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1 áine

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 áine or dil.ie/1261

 

Forms: Áne, nÁne

n [, f.] (án. See Vendr. Lex.)

(a) brightness, glow, radiance: áne thened, Thes. ii 355.26 . áne in teined, Ériu ii 134 § 114 . di etrachtu ┐ ane ┐ soilse a gnuisi, 142 § 152 .

(b) brilliance, wit: Aed oll fri andud nane `Aed great at kindling of brilliance', Thes. ii 295 § 1 . ar aíne a forcedail, Laws iv 356.4 . ar gaís ar á.¤ ar amainse ar chirt, LU 10299 . for mac n-á.¤ eras céille adnad fír, SG 253.28 . Perh. also: áne la dóer, ecna la dodelb, Triads 84 .i. saidhbrios (as if = anae) ag daor neimhnidh, p. 38 . aine .i. ái án no aoi án .i. ealadha mhaith no fios maith, O'Cl.

(c) splendour, glory, fame: arrochiúir a n-á.¤ `their splendour has perished', Fél. Prol. 67 . ar adbud ar áni atronnai . . . .i. ara ainmni ┐ ara áini . . . nó ar adbchlos ┐ ar áini, LU 1132 ( ACC 121 ). is mór a á.¤ in Chassan sin hi fertaib, Trip.² 830 . at banlendan . . . ar do á.¤ ┐ t'urdarcus, LU 8237 ( FB § 18 ). ba comadhais dó ar . . . á.¤ ┐ oitidh ┐ aerdarcus, Ériu xii 164.4 (TE2). ar ḟebas a ṅgascid, ar a n-ani, LL 217b49 ( TTr. 68 ). beandacht orda[i]n, beandacht ā.¤ foraib uili, ZCP viii 560.9 . In bad sense pomp, vainglory: cen úaill n-úabair, cen áni `without pomp', Ériu iii 96 § 4 . ní hane fodruair (.i. ni forbas fodera a denum), Fél. Ep. 97 . Cf. O'Dav. 73 . beauty: díar gáet Luchet co n-áni (: Dáiri), LU 3180 . ba bind mo chocert áni / eter andrib co n-álli, 1303 . a há.¤, a himdercadh, a gart `her beauty' (of Ireland), Ériu iv 146.11 . eagna, ōghdhacht is á.¤ , O'R. Poems 3179 . delight: a mo aine gl. o . . . meum sabium (leg. sauium), Sg. 204b2 . is adbar á.¤ do t'eascairdib `cause of delight', MR 294.8 . aine .i. áineas, O'Cl.

(d) play, sport, amusement: co facaid na cuiléna oc á.¤ , SG 254.15 . ferr lubair āine work is better than play, Anecd. iii 18.20 . airiasacht ar aíne fir anfine ac na bi uiriasacht fir cota . . . [.i.] dul do neoch ar ainechas fein `for his amusement . . . for sport', Laws iii 424.5 , 11 Comm. ; aine .i. aibnes (quoting prec. ex.), O'Dav. 108 (`delight, ut est, if there be a consent for pleasure'). ní bhfuaradar uadh á.¤ nó aoibhneas, ITS xxiv 18.18 .

Note also: iar n-áne iar n-imḟorráin contest, fight (?), LL 15943 (or to be referred to áin ?).

(e) swiftness: ara deni ┐ ara ani in charpait, LU 10179 . aine .i. lúas no déine, O'Cl.

Of one of the grades of bard: bard aine in tochtmhadh bard ┐ ni fil dan laisidhe, IT iii 5.10 v.l.

As n.pr. Áne, LL 3318 . See also O'Rahilly, EIHM p. 288 f. In n.loc. Belach nÁne , LU 5217 .

Cf. áinius.

1 cía

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cía or dil.ie/8965
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: cía, ci, cá, gá, cá, gá, cár, cá, cía, citné, cia, ciodh, cisne, cipé, cipé

interr. and indef. pron. Given in list of interrogatives, Laws v 6.1 ff. Comm. ; for forms permitted and prohibited in classical verse see IGT Introd. § 16 . See GOI §§ 456 - 460 , Strachan, Ériu i 6 ff. , Bergin, Ériu xii 205 ff.

A As interrogative.

I General form cía (ce, ci) (`unstressed or weakly stressed,' GOI § 456 ) without indication of gender. In later lang. freq. cá, gá (cf. gia, TBC-LL¹ 56 , giá, 730 etc.). who? what ? (in direct and indirect interrogation).

(a) With dependent verb (as conj. part. or in accordance with Bergin's Law). As subject of vb.: cia beir búar o thig Temrach who takes? LL 1566 . cía rét Brega?, LU 9306 . ? cia saig do rús Herind. . .?, LL 1787 . cía taisiu?, LU 6307 . cia bátar do bésa?, Tec. Corm. 7 . ní fitir R. cía-rraba / crích `whose was', Metr. Dinds. iv 4.45 . immoscoemorcuir ceptar hé, Corm. Bodl. 34.21 . As object: ce róich `how far . . . extends', Sg. 26a11 . cia roich eneclann?, Laws iii 536.1 . cia-roig dire? Ir. Recht 13 § 14 . cia fairneac?, Ériu xi 44.3 . cia acca whom didst thou see? LU 7135 . bec a ḟis duid cia do ordo, Anecd. i 7.5 ( do(o)rdo, SCano 198 `what I croon', Gloss.). So also in cíar(r)icc (separate article). Rarely cid in this use. Nom. cid dernad?, LL 251a18 . Accus. cid dernais?, LL 251a39 .

With inf. pron. usually cich-: cichib foruireth? . . . fon-roireth imned what has been caused to you? TBFr. 399 = ZCP iv 45.28 . cichib-roerad? what has been prepared for you (i.e. how have you fared?), IT iii 237.62 = cichib roér ol Bodb. Nin foruireth nammaith olse, LL 246b24 . mnā brataiter . . . cichi brata? cichi aig? cichi goin? who abducts them? TBC-I¹ 1081 (cicen, cíche, ciche, LU). ? ciche bárogell a regg / sonend ┐ dubdonend, LL 376a4 . Exceptionally: ar feisidh ciab dergeine `who has made you', Blathm. 91 § 6 . fir gontair, mnā brattar, bai agthar . . . cistabrata, cisdagata, cisdabeir? TBC-I¹ 2989 . See ZCP xxii 29 .

With copula: innaní asbertis cipad a déne ind hesséirgi `that used to say what would be the swiftness of the resurrection', Wb. 25b27 . conid fessed cia bed flaith inna diad, Ml. 89b7 . For cía ba chan see can.

Hence in various adverbial meanings. (b) how ? cia Ulto ána acca?, LL 13439 . cumma cīa-thōetsat imbi, Sc.M² 3 (`how', Gloss.). cía festa `how should ye know?' Metr. Dinds. iii 48.12 . cia ḟacci ar sluág?, TBC-LL¹ 223 . is cuma dó c.¤ eipli, Liad. and Cuir. 20.17 `how he dies', Contribb. 363 . With deut. form: cía dorochair Cróeb Dathi?, Metr. Dinds. iii 148.1 . Note also: cīa tairicc? Tairic hi cind teora mblīadna when? ZCP viii 312.29 .

(c) where ? In later lang. cá, gá (nasalizing), with narrative tense cár. cá `lochdach', IGT Introd. § 16 . Orig. with téit: ni fetatar cia deochaid where he went, LU 3329 ( SCC 12 ). nocon ḟess cia deochatar, LL 290a27 . With deut. form of vb. cia dochuatar ass? where did they go? TFerbe 565 . In later lang.: cá ngabhaid?, Oss. iii 232.5 . Keat. Poems 1545 . cá bhfaighion tú an raidhirc so?, ZCP v 215.419 . cā ndearnais do c[h]ēadc[h]reach?, Feis Tighe Chonáin 145 . cár ghabh, 490 . cá ar fríth é?, ZCP v 215.418 . carbh ail les dul, Stair Erc. 981 . With attá: ga ffuil maithe na Féine?, Duan. F. ii 322 § 15 (see iii 151). ga bhfuil suim . . . na naitheantadh `what is the abridgment?' Donlevy 52.22 . ro fhiarfaigh I. ca rabe A., Stair Erc. 25 . do f[h]iafraigdur dī cā raibhe sí whence she was, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1666 . Note also cia racha, ITS xvii 188.1526 etc.

(d) With fíu glossing Lat. quam, how (great, etc.): cia fíu .i. mór ní gl. quam admirabile, Ml. 17b12 - 13 . gl. quam (sollicite), 23a10 . ce fiu gl. quam maxime, Sg. 114a3 . See Dict. Fasc. fíu and compare cia fiú me bheith beó etc. how can I remain alive? ITS xvii 159.963 .

(e) With follg. noun (often as antecedent of rel. clause). With masc.: ciachruth gl. quomodo, Sg. 212a1 (see 1 cruth). cia dune ind inni-sseo gl. qualem . . . hominem, Ml. 35c33 . cia mod .i. imba do gres . . . `what measure', Ml. 100d4 . Perh. also in the follg.: dús cia port indib maith óigedacht `in what place', Wb. 26b24 . cia salmscribdid conicfed són `what psalmist?', Ml. 14a6 . amal nad finnatar sidi cia loc sainriud dia regtais, 99b10 . cia randdatu bis indi, Sg. 27a12 . cía cethrar? Rí ┐ brithem etc., Críth G. 536 . cia file ar secht ccumhaluibh dlighidh what poet . . .? Ériu xiii 18.4 . cia fot atúsa isin chotlud sa how long? LU 6359 . gá fad?, TSh. 1618 . ca sén dob ferr?, Ériu iv 224.13 . ca ræt in muirn . . . ar-at-cluineam?, TTebe 1901 (see crét). ca hinad?, LB 137b51 . gá cara don uile as fhearr?, A. Ó Dálaigh xv 5 . DDána 50.12 . gá fhios nach . . . (ḟ = bf?), O'Gr. Cat. 456.10 . gá chúis fá . . ., 12 . cár bh'iongnadh?, Hard. i 204 .

(f) With fem.: cia airm `what place', Wb. 12d18 (see cairm, cáit). ceseirc gl. quam caritatem habeam, 14d15 (differently GOI 289 ). ce meit gl. quanto, 33a1 . ce mét aimmser bes indi `what times may be in it', Sg. 25b16 . ce méit a[s] sinu aís quam A. `how much older', Wb. 34a5 . See méit. cia dú gl. quo, Ml. 40c7 . cia inni soas `how He turns', 123d8 (see note). cá huair díscáeilter in doman nó cá tráth thiucfus Dia?, RC xxiv 382.32 . ca delb rogabais? Ériu iv 104.15 . cia ben is mesa do mnáib?, ZCP viii 113.11 . cá slat is slimghile bas?, O'Gr. Cat. 332.27 . ga hobar dhíbh nach doiligh?, Studies 1921, 588 § 1 . gá breath rug féin ar an bhfear? Dán Dé xxv 16 .

(g) With neut.: cia eret mbete oc m'ingraimmim-se `how long?' Ml. 33a9 . cia airet bis micomus etc., Laws ii 186.6 . cia hairet, PH 1501 . See airet, cairet. anfis ca cinel aire nos beir etc., Laws i 188.6 Comm. cia forcenn doberthar foraib, Ml. 33a9 . na fetar . . . ca galar . . ro-t-básaig, CRR 3 . cia indas conaittechtatar a n-íc, Ml. 90b16 . décaid . . . a arm cia indas rundgabsat, 55c1 (see indas, cindas). cia leath reghma?, Anecd. i 2.9 ( SCano 25 ). cia tír, ZCP viii 318.33 .

(h) cía with follg. prep. and noun or pron. rendering oblique cases of Lat. pronn. (see GOI 228 - 229 ): cia ar neoch gl. ad quid, Sg. 217a5 . Cf. cia erneo gl. quam ob rem, Ml. 101a4 . ci erniu gl. quamobrem, 47b1 . cairhe biit, Sg. 242b1 leg. ciairneo = quamobrem, n . ciarrét gl. quamobrem, Ml. 48c2 . cide gl. de quo (cia de? cid de?), Sg. 3a9 . cia du neuch gl. ad quem . . .? Ml. 16a9 . cia dunaib hi do foirmsed gl. de quibus adderet? 35a17 . cia du forcunn gl. quem ad finem, 33a9 . cia du rét gl. cui rei? 121d1 . cia isnaib hí gl. in quibus, 49c13 . cia in n-erbirt ṁbiuth gl. in quem ussum, 46b28 . cia i n-olcaib gl. in quibus malis, 23b2 . ci onaibhi, gl. quibus, 47a10 . cio ainmnid dixnigidir gl. ex quo sit nominatiuo? Sg. 207b3 . ciofut gl. usque quo, Ml. 20a17 . 93a15 . ci ho fothaib són gl. quibus (dementiae facibus accensi sunt), 16b19 . ci o retaib gl. quibus rebus, 35c35 . gl. ex quibus rebus, 44d24 . cio thomus gl. qua libra etc., 55d16 . So also probably in later lang.: cia chuige a ndírighmid ar nurnuigh, Donlevy 364.16 . ca as a tangadar, Stair Erc. 1412 . casa ticit siat, Ir. Astr. Tr. 146.1 . Hence perh. in later phr. gá d'ulc what is the harm of? (see olc, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.z ). gá d'ulc bogur an bhása?, IGT Decl. ex. 758 . gá d'ulc mé gan mothugadh?, ex. 224 . gá d'ulc óigrí eslobar?, O'Gr. Cat. 470.9 . Cf. 2 cair. See Éigse xii 136 .

(i) In phrase cíadono why (then)? (see GOI 289 See further Éigse xii 136 .): ar cia dono gl. ut quid autem, Wb. 2d10 . hóre ro-n-ortigestar dia cedono tuidecht friss `why then?' 6a4 . ce dono rigne occo `what, then, is the good of prolixity in it?' 8d15 . cepu dono adrad dǽ do thabirt do Pool?, 7d16 . ciapu dono dún indarpe geinte `why should we then expel the Gentiles?' 19a14 . ? ēludh ann for romhuir / nícon fess cia dona, ZCP x 344.13 .

(j) In various constructions with adjj. In early legal texts with superl.: cia measom do cain ts.? `what is the worst of . . . ?' Laws ii 194.1 . cia dilsiumh d'ḟiledhoibh, Ériu xiii 31.2 . cía háithemh eó? acais dlighidh, etc., 25.6 . Prob. also: cia so do rinnibh etc. 20.30 = ciaso do ninnaib, O'Dav. 1289 . In later lang. in phrase gá beag is it not enough? ga beag mur ḟáth duilghis, IGT Decl. ex. 1057 . cá beag d'fhiadhnaise? Studies 1920, 97 § 2 . gárbh fhearr céim, 98 § 6 . gá bheag dhúinn dá dhearbhadh ort is it not proof enough for you? Content. vi 25 . Freq. with compar. in rhetorical questions. Cf. ga meisde ┐ ga c[h]an ┐ ca d'ulc, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.z . gá cruaidhe ceisd what more difficult question (is there)? DDána 12.1 . ga deacra ní do neithibh?, IGT Decl. ex. 938 . car doilge [le] inghin Taidg / éc Aodha aird . . . / inā d'Echtaigh a bás bróin / Corbmaic hūi Cuinn . . . , ZCP vi 269 § 4 . ca ferr duind ar mbeandacht do chur . . . go fer in liubair sea na a fágbail aigi?, LU 2769 (colophon). gá fearr m'áis-se ná m'aindeoin how is it better to get my consent than to constrain me? Dán Dé i 5 . ga feirdi me do m[healladh]?, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.2 . cá bud fherrde, PH 7582 . gá misde don cholainn chriadh / an t-anam d'faghbháil ilphian what harm? Dán Dé xxv 41 . m'uabar gá mó mínáire?, O'Gr. Cat. 346.33 . do Mhuire gár mhó guasocht?, Dán Dé xx 47 . Note also: cá minic do chionntaidh sé `how often', Donlevy 320.28 . an lícc dimor uccat fil forsan tulaigh, cía mó atá i ttalamh dhi na uása how much more of it is in the earth than above it? BNnÉ 8.16 .

II Inflected (`more fully stressed', GOI § 456 ) cía, cisí cid, citné etc. In classical verse the forms cia and ciodh are stressed, see DDána 12.1 , 58.35 . `cía, can, cúich . . . were in direct interrogation used with the copula *esti (cf. mod. Ir. cé h-é) . . . ', O'Brien, Féil. Mhic Néill 88 .

With indep. form of verb (a) cía m.: cia beraid doib a remeperthe `who will refer to them the aforesaid?' Ml. 37a9 (perh. transition from I(a) above). Usually with rel. clause: cía rédes ruind?, BDD² 294 etc. cia dib gebus t'forba?, RC xxiv 194.1 . cía de as sru[i]thiu?, Críth G. 492 . cīa nād cūala?, ZCP xi 109 § 7 . Prob. also in follg., where there is no mark of rel.: cia con-icc ní dúun?, Wb. 4b11 . cia folínfea? 12d14 . cia dobera íc do Sión?, Ml. 34d5 . dús cia atrebea isin chathraig `to learn who will dwell in the city', 35b24 . cia de dogega `which of them I shall choose', Wb. 23b33 . dús cīa díb do-ngegad, Sc.M² 19 . caidi bad ferr la hUltu, a mmarb nō a mbeo . . . ?, TBC-I¹ 681 (cia dé, LU). do fiarfaidh A. de cia dá cloind do beith etc., ZCP xi 128.34 . quis est horum qui vicit . . . .i. cia ro blaiss bethaid?, LL 281a32 . cia aca is rogha leat?, Hard. i 274.y .

(b) cid n. (rel. frequently marked): cid aem no-dom-bera-sa cucuibsi, Wb. 1a8 . cid atobaich cen dílgud cech ancridi `what impels you . . . ?', 9c20 . nícon fitir cid asbeir, 12c22 . ro fitid cid aridfuirig a foilsigud, 26a11 . dús cid forchomnacuir indi `to learn what hath happened therein', Ml. 16c5 . cid du-gén-sa osme `what shall I do, even I?', 30b9 . ní fintar cid attrebthar and `what is possessed there', Sg. 200b13 . niconfetadar cid fodruair `they . . . knew not what had caused it', Mon. Tall. 147.13 . asbert nicon feddur cid fil do sirgabail na biaide I do not understand your continual singing of the Beati, 127.2 . cid dogén?, ZCP viii 113.9 . cid tuccais ō Guaire what hast Thou got from G.? ACL iii 2.10 . With subst. vb. in nasalising rel. clause what ails, what is the matter with? see attá. With copula: nad fes cid as maith no as olc [do] denum, Ml. 51b7 . dober Dia aithesc cid as denti no cid as imgabthi, 51b8 . cid as dech do mnáib? what is the best type of wife? ZCP viii 113.5 . Note the variation in: na cóig guthaidhe, cía dhíobh as glan no as neamhghlan, no ciodh as cáol no as leathan da bfeadhuibh oireaghdha, ┐ créd atá na ndefhoghrachuibh etc., IGT Introd. 1.10 .

With nouns in sense who is? what is?

(c) m. cía (also occasionally with other genders, and regularly with ainm, see Ériu i 9 ): cia haes esca?, SR 7964 . cía méit in gill?, Críth G. 282 . cía [a] míad sidi?, 586 . cia th'ainmsiu?, LU 10774 . cía hainm? what's your name? BDD² 264 . cía hainm dá mnaí?, 365 . cia n-anmand what are their names? TFerbe 357 . cīa cétliaigh robūi ind-Ēirinn?, ZCP viii 105.12 . cía bar lín-se is[in] indsi-se?, Ériu iv. 142.21 . nī hētur cia hainm in maic aile, ZCP viii 293.24 . cia don teora crannsa an chroch, Dán Dé iii 27 . cia an monghar mór-sa?, DDána 85.6 . cia an duine bhias beó = quis est homo? TSh. 3125 .

Forms in -so, -su etc. (cf. indic. pres. 3 s. of 2 cía. See Celtica vii 38-42 ): ciaso baili ata in crann?, SR 7931 . ciaso buaid duinne?, Bodl. Dinds. 27 . cia so gním what deed? TBC-LL¹ 958 . cíasu anmann bai for suidiu?, IT ii2 195.153 . nī fetar-sa ciasu adba etc., Fing. R. 969 . ciasa bas . . . do bean . . . in bas-crann?, Ériu iv 116 § 26 (`whose hand?'). ciasa fogealtad son? .i. miach cacha mis, Laws iv 106. 15 Comm. ím comirc doib ciasa hairm ín ro scuirsid, 106.22 Comm. ciasa run, Auraic. 5210 (císi, v.l.). ciarsat comainm celisiu what's your master's name? LL 9041 (TBC). carsat comainm?, Acall. 390 . ciarso choma no bértha dó?, LL 8937 (TBC). garsa gním sain?, 9990 (TBC).

(d) cía with pron. who is? cia tussu díxnigedar who art thou? Wb. 4c24 . cia hé nu-n-dixnaigther-siu gl. qui sis, Ml. 75c9 . ciahé gl. qui (sit), 14d14 . cia hé `who is it?' 46c17 . ce hé roscríb `who it is that has written', Sg. 197a19 . cinní sin frisnaiccai siu `whom dost thou expect?', Thes. ii 227.30 (from intí-sin, GOI § 460 ). cia so who is this? Anecd. i 8. 23 ( SCano 257 ). cía so?, Sc.M² R 10 . cīa and-so?, 11 (for inso?). cia tusu?, RC xxiv 200.9 . fochtuis Feilis scela de, ce he budein, ZCP vi 25. 18 . cīa pad cīa . . . acht . . . Condere . . . who should it be but C.? Ériu i 114 § 3 . beag a fhios agad . . . / cia misi d'fhearaibh Eireann, Studies 1924, 243 § 17 . With -so, -su: cía so thú?, LU 10768 = ciasu tu, Ériu xii 170.3 . cársa cúich thú?, Mer. Uil.² 90 . cársa cía[s]ib-si etir?, 250 .

(e) cía with follg. prep. as antecedent of rel. clause (cf. I (h) above): cia dia fiachaigedar gl. ad quem debeat, Ml. 44b3 . cia forsa tiagat? `on whom do they fall? Laws ii 178.3 . nicon-fes cīa ō-tucad, Sc.M² 3 . cia ar nach tug a thrócuire? Dán Dé xxv 46 . cor dib Painiel dian / Gabriel cia ar nach cor?, KMMisc. 254.14 . d'iomad rogha ag Día dá dhiomda / fola cía dá ttiobhra ar tós, IGT Decl. ex. 109 .

(f) cisí, ces(s)í with f. noun: cisí chomairle ǽm `what indeed is the counsel?' Ml. 34c18 . cissi slabrai in díscer sa? LU 5162 (TBC). cissi gáir seo?, 4475 . císí (sic) suillse mór sucut?, BDD² 591 . áil dūn a ḟis . . . cisī rāth so, Ériu viii 157.6 . Freq. with follg. rel. clause: cessi aimser hi rogbath `at what time it was sung', Ml. 24d10 . cisi aimsir hi for-comnactar in gnimai, 97a5 . cisí digal didenach dumberaesiu a Dǽ, 100d5 . co n-eperthae cia aiccent ┐ cisi aimser derb thechtas, Sg. 26a6 . cisi rann dogéntar di, 27a13 . cesí aram gl. ad quod genus uel numerum refertur, 197b3 . cisi chiall bís indib `what is the meaning that is in them', 217a2 . cisi muime bat tualoing what fostermother could have? Blathm. 100 § 32 . cisi mathair con bert / an geinsi? ib. (MS. cisi in, text). cisi gnuis . . . forta napsalmo?, Hib. Min. 3.76 . cise noail noclanna `by what oath shall it be settled?' Laws iv 142.3 . cisi airm hi tá L.? LU 3620 (SC. 31). rāidh frim cisé (ciséd, v.l.) dāil di ṡund dogénum, ACL iii 294 § 13 . cisi breth rucais?, Rawl. 113a2 . cissí dichuimni rod dall?, LL 21767 . fég darisse . . . cisi chonar dotháet `look again, what road is he coming', RC iii 183.33 . inderb . . . cisi uair no cisi aimsir regthair, Ériu v 120.3 . cisí hairle do beradh, Hugh Roe² 292.14 . With ellipse of rel. clause: tair limsa . . . co ndérais. Cisí dígal?, MU² 1034 . Also somet. with other genders: ciasi animnairme (ainm n-áirme) fil . . ., Hib. Min. 2.41 . ciasi ord fil forna psalmu, 6.196 . ra iarfaig . . . cissi log conattaig, LL 30975 ( TTr. 156 ). occa scrúdadh . . . cisi cruth no aithfedh, Hugh Roe² 96.15 . Note also: atbertsat cipsi magen i ferfaithe in cath, Dinds. 188 ( RC xvi 274 ).

(g) cid with n. noun. In sense what is? cid aes ṅ-esci? BCr. 32a9 . cidh dire Mac-ḟuirmidh?, Ériu xiii 25.27 . cid an ní seo?, BDD² 242 . cid damhna bar ndocesaid?, ACL iii 310 viii 3 . ciodh achd ar ghrádh no ar ghrádsa / clár págsa d'fhior ón Aodhsa?, IGT Decl. ex. 137 .

With follg. rel. clause: imrádat imráti cid maith as déntí `as to what good is to be done', Wb. 1d7 . cid ḟolad ṡluindes, Sg. 25b17 (see note). ce torad gl. quem . . . fructum habuistis? Wb. 3b29 . cid chenél gl. quod genus . . . refertar, Sg. 197b3 . Perh. also: cidechor (= cid dechor) gl. quae sit differentia, 23a2 . In difft. constr. (cf. II (c) above): ced torbe doib etarscarad . . . fria tola what does it profit them? Wb. 13c6 . ce torbe dúib-si . . . in fogur-sin, Ml. 12d5 . ced slīab inso thall?, TBC-I¹ 614 .

(h) cid with pronoun: ced ed tra `what is it then?' Wb. 3b28 . cid so?, Mon. Tall. 130.15 ; YBL 118a23 ; ZCP xiii 179.3 . cid sin?, BDD² 448 . cid ón `what is that?' RC iii 184.25 . ceadh sibh acht na seacht dtroighthe what do you amount to? DDána 53.21 .

(i) cid with DO. With follg. neg.: cid dait-siu . . . nád bod latt curadmir, etc. why shouldn't you have? LU 8139 ( FB 10 ). cid daib . . . nach mair[b]fed sib?, TTebe 1865 . cidh damhsa cen dul d'iarraidh a maithme why should I not go, etc.? RC xxvii 294 § 38 . Note also: cidh duibsi what think ye of it? (?), RC xxvi 366.13 . cidh dhúinn déanamh a bhfeasa `why need I tell of them?' Content. iv 27 .

(j) cid with DI: cid de ón what does that matter? LU 6361 . cid de-side why so? TBC-LL¹ 5580 .

(l) cid with prep. and rel. clause: cid asa fordailtea grád túa[i]the on what basis have the lay grades been laid down? Críth G. 6 . Sliab B. cid diata whence is it named? RC xv 301.5 . cídh día ndearnadh Adhamh, 23 E 26, 5.18 .

(m) In similar construction in meaning why? With AR: cid arind epur frit why do I say it to thee? Wb. 5a31 . cid ara ndluthid caratrad friu iterum?, 27a30 . cid ara todlaigther inso, Ml. 32a5 . cid ara fodaim int ais firian inna fochaidi? 55d11 . cid armad machdad etc.? Sg. 167a4 . cid arṅdid huathuislib ildaib disruthaigedar?, 198b3 . cid ar bad?, Thes. ii 227. 34 . cid ara n-eperr Críth Gablach?, Críth G. 1 . cidh ar a fhuil Cuncha ar in inadhso?, ZCP xi 40.35 . With DI: cid dia leícid cundubairt for drecht uáib?, Wb. 13b12 . cid dia n-éirena(i)tar?, Críth G. 121 . rofiarfaig . . . desim cid dia mboi fora iarrair, Grail 1522 . With IMM (later FÁ): finnaid . . . cid imma ndernad in t-id, LL 8053 (TBC). cidh ma tancais alé `why hast thou come . . . ?' Ériu iii 158 § 11 . cid 'ma n-iarthai?, TTebe 1700 . cid . . . 'mara loirgis, TFrag. 118.15 . ciodh far dhoilghe trí thairnge?, DDána 40.10 . innis dúinn ciodh fa ttánghuis, Duan. F. i 78.16 . ciodh fa ttiobhradh, IGT Decl. ex. 1311 .

(n) cid as adverb, why ? cid no mbetha . . . on what account shouldst thou be . . . ? Wb. 4c24 . cid na déccaid?, Fél. Prol. 201 . ced nach maith?, Trip.² 1968 . cid nabsin Fedelm-sa . . . cichsed, LU 8296 ( FB 22 ). Tond Chlidna cid aréracht?, Metr. Dinds. iii 214.54 . cid éige, a bean?, Celtica iv 16.154 . cidh tāi a[g] gul?, ZCP viii 559.5 . cid . . . na caithi do chuidich? Ériu v 36.19 . do chách ciodh nach aithréasda?, DDána 58.35 . cidh na ro chomaillis an gealladh doradais?, BNnÉ 295 § 22 . Cf. cid ane . . . meic na mbachlach . . . do chomram cucum what business have the sons of rustics to be contending with me? Sc.M² 12 .

(o) where ? whither ? With téit: co n-at[h]comaircter nde cid ted, RC xiii 222.5 . cid nothēigid ?, ZCP xiii 176.8 . co fesamar úait . . . cid thége whither thou goest, Ériu iv 140.5 . ní fedar festa cidh rachad, Anecd. i 77.9 . cid lotar ?, LL 12826 . cid ghébmoe ?, BDD² 245 . Exceptionally with attá: d'iar[r]aidh fhessa . . . cuith a roiphi in ingen where, TTebe 33 (leg. cáit ?).

(p) In phr. cid tra acht, see trá.

Plural forms.

(q) citné, citni (prob. from cia ata n-é ` who, what (is it) that they are?', Thurn., ZCP xx 372 , GOI § 456 ). assindet sunt tra citné cumacte diandid cóir infognam what are the powers, Wb. 6a9 . citne gl. (sí . . . quaeritur) quae (gentes), Ml. 16b13 . cit né briathra robatar `what were the words?', 61b7 . cit né robatar `what were they?', 8 . asindet ón ciné (leg. citné? edd.) fochainn . . ., 101a3 . citni rig reachta . . . / robatar 'sind amsir sin?, SR 2347 . citni trenfir dotiarmórsetsu?, LU 10261 . cit n-é uisce . . . do-ríadhad?, BDD² 456 . ni fetar citne briga / mo dul i teach cor-riga I do not know what good there is in my going into the house to kings, Ériu v 30.2 . citni cenela na fuillet, Rawl. 69a29 . indis . . . dam . . . / citne clerig notrefet, / citne oic notndeirget, Three Hom. 110.16 , 17 . citne tire in geinseadar?, Leb. Gab.(i) 234.20 = Keat. ii 741 . Without follg. noun: citné foruar what are they which He has prepared? Wb. 8b5 . citne and dī rott eblatar?, LU 10284 . citn-éisidi?, BDD² 555 . ? citne in ferand?, LL 15993 = Todd Nenn. 222.3 (ceisi urrand, v.l. 223 n.).

(r) cisne (described as an `iarmberla', Auraic. 1308 ): cis n-é amuis ata chórai?, Críth G. 578 . cisne lesa . . . tascnat . . . ?, Laws i 230.21 . cisne tri leaca robaid?, v 450.1 . cisne sgéith sguirde caithche?, Ériu xiii 17.15 . cisne trí gealla nád fuilled . . .?, 33.28 . cisne tri horba doranaiter la Féne? O'Curry 2167 ( Eg. 88, 5(6)a ). cisne a trí a nemtiger cléirech, O'D. 2209 (Nero A vii, 144b). cís ní doghair oes eiscí? IT iii 262.12 . cia on cotagair æsa escai?, 61.18 = cis non dogar eassa uiscci?, Leb. Gab.(i) 264.13 . Exceptionally with pl. ending: cisneíd side ? . . . baes ┐ aneolus ┐ eitges, ZCP xii 363.2 .

(s) cis (see ZCP xx 372 , Ériu xiv 140 ): cis tána? ZCP xx 372.19 . cis n-dithle `welches sind Entwendungen?', 17 . cis duirn díolmhuine dlighther?, Ériu xiii 23.5 = O'Dav. 584 . cis dúar dían drongaighther . . . ?, Ériu xiii 26.2 = cis [i] duar etc., O'Dav. 883 . cis daghmaine domain dingnaith? O'Curry 2460 ( Eg. 88, 37(38)c ). cis rechta na gaibter a fiadhnaisi? 2600 ( Eg. 88, 51 (52)b ).

(t) Phr. cis lir how many (are) ? See Bergin, Ériu xiv 140 ff. cislir .i. cia lear no lin na sochaidi, Laws v 4.x Comm. cis lir tairgsin cach fine `how many are the . . . ?', 463.13 . gabála báise cis lir `the ways of folly, what is their number?' Tec. Corm. 14 (24.2) (gabail, v.l.). With follg. noun and rel. clause: cis-lir fir for a nasgar how many men are there who are bound? Ériu xiii 31. 21 . cis lir lanamna docuisin la feine? Laws ii 344.1 . cislir fodhla fil forsan mbron?, Anecd. v 24.16 . With follg. rel. verb: cis lir ata chóra[i] do ríg do giull how many (things) are legal . . . ? Críth G. 505 . cis lir congellait? Laws i 230.3 . cair cis lir dos-liad . . . ?, Ériu xiii 30.33 . Rarely with pl. -t: cesc citlir topuir, O'Curry 505 ( H 3.18, 257 ). See 2 lir.

(u) c(i)ata: ciata glinni con-daigi?, MU² 65 . cata cuir con-daigi-siu?, 72 . ciata builg itir ón?, RC xiii 66 § 67 . ni fedadar ceta inada . . . no indsechtais, CCath. 776 . Note also: cialín nasluag . . . / . . . ceti arbair, SR 7907 .

B As indef. in a variety of phrases.

(a) cía with noun: cia port i mbai a mathair wherever her mother was, Vita Br. 4 . cía baili i ffod as iatt sin / oidheadha na n-ócc eistidh `whatever place they may sleep' (reading i ffaoíit with note), Leb. Gab.(i) 188.3 .

(b) cía with vb. (conj. and prot.): cia tīasam wherever we go, Thes. ii 299.30 (Hy. i). cia bronntar indi, Críth G. 234 . cia taccra(i) whoever may claim (them), 425 (see 398 n.). cía denar cia therar whatever I do, whatever I say, Ériu i 227.5 . nocha n-érlai asin chathraigh acht cía térnai do rind gai, TTr.² 158 . a n-athair rempu cia thé `where'er he went', Ériu iv 100.2 . In chev. with adverbial force: cia bé however it be, LL 382 , 15039 . cia bia, Rawl. 137a38 . cia de do teacomnacair whichever it happened to be, Blathm. 98 § 25 (see notes). Cf. ciade gl. uter, Sg. 242a1 . ? is derb ní báes cia 't bera, Metr. Dinds. i 36.95 .

(c) cía with indic. of attá: cia bai dia chalmacht . . . bái dia nertmaire however brave he was, TBC-LL¹ 773 . niconibdis bandai cormmai . . . cia bith ara tecmainged dóib `they used not to drink a drop of beer whomsoever they might happen to meet', Mon. Tall. 129.19 . ( Ériu xii 209 ). cipia frisa ferthar tnú whoever shall be an object of envy, Ériu v 211.69 ( Ériu xii 209 ). cía búi de `whatever came of it' (cheville), Metr. Dinds. iii 396.23 . cía baoi dhe .i. gibé dobhi dhe, O'Cl.

(d) cip, cib with noun: cib cenél tra diaro scribad ind epistil to whatever people, Wb. 3b20 . cip port i ndēntar, Cáin Ad. 36 . Usually with cruth however it be, at all events: cipcruth bíid páx libsi etc., Wb. 5d33 . cipcruth tra, 12d24 . ni confetor cib cruth ind aingel fa dia, Blathm. 100 § 31 . See cipindus.

(e) cecip with noun (see Contribb. s.v. cech ): cecip maighean i raegbadh wherever, AFM i 30.3 . cecib tan tiostaois, v 1552.4 . tre bithin gona, no fiabhrasa cecib diobh whichever it was, vi 2024.5 . cecib nech tairisnighes iniort an coimdheadh, 2126.1 . cecip cruth foghabhtais, Hugh Roe² 86.2 . In follg. the use is strictly speaking interrogative: ní feas cecip tucht i tudchaidh, AFM iii 286.3 .

(f) cipsi with noun: cipsi aitt i loich dosfail, Rawl. 127a44 . cepsi cruth, BB 22b13 ( for cip c.¤ , Ériu xii 208 n. ). cipsi cruth `no matter how', Hugh Roe² 290.22 . cipsi mbith dáil for congra, Hard. ii 292.y . airlim n-eicne cipsí whatever it may be, Laws iv 92.z .

(g) cissí: ro geall Sir Persaual di sin cidhsi cor ara fetfad, Grail 1979 . case chruth i mbet, TBC-LL² 348 .

(h) cía bé, cipé, cid bé etc. with noun ( Ériu xii 208 ): cia bé a mmet `however great it may be', Ml. 61b28 . cipé leth tiasam, Thes. ii 299.42 . gidhbe an smólach ní chodhlann `even the thrush does not sleep', Duan. F. i 84.30 . cipe cruth, LU 3870 ( SCC 38 ). cipé rí bes hi Caisiul, ZCP viii 315.27 . ce-b e nech and do-neth . . . , PH 478 . cipé tan bud ríg tusa for Érinn 'whenever', FDG² 11.327​ . cipé a léire baistither in duine however devoutly, Ériu i 218 § 3 . gidh bé neimhdhéine do neinn, Dán Dé xiii 8 . cidh bé dhíobh staid, TSh. 3986 .

(i) cía bé, cipé etc. with verb: ciphéade (sic leg.) asberam `whichever', Ml. 25d11 ( Ériu xii 209 ). cipé da mbad áil etc., MU² 560 . céb é uabsi comallas frimsa hé, LU 9013 ( FB 76 ). atú ar bhaois gidh bé nach fuil, Dán Dé ix 8 . gidh bé ara geall, 16 . cibé labhras, TSh. 1781 . acht gidh bé éistios riomsa, Proverbs i 33 . gidh be ar bith bheanas ría `whosoever', vi 29 . Note also: mairbt[h]eim coich bē a dīe, Corm. Y 419 .

(j) cipé as adv. at all events , etc.: cipé gl. ubilibet, BCr. 31c2 . do gessaib ríg T. . . . / . . . cocad ruind co bráth ce bé `howsoever it be', CRR 54 . fiū cōicait cumal cipē, Fianaig. 50 § 27 . is maith liom a theacht gidhbé, Oss. vi 166.12 . ciphe de, BB 398b6 .

(k) cíabed, bad, beith etc.: ciabed ammet inna fochaide however great, Ml. 39a13 . cia beith a lin na noged however numerous the guests, Vita Br. 7 . ce bad hé frisa ndénte to whomsoever ye should do it (so Ériu xii 210 ), Wb. 9c24 . ciabadh hé richt a mbeith `in whatever shape she might be', Ériu xii 154 § 18 (TE). cebedh si maigen . . . a mbeith `in whatsoever part of Ireland she might be', ibid. cé beth da lánáille, ZCP viii 208.29 (but see Ériu xii 206 ). ge do beith do méit a tindenuis, Mer. Uil.² 146 . ciabadh e, Blathm. 96 § 20 , restored as ciabad de `whichever it be'. cia beith no co bia-so fó mebail whatever happens, LMU 10 .

(l) ciped (see Ériu xii 208 ): ciped techtas nech `whatever it is that anyone has', Wb. 12d41 ( Ériu xii 210 ). gip ed no raditís, TBC-LL¹ 152 . cipead dommaire `whate'er befall me', Ériu ii 90 § 16 . gibedh o ttíosadh whencesoever they shall come, TFrag. 190.16 . ciped mac díb no gabad gasced, TBC-LL¹ 1089 . giped chuin at some time or other, 3338 . ciped laa . . . forsa m-be notlaic mór (cidped, cipe, gebe, cip, MSS.), Ériu ii 208 § 28 . cip ed de at all events, CRR 4 .

(m) cid: cidh urrunnus nodleisead in t-athair `whatever proportion . . . the father is entitled to', Laws iv 60.24 Comm. cidh dergoine daon, O'Dav. 585 = cib dergona daon, O'D. 2199 ( Ériu xii 206 ). cid dusgní whatever he do, BColm. 100.9 . Cf. cidh ead dogneth hEchtair do calma imon Troi whatever brave action . . . , BB 433b24 .

(n) cid cía: cid cía bes inti whoever be in it, BColm. 52.21 . seanfhocal súd solus a chiall / ciodh cia do chum, Ériu xvi 132 § 2 . cidh cia ro chodail and 'san aidhchi sin nochur' chodail Didho, Aen. 873 . cidh cía donī, ZCP x 51.7 . na cionnta gidh cia 'gá mbeid whosoever shall have (i.e. commit) sins, Dán Dé v 13 . ? gidh cia frí senadh atúaidh, Duan. F. ii 166 § 44 . Note further: cia bad cia dia theilcfead (sic) sop, Ériu v 34.8 . cid bé cia thú `whoever thou art', TTebe 4720 . ciped chia díb nomarbtha artús, RC iii 183.8 . gidh créd do íar Aitheirne, IGT Decl. ex. 1377 .

See 2 cía and 3 cía, 1 cóich.

dímíad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dímíad or dil.ie/16532

 

n u, m. (míad) dishonour, disrespect, treating with contumely: fo dimiad cech anrechtach, SR 8335 . cen d.¤ , 5843 . coṅgerdar cen dimiada | dochum flatha sech tedma, 8367 . ni uair dimiad `she had no lack of honour', Metr. Dinds. iii 434 . ní har dimiad nā essonoir di, PH 67 . dimiad dom chleirech, dom clog, Fen. 220 . in d.¤ doratsatar Gréic . . . do Throiannaib, LL 228b1 . iar tabhairt dímiadha do a naonach Tailltenn, SG 72 . do dighail for T. in dímiada móir tucsat for Grécu, TTr.² 562 . in d.¤ ro-imdig for a rig, MR 30 . robatar fo dáire ┐ dim[i]ad, Alex. 317 . fo dhimiach ┐ fo dhimigin, MS. Mat. 551 . más é as tuar dímhiadha dhamh, DDána 101.34 . ic fulang . . . dímiada ┐ tarcasail, LB 256az .

With subj. gen. and DO: Media . . . rap anforlond aicnid lé d.¤ ┐ dímbríg ┐ dímicin Iasóin dí the dishonour . . . which J. had done her, LL 222a17 .

With obj. gen.: cid fódruair lat-su mo d.¤ sa fíad andrib ilib?, LU 3902 . do digail a dímhiada ar D., MR 110 . robaoi ina mhenmain aithe a dhímhiada ar Sh., AFM vi 1972 .

fo-fera

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fo-fera or dil.ie/22675

 

Forms: foíred, fufirim, foferai, fofera, -fúiri, fodera, fuddera, fotera, faeram, foíret, furea, foírin, fuerad, foired, fofertís, forfertis, foirfea, foḟirfea, fofirfe, fo-d-irfe, furuar, foruar, fodruar, foruar, foruair, forḟuair, fo-fúair, foferthar, fofertais, fomfirfider, foroired, forúired, foruiredh, fonroireth, foroerath, -foruireth, -roerad, faíred, fuired, ffoferta, fuar, fúr, foruirich, fonruirith, fo-fera, fodera, .fo.

v protot. -foír-, -fuir-. O.Ir. forms: Imperat. 3 s. foíred, Ml. 43c3 . Pres. 1 s. fufirim, Thes. i 497.5 ( Ardm. 177b1 ). 2 sg. foferai, Ml. 121b17 . 3 s. fofera, Wb. 2a17 . Cf. -fúiri, Ériu vii 148 § 10 (simple vb. ?). (rel.) fodera, Wb. 3c33 . fuddera, 33c12 . fotera, LU 3099 (see below). 1 pl. (with inf.) faeram, Wb. 15d3 . 3 pl. ni foíret , 27d24 . subj. pres. 3 s. nāt furea , Mon. Tall. § 63 . subj. past 1 s. arna foírin se Wb. 14d3 . 3 s. fuerad, 33b13 . mani foired , Sg. 157b11 . 3 pl. ma fofertís , RC xii 62 § 24 . Cf. amail forfertis , Mon. Tall. § 25 . fut. 3 s. foirfea, Wb. 11d3 (rel., = foḟirfea). fofirfe, TBFr. § 25 . fo-d-irfe, LL 8b28 , 145b18 . perf. 3 s. furuar Wb. 2a18 . foruar, 8b5 . 14c43 . Tur. 48 . fodruar, Ml. 20b17 . In Mid. Ir. foruar freq. becomes foruair, forḟuair (cf. fo-fúair perf. of fo-gaib).

Pass. pres. s. foferthar, ZCP xi 90 § 29 . O'Dav. 54 : (.i. fuirither) 874 . Imperf. pl. fofertais, Ériu iv 163.3 (Laud 610). fut. s. fomfirfider sa, Ml. 33b10 . perf. s. foroired [sic leg.] AU 777 (poem) = foraeradh, AFM 773 . forúired, PH 3644 . foruiredh, Ériu iii 4.28 . fonroireth, TBFr. § 28 . Cf. foroerath, IT iii 237.63 . -foruireth, TBFr. § 28 . LL 246b25 . -roerad, IT iii 237.62 (= róer, LL 246b25 ). ro faíred , LU 2344 . ro fuired , 2324 . pret. pl. ffoferta, Ériu iv 163.26 . Part. foiride q.v.

Vn. fuar, later fúr. Cf. fáer.

I In general sense prepares, provides, brings about: gl. parare Thes. i 497.5 . gl. praeparare Wb. 8b5 . Ml. 33b10 . praebere Ml. 121b17 , gl. praestare (= furnish, provide) 43c3 . Wb. 27d24 .

(a) in special sense prepares, provides: mad hé in firchumsanad fuerad Iessu, Wb. 33b13 (refers to: si ... requiem praestitisset). foruar inna inbotha he had prepared the nuptials Tur. 48 . fúir ┐ urlamaig thu do gabail Crist chugat get ready LB 225b43 . fuired a chride corba hattreb ... don spirut nóeb (= paret hospitium spiritui) PH 5599 . isin purgatoir suthain rofuired do diabul, 4308 . isin tenid ... rofaíred do Díabul, LU 2344 . teni foruiredh do diabul `qui praeparatus est' Ériu iii 4.28 (= foruireg, ZCP iv 243.4 ). in flaith forruired duib o thosach domain, Ériu iii 6.11 (= foruirec ZCP iv 243.19 ). cichib róer[ad] ? nin foruireth na mmaith nothing good has been prepared (i.e. is in store) for us LL 246b25 ( IT iii 244.48 ). cíchíb foruireth ? ol si. Fon-roireth imned, ol C., TBFr. § 28 = foruirich ... fonruirith , RC xxiv 153 (Edinb.).

(b) causes, produces, brings to pass , folld. by acc., (with or without vn. phrase) or subord. clause, with DO of pers. nech praindes co fúiri galar ndó till he makes himself ill Ériu vii 148 § 10 . forúer imneth fota, ZCP viii 308.12 . conid ead fofuoair cess for Ulltoip, 120.24 . in mé fódrúar was I the cause of it? LU 5693 (= TBC-I¹ 1218 ). Cath Seghsa, ben ... fordoruair [leg. -ruär: Duäch], RC xvii 123.20 (Tig.) = fodruair , AFM 499 . ardscél ... foruair mór n-uile, AFM ii 572 . dosfrecmairc doib cid foruair doib bith oc toirrse, Anecd. i 59 § 75 (leg. cid foruär | bith, etc. ? Meyer would omit first doib and read foruar doïb, ZCP xi 153 ). is mōite fofera saeth dait, ZCP iii 29.11 . is ed forḟuair do A. in luathtinol sa do dénum, Alex. 77 . With ellipse of vn.: ar imbud fodruair fo recht nóeb the multitude he caused (to be) under the holy law ACC § 100 ( RC xx 274 ).

With inf. pron. obj.: cach imsnim fogebthai is misi fodera daib, YBL 159a45 . mo thaebh, a Dé fodera, | bidh cael, bidh cré, bidh crumhae (= my flesh, O God who causest it, will turn to dust and worms) ACL iii 216 § 5 .

(c) in sense causes fofera in rel. clauses is commonly used with petrified infixed -d- even when folld. by the obj.; this usage goes back to the Glosses: ined fodera báas domsa?, Wb. 3c33 . coni[d]hed fodera fáilti dúibsi, 14c42 . as n-ed fodera emnad that causes doubling Sg. 120a4 . cid fotera na scéith ... intib?, LL 264b46 ( MU² 376 ). cid fotera duit bith amlaid sin?, LU 3099 . int ṡualaig fodera [fofera v.l.] dídnad which works consolation Ériu i 196 . cid fotera Oengus ... do bith 'sin Bruig? why is O. in vii 220 § 11 . cid fotera nach isin Bruig no hadnaictis na rig? why were not the kings buried? LU 4077 . is ed uadera dosom gan ainm a athar do rāda, TTebe 565 . ni tre diomdha ... fodero damh dul ... acht grādh it is not dissatisfaction but love ... that makes me go ZCP viii 222 § 5 . The -d- is less common in other tenses: fodirfe ar n-ēc [sic leg.], LL 145b18 (appar. not rel.). gnim fodirfe imbad ṁbróin, 8b28 . fodirfed feib ndoib, that it would work prosperity for them O'Mulc. 497 . cid fódruair lat su ... mo dímiad sa?, LU 3901 ( SCC 41 ). ised fodrúair a orcain hi cinta Echdach (= he was destroyed in satisfaction for E.'s crimes) LU 8014 . in mac ... fodúair imned, Metr. Dinds. iii 106.35 . fath fotruair gan m'iomraissi, ZCP vii 305.27 .

II In later language fo-fera becomes obsolete, but the form fodera (in some MSS., e.g. LB, usually contracted .fo.) continues in use:

(a) as vb. in rel. sent. with force either of pres. or pret., which causes (caused): is í fa deara dúnn gan labhairt i ló an bhráith, Dán Dé x 19 . dá chúis fá deara briseadh ... d'ḟearaibh Mumhan, Keat. iii 3217 . is é ... ba deara dosum Eri d'fágbháil, MR 110 8 . atbert gur bo hé feissin fodera that he himself was the cause AFM vi 2218 . as iad fo deara dósomh iliomat na n-edarnaighe it was because of them that his ambuscades were so numerous 2214 . nā measadh gur daille ... fa dearadh dhamh á choimhdireolsin dhobair dfuraladh ..., Luc. Fid. 2.9 . With AR of pers.: as é so fa deradh ar na creidmhechuibh ... urnaighthe ... do dhénamh, Luc. Fid. 236.11 (for tug fad. ? see next section).

(b) the orig. significance of fo-dera (fa deara) being lost, it was regarded as a prep. phrase and used with another vb. DO-BHEIR FO (FA) D. (FA ND.), CUIRIDH FO D. (cf. umla) causes (something to be done), orders (= Fr. laisser, Germ. lassen with inf.) an té ... do ní piseóga ... nó dobeir fá dera a ndénamh dhó, Ó Héodhusa 135 . tug fá deara corp an leinbh do bhreith 'na ḟochair, Keat. iii 608 . tugsad fo deara ar Bhreatainibh cloidhe do dhéanamh, i p. 6 . doratsat ... fodera sepel ... do thogbail, Fl. Earls 34.6 . tucc fó deara mac Ui M. do dhalladh, AFM iii 214 . tabhair fa deara a chluinsin cause it to be heard Isaiah x 30 . assí fós do thuc fandear an leabar ... do sgribad, L. Chl. S. § 51 . gur chuir A. fá deara na clocha ... do thógbháil, Keat. ii 6155 . do bheir fa ndeara orainn bheith coimhneathach, Stapleton's Catechismus 130 . à chur fa deara ar an bpobal ... an manna ... do ithe ib.

(c) DO-BHEIR FA D. observes, notices (a still later use): dá ttugdaois faderadh é go maith, do chifidis ..., Luc. Fid. 259 .

graifned

Cite this: eDIL s.v. graifned or dil.ie/26486
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vn : ac graifned a anma Baili maic Buain 'writing the name of Baile, son of Buan', RC xiii 222.36 . daig ni hail las in comarba Caillin fodruair in lebar do graipned duinne cen a scribad, Fen. 372.5 . Cf. 3 graifnid.

la

Cite this: eDIL s.v. la or dil.ie/29233
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Forms: le, le, lé, lasin, lasa, laisin, lesin, lasna, laisna, leisna, lemm, lem, leim, limm, lim, lium, liúm, lat, latt, let, letha, leiss, leissem, leissom, less, lessom, lessem, les, lesom, lesem, laiss, laissem, lais, laisem, lais, laisseom, lasim, leis, leiside, lee, l, laee, lǽ, lea, léi-se, lenn, leinn, linn, línn, linni, linnai, liun, liunn, lenne, lib, leu, léu, leo, leö, liom, leam, leat, lat, leis, lais, leis, lé, linn, leinn, leann, libh, leibh, le, liu, lelele, li, lam, lam, láad, lat, lad, lea, lia, l, liar, lasmbi, lastorchair, la, leis

prep. with accus. See GOI § 845 , Fraser, ZCP viii 46 ff . Occasionally with d p. of 1 suide: la suidib, Sg., 4a9 , Wb. 6b17 . 8a12 . 9c2 . 17d11 (but a p. la suidiu, 8a11 . 9b17 ). In IGT listed among the nine unaccented particles which do not cause inflection of masculine nouns ( IGT Introd. § 75 ). See also Magauran 4227 n. For the form in immaille(i) ille(i) see GOI § 44 , § 841 .

FORMS. With follg. noun: le, Cambr. ( Thes. ii 247.22 ). la, O. Ir. glosses and SR pass., also in early Middle Irish MS. texts, and concurrently with le, lé in later ones (le (sic MS.), AU 1085 ). For exx. see citations below. Doubling of follg. m, n, occurs sporadically in the O. Ir. glosses: la mmaccu, Wb. 19c15 . Ml. 49a20 . la mméit, 95d13 . 91c19 . la mmarbu, Wb. 25b22 . la nnech, Ml. 42c13 ; cf. also la gglais, Ardm. 17a ( Thes. ii 238.12 ). In later MSS. h is prefixed to a following stressed vowel. In later lang. also leis before certain proclitics: leis gach fear, TD 9.101 . leis gach neach, DDána 100.1 .

With article: s. lasin, etc. lasin conair, Ml. 45c9 . lasin sruth, Dinds. 52. lasa (n.), LU 10652. laisin, ZCP viii 107.3 . lesin, TBC-LL¹ 2374 , PH 7339. In later lang. leis an ( Dán Dé xviii 10 ). pl. lasna, Sg. 28a18 . Hib. Min. 3.75 . LU 8202. laisna. Ériu iii 140.184 . leisna, BNnÉ 70 § 116 , ZCP v 495.z .

With suff. pron. 1. s. lemm, Wb. 1b10 . 2c27 . 4b17 . 7a3 . lem, 5b31 . 14d16 . leim, Sg. 209b30 . limm, Wb. 19b7 , 23a18 , 23 . 23b34 . 24a27 . Sg. 188a19 . SR 1595. 3353 . lim, Wb. 7d3 . 8a3 , 8c17 . 23a27 . Ml. 55a4 . SR 1201 , 3361 . lium, Wb. 18a1 . Ml. 45c7 . 46c18 . 87b17 . 96a10 . 105b7 . 117d4 . 127c13 . liúm, 106b6 . 2 s. lat pass. in O. Ir. glosses: Wb. 10a10 . 16b11 . 29d18 , etc. Ml. 65a2 . 73a10 , 111a5 , etc. Sg. 215b5 . SR 1757. 2443 . latt, Bvi 74. let, SR 1593. 3 s. m. and n. Archaic (m.) letha, ZCP xx 401.8 ( GOI § 433 ) leiss, Wb. 6b8 , 16 . 14a22 . Sg. 29b12 , 13 , 19 . 61a16 . 93b8 . leissem, Sg. 10a11 . 28a18 . BCr. 32a5 , 32b6 . leissom, Wb. 33a2 . less, Wb. 6b21 , 26a8 . Ml. 35d24 . 71c12 . 129a9 . lessom, Wb. 10a14 , 24a17 . Ml. 47d2 , 131c14 , 132c6 . lessem, Sg. 77b6 . les, Wb. 10a2 , 32c2 . Ml. 18b1 , 34c17 , 55c1 . lesom, Ml. 18c6 , 23b12 , 53a1 , etc. lesem, Ml. 50b10 . laiss, Wb. 24b27 . SR 5791. laissem, Sg. 149b4 . lais, Sg. 153b7 . laisem, 158b6 . lais, SR 639 , 1631 , 2185 , 2591 , 2799 , 4969 . laisseom, LU 1425. lasim, Mon. Tall. 138.15 . leis, Sg. 111a3 , 202a7 . SR 637 , 2791 , 4971 (: geis), 630 . leiside, LU 1418. 3 s. f. lee, Sg. 167a4 . LU 3882. l, Laws ii 372.5 . laee, Wb. 14a37 . lǽ, 24d11 . lea, SR 3016. léi-se (: éise), Dán Dé ii 24 . 1 pl. lenn, Wb. 4a27 . SR 1615. leinn, GOI § 433. linn, Wb. 13b9 , 18a16 , etc. Ml. 30a2 , 5 . Sg. 198a6 , 207b11 . línn, Wb. 25a27 . linni, 4c23 . Ml. 26b6 , 10 . 30c3 . Sg. 149b7 , 160b2 , 207b9 , etc. linnai, Ml. 92c5 , 120b2 . liun, Ml. 89d6 . liunn, 112b13 . lenne, LU 1387. 2 pl. lib, Wb. 5a13 , 5d33 , 7d3 , 26a9 , etc. Ml. 115b10 . 3 pl. leu, Wb. 1d15 , 5d20 , 26d22 , etc. Ml. 3a6 , 14 . 33c13 , 35c23 , 43d1 , 102c8 , 139c3 , etc. léu, Wb. 30c11 . leo, 7d10 . Sg. 148b9 . 147a10 , 203a4 , etc. leö (disyll.), Blathm. 102 § 41. Archaic(?) lethu, Thes. ii 241.4 , Hy. ii 17 (see notes). Otia ii 86.8 ( GOI 52.3 ). For classical verse the forms given in the tracts are: liom leam leat lat leis lais (m.) leis (n.) lé linn leinn leann (lionn `lochdach') libh leibh le, 24 P 8, 194 (see also 190 , 218 ) = Bard. Synt. Tr. 7 ; cf. lionn: cionn, O'R. Poems 308. liu, Luc. Fid. 3212 .

With aile: lelele, Wb. 16c24 . li alaile, GOI § 845.

With possessives. 1 s. lam menmuin, Wb. 3d13 . lam' rig, SR 336. 627 . 2 s. láad muindtir, Mon. Tall. § 6 . lat tarb, LL 7644 . lad gráin, BDD² 1500 . 3 s. and pl. lea, Thurn. Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 37 § 5 . lia muntir (3 s. m.), Thes. ii 249.9 . lía mathair, SR 2828 . lia n-athir, Ml. 127b2 . lea hanāil, LU 10599 . le a, Ériu ix 164 § 17. l, Content. ii 15 . le athair, DDána 65.31 . lá olc, LU 1390 . la náimtiu (3 pl.), LL 260b33 (Lg.). lea fuaire . . . lena thes, Maund. 136 . lena choin, Feis Tighe Chonáin 757. So also TSh. 1 pl. lar tir, Ériu iii 136.44 . liar, GOI § 845.

With rel. In O. Ir. las(a) n-: lassa ndenatar, Ml. 84a11 . lasa ndernad, Thes. ii 289.5 . lasa mbiat, Ml. 75b2 . lasmbi, 24a19 . lastorchair, ZCP viii 302.20 . lasra chētgabtha, 303.1 . Later forms: le ndingnad, PH 7526 . le ffaicfe, BNnÉ 74 § 133 . lea ttuitionn, Párl. na mB. 1207 . le gcurthaoi, Ériu i 101.7 . le a ndamnuighthear, Luc. Fid. 2989 . le ar chuireas, ML 110.4 . lé 'r-buail, PH 7653 . lé n-ar chuiris, Párl. na mB. 907 . Note also: leis a mbí, Bard. Synt. Tr. 4. lé n-a n-oiltior, Párl. na mB. 917 . With copula: O. Ir. la sin(n), Ml. 53c16 , 129b3 , 131d11 . Later: an fear lena holc ┐ lenab olc ┐ len holc . . . an fear le nach olc ┐ leis nach olc, Bard. Synt. Tr. 25 ( leis nach beag, DDána 37.4 ). learbh annsa, Feis Tighe Chonáin 762 . na fir len leis an fearann, Bard. Synt. Tr. 26. (cryptic) loiscia .i. liath (? = lia 'with his' etc.) Goid. § 163 (Dúil Laithne) , ZCP xlix-l 612 . losca (? MS. losco) .i. leo 'with them' Goid. § 181 , ZCP xlix-l 612 .

In a number of idioms used concurrently with FRI, which it to a large extent replaces in the modern language.

MEANINGS.

I Denoting spatial proximity

(a) beside, by, touching : dollécet a láma la tóeb fochetóir, LU 8212 ( FB 16 ). amal roboí . . . laa and la toíb ind locha, LL 14439 ( Ériu v 208 ). snidig banna la taeb na columa medonchi in cech aimser, PH 6356 . trí chéad each le gcurthaoi srian, Ériu i 101.7 ( co n-allaib óir friu, LL 13246 ). a uille do leicen leiss to rest his elbow upon it, Fl. Earls 216.26 . gur léig a leathcheann lé a leathbhrollach, PCT 557 ( Gadelica 127 ). dia mbúi fecht lasan muir amuich go bfacuidh an días Erionnach dia ḟios, Ériu iv 63.26 (here the pseudo-archaic `lasan' may be a scribal affectation). ar bhfaicsin déar le a gruaidh, DDána 69.11 . Cf. beith le remonstrating with: dob é rún Ríogh . . . , beith léise ar lot na habhla, DDána 5.25 . Cf. FRI I (b).

(b) along by (see also I (d) below): flesc for dib ṅgablaib lasin conair immetiagat do erissem dia lethlaim furi a railing along the way they go on which to rest a hand, Ml. 45c9 . a sescunn da cor la descert léni la fur conrici hucht noi nomne `from the Moor of two Hillocks by the south of the meadow, by Fur as far as the Nine-Trees Hill', Thes. ii 238 ( Ardm. 17a ). ótha crích drommo nit cu glais tamlachtae dublocha la gglais cu grenlaich fote `from the border of Druim Nit to the stream of T.D. by the stream to G.F.' ib. le hairer nÉrenn, BDD² 253.

(c) along with, in the same direction as; in motion with: luid leo fades, Thes. ii 240.18 ( Ardm. 18a ). luid espscop fith leo for longis, ib. do thuidecht lat illei, Wb. 30b17 . ar tuidecht leu do brith macc nIsrahel i ndoiri for coming with them to carry the children of Israel into captivity, Ml. 113c8 . in gilla do thecht . . . / le . . . istech talman, SR 3196 . is amlaid tánic A. ┐ a tri meic les, LU 17. do hindled a carput forsna heocha ┐ nusfaīdhe pātric cen duine leo cu feótur ina dísirt la Mochtae, ZCP viii 106.24 . tairsiu féin lat tarb, LL 7646 ( TBC-LL¹ 106 ). ní regat lend they shall not go with us, LU 4632 . ticfaitis fosta fer Fernmaige leiss, TBC-LL¹ 833 . tánic ┐ cóeca ingen lee connici in comdáil, LU 3882 ( SCC 39 ). tanic . . . co n-epscopu ┐ braithri imda lais, PH 1587 ; cf. a taidchrec co sommataid ┐ setaib leu, Ml. 123c10 . do ruacht fer . . . sin tech ┐ fer fo lind leis, LL 7672 ( TBC-LL¹ 135 ). dochóid F. lasin n-athesc sin F. went with that reply, LU 8099 . is é seo mo chétḟechtsa latsu bud é mo ḟecht dedenach, LL 8599 ( TBC-LL¹ 1207 ).

(d) following the course of, secundum (flumen): lotar lasin sruth gó a bunad, Dinds. 52 ( BB 377a41 ). o indill Laeg in gae Aife / lesin t-ṡruth, TBC-LL¹ 2373 . is ann luidhes lasin mBoind sair, ZCP i 464.24 . rosnaid Osine in snaschur ┐ focheird e la sruth na tiprat co hAth na Feile, Dinds. 52 = BB 377a38 . ba sed comarc boi eturra, tomlacht na mbo do lecun lasin sruth, cor'bo find in glaisi in a ndocum, Dinds. 53 ( BB 378a38 ) = ra doírt . . . blegon . . . lasin ṅglassi, LL 169b53 . (cf. Ériu ii 22 , Keat. ii 226 . lasin sruth is represented in the first by: iarsan abaind, in the second by: ris an sruth, see FRI II).

(e) with, in the company of: conrobith i n-indocbáil la Crist `so that ye be in glory with Christ', Wb. 26a28 . attrab la Dia `to dwell with God', Ml. 92a9 . ciatasode lat ar écin `though thou keep her with thee perforce', Wb. 10a10 . nepproinde la geinti `of not dining with Gentiles', 19a10 . bes nobed nech aile leis ocind airchellad, Sg. 202a7 . bíad ind nim láad muindtirsiu `they shall be in heaven along with thy monks', Mon. Tall. 6 = fa re do mhuinntire si, Rule of Tallaght 40 . dubbert Pátricc cumtach du Fíacc . . . ┐ fácab morfeser lais dia muintir, Thes. ii 241.17 ( Ardm. 18a ). ainfa lib `I will tarry with you', Wb. 14a8 . corran célide libsi, 7a17 . congab iar suidiu i nDomnuch Féicc et baí and contorchartar tri fichit fer dia muintir lais and `after this he set up in D.D., and abode there until three score men of his community had fallen there beside him', Thes. ii 242.2 ( Ardm. 18a ). conna hacced nech leo hí that no one might see her with them, LL 260b13 ( LMU 11 ). In sense of alone . dob annamh thusa leat féin thou wert seldom alone, KMMisc. 346.8 . (see further Éigse viii 101 ). focal leis féin a word in its own right, a self-contained word (distinguished from a mere prefix such as comh- deagh-, etc.), IGT Introd. § 100 . See Celtica i 390 . In special sense: ni legend rollegusa la Petor `it is not a reading which I have read with Peter', Wb. 19a6 (cf. V (e) below). mosaithin aicce í / do lēigenn lē entrusted her to her to study with her, ACL iii 308 vi 9 .

(f) with , of mental relations and abstract qualities or notions; in some exx. assistance is implied: ls leu dorignius chomgnimu studivi innocentibus coniungi, Ml. 47a20 . socii .i. fodaimet immalle lium ón ┐ con dogailsegetar lium immalle dano `who endure along with me, and who also are sorrowful along with me', Ml. 87b17 . dia feidliged ires foirbthe leu, 136d2 . frithbruduth ointad la fírianu `refusal of oneness with the righteous', 76c4 . contísed P. do thoorund a luic lais, Thes. ii 242.7 ( Ardm. 18b ). gorb'é bés bfer nErenn beith leisan tí budh treisi to side with him who was strongest, Expugn. Hib. 74 . do thabhairt a lla baige leou, Ann. Conn. 52.12 . níl aoinfer ar in sgelsa leis, Rel. Celt. ii 293.28 . guidhim sibhsi fa beith lium uma cend I pray you to aid me concerning it, Fier. 96 . guidim sib fa cend beth lium im cach ní I beg you to side with me, 122 . With ellipse of verb: guidhim liom . . . / an chéad míle mairtíreach, Dán Dé xxv 62 . gā tarbha an béal do bheith lais / san inntinn ina éagmhais, xxii 20 . an lucht do-beir iad féin do shainnt an tsaoghail . . . óir saoilid go mairfeadh sin leó do shíor, TSh. 220. feib atré in mac bec atresat a gníma oclachais leis, TBC-LL¹ 985 . teid in ingen co n-ēgaīne moir lé dochum a hathar, RC vi 174.16 . scela lat hast thou news ? LU 7987 ( BDD 166 ). ZCP xiii 177.15 . dochóid F. lasin n-athesc sin F. went with that reply, LU 8099 ( FB 7 ). an teachtaire tig le haitheasgaib Dé, Dán Dé xiv 26 . an toisg lér chuirios iad the errand on which I sent them, ML 110.4 . abradh fris conā tardad gráin na hirfuath leis ina dochum, ACL iii 5.8 . cona gabur . . . e can fir De lais, Laws iv 294.20 . dá gcaitheam thú leis an toil if I consume Thee with (sinful) desire in my heart, Dán Dé xviii 10 . Also in spite of: ní léigfiom úainn . . . / le a bheirt . . . nglanmháilligh . . . / an sduaigh I will not let the chieftain go, for all his suit of polished mail, Ériu ix 164 § 17 .

(g) with, in custody of, at the disposal of; carried or worn by: fodord doib di dommatu ┐ dufuairthed ní leu forasaith din main, Ml. 97d10 . fáccab Áed aidacht la Conchad, Thes. ii 242.20 ( Ardm. 18b ). admuiniur in slánicid foracab dian cecht lia muintir, Thes. ii 249.9 . co lóg leu á fognama hiro-batar di mainib inna n-egiptacdae, Ml. 84c12 . mar aes mbraith . . . / cen scribenn lib, SR 3479 . gaisced lasin n-íngin, LU 4522 . claidib gelduirn léo, TBC-LL¹ 175 . is leis . . . frith escra na E., SR 3592 . ra leiced Fer loga . . . siar dia bliadna ┐ da gabair Conchobair leis, LL 13246 ( Sc.M² 20 ). doriacht Niall immach ┐ in indeoin cona cip lais, RC xxiv 194.6 . rofhóid . . . a gilla, ┐ a bréit allais lais, airm a mbói, PH 2193 . is amlaid tancatar, co slogu mora ┐ co n-ascadaib examla leo, LB 198b27 ( PH 6972 ). co n-imat piast . . . co mellaib dergaib umaide leo ina lámaib, PH 8312 . ni dlegait lōn leo for sét / . . . acht an ccéin rabhaitt amuigh / rī Érenn da bhfriothāilimh, ZCP viii 116 § 12. Common in this sense with beirid and do-beir (q.v.): an rí chondaigi hi foss / manimbera latt ní fogbai, Thes. ii 296 . iarsindí dunnucsat i ndoiri leu `after they had brought us into captivity with them', Ml. 92d1 . manimbera su latt if thou dost not carry me off, LL 260a43 ( LMU 9 ). do bert a chend ┐ a fodb lais, LU 5144. co ructáis a chend leo, TBC-LL¹ 1433.

(h) along with, and, in addition to, as well as: la cach cuimliucht ol chenae gl. hoc reliquis quoque commodis iungetur, Ml. 112c9 . ni lour in degforcitlaid maní be indithem leir . . . lasin `withal', 53c18 . tórmaig la cach maith dubir dúnni ar ṅglanad hua . . . chomroircnib gl. adde ad augmentum benignitatis tuae ut ab errore nos convertas, 105d4 . la sassad inna n-anmandae gl. et quod est amplius post expletionem . . . animantium, 129d16 . is airi nistabur la k ┐ q gl. h . . . aspirationis est magis nota, Sg. 4b13 . lasin ngutai inna degaid, 7b6 . co ndechatar [int sailm] mudhaigh hi tempal lasind canoin ol chena, Hib. Min. 7.210 (`they were lost in the Temple with the rest of the Canon', Strachan, RC xxviii 203 ). int[ṡ]ailim lasna noibscribhinna atarimim `I reckon the Psalms with the Sacred writings', Hib. Min. 3.75 . ataruirmiset la gerind `they have reckoned them (i.e. participles) with the gerund', Sg. 188a1 . biit remsuidigthi uaraib cen briathra leo, 215a6 (cf. friu in similar sense, 5). sens magis ┐ posit leiss `the sense of magis and with it the positive', 39a29 . atá dechor n-aimsire hi suidib la cumscugud coibedne, gl. etiam in prima persona habent differentias temporum, 146b15 . da cet mile . . . / la tri cethair cethrachat, SR 116 . tricha lathi . . . / la dech n-úara ┐ lethuar, 225 . immon Michil lasin crosfigill so, immon Muiri lasind crosfigell n-aile, Mon. Tall. 28 . masui dina[i]p Psalmaibh [in tituil] cid arna gabtair leu ? Minip dinaib psalmaib, cid ar[a]scriphthair leu?, Hib. Min. 7.230 . gaibti seom tra teora biadi ┐ magnificat la cach naí, Mon. Tall. 5 . ronbiat da tír lar tír we shall have two countries in addition to our own, Ériu iii 136.44 . bennacht fort . . . la céol nimhe deit dara éisi, BNnÉ 92 § 202 . co ndechaid [in rí] docum ithfrinn . . . la dilsi a thire do Senán ó sin amach, Lism. L. 2328 . condasloic . . . lasa loim gabais asind lestur swallowed her along with the draught, LU 10652 . atat sin sin duma . . . / iii. meic ríg . . . / la tri ingena, 2866 . See also s.v. taeb (la, fri, t.). In leiss (etc.) also; either : ind indocbál doratad do Crist condartar dúnni less gl. coheredes autem Christi, si tamen compatimus ut et simul glorificemur Wb. 4a18 is possibly an early ex. of this (cf. ZCP xvii 223 ). sine é sin ná tusa ┐ na mise leis, Celt. Rev. ix 142.25 (text and MS. late). rachaidh leis féin ar foghuil / raghaidh leis le féin bhFuinidh will go also, Bard. Synt. Tr. 8.10 . lais in this meaning forbidden, ibid. ? ré bliadhna ┐ beagán lais, TD 15.10 .

(i) with, assisting, on behalf of: ar debaid . . . leis fri Senach, LU 3342 ( SCC 13 ). dena ernuighthi leamsa curab reidh dham dhul, Lism. L. 1560 (= ora pro me, Lat. Lives 82 ). ro ghabh B. pater leis, Lism. L. 1566 (= orante B. pro eo, Lat. Lives 82 ).

II Of temporal relations.

(a) Marking point of time, coincidence of occurrence or action. Of point of time: is gnád bróen . . . oca turcbáil ┐ lia fuined, BCr. 18c2 . dognisom ind figild la matain `he performs the vigil at matins', Mon. Tall. 30 (= ar maidin, Rule of Tallaght 96a ). la turcbáil ṅgréne at dawn, TBC-LL¹ 634 . la fuinead ṅgréne, Ériu iv 138.24 . PH 5108. la fescor, PH 1699 . ro imthig reme la doshoillsi na maitne, Grail 1324 . ni tigdis acht le deghdil (= dedail) laoi nó le tosach seachdmuine, ZCP x 291.16 . Cf. la linn (3 linn). Of actions: cóichet na heichsi a gilli for se la fegad co andíaraid fair, LU 8522 ( FB 38 ). la fuirmed in mátan fair, LU 8545 ( FB 40 ). gairfitit . . . le guth a Dūileman (sic leg.), ZCP viii 212.22 . adbered-seom iarum la déicsiu in chuaich . . ., Ériu i 46.11 . tinoilis T. a muintir . . . fo cetoir la hairiugud Cesair cuige, CCath. 3735 . forba ┐ crich do dul for in forbunn rechtaide la tuidecht soscela, PH 3450 . rogab . . . imecla Sir Persaual la faicsin inn eich, Grail 1974 . Freq. in la sin and esp. la sodain with that, immediately, thereupon : dofeccai secha a gabuir . . . lasin donic in gabuir chuci, LL 14155 ( RC iii 184 ). See 1 sin. colláa th'ais tra ol sesem . . . La sodoin fochedoir slechtais C., Mon. Tall. 7 . la sodain téit úad, LU 6100 . ni thó or seiseom. La sodain focheird bedg cuce, LL 260a41 ( LMU 9 ). See 1 suide. Note also: cani du pater fothrí lase thereat, Thes. ii 249.3 . leis sin thereupon, TSh. 364.

(b) This sense sometimes merges into that of III (a); cucut . . . thánac do nim / la forngairi De, SR 1696 . luid for muir . . . lá forcongra Pátraic, Trip.² 2633 . do choid ass . . . in draicc iar sin la brethir in apstail, PH 2505 (cf. soithis A. fri brēithir a mathar, Cáin Ad. 8 . issí . . . rotathbēogadh . . . fri brathair nA., 10 ). rofacsat i n-aenla i la clois[t]eacht Cesair amain `merely on hearing of C.', CCath. 815 . ro eirigh an ben iar sin lé haithne Maodócc `at the command of M.', BNnÉ 218.28 . attracht in duine . . . la cloisteacht in sceōil `on hearing the story', Fl. Earls 194.1 . Cf. VI (b).

(c) during : dogéna sibh an caiscc si mara ndernabhair hí leisna secht mbliadnaibh ele si, BNnÉ 70 § 116 . ni lamar la graifne in gáid / élud, aithne, athgabáil, Metr. Dinds. iii 18.223 . lé ló in his time Content. ii 15 (cf. réd lá, xxiii 4 . rem lá, ACL iii 304.20 ). le haimsir, Párl. na mB. 17 . This use seems confined to later texts and is probably derived from FRI IX (b) q.v.

III

(a) on account of, because of, by reason of (see also II (b) last para., and FRI IV (b)): ní aicci ní lia mescai `he sees nothing for his drunkenness', Ml. 94c3 . gabail mo gotha dim la mméit inna nimned forodamar, Ml. 95d13 . ingnad lesom cutuim doib lammeit inna soinmige hirobatar, Ml. 91c19 . co mbo nem tened indala leth dind rígthig lasna claidbiu ┐ la fáebra na ngái, LU 8202 ( FB 15 ). lasin siabrad ro síabrad immi, LU 9143 ( FB 88 ). ce do faidsad snathat for lar . . . rocluinfide lasin tuí imbítis, LL 12557 ( Ériu iv 30 ). co mboi C. oc sirchuí lásin ngolltraighes, RC vi 183.16 . ba failid lais labra fris la somillsi a indsci, Grail 2187 . gu ro facsat sruithi . . . a n-istuda . . . la homun Cesair, CCath. 772 . ba huathad ro ela dib la f[a]ebra ┐ tennti ┐ biasta what with blades and fires and wild animals, few of them escaped, PH 6326 . le [a] mhéd rachas da ríodhún / a n-íobha slógh mear Mumhan / budh hól gan fear n-ealudhan, Ériu v 54.30 . Cf. II (b). ar ecla Chuind ┐ la hecla rīg Ulad, ZCP viii 274.25 . techit la crith ┐ omon Meic C., LU 7237 `with trembling and terror of Mac C. they flee', BDD 90 . tobur nach etir le duine . . . d'ol lea ḟuaire a ló ┐ lena thes a n-oidhchi, Maund. 136 . ní caomhnactar a feughadh . . . leis na ruithnibh diághadha, ZCP v 495.z . le na fad liumsa co faca tusa anocht, docuadhus . . . gut' iaraid, ZCP vi 66.21 . ni cumgat ni la Mac nDe, Anecd. iii 55.27 . nir ḟētsat in tech d'fāgbāil la daingne an iadhtha bái fair, Irish Texts i 42.10 . níorbh iongnadh le méad a sluaig ar ngéill do Chian it was no wonder we submitted to C., considering the size of his army, Ériu i 93.18 . tic la egsamlacht an inaid . . . examlacht an blassa (o, a, v.l.), Ir. Astr. Tr. 40.11 .

(b) In the following exx. the notions of purpose and instrument are more prominent; through the agency of, by means of: in tan scaras fria thola leo `when by means of them he separates from his desires', Thes. ii 247.7 (Cambr. Hom.). am dechaid a trian sin la bruith `when that third had boiled away', Mon. Tall. 52 . dolduid bannan bec bec as lasind fascad fottai `by reason of the long squeezing', 61 . rogabtha a cossae cona dernae figild rée mor ria necaib lasind forcrid dorigni dia naild, 34 (= ar an iomarcaigh dorighne se cheana, Rule of Tallaght 103 ). Cf. nombeir fort muin connesbiur dich latt take me on thy back that I may get (lit. drink) a drink with (by means of?) thee, RC x 214.z . gach paiter dar gabus riam lesin mbelsin, PH 7339 . is í so in t-ochtmad plág lér buail Dia Faró, 7653 . gach ní at-chluinim leis an gcluais, Dán Dé ix 6 . in spreid la ndíngned nech a bethugud, PH 7526 . clann do dhénuimh . . . dhi / le féghuin an éoin eile, IGT Decl. ex. 496 (= ar fēgad, ACL iii 238 ). rostad a n-éisg doníd ar chlochaib leisan grēin, Maund. 49 . maothuighthear í . . . le fothrogadh fola do thabhairt dí, Mac Aingil 306 . dogheba sibh . . . soinean maith le ffaicfe sibh an t-oilén so, BNnÉ 74.9 . geas do bhí ar an sleigh sin . . . gan bainéacht do dhéanamh lé, Keat. ii 4390 . an t-urchar . . . ler thuit morbhar G., Rel. Celt. ii 194.13 . ag gáire le guth mór, Dán Dé xxix 5 (cf. ro nuall o guth mor, PH 2898 = do éigh do ghuth ard, Matthew xxvii 46 ). Of persons: dochotar martra la heachtrandu, YBL 12a28 . ata Muma lais i ssíd through him M. is at peace, LL 19073 . tairthe na bhfeadh leat do lúb, L. Cl. A. B. 234.6 . Cf. II (b).

(c) Of accompanying circumstance or condition; contemporary action: nach comai[r]le . . . dognither la fortach[t] Dae is bithsuthin adae, Ml. 51b28 . ar bá fio factus sum dogéni prius; suffio sufiui immurgu la cumscugud n-inne, Sg. 185b4 . ní choímnacair a fogbail lá doirchi na aidchi, Trip.² 1446 (126) . focheird deit chubus . . . la slemni `send him away from thy confession gently', Mon. Tall. 2 . a mesrugud do neuch tra buddesin la eolus ind fita, 63 . ni aurcail dano laisiom do neoch cid chodala a lórtid acht rop la forcomet na trade colleir `provided that he diligently observe the hours', 82 . praind do tomailt la marb hi tig to eat a meal whilst in a house where there is a dead man, 65 . dá ndeach le bás mbeannaighthe, Studies 1918, 282 § 16 . isin rainn is nesam do dochuaidh la cundtabairt he goes (lit. has gone) to the next division to it by reason of the doubt, Laws iv 192.7. Comm . do-chúaidh an gort san choll go ndearna an tsoil .g. aris de la a bheith bog na choll chumuisg (i.e. g + c = cc but s + cc = sg), IGT Introd. § 30 . gan duine . . . do dol faoi . . . acht le custam do dhīol, Fl. Earls 90.4 . caith le daondacht a bhfoighe, O'Gr. Cat. 29.5 . dochuir urnaighthe diochra go Dia . . . gidh edh nir treicc . . . a troim-easlainte leissin hé for all that, BNnÉ 275 § 257 . Cf. la dēcim felmac (.i. is amlaid ataciim conid mac foglamma) `according to what I see (he is only) a pupil' RC xxvi 14.12 . ( Rawl. 108a5 .)

(d) Expressing purpose with follg. vn.: lé a congbháil ó fhéin fhuinidh `to guard it', TD 10.16 . ní le rádh uirre is iomdha (of Jerusalem), 17.25 . la furtacht d'faghail in order to get help, Stair Erc. 78 . ar an leabhar . . . noch atā le taisbēanadh, Párl. na mB. 133 .

IV Expressing agency by, by the hands of, by direction or order of.

(a) With pass. verb. dogéntar aidchumtach tempuil less, Wb. 26a8 . congabtis gabala linn, 19a4 . a molad . . . lúaidfidir láedib limmsa `it will be sung in lays by me', Thes. ii 295.7 (Cod. S. Pauli). indí lassandenatar inna cumtach `those by whom the ornamentations are made', Ml. 84a11 . gabthe dunad les fris `a camp was pitched by him (Saul) against him (David)' Ml. 55c1 . dichossecrad inna cathrach conrotacht la duaid `of the consecration of the city that was built by David', 48d27 . conoscaighther du scath immut la cumscugud inna grene gl. sicut umbra corpus sequitur et conversionibus solis inflectitur, 118c12 . amal asrobrad leusom, Ml. 37b24 . oroit ar Thurcain lasandernad in [c]hrossa, Thes. ii 289.5 . oroit . . . do Flaund . . . do rig Herenn lasandernad a cumddachso (i.e. to whose order?), 11 . ised canir leisim, Mon. Tall. 131.11 . rothinolad lais . . ./ na fuair frisna secht ṁbliadnaib, SR 3393 . díaro sáertha na mná la Adomnan ┐ la Fínnachta Fledach, la ríg nÉrend, ┐ la mathib hErend ar chena, LU 2258 ( FA 32 ). do toglad in dun la Coin Culaind, RC vi 184.28 . Tigernmas . . . / leis ro berbad . . . méin óir a tús i nHerind, LL 2046 (cf. is aciside doronta ilbrechta i n-étaigib, 2037 ). darónad urgnam bíd ┐ lenna leo, TBC-LL¹ 811 . ro alt la Conchobar, LL 260a11 ( LMU 6 ). C. . . . lasrachētgabtha comgni, ZCP viii 303.1 . rohailed in mac sin la Cathbad, RC vi 178.129 . Marchelli din . . . is lais do-ronad leiges in abbad, PH 555 . gabthar Ailill la hÉ., RC xxiv 186.2 . a chlár . . . ler cabhradh cách, DDána 2.6 . Sometimes with ellipsis of the verb: ni do chach la Meidb in lind dálter for Fer ṁbáeth, TBC-LL¹ 2167 = ni do chách berar la Meidb, TBC St. 1926 . lechtain le Pedar / isan offrend ard uasal the lectio was introduced by Peter, ZCP viii 115 § 31. Frequ. with impersonal forms of intransitive verbs: dutiagar leu du failti fris[i]n ríg, Ml. 116b5 . dochuas (docuas v.l.) limsa chuici I went to it, Ériu iv 134.11 . cid fa bfuilter damsa lib what do you want from me, TBC-LL¹ 2261 . sciobadh na miasa . . . is trialltar leo tar sleasaibh an mhúir amach, Keat. iii 1012 .

(b) Denoting agent after vn. or an appellative so used: tri óenpheccad la Adam, Wb. 3a5 which could also be rendered one sin of Adam's. Cf. VI (a). conaroib diupart neich lelele `so that there be no defrauding of one by another', 16c24 . connabí asse a aicsin leu `so that it is not easy for him to be seen by them', Ml. 116a1 . Cf. cid fodruair latsu . . . mo dímiadsa fiad andrib, LU 3901 ( SCC 41 ). ba ferr a comaitecht . . . oldaas a tuitim la náimtiu, LL 260b33 (Lg). dogniat nuallguba . . . ic a riagad la drungu demnu, PH 8316 . cúirt . . . ag a cor suass lesin diūc, Fl. Earls 78.35 . Here may be assigned the type: ni sí ar sercc less `that is not the love He hath for us', Wb. 4b16 . méit for serc lemsa, 14d16 . Cf. 23a27 , 25a27 , 27d8 . ara seirc lind because I am so fond of her, Fing. R. 392.

(c) Denoting agent after active verb, at the hands of: cutrummae neich forodamair som leu `the same measure as he had suffered at their hands', Ml. 54b28 . Cf. maided fair lib `let him be routed by you', Wb. 7a4 . rombith lat . . . a lestar give me the vessel, Irish Texts i 11.2 . cach la tan ba leo. tan aile ba forro, LU 223 . co torchair .l. leis cona ḟiaclaib, LL 14054 ( RC iii 181 ). fuair bás na chomland chatha / la D., Arch. Hib. ii 85 § 41 . dáig ni bam béo meni thaeth cara nó náma limm, TBC-LL¹ 669 . táet a bás lim, 907 . mad dia tóetsad latt, 2088 . E. lastorchair C., ZCP viii 302.20 . tuitfe tú liomsa, Duan. F. ii 256 § 31 . is lais tra forodamair in martrasa, lasin forcongarthid . . . Datianus, PH 1109 . o atchualaid tra Dioclian . . . in bisech bui for in cristaigecht lais (i.e. Paphnutius), 539 .

(d) With neg. vb. denoting preventive agent: mainbad tairbad bāis . . . / lem ni bud fien cen dīgail, Fianaig. 10.18 .

V In at, among, with (apud, chez, bei).

(a) Of locality or population-group: ucc domnuch mar criathar la auu censelich in Uí Ch. Thes. ii 241.6 ( Ardm. 18a ). la laigniu `in Leinster', Thes. 241.16 (ibid.). Raith Cathbaid .i. la Cruithintuaith Raith C. in the country of the Picts, RC vi 175.38 . Cf. la di[a]mair a inchlidi som gl. apud arcanum virtutis suae, Ml. 53a5 . nach loinges roḟitir E. la hEirind, Ériu iii 138.103 . érlamae Cille F. la Áu Amalgada, Trip.² 1540 . Mag Ṡeired la Tethba. Mag Tochair i Tir Eogain, LL 626 . Ui A. la Muaidh `on the Moy', Hy Fiach. 4. Cf. nach namae ro bói lia n-athir `any enemy that their father had', Ml. 127b2 . is de atā Trāig Ési la hUltu, Ériu i 118.35 . Crimthann la Hū Maine, ACL iii 308 § vi 1 . la hErinn huili throughout Ireland, RC iii 345.6 .

(b) Referring to persons or peoples generally: bat he berte bretha lib `let it be them who give judgements among you', Wb. 9c12 . lia muntair `among his household', Ml. 71c16 . no cainte tobchetal leusom hi tosuch cech mís, 102c8 (or to be referred to IV (a)?). rechtga[e] ríg amail rongab rechtga[e] righ Caisil la Mumain, Críth G. 520 . in Cú ro chúalammár la hUltu, LU 4832 . mad me bad chend athchomairc laisna Déisib, Ériu iii 140.184 . máethmaccáem co n-gabh armu lind, TBC-LL¹ 1249 . is hē ba tuaircnid flatha la Fiachaig, ZCP viii 317.18 . da ech bas ḟerr la Connachta `the best pair of horses to be found with the C.' LL 13031 ( Sc.M² 2 ). is é cétna ro gabh in ceim sin la Romhanchu `the first to obtain that rank among the Romans', CCath. 77 . do mheaduigh cert lem gach lá, Rel. Celt. ii 240.y .

(c) in, amongst, with, of customs and usages, corresponding to in, amongst, with , in such phrases as in Virgil, in Shakespeare, (it is the custom) in France or amongst the French, (it is a custom) with him; in the days of (cf. VI (d) below): intí lasmbi ind encae . . . intí bís isind encae (sic), Ml. 24a19 . file athir leíss `that he has a father', Sg. 29b12 . ní áis aeccalsa ata brithemin lib, Wb. 9c7 . lebedan .i. ised ainm forán la ezechiál `Leviathan, that is Pharaoh's name in Ezechiel', Ml. 93b7 . do thintud in suin ebraidi sluindes . . . ilintliuchtu la ebreu, 37a10 . dundgniat ind filid linni, 26b10 . briathra āildi la cechtar de frialaile, 31a24 . is la grecu atā a ndliged sin, Sg. 95b1 . dund lathar fil la Dia ocar nditin ni `to the purpose which is with God in protecting us' Ml. 103d27 . nad fel dliged remcaissen la Dia, Ml. 27d10 . mascul la baedam són immurgu `this however, is masculine in Baeda', Sg. 124b6 . arecar forṅgarthaid sechmadachti la Grécu gl. apud Graecos etiam praeteriti temporis sunt imperativa, Sg. 147b6 . ind interiecht nad rann insce la Grecu, 26b6 . cit comsuidigthi la Grecu ní ecen dunni beta comsuidigthi linn, 207b11 . aní as nomen lasna littridi aili is cognomen són la Priscien, 28a18 . is follus nach mór bríg articuil linni, 26b3 .

Very frequently in Laws i n phrase la Féine (Féniu) (frequently abbreviated lā) according to (the custom of) the F.: cis lir fodlai fine la Feine?, Laws iv 282.10 ( SM Facs. 3b ). atait tri comurba la Feine nis comsaer a cuir, Laws iii 46.18 . atait secht cella la Feine, na dlegad dire na dicubus, v 118.1 . dichenglaiter cach chor cen raith fine la Feine, iv 206.z . is [s]ruithiu la Feine in foesam andsen óldas a tir as a tairidnither, 9 ( Ériu xvii 64 § 3 ). Note further: ní heclas, acht ūam latrand ┐ tādat a hainm la Crīst, Ériu i 219.z . ar is fern laisin laidneoir ┐ u laisin Gāidel, ZCP viii 107.3 . ni facai . . . tuaslucud for selind n-imbe la muindtir Máolrúoin, Mon. Tall. 22 . atat tri altai leusom for ind gabail, 33 . ni fogni laisim fachmarc scel dóib `it is not his usage to ask them for news' 2 (see fo-gní). ba sollamain gresach la maccu Israel in sollamain-sea in Cengcaigis, PH 5417 . is meinic leis na hoideadha techt . . . do lathair na ndaltadha, RC xxix 110.x .

(d) Various: is bés leosom in daim do thúarcain ind arbe Wb. 10d6 . is bes leusom torand hi tempul delbae inna rig, Ml. 65c16 . ba lugae leu in sin gl. per . . . exempla iurabant, 118c5 . ba bés leu . . . ferthain ind óenaig, LU 3230 ( SCC 2 ). as breth la F. leth diri gach graid tuaithe for a mnai, Laws iv 306.17 . In the opinion of, according to: issi a bríg liumsa atechtae som huaim amal ni confessin etir I care no more about their going from me than if etc., Ml. 117d4 . ba bibdu báis leusom intí nád imdibthe, Wb. 1d15 . is cert a míad linn do beith-siu etrainn we deem it a sufficient honour, Mer. Uil. 49. See dar.

(e) from, at the hands of: gabais caille la patricc took the veil from P. (i.e. was professed by P.), Thes. ii 238.16 ( Ardm. 17a2 ). rotbia less lóg do daggníma, Wb. 6a11 . rotbia limm airmitiu intslóig, SR 3353 . nanní asbertisom frisom . . . ba ed a frecrae adi lesom `whatever they used to say to him that was the answer to them that he had', Ml. 62c13 . ba hísin tochuiridh Patraic leo the invitation they had for P., Dinds. 68 . in eitchi connaigh, nī sunn atā dhó acht a Clūain mic Nois ┐ la Ciarán, ACL iii 4.35 . amail rochualatar som lassin faith commad tria chumachta na hingine rogebtais tír, Ériu iii 138.80 . ro chuala la nech legas libru I have heard from one who studies books, LL 19060 ( Misc. Hib. 17 § 1 ). cia hairm ita in chleth, cluinem lat, Rawl. 84a21 . rot bia tír lind cen chís cen biathad, Ériu iii 140.168 . dia mbui Crist hi croich la hIúdaigib, PH 671 . rodbē a lūagh la Dia `may God reward you for it', Ériu i 46.27 . cīa lóg rombīa latt ar a fagbāil what reward shall I have from thee? ZCP iv 44.5 ( TBFr. 23 ). Cf. further: luid C. do forceatal gaiscid la Scāthaig . . . ilLetha, Ériu i 114.3 (cf. Wb. 19a10 cited under I (e) above). tathum cech maith la Gūaire, Ériu ii 16.13 . cía fogaba mōrchennsa / lassin dūilem īar ndola, BColm. 98.8 .

(f) The following also are most simply explained as developments of the sense with, amongst, at ; exx. of the types cited are very numerous in Old-Ir. glosses: trachtad lesom anisiu this is his commentary, Ml. 74c9 . cosmuilius aile lessom in so this is another of his similes, Wb. 10d14 . cosmuilius roisc anísiu lessom, 12c10 . canoin centrachtad in so lessom (of a verse without commentary), Ml. 132c6 . analogia laissem anisiu do thaidbse cheille `he has here an analogy to shew the sense', Sg. 149b4 . Cf. forsani as corda trachtad (dtrachtid, MS) lesom anisiu, Ml. 53a1 .

(g) according to, in the opinion of in phrases with copula: ished aperficere lessom (to do) this he deems perficere, Wb. 3d5 . is peccad diabul lesom he considers it a double sin, Ml. 97d10 . issí ind inducbal lesom in molad, 126b17 . arathis leusom anintamail fria ndeu `they deem it as a reproach', 138c10 . This construction very common at all periods to indicate possession of opinion, notion, feeling, desire, impulse, etc. The predicate can be (i) a noun, or (ii) an adjective. (i) iscían ós accobor lemm farríchtu I have long desired to come to you, Wb. 7a3 . intí lasinformat maith dodegdoinib, Ml. 129b3 . is machdad limm, Sg. 6a4 . cid as mó miscais lat atchí, IT i 81.18 . cach ní ba tol libse, PH 637. (ii) robu maith leu they would have liked, Ml. 105b8 . aní asmaith ladia doguidi, Wb. 4b4 . condib sain . . . linn, Tur. 86 . an robo dech leó dona tri coectaib ingen, LU 8724 ( FB 54 ). ba holc le anisin, RC xxiv 192.21 . amal ba lór leo, PH 3300. Common with menma: bá maith lais a menma, IT i 257.5 . See menmarc. See also dar. With certain predicates the meaning is more concrete, see doich, étir, mebair, etc.

VI Denoting possession, ownership, etc.

(a) attá x la y y has x (cf. oc IV (b)): nistá leo leth docoiset they have nowhere to go, Mon. Tall. 128.10 . robadar cethtri cridiscél liomsae `I have had', 136.19 . See also 144.28 , 130.1 , 135.19 , 135.28 , 148.20 . boí fled . . . la B. do Ch. B. had a feast (prepared) for C., LU 8041 ( FB 1 ). itá a rigan la cach ríg sund has with him, TBC-I¹ 190 . in filet scéla lib?, ZCP viii 318.20 . tresin ceird toṡuigthi fil lib, LL 13770 . mór na tiorchanta atá lionn, TD 27.30 . In St. Ercuil common in archaisms (see Introd.); elsewhere replaced by attá . . . oc . . . Cf. an lá nocha liom do bhí it was not my lucky day(?), Aithd. D. 47.1 .

(b) x la y y has x (perh. as (a) with ellipse of subst. vb.): ceist limm dúib, Wb. 19b7 . óenchoimdiu lib `one Lord have ye', 22d7 . sainred n-eulais leu, Ml. 37b12 . As subordinate clause: ho ro mmoidisom cumachte less that he had power, Wb. 17a12 . is torbach do popul flaith firian leu it is profitable to the people to have a righteous prince, Ml. 90b11 . conrubaidh fri m'enech gin mháthair nó athair lium (.i. agum), ZCP v 523 . Of personal attributes: rosc nglan . . . lais, LU 7078 ( BDD 75 ). berrtha lethna leo, TBC-LL¹ 181. Of relatives: da brathair limm, TBC-LL¹ 50 . E. . . . oenmac leis, Rawl. 148a5 . ni fess celi le, IT i 139.26 = nácon fes céle for a seilb, LU 10606. Various: de[i]ch mbaí lais, Laws iv 306.x . breithemnus dogrés la clandaib L., Críth G. 133 . leth in tigi . . . la Connachta the men of C. occupied, Sc.M² 5 . rob tusa lemsa / rob misi latsa, Ériu ii 89 § 4 (see Éigse x 46 ).

(c) is la x y x owns, possesses y, y belongs to x (also with ellipse of copula. See Éigse x 45 - 8 ): ní lanech huáin alaile, Wb. 6b20 . commimis less huili, 21 . leissom a tech, 33a2 . amal ata les inna nert, Ml. 108c11 . á aii .i. comtis les gl. uoluerit eos suos uocari, 92c10 . is limsa in cauradmir, LU 8974 ( FB 73 ). A. . . . ba leis ind Hériu, LL 14786 . latsu na rucais, PH 3217 . bud le a maccaibsi a cuit de, Laws iv 46.3 Comm . diamtis lat, LU 3310 ( SCC 11 ).

In extended meaning x has a right to (do) y: ni limsa superedificare it is not for me to, etc., Wb. 8c17 . is la B. tocht isan cath it is B's part to go into battle, RC xxiv 194.24 . riaguil proinntige . . . ní linni a rád it is not for us to fix the rules of the refectory, ZCP xiii 27.21 . is liomsa a chogar ó chiort I have a right to be heard by him, DDána 121.33 . Note also: in let / dál dia fuair doirthe dost thou know why? Metr. Dinds. iii 412. 27 . do ba leam ise d'aithmhealladh it was in my power to, Aithd. D. 89.32 . imtheachd . . . is é bhus libh, DDána 26.3 .

(d) Phrase x la y as adjectival complement of a noun: petta sindaig la rig L. a pet belonging to, IT i 46.22 . dorime an mac aite ile lasin n-athair many places belonging to (that many places belong to?), Anecd. i 51 § 3 . E., cathair . . . lé hEoin, Maund. 31 . go baile le diūc de L., Fl. Earls 74.28 . Cf. Créd la Marcán, Anecd. i. 7.14 .

Personal forms used reflexively: atdubelliub lemm, Wb. 7a4 . décce lat corintiu, 10c20 . atreba leiss possesses, Sg. 33a1 , 4 . addella leis tech[t] do thig filed N., Otia ii 86.2 . faichle lat atair mo thairbhse, BB 384b36 ( Dinds. 66 ). Áth Chliath fégaid lib, Metr. Dinds. iii 100.1 . finta lat in ranic ní Fer baeth, TBC-LL¹ 2198 . an fitir lat?, YBL 13a24 ( Snedg. u. Mac R 46 ). imthigid don halla leó féin, Maund. 203. áirimh leat, Content. v. 71 . tiomsaigh leat, TD 2.5 . See Duan. F. iii 75 n ., Celtica i 390 .

Idiomatic uses with verbs, nouns and adjectives are given under the words concerned.

In later lang. 3 s. n. leis as adv. visible, uncovered : ná léig leis do bhrághaid bhán do not expose, Dánta Gr. 26.7 . a n-aighthe ┐ gach ní do bhí leis díobh all that was uncovered. Beatha S. F. 2347 . leigmíd ár mbrollach . . . leis, Párl. na mB. 562 . ? duit ó nach léis na lomróid, Rel. Celt. ii 298.26 . (Earlier ris, see Duan. Finn., Éigse ix 227 , fri IX (f)).