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attá

Cite this: eDIL s.v. attá or dil.ie/4927
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: attá, Fil, fil, faeilfit, fil, fil, atóo, attó, attóo, ató, -táu, -ttóo, -tó, atái, atái, -tái, adta, ata, at, atáa, attáa, ataa, att, -tá, -ta, -táa, -dathar, ataam, attaam, ataid, ataaith, ataaid, ataad, -taid, ataat, ataat, -tat, -taat, tathum, tathut, táithi, táthus, táthunn, taithiunn, tathuib, tás, fil, fil, feil, fel, fail, fil, file, fel, fele, feil, fail, biuu, -bíu, -bí, biith, biid, bíid, -bii, -bí, robīi, -rubi, -rubai, -ruba, bíis, biís, bis, bís, bithir, bither, -bither, -rubthar, bímmi, -biam, bimme, biit, bíit, robiat, -biat, -bíat, -rubat, bíte, -bíinn, -biinn, -bíid, -bíth, -bid, -bith, bithe, -bímmis, -bitis, -bítis, b, bíth, bíith, bíid, biid, bíd, bithom, biid, bith, biat, beo, beu, -béo, bee, b, -bee, robhe, beith, beid, bed, beth, -b, -bée, bethum-sa, rob, robe, rubé, rob, robbé, -roib, bess, bes, bethir, bether, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -bem, -robam, beithe, bethe, -beith, -beid, -robith, beit, rubet, be(i)t, -bet, -robat, bete, -beind, -beinn, -betha, nobed, nobeth, -bed, -beth, -robad, -rabad, -bethe, -bemmis, -beimmis, -bemis, -bethe, -betis, -[ro]ibtis, bia, bie, bieid, bied, -bia, -bia, -bia, -bía, bethiumm, bethib, bias, bies, beithir, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -biam, -piam, bethe, bethi, -bied, -bieid, biet, bieit, biet, -biat, -bíet, bete, beite, nombeinn, nobiad, -bíad, nobemmis, nobetis, b, -bá, bói, bái, -bói, boie, boithius, boíthi, baísu, both(a)e, botha, -both(a), bamar, bámar, -baid, bātir, -batar, batar, rob, -roba, -raba, rob, robói, rambái, robui, -robae, -robe, -rabae, romboth, rombod, -rabad, robámmar, -robammar, rubaid, -robaid, robatar, robbátar, -rabatar, -robatar, -rabtar, buith, buithi, atáu, atú, itu, it, atú, ataim, -t, -tái, -toi, taoi, -t, atá, attá, ata, at, atáthar, dáthar, atass, -das, itám, tám, ataum, ataim, atamaoit, atámaoid, atám, -taum, -dtám, atathai, atathi, atáithi, -táithi, -dathai, -taidh, itāt, atáit, ataut, táid, -táit, itat, atat, fil, -fhile, -fhuile, -fuili, -ḟoili, -ḟuile, fail, fail, fuil, -fail, -fuil, -uil, -ḟil, -ḟuil, -ḟoil, fil, fail, fail, filter, -fuiltear, fuilemm, -failmet, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, -bhḟuilti, failet, filet, fuilet, -failet, -filet, -fileat, -fuilet, -fuilid, failet, failet, fuilet, filet, bim, bím, -bím, -ruibim, -bi, bíd, bíd, -bí, -bíonn, -bind, bídh, -b, bither, -bithar, bímit, bídmaid, bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, bíth, bīd, -bíat, -bít, -bíd, bit, bít, bhínn, nobīth, robíth, bhíodh, bhíoth, bithi, -bithi, bithea, naboitis, nobīdis, beitis, bitis, bhítís, bhídís, bír, b, bīdh, bíodh, bíoth, bíom, bíthe, bídh, bidhí, bíod, ber, uér, beor, bheith, bur, -rabor, -rabhus, rabasa, bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, bé, beir, -rab(a)i, -rabha, -rabhair, -mbéis, -beis(se), -rabais, beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, beth, -b, -raib, -rab, -raibhe, rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, bess, beas, bethur, beme, bemmit, bemait, -bém, -beam, -ruibem, -rabum, bheam, rabham, bethi, rabthai, beit, -bet, -beat, -rabat, -rabut, -rabhait, -rabhaid, -rabheid, beinn, rabainn, beithi, beithe, bethe, beitheá, beith, nobith, mbeadh, -mbeath, -rabad, -bethe, -bette, rabtha, mbiadh, nobeitis, nobeidis, mbeith, bíat, biat, biad, bhead, bed, bét, bett, -biu, -bhiú, biad, -bi, bía, biae, biaidh, bía, -bía, bethair, bied, biaid, biáid, -bia, bíes, bés, bes, bess, bhias, biass, beither, beithir, bemit, bemait, -bem(ni, beimíd, -biam, -biaim(ne), -ben, bethi, beitte, bete, -bed, biait, biat, beit, beiti, beti, betit, beidid, -bīat, beidíd, beid, -bíad, no-béind, dobeind, do beinn, -beinn, bheitheá, biadh, -bied, bífad, rot-fiadh, biath, bhiadh, bethe, bheidīs, ro-bádus, bhádhus, bhí, -rabus, -rabhas, -rabadhus, bá, -raba, bádhus, -rabadhas, basa, bhádhuis, bhí, -rabadais, -rabhais, bhádhuis, -rabhadhuis, bae, bóe, baei, búi, -bae, -buí, robai, robae, robói, bí, robuidh, bí, bhói, bhaoi, -rubai, -roibe, -roibi, -roba, -raba, -raibhe, -rabha, -robha, bí, -raibi, baí, -rabha, -rabhustair, boí, bāi, būi, bae, buí, baí, boí, both, rombatha, robās, rombas, robás, -rabus, rabas, -bádus, -bás, bás, bas, -rabas, bas, bhás, bāmur, bámar, bhámair, -rabamar, robabair, -babhair, robadbair, bhábhair, -rabhuir, -rabhabhair, bādar, -bátir, badar, bádar, bídur, -rabadar, -rabhadair, baisit, -rabhsad, bátar, bátar, bheith, beitte

(ad-tá) subst. vb. is . The distinction betw. subst. vb. and copula is in the first place syntactical, and cases are found where there is no distinction of form. Cf. the type, common in ACC: boe sab he was a leader, ACC 26 . See further below, and the discussion by Bergin, Ériu xii 208 - 211 (cia taísiu, cia bé, etc.), who refers to cases like: is uera pictura ro bai sin, Thes. ii 6.32 as emphatic. See also Ériu xvi 46 , GOI 475 . For nimtha laám, Wb. 12a21 , nímptha fírion, 8d24 (copula ?) see GOI 487 . Note also the form of the pron. in (later): matait tall iat, Laws iv 86.8 Comm. , atá ar conair é, ACL iii 216.z . bí N. eices cecinit, RC xvii 175.14 is perh. a mistake. In follg. use of subst. vb. perh. due to infl. of Latin: mar nobéind athair doib = pater eram pauperum, PH 6107 . ata in innsci ordugud etc. = oratio est. . ., Auraic. 591 .

Apart from the ordinary indic. pres. all forms of subst. vb. are from a root beginning with b-. In indic. pres. the stem tá (in absol. position attá) is used in non-rel. sentences without conj. particle, after conj. particles with inf. pron. dat. and when the conj. particle consists of a preposition and rel. (s)a n-. Absolute inflexion of tá- is found in oldaas, indaas, etc. than (is), in meaning is angry, and with follg. suff. pron. The uninflected form fil (with accus.) is used after conj. particles where no dat. inf. pron. is present, in leniting rel. clauses and often in answers to questions containing subst. vb., and in archaic texts in absol. position in meaning there is . For fuller details see GOI 476 - 483 and exx. below. See also Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 419 ff. , Strachan, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899, 1 - 82 , Ó Máille, Ériu vi 1 ff. , Études Celt. xxxiv 143-44 . Forms of gaibid, do-coissin, díchsnigidir and 1 ad-cumaing also have the force of the subst. vb. in certain uses, see separate entries.

Note further that attá is usual after hóre (see Wb. 19a19 , 22d14 and compare GOI § 781 ) and occurs later after amal ( LU 7072 , Laws iii 90.18 ). Fil is somet. found in sense there is in mid. Ir.: fail crois d'ór in cach dorus, SR 361 . TBC-I¹ 2561 . Note also: fil derg it is red, Marco P. 173 .

The use of accus. after fil continues into the classical period, see IGT Introd. § 129 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 92 - 93 . A few exx. of forms other than fil with accus. occur: ni raibi deilb, TTr.² 1664 , ní raibi . . . mhnái, 370 , ní bhiadh mnaoi, Ó Bruad. ii 252.z (with assonance). Note also with inf. pron. rosṁbai inna tass, SR 5107 . ? nim tha maith . . . do chath fri firu, LU 3343 ( SCC 13 ). From the mid. Ir. period on fil takes personal endings except in 3 s., and occurs occasionally as an independent verb: faeilfit (fut. 3 pl. absol.), Caithr. Thoirdh. 120.26 . In rel. function attá is found side by side with fil from an early period: is heiside attá hi S., Trip.² 534 , a lucht atá istig, RC vii 298.131 , the form fil finally disappearing in this use.

In mid. Ir. fil occurs for earlier -tá with dat. inf. pron.: nichar fail tlacht, SR 1560 , ni-s-fil biad, PH 1310 . Also in rel. clause after prep.: bale hi fail, LU 7516 , fors fil, Imr. Brain 43 (see also Strachan, Stories fr. Táin 3rd ed. p. 1 note).

The consuet. pres. 1 s. conj. -bíu has in classical Ir. the force of a future: biad ní biú, IGT Verbs § 7 , see also TBC-LL¹ 882 , Acall. 6179 , Duan. F. i 43.4 .

Early forms (for fuller lists see Strachan loc. cit.). Indic. pres. 1 s. atóo, Wb. 12a21 . attó, 21c19 . attóo, 26d8 . ató, 26d17 . -táu, 32a10 , -ttóo, 17d24 , -tó, Ml. 92b8 . 2 s. atái, Wb. 5b27 . atái, Ml. 110d15 (sic MS, see Ériu xiv 30 ). -tái, 5b38 . 3 s. adta, Laws v 390.10 (see ZCP xxv 247 ). ata, Wb. 13c26 , at, 27a11 , atáa, 6a19 , attáa, 32a6 , ataa, 26b31 , att, 4b11 . -tá, 31c7 , -ta, 2b12 , -táa, 13a35 . Impers. -dathar (see GOI 477 - 478 ), Wb. 21c9 . 1 pl. ataam, Wb. 15a13 , attaam, 32a28 . 2 pl. ataid, Wb. 4a4 , ataaith, 20b16 , ataaid, 23c28 , ataad, 22d14 . -taid, 19d26 . 3 pl. ataat (trisyll.), Blathm. 471 . ataat, Ml. 55d11 , 37a10 . -tat, 42b10 . -taat, Sg. 71b3 .

With suff. pron. tathum, Metr. Dinds. iv 284.3 . tathut, Fél. July 24 . táithi (tathai, v.l.), Críth G. 197 . táthus, Fél. Feb. 5 . táthunn, Prol. 217. taithiunn, Thes. ii 293.19 . tathuib, Rawl. 88b51 .

For rel. s. without preverb (taas, tás) see atás, indaas, 4 ol.

The form fil, etc. As conj. form: fil, Wb. 16b9 , Ml. 92a8 , Sg. 193b7 . feil, Wb. 24c4 . Ml. 60b2 . fel, Wb. 3c38 , Ml. 27d10 . fail, 44b10-11 , Sg. 32a1 . As rel.: fil, Ml. 121c8 , file Wb. 23a5 , Ml. 51d11 , Sg. 151b7 . fel, Wb. 4c1 , fele, Ml. 93c7 . feil, Wb. 33b18 . fail, BCr. 18c4 .

Consuet. pres. 1 s. biuu, Wb. 16d8 . -bíu, 20a3 . 2 s. -bí, Ml. 135d1 . ACL iii 312 § 4 . 3 s. biith, Wb. 29a26 . biid, 4d33 . bíid, Sg. 150b4 . -bii, Wb. 28b25 , -bí, Ml. 103c3 . With ro: robīi, TBC-I¹ 1730 . -rubi, Wb. 11c17 , -rubai, Ml. 20d4 , Sg. 7b3 . -ruba, 3b28 . Rel. bíis, Wb. 13a12 . biís, 28b28 . bis, Ml. 61a33 . bís, Sg. 140b2 . Impers. bithir, Ml. 56b15 . rel. bither, 108b4 , -bither, 100c21 . -rubthar, cited GOI § 784 . OIPG 69 . 1 pl. bímmi, Ml. 15a4 . -biam, Wb. 16a8 . Rel. bimme, Wb. 12c11 . 3 pl. biit, Wb. 29a28 . bíit, Sg. 217a1 . robiat, 138a5 . -biat, Ml. 59d7 . -bíat, Sg. 148a4 . -rubat, 138a5 . Rel. bíte, Wb. 9d28 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. -bíinn, Ml. 108b1 , -biinn, 58d9 . 3 s. -bíid, LU 5080 (see Ériu xvii 121 ), -bíth, Sg. 148b6 . -bid, Ml. 33a5 . -bith, Vita Br. 12 . Impers. no bithe , CCath. 3971 . 1 pl. -bímmis, cited GOI § 785 . 3 pl. -bitis, Ml. 86d6 . -bítis, Sg. 5a15 .

Ipv. 2 s. b, TBC-I¹ 2391 . 3 s. bíth, Wb. 10a8 , 25 , bíith, 8d9 , bíid, 5d33 , biid, Ml. 74d3 . bíd, Wb. 3a14 . With suff. pron. bithom, Fél. Ep. 404 n.17 . 2 pl. biid, Wb. 23c11a . bith, 22b26 . 3 pl. biat, Ml. 51d13 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. beo, Wb. 23b41 . beu, Ml. 53b8 . -béo, Fél. Prol. 273 . 2 s. bee, cited OIPG 70 and see GOI 482 . b, ZCP viii 311.z (see xxiv 122 ). -bee (perh. absol.), ZCP vii 494 (Enchir. Aug.). -bē, Fing. R. 82 . With ro: robhe (restored as ro-bé), Blathm. 92 § 9 . 3 s. beith, Ml. 108a11 . beid, Wb. 14c23 . bed, 3c10 . beth, Thes. ii 245.34 (Cambr. Hom.). -bǽ, Wb. 22b14 . -b, Sg. 29b14 . -bée, Wb. 12c43 . With suff. pron. bethum-sa, Fél. Ep. 384 n.14 . With ro: rob, Wb. 5d30 , robe, 18c4 , rubé, Ml. 20d4 , rob, Wb. 28a23 , robbé, Sg. 169a1 . -roib, Wb. 16c24 , Ml. 118c5 . Rel. bess, Wb. 5d14 . bes, Ml. 77d3 . Impers. bethir, Wb. 5d33 . rel. bether, Ml. 107d8 . -bether, Wb. 10a18 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 31c11 . beimmi, 19a16 . -bem, 24a10 . -robam, 26c10 . 2 pl. beithe, Wb. 18b16 . bethe, 24b13 . -beith, Ml. 46a10 . -beid, Wb. 27c9 . With ro: -robith, Wb. 26a28 . 3 pl. beit, Wb. 10b5 . rubet, 26a23 . ro be(i)t , Vita Br. 35 . -bet, Wb. 9d27 . -robat, 11d9 . Rel. bete, Wb. 10c22 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. -beind, TBC-I¹ 1856 . -beinn cited GOI § 787 . 2 s. -betha, Wb. 4c24 . 3 s. nobed, Wb. 3b10 . nobeth, Ml. 27b1 . -bed, Wb. 9d1 . -beth, Ml. 88b15 . -robad, Wb. 17a13 . -rabad, 34a4 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . 1 pl. -bemmis, Wb. 9a3 . -beimmis, 29d23 . -bemis, Vita Br. 23 . 2 pl. -bethe, Wb. 9c20 . 3 pl. -betis, Sg. 138a9 . -[ro]ibtis, Wb. 28a1 .

Fut. 1 s. bia, Ml. 137b7 . 2 s. bie, cited GOI § 788 , OIPG 70 . 3 s. bieid, Wb. 4d6 . bied, 14c1 . -bia, 5d35 . -bia (disyll.), Blathm. 572 . -bia and -bía, GOI § 788 . With suff. pron. bethiumm. Ériu xiii 20.6 . bethib, ZCP viii 316.5 (see xxix 174 ). Rel. bias, Wb. 23b38 . bies, Ériu iii 102 § 32 . Impers. beithir, TBFr. 248 . -bether, MacCongl. 61.4 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 9c10 . beimmi, 21b7 . -biam, 15a1 . -piam, 30b17 . 2 pl. bethe, cited GOI § 788 . bethi, Trip.² 1589 . -bied, Wb. 9a21 . -bieid, 26d26 . 3 pl. biet (disyll.), Blathm. 472 . bieit, Wb. 4c40 . biet, 9d27 , Sg. 198b6 (also bíet, GOI § 788 ). -biat, 9c28 . -bíet, 40b14 . Rel. bete, Wb. 13c26 . beite, 4c40 .

Condit. 1 s. nombeinn, Ml. 59a22 . 3 s. nobiad, Ml. 32d5 . -bíad, Wb. 9d1 . 1 pl. nobemmis, Ml. 134b3 . 3 pl. nobetis, Ml. 100c7 .

Pret. 1 s. b, LU 9407 . 2 s. -bá, cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 , see perf. 2 s. below. 3 s. bói, Wb. 31c18 . bái, 27a16 . -bói, 17d17 , Ml. 78a4 . Rel. boie, Thes. ii 242.11 (Ardm.). boīe (MS. ba), Ériu xvi 46.10 (see n. 0 and Celtica vi 223 ). boíë (MS. baoí), Ériu xxvi 67, 85 . Cf. cech nóeb bói, fil, bías, Fél. Ep. 289 (where six sylls. required). With suff. pron. boithus, IT i 137.8 = boithius, 21 . boíthi, Sc.M² 3 . ? baísu, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 37.5 . Impers. *both(a)e, postulated GOI § 789 , botha, TBC-I¹ 1572 . -both(a), Vita Br. 33 . 1 pl. bamar, SR 1558 . bámar, 3286 , Imr. Brain i 48.5 . 2 pl. -baid (baïd ?), cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 . 3 pl. bātir, TBC-I¹ 217 . -batar, Ml. 55c2 . Rel. batar, Ml. 123b5 . See GOI § 789 .

Perf. 1 s. rob, Wb. 28a9 . -roba, Ml. 44c4 . -raba, TBC-I¹ 3068 . 2 s. rob, LL 14442 . 3 s. robói, Wb. 5c10 . rambái, 2c13 . robui, Ml. 93c3 . -robae, Ml. 41a5 , -robe, Wb. 18d7 , -rabae, Ml. 28d3 . Impers. romboth, Wb. 19a9 . rombod, 5b31 . -rabad, Ériu iv 146.4 . 1 pl. robámmar, Wb. 20d12 . -robammar, Ml. 105b16 . 2 pl. rubaid, Wb. 3b19 . -robaid, Ml. 46a8 . 3 pl. robatar, Wb. 24c5 . robbátar, Sg. 57b1 . -rabatar, Ml. 100c11 . -robatar, Sg. 45b1 . -rabtar, Ml. 37a16 .

Vn. buith.

Vbl. of necess. buithi.

Later forms (see also Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish, Ériu vi 1 ff. ; Mulchrone, Verbalformen der Vita Tripartita, ZCP xvi 440 ; Falconer, Verbal System of LU Táin, Ériu xvii 116 ; Strachan, Verbal System of SR, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1895, 1 - 76 ; O Daly, Verbal System of LL Táin, Ériu xiv 80 ; Mac Eoin, Verbalsystem von Togail Troi, ZCP xxviii 125 ; Sommerfelt, Le système verbal dans In Cath Catharda, RC xxxviii 41 ; Nuner, Verbal System of the Agallamh na Senórach, ZCP xxvii 272 ; PH Glossary; Lloyd, Impersonal passive forms of the Irish substantive verb, Ériu i 49 ff. ; TD Introd. lxxv ; IGT Verbs § 7 ).

Indic. pres. 1 s. atáu, Trip.² 1412 . atú, 2578 . itu, SR 1187 . it, TBC-LL¹ 434 . atú, IGT Verbs § 7 . ataim, Fier. 14 . -t, Acall. 4516 . 2 s. -tái, SR 3102 . -toi, TBC-I¹ 937 . taoi, TD 15.48 . cia doaisiu mac?, RC xxvi 30 § 128 . 3 s. -t, Trip.² 744 . atá, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. attá, Trip.² 534 , ata, SR 7708 etc., at, Acall. 429 . Impers. atáthar, TBC-LL¹ 3316 . dáthar (: máthar), IGT Verbs ex. 99 . atass, Ériu iv 114 § 17 (:as). -das (: as), IGT Verbs ex. 104 . 1 pl. itám, SR 1727 . tám, 3493 . ataum, PH 1556 . ataim, TBC-LL¹ 874 . atamaoit, TBC St. 121 . atámaoid, atám, IGT Verbs § 7 . -taum, PH 1506 . -dtám (: ár), IGT Verbs ex. 111 . 2 pl. atathai, PH 2734 . atathi, 597 . atáithi (: fáithi), IGT Verbs ex. 105 . -táithi (: sáithi), ex. 96 . -dathai, Alex. 190 . -taidh, Ériu ii 118 § 53 . 3 pl. itāt, TBC-I¹ 3132 . atáit, CCath. 1215 . ataut, PH 1064 . táid, TD 8.5 . -táit, CCath. 1701 . Rel. itat, Trip.² 882 , atat, SR 7949 . For later forms in meaning than (is) see atás, indaas, 4 ol. See also II (d) below and daas.

The form fil. 1 s. ni ḟuilim, ni ḟoilim, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. -fhile, PH 8116 . -fhuile, 3335 , -fuili, Acall. 3217 . -ḟoili, -ḟuile, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. fail, TBC-I¹ 60 , SR 353 etc. ro fail , TBC-LL¹ 263 , fuil, 3072 . -fail, Trip.² 2764 , -fuil, 872 , -uil, PH 3181 , -ḟil, Acall. 3709 . -ḟuil, -ḟoil, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. fil, Trip.² 842 , fail, SR 392 , no fail , 933 . With impers. ending: filter, MacCongl. 31.25 . -fuiltear, TD 2.42 . 1 pl. ra fuilemm , TBC-LL¹ 2971 . -failmet, SR 6320 , -ḟuilmíd, Acall. 5101 . -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. -bhḟuilti, Acall. 962 . 3 pl. failet, SR 345 . filet, 477 . fuilet, TBC-LL¹ 4739 . -failet, Trip.² 1119 . -filet, TBC-I¹ 1848 , -fileat, CCath. 1270 . -fuilet, 427 . -fuilid, TD 7.23 . Rel. failet, SR 400 . ra failet , TBC-LL¹ 5225 . fuilet, 4709 . filet, PH 435 . See also do-fil.

Consuet. pres. 1 s. bim, PH 6393 . bím, -bím, IGT Verbs § 7 . ? -ruibim, SG 373.29 . 2 s. -bi, SR 2035 . bí, ní bí, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bíd, TBC-I¹ 1453 (LU). biid, SR 4537 . bíd, 4588 . -bí, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bíonn, TD 22.12 . -bind, RC xlix 37.13 . bídh, -b, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bither, PH 7441 . -bithar, Laws iv 234.2 Comm. 1 pl. bímit, Acall. 886 . bídmaid, 5481 . bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bíth, Acall. 6139 . 3 pl. bīd, TBC-I¹ 1075 (bít, LU). -bíat, TTr.² 330 . -bít, PH 4189 , -bíd, TD 5.5 . Rel. bit (= bíït), SR 7259 . bít, TBC-LL¹ 1320 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. do bhínn , TD 23.7 . 3 s. nobīth, TBC-I¹ 593 (nobíid, LU cited above). robíth, TBC-I¹ 1903 (LU). do bhíodh , TD 14.23 . do bhíoth , 26.12 . Impers. bithi, Auraic. 5286 = -bithi, RC xx 150.y (ACC Pref.). no bithea , Acall. 156 . 3 pl. naboitis, TBC-I¹ 855 LU (nobitís, Y). nobīdis, 3621 (Y). bítís, 1898 (LU). no beitis , LL 407a27 . ro bitis , PH 1957 . do bhítís , Acall. 830 . do bhídís , TD 15.18 . Rel. tri cnuasa bítís ann, Acall. 455 .

Ipv. 1 s. bír (: gním), IGT Verbs ex. 94 . 2 s. b, Parrth. Anma 3871 . 3 s. bīdh, ZCP vi 271.z . bíodh, TD 16.2 . bíoth, 17.1 . 1 pl. bíom, Dán Dé xiv 17 . 2 pl. bíthe (: -chíthe), IGT Verbs ex. 95 . bídh, ex. 109 . bidhí, Luc. Fid. 3430 . 3 pl. bíod, TD 16.19 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. ber, SG 172.15 . uér, Ériu ii 92.9 . beor, v 222.46 . bheith mé, TD 8.9 . -ra bur , TBC-LL¹ 1112 . -rabor, ZCP xii 401.30 . ? -rabhus, ZCP v 523.27 = rabasa, Ériu xii 144.12 (TE). -rabar, ZCP iii 32.37 . bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bé, SR 1607 . beir, BNnÉ 288.29 . Acall. 592 . -rab(a)i, BDD² p. 80 . -rabha, Irish Texts iv 75 § 16 . -rabhair, Fing. R. p. 13 note 86 . -mbéis (: Céis), IGT Verbs ex. 100 . -beis(se) (: meise), Dán Dé xiv 20 . -rabais, Fing. R. 86 , BDD² 363 (see ZCP xxvii 75-8 ). beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. beth, TBC-I¹ 270 (beith, v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 101 . -b, TBC-I¹ 1671 . -raib, Trip.² 2753 . -rab, TBC-I¹ 1430 . -raibhe, Parrth. Anma 2616 . rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bess, TBC-I¹ 1104 (beis, Y). beas, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bethur, Laws ii 36.20 Comm. 1 pl. beme, Snedg. u. Mac R 9.14 . bemmit, TBC-LL¹ 2137 . bemait, Acall. 5478 . -bém, CCath. 1124 . -beam (: leam), Dán Dé xii 10 . -ruibem, SR 5540 . -rabum, PH 7899 . bheam, rabham, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 1233 . rabthai, PH 1977 . 3 pl. beit, Trip.² 1653 . -bet, TBC-I¹ 1053 . -beat, Lism. L. 4702 . -rabat, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. -rabut, PH 994 . -rabhait, BNnÉ 269.4 . -rabhaid, Parrth. Anma 2836 . -rabheid, RC xxix 136 § 51 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. do beinn , do rabainn , IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. no beithi , Trip.² 2972 . no beithe , 2983 = no bethe , Trip. 252.21 . do beitheá , TD 1.44 . 3 s. no beith , Trip.² 2967 . nobith, TBC-I¹ 3543 . dá mbeadh , TD 29.6 . -mbeath, IGT Verbs ex. 97 . -rabad, RC iii 184.24 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . -bette, Metr. Dinds. iii 382.19 . rabtha, TBC-LL¹ (C) 1675 . 1 pl. dá mbiadh sinn, TD 28.25 . 3 pl. nobeitis, SR 7855 . nobeidis, TBC-I¹ 3557 . dá mbeith siad, TD 26.36 .

Fut. (see Bergin, Ériu ii 46-8 ) 1 s. bíat, TTr.² 89 . biat, PH 1244 . biad (bíatt v.l.), CCath. 5137 . bhead, Parrth. Anma 6378 . bed, ZCP vi 41.10 . bét, 69.2 . bett, BNnÉ 52 § 42 . -biu, TBC-LL¹ 882 . -bhiú, Dán Dé xiv 20 . biad, -bi, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bía, Trip.² 1593 . biae, SR 1599 . -bíai, BNnÉ 291 § 2 . biaidh tú, TD 1.26 . bía, -bía, IGT Verbs § 7 . bethair, ZCP ii 225.4 . 3 s. bied, LU 10362 . biaid, Trip.² 1071 . biáid, TBC-I¹ 169 (LU). biaidh, -bia, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bíes, Trip.² 2671 . bés, CCath. 300 , bes, 657 . bess, PH 4666 . bhias, TD 3.50 . do biass , L. Chl. S. 1 . Impers. beither, Acall. 5259 . beithir, ZCP x 415.11 . 1 pl. bemit, LU 9753 , PH 1501 . bemait, CCath. 1467 . -bem(ni, LU 9753 . beimíd, -biam, IGT Verbs § 7 . -biaim(ne) (: siairni), ex. 108 . ? -ben, BCC 396.19 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 3083 . beitte (: eiti) (beththi, bete v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 102 . -bed, Trip.² 1590 . 3 pl. biait, Trip.² 2665 , TBC-I¹ 2057 (beite, LU). biat, Trip.² 1288 . beit, TBC-I¹ 80 . beiti, TBC-I¹ 2078 . beti, SR 8157 . betit, SR 853 . TBC-LL¹ 246 , TTr.² 760 . beidid, ZCP x 338 § 1 . -bīat, TBC-I¹ 1132 . beidíd síad, BCC 290.12 . beid, -bíad, IGT Verbs § 7 .

Condit. 1 s. no-béind, PH 6107 . dobeind, 7489 . do beinn, -beinn, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. do bheitheá , TD 19.13 . 3 s. no biadh , CCath. 3754 . -bied, TBC-I¹ 504 . ro bífad , TBC-LL¹ 5112 . rot-fiadh, IT iii 320.4 ( Cóir Anm. 70 ). do biath (: sgiath), IGT Verbs ex. 97 . do bhiadh , TD 2.54 . Impers. no bethe , TTr.² 533 . 3 pl. do bheidīs , Parrth. Anma 5227 .

Pret. and perf. 1 s. ro-bádus, PH 699 . do bhádhus , TD 23.6 . do bhí mé, 5 . -rabus, Acall. 7913 . -rabhas, 1584 . -rabadhus, 356 . do bá , -raba; do bádhus , -rabadhas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do basa ( : bádusa; proscribed form), ex. 103 . 2 s. ro bhádhuis , CCath. 553 . do bhí tú, TD 28.6 . -rabadais, PH 3725. 8121 . -rabhais, Acall. 123 . do bhádhuis , -rabhadhuis, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bae, SR 7608 . bóe, 6265 . baei, BDD² 127 . búi, CCath. 95 . -bae, SR 4975 . -buí, Trip.² 1505 . robai, SR 2229 , robae, 2262 . robói, PH 2572 . ro bí , CCath. 1302 . robuidh, Ériu iii 198 § 22 . do bí , CCath. 278 . do bhói , Acall. 58 . do bhaoi (: draoi), Dán Dé xii 22 . -rubai, SR 1241 . -roibe, BDD² 498 , -roibi, 1393 . -roba, 251 . -raba, 1533 . -raibhe, TD 2.25 . -rabha, 8.36 . -robha, 1 . do bí , -raibi, do baí , -rabha, IGT Verbs § 7 . With depon. ending -rabhustair, BNnÉ 322 § 31 . Rel. boí, Trip.² 626 . bāi, TBC-I¹ 1277 . būi, 630 . ro bae , Trip.² 288 . ro buí , BDD² 287 . ro baí , 1451 . ro boí , 1517 . Impers. both, Trip.² 2264 . rombatha, Ériu ii 20 § 3 (-a added later). -rabad, iv 146.4. robās, TBC-I¹ 2147 . rombas, SR 7564 , robás, TTr.² 151 . -rabus, Trip.² 54 . rabas, Laws iv 212.22 Comm. , -bádus, MacCongl. 43.22 . -bás, 61.3 . do bás , do bas , -rabas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do bas (: as), ex. 98 . do bhás (: fhás), Dán Dé xxvi 9 . 1 pl. bāmur, TBC-I¹ 399 . do bámar , Acall. 1283 . do bhámair (: Ádhaimh), Dán Dé xv 17 . -rabamar, TBC-I¹ 2495 . 2 pl. robabair, Anecd. ii 14.9 . -babhair, Blathm. 23 (see notes ). robadbair, TBC-I¹ 2502 . do bhábhair , TD 22a.1 . -rabhuir, Acall. 114 . -rabhabhair, TD 22a.2 . 3 pl. bādar, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bátir, TTr.² 1308 . ro badar , CCath. 573 n. ro bádar , Acall. 75 . do bídur , 5942 . -rabadar, TBC-I¹ 3108 . -rabhadair, TD 26.10 . ro baisit , O'Dav. 728 . -rabhsad, TD 16.21 . Rel. bátar, Trip.² 591 . BDD² 505 . ro bátar , 543 . Vn. an bheith , IGT Verbs § 7 . Vbl. of necess. beitte, TD 28.30 .

Cf. cenmothá, íarmothá, óthá.

Used in meaning is in a large variety of contexts. Normally replaced by copula (see 1 is) in certain fixed syntactical patterns (classification, identification, etc.), and when used in these cases exceptional (see above and II below).

I Expressing existence.

(a) Used absolutely is, exists, there is, etc.: ata in coimdiu gl. Dominus in cælo sedis eius, Ml. 30b27 . nabad hed a méit nádmbǽ `let it not be only that it is not' gl. nec nominetur in uobís, Wb. 22b14 . ní fil aimsir nad mbed ref. to fuit et est semper, Ml. 17a15 . ní torménmar-ni ara mbetis in gnimai sin gl. præter spem nostram, etc., 115b1 . ni fil chumtubairt gl. indubitabilia, etc., Sg. 154b2 . ma nubed `if it existed', 31b21 . ro baoi siomh re tuisdinsiú `he existed', Blathm. 632 . as e as soithcerndomh fil, 773 . ma rombe is maith if it is, it is well, Laws iv 2.14 Comm. ni rabi uair . . . nad ro bai `there was no hour . . . that He existed not', Ériu ii 106 § 16 . a cin for athair .i. uair na bí mac, Laws iv 240.16 Comm. Columb [ro]baoi, Columb bīaas, ZCP viii 198 § 20 . tar ēis a mic . . . / nī raba acht dā aenbliadain `was alive only two years', Ériu iii 198 § 24 . as a rad ata a nadmaim cin co be by saying there is a covenant though there is not, Laws iv 52.30 Comm. ni tha . . . ní a ngeimre in winter there is nothing, 90.1 (with petrified inf. pron. 3 s. n. in dat. sense?). ní bía terca bíd there will not be a scarcity of food, BColm. 52.5 . bid dno maith, ┐ ni bi derrscugud de `yet there is good, and nothing to surpass it', Auraic. 703 . is tré ómun bíid serc, Ériu i 195.1 . céin beti neóil im gréin ngil, Metr. Dinds. ii 38.z . i céin raibh nemh is talamh as long as . . . endure, BNnÉ 314 § 8 . bai cocad mor etarro, RC xxiv 186 § 19 . In phrase (acht) atá ní (chena) but, moreover, see 1 ní (e).

In periphrasis when emphasis on some element other than the verb is required: bieid nach dréct diib hícfider, Wb. 4d6 . bieid bes ferr de, 32a13 . do budh cusmail rit co robuis uair ecin, ┐ co n[d]ingenta rét feramail `that thou wert once such an one that thou couldst . . .', ZCP vi 87.13 . ba-sa tan / nī folabrainn ilach gamh, Ériu ii 95 § 3 . ata[a]t .iii. cáini nad chumgat comarbai do chumscuchud, Ériu xvii 68 § 9 ( Laws iv 210 ). Note further: atāit teora brīathra / ata lōgmaire for nim, ZCP vii 312 § 25 .

With words expressing time: bieid aimser nad creitfider, Wb. 28c14 . aidchi robuī `one night', Ériu ii 222.25 . fecht robai `once', Mon. Tall. 147.2 (§ 52) . biaidh uair 's . . . a time will come when, Dán Dé vii 31 .

Introducing a statement: cia beith ara rogba bóairechas riasíu ropo chúairddulchach though it be that he assume, Críth G. 67 . dá mbeith fós go mbiadh an Fhraingc comh líonmhar ┐ adeir seisean `granted that', Keat. ii 933 . má tá go seachnoid síol Éibhir . . ., TD 29.7 . ci(d), gi(d) bé whatever, whoever (see Ériu xii 210 ): ria flaithaib, .i. rias na flaithib, cibe flaithe iat `whatever chieftains they be', Laws iv 154.17 . gidh bé lá cheannghar an chairt, Dán Dé xiv 17 . cidh bé do bhean díbh an dúthaigh, DDána 26.1 . bíd (ipv. 3 s.) co n- although: admhuim . . . mo pheactha . . . bīodh gomadh é mo mhīan a bhfolach though I should wish to hide them, Parrth. Anma 4625 . bīodh nach gcaoifithea go spesialta fá gach peacadh though you might not weep specially for each sin, Mac Aingil 235 . bíth gur gheallas . . . though I promised, Ó Bruad. ii 212 § xiv . In constr. manibed x ní bíad y were it not for x y would not be, see má II (b).

(b) The subst. vb. is usual with predicates consisting of adverbial phrases of all kinds (prep. and noun, adjj. and nouns used adverbially, etc.) and thus enters into a large and varied corpus of idioms. A select list follows. Reference should in all cases also be made to the nouns, adjj., adverbs and prepositions concerned.

With CO: atáthar sund chucut your adversary is approaching, LL 10300 ( TBC-LL¹ 3316 ).

With CO N-: atúsa com thegluch there is myself and my household troop, TBC-LL¹ 437 .

With DI: im chaingin robui de muintir Tamlachti friss `about a business that arose between the monastery of Tallaght and him', Mon. Tall. 157.7 (§ 72) . masu de chlaind Echdach aird / atāi, ZCP xi 108 § 1 . ní bia debaid . . . de, Ériu iv 108 § 69 . Of materials: an crann dobí na sesam ... dobí sé do cepresus was a (lit. of) cupressus, Maund. 9 . In phrase a.¤ di such is: roboi du meit a pecthae `so great were their sins', Ml. 98c6 . má beth tra do hūaite ind āessa gráid `if the ordained folk be too few', Ériu i 220 § 13 .

With DO: biid do anmmaim cathrach `(Samnis) is as the name of the city', Sg. 104b5 . nád robatar suin do ṡlund in dúildetad inchoisget `there were not words (enough) to signify . . .', 45b1 . manusbeth tenga dia relad `if (the sun) had a tongue', Ériu ii 126 § 81 . ata eric a fogla do dul a ruradh o duine, Laws iv 50.5 Comm. Expressing possession, etc.: con roib core dúib fri cách so that you may be at peace with all men, Wb. 26b30 . in fochricc file do i nnim, 29b29 . cach ngrád asid n-ísliu bíid dó i céilsini, Críth G. 374 . robi timna in ríg don Comdhe, RC xviii 182.5 . nico mbái dó acht bás there was nothing for him but death, Vita Br. 32 . fecht robúi damsae domchaomnacuir `once it happened to me', Mon. Tall. 144.7 (§ 45) . atá damhsa ris an dáimh / gan ísliughadh neith dá gcáil it is my duty in regard to the sages not to belittle . . ., Content. xiv 8 .

With FOR (later AR): as ṅdath glas roboi forsind sl[é]ib the mountain was green, Ml. 84d4 . cech dath is maith ré neach bid forro, RC vi 183.9 . cēin beó ar in mbith mbuide, Ériu ii 92.16 . nocha cuinnghim bethaid mbí / ōtú ar sīth mo Rīgh amuigh since I am outside the palace of my king(?), ZCP vii 301 § 10 . scríbend menmman .i. robbói for a inndṡliucht-som `it had been in his mind', Sg. 178b4 . in sét atá form aire on which I am intent, Ériu vi 115 § 6 . a mhacnas orm gidh eadh raibh though I greatly desire to do so, Dán Dé xix 6 .

With FRI: nobiad fri femen `it would be (used) with the feminine', Sg. 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them', 215a5 . ni humhal robabair rim cen erghe rónn you were not submissive to me, Anecd. ii 14.9 . ba [mait]h ro mboth friu they were well treated, TBFr. 145 . is throit ra bass risin fer út that man was quickly dispatched, TBC-LL¹ 2986 ( LL 10035 ).

With I: is hi tuaisciurt slebe sióin ata in chathir, Ml. 67d8 . ataam ar ndiis i cuimriug, Wb. 32a28 . is and . . . bieid finis, 13b29 . is sunt bia-sa i n-eilithri, Ml. 137b7 . nach dú i mbí isnaib salmaib iustitia, 109a2 . bēti a scēla illāidib, ZCP iii 37.32 . dēna torba airm i mbī, vii 311 § 9 . ro-bas i lurg an madma la clannaibh Néill the Clanna N. pursued the rout, xiv 234.16 . adh bes fiu da trian na samuisce atá isín focreic, issed ata isin fogail doníther ris na ferandaib cétna i fuacht an geimridh `a calf which is worth two thirds of the `samhaisc'-heifer which is paid for the rent, it is it that is paid for the trespass', Laws iv 92.16 Comm. cínta do niad na cethra . . . leth a mbia ina nairlim isedh bias ina tairsci `half of that fine which lies for their `airlim'-trespass . . .', 74.8 Comm. cod a midídar ruire trachta ┐ raite? Nin; co rabadar ocht nurcora dec and do fhleascach, 138.4 Comm. ní bhíadh na ghoin é d'oighedh / toil Dé muna deónaighedh His wound would not be enough to cause His death, IGT Decl. ex. 378 . Common in form with suff. pron. 3 s. n. ma beith nech and tra labrathar ilbélre if there be anyone, etc., Wb. 13a4 . ar atá brithem and cenut-su `a judge is there apart from thee', 6b25 . ataat alaaili interiecta and it coitchena do cach ceniul, Sg. 10a1 . attaad teora bliadna and. Niconcomracamar díoblíonaib `it is three years since we two had intercourse', Mon. Tall. 134.26 (§ 21) . For phr. cid fil and trá see trá. In idiom tá sé i n-a fhear he is a man (see Dillon, ZCP xvii 307 ff. ): is amlaid . . . atá in rigsudi sin inna chathaír chumtachta, LU 2005 ( FA 7 ). cidead bes ina bibdaid `even though he be a caitiff', Ériu v 22.20 . gu raibhe 'na cholum ghel, Acall. 1080 . ce raib se i n-a fhír, PH 7324 . do bí 'n-a mnaí grádaig ac Find, Acall. 2018 . do rígh gion go rabhthá id mhac, DDána 91.15 . Note also: tuc . . . aithne gurbh e righ Eirenn do bí ann that it was in fact the king, Ériu iii 152 § 6 . ro innis do gur 'uo he Isu ro ui ann, RC xii 344.15 .

With IMM: ni baitir, ni loisctir cein beit immo `he is not drowned or burnt as long as they are on him', RC vi 183.8 .

With LA: gan bheith le Dia is ann bhus aithreach if we are not on God's side, Dán Dé x 27 . Expressing possession and related ideas: is lib atá a rogu, Wb. 9a23 . is derb lium attá latsu gl. certus sum autem quod et in té, 29d14 . ainmm ninchoisc cenéuil issed file la laitnóri, Sg. 30b8 . is airi nobíth digaimm leo ante ρ. sin, 9b10 . ni fil bríg laisiom hisind accobar sin `he considers that such desire is no great matter,' Mon. Tall. 151.13 (§ 62) . is dé atá lem, fobíth, etc. this is why I think so (of an assertion), TTr.² 343 . itá a rīgan la cach ríg sund, TBC-I¹ 190 . fail leis secht nimi, SR 629 . ar ní ḟil acht oenlám lim, LL 14150 .

With ó: báoi alaile anchoire antuaid o sláne `there was a certain anchorite from Slane in the North', Mon. Tall. 159.8 (§ 77) . cech lennánacht fil isin domvn is úadhi atá originates with her, TTr.² 370 . Bressal Ó Tressaig ō' tāit / Hī Tressaig `. . . from whom are sprung', Ériu ii 50 § 7 . ni fil[et] o neoch ┐ ni filter uaidibh `they are not derived from anything, and nothing is derived from them', Auraic. 1507 .

With OC: ar notéighed dīa sathairn init co mbídh oc Cnocc Droma Coblai, ZCP viii 106.29 = Trip.² 2858 . ma no bith . . . mo c[h]laideb acom if I had my sword, TBC-I¹ 3543 . co rabat aidmi oc cech altōir . . ., Ériu i 219 § 9 . in ti ac na biat ba, Laws iv 36.10 Comm. in fhil biad ocaib sund? PH 6709 . ná raibh agad ar n-éra `refuse me not', Studies 1918, 99 § 16 . In impers. constr. cindas atathar occat? how are affairs with thee? RC xxvi 368.9 . a.¤ y oc x x has the power to do y: ní bhía . . . ag boigṡín / mo chor tar creich Phádraigín, Ériu ix 163 § 7 .

With adverbs and adv. phrases: céin bett abus `while they are here below', BColm. 98.28 . ní rubai nach cruth ailiu `it cannot be otherwise', Sg. 7b3 . ataat ám in chrut sin, 140b1 . hóre nád robe Tit ar mo chiunn, Wb. 14d29 . na muindtire bís id choimidecht `of the monks that live with thee', Mon. Tall. 128.8 (§ 3) . dá rabh mé ar éanmhagh is í, Dán Dé ix 12 . is bether go hīsiul de, ZCP x 51.6 . bidh co mín michuir ret c[h]airdibh, vi 272 § 3 . is samlaid insin robói a flaithemnacht indibsi, Ml. 18a8 . nī hamlaid beitid na nāimh . . ., ZCP xiii 9.26 . dobadus co subhach rompa, KMMisc. 319.27 . léig mar atāit tall, ZCP viii 202.4 . trath atusa sund, TBC-LL¹ 2379 . ionmhuin uan nar fhás ó mhnaoi / do bhás go truagh ar a thí, Dán Dé xxvi 9 . Note also: dá mbem a-moigh `if we win forth', Ériu ix 162 § 2 . With interrogatives: ceth leth atā E., TBC-I¹ 376 . can ata? whence is it? Hib. Min. 8.270 . cāit atā do t[h]igerna?, TBC-I¹ 789 . ciatā inso?, ZCP viii 311.13 . a Findtain, arse, ┐ Éri cía gabad ca rabad inde? `where have things been therein?' Ériu iv 146 § 23 .

(c) Used with inf. and suff. pron. to express possession. With inf. pron.: rosmbia a lóg `they shall have payment for it', Wb. 5d35 . ind indocbál no-b-tá in futuro, 14c16 . ro-n-da-biad cech maith, Ml. 33b13 . rombia-sa la dia . . . a day will come for me when, Vita Br. 12 . roborbē (roburbe v.l.) which is yours, Cáin Ad. 27 . nīmthat asnai I have no ribs, TBC-I¹ 2871 . gell cóic sét di neoch rodmbí `of whatever he has', Críth G. 283 and n. uair nach tá tír dia fhulung fri re napuidh because he has no land to support him (?), Laws iv 30.19 Comm. rom be nem may I have heaven, Snedg. u. Mac R 14 § 76 . Femen intan rombai rí . . . when it had a king, RC xvii 148.19 . cia luag nomtha?, SR 1165 . rombí lethbairgen, Anecd. i 73 § 211 . atbert Cathair nimthasa ní dhuit I have nothing to give you, LL 386b22 . Note also: nintha do imtecht liumm `I have (lit. we have) no news', RC xiii 222.20 . With cumang (or similar word) and prep. DO has the power to: nímtha cumachtæ ṅdo, Ml. 140b7 . ní-s-ta som . . . cumang domm orcuin-se, 60d3 . nísmbói didiu do chumacc a mmbo do imain they hadn't the strength to, Vita Br. 24 . sáerthar lat in domnach cech cumang rotbé (rodbe, rotbia, v.ll.) dó `with all your might', Ériu ii 204 § 22 . nícom thása cumang dia tabair[t], TBFr. 302 . apraind nachimbai-si nert do theacht cucu alas that I had not strength . . ., TBC-I¹ 3439 . Used independently is able: nīmt[h]a a dechmad d'indisin / nech doní do maith `I cannot tell a tithe of all the good he does', BColm. 70.6 . nimta-sa sin . . . uair da caithius mo dan re sciathaib Ulad I cannot do that . . ., Ériu v 72.8 . Note also: ango dano for Ingcél adfía basa lecht bas briscium `peradventure I shall be the frailest corpse', BDD 102h ( RC xxii 211 ) = at-mbia basa lecht bas brisceam, BDD² 716 (leg. ro-t-bia?).

With suffixed pron. taithiunn . . . / ni fris tarddam ar n-áthius `we have . . . something to which to apply our acuteness', Thes. ii 293.19 . táithi caire umai he has a bronze cauldron, Críth G. 197 . tathum rūn, TBC-I¹ 848 . bethib sūirsi lim-sa dano ye will enjoy freedom with me, ZCP viii 316.5 . tathat lim logh do áes, logh do sinnsire thou hast with me = I accord thee, xii 365.13 . baíthium anfud mílach mend, LU 3018 . tathuib comram, Rawl. 88b51 . tathum o día praind, Anecd. i 64 § 120 . tāthud ochtar la suidiu / airm hi fail a crōlighe `thou wilt find eight men . . .', Fianaig. 12 § 16 . tathai eolus maith, ZCP vii 310 § 1 . tatos subhae `they have happiness', Blathm. 82 . Pleonastically: tathai erouidh . . . bithbron `Herod . . . has eternal sorrow', 83 .

(d) In nasalising rel. clauses to denote has something the matter, is ailing: ced das in ben maith? `what ails the good woman?', Thes. ii 329.48 . cidh tás do sūil, a clērich? what is the matter with your eye? RC xxvii 280 § 35 . Oengus mac in Dagdai hisiurcc di bliadan. Cid tas or Bodb, RC iii 345.9 . ra[fh]etur sa . . . an daas ind ingen what is wrong with the girl, Vita Br. 5 . ni fetarsa cid no-tó I do not know what is the matter with me, ZCP viii 176.5 . cid no-taí? Sc.M² 3 . roḟetarsa a n-attath[a]i. Ni taam ni or Cano, Anecd. i 9.25 ( SCano 293 ). cid tāthaí, a maccu? . . . oc imresain atām . . ., Ériu viii 157.16 . ni confetatarsin cid rombui hissennath, RC iii 344.10 . dia ḟis cid robái (rombui, v.l.) grían to find out what was the matter with the sun, Ériu iv 140.13 .

With prep. DO feels (inimically) towards, is angry with, worries: propter incredulitatem fracti sunt .i. cani airi .i. badochu lem són is [hed] romboth doib that is the fault found with them, Wb. 5b31 . cren dímsa m'ingin . . . Cid dathir di? . . . Is dichmarcach what cause of annoyance has she given? Vita Br. 13 . fiarfaig Conchobar scēla dō. —Cidh tāi di ṡodain? ol Bricriu why do you bother with it? ZCP v 502.15 . cadai-siu duind?, TTebe 424 . In good sense treats in a special manner: ca tāthar dúin do domnach des / sech gach laithi lāndiles? `why do we hold Sunday above . . .?' Ériu iii 143 § 7 . With added prep.: cidh 'ma bfuile dam? ZCP x 10.11 . ná bí réd chathrachaibh dhúinn `talk not to us of your forts', Content. vi 31 . See further s.v. daas. Frequ. in class. verse in phrase gá dtá, dás (acht) what is the use? in short. Either gá dtá or gá tá may be used to suit alliteration, see Ir. Syll. Poetry 86 . fogus orchra don éigsi / gá ttás cur ré coiméidsi `how can she be saved?' Studies 1923, 421 § 1 . gá dás luadh imdheachta an ḟir? `what need to recount', TD 13.40 . gá dás mé dá mīrbuile / acht sé d'fás ó ÓghMuire, IGT Decl. ex. 200 . gá dtám? —acht torchuir bu dheas in short, TD 3.10 . With follg. prep.: gá dtám ris . . . / acht meise féin foidhidneach, TD 3.41 . ga dtú ris, a rí L.? / ort chuirim mo chomuirghe, 30.12 . ní bhiú ris acht, Dán Dé vi 31 . ní fhuilim dó, xi 30 .

(e) With words indicating number, quantity in sense of accompanied by, having: bí[i]th a th[a]urchreicc cóic ṡétaib, Críth G. 71 . baei Conairi a ceithri cairpthig il-Lifiu, BDD 12 (a cethror cairpdech, v.l.). itó-sa lín do gona, TBC-LL¹ 434 . denam d'ḟiadach na muice in lín Feinde atámait, Acall. 2223 . atáthaoi líon a n-ithte, Keat. iii 4439 . atú-sa caegait fer, MR 248.17 . Later: bed-sa ┐ mili ridiri maraen rium ad diaig, ZCP vi 41.9 .

II Expressing state, condition, kind, etc. with pred. consisting of noun, pron. or adj. (usage more usual with copula, see introd. section above).

(a) With noun pred.: boe sab suithe cech dind, ACC 26 ( RC xx 168 ). boe saegul sneid, 24 . boe dind oc libur leigdocht, 27 . biait betha airchind they will be chieftains of the world, Rawl. 125b9 . With subj. standing between the vb. and pred.: atá dia atach ṅ-dún-ni ais dethrebo God is a refuge to us the people of the two tribes, Ml. 66d1 . bói Fíachnae Lurga athair Mongáin, Imr. Brain 42.1 . Cf. Sg. 20b3 .

(b) With adj. pred.: boe seim sáth, ACC 25 . biat slana, SR 4167 (copula?). feib atam nocht, 1347 (copula?). bía slan, LU 3344 ( SCC 13 ). Cf. habe . . . (.i. sana sis .i. slán bee), Enchir. Aug. 82a ( ZCP vii 484 ). dlegar doibsium na be lobtaigh cor ( ar dlegar doibsium na bed lobthaig cor, O'Dav. 1191 ) (Atk. in Glossary emends to be[t]), Laws iv 54.10. atámait ainmfesach, RC xxiv 371.7 . bítíss meth (leg. methi, ed.) occ tinntúd, IT iii 235.z . co filim garbliath i rricht, LU 1272 . ro boísium imnedach i tossuch a bethad, LL 7305 . ro-bádus-[s]a dronnach, PH 2788 . céin beorsa beó as long as I am alive, Ériu v 222.46 . is follus co fuilti eaclach, Fier. 69 . maith dīghōltar ant andlocht / bethar taoblom tarrnocht trūagh folk will be, ZCP xii 395.23 . With subj. betw. vb. and pred.: is trissa ndede sin biid duine slán et fírian, Wb. 4d33 . amal mbís tegdís fás [amm]edón ┐ scópthe gl. sicut domus uacans et scopata, Tur. 14 ( Thes. i 485.23 ). arrobói a rígthech lán de rígaib, Imr. Brain 1 . amal no beithi féin béo and, Trip.² 2972 . co mbatar na hádnaicti óbéla, PH 676 . bis an puls tonnmur lethan, Rosa Angl. 272.8 . oir dobi se crodha do laim ┐ mor do mét, Fier. 2 .

(c) With part. as pred. Immediately follg. vb. (see GOI 475-6 ; OIPG 147 ): amal nombemmis érchóilti gl. tanquam morti destinatos, Wb. 9a3 . biid ersoilcthi ar chiunn for ríg `be ye opened before your king' (of doors), Ml. 46a7 . co rabais (rabhdais, v.l.) marbtha mudaigthi, TTebe 854 . With subj. standing between vb. and pred.: ataat mesai Dǽ nephchomtetarrachti the judgements of God are incomprehensible, Ml. 55d11 . céin nombetis inna saigtea tuidmithi inna feuil `as long as the arrows were fixed in his flesh', Ml. 58a9 . órobatar ind liss dúntai, Imr. Brain 1 . co ra-bi in uli demnaigecht fomamaigthi dó, PH 2796 .

(d) In sentences where the vb. stands in a nasalising rel. clause and refers to a pred. expressed in the principal clause: is faittech rond-boi som, Ml. 21d4 . ni ba cian mbias in pecthach, 56c22 . fer . . . nadip romar bed a sommæ a man . . . whose wealth should not be too great, Thes. ii 241.9 . is-gáibthech atátur i-sin-magh sin, RC xxiv 378.12 . is trog robas isin chotlad sin, Ériu v 34.z . ní cás duid madh diomdhach raibh / grása Dé . . ., Dán Dé xix 22 . [is] slán do bhaoi an brat-sain, xii 22 .

(e) In the type of sentence where the description constitutes an independent sentence with copula: ego sum uermis et non homo .i. atāim-si conad cruim mē ┐ nāch duine, Corm. Y 211 . ro boi Victor co mbo ḟortachtaigthid do Pátraic, ACL iii 10 § 8 = Trip.² 217 . unus non est . . . .i. nochon fhil int aen co mbad airim, acht ata conidh fotha airim, Auraic. 689 . dom dóigh . . . robadhuis uair ecin ┐ roba díl anora tú `it seems to me . . . that there was once a time when thou wert worthy of honour', ZCP vi 99.5 .

attaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. attaid or dil.ie/4929

v (1 att) swells, dilates, increases: co n(n)asa .i. co nata, BCrólige 25 n.9 . do gab idhroipis . . . an t-Iruath sin cur atadur . . . a boill uile, Maund. 82 . a croidhe ina clíaph gur att till her heart burst in her bosom, KMMisc. 356.y . an taer . . . fasaidh ┐ attaidh ┐ lethnaidh, Ir. Astr. Tr. 148.13 . gur at ┐ gur eirigh in gaeth, KMMisc. 313.z . rann Cesair . . . ro att ┐ ro inboilg, CCath. 978 . go n-ataid / im chroidhe is im intinnse (of the Trinity), Aithd. D. 57.13 . ge do atadh rimsa a reacht though his fury swelled up against me, Ériu iv 216 § 15 . ní fhil eiriceacht úr ná ársa / dár at ó aimsir mhic nDé `no . . . heresy hath . . . appeared', Ó Bruad. ii 272.3 . Trans. causes to swell, distends: gur atadar eagla is fearg an ríghchéillidh, Ó Bruad. iii 16.z . gach árdmhac uabhair uasamh atus poimp `swollen high with pompous pride', ii 20.13 . attaid uair ele he `causes it to swell', Rosa Angl. 236.z .

díadacht

Cite this: eDIL s.v. díadacht or dil.ie/15885

n ā, f. (díadae) IGT Decl. § 26 .

(a) divinity, Godhead: i n-oentaid diadachta ┐ doenachta maic Dé, FA 34 (LB). Ériu ii 198 . ni fhil diadacht itir and-som, acht atat dí fholaid ann .i. folad duine ┐ folad diabuil, PH 1766 . iar ṅdoendacht ┐ diadacht, 3047 . in spirut noem in tress persu na diadachta uaisle, 3951 . a thempail na diadachta (to Mary), LB 74a22 ( Trip. i p. clxvi ). a ndiamraib na diadachta, Lec. 370b31 .

(b) holiness, godliness: ag diúl díoghraise ┐ diadhachta ón Dúileamh, TSh. 881 . Cf. rusbi gan diadacht in damh | ri rogab Ciannacht Cronan slew them impiously (?), MacCarthy 412 .

(c) divinity, theology: gl. theologia, Ir. Gl. 81 . diadacht do legud ┐ do scríbad, PH 7371 . basilér diadhachta = baccalarium in theologia, O'Gr. Cat. 271 .

See deodacht.

frecrae

Cite this: eDIL s.v. frecrae or dil.ie/24273
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: frecrae, frecre, frecrae, frecru, frecra, frecrai, recra, freccra, freccra, fregra, ḟreagra, frecartha, freccurtai, freccurtaibh, fregra, dha, fregarthaib

n io, n. (vn. of fris-gair). n s. a frecrae , Ml. 35c24 . frecre, Wb. 25b14 ; 27 . Sg. 197b10 , 200a10 . a s. frecrae Sg. 27a2 . d s. frecru, Wb. 30a20 . n p. inna frecra , Sg. 26a12 . frecrai, LL 142b3 . In later lang. m. and f. : in f.¤ , TBC-LL¹ 4723 = in recra , 4744 (= an aithesc, TBC-I¹ 3000 ). ba hi freccra chumair tuc sum air ind sin, LB 243a4 ( PH 7295 ), cf. in freccra (a s.) ib. LB 243a 10 . is é freccra doratsat, 173b21 . 165a41 . is i fregra dorad A., Aen. 1253 . fam ḟreagra thruim, Content. xviii 25 . In later Mid. Ir. g s. and pl. forms are often supplied by frecartha (as if < frecrad), already in TBC-LL¹ 71 , 74 ; n p. freccurtai, d p. freccurtaibh, CCath. 5628 , 5637 . fregra (vn.) IGT III § 47 ; m. and f. (n p. ¤, ¤dha ; `acht canamhain aige') IGT, Decl. § 1 ; d p. fregarthaib, ex. 8 (ex. of `canamhain').

(a) the act of answering or responding ; an answer , with gen., DO or FOR (AR) of inquirer or question ; subj. gen. also occurs : transl. responsio Ml. 35c24 . 129d6 . responsum Sg. 26a12 . ished in so a frecre donaib eriteccaib, Wb. 25b14 . érrethcha airindí asrenat frecrae dond immchomurc redditives, because they render an answer to the question Sg. 27a2 . frecrae menmman `mental answer' Sg. 28b15 (cf. f.¤ menman `perception of analogy' O'Don. Suppl. , no ref. ; f.¤ do menmainla hOengus in so, Fél.² Aug. 2 Comm. ). frecre do neoch immechomarcar duit `an answer to what is asked of thee' Sg. 197b10 . f.¤ n-ainmnetach, Triads 174 . f.¤ mín munterda ... f.¤ andiaraid, LL 267b10 ( MU² 723 ). asbert E. oc a f.¤ answering him LU 8439 ( FB 30 ). Cf. Laurint lán frecrae (rop ecnaid ro recair dona gentib), Fél. Feb. 22 (p. 78) . DO-BEIR F.¤ FOR (DO) answers: ni tharat f.¤ for in mnaí, LL 112a24 ( ScM. 3 Wind.). cen freccra do thabairt forru, PH 2653 (but : dosbered freccra díb, 2034 ). is e do fhreagrasa `ad quod ... respondes' Instructio 110.4 , but : ataimsi agad fhreagra `ad quod respondeo' 110.15 . dá bhfiafraigheadh neach an mbí ... mo fhreagra air go mbí my answer to him TSh. 1149 . do ruc G. buidechus na freagurtha sin risin rigain, ZCP vi 28.19 .

(b) answering to, corresponding to ; a counterpart, equivalent: baí ech sainemail ar graig Medba ... baí ech a recartha oc Ailill, TBC-LL¹ 74 . Cf. f.¤ do tiachtain fo choraibh `he shall answer for it who seeks to get rid of his contracts' (but a finite vb. seems meant here) Laws i 88.7 Comm. `linn' ... lasin nGaedel, ni fhil a f.¤ lasin Laitneoir, Auraic. 1093 . ag freagra na heisiomplára sin corresponding to that prototype 1 Peter iii 21 .

(c) passing into kindred sense answering to = referring to: f.¤ do na gradaib sechta sin that refers to (?) the septenary grades Laws iii 112.23 . freagra du breithir tug ... in tan rorāidh ... fregra do aicniud immorro tuc intan roraidh ... he was referring to the word (i.e. the grammatical distinction) ..., but he was referring to nature (i.e. to things) Auraic. 420 . totus ... .i. fregra du thoit na haibgitrech dobeir sund, 315 .

Cf. da trian fuil i menn airm no etaigh an urrad cen fregra da lethaithgin go rop edh bes a menn airm ┐ etaigh an luaich deora co fregra da lethaithgin, H 3.17, c. 623 ( O'D. 869 ).

(d) answering for, accounting for, taking responsibility for : īc no f.¤ dia nemtarrachtain `to pay or to answer for his non-appearance' Laws v 184.13 Comm. fregradh don raith no don feichemain fein `either the surety or the debtor himself must answer' [for it] 302.30 Comm . ( Bürgschaft p. 49 . Perhaps this belongs to the next section). ní mór m'eagla ... is d'freagra [leg. 's do ḟ.¤] leam i ló an bhráith `if thou answer for me' A. Ó Dálaigh xxxii 10 . cf. bhar leithsgéal d'ḟagháil no bhar bhfreagra ann bhar míghníomhaibh `your plea or your defence' [that you should answer for ?], Maguires of F. 51.20 .

(e) answering (a challenge, attack) ; repelling, retaliating: bíathad congbálae fri sochraiti túaithe, fri cuindgid fír ┐ dligid ┐ fri frecrae n-indligid 'providing food for a billeting for allies of the kingdom, for seeking truth and entitlement, and for responding to illegality', CB 30 § 22 . dia notecma crech, a f.¤ co moch, LL 148b6 ( KMMisc. 266 ). ni roibi do Troianaib fer a freagra none who would take up his challenge Aen. 1072 . no fobartais ... freccra Cesair im cath, CCath. 4545 . ni ḟaghann sé fer a ḟreagartha, Ériu v 178.261 . cat[h]a na nGennti do ḟreccra ┐ do frithailem, LB 123b31 (= YBL 69a38 . BB 244a32 ; cf. SR 5011 ). do riachtattar do ḟreccra na bágha sin, Cog. 75 n. 19 (= 74.23 ). cona bia fath fregartha ... acu ar Ulltachaibh that they may have no cause for retaliating on the U. MR 304z ( YBL 312a46 ). cf. do mhac A. ... nár ṡaíl neach dom nert-ḟregra, MR 306.9 . ni thic don tsluagh ... freacra na trí coicead friu to cope with the attack of the three provinces RC xliii 34.18 . badh doilghe a freccra it will be harder to resist him Cog. 212.15 . caithfidhe cath do freagra do Mhac G. Do-ghéabhaidh se cath, ar D., Keat. iii 4401 . iarraidh no fregra comhraig to seek or accept combat Luc. Fid. 105.10 . Cf. fuair a ḟreaccra go ro ullamh he got his answer (= was opposed) AFM v 1780.11 .

(f) responding to = complying with, obeying, satisfying: olc an ní ... gan righ Erenn do fregra, Ériu iii 158.23 . tug orm freagra ┐ umla do thabairt do duine ..., ZCP vi 285.9 . tabur fregra ┐ anoir don tShabdan, 58.9 . maithe Tuadmuman do frecra do, Ann. Conn. 1343 (= creidium AU, umhlughadh FM). Assisting, seconding: im ḟreccra a cheile im gach n-eiccendáil, AFM iv 1214.5 .

(g) responding to, i.e. undertaking, fulfilling, discharging (a duty, obligation, etc.): dliged na heclaisi do freccra ┐ do frithailem (function of the Levites) LB 123a51 (= YBL 69a19 . 294ay 0 . BB 244a12 ). cf. comedaig in chaisc do ḟrecra ┐ do frithailem, YBL 68bz = 294a25 . BB 243b43 . (... frec with m-symbol above c LB 123a25 ; cométaid iar n-urd ríagla | in chaisc, SR 4853 ). cf. frecor. ag freccra an móirfhedhma sin (i.e. the task of feeding the poor) ZCP x 6.10 . co raib f.¤ mbathius ┐ comna ... do cech duine isa eclas techta hí that baptism and communion are available for everyone whose lawful church it is Ériu i 219 § 7 . ic fregra gnim socraid practising CCath. 1189 (= rigidi servator honesti Luc. Phars. ii 389 ). gnimrad míled do f.¤ to exercise, practise (?) CCath. 330 . fregra cīsa ┐ cāna obedience (in paying) tribute ZCP vi 281y . Cf. ni dhlicchim de cios no freaccradha oile, Hy Maine 13.14 and: freagra manach (inferred from fregramanach in a 14th cent. charter, apparently some stipulated service), Reeves Ad. 369 .

Cf. freagradh ar nduana do dhíol, Dán Dé xxvi 21 .

maín, moín, muín, maen

Cite this: eDIL s.v. maín, moín, muín, maen or dil.ie/31345
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: moín, main, maín, muin, maini, moini, muíni, maíni, moíni, muíne, maine, máoin, -i, maoin, muin

n i, f. n s. in moín , Ml. 87d9 . d s. deg-main , 103a9 . n du. dā maín , Corm. p. 15 s.v. doman = dē muin , Corm. Y 415. n p. inna degmaini , Ml. 27a6 . moini (: doíne), SR 7855. fīr-muíni , ZCP xi 80.14 . a p. maíni, Wb. 23d4 . dagmoíni , 28a17 . muíne, LU 3393 ( SCC 17 ). g p. deg-maine , Ml. 102d17 . máoin (f., g s. n p. -i), IGT Dec. § 14.14 .

(a) a gift, a benefit (primary sense): transl. Lat. munus, Ml. 87d9 , donum, 84c12 ; (in pl.) beneficia, 27a6 , 90a14 , 102d17 , 103a9 . Often with pref. dag-, deg-: is eícrichnichthe don-indnig-som a dagmoíni without limit he bestows his benefits, Wb. 28a17 . The sense gift is frequently implied in Mid.Ir. muíni [sic leg.] doberthar o thuatib, Mon. Tall. § 35. tucsat maíne ┐ ascadha dho (= munera ei obtulerunt), Lat. Lives 108. tabair maíne bid ┐ etaig do bochtaib, PH 451. tucsat na tri maíne-sea dó .i. ór ┐ tuss ┐ mir, 7017 . nicon ticfa ri moín nó adlaic . . . in sét connegar and the gem asked for is not to be had for love or money (lit. for [counter-]gift or request), LL 251a32 (TBFraích) = ZCP iv 43.17 . muín i commaín ber[r]tha a reward in exchange for shaving, LL 167b10 , cf. RC xv 461.6 .

(b) a valuable article or possession, a treasure ; in pl. treasures, possessions, wealth . ri ro thidnacht do doenib | domun cona degmoínib, SR 1978. in sét (.i. in main), Hy. v 77 ( Thes. ii 346 ). ni ar séuti na máini robcarsi Tíamthe, Wb. 23d4 . ni ḟil nech is lia seóit ┐ moíne ┐ indmassa andú-sa, TBC-LL¹ 59. febus mo chommain sét ┐ maíni ┐ indmassa foraib, CRR 11. tidhnacal seot ┐ moeíne, AU ii 120.23 . bárc mao[i]ne a treasure-laden vessel, ZCP viii 197 § 13. is tre ḟír flathemon . . . maíne mor mbárc hi cinn cach thíre tathigedar, xi 82 § 20 . co ro [s]latsat in longport etir doine ┐ moine, AU 850. munceda . . . .i. muin-maíne .i. maíne for munelaib, LL 18b28 . luid ina rígthech ┐ a ór ┐ a argat lais . . . conid-loisc co n-ógus a muini with the whole of his treasures, Trip. 38.8 . ō tho[th]acht (.i. na mbeodile) ┐ muín [maine v.l.] .i. in oir ┐ in airgit, O'Dav. 1568. maissiu máenib more beautiful than treasures, Thes. ii 295.7 ( SP v 3 ). guidhe . . . is ferr maoinibh, ZCP viii 198 § 22. Sing. in collective sense: ni fhil mo m.¤ fén acht a nim, MacCongl. 57.22 . re deoraibh bá maith a mhaoin good was his wealth to wanderers, AFM i 146.13 (poem). misi nochan ḟuil mu mh.¤ | ó rom-maidh an scél (`for me prosperity exists no more' O'Gr. Cat. ), Acall. 862. a loch chlaein . . . festa nocha bfuil do mhaein `thou prosperest no more', SG 58.33 . do réir a mháoine according to his substance, Job xx 18. nac roibhi aici do maín na do mhaithus acht a hétach, Études Celt. i 81.26 . m.¤ ar mug treasure (bestowed) on a slave (i.e. wasted): muín ar mug, rūn do mnai, | mairg dogni cechtar n-ai, RC vi 188.24 (see mug for other exx.).

In Laws sometimes used of cattle, stock: cúic seoit in muin a cinaidh gach sochuinn gaibius tar ceart, ii 70.1 , glossed .i. cuic seoit isna mainib sin `five "seds" of these cattle'. mor muin mrugrechtai `an increase of cattle on the land', iii 340.12 . mana fuil acht coland nama, nocon-uil nach ní, uair noco m.¤ marta he `it is not a beef-carcass' (i.e. it is not value as beef, of a mare's carcass), iii 372.8 , cf. 378.17 .

(c) often fig.: is maith main mesrugud, ZCP vii 297.17 . firmuíni mo briathar, xi 80.14 . moíni na hēcisi, RC xxvi 17 n. 7 . Of persons: ba muin [maín LB, maoin, H 2.15A ] mait[h] in mac sin, Corm. Y 863 ; cf. asbert in ri . . . doragad ēm main . . . don mac sin (= that that boy would prove a treasure?), IT iii 190.5 (both exx. refer to Morand m. Maín). Muresc cen tassi maith maín, LL 137b8 . ? aue Muirne muin, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 25 ('Enkel Muirenns der würdigen' Meyer, taking `muin' as g p. of a noun denoting ` honour, dignity ', but perhaps n s. in apposition to aue). Uncan in m.¤ maerda, Gorm. Aug. 21. In abstr. sense: máoin ocus muaidh, ionann sin is maith nó miadh, Forus Foc. 43. main [maoin v.l.] grádh, ib. 34 . maoin .i. grádh; .i. maith, O'Cl. Cf. 6 muin.

(d) in Bérla na f., knowledge, science, art: doraa in main (.i. dochonnaic an eladha), ZCP v 488 § 7. don maoin (.i. don eladain), 489.1 .

3 nairne

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 3 nairne or dil.ie/32951

Forms: nairne, nairne

particle of assent or asseveration, indeed, verily ? nairne [no naire, add. LB] amail bid naire no beth and .i. senberla didiu in naire n-i sin. Is inand ┐ isbertha egin. Is gnathberla eisem tra cidh indiu la hIrmumhain maxime, unde dicitur: In fil ní bas toich duit? Fil eigin, ol intí dia n-inchomarcar .i. nairne, Corm. Y 972 = fhil naire, ol intí . . . .i. fil écin, Corm. p. 32 ; i.e. nairne (? naire) is used, especially in West Munster, in the sense of éicin indeed, in truth . nairne .i. deimhin .i. frithaithbhear bus nairne .i. frithaithbhear bhus deimhin, O'Cl. (where the word is used as pred.). náirne .i. deimhin ` sure, certain, certainty ', P. O'C. náirne adj. `sure, certain', O'R.

ochad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ochad or dil.ie/33422

n m. sighing, groaning : aitt hi fhil coi ┐ ochad cen crich, PH 2411. Cf. uchad and ochan.

pudar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. pudar or dil.ie/34627

Forms: pudhar, pudhar, pudhair

n o, m. and ā, f. (< Lat. pudor? Stokes, Fél. Gloss.) pudhar m., IGT Dec. § 17.13 . pudhar f. (d s. -air, g s. -ra), § 37.6 . pudhair f. (g s. n p. -ra), § 10.9 .

(a) harm, mischief, misfortune : oft. as pred. with cop.: is pudar sein that is unfortunate, Thes. ii 323.12 ( Hy. iv pref. ). snigfid crú a cnesaib curad | . . . bid lan-pudar, TBC-I¹ 78 ( LU 4587 ). pudar a thecht fo thalmain! ZCP viii 272.9 ( Rawl. 88a15 ). pudair don itaid a ēg sad was his death from thirst, Ériu x 83 § 65 . ní fess mo bunad . . . is pudar lemm féin co fír I regret it (= feel it a disadvantage), Ériu vii 225 § 48 ( LL 209a23 ). pudhur leamsa a ndingéntar . . . .i. bás d'faghbáil dúin, Acall. 1783 . is dál dia mbia pudar of which harm will come, TBC-LL¹ 3271 . ni fhil pudar ann cia moltar [nech] ara deggním there is no harm in a man's being praised for his well-doing, PH 6078 . adubairt nach raibhe pudhar and sin that no harm was done (i.e. that the consequences of his sin were not serious), BCC 222.12 . cid pudhur fil sund etir? what is wrong with this place? BColm. 28.14 . pudhur mór ┐ olc adbal . . . d'eirghi trid sin i Connachtaibh, AU ii 468.7 . gurab de lenus pudhar may misfortune cleave to him! ZCP x 44.8 = BNnÉ 309.30 . gach duine dogníth cinta nó pudar frisin rí[g], ZCP iv 239.14 . atibhset an linn cusan neim ┐ ní derna pughur doibh, Lism. L. 1720 . dorignis ar pudar thou hast done us harm, RC xxiii 426 z . ba dín ar cach ṅdrochphudair, LL 27b48 . ro saor ar puthair Pádraig `which P. redeemed from sorrow', AFM i 130 z (poem). g s. in dét in maicc mor-phudair `the much-lamented (? hapless, unfortunate) youth', Metr. Dinds. iv 34.48 (: Lugaid) = phudar (: Lugad), LL 199a57 . fo fath pudra (= with malicious intent), Laws i 178.6 . Cf. iii 286.12 . ara minci pudrae do mnaibh because it so often does hurt to women, O'Mulc. 144 . g p. mor cor, mor pudhar, mor n-uch, Acall. 4746 . In chevilles: cúis phudhair, Content. xvi 103 . lór do phudhar, A. Ó Dálaigh li 15 .

With extension of meaning: ar n-ionghuire ar phudhair na dtrí dtairnge `my protection against the pain of the three nails' (i.e. against retribution for my share in Christ's death), A. Ó Dálaigh xv 17 . a Risdeird . . . a phudhair ar dtinnis (i.e. whose death is cause of our sickness), Hackett xl 34 .

(b) mistake, blunder : error est (is pudar), Fél. 4.28 . ni ainic acht aen-phudhair, Auraic. 2118 (of mistakes in prosody). tri phudra three blunders, 2111 .

Compd. ¤cú: do mharbhais [dá] pudharchoin (i.e. wolves), ITS v 134.17 .

scor

Cite this: eDIL s.v. scor or dil.ie/36574

Forms: sguir, sgora

o, m. vn. of scuirid. IGT Decl. § 67 , § 70 (g s. sguir and sgora), §96 . Verbs § 58 . scura sgora `lochdach', ib. = Decl. § 2 (39.5) . Note also: don duine théid . . . ar sgor uaibhrigh na hantoile, TSh. 7456 (perh. analogy of ech, q.v.).

I

(a) act of unyoking, unharnessing (horses): cosmulius tuib arataat ilsenman do suidiu . . . is sain fri cath sain fri s.¤ `for unyoking', Wb. 12c46 . ní tharnacar acht a eich do scur, MU² 152 . co n-accai dá ech carpuit . . . for scur unyoked (or in a field, as in (c)?), Trip.² 2850 . asbert friu cen s.¤ ind eich, LU 2948 . da ech i laim conici leth eochair in feraind ┐ noco saer doib a s.¤ annsidi, Laws iv 20.22 Comm . ni faigebhdais s.¤ a n-ech, BNnÉ 303 § 14 . tráth sguir (metaph. of Doomsday), Timth. 1916, 17 § 5 .

(b) stud, herd of horses, coll. horses : s.¤ .i. ba nó eich, O'Dav. 1463 . Cf. scór (= s.¤) dá ech carpaitt a yoke of two horses, Trip.² 2879 . coro chuir scuru ┐ dáini for teiched (of an apparition), LL 273b31 . gelair s.¤ glethe i ngurt fheóir, Metr. Dinds. iii 96.15 . atāid a cheathra ar mo chrud | atāid a sgur ar mo sgor my steeds number many he has given me (?) (in a panegyric), ZCP viii 228 § 16 . roléicthea na graige fo scoraib fer ṅHerenn, RC xiii 90 § 110 . dáil a cruidh . . . | dáil a sguir, DDána 99.9 . a scor . . . ar lúth `its . . . horses at their speed', O'Gr. Cat. 474.19 . na cluana caidhid a sguir the meadows, where are their grazing horses? L. Cl. A. B. 163.39 . imdha ar do sgur cháomh chomhdhonn | conghland don Dubh sháor Shaighleand, IGT Decl. ex. 1509 . ro bron s.¤ ┐ ro sccail bú `bestowed horses', AFM ii 898.18 .

In phrases: idir gilla scuir nach sceinn ostler, SG 111.20 . a maoruigheacht sguir `stewardship', JRSAI ii 344.14 . toísech scuir master of the horse, leader of the cavalry: B., toesech scuir ríg h-Erend, LL 303a31 ( SG 377.34 = RC xiii 78.x ). dá ech tháisig scuir na bfiann, SG 100.19 . an taisigecht scuir ag h-Ib Fiacrach Find the post of master of the horse, Hy Maine 86.6 .

(c) paddock, enclosure for horses, meadow, pasture : tucait . . . a ṅgrega d'fhergeltaib ┐ scoraib, TBC-LL¹ 73 . ra batar a n-eich i n-oenscur . . . ┐ a n-araid ic oentenid, 3585 . an airat ro soich a s.¤ sidhe for gach leith ` "scor"-lands', Laws iv 226.z (acc. to note p. 227 glossed magh .i. cluain). s.¤ fir mancuine ni haile fiacha na tidrudus, v 490.2 , mancuine .i. in s.¤ doni in fer, 23 Comm . in s.¤ ┐ in mainner ┐ in dun, ii 50.25 Comm . sgor .i. cluain, O'Curry 1463 ( H 3.18, 650b ). fo bith sguir ┐ imcoiméta ┐ uadabar cinadha (text), sguir .i. feoir (comm.), O'D. 864 ( H 3.17, 617 ). Cf. sgor sgothus fia thuathaibh tuilchedla, Ériu xiii 17.12 . fáonan sgor sgotha, 26.5 , cf. s.¤ .i. bidh doigh com[b]a inann ┐ magh, ut est faenan s.¤ scothas .i. is cosmail fri mbrechtrad scoth for magh. No is faenan innann lium rocumaidh í ┐ scoth for scór, O'Dav. 1435 . tar bharr sguir nár sgaoil an drúcht that no dew has fallen across the pasture, L. Cl. A. B. 266.43 . s.¤ raifhérach, radharc cnoc | amharc aiérach accat `a grassy scaur' (a poet is accused of composing in the open air), Studies 1920, 261 § 2 .

(d) camp, encampment : it é beti i scoraib ┐ il longphortaib díabail, LU 2401 . ? tíagam uáthad slúaig co pupaill móir-scoith ┐ s.¤ anacal di leccaib, 5549 = TBC-I¹ 1067 . i sgor Ailella is Medba, TBC-LL¹ 2390 , v.l. (llongphort, text). iar tellach na s.¤ `die Zelte aufnehmen', Alex. 153 . teid do a s.¤ du i mbaei A., BB 429a27 = conici na scuru irrabi A., LL 238b10 ( TTr. 1605 ). cur raemid for V . . . . docum a s.¤ , CCath. 3062 . a n-dib scoraib `in two camps', AU iii 350.16 . o ro airighsidhe a nemhtathaighe as a sccoraibh sechtair `that they were not in the habit of going outside their encampments', AFM vi 2192.21 .

(e) band, company, host (of people, etc.); amount, quantity: s.¤ .i. iomad, O'Cl. it aidbli fíad scoraib | rígrad Chríst, Fél. Prol. 81 . batar hili slóig a scuir, SR 4579 . ? srethaib sutrall soillsi scuir, 4365 . diarbo hóenach s.¤ scélach `of storied troops', Metr. Dinds. i 28.10 . rígda in s.¤ `royal the band', iii 240.7 . benfaid s.¤ na scol dom druim `the school bands', Fen. 372.9 . mar adeir an s.¤ dlighthe so sís, O'Curry 2248 ( Eg. 88, 18 (19)b ). ar gach leith don ród lán do scoraibh Lochlonnach `companies', Keat. iii 3541 . sgor . . . ógh iodhan, Measgra D. 16.35 .

II Act of desisting from, ceasing, coming to an end :

(a) ar is mórdolig mo nert do s.¤ ó nirt mná that my strength should vanish(?), LU 3899 (`to let loose my strength on account of the strength of a woman', SCC² 41 , cf. I (a) supra). a gnima gascid do scur dona slúagaib that the hosts should cease fighting, TBC-LL¹ 4516 . s.¤ ind óenaig the (formal) dissolving of the fair (see note), Metr. Dinds. iii 22.269 . ní fhil s.¤ na n-olc sin de maní idbartar F. ┐ E. those evils will not be dispelled, BB 412b50 . scur in catha, CCath. 4043 . scur ┐ etergleodh na mórchaingni-si `issue', 4077 . iar scur a oipre cach n-óidhchi, Dinds. 55 ( RC xv 451 ). air sgur don sgainnir, RC xxi 399.16 . ar sgur fhaghla na hÉirionn, TD 27.1 . do sgur chommórthais chlann gCuinn | red bharr `to check the contest of the tribes of C. with thy . . . locks', 2.5 . do mhaithfeadh Críosd do chionn sguir | a bhfuil d'fhiachaibh ar m'anmain if I repent (i.e. renounce sin), Dán Dé iv 4 (see note). nī scur nō anadh dorōnadh leō co rāngadur . . . they made neither stop nor stay, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1721 . sgaoileadh gan sgur immediate destruction, Magauran 3118 . teagasgaidh sí gan sgur ceaselessly, Donlevy xi 2 . ? a sgur féin gér fheidhm don óigh `though her bereavement was as much as she could bear', PBocht 13.15 .

(b) with follg. DI: iar scur cech aidche . . . | dond fhiur . . . | dia indeóin, Metr. Dinds. iii 262.25 . d'egla sguir d'ól dá n-aoidhigh for fear the guest should cease drinking, L. Cl. A. B. 74.95 . ó sgur dhíobh go ngéabham gnaoi `I shall act more satisfactorily in leaving them alone', PBocht 1.30 . sccur . . . dia ffoghail `to desist', AFM vi 2050.16 . iar s.¤ caich don opair, Ann. Conn. 1243.4 . dena sgur don sgainníll, Études Celt. i 79.25 . sgor do'n pheacadh, Donlevy 296.1 .

(c) with follg. FOR: gorta . . . ní biad s.¤ furri mani edbrad a maccu would not cease, LL 218a32 ( TTr. 90 ). scur ┐ foircenn do beith for na docraibh sin doib, CCath. 4526 . is e an la cetna dano dobera scur . . . ar bhar soethraip will put an end to your labours, 5054 . tabhram sgur ara sgélaibh, Top. Poems² 153 . gur bhó mithidh lá Dia sccur críoch ┐ foircend do chur for choccadh G., AFM v 1792.x .

(d) in phrases with follg. gen.: ro-adairset in oen Dia cen scur n-amsire for ever, PH 358 . mairg tēit ar iasacht | i cath i s.¤ anma imod (leg. is cor ?), PRIA xix 544 § 21 ( LL 146b42 ). s.¤ docra ┐ dobet[h]adh `a separation from hardship', CCath. 4528 . ar sgur faghla dá fholt, Studies 1929, 593 § 5 . as sgor ratha d'aird-rig a uathúghadh a decline of prosperity, ML 104.1 . co mba scur saegail sochaidhi in plaigh isin, CCath. 1024 . scur side ┐ caincomhraic, 1042 .

(e) g s. as attrib.: mo bhuille sguir asé so `my finishing blow', MS. Mat. 569.x . i n-aghaidh Dé gan dáil sguir | do bhí Pól without respite, Dán Dé vi 26 . i dtráth sguir a Dhé don dáil | go dtáir mé th'fhuil agus th'fheoil, xxvii 16 .

Compd. ¤chos horses' hooves: sgorchosa greagh, L. Cl. A. B. 148.76 .

tomailt

Cite this: eDIL s.v. tomailt or dil.ie/41363

n ā, f. Vn. of do-meil.

I

(a) act of wearing away, consuming: ic t.¤ a [dé]t frisin cloich `grinding his teeth against the stone,' MacCongl. 47.21 . ní bui t.¤ na uaimm snathati isin inar-sin, PH 2861.

(b) act of consuming food or drink: tri th.¤ neich adobarar doib, Wb. 11b12 . tar hési tomalte inna túare, 11c2 . longad ┐ t.¤ , LU 3226 (SC). ic t.¤ na flede, Thes. ii 335.38 . praind do t.¤ , Mon. Tall. 153.3 . oc t.¤ a feisi, YBL 139a19 . fri t.¤ bid no lenda, BB 497a27 . dorónad ... tegdas chumtachta lais fri frithailem tomalta na flede, LU 8044 ( FB 1 ). gaimred fria tomalta, RC xii 106 § 15.7 . in fhil biad ocaib sund ... biad bud chubaid do th.¤ , PH 6710 . bethadach ... ag tomuilt in fheóir, Études Celt. i 87.28 . tomuilt feola a corgus, Laws iii 62.7 Comm. Intrans.: dochuaid ... dochumm a phelati ... do thomailt, PH 1222 . caitheamh la tuaith, ocus toimilt do eclais, Laws ii 342.12 Comm.

(c) food, comestibles: maith a tomalt (: doromat), ZCP xi 151 § 32 . dorosait Dia a brechtrad forsin domun dia ... tomaltaib; intí mesraiges a thuari ┐ a th.¤ do cach, Alex. 941 . no noisigthe leis ... fri t.¤ i tig Conchobair, Ériu iv 26.21 .

(d) feast: fleagha ┐ tomulta, Ériu iii 4.24 . bíd for tomaltaib, LL 280a3 .

II Legal. act of using: rodbi slan serthoimilt caich di arailiu `der freie Verbrauch,' Stud. in E. Ir. Law 54 § 26 = Laws ii 388.14 . log a tomalta, Laws v 388.27 . ní suíter tuinide ar tomalta tíre itir fine .i. nocha didnither a ferann ar in fine eturra budein cin a taisic cé ro beth neach dib aga t.¤ , O'D. 580 ( H 3.17, 445 ). teora tomalta ata chórai do ríg fora thuaith(a); óenach ┐ dál do chundriug ┐ tochomrach do chrích, Críth G. 502 . batar meic Aeda Slane in tan sin for crich nUlad for tomaltaib .i. da mac Aeda Slane i comflaitheamnas `im Genuss ihrer Königsrechte' (Thurneysen, Z. f. roman. Phil. xliii 389 § 5 ), Anecd. 1 2.24 .

tuinsem

Cite this: eDIL s.v. tuinsem or dil.ie/42364

n uand o, m. vn. of 2 do-nessa.

(a) act of trampling on, crushing under foot: grēss a gressu .i. ō chomainsem nó t.¤ , O'Mulc. 646 . in fers a fhil a th.¤ fen = de sui ... conculcatione ( Luke iv 11 ) PH 4842 . do fhollsiugad in tuinnsim-sin, 4843 . seacht mbliadna ara chorránuibh gan a thuinn-siomh re talmain `without treading on the ground' (austerity practised by a saint), ZCP i 64 § 65 = Mart. Don. Nov. 25 . ic a tuindsium fo traig[th]ibh, CCath. 3180 . co d-tuc tuindsemh ... da cois uada i n-Dubthach gave D. a kick, TBC-LL¹ p. 399 n. 10 . Fig. īar tundsem a tríchait (sic) `having trodden under foot his thirty years,' Hail Brigit 5.

(b) impact, shock: bachall undsen, trom a tundsemh `heavy its crushing,' RC xxvii 270.7 . cach airdi bias in torad bid trumaidi a thuindseom ac toitim, YBL 167b34 . ba hecail leo tuindseom ┐ truma na mesi sin ar a met `impact,' TTebe 2485 . tuinnsiomh na ttreinfhear acca ttrasccradh, AFM v 1278.2 . Of the thrust of a spear: curolécc (sic) triar dib do teora tuindsemhaibh don tsleigh, D IV 2, 57vb 22 . gur bho oirbhe tréitholl ... an trom-sgiath do'n toinuseamh sin, ML 88.18 . do ratt N. tuinnseamh don tsleigh ... fo ioctar a slinnéin ... for M., AFM vi 2214 29 . Of the wind: li trentuinnsemhaibh tuathairde tarmgaithi strong buffetings, LL 410b22 . Cf. MR 236.21 . as é ... a thuinnseamh fá tréan onslaught , ML 134.17 . la tuinnsiumh an tren phúdair ` explosion ,' AFM vi 2012.12 . gach orc dhibh ac tabhairt tuindsiumha for a chomhair `making a forward effort,' Oss. v 68.23 .