131a6 . a.¤ gl. excedit, 144d1 . acht asringba óen `provided it exceed one', Sg. 71a2 . arna esngaba mod á cuindrech, Ml. 22c8 . ciasingbat árim déṡillabche compariti ┐ superlati, Sg. 44b3 . asringbus gl. excedissem, Ml. 130b4 . asringaib gl. excedisse, Ml. 32d8 . huasringai b corp fulach inna fochodo `when the endurance of suffering has passed beyond the body', 22d9 . aras-rimgaib (leg. as-ringaib, ed.) in fili dama [asa thig] because the `fili' has exceeded the right number of company, ZCP xv 334 § 26 ( xvi 222 ). asringabsat gl. exceserant, Ml. 113d8 . nad resngabsat gl. non excidisse, 122d8 .

(b) goes forth from, defects(?): fer dono ciasingbu as a gradh, Laws i 62.24 ( O'Dav. 1131 ). fer . . . ciasingba as a ngradaib ni fairben log enech a mna, Laws v 516.26 .

(c) Meaning doubtful: asingaib [rudrad] fir fithiu, Laws v 496.3 .i. berar as na tighi fithi doronta forsan tir, O'Dav. 1131 . acht ciasingbat anta la ruirtiu crich `though they lessen the periods of stay', Laws ii 110.15 .

? Vn. ni helod, ni hesgabail, ni hecoir . . ., O'Curry 739 (H 3. 18, 353b). Part. anas nesngabthi (leg. -e) incorp gl. excesso corpore, Ml. 22d9 .

at(t)oíbi

Cite this: eDIL s.v. at(t)oíbi or dil.ie/4951
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: atoíbim, attoibim, [at]toibmis, attoibtis, atoifea, atoibfea, attoíbed

v (ad-toíbi) adheres to: atoíbim gl. lenteo (cf. lentesco?), Sg. 145a2 . attoibim gl. lenteo, Thes. ii 228.28 (PCr.). atoibi gl. herenti, Ml. 57d18 . [at]toibmis gl. inherere, 18c4 . co attoibtis gl. ut inherescerent, 63b10 . ni atoifea (leg. ní atoibfea , edd.) gl. adheret, 114c2 . With DO or FRI: no-s-tabair fó lannaib teinntigib . . . ┐ cech oen atoibe (.i. is oentadach) doib `with everyone who adheres to them', PH 1863 . it é ata mou atoibet do thopur ecna na deachta for it is they who stand closest to the spring of the wisdom of the Deity, 6238 . Cf. cech oen atoibe .i. is oentadach doib all their adherents, LB 174b50 . fri dechnad mbicc atuibi inso this goes with (comes after) dechnad mbecc, IT iii 27.y . do lethdechnad atuibe inso, 28.1 . Cenēl Crōchnae in cethramad prīmaiccme Hūa mBairrchi, is fri Hū Breccāin a tōebud (atāebait, a n-atāebad, v.ll.), Corp. Gen. 47 (121b5)​​​​​ . Frequ. in phr.: is e leth at(t)oíbi ind aisnéissi la (fri) x co dú i n-epert (-érbart) riam lit. this is the passage to which this passage in x adheres, to the place where he has already said i.e. this passage in x follows on from where he had already said, this is the context of this passage (see RC x 471 ): is he . . . leth atoibi ind aisnéis si lasin fáith co dū i n-epert remi, Trip.² 23 . is e . . . leth ataoibhi in n-aisneis-sea la hEoin cu dú a ndebairt this declaration in John adjoins the place where he said, Lism. L. 1124 . `Venite, benedicte . . .' is he leath atāibe an aisnēs sea la Matha co dū indebairt reme ina ṡoscēla: `Et separaibit', etc. , ZCP xii 367.32 . coibnius . . . inna haisneissen-sa for a cula is e leath atoibe (.i. is aentadach) fri hÍsu co dú i nd-erbart reme, PH 4700 . oentu . . . ┐ coibnius na liachtan-sa, is e leth atoibe (.i. is aentadach) ri Matha . . . co dú i nderna in sláníccid . . . tairchetul a chesta, 5063 . comuaim . . . ┐ coibnes na liachtana-so is e leath atoibe (.i. as dlúith) co dú i n-erbairt Eóin, 6688 . comuaim . . . ┐ cóibnies (sic) . . . na cobigi-sea is e leth atóibe la Isu co dú i n-epert ria sund, 7837 . comuaim ┐ coibnes na hais[ne]sen-sa is e leth atóibe la Daniel co dú i nd-ebert remi, 6196 .

Vn. attoíbed.

1 bés

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 bés or dil.ie/5755
Last Revised: 2013

n (Cf. Hiberno-Latin bes(s)us Latin Letters in Early Christian Ireland xii 207 ). u, m. b.¤ m., IGT Decl. § 95.

(a) habit, custom, usual procedure, practice; manner, way: ni fil linn in béesso gl. consuetudinem non habemus, Wb. 11c21 . iudide ó béssaib, 10d35 . ithæ inso bésse inna fedb `these are the manners of the widows', 29a3 . ishé didiu a mb.¤ adi intí diib bes tresa orcaid alaile gl. more uiuitur bestiarum, Ml. 19d6 . ón bes dóindu gl. homano more, 51d25 . iarsin bǽs doindu, 127d15 . bithbethu iar ṁbes for Dé deis according to custom, SR 1497. modh (ón bh.¤), IGT Decl. § 95 (127.9) . b.¤ modh o eincheill araen (v.ll.), ib. n. 7 . cach cenél dib cona deilb ┐ cona bes ┐ cona aicned foleith (of animals), Ériu ii 126 § 89. gach béas ban da, DDána 114.30 . b.¤ duine dhubhaigh likeness , IGT Decl. ex. 1089. is bes tra . . . briathra na salm . . . do erlabrai ánd `it is customary', Ml. 26c6 . isse a bees . . . fogeir a nggalar in uile corp the disease is wont to inflame etc., Thes. ii 245.33 (Cambr.). is béss didu ind liacc benir (sic leg., note) ilbeim friss, Wb. 4d15 . isé b.¤ ind fir se marbad a óeged, Thes. ii 323.13 (Hy. iv Comm.). With DO: is bées . . . donaib dagforcitlidib molad ingni inna nétside, Wb. 11b6 . is b.¤ tra dosom anisiu, 22c10 . is bes do som tra buith cen chomaccomla, Ml. 28d6 . is b.¤ duibsi . . . ní réidid it is not your wont to drive, LU 5093 ( TBC-I¹ 607 ). is béas don bhláth machuire the field is natural to the flower, DDána 7.3 . With LA and OC: is b.¤ leosom in daim do thúarcuin, Wb. 10d6 . is bǽs linni epert gl. nobis moris est dicere, Ml. 30c3 . ar ba bes la suidib .u. tar hesi ṅí , Sg. 4a9 . ba b.¤ oc Rómanachaib, etc., PH 3291. ní béas eilte d'éis a laoigh / agam I do not practise the habit of a doe bereft of its fawn, DDána 69.25 .

In prep. phrases: (ó) b.¤ , (ó) bésaib: trebait isin cathraig . . . o b.cethecailsi na n-apstal in the Catholic manner of . . ., Anecd. iii 69.25 . Cf. bés (cen bes, v.l.) mora, Lament 88 § 1 . étiud bān bēsaib srotha `white raiment after the fashion of an elder', Ériu ii 66 § 13. ni bia o besaib mogha, Laws iv 16.23 . See Celtica vi 234.z. fo b.¤ : fo b.¤ srotha luaith `in the manner of a swift stream', Wb. 32c16 .

(b) In more specialized sense (particularly in pl.) moral(s), good behaviour: ar chuit óisa et bésa, Wb. 28d24 . cid maith a b.¤ oca thig his conduct, TFerbe 521 . riaglóir . . . / conoathar b.¤ `who preserves good manners' (in a monastery), Ériu iii 106 § 43. intamlid a béssu, Wb. 9a14 . asbera frib coteeet mo béssise gl. uias meas, 9a17 . bési nodaberat inæclis, 28d26 . inna mbéso (`rather bése,' note) sainemlae gl. morum, Ml. 30d15 . ar indí atreba bésu aristotil, Sg. 33a29 . cen buaidred ar do béssaib `no deterioration in thy conduct', PH 7552. do bhéasa ód óige = thy manner, Jeremiah xxii 21. ar bhéasaibh ná ar mhíbhéasaibh, DDána 120.29 .

(c) Legal customary (annual) (food-) rent (glossed biad uais, Laws ii 222.14 Comm.), tribute, etc. (see ZCP xiv 340.19 , Críth G. p. 75 , PRIA xxxvi C 283.25 ): sudiges bēs foruib nō cacht (etymol. of forbasach), Corm. Y 658. turcrec cacha besa of every annual rendering of tribute (Thurn.), ZCP xiv 341 § 3a . ná[d] fuiln(g)e a b.¤ tar molt cona ḟosair. Ma ḟorbera folud a thige . . . co mbí b.¤ a thige and íarna míad, Críth G. 80 , 83 . do berthar boin cech lis a Mumain duit . . . acht na derntar bes de, RC xliii 16 § 10. fri comus a mbesa ┐ a císa doib `to assess their tributes and taxes', Ériu xii 162 § 2. v. tricha in rig do ┐ cis ┐ bes do estib `rent and tribute for the five King's Cantreds', Ann. Conn. 1235.19 . See airchenda

Note also: b.¤ gl. idioma, Ml. 51c25 , 62d8 . dun b.¤ ebraidiu gl. Ebreco idiomati, 71c11 . anat n-uaibrigthi in bæsai cosecarthi gl. ritibus sacris, 100c16 .

Compds. bésgnethid gl. morigera, Thes. ii 3.29 . trisin ṁbæstindrim gl. per tropologiam, Ml. 41a2 . 48c11 .

beus

Cite this: eDIL s.v. beus or dil.ie/5807

Forms: beos, beós, bós, fós, beos, beós, béus, bhius, bós, bhós

part also beos. Later beós, bós, fós (see fós). Disyll., Lament 13 , as monosyll., SR 5046. See Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 271 , 457 . b.¤ in Ml. ( beous, Ml. 77b2 ), beos in Wb., Sg. 201b15 . b.¤ , LU 3395 , beós, 3740 . béus, LL 12521. bhius, TBC-LL¹ 6014. bós, Mon. Tall. 158.32 . bhós allit. with bhás, DDána 34.26 ( fós . . . fúthaibh, 26. 2 ).

(a) still, yet: b.¤ gl. usque (adhúc), Ml. 63a5 . do-b-tromma a n-accobor collnide beos gl. adhuc, Wb. 8c8 . beos gl. adhuc, 14c1 . atbiur beos `I say it still', 9b20 . béus = adhuc, Lat. Lives 52 § 44. ind hí lanamnas atái béus? `art thou still in the married state?' Mon. Tall. 134.25 . baí in t-imcosnam cetna beius imón curadmir, LU 9035 ( FB 78 ). bá ógṡlan b.¤ it was still whole, 10022 . cundat marthanaig béos still in existence (pillar-stones), MU² 310 (LL). co se b.¤ as yet, LU 5087 (TBC). With neg. ni thucat beos ruín ind rechto `they do not yet understand the mystery of the Law', Wb. 15a34 . ni rochumscigther són beos `it can never be moved', 30b15 . nimda sátech dom cluchi béos, LU 4996 ( TBC-I¹ 508 ).

(b) further; moreover, again; besides, also, in addition: do irgairiu na sainte beos `also to forbid greed', Wb. 12d32 . epert do Duaid b.¤ dombera Dia fortacht dond fiur firíen gl. etiam, Ml. 57c4 . ar cech lau b.¤ gl. (eorum)que, 75d1 . debe tintuda inso b.¤ `this too is a difference of rendering', 65c8 . forberad mu chland b.¤ `further', 88a10 . du adamrugud flatha solman ón b.¤ `to glorify the rule of Solomon again', 90a5 . cid fó cid for beous beme whether we sink moreover or swim, Snedg. u. Mac R 9.14 . dligid bēus (beos, bheós v.ll) cach dothge miscais, ZCP xi 84 § 34g . sruth tentide beos and andside, LU 2112 ( FA 18 ). dambad étaid in fer ca mbeind, nibad chomdas béus that too would not be fitting, TBC-LL¹ 41 ( LL 7586 ). co tarla anfud mór doib b.¤ isin bale cétna `again', Thes. ii 329.6 . lotar ond indsi sin for culu forsin n-ocian beos, RC x 60.5 ( LU 1922 ). dorad beous ár for choblach `also', xvii 419.23 . co ro móti bus ingnad lib beos `that ye may be yet more astonished', PH 3746. bheós = also, RSClára 42a .

With verbs expresses sense of continues, keeps on with the action of the verb: tecmallid dia domnich beos continue to collect on Sunday, Wb. 14a1 . á tinnacul a llaim hi llaim b.¤ that they should be passed on from hand to hand, Ml. 96d6 . aithrus ind anmcharat dia bliadna b.¤ `to consult his confessor once a year regularly', Mon. Tall. 144.2 tictis drecht díb b.¤ `kept coming' (Faraday), LU 5900 ( TBC-I¹ 1432 ). in comram do thairisem b.¤ (beos, v.l., R11), Sc.M² 11. do-das-athiged C. béos (MS.) C. continued to attend on them, MU² 922 (LU). tairissid beos `wait a while', PH 1415.

(c) yet, nevertheless, in spite of that: is fo chétbuid alanaile beos inso this, however (?), is according to the opinion of others, Sg. 201b15 . ní té(i)t a luige ó ḟi[u]r midbotha (?) beos his oath is still that of a f. m., Críth G. 70. ro-cechlastai a toitim in tan labras beóus it (viz. a needle) would be heard falling even when he is speaking (?), BDD² 793. rotmuirbiu[b]- sa beos I shall kill you all the same, Ériu v 72.12 .

3 co

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 3 co or dil.ie/9788
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: co, co, co n-, cu, có, go, gar, ɔrici, coni, con(n)á, connar, co-ndum-fel, conom, condidtuctis, conidtuccid, conid, condin-roirea, Condubtanicc, condibfeil, con-da-r-íccad, conda-tuárgabusa

conjunction (a use of 1 co, GOI 554 ). There are two forms, co, leniting, with abs. and deut. forms of follg. vb. ( co chutrummaigidir, Ml. 25c12 ; co du-fess, 44a9 ); and co n-, conj. part. See GOI 145 , 299 , 312 . Also cu, Ml. 89d16 , 139a14 , có, 142a1 . In later lang. go (gur), gar, Mac Aingil 4671 etc. See Blathm. 26 note . co n- freq. abbreviated ɔ in earlier lang. even where nasalizing n would not normally appear, e.g. ɔrici, Wb. 33b18 , ɔticfad, TBC-LL¹ 963 . Somet. even with con in full: con ropu, Ml. 67c9 . Cf. ɔṅdárbastar, Sg. 211a10 . See GOI 554 , TBC-LL¹ p. 1099 . Neg. of co is coni ( coní, Sg. 209b13 ), of co n- con(n)á etc. ( GOI 539 ). connar bo, TBC-LL¹ 2548 . go nach beath, DDána 74.68 . With inf. pron. ( GOI 258 ). 1 s. co-ndum-fel, Wb. 3c38 . condomarrgabad sa, 17d14 . conom thicisea except me, LU 8368 ( FB 24 ). 3 s. m. n. condidtuctis, Wb. 21c21 . conidtuccid, 11 . conid chuale, Ml. 20a2 . 1 p. condin-roirea, Wb. 29b16 . 2 p. Condubtanicc, Wb. 5c10 . condibfeil, 24c4 . 3 s. f. and 3 p. con-da-r-íccad, 4d19 . conda-tuárgabusa, 26d10 . an frim céin córda sille, LU 3907 ( SCC 37 ). conda tucsa, Fraech 278 . For forms with copula see 1 is (I 307.61, 310.9 , 39 , 311.44 , 312.45, 313.4, 16, 21, 49, 65, 314.22, 33, 315.11, 23, 65 , 317.76, 318.58, 319.12, 63, 75, 320.48, 83 321.3 etc.).

On usage see GOI 342 , 554 ff. (possible difference in meaning between co and co n-; co rare outside O. Ir. glosses, see Translator's Note no. 197).

1 With indic. so that, and (consecutive): co gl. quo (. . . fatetur), Ml. 130c22 . con fri fuili foichliter, Bretha 25 . con[n]á heisedar, Críth G. 176 . ɔricub-sa cucuib `so that I shall come unto you', Wb. 32a27 . ɔarrceoratar a n-arma doib gl. ut doficerat eis quod in nos torquere possint, Ml. 26d6 . is co durogabsat, 108a6 . tremi-berar . . . conid ainm dun chrunn, Wb. 8a5 . ɔaich rann so that it is not, Sg. 212a6 . ar a coitcinne na cladh sa gu nach urasa cín dagra for a tigernaib, Laws iv 222.1 Comm. ɔruptar fadirci ind usci Ml. 40d16 . connar bo leír, TBC-LL¹ 2548 . With vb. of motion forming prep. phrase: téit co téit isa teach he goes into the house, BDD² 280 . ránic C. co mbuí hi faichchi na Bruidne came to, 507 . táncatar . . . co mbátar i ndorus etc., Sc.M² 5 . With as-beir introducing direct speech: mná . . . do gabāil chepóce . . . co n-ērbrat saying, Sc.M² 20 . atgládastar . . . B. co n-epert , LU 8235 ( FB 18 ). con-erbairt = dicens, Lat. Lives 1.4 . Freq. with copula and personal form of prep.: conid airi so that that is why, Sg. 189b2 . conid and atá otharlige a chind and that is where, RC iii 182.5 . conid and atbert c.¤ , 178.27 . conid de atá . . . whence is, 181.36 (cf. conid iarsin, y). conid de ro ainmniged . . . , Fraech 107 . Similarly: conid innisin . . . sin so that that is the story, TBC-LL¹ 1388 . co n-id di-a deoin dochoid, PH 2374 . As mere sentence-connective: robo trom tra la Moingḟind an ni sin, co n-ebairt fria macaib . . . , RC xxiv 194.25 . luid . . . co mbensom, LU 4907 (historic pres. rare in this use, GOI 331 ). luidseom . . . co tubart a láim tairrsiu, BDD² 141 . lasin donic ingabuir chuci corragaib mīr assathóib and took, RC iii 184.31 . dotaet . . . C. do tsiriud in dithruibh cetna, co riacht in tobur and he reached the spring, vi 175.28 . ro selaig C. . . . co tarat . . . co ragaib . . . co toracht, LU 8460 - 1 ( FB 31 ). Cf. loech foltfind lebar co mbeanad folt braine a da imda whose hair reached, etc., RC xxiv 184.6 . For stereotyped co cloth ní introducing rhetorics ( LU 5449 etc.) see Celtica vii 79 ff. See also viii 155-60 and Ulidia i 251-53 . See further Celtica ix 117 (as co) 118 (ar co), 133 (mod. mar is fearr go dtiocfaidh leat, etc.).

2 In special consecutive use in `which the subject of the clause is taken out of its logical position, and placed (under the government of the principal verb, though often almost absolutely) before the introductory conjunction and copula' ( PH p. 594 ). See further O'Brien Celtica ii 348 , C. O'Rahilly viii 162 . is rad dée immumforling conda apstal gl. gratia Dei sum id quod sum `God's grace has caused me to be an apostle,' Wb. 13b6 . is di chéin immunrordad condan maicc togu gl. qui praedestinauit nos in adoptionem filiorum, 20d10 . dobrograd condibfeil icorp crist gl. electionem uestram, you have been called to be members of C.'s body, 24c4 . In the follg. exx. rather with explicative force: o du raidhmisiot . . . / iosa com bu thorisi that J. was etc., Blathm. 55 . domuinet sochaide, na hapstail co n-id as cech berla ro-labairset, PH 5485 . is demin cuirp na hesergi co mbat foille, 6746 . atnaigh . . . aichne fair, conar bé A., TE 12 Eg. Similarly perh.: mainba æcne lib act conda anecne gl. ne quis me putet insipientem esse, alioquin velud insipientem accipite me, Wb. 17c10 . [no] ghnathaigeth U. aingel co torraimed indí Pátraic, Trip.² 215 .

3 In quantitative contexts (to the extent) that, (so much so) that: in sí a meit friscomartatar co ndo[d]sitis huili a fide have they offended to the point of falling a fide? Wb. 5b11 . attá diṡeirc la laitnori innangrec co seichetar cid a comroircniu the Latinists are so fond of the Greeks that they imitate even their errors, Sg. 1a2 . ba hé a méit co cathaigtis co corptha na demna frisna doínib, LU 4036 ( SCC 49 ). boí tra dia fot na lamae co rroacht tar na teóra fuithairbe the arm was so long that it reached, 9069 ( FB 82 ). ba he med na dochraidi co mba hecin di . . . , RC xxiv 190.7 .

4 until (with `the indicative or subjunctive according to the character of the sentence as a whole', GOI 555 and cf. 330 ). With pres. ni ib fínn combi mescc gl. non uinolentum, Wb. 28b24 . co mbí, Críth G. 83 . co ndichet till he goes, 28 . co roglea dó until he has finished, Mon. Tall. 133.16 . ní rach . . . / don Charraig . . . / taireise go rabh a-rís / damh, Aithd. D. 32.16 . Freq. with verbs of coming to, reaching in prep. phrases, see do-icc, ro-icc (cf. orta co rís in corthe, LU 3334 ), 100.36 . With pret. and perf.: con-dub-tanicc misericordia Dei , Wb. 5c10 . conda-tuárgabusa, 26d10 . co bba till it was, BDD² 12 (for co mba? corbo, D). co nderglē till I made up my mind, Sc.M² 4 . asbertatar . . . co comarsatis in dá adnacul . . . ní comroicfed . . . , Airne F. 148 . In later lang. also with fut.: gearr go mbia, DDána 26.8 . See cotá.

5 As connective marking subordination after verbs of saying and in various other contexts that (with subj., later also condit. and indic.): a n-asberid a Iudeu coni cloitis geinti tairchital Crist, 5a8 . as n-é tairrchet . . . combad adramail in macc conróbad écoscc a cheneóil fair, 6d6 . nád chumaing aranísar and coní enggnatar gníma, Sg. 209b13 . ? is écen ɔṅdárbastar, 211a10 . coní ecmi nád n-airchissa act is co arcessea (it happens) that he does spare, Wb. 5b35 . atbertsat . . . co leicfitis, LU 9023 ( FB 77 ). forairngert-sa . . . co ragad méla . . . fort, TBC-LL¹ 647 . dá mbeath go dtuillinn, Aithd. D. 95.13 . do fhóbair go ndearnainn dearmad, 38.16 . tuig . . . go raibhe . . . , TSh. 22 . go dtarla . . . gur mhionuigh ┐ gur bhris, 59 . ó ataoi dall . . . 's gar mían leat etc., Mac Aingil 4671 . gar cōir dhuit etc. (title), 1033 . toingim-se . . . co ná fil, Ériu iv 98.10 . ní mōr go mbui ar comus dōip `they were scarcely able', Fl. Earls 88.12 . As connective particle in ar eagla go, do bhríogh go etc., see TSh. tre go bhfuighedis, Luc. Fid. 3269 .

6 In O. Ir. with subj. glossing Lat. ut, ne (final): coni gl. (timens) ne, Ml. 22d12 . gl. uti, Sg. 213a5 . ɔrop imdu de duún gl. ut abundet, Wb. 3a12 . co beit amal innahí nad tectat sétchi gl. ut sint, 10b5 . co remifoil gl. ut . . . anticipiet, Ml. 23a8 . co asagnoither gl. ut intelligatur, Sg. 180b2 . commimis less huili gl. ut et mortuorum et uiuorum dominetur, Wb. 6b21 . co ngnemmis gnímu colno gl. ut . . . uiuamus, 4a9 . co fu-crothad .i. co chon-scarad gl. ut . . . cassaret, Ml. 23b14 . có gl. quo (maior . . . prauitas appareret), 29a5 . co gl. quo . . . possint, 74c10 .

7 With subj. so that, in order that. Pres. condib dídnad domsa, Wb. 1b1 . con festar cách gl. scientia, 12c38 . cona roib etarcéin, 26a14 . corbu du reir nach aili labraimme gl. nostro iuri in loquendo, non alieno seruimus imperio, Ml. 31b16 . ni nád ndenam-ni acht is co dugnem, 23c6 . conna dechsam i n-adradu idal, 62d1 . coni taibrea feuchrai fírmessa foraib, 109c14 . mad he herchoiliud cétne persine in sin .i. conibbé dese and, Sg. 199b4 . ɔnábé and, 166a3 . co ti N. do bar n-eadrain `so that N. may come to separate you', RC xxiv 194.26 . tíagsa co n-ardu tenid I'll go and light a fire, BDD² 286 . cid is áil duib . . . co ndernur what do you want me to do ? PH 4414 . congain liom go leanar help me to follow, DDána 2.7 . Impf. co no pridchinn a indocbáil, Wb. 28a7 . combad aurlam cách dia bathis, 8a4 . ɔrobad cech brathair post alium , 34a4 . conaib fir, Ml. 31d9 . confresced in popul á íc, 136d1 . co mbin cosmail fri encu, 91b7 . cinged issin sliab co tabrad fiad `to fetch a deer', Arch. Hib. ii 70 § 5 . oc imchosnum, comtis hé cétnarístais, Airne F. 135 . atbert in ríg, go ructha that he should be brought, PH 1329 . a bhreath don bhoct do-bhire / go nach beath ort oirbhire, DDána 74.68 .

8 With impf. subj. of copula and subst. vb. introducing a tentative or alternative explanation: combad notire rodscribad cosse gl. salutatio mea manu Pauli, up to this point it is no doubt the work of a scribe (an epistle), Wb. 27d16 . co mbad si amser sin rongabthe in salm apparently it was then . . . , Ml. 24d7 . combad ho ṡuidiu iarum pepigi gl. antiqui `pago' . . . dicebant pro `paciscor', and that, presumably, is the origin of, Sg. 181a3 . combed secunda gl. de aliquo habet locutionem, 200a1 . ɔnabeth foraithmet dǽ hi suidiu gl. id non dixit absolute etc., Ml. 22d26 . no, go na beith acht trian and dogres `or, according to others, there is never more than one-third', Laws iv 196. 12 Comm. no guna tuctha acht einní dib do gach thir, 162 note (Comm.). no comad a cáer . . . no ásad, Airne F. 55 .

9 In wishes (see Murphy Lyrics p. 255 ): conarbera dam . . . fri M. `say to M. for me', Mon. Tall. 150.7 . gurab tu ar comairge, Ériu i 122.24 . co rop é in læch . . . may he be the warrior . . . , TBC-LL¹ 1151 . go roibh linn . . . / . . . banaltra thrí dtighearna, DDána 9.1 tocht id leith gur mheala mé, 25a.25 . Perh. also: conná' musnágat may they not fear each other, LU 9091 ( FB 84 ).

10 With prec. conj. forming compound conjunctions. See 1 acht (A 21.59), 1 ara (A 372.12, 24 etc.), cen (114.78), 2 cía (170.85), cían (180.39), dáig (D 19.44), dochum (D 229.60 ), indas (I 218.42). For use with prec. neg. adv. see nícon (N 45.79, 46.4, 11).

11 After positive, compar. or super. adj. used adverbally: mar is lúaithe co tairnig, Maund. 38 § 57 . marus ferr co fetfaitis, RC xix 26 § 19 . luaithiu con-rānic Maelodrān, Fing. R. 1023 . cid lúath condránic in gilla, LL ii 8791 .

12 After ocus (generally introducing different subject): dotháet Findabair assind uisciu. & facbaid in claideb i llaim Fraech. ┐ co mben a chend den míl, LL v 33282 . dobert Cu Chulaind side da ṡaigid ┐ co topacht a chend de, iv 23220 . delbaid a richt cacha fírcharat etir ḟir ┐ mnai fos, ┐ co léiceann cach a rún ria, Acall. 5680 .

comimmaircide

Cite this: eDIL s.v. comimmaircide or dil.ie/11345

adj (immaircide): c.¤ gl. conpetens, Ml. 131d2 . comimmaircidi gl. hora conpetenti, BCr. 39c7 . ordugud comimaircide na n-epert or[di]natio congrua(m) , Auraic. 592 . With adv. suff.: in chomimmaircid[id] gl. consequenter, Ml. 55c22 .

cumtach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cumtach or dil.ie/13903

Forms: cumtach, -aige

o, n. vn. of con-utaing (see GOI 356 ). n p. cumtach, Ml. 84a11 . Usu. -aige.

(a) act of building; constructing, composing; building, construction : onaib tollaidib bite o[c]cumtuch `building', Ml. 131c8 . c.¤ innacathrach, 133c11 . du chumtuch latir gl. in figendis lateribus, 102d12 . epert in chumtaig forsnaib drummaib `building', 135d5 . conrotacht . . . in gríanan sin do imdenmaib ┐ cumtaigib sainamraib, LU 8064 ( FB 3 ). o togail Trae co cumdach Tempoill Solman, MacCarthy 280.4 . cumdach na Rómha ic Romuil, CCath. 149 . aimser chumtaigh in tuir, Auraic. 38 . cumdach na long, ZCP xxx 55.436 . prīmh-eaclus . . . ar n-a comdach, Fl. Earls 178.16 . c.¤ na n-Iudaide n-ard `architecture', ZCP i 112 § 1 . cuit duine . . . nō con . . . nō cumtaigh `building', Cáin Ad. 41 . in dingnaib .i. hi cumtaigib De Athar, Rawl. 106b31 . do chumhdaighibh uiscce ┐ tire `houses . . . on water and land', AFM iv 1108.y . hi cumhdaighthibh cloch, Hugh Roe² 180.26 . co cumtuch a chuirp chest(?), LL 24888 . In moral sense edification : c.¤ nirisse gl. aedificationem . . . quae est in fide, Wb. 27d24 . is c.¤ caritatis dilectio proximi , 6c26 . do ch.¤ popuil De gl. ad aedificandum Dei . . . populum, Lib. Hymn. 12.86 n. Gramm. a c.¤ gl. constructionem, Sg. 139a4 . issed ac .i. taibsiu gnímo nó chesta gl. huiuscemodi . . . structura, 209b28 . iss ed a cumdach leiss accomol indarann oc slund imperatiui gl. constructio, 148a3 . In wider sense: lucht cumhdaigh na ccaithréimionn `those who compose the battle-rolls', Ériu v 56.64 . tengta in domain . . . ni-fétfadais a-cumdach mét mhaithisa in-dúileman give an account of, RC xxiv 384.25 .

(b) act of protecting, covering, supporting, helping , etc.: is techtta . . a ndinsed oldas a cumdac `protect them' (viz. a druid, a reaver, a satirist), BCrólige 51 . cumdach no coimét, Trip. lii 6 . ri doraiga teglach ṅdil / dia chumtuch eter dóinib to escort him, SR 7582 . a coimded do cumdach, Laws iii 22.7 . bi[d] c.¤ do díbergaib, LU 6614 = TBC-I¹ 2078 . bid tesbaidh do cumtuch in tirese mo dula-sa as `will lessen this land's covert', Dinds. 127 . óenach . . . / co cumtuch cuirp is anma, Metr. Dinds. iv 150.55 . is innte-side ata coilech in Choimded iarna ch.¤ , ZCP xvii 228.y . a trian fri cumdach a mind `to enshrine his relics', RC xxvii 284 § 40 . an ben easlan do cumdach, O'Curry 2307 ( Eg. 88, 23 (24)b ). fear do chumhdaigh your protector, DDána 4.8 . Canoin Pháttraicc do chumhdach lá D., AFM ii 638.3 . iad féin do chumhdach nó do dhíon orra, Keat. ii 6086 . dom chumhdach ar an ccorōin, ZCP xii 380.13 . ar ccumhdach . . . ó pheacadh, Parrth. Anma 559 . cothughadh, cosnadh, cumhdach, Eg. Gl. 137 . ag cumhdach C.C. do chur a n-Albain `helped', BCC 452.10 . ar laoidh féin ní faghthar dath / gan leabhar glan dá chumhdach `to support it', Content. vi 13 . ní fhédaid anós baistidh . . . do chumhdach lé Scriobhtuir diadha = support .. . from Holy Scripture, Carswell 232.9 . a ccomtach a dha ciocch ccorr / do bhiodh naom-cloch na nemhond, Ériu iv 55.17 . cumhdach fallsa feóil mo bhall, TSh. 3313 . Coimheud an Chroidhe, ┐ . . . Cumhdach na Ccēdfadh, Desid. 3049 . do dhealuigh a ccumhdacho riú, Numbers xiv 9 . aer ata ar na cumdach etorra enclosed between them, Ir. Astr. Tr. 18.7 . do urail corp Rolanduis do chumhdach do bhalsaimm ┐ do mirra `to preserve', ITS xix 96.30 .

(c) cover, case, shrine : dubbert P. c.¤ dufíacc idon clocc ┐ menstir `a case (containing) . . . ', Thes. ii 241.16 ( Ardm. 18a ). dianda sera i c.¤ (of valuables), Críth G. 294 . do rig hE. lasandernad acumddachso (of case for book), Ir. Gl. 57.2 . do chuir a chruit ina cumdach, Stair Erc. 659 . ben a cumhdach do chenn na cráisighi, Acall. 1718 . droichet . . . go gcomhdach . . . ōs a chionn `roof', Fl. Earls 86.5 .

Of clothes, apparel, etc.: cumtuch .i. cum thoga bīs .i. co lend, Corm. Y 329 . ? cumthach (leg. c.¤ ?) brunni `a cover for the breast' (of a `lumman'), Metr. Dinds. iv 332.43 . corp ┐ cumthach (comdach, v.l.) a cæmcheili `dress', TTebe 4699 . cumhdach a chuisleann `covering', Aithd. D. 78.25 . cumhdach a cinn `head-dress', TFrag. 66.1 . in cumdach . . . robui fura cenn, ZCP vi 276.25 . cumdach mor d'édach uime, BNnÉ 34.10 . seolbrat . . . impe ┐ cumtaige isind imdæ bed-coverings(?), LU 7354 ( BDD 99 ).

(d) act of adorning, ornamenting; ornament : dia cumtuch `to their adornment', Ml. 36c17 . tre sóinmigi ┐ ch.¤ Sión gl. ut restituas ei ueteris felicitatis ornatum, 72a5 . c.¤ basuisse fri hiriss gl. ornantes se, Wb. 28b9 . gach lí, gach cumhdach, Ériu xiii 39.17 . cumdach mic righ, Laws ii 158.24 .i. c.¤ a netaigh, Laws ii 158.26 Comm. lenid corcra . . . cona cumtuch oir ┐ argait, LL 24233 . do chumtuch ingantach tíri Arabiae, LL 24890 . c.¤ alaind orda ima bragait, TTebe 754 . blatha ┐ cumdaige na so-gnim `adornments', Ir. Lit. 50.4 . c.¤ baindsidhi `wedding ornament', CCath. 1166 .

Of speech, writing etc. embellishing, heightening: trop cucumtuch ┐ chonimbiud briathar gl. propter pompam, Ml. 94b11 . ar thucait cumtaich no molta ho duinib `for the sake of pomp or praise', Ériu vii 174.1 . gur chuirestair . . . glósnaithe filedh fuithe da . . . cumhdach (of poetic composition), BNnÉ 265.26 . C.¤ fír Fircertni (in mock list of treasurers), Anecd. ii 53.10 . cumdach na Paitri commentary, RC xi 400.25 . sluag na sacart, cach díb ┐ a druim fria chlár ic cumtuch na claisse `composing'(?), Celtica iv 34.476 .

(e) Attrib. and predic. g s. in various meanings: a scrin cumtaig protective, Ann. Conn. 1293.7 . leabhar cumhdaigh an illuminated book, ITS xvi 52.16 . dorinde cūpa cumduig da cloicenn, ZCP xiii 181.17 . cloidem cumdaigh ` decorated ', vi 93.2 . coróin . . . cumdaigh, 52.7 . cnú chumhdaigh dar gcrobhuing (of Christ), Aithd. D. 75.40 . clár cumdoigh, IGT Decl. ex. 524 . fri gnim cumtaig cóir cech gráid proper, fitting (?), SR 7131 . etig didiu nī cumtaig cruth well-formed (?), O'Mulc. 462 . In chevilles: clar cóir, cobsaid, c.¤ dind, SR 981 . cumtaig arg, 4757 . cumtaig rath, 7042 . cumtaig grád, 4225 .

Compd. With adj.: ásna cathbarraib . . . cumtachglana, TBC-LL² 4221 .

See cumtacht.

didiu

Cite this: eDIL s.v. didiu or dil.ie/16223

Forms: diṡuidiu, didiu, didu, didhu, dídu, diu, dī, din, dino, diu, dino, dano, d(h)e, Didiu, dī, dō

particle of transition = diṡuidiu (which is used for it FB § 6 ), see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 189 . Written in full, didiu: Wb. 1a9 ; 4a27 , c23 , d27 ; 8a4 ; 11b17a ; 15d20 ; 32c13 . didu: Wb. 8a5 . Hib. Min. 356 , 418 . LL 202a18 (: ¤ligu). BB 397a33 . IT iii 67.3 . didhu, BB 16b20 ; 355b30 = Metr. Dinds. ii 32 (: firu). dídu, SR 1224 . LL 102b38 (= TBC-LL¹ 6019 ). diu: TBC-I¹ 3564 . Hib. Min. 134 , 227 , etc. (reading of Harl.). Death-tales of the Ulster heroes, 12 . Corm. Y 1154 . RC xii 74.3 , 8 . Anecd. iv p. xii . BS § 3 . In Ml. and later MSS. however nearly always contracted dī and by earlier editors generally expanded as din (so always in PH) or dino (through confusion with dano), or somet. diu (SG); dni, AFM v 1552 . Expanded as dino in TBC-I¹ 422 , 428 , 434 , 462 , 469 , 472 , etc., where LU reads dano. Later also apparently d(h)e, see Ériu x 155 .

Didiu never begins a sentence. It always has reference to something preceding. Exceptions are only apparent, e.g. Corm. Y 1053 (where puincern has been introduced in the preceding article) and 568 (cf. 519 ). It generally follows a more or less emphatic word, often a noun or pron., but occasionally comes after ocus or nó at beginning of clause (esp. in PH); no dī may however = nō dō (= dano, q.v.).

(a) In logical sequence therefore, hence = Lat. ergo: nitat torbi . . . is diliu lemm didiu aní as torbæ, Wb. 11b17a , 4c24 . d27 , 8a4 , 15d20 . is mōir sléb[e] fírinne Dæ: cid ara fodmaisiu, a Dúaid, didiu a ndu imnedaib fodaimi? `why then dost thou suffer . . .?', Ml. 55d11 . biror .i. bir tibra . . . or .i. mong; biror didiu mong tiprat, Corm. Y 121 . Corbmac .i. corb .i. carpat. Cormbmac didiu mac carpait, 204 , cf. 519 , 851 , 875 , etc. do suidhiu ind erred isin charput as nomen a fochlæ . . . Fochla didiu cach suidiu n-a[i]rechda hence `fochla' means any exalted seat, 698 . cech fia[d?] . . . acht oenchrann ata dídu for riaguil every food therefore but one tree is under (our) control, SR 1224 . ba miscais lasin righain inti N., ar is dara ceand dorinde in rí fri Cairind he. Ba mor didu dochraidi Chairinde oc in rigain therefore C. was very harshly treated by the queen, RC xxiv 190 . omnia ergo quaecunque vultis, cech maith din is ail lib, PH 5772 . Hence freq. in drawing a conclusion or moral: conid aire sin didiu napo chóir do neoch uabur . . . do denam, LL 279a33 . connach cóir d.¤ lenmain do sholud nó shénairecht, 281b29 . conid ferr do neoch d.¤ a edprait don Chomdid andás dona dóinib, 286b40 (all concluding sentences of tales).

(b) Referring to someth. preceding, introducing an explanation or additional detail (freq. after a noun): rún inna cruche . . . Crúx didu ainm do gním in chrochtho, Wb. 8a5 . mali bare gare . . . Maile didiu .i. olc, Corm. Y 698 (p. 59) , cf. 604 , 860 . bói máthair mac Conaire la Neimed . . . In Nemed hé sin didiu bá ríg-briuga side now this N. was a hosteller, LL 292b1 ( Ériu vi 147 ). tanic aroli fer . . . Marcellus din ainm in fhir sin, PH 950 , cf. 2177 , 3114 , 3342 . is dó ranic inar Ísu . . . corccra d.¤ dath an inair sin, 2861 . Often nearly = for , Lat. enim: cruimther .i. goidelg indi as prespiter. Premther d.¤ a combrec sidie, Corm. Y 211 . Cathal nomen Britonis .i. combrec inn sin .i. catell. Cat d.¤ isin chombreic is cath in scotica Cathal is the Welsh name Catell; for cat in Welsh corresponds to cath in Irish, 206 , cf. 124 .

(c) As a particle of transition in looser signification: bói rí amra . . . Dagan a ainm. Ba mór d.¤ a chumachta, LL 245b43 . is amlaid doraiga intí Ísu Crist . . . Bid mór d.¤ a slóg . . . Is ar bēlaib int ṡluaig-sin d.¤ do aspenfa cách a gnímu, 280b26 - 27 . Common in sequences (often alternating with tra and other particles) = also, moreover, further: is andsin tancadar ina ferchuidreda . . . Is ann d.¤ sin thānic ind nōi carpait di ḟéindidib, TBC-I¹ 3536 . mōr do chētaib . . . mōr do churadaib . . . mōr do buidnib d.¤ robātar oca, 3408 . almsu dia anmain cetus . . . almsu din dia churp, PH 5977 . Ram a ainm ria tusmed chlainde do Abram imorra a ainm iar tusmed . . . Abraham din a ainm in tan dochuaid fo recht n-imdibe, 5684 , cf. 2267 follg., 6233-49 . rucsat bentachtain les on aide ┐ rofacsat bennachtain aice didiu, RC xxxv 204.20 . After ocus: ni bia fortamlus a namut fair . . . ┐ din nisbia tedmunna i n-a ḟlathius, PH 4284 . diar fhulang ┐ diar lessugud fodéin . . . ┐ din do shásad bocht, 6121 . ocus din fáth aile, 5473 ; 5187 . After nó: dia mbé do náma i ngorta . . . nó din dia mbé a n-ittaid, 6043 . doforne sin .i. na tri hetargna . . . no din na trí dána, 7082 . demin leo co mbad comthoitim dóib nó d.¤ inní robíad de co mbad hé a tigerna fén dofáethsad ann, TBC-I¹ 2433 . cia conualaind-se mo charpat ┐ Oen ara Conaill d.¤ ina charput and O. in his chariot as well, 3525 . docer la M. dā fer dēac dīibsom ┐ dā fer dēac dia muinter-som d.¤ , 2904 . adcomaing cach fer dīb biur n-indam-sa, adcomchusa a mbiur-sa tria cechtar de -seom d.¤ , 2826 . nicon bia a mbethaid, or seiside. Nicon bia-so d.¤ it bethaid, ol C. then you will not live either, 2771 . ni maith dait, or C., na leigi da marbad . . . Ni maith doibsom d.¤ epert ind uilc frimsa, 2780 . nir lam [Cairend] in mac do gabail cuici . . . ┐ nir lam didu nech do feraib Herenn a breth leis, RC xxiv 190 . In adversative sense, however: dolēicsed dūnad iarsin do M. ┐ ní gegain-side d.¤ nech dībsom, TBC-I¹ 2906 . dorad seirc dia leasmac .i. do Chorc; ro op d.¤ Corc a coimlebaid, Lec. 454c15 . Muineamon mac Cais . . . Is de sin aderar Muineamon .i. main for muinclaib. Maine Mór d.¤ robe a cétainm, Cóir Anm. 10 . Confirming a foregoing statement: dóig lim rombad hē Cethern mac Fintain; ┐ ba fīr sōn d.¤ and this was indeed the case, TBC-LL¹ 2761 . doringelt Cūrūi dōsom nād bīad . . . Dognith d.¤ and he kept his word too, 2967 . bid les . . . in forlāmus ┐ rīgi nĒrenn ōn uair-se amach. Ba fīr ón didu it turned out true too, RC xxiv 202 . an fil ceithern acut? Atát diu I have (indeed), SG 62 . tabraid cáirde na haidche anocht damsa! Dobéram diu, 56 . Common in statement, question, or command to connect with something already expressed or implied: Mait[h] didiu, a Bélchú well now, B., Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 40 . airg d.¤, ol M., conris Síth Lethet go then, Imr. Brain i 53 . cid dia tutchad diu? why then hast thou come? RC xii 74 . cest diu, caidhe mo airrle-si l(u)at? ib.

(d) Often used to denote temporal sequence, then, thereupon: is iarum foruirmed mind nAileillo forsin coirthi. Fōbair-som d.¤ in coirthi, TBC-I¹ 2883 . is iarum conmelt foroib . . . Focheird d.¤ a sciath ina diaid . . . Roiadh in slōg imbi-som iarum, conmelt som d.¤ foraib, 2889 , 2891 . gabaid L. ríge nhErenn . . . Gabaid ríge nAlban iarsin . . . Gabaid d.¤ L. ríge Gall, LL 311b1 ff. rofoildsic Dia dosam sin . . . condubairt sa rann-so d.¤ , RC xxxiii 354 . etha ó hAilill co Ferchess . . . Fóidis d.¤ Ferchis, Fianaig. 38 . fri re Aeda genfius Tibraiti . . . Et cid bīas and d.¤ (iarsin, v.l.)? ol B. and what will follow? ZCP ix 457 .

? do-airscéli

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? do-airscéli or dil.ie/17157

Forms: tairscélaid, torscelsad, toirscelsat, tairscélad

v (to-air-scél-) investigates, finds out . Only as simple vb. tairscélaid: ité cetnai thoirscelsat epert techta isna sidhe, BB 34b43 = torscelsad, Lec. 561c24 ; toirscelsat, ib. 25a23 . ces[t] in fil ni asa toirscelta dliged mbunaid aithgabala, O'Curry 784 ( H 3.18 367a ). Vn. tairscélad.

doich

Cite this: eDIL s.v. doich or dil.ie/17790
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: dóig, dóig, dáig, doich, doich, doig, dochu, dóig

adj (dóich ?) Mid.Ir. dóig ( doaig, Cáin Ad. § 46 v.l., RC xxv 35.36 ; dóig: Róim, Gorm. March 14 ; dáig: cāid, Gorm. Feb. 21 ). Acc. to Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 494 , ii 666, orig. same word as 1 toich and developed from it through nasalization in the common O.Ir. formula in doich? is it likely? perhaps ; a view contested by Thurn., IF Anz. xxvii 17 , Bergin, ZCP vii 513 , Meyer, Ériu vi 109 . Confusion could also have arisen after -s of copula (1 is). In O.Ir. glosses written doich, doig, compar. dochu, but dóig, Sg. 30a8 .

I

(a) As adj. likely, probable, to be expected: docho interpretatur puto, unde doig dicitur , Corm. Y 463 . tri sethracha góa: béss, dóig, toimtiu, Triads 136 . Used with cop. (expressed or understood) and followed by subord. clause (in O.Ir. without conjunction and with rel. form of vb.), or occas. by vn. clause: doig bas fír it is likely that it will be true, Wb. 5d36 . in doich side do? náde ní d.¤ is it likely of Him? Nay, it is not likely, 4b14 . in doich bid ar for mrath? is it likely that it will be to cheat you? 18a15 . ba doig bed n-ingcert in testimin-so probably this text is corrupt, Ml. 61b15 . menip dóig bes marb in gein, Ériu ii 208 § 32 . iss dóich dot-ícfaither, TE § 9 Eg. ( IT i 124 ). in dóig bát dom éligud-sa ón?, LU 3277 ( SCC § 7 ). in doig bad ē Conchobar? Nach doich, TBC-I¹ 2758 . is doigh is gar bás dam, ZCP vi 25 . is doig indisfit dún an ní . . ., PH 3758 . (Compar.) is dochu do quam contempnere , Wb. 4b14 . is docha as misi it is more likely it is I, Fél. 154 . With vn. clause: in doich epert det-siu `perchance thou mayst say', Wb. 5b29 . doig a mbith fo aengne, SR 2891 . na nethe-si as bud doig algus a [n]dénma things likely to excite a desire of doing them, PH 7795 . nocha docha h'ērghe-si nō (= nā) do beth marb amārach, ZCP x 48 . is dóthcha a beith ag fiaduch, ITS xix 88 . With conjunction: dóig combad ó Dia thísta, LL 117b6 . cenēl n-arba . . . ba doig co mbad é in corci, O'Mulc. 848 . ni cosmail conid tria spirut inglain . . . is dochu conid tria shualchi Dé, PH 2597 . Compar. with DE: is dochaiti conidh fír uair is é M. roscribh it is all the more likely to be true, Anecd. ii 36 § 21 . Rarely referring to a personal subject: ba-sam dóig guin do chnis | daig ind echta dorighnis I was likely to wound, I was near wounding (?), Anecd. i 13.5 . dia ndiglad nech iarna ecaib meite co mbad Mælodrán bad dochom do i n-Herind if anyone should wreak vengeance (?) after death . . . M. would be the most likely to do so (of all) in Ireland (?), Hib. Min. p. 78 = bid he M. bud docha, Rawl. 512 . drem as dóig diar ndínón likely to protect us, Gorm. March 14 .

is d.¤ limm I think it likely, it seems to me: dóig linn bed n-acuit, Sg. 30a8 . cate in tarb . . . in doig lat? Doig leam bad i ndiamraib Slebe C. nobeith, TBC-I¹ 883 . ba dóig la C. ba hí Medb bói and, TBC-LL¹ 1560 . doigh lesi ba codlud don aigid (= illa putavit hospitem dormire), Lat. Lives 69 . fodéma ní nach dóig latt, PH 1564 . mac . . . leis nach doigh fer a choisc da faghail who does not expect to find anyone able to overcome him, ZCP vi 29 . dochóidh i n-ionadh erdhalta in roba dóigh lais semus dia shaighidh, AFM v 1726 . Rarely with DO in this sense: dóigh dhamh bá machtna leis an ridire, ZCP xii 396 .

(b) Folld. by LA likely (in sense of likeable); desirable, an object of liking: a sense which seems confined to compar., where dochu alternates with tochu (toich): micc na muirech . . . ni huatha[ib] tṡáilim sochar | is docho lim Issucán, Fél. 44 ( Fél. Jan. 15 ). is e ba docha . . . la Dia do dóinib domain, LB 113b14 . Iesau robo docho le hIsac, BB 236a41 = ba tochu, LB 113b33 . issí is dochu lind do mnaib Erenn, Acall. 2793 . is docha la Dubthach in chumal . . . inú-sa, Fél. 66 . ní dochaidi linn hé a bheith 'na anmcarait ag C. we do not like him any the better for being . . ., Lism. L. 4793 (= ni tochaite, v.l.).

(c) proper, right (?) (cf. 1 toich): ni dóig immurgu sacrific . . . iterum fri degenca it is not proper (?) to repeat the Sacrament, Mon. Tall. § 56 (text doubtful).

II Hence in Mid. and later Ir. as subst. (f.) IGT Decl. § 14 . opinion, conjecture, supposition: dóigh .i. baramhail, O'Cl. doigh .i. fiadhnaise deise, ib. ? nocon doigh ata in test ecnai doberar for G. G's reputation for wisdom is not a matter of mere opinion (but founded on fact), ZCP xii 371.19 .

Esp. in phrases: dom d.¤ methinks, I daresay, in my opinion ; dar nd.¤ most likely, verily, surely: ní ro maith é dom dóith, O'Gr. Cat. 267.24 . anocht dom dhóigh ní mór mo dhíghnit, Keat. Poems 1596 . dar ndóigh is dearmad 's ní locht, Content. vi 100 . dar ndóich as aislin[g] do chonnairc tú, RC xxiii 10 . i nd.¤ in the belief (that), on the supposition (that): ní benuit crann . . . a ndōigh anma do beith inntibh, Marco P. 179 . do gab eccla R. ┐ O. a ndoigh nach fetfuidis cosnum risna págánachu, Fier. 211 . rithid . . . do ligin an cuslinn a ndoigh co madh fiuchad lennan do beth acu in case it should be, 23 F 19, 16va29 .

(b) hope, expectation, confidence: dóigh, dóchas, muinighin, Eg. Gl. 232 . atá dóigh agam . . . go bhféadfam dul tar na guaisibh sin, TSh. 9628 . an bhetha shiordhuidhe d'iarraidh ┐ doigh sheasmhach a faghala, Luc. Fid. 71 . a Íosa, a mo dhóigh, Parrth. Anma 21 . Folld. by prep. A(S): do bi do doigh as naomhtacht Mháodocc aicce such was his trust in M.'s sanctity, BNnÉ 274 . fa mór dóigh Robeird a lāim ┐ a glicus Muiris, Expugn. Hib. § 6 . triúr as a ndlighfidhe dóigh, Content. iv 26 . dóigh gaisgidh . . . níor dhéanta dhuit asat féin, xviii 33 . fer . . . as ar mó dóigh daoine da raibe beo a man of whom greater expectations had been formed, AFM vi 2058 .

i nd.¤ in hopes, in expectation (of, that), folld. by gen., RE (= FRI) or clause introd. by CO N-: nā bith āthus ort . . . a ndoigh mo grādha-sa d'faghail, ZCP vi 28 . i ndóigh an pheacaidh do ruagadh uatha, TSh. 8962 . i ndóigh ré síoth, 10918 . triallais leo i ndóigh ré tathfann na nGall a hEirinn, Keat. iii 5095 . i ndóigh go bhfuighbheadh fosgadh . . . ón doininn, TSh. 2560 . ag deunamh urnaighthe . . . i ndóigh go ndiongnadh Dia trócaire uirthe, Eochairsg. 89 . ar d.¤ (id.): rocumdaigead cathoir fo talmain lais ar doigh nā faicid se tir nā talumh, Todd Nenn. 188 .

cuirid d.¤ i n- puts trust in, hopes in: do chuir sé a dhóigh a nDia, Psalms xxii 8 . an tí chuireas a dhóigh i nduine, TSh. 618 . cuir h'uile dhoigh . . . am Mac, Fl. Earls 116 .

do-gní d.¤ de forms expectations of, builds hopes on (usually in sense of hoping to attain or overcome): ní gnáth dóigh do dhéiniomh dhí to hope to win anything of her (Leinster), O'Gr. Cat. 500 . dorónsat a bidbaidh dóigh de formed hopes of defeating him, Expugn. Hib. § 14 . fíor-fhlaith ní déantar dhé dóigh `the prince is thought too strong to touch', Content. xviii 120 .

Hence a ground of hope , and with gen. a likely or hopeful subject (for): ní dóigh d'aon ar n-agallmha no one has any chance in disputing with us, Content. viii 20 . díbheargaigh nach dóigh i dtroid whom there is no hope of overcoming, ib. note. guidhim Dia nach dóigh breige who is not likely to deceive (who is unlikely to be deceived?), 3 C 1 2, 387.1 . Tuath Dé nar dhoigh mbíodhbhadh enemies likely to be conquered, 3 C 13, 764.11 .

d.¤ ar chance, opportunity: robhiodh fein ┐ F. ag comhaontughadh re chéle gach uair dogheibhdis doig air, Ériu iv 57 (cf. follg.).

(c) suspicion, conjecture, hint, cognizance (of someth. hidden) usually folld. by AR: má berait dóig dochom neich if they suspect anyone, Cáin Ad. § 46 . fuair doigh [eolus, v.l.] aran ccuas ina raibhe an naomh, BNnÉ 157 . fuair C. doigh ar chogar na ceilge sin got wind of, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 42 . cuirthear i bhfolach é ┐ fuaradar na hamaide dóigh air traced him, Keat. ii 5979 .

(d) Hence manner, fashion, way, condition: ar in dóig i bhfuilir anois, SG 295.31 . maithim dod dhóigh dhíoghraisigh `thy anxious state', A. Ó Dálaigh lii 1 . mar leomhan ag iarraidh dóighe ar ar slugadhne seeking an opportunity, Carswell 65 . doigh .i. modh `a mode, manner', P. O'C.

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