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airgnae

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airgnae or dil.ie/2053
Last Revised: 2013

 

adj io, iā See GOI p. 346 note and Celtica i 322 . evident, well known, famous: eirgnæ gl. evidens, Wb. 14a12 . nipo irgnae gl. peccatum non inputabatur, 3a1 . dígrais (.i. ergna) cloth, Thes. ii 344.3 . do séolcrandaib ardaib ergnaib, TTr.² 843 . in chros argna `the celebrated cross', Todd Nenn. 66.14 . ba cóem . . . ┐ ba hirgna in phelait rígda, TFerbe 401 . ba hurgna in pealaid righda, Aen. 1557 . deich caindelbra d'or ergna, Rawl. 79a38 . Of persons: co rig n-ergna (: slemna) n-Israhél, SR 5952 . abb Híae án ergna / Cummíne find febdae, Fél. Feb. 24 . mac Néill Ailig airgnai, LL 182a50 (= eargnae, AFM i 508.8 ). da mac deg in athar aurgna Iacaib, LB 114b5 . Eua ḟíal ergna, LL 16435 . F. proiceaptaigh eargna ina aimsir, AFM i 344.5 . bid urgna oirnidi a clanna, Lism. L. 1862 . cimbid ergna .i. Barabas, PH 3258 (= uinctum insignem, Rawl B. 512, 72a , Plummer MS. notes). ergna .i. maith, Fél. 220.29 . bresta .i. primda nó ergna, O'Dav. 262 (= Fél.² xcvii § 13 ). The follg. may belong to érgna: fer erccna iolldánach knowledgeable, AFM v 148.1 . ba hergna eolachsomh i fios ┐ i foghlaim , Leb. Gab.(i) 242.15 .

Superl. temair . . . cach loch ba hurgna décsiu iter mhag ┐ tech, Thr. Ir. Gl. 42.9 (= airgna, Corm. Bodl.; aurgnam, Corm. Y 1212 ). in t-en ba mo ┐ ba heargnu dib most conspicuous, Aen. 2984 .

Adv. co hirgna ┐ co hétrocht, Metr. Dinds. iii 110.10 . co hergna ┐ co honórach, TTr.² 1386 . in Róim co hurgna ara lár, LL 16396 (= Rawl. 78b38 ).

As subst.: Temair cech aird cech irgna / fors mbít sosta sodindgna, LL 21477 ( Metr. Dinds. i 10.65 ).

1 alt

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 alt or dil.ie/3016
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: a., alta, altæ, altu, alta, ailt, a.

n Orig. u, m.? ( cech a.¤ , Ml. 44d2 , but ald n-airge, ACL iii 293.z , cech n-a.¤ ┐ cech n-ága, TTr.² 492 and pass.). g p. -altæ, Corm. Y 41 , alta, RC xv 487 § 1 = altæ, Ériu xix 58 § 1 . Note also a p. altu, Fél. Ep. 323 (alta, v.l.). Later with g s. alta and ailt, n p. id., g p. a.¤ , IGT Decl. § 96 .

I

(a) joint, articulation (in human beings and animals): don a.¤ gl. jugulum, Gild. Lor. 69 gl. 201 . a.¤ día altaib = iunctura membrorum (of a serpent), Aisl. Tond. 109 § 4 . rolaad cach a.¤ asa choir dam gl. ita totus resolutus sum, Ml. 44d2 . mér airindí bīs ina aonar isin a.¤ i mbī, Corm. Y 890 . robīth Cūchulaind co ndec[h]aid a altaib dō so that his joints were dislocated, TBC-I¹ 2962 . For a different use with verbs see below. cach mball ┐ cach n-a.¤ ┐ cach n-ind ┐ cach n-āge, LU 6445 (TBC). lamh airgíd . . . edír mér ┐ a.¤ , BB 32b40 . tri halta atat isin meor, PH 6837 . cen tescud alta na feithe, Laws v 488.5 Comm. ar a.¤ a dhroma, RC xxix 138 § 56 . d'altaibh in droma, Rosa Angl. 98.19 . do benadh a throigh on a.¤ amach do mhac U., AFM vi 1884.15 . an deaslámh do dhol dá ha.¤ , DDána 21a. 22 . Fig. no gur sguch mh'annsa dha ha.¤ `till my heart left its wonted place', Ériu ix 6.55 . cíoch rér tairngeadh a fhíoch dá a.¤ , PBocht 2.4 . Cf. TBC-I¹ 2962 cited above. Occas. perh. limb: an dara dairt . . . / feoil is ailt ar a hionchuibh flesh and limbs are entrusted to it (of an arrow), DDána 78.13 . gan ghoin ag Dia ní fhoil aon-a.¤ / is lia ná soin daonnacht Dé, Dán Dé x 12 , cf. Keating's use of alt, goin below. Note also: chomhdhubh re gúal gach n-ailt dhe o bhonn go a bhathus, RC xxix 114.10 .

(b) Extended applications. Of the socket of a weapon: co tarrla [in sleg] ina ha.¤ . . . féin, Acall. 4905 . ro lingiustar in lann . . . as a altaib ┐ as a imdornnchur, MR 300.9 . Of some part of a sword: da claidim deg co n-altaib, BB 280b15 . tucustar tri tren beimenna do cruadaltaib in claidim `hard knobs', MR 300.24 . Note also: co n-a.¤ imrind, Arch. Hib. ii 61 § 37 . Of curls in hair: i n-earla na n-a.¤ , DDána 91.30 (of a hero).

II In literary contexts.

(a) Used by Keating (Keat., TSh.) of a subdivision of a book (leabhar), with further subdivision goin punctum, see guin, and cf. Dán Dé x 12 cited above. Perh. also in: mé dot ath-ghoin san a.¤-sa, Content. xxiv 4 (`now').

(b) Of the division between the syllables of words: indleas do dhialt . . . air ni fil a.¤ and i.e. it is improper to apply the name of any polysyllable (`recomarc', etc.) to a `dialt' (monosyllable), inasmuch as there is no a.¤ (juncture) in it, it is a unit, Auraic. 779 , 3582 . a.¤ ┐ dialt ┐ recomarc, O'Dav. 428 . a.¤ in anma prosta in re n-aimsire bis eter in da shillaib a inni, Auraic. 830 . in gne no in cenel int a.¤? Is cenel ecin, ar itat tri gnee fai .i. a.¤ saerda ┐ a.¤ aicenta ┐ a.¤ co feser, 890 . cate esse alta? . . . in toe tengadh fil don filid a[c] ceimniughudh don litir for araili mad a.¤ saerda no don sillaib for araili mad a.¤ aicenta artificial division (within a syllable), natural division (between syllables), 909 .

(c) metre (type of composition?): cia ha.¤ dona seacht n-altaib ind aircetail, Auraic. 925 . domiditer alta uad fri alta duine, 1237 . alta uad, IT iii 128.2 . co fesear cia ha.¤ huad, 3 . ca ha.¤ don maoin nachar mēin? (.i. ca haiste don eladain nachar foghlaim ?) (B. na f.), ZCP v 489 § 10 . is dīlsiu don a.¤ airc[h]etail īsiu, Corm. Y 41 . do ṡluind na n-ilaltæ, ib. a.¤ .i. aircetail, O'Dav. 6 . ae a.¤ , 160 . co n-a ollaltaib cen ail (of poets), LL 18266 ( SG 84.44 ).

III Abstract applications.

(a) juncture, point (of time, etc.): ra ha.¤ na h-uaire sin, CRR 18 § 12 . a.¤ in lai sin `this very day', CCath. 5110 . i na.¤ in inaidh-sea `the nick or juncture of this place', 502 (see O'Cl. in (c) below). rob indethbir a gabail do láim a.¤ na huaire sin, O'D. 1588 (H 5.15, 8a).

(b) shape, form: an choill aig eirghe ina ha.¤ féin, BNnÉ 159 § 14 . in n-óige ailt in completeness of form, RC xxxvii 348 § 57 . Cf. Colmán . . . / la hógi a.¤ légend `with perfection of high studies', Fél. Sept. 26 . Luacair ard i toethsat fir / fuithi ata a.¤ in buanfir, Fen. 374.14 . ?tug an tAthair na a.¤ féin / a mhac (`in His stead'), A. Ó Dálaigh viii 3 .

(c) kind, sort: cia haltt delbi, PH 440 . cía ha.¤ con etir, Mer. Uil. 282 . cia ha.¤ dáine cia n-anmand, TFerbe 564 . cia ha.¤ airgne agat?, Metr. Dinds. iv 212.40 . ? ni ha.¤ coindircle maith do denam fria n-aen duin ┐ olc fri cach, YBL 168a14 . a.¤ .i. leithéid. in a.¤ an ionaidhsi .i. a leithéid an ionaidhsi, O'Cl.

(d) state, condition, circumstance: iarom bá halacht in ben / ropo mára.¤ airmiten, LU 4312 . ? nirbu mall marb-a.¤ don mnái, Metr. Dinds. iii 50.23 (` death-dirge '). gillai Chonnacht co caími / dáini ra troma.¤ truagi, TFerbe 626 . lén-a.¤ `sorry plight', Misc. Hag. Hib. 28 § 42 . ? a a.¤ a olcc / a chacht a chorp, IT iii 84 § 75 . Perh. also: créad do ghéandais san a.¤ (: falt) úd `in that case', PBocht 13.41 . Hence in phr. i n-a.¤ with gen. in a position to, able to: ná tathaoir T. / 's gan é i n-a.¤ bhur n-agallmha `as he cannot answer you', Content. iv l . ó taoi-se i n-a.¤ mh'agallmha, v l. gan é i n-a.¤ a agallmha it was impossible to speak to him(?), DDána 100.25 .

(e) way, manner: atat tri altai leusom for ind gabail i.e. they have three ways of chanting the psalms, Mon. Tall. 140.28 (§ 33) . noco n-a.¤ dōib taurcbāil a coss do neachtar de seach araile it is not their way (of two who always kept in step), TBC-I¹ 3312 . a.¤ mog mo coire (.i. is ē so gnīmrad mo coire), Anecd. v 23.5 . is ucht ra mórdílind a.¤ neich mar sein i trad-sa `action of anyone', CRR 40 . is essarcain cind fri hallib a.¤ neich mar sain, 42 . Freq. with prep. FO: nod slaid fón a.¤ cétna in the same manner, LU 3287 ( SCC 8 ). fond a.¤ sin, LL 280a23 ( SG 415.16 ). Also in phr. as cech a.¤ : cóir áli riu as cach a.¤ , LL 374c60 . fuaradar eg as cach a.¤ , MacCarthy 434 § 4 . But see: a Muire, mo bennacht ort | as cech n-alt 'O Mary, my blessing on thee in every part' Ériu xix 13 § 1 . ? a.¤ dár séan an binnse bláth `this brilliant Bench (sc. of justice) hath been our welfare's hinge', Ó Bruad. ii 276.20 .

Very common in chevilles: a.¤ cen imresain, SR 6038 . a.¤ co mbuadhaib, Anecd. i 73 § 215 . ald n-airge, ACL iii 293.z . drong tria a.¤ , IT i 78.31 . cen altu áig, Metr. Dinds. iv 98.91 . aichre a.¤ , Rawl. 148a3 .

Compds. ¤-bisech: th'earla bhíos ag breith ailtbhisigh increasing in length (?), DDána 114.6 . ¤-chaín: mānāis leathanglas fordūal altchāin uindsenn, TBC-I¹ 3346 `on a fair shaft of ash', Faraday. ¤-cháem: dfoghadhaibh altchaémha uinnsionn beautiful ash-handled javelins, AFM vi 2130.4 . ¤-chóir: aenmac altc[h]ōir, RC xxxvii 348 § 60 . ¤-géimnech: alt-gheimnech a n-a. `cracking of their joints', MR 256.20 . ¤-gorm: cloidhme altgorma, CF 880 . ¤-lethan: Echaid a. big-limbed, Fen. 28.22 .

1 ar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ar or dil.ie/3902

 

Forms: ar, air, er, eir, air, er, ar, arin,, airind, air, airnaib, armo, aire, aratobarr, arandéntar, arambiat, ara, armbad, ara, arindepur, aridlabrathar, arna, áirium, erum, erumm, erom, erut, ærut, airiut, airut, airiut, aurut, airiu, airi, airi, erre, airri, airre, airthe, erunn, erund, erond, airiund, airriun, airund, airib, airibsi, airiubsi, airiuibsi, eruibsi, erru, erriu, erro, airriu, airiu, erthu, airthiu, airtho, airib, airaib, or(u)m, or(u)t, air, uirre, orainn, oirinn, oraib, orru, orrtha

prep., leniting, with accus. and dat. See GOI § 823 , Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 150 , Frazer, ZCP viii 5 , Williams, Celtica ii 305 ; IGT Introd. § 130 .

Usually spelt ar. air, Ml. 51c2 , 2d2 ; er, 122a16 , BB 449a10 ; eir, Ériu iv 180 § 39 . The spellings air, er, etc. (more freq. in later lang.) and the modern pronunciation show that O. Ir. ar as simple prep.was replaced by a conflation of airi and fo(i)r (3 s. n. of 1 ar and 1 for).

In Mid. Ir. 1 for and 1 íar are frequently spelt ar. See III, IV below and the articles on these words.

With article arin, -int, -a, etc. Note also airind, Ml. 31b17 , air ind, 53a15 . arndi (= arindí), Ériu vii 138.4 . airnaib, Ml. 110d9 .

With poss. armo (m'), -do (t'), -a, -ar, -far (-bar) etc. Note also ar mh'éigse, Content. ix 26 . aire slicht, L. Chl. S. 2 .

With rel. part. ara: aratobarr, Wb. 12d29 . arandéntar, 2a10 . cid arambiat , Ml. 56b9 . ara n-eperr, Críth G. 1 . With copula: cid armbad , Wb. 11a19 . cidar impotabis, Ml. 56a13 . cid arnabu son, ib. ardott áigthe, LU 5656 = arṅdotāigi, TBC-I¹ 1178 (taking áigthi as vbl. of necess.). ara trēn, ACL iii 239 § 32 . ara n-amra, ZCP vii 312 § 26 . Before inf. pron. arindepur, Wb. 5a31 . aridlabrathar, 7d2 . With neg. arna airecht, Sg. 198b3 . arnach faca, ZCP xiii 169.13 .

With pron. suff. Early forms. 1 s. áirium, Wb. 7a12 . erum, LL 286a25 . erumm, PH 1397 . erom, 1503 . 2 s. erut, Wb. 27d19 , 29d7 , YBL 326b42 , PH 6565 . ærut, Ml. 2d8 . airiut, Blathm. 569 , LL 289b30 . airut, LU 8086 . GOI § 437 also gives airiut, aurut without reff. as `old forms which occur only in later sources' ( p. 272 ). 3 s. m. and n. GOI § 437 gives airiu as the dat. form (cf. airiu, O'Dav. 22 ?), airi as the accus. airi is the usual form passim in the early language. Cf. áiri, Wb. 11b21 . f. (accus. and dat. not distinguished) erre, Irish Texts i 3 § 8 (sic MS. See Ir. Hist. Stud. i 347 ). airri, SR 405 (emended to airre, GOI § 437 ). airthe, LL 286a7 . 1 pl. erunn, Wb. 15d13 , Ériu ii 124 § 65 . erund, LU 597 . erond, 588 . airiund, TBC-I¹ 170 . airriun, ZCP xi 110 § 26 . airund, LU 593 . 2 pl. airib, Wb. 20a3 , 22d25 , 27c19 , Metr. Dinds. iv 232.33 . airibsi, Wb. 14d25 , a33 , 16a26 . airiubsi, 15c1 , 17a5 . airiuibsi, 16c23 . eruibsi, 27d7 . Ml. 2a11 . 3 pl. acc. erru, Wb. 4d20 , 11a29 ; ZCP ii 315.26 . erriu, Wb. 9c8 , 11a20 . erro, LL 289b30 . airriu, Wb. 15a23 , 21d11 , O'Dav. 985 . airiu, Wb. 11d11 , Laws iv 176.7 . erthu, LL 280a1 . RC viii 154 § 5 . airthiu, LU 4915 . ZCP viii 310.22 . airtho, TBC-I¹ 409 . dat. airib, Laws iv 162.2 . airaib, 114.21 Comm.

In later lang. all pronominal forms influenced by those of for, giving or(u)m, or(u)t, air, uirre (uirthe), orainn (oirn. oirinn, O'Gr. Cat. 556.25 ), oraib ( oirb, BColm. 100.3 ), orru (orra, orrtha), etc.

The presumed distinction between ar with accus. when motion is implied and with dat. when no motion is implied ( Zeuss 622 ; with reservations Vendryes Gramm. § 283 ; see also Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 73 - 74 , Williams loc. cit.) appears most clearly in the stereotyped phrases ar chenn towards, ar chiunn ahead of, before (see 1 cenn): ar beolu towards, ar bélaib before, in front of (see bél). The dat. is usual in ar cach láu daily (see ) and in ar thosuch ( Sg. 203a7 , see tosach). Usage is less clear outside fixed phrases, and that of the various collections of O. Ir. glosses differs (the available material is also much reduced by the frequent identity of form of a s. and d s. of nouns). The accus. is regular in Wb. in senses of taking away from and counting as , and also in glosses on Lat. ob, the dat. where the meaning is with regard to, instead of and in glosses on Lat. super. Both cases are found where the meaning is for the sake of, because of . In Ml. accus. is constant only in set phrases. The dat. is usual in meaning counts as , do-beir ar (for?) calls and in glosses on Lat. dat. without preposition (ar gentib gl. gentibus, 78a12 , 89c2 ) and where a Lat. compd. noun is treated as two words (arintinmlegun gl. promulgatione, 71c18 ). In general use the meanings saving from, instead of, in meaning of, in return for, on account of, because of, for the sake of, for the purpose of are all found both with accus. and dat. In Sg. the meanings instead of and on account of are found with both cases. See also IGT Introd. § 130 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 2 - 4 , 17 , 20 (where detailed rules are given for accus. and dat. both with simple ar and for compd. preps. such as ar aghaidh, etc.).

I

(a) Much less freq. in concrete or physical meanings than in more abstract ones. Perh. before, in front of in (case of follg. noun not certain): dá [n]dorus [n-]and, comla[e] ar ala n-aí, clíath ar alailiu (-e, MS.) `in front of' (Gloss.), Críth G. 100 . ar Tuatha Dé Danann `before the T.D.D.', Ériu xii 152 § 15 (TE). cethridoruis airri (recte airre) im-mach, SR 405 . ó beit fíanna fer nÉrenn ┐ Alban do Chonaire ar thig, BDD² 1416 . Cf. 1081 , 1400 , 1492 . ? airiu . . . iarmo in front of it . . . behind it(?), O'Dav. 22 . Cf. airber .i. frit anair bere .i. eter do dī lāim, ar is fort muin bere ere [n-]aile, Corm. Y 58 . Acc. to Binchy, SCano p. 33 , frequent in meaning east of, the only example cited being: acon loch ar Mag Aí `by the lake east of Mag Aí', Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 32 § 2 (`on'). Cf. Airbri .i. fri Bri Eli anair, O'Mulc. 70 = Dinds. 16 ( RC xv 308 ). ? a nAicill ar Temair, Anecd. i 17.1 . Cf. perh. Síd ar Femin, LU 7846 ( BDD 140 ), etc. (or for al?). Perh. orig. with concrete force also in: do té(i)t aitire ar ḟer feras in fuil, Críth G. 52 `goes surety for', Gloss. Concrete meaning is perh. also to be assumed in the phrases agaid ar (late, orig. for?), ar agaid, ar amus, ar beolu, ar bélaib, bél ar bél, ar chenn, ar chiunn, ar dorus, ar dreich, ar fed, ar gnúis, ar leth, ar medón, ar ṡúil, ar thosuch, ar thús, ar úairib. See under the nouns concerned. With more abstract force in ar aí, ar apu (see 3 aí, 1 apa). Here may also be included: doire acummisc arúir `of their being mixed with mould', Wb. 13d3 . úachtar ar lemlacht dó mixed with, Críth G. 63 . loim midc do chumasc ar usciu `to mix a sip of whey with water', Mon. Tall. 143.25 . ba fial ṅdō buith arnaib ōcaib, cēin dogēni calma among, TBC-I¹ 1266 = LU 5739 . ? tiucfa in mac cētna ar bar cloind, ZCP viii 563 § 27 (for?). Perh. for for in: ó fó-certa a ṡrúb ar géscoe against a branch, BDD² 349 (= ar gésce, 355 ). conadh ar x. míli cathrach do shiublaighdis techta Magnuis Cam . . . ō maduin co fescor `to ten thousand cities', Marco P. 96 .

Rarely of time. See ariu before .

(b) In the follg. exx. the meaning is also more or less concr., though the precise meaning of the prep.is obscure, and it would be possible to consider them as early exx. of the replacing of for by ar (see III, and fo-ceird III): arnarala for cubus áiri, Wb. 11b21 (see note). Cf. focheird mo menma airi `my mind is set on him', Ériu ii 92 § 2 . ón lá tarrla ar n-airi air, iv 220.27 . torala dia archeill do degnimu su `let God bring to mind thy good deeds', Ml. 43b15 . iscor lame ardodced buith ocairbiathad sainte gl. nam qui volunt divites f[i]eri, incidunt in temptationem, Wb. 29b18 . ? Cf. ni comarleiced (.i. nir cetaig) dó cor lamha aire (.i. dul do sacarbhaic) cin foghlaim , Trip.² 243 . mabeidní dirúnaib dothéi armenmuin indfir, Wb. 13a12 . Note also: arnaib réib ilib gl. et qui ascendit super omnes caelos, 22a8 .

(c) In compd. numerals (with dat., see Celtica ii 312 ): a n-óen ar fichit (fichet, MS) the twenty-one, Ml. 2d2 . cóic míli ochtmugat ar chét one hundred and eighty five thousand, 34b17 . a ocht deac ar chét, BCr. 32d2 . deichinbair ar dib fichtib ar trib cétaib, Trip.² 3104 . secht cathae ar chetharchait / ar secht cétaib is huilliu, ZCP viii 313.34 . cōicer ar ceithri fichtib, 219.29 . fer ar sheisir seven men, Celt. Rev. x 348.23 . fri re tri n-aidhche ar mís, RC xviii 162.32 . Note also: tāinic buiden mōr . . . dōig lim is ar trichaid cēt inti approximately(?), TBC-I¹ 3142 (text perh. faulty).

II In a wide variety of abstract meanings for the most part deriving independently from those given under I.

(a) for, for the sake of, on behalf of, etc. (often gl. Lat. pro) (with accus. and dat. See Celtica ii 309 ): cia dudrigni dia mór di maith erriu, Wb. 11a20 . innahí dorigeni Día ar maccu Israhel, 30 . mirabilia dorígeni Dia ar maccaib Israhel, 28 . massu arinbethid . . . dagníu, 13c11 . mor ní as dénti ní airriu, 15a23 (in sense of mod. déanaim rud ar I obey, see Thes. Suppl. 51 ). niarséuti . . . robcarsi tíamthe, 23d4 . ar erchru gl. pro defectu, Ml. 31a4 . dusrigeni dia erru amal robu thol doib, 54a34 . fri assaru ar maccu israhel gl. rerum gestarum (testimonio), 94d2 . ara bǽsaib som .i. ar denum a thule gl. pro suis ritibus laborantes, 87b20 . a ndorigēnai in rí / do ḟertaib ar ṡanct Brigti, Thes. ii 332.4 (Hy. v). or ar Bran nailither, 286.34 (inscr.). lānamain . . . nī fil etarscarad dōib acht ar Dia, Corm. Y 824 . léicfider cach bean do mnáib airiut thou wilt be preferred to all other women, BDD² 59 . ar ghaol for the sake of relationship, Studies 1918, 99 § 15 . dorindedh mainistreacha ┐ sepeil le ar anmain Gyi `for the soul of G.' ZCP vi 90.11 . See also under meince, 1 pairt. Freq. in sense of (praying) for, see airnigde, guide, guidid, oráit.

(b) for the sake of, by in adjurations and invocations: dilig dam . . . / ar Maire n-amra n-Ingin, SR 7820 . ar do chumachtae . . . tesaircc dam-sa mo chūrcha, BColm. 54.3 . ar do thrīnōiteacht, a Thrīnōit, ACL iii 241 § 2 . ar t'fhírinni riutsa, na furáil etc. by thy honour, CCath. 1659 . ar na deib rib, TTebe 4025 . síol Ádhaimh . . . / ar do thocht díobh slánaigh sinn, Dán Dé ix 22 .

(c) on account of, because of (with accus. and dat. Glossing Latin ob, pro, propter): ar ar comoicsi do bás on account of, Wb. 14b25 . aracethardese gl. quam ob causam, 31b24 . ob mirationem .i. airinn adamrugud, Ml. 61a15 . ar chosmaili ind fochuinn diaragbtha gl. causae uicinitate, 35b24 . ar ét im chrabud gl. pro zelo religionis, 36d24 . arna lithu gl. propter cultús diuini festa, 47b2 . arna pecthu immefolngat guasacht do anmin gl. propter animae pericula, 7 . cid arnaibhisiu .i. arnaib hi forodamarsa gl. ob ista, 58d13 . ní ar pianaib do thabairt forru `not on account of the infliction of punishments upon them', 114b7 . ara foirbthetu fadesin, Wb. 6c19 . tocombaig a ṡlán ara ḟornert because of, Críth G. 415 . ar ṡóethaib because of grievances, 581 . ar ilar a imarbus, ZCP viii 104.7 . Corco Bāiscind ar a nert / nī damaid cert d'Eoganacht, v 500.16 .

With a variety of nouns in more or less stereotyped phrases: ar na h-ádhbharaibh sin for those reasons, ML 58.11 . ar[a] airmitin som through respect for him, Ériu iv 30.23 . ar t'ḟuath, i 97.32 . ni diles ni doberar ar uathbas `nothing is lawful which is given out of terror', Laws iv 286.25 . See also under áis, cairde, 1 cúis, 1 écndairc, éicen, ecla, 1 gart, midlachas, miscais, omun, sant, serc, úacht, etc.

Common with abstr. nouns from adjj. in the construction: nīr fētatar a tōcbāil ar a truma because of her weight = because she was so heavy, Anecd. iii 9.8 . ar dúire a drochdelba, Ériu iv 102.16 . ar ḟebus na cuidechtae because the company was so excellent, BColm. 78.18 . ar a laechdacht, ZCP viii 318.12 . ar cumga in puill nír féd dul amach, Ériu v 49.7 . in senadh ic á adhradh ar a uaisle, CCath. 334 . ar ghoire do ghaoil, Dán Dé xi 11 . Without poss. or gen.: cona tisa . . . in dam tarais ar airdi (a fence), Laws iv 76.19 Comm.

Freq. in advv.and conjj. in O. Ir. glosses. 3 s. n. as adv. on account of it, therefore: fristemlighter cid ind aier airi, Ml. 73c2 . ni bad pronomen airi, Sg. 203b2 . isairi doroigu dia geinti hore . . . this is why . . . because, Wb. 5b12 . is airi inso rogabad som hi rige, Ml. 14a4 . cinid airi doberr desimrecht acht ar atrebthach nand, Sg. 35b13 . With article and i: arindi gl. eo, Sg. 190a4 . ni arindí . . . sed quia not because . . . but because, 5a4 . arindisin gl. ei, Ml. 54c6 . arndi furumai sár for cach toil, Ériu vii 138.3 . With se: ní nád ṁbed arse di chorp gl. ideo, Wb. 12a22 . arse gl. ob hoc, Ml. 18d15 , gl. qua re, 29d1 . isarse gl. quo circa, Enchir. Aug. 70b , 81b ( ZCP vii 480 , 484 ). airechas ceneóil airsiu (leg. airsin? edd. airriu, Ped. MS Index to Wb. glosses) ní airechas fidei, Wb. 1b12 . Later: air sin on account of that, CCath. 2350 . Note also: ar a smuaintighib do beith . . . a mbeat[h]aidh an tigerna so that his thoughts might be in, etc., BCC § 5 (cf. ara).

(d) instead of, in place of, as substitute for, in meaning of (meaning confined to O. Ir. glosses. With dat., occas. with accus.): arnab geintib huilib taken as referring to all the Gentiles gl. Iudeos et Grecos omnes, Wb. 2a15 . foirbthe ar anfoirbthu gl. decem milia, a perfect (number) for an imperfect, 9a10 . corda .i. arin duiniu huli lesom gl. a parte totum, Ml. 53a2 . todochide ar sechmadachtae n-anfoirbthe gl. commotatio . . . temporum `future for imperfect', 62a16 . arnaib bolcaib gl. pro uesicis, 99a4 . fogur cechtar de ar alaliu ┐ fogur na liter naile airriusom, Sg. 4a8 . ni roscríbad ar naill (leg. ar na aill, edd.), 6b3 . a ṡuidigud ar anmmaimm dílius, 27a1 .

Often with as-beir, do-beir etc.: dobeir inso arnab uilib cumactib gl. supra omnem principatum et potestatem et uirtutem et dominationem, Wb. 21a13 . epert innan (MS. inna) aisndisen arnaib gnimaib gl. dicit autem non quia talia locuti sunt Scribae . . . sed quia talia fecerint, Ml. 16d3 . a ndurigni duaid in gnim sin in tengad do airbirt ar gnimaib in choirp, 31b24 . intan asmbersom pes ┐ manus nochis arnaib gnimaib són dungniat som honaib ballaib hisin atbeirsom, 56b3 . tri suidigud dosom inna cluas arin chorp huiliu, 60b16 . arnaib fedaib sonartaib ardaib gl. pro terribilibus arbustís cedros possuit, 146a6 .

The idiom ad-rími ar counts as (with accus. and dat.) is prob. to be assigned to this section: ní ármisom ar chumactte, Wb. 6a1 . cenid ar chomsuidigthib adrímther inna fortórmach so, Sg. 202a5 . See ad-rími. With LA: petra les arin trediusa sís he takes petra as standing for, Ml. 60a7 . in loc lesom híc arnaib aitrebthidib gl. a loco habitatores intellegite, 144c3 .

(e) in return for, in exchange for, as price of, in payment for, as equivalent of (with accus.): airitiu lóge ar mo precept in return for, Wb. 10d31 . rotbīa a lōg airi you shall have a reward for it, TBC-I¹ 585 . is lá cach(a) tíre do-tét dlega(i)r aire `is due for it', Ériu xvii 70.4 . Freq. do-beir lóg etc. ar: ainm indlóge doberr domiledaib armílte, Wb. 3c1 . intan dobera Dia fochraicci ar degnimu, Ml. 90c14 . screpul doberar do gilli . . . ar comaitecht do neuch o pecad `a groat that is given to a lad for accompanying someone in a sin', Mon. Tall. 143.9 . nī tibur-so in tinnscra sin(ee) cid ar Meidb C. feissin I wouldn't give a brideprice like that for M. herself, ZCP iv 39.7 (cf. TBFr. 185 ). ní conrogab terochraic . . . ar forbrissiud fir truaig `reward for oppressing a wretched man', Ml. 36a32 . ni riat na dánu diadi ara n-indeb domunde sell for, Wb. 28c2 . ríthæ . . . ar ech ndonn, Thes. ii 240.1 (Ardm.). tale damsa a log ar epert do firinne lat, Ml. 36a32 . síodh Dhé 'gá ceannach ar chrodh being bought for herds, Dán Dé xxvii 33 . With vbs. of leaving, abandoning: ni dérsid for sóiri ar fognam, Wb. 20b10 . roleicc creitim ar in paganacht he left the faith for paganism, Anecd. iii 72.28 . as uime do trēig Temraigh / ar Chend Maghair, ZCP viii 108.19 . Denoting preference: ragaid duit aire . . . rígi hÉrend in preference to him, BColm. 68.18 . do mholfuinn fear an leithléighinn 'gá mbíadh beatha ghlan . . . arfhear láinléighinn 'gá mbíadh beatha némhthromdha, Mac Aingil 4782 .

(f) for the purpose of, in order to obtain (as far as the exx. serve with accus. in Wb. and dat. in Ml. The exx. from Wb. given here, however, could equally be referred to the preceding section): precept arbiad in order to obtain food, Wb. 10d13 . madarlóg pridchasa, 23 . is arnach nindocbáil móir fodaimim se inso, 23b12 . asberat isar indeb isdénti tol dǽ, 29b12 . arind etarimdibiu (arindetar imdibiu, MS.) gl. pro interfectione aduersariorum, Ml. 36b23 . ar chuindriug pectho gl. instrumentum est divinae iustitiae `for the correction of sin', 49b7 . gabthe dunad les fris arinoillus for protection, 55c1 . asberar ar thormuch pectha for the purpose of increasing sin(?), 76a5 . bliadain lán dano do M. [┐] a muindtir uli for usciu ┐ bargin ar tuaslucud anmae B. `to obtain the release of the soul of B.,' Mon. Tall. 133.29 . serc fochraici ara n-as[c]nam, piana do imchaisiu ara n-imgabail in order to avoid them, Ériu vii 138.28 . is rimsa . . . rohérbad ar eisnéis it is to me it was entrusted for relating, iv 144.21 . annsa lebur tuc sé dóib ar choimét a ndligid feín `for keeping', Maund. 61 . Also perh. in phrase ar olc fri, see olc (because of?).

(g) by virtue of, by means of, through (dat.): condenad fingail ar chuinged soinmige do gl. mercari peccato securitatem, Ml. 39a6 . ? ar gressaib gal / glenaid luch inna línsam `by feats of valour', Thes. ii 293.20 . ni ar lín óc brister cath, Ériu ix 47 § 18 . ar neart a n-engnama by dint of their prowess, ML² 286 . gaibsit tír and ar chlaideb by the sword, ZCP viii 313.21 .

(h) In general sense of in respect of, with regard to, in the matter of, relating to, etc. (appar. with dat.) (the ascription of some exx. to this section is tentative): desmrecht insin ar aimsir deirb that is an example of, Sg. 66b17 , cf. exemplum ara airiuc far diull tanaisiu, 106b20 , exemplum inso ara rangabalda asrubart, 39a5 . annsom hi taurgillib tairgille ar bechaib, Laws iv 162.1 . rucus tairgilli ar bechaib `für Bienen ist ein `tairgille' . . . zu stellen', ZCP xv 319 § 12 . ? isam ómun ar a aisnéis I am afraid to relate it, LU 5349 . is fon samla-sin . . /gníth . . . a cét-chumma / Temrach . . . / ar áibnius in beauty, Metr. Dinds. i 10.64 . fear feadhma deas ar gach ndān in every art, ZCP viii 562 § 16 . bean as ghloine ar ghníomharthaibh `purest in deeds', A. Ó Dálaigh xv 15 . issí eisimplair Crist . . . do lenfadís ar míne ┐ ar buaine, ar deirc ┐ ar trocaire, Maund. 123 . ro derscnaigh d'ógaibh a chomaoisi ar goil ┐ gaisccedh, Leb. Gab.(i) 200.7 . Also in phr. ar chuit, see cuit. For do-beir teist ar see teist. See airbág.

Common in phr. of type: teine . . . ar thes crabaidh (of a person) a fire . . . in heat of piety = a paragon of piety, Anecd. iii 5.19 . Muridach, ba muir ar crūa[i]s, ZCP viii 299.34 . deochain ar grādaib ┐ sacart ar ūaisle a deacon in rank and a priest in reputation, BColm. 82. 15 - 16 . ba laech ar gaisced, RC xxiv 184.4 . a éan choluim ar cheannsa, Dán Dé i 19 . mar lile ar lí, Dánta Gr. 30.14 .

(i) about (of stories, books, reading, etc. In late exx. only. Perh. orig. for in this meaning): iomda ar Lasair ferta amhra many wonderful miracles (are said to have been performed) by L., Ériu v 90.4 . is mebair linn . . . / in seanchus fil ar Mag Ráin the lore about M., iv 156.18 . Leabhar Oiris ┐ An[n]ála ar Cogthaibh . . . Éireann, i 78 . craoibsgaoileadh ar chath Cluana Tairbh description of the battle of C., 16 n. léighmid ar Alexander n-uaibhrech, etc., Mac Aingil 872 . léan ba sgéal ar fianaibh Fáil, Magauran 2790 . Cf. sgriobhthar ortha go . . ., Ó Héodhusa 68.16 .

(j) With verbs of depriving, stealing, hiding, lacking, etc. from (accus. and dat.): tri airchellad donaib sommaib a n-anae airnaib bochtaib, Ml. 90a11 . is amne asruluús airi, Wb. 17d16 . a manaig do béim ar Lommān, BColm. 84.16 . ní bēram-ne t'áthius ort we shall not take thy victory from thee, 74.22 . ni cumscaichthi cumachtae nairi gl. hoc potestatem literae motare non debuit, Sg. 6a5 . ni fil nach díchlith airi, Wb. 1a4 . tesbanat boíll aíriu, 11d11 . in dá ṡét tesbanat airi, Críth G. 130 . ní gette na brithemnachta becca erriu you would not snatch the petty judgements from them, Wb. 9c8 . nī gatar a forgall ar domun degmnā, Cáin Ad. 4 . a tellad errusom, Wb. 11a29 . dives cui (.i. isar) clam tollitur , Enchir. Aug. 76b ( ZCP vii 482.27 .)

(k) With verbs of protecting, saving from , defending against (accus. and dat.): ainsium Crīst ar cech nernbās, Thes. ii 352.4 (Hy. vi). Dīa dom chobair . . . / ar cech ṅgúasacht, 350.16 (ibid.). dia dítin ar in pecthach, Ml. 57c4 . dia diden . . . ar náimdib, Thes. ii 354.2 . airnaib imnedaib doneimni a dǽ, Ml. 110d9 . fri himdegail cuirp . . . ar demnaib, Thes. ii 354.4 . diar snádud . . . / ar gábud, 359.6 . for soirad ar senachrib, Ml. 33b21 . air ni bói numsoiradsa ar chumachtae ṅduini, 74b13 . Continuing a Latin construction: ar thes inna gréne són ┐ ara naimtib gl. quae etiam inumbraret eos et regeret, 97c4 . arnaib cumachtgaib gl. difensionem, 103c7 . arnaib hi sin gl. ut illis eripiat, 117b4 . defensionis . . . ar maccaib israhel, 124b10 . Note also: comad chādus ar cach ngúasacht that it might be a halidom against every danger, BColm. 96.10 . tucc dam a Dē mōir / . . . / ar pīanu na plāg / tonna dīana dēr, ACL iii 232 § 1 .

III In later lang. ar and for become a single preposition (often with surviving difference in follg. mutation, see the examples in Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 2 ff. ). The follg. are exx. of ar for earlier for. Of local relations (for I): imda gol gargc ar a brú many a fierce wail in its lap, BColm. 100.6 . ar saebchoire in a maelstrom, 94.12 . tarrúd úire ar airib / for leccaib ar láech-maigib, Metr. Dinds. iv 232.34 . seóit Cluana maic Nóis do foillsechadh ar Gallaib Luimnigh `were discovered with', RC xviii 53.12 . Of quasi-local relations, etc. (II). Of point of time (c): ar na tri soldomnaib `on the three chief feasts', Mon. Tall. 129.27 . ar notlaice ┐ caiscc ┐ cengciges, Ériu vii 150.30 . Of rule, sway, over (f): ba rī tenn ar Tūathmumain, ZCP viii 119.28 . flaithius ┐ forlamhus ar crichaib . . . na cruinne, CCath. 1 . In addition to (g): cotardda trá ar se mo chendsa ardo chend my head in addition to thine, RC iii 185.8 . credo ┐ pater . . . ar cech m-biait, xv 490 § 26 ( for cach mbiait, § 32 ). Affecting, afflicting, etc. (h): bíd oirb oman Dé do neim, BColm. 100.3 . trom orm a innisi, ZCP viii 200.25 . duaithnid ar dainib in domain incomprehensible to, Fen. 38. 16 . Subsisting on (j): ar geilt féoir feeding on grass, Ériu iv 156.12 . ar usci ┐ bairgin, RC xv 491 § 30 , cf. for usci ┐ bairgin, 490 § 26 . In a state or condition (k): na biad ar in mbreith sin `that she would not abide by that judgement', RC xxiv 196.1 . nírbo borg báeth ar bruidin it was not a foolish castle engaged in brawling, Metr. Dinds. i 32.46 . With vb. of motion: ge deach rī Conaill a ccēin / ar slūaiged rí Temhra tréin, ZCP viii 116.21 . To express the dativus incommodi (m): adbathadar uile thorad parrthais ar Adam `were forfeited by Adam', Laws iv 266.14 . adbathadar ar Aongus a thire, 15 . rogabsat tech air they stormed the house in which he was, BColm. 72.4 . ni cloifithir oirb bar cath, YBL 314b55 . Perh. also: ben clucc ar Cellach against, Cáin Ad. 18 . cogadh mór le Domnall . . . ar Brian, Ériu i 78.5 . In phrases (p): ar bith c[h]é on this earth, BColm. 100.3 . ar comairci C. under the protection of C., 86.28 . ar debaid in haste, LL 7493 . ar lár cháich in the midst of everybody, Ériu iv 222.28 . ar neam in heaven, Anecd. i 39.114 . ar ṡeilbh (sic leg.) éicsi, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1919, v 92 § 9 . With verbs (III): dorad min aire `put meal over it', Mon. Tall. 147.11 . dobert trian forcridi . . . ar chuid cach lae `added one third of water to the daily allowance', 7 . do thabairt geinti ar ireis, ZCP iii 22.6 .

Note also: rostatlaig ar thenn-medón he clasped her by the sturdy waist, Ériu iv 104.8 . roghabh nathraigh mbí ar bolgán `by the belly', CCath. 4194 .

IV Replacing ÍAR. Of time (I): ar cath Ch. after the battle of C., ZCP viii 314.18 . arsin, Ériu iv 132.1 . is ar sein anid sí co arnabárach thereupon she remains till the morrow, ZCP viii 309.20 . ar n-ēirghi grēine at the rising of the sun, ML² 1333 . sóaidh co brónach dia taigh ar marbadh a maic, RC xviii 45.31 . ar tteacht ór tticch, ZCP viii 219 § 13 . do bātar ar n-a crēchtnugad, ML² 386 . ar ngabāil gīall for Mumain, ZCP viii 119.31 . Of place (II): arsin t[s]eit along the way, Mon. Tall. 153.20 . ar slige Póil is Petair in the track of Paul and Peter, Ériu v 24.24 . According to (III): suidfither gach aon duine . . . ar miadh ┐ ar dligedh ┐ ar a sognim[r]adh, RC xxviii 22 § 49 . ar a fidhair fen do cruthaigh Día é in His own image, BCC § 408 .

For use as conjunction see 2 ar, 1 ara.

daltus

Cite this: eDIL s.v. daltus or dil.ie/14461
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: daltusa

u, m. gen. daltusa. Fosterage, pupilage : ise in Moeldub sin rug Feichín Fobair lais ina daltus gurro chuir dochum legind é, Fél. 224. 32 . asbert fris techt co Maedoc do bith a daltusa fris, Moling 29 . ó mudh daltusa, YBL 181 a 40 . bai Cuchulaind i ndaltus dó, 117 b 45 . SG 392. 25 . co ndaltus do congbail reisin mac isin chill i ndentar a forcetal, O'Dav. 956 . —COMPD. mac-daltus son-fosterage : forcan .i. foghlaim no forcetal ut est co macdaltus do chill i forcanar, O'Dav. 956 .

derscnaigid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. derscnaigid or dil.ie/15724

 

v = derscaigid (see do-róscai).

(a) Intrans. excels, surpasses (with DE of pers.): amail dersgnaighit a ndaoir (de . . .), TBC-LL¹ 422 St. aeingem . . . do derscnaig do gemcumtachaib an domain, CCath. 4713 . do dheársgnuidh Eoghan do Chonn, ML 10 . fear rodhearsgnaidh ar eccna ┐ ḟoghlaim do lucht na hEorpa uile, AFM 867 . rodersccnaidh ar goil . . . da mbaoi ann, 1281 . go rodhearscnaige a dhelb da cach delb, MR 114 . aen drem rodersnaigset (sic) do gasradaib glanFódla, 184 . go nderscnōchaidh si d'uile oibreachaibh, Fl. Earls 220 . With AR: do derrscnaid an festa so ar cach uile festa, 3 B 22, 92b24 . do dheárrscnuigh duibhe ar ghile an laoi prevailed over, Ó Bruad. i 24 . With TAR: i dtréithibh do dhearscnuigh tar mhíltibh, Hackett p. 52 .

(b) Trans. explains, interprets: is e no derscnaiged dam cech ní no iarfaigind de 'na belra fen, PH 2620 = rodearscaiged dam cach ar raideadar na hEabraide 'na mberla fen, YBL 141b25 .

(c) rodearrscnaideadar na hIudaidi a maint ┐ a fiacla a n-agaid N. bared, displayed (?), YBL 143b46 .

dingbáil

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dingbáil or dil.ie/16621

 

Forms: dingbál, dingbāla, dingbála, dingbala, dingbhail, digbhail

vn. of do-ingaib. Orig. dingbál, ā, f. IGT Decl. § 148 , Verbs § 68 .

I Act of taking away, removing: dingbail cach cro otrais removal of every wounded person entitled to nursing, Ériu xii 8 § 6 (see note p. 57). as-boinn a dingbail `demands that he be removed', 16 § 18 . athgabail huither do dingbail iar ndifoilgid, Laws i 226.z . im dingbail mic baitsige, 184.16 .

Warding off, repelling, keeping aloof , with obj. gen.: im dingbail tascuir lir, Laws i 122.15 (with gl.: .i. . . . are in puirt nā thora tascur don lir, p. 128). im d.¤ aurcuilte a reir lega keeping away (from a sick man) things forbidden by the physician, ib. l. 18 . im d.¤ mic di mir keeping a child away from a madwoman, l. 21 . re catha im d.¤ cīsa dia tuaith, v 300.24 . siche raet docuiredar hi tracht maru . . . dlegar . . . a d.¤ din purt, i 128.22 . im d.¤ faithe, i 124.1 (with gl.: im d.¤ na n-indili as an faithce, 132.13 ). co n-athchur ┐ innurba ┐ dingbail, ZCP xiv 378 § 41 ( Laws ii 300 ). dingbail for curu bél ` evading ', Laws iii 390.16 .

In gener. of keeping off (an enemy, attack, calamity, etc.): is d.¤ truim don slog averting trouble from the host, TBC-I¹ 1490 . raptar biattaig fir hErend uile d'Fhirdiad ar dingbhail Conculaind dib, TBC-LL¹ 3646 . co tardad fortacht dóib im d.¤ díb na gressi rolad forro, RC viii 50.14 . ic d.¤ mebla dím-sa, LL 223b45 ( TTr. 486 ). cuich . . . bad ferr letsu do d.¤ dit?, Cog. 172.18 . ríg mar D. do d.¤ to resist a king like D., MR 202.19 . tar do d.¤ dochraite dinn, SG 320.33 . With ellipse of gen.: ni furail linn . . . do dingmhail d'fhianaibh Eirenn to ward off (attacks) from the Fianna, CF 325 .

Used of an enemy, passes into sense of holding one's own against, and hence by degrees to that of being a match for, an equal to: dáig na tic de laég a chomáisi do d.¤ he is not able to withstand a calf of his own age, TBC-LL¹ 6161 . ní rabi 'sin domun . . . óenfher da tísad d.¤ Achil, LL 244a28 ( TTr. 2038 ). a dingbail i comland chruaid | ni raibe i mBanba bratruaid there was not his match, YBL 318a26 . roboi d.¤ deigfhir indum in la sin I was a match for a brave man, Acall. 4780 . is iad so mogha (= modha) Fergusa . . . .i. diongbail shecht céd cathmhiledh a gcró catha ann, Ériu viii 136.16 . Note further: ni maith na airm-se . . . ni thic mo diṅgbail-se di shodain they are not capable of holding out against me, i.e. they are not equal to my requirements, TBC-LL¹ 1094 . nit maithe na carpait-so . . . ni thaet mo diṅgbail-se dib-so, 1123 (= ni fuil mo diongmhala-so diob-so, St.). So in gen.: ba hé fer a dingbāla leu `they deemed him (Ferbaeth) a man fit to repel him (Cúchulaind)', TBC-I¹ 1534 . fer do dingbala su, LL 238a42 ( TTr. 1285 ).

II Hence g s. dingbála comes to be used adjectivally in sense a match for, equivalent to, worthy of , at first following subst. and with obj. gen., later also as pred. and with prep. DO.

(a) ara carpait a diṅgbala ina fiadnaisi a charioteer worthy of him, TBC-I¹ 2572 . dí nóe sess-churach cutrumme dingbála tri ndrong ndechenbair fit for (i.e. able to hold) three parties of ten, BDD § 87 . cid . . . nobeth ri hErinn cin mnai a dingbala aci, TE § 2 Eg. ben dingbala ríg, IT i 74 . loimm dingmala ríg, BColm. 60.21 . fer dingmála gach duine, Hy Fiach. 250 . acht co rabat glinni mo dingbala riu provided I have securities worthy of me, MU 4.28 . robui ingen cruthach a dingmala aigi, RC x 187 . rothecht commaim a dhingbala, Fl. Earls 192.18 .

(b) With prep. DO: issí in glan genmnaid dingbála do ríg, LU 3908 . ni fer dingbala dhó misi I am not a man fitted to encounter him, TBC-LL¹ 3883 St. conar persu dingbala don epscopoti hé a person fit for the bishopric, RC ii 392 . ropad sciath dingbāla dó a shield worthy of him, LL 146b6 = PRIA xix 540 .

(c) Hence as pure adj. used as pred. with prep. DO (rarely gen.) worthy of, meet for, due to, becoming to: dingbala gl. dignus, Ir. Gl. 668 . gl. idoneus, Corm. Y 754 . teghlach fial . . . as lān-dingbāla Conchobuir, ZCP v 502 . ca fiss dóib-si . . . in barbardacht fil inna churp nach fil trumma as dingbála di inna churp there may not be a heaviness corresponding to it in his body, Mer. Uil. 63 . is d.¤ dóib dochar `torment is their rightful due', SG 63.17 . atlochur-sa do Dia . . . do beith d.¤ do gabáil mo flaithesa that thou mayest be fitted to assume, 394.34 . Folld. by dochum: nirbha dingbhala dochum airdrigh Eirenn ben arna hindarba trina mígním féin, Ériu iii 152 § 5 . nír d.¤ sinn dochum a chaithme we were not worthy to eat of it, SG 43.39 . isi bud dingmala docum a cruthaigteora fein do geinemain (of Virgin Mary), 3 B 22, 70a5 . Folld. by LA, with ellipse of DO: naptar dingmala leo in sheoit fouarotar they did not deem worthy (of them) the treasures, Anecd. ii 56 . do ba dhingbhála leis bheith ag foghlaim he did not think it beneath him to be learning, SG 16.15 .

In impers. construction, is d.¤ (do . . .) it is worthy (of), right (for), incumbent (on): co na gabat a chomorbus-som indus as dingbala doib, PH 4247 . as dingmala do deghmnai . . . a snim do tabairt fris, CCath. 4057 . as fír nach diongmála do dhuine . . . codladh . . . i lleabaidh Maodhóg no one is worthy to sleep, BNnÉ 276 . ós é lyaigh minister na naturae is d.¤ dō toil na naturae do leanmuin, O'Gr. Cat. 235.33 . Absol. it is fitting, meet: narbo d.¤ a chor fo thalmain a haithle in gnīma dorigne, PH 664 (?). is d.¤ dogabmait-ne ar césad, 2887 . cech aen dogéna bréc, conid d.¤ bás d'fhagbail dó, 2736 .

(d) Hence absol. as attrib. suitable , worthy, fitting, in later lang. used to denote excellence in gen.: a caeim-celi gráduch dinguhala, TE § 20 Eg. is m'[fh]er d.¤ frim lá, TFerbe 482 . da puitric dec lais cona mbiad d.¤ leo with their proper complement of victuals, Metr. Dinds. iii 532.18(notes). síl . . . na ndeigfer ndingmala roc[h]insett o Aeneas, CCath. 6042 . di tuait diles d.¤ De, BB 240b5 . roinn díles diongmála, BNnÉ 258.12 . dober-sa comharthaidhe maithe diongmála dhuit, Ériu v 166.35 . So in Bible, Matthew xix 21 (= τέλειος), Acts x 24 , xviii 26 (adv. comp. = ἀκριβέστερον), Romans iv 16 . As adv.: leiseóchar co dingbala na dighbāla adequately , Fianaig. 72.17 . an tan ghlacthar co diongmhála í (of a sacrament), Ó Héodhusa 206.15 .

(e) Later used also as subst. with gen. (poss.) and followed by de + subst. of definition to denote that which is worthy of, fitting for, an equivalent , a use arising out of (a) by inversion: fuair a dhiongmhala do dheghthuarasdal o'n mbainrioghain a remuneration worthy of him (= fuair deghth. a dhingbhála), AFM v 1814.10 . ní bhaoí aon triocha chéd . . . na baói a dhiongmhála do thighearna isan Tadhcc sin that would not have had a fitting lord in T., vi 2308.12 . Cf. Stowe variant of TBC-LL¹ 1123 quoted above under I.

III As gramm. term privative case: dingbhail, BB 328a21 , Lec. 323a22 = digbhail, Auraic. 1525 (reading of H 4.22 ). If reading of BB be right, word is prob. a particular application of (I) = taking away, removing .

IV In mod. lang. occas. worth, excellence, merit , a sense prob. due to corresponding use of dingbála, see II (d) above: gurab o Dhia thig . . . uile naomhthacht ┐ uile dhiongmhail oibre, Luc. Fid. 227 . creud da ttig brigh ┐ diongmhail do bheith san obair daonna, 226 .

1 dres

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n turn, while, spell: ar mbeith dreas i ndoghrainn tslegh | ag foghlaim chleas is chluichedh, O'Gr. Cat. 508.10 . tug dreas adhmholta ar na fíanghaisgídhicc sin, CF Eg. 404 . déana dreis d'á snoidhe whittle it for a while, ITS i 116 . dreas tré fhaillighe . . . dreas tre easbhuidh . . . dreas tre chionta sometimes . . . sometimes , Donlevy Pref. xx-xxi .

2 ese, esse

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n essence, essential nature (that which constitutes an individual a member of a class, as distinguished from accidental qualities): caide esse in sechtu frisa tomsigther in Goe[de]lg ? ...esse feda .i. in blog aoir tebide gebhes in fid i n-elluch focail...esse deich...in lin no inn uaite son n-oencongbalach airimther o dialt co bricht...esse remme, etc., Auraic. 896 ff . = caiti eisi 3778 ff. (YBL). eisi .i. go mbeith esse d'ecensia (= essentia) .i. mar roinnius rann ┐ uilidhecht, 3797 . ese cruthoigti ┐ eisi adbarrda creative (formative ?) `esse' and causal `esse' 3799 . eisi adbarrda .i. mac do geineimain on athair...eisi cruthoighti mar ata mac aga foghlaim [ó] oidi no maigistir, 3800 . g s. oen-fholaid ┐ oen-essi frissin athair of one substance and essence with the Father PH 177 .

1 fáelad

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u, m. (M.Ir. vn. of fo-gleinn, Ériu xxxiv 118 ) learning; teaching; fáolad .i. foghlaim , O'Cl. Eg. Gl. 646 . Cf. next.

fáes(s)am

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fáes(s)am or dil.ie/21032
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: faesaim, fóesama, foesma, faesma, faíseamh, foesmaib, f., fáesam, f., fáesam, f., faesam, faesam, f., saíre, fáesam

u, o, m. (vn. of fo-sisedar. Cf. Mid. W. gwaessaf, gwayssav, Loth, RC xxxviii 300 ): g s. faesaim, BDD 162 (foesma Y). fóesama (for this form see Hessen, ZCP x 321 ) LU 4871 = foesma, TBC-I¹ 383 . pl. faesma, Laws v 48.20 Comm. n s. faíseamh (o, m.) IGT, Decl. § 28 (fáeisimh proscribed as incorrect).

I

(a) in lit. sense `standing under,' hence bearing up under, supporting (?): úair nach fóisam in lind, berim-se maccáem ... tarsi, TBC-LL¹ 1305 (`Fuss-Feste' Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 629 ; anuair nach roichther in linn la cách St); cf. bói C. forsin lind ... ┐ ni ba faesam cid si, TBC-LL¹ 1945 . Possibly an extended use: trustworthy, safe . In follg. ex. Dr. Binchy would see a metaph. use of the meaning adopting, taking into protection (see below): issi innfine i fintedaib griain a tir i fuissither; ar i[s] sruithiu la Feine in foesam andsen oldás a tir as a tairidnither, Laws iv 206.9 (glossed: f. .i. in línd, 208.17 ), i.e. the land in which water is collected in a standing pool or reservoir ranks higher than that in which it has its source. Here the four adjacent holdings are in the matter of water-rights likened to the four categories of affinity, viz. gelfine, deirbfine, iarfine and innfine. See ib. p. 166 .

(b) in the literature usually protection, safeguard: co nach fagbad foisam lat | cid do mac nothaesad fritt, Ériu ix 45 § 5 . is ... essamna mór do T. toidecht cen ḟaosam cen chomairche ina tíre, TTr.² 246 . faosamh .i. comairce, O'Cl. `faosamh' is cuime [ = coimge?] ... dhá ainm cumairce, Metr. Gl., Ff. 31 . luid epscop Erc do thig Ḟ. ... ┐ coṅgab in mac ina ucht, ┐ focheird a ḟoesam ┐ a oentaid fris (i.e. bp. E. placed himself under his protection. Cf. the parallel passage: gabh misi cucat amail mhanach ndilius, Lism. L. 3359 = suscipe me monachum tibi obedientem Lat. Lives 102 ), Fél. 132.25 . With prep. DE, FO and esp. FOR (AR), folld. by subj. gen. under the protection (of): for foísam ríg na ndule comairche nachanbēra [ = -mēra ?], Thes. ii 306 ( Hy i 53 ). cor marbad a ri do fáesam Bachla Issa while [i.e. in spite of being] under the safeguard of RC xviii 28.21 (Tig.) = dar comhairge na bachla, AFM 1109 . A. do marbad la T. ... do ḟaesamh na bachla Isu, AU 1015 . pl. in concrete sense: Cinaedh ... demersus est. ... di foesmaib degdoine nErenn ┐ comarbhai Patraic in spite of the guarantees of AU 850 . in cath bar th'oesam ┐ bar do chommairge, LL 176a43 ( CRR 38 ). iar marbad mac nUsnig for a ḟaisam ┐ for a chommairgi, TBC-LL¹ 464 . ba for a foesam boi Fergus F. was under their protection LU 1619 . is ed doroachtmar fort foesam sunn `'Tis for that we have come hither under thy safeguard' BDD 3 . co ndigset som uili ar m'o(e)sam-sa ┐ ar m'imdegail feib dochuadusa ar a faesam sun ..., TBC-LL¹ 941 . rogab indala n-ae for foesam mBuidb ... gabais araile [for] faessam Ochaille placed himself under the protection of Dinds. 57 . Cf. dia ngaba for faosum `wenn er unter den Schutz gekommen ist' Ir. Recht p. 51 . gur bhó heiccen dona bárdaibh tocht diairm for faesamh an Iustís, AFM vi 2272.1 . ar fhaosam nó ar ionchaibh Íosa, TSh. 2716 . do muirbfedh ... fer ar faosaomh bfer talman would slay a man (even though he were) under the safeguard of everyone ZCP xiii 12.19 . Freq. in ellipt. optative sentence: for a [ḟ]óessam dún innocht may we be under His safeguard Hy i 2 . ar th'faosamh dhamh, a Dhé..., Aithd. D. 73.1 . for a foísam dún ar talmain, LL 364 marg. ( Mart. Tall. 122 ). for foessam duit na saille !, MacCongl. 83 . Less freq. with obj. gen.: ced ná ro nass do foessam-su forsna maccu? why were not the boys pledged to protect you? LU 4894 . téit cosna maccu cen naidm a fóesama [foesma Y] forru, LU 4871 . do chor th' aesma ┐ t'imdegla for in maccraid, TBC-LL¹ 881 = do comairci St. can chur a fáisma foraib, 911 . geib-siu fort faesam na macraide, 944 . O. rogab fóesam ḟír-Ḟoebair | oc Síd B. ... fo frith fóesam do R. O. undertook protection of R. Metr. Dinds. iii 272.38 (cf. Dinds. 57 , above). cuirim m'ḟaosamh ar a ḟuil I entrust myself to His blood Ir. Monthly 1928, 439 .

(c) legal uses. In Law texts f.¤ is common in the meaning protection: ni techta nach foessam ar na tegat ratha fine no `f.¤' is lawful which the sureties of the family do not warrant Laws iv 206.17 . ni bi acraidi faesam (nocha bi acra ... don ti bis ar foesam neich) `no person who is under protection is qualified to sue' [can be sued ?] i 102x (104.24) .

The maxim: cach faesam co fognam, Aib. Cuigni 54 ( ACL iii 227 ; ZCP xvii 56 ) is obscure, and has not been found elsewhere. cisa Mumhan ... do Chaisil ... cach bliadhna dobearar .i. smacht ┐ biathad ┐ turgnumh [turtugud v.l.] ┐ faesamh, Leb. Cert. 60 . nocha nuil eneclann na faosam do he has no honor-price or power of protection (Binchy) Laws ii 24.4 .

Sometimes a different meaning is implied: in the following legal expressions the original meaning seems to be acknowledgment (cf. coibsena .i. confessiones .i. comfaesaime, Thr. Ir. Gl. 11 = chomfaoisitin, Corm. Y 292 , and see fo-sisedar): aicc macu hi foisam do raithe frisin fiach so find sureties for assuming thy guarantee of this debt Bürgschaft 28 § 76 . cf. luid iarum i mMumain co ndeirgene foesam a ingine fri (nō for) Oengus. dobert iarum Oengus ferann do mac a ingine, Rawl. 119a26 = co M. do cuinnighid faesam [sic] a ingini for Aengus, BB 121a37 . ro chuindigh ... faosam a ingine for Aonghus, LL 381a24 (Oengus was the father of the girl).

In the sense protection, privilege , `f.¤ ' is found in connexion with entertainment of the lord and (or) his followers, and in connexion with distraint, seizure of cattle for unpaid dues, etc. "`fáesam' often denotes the immunity from legal process which a person of high rank confers on an inferior, usually a client (céle), who has entertained him and his retinue in accordance with the obligations of clientship. This immunity lasts for a certain period after the departure of the protecting person, whose status determines the duration of the `f.¤ ' During this period the `protected' person has `saíre' (= `f.¤ ' from his point of view) i.e., no legal claims which others have against him may be enforced by the process of distraint." (Dr. Binchy). In these passages the phr. `facaib f.¤ fair,' etc., is common. The meaning is evidently `leaves' (i.e. `confers, bestows on') though the translation `relinquish' often appears in the published Laws. The use in connexion with stay of seizure may be the origin of the later sense relief in illness, passing of the crisis, see II below. A satisfactory definition of this legal `fáesam' would involve a concurrent discussion of the terms `comairce, snádud, turtugud, turbaid' and `saíre,' some of which are often equated with `f.¤ ' by the commentators. All that can be done here is to quote a few passages illustrating the usage. See Ir. Recht 73.1 ff . turtugadh ... ré fedh urgnamha in bidh ┐ comairche in aired bes a caithemh a mbaile ┐ faesam ... iar fagbail in baile, uair is a n-ecmais nech bís a faesam ┐ ina coimitecht bis a comairce . amail atbeir a n-edgidh: .c.c. a caemachta .c. faesma a n-ecnairc, O'Curry 1386 (< H 3.18, 630 ). Here, as Dr. Binchy points out, the reference is to the `faesam' bestowed by the lord on his host while he is entertained, and for a period (see below) after his departure. But the note seems somewhat confused, as `comairce' regularly refers to an escorting safeguard. In the following version `comairce' is replaced by `turbaid': dethbir itir turrtugh ┐ torbaidh ┐ faosamh: in turrtugh .i. re ollmuithe an bidh . in turbaid .i. re a caithme . in faosam .i. iarna cathamh, O'Curry 2651 (< Eg. 88, 55b ). Cf. foesam .i. fo-sisithar tar crich, Ir. Recht p. 6 (no context). The lord, when he takes refection from the `céle,' thereby postpones any such impending seizure. While the meal is being prepared `turtugud' comes into force; while it is being consumed `comairce' (or `turbaid'); for a period after consumption and departure of the guest `faesam.' intí aca mbí tech, is fair facabar faosam, O'Dav. 999 . In some passages in Commentary `f.¤ ' is loosely equated with `turtugud,' e.g. throughout the Uraicecht Becc, Comm.: turtugud mīs dō (.i. mī a lānḟaesam bid ┐ fonadma), Laws v 46.25 ( 48.8 ; 50.7 ; 56.17 ). aenlā a t. (.i. aen-lā a lānḟ.¤ bīdh), etc. 58.16 (19) . athgabail tar turtugad cach duini bes tualuing a turtugad (.i. dar f.¤ cach duine is cuimgech f.¤ do gabail uirre), 256.31 (258.19) .

The time for which `f.¤ ' was valid varied with status (see last quot.): cred do beir cona commór faesamh ┐ turtugud ┐ dama fechta feile ┐ foluch n-othrusa do ri tuaithe ┐ mortuaithi ┐ nach commor enech what is the reason that the king of a territory and the king of a great territory are equal as regards `f.¤' and `t.' and followers on a free visit, and sick-maintenance, while their honour-price is not the same? O'Curry 1383 (< H 3.18, 629a ). faosamh na righ so .i. mi do righ tuaithe ┐ morthuaithe. tri caoicthis do ri tuath . raithe do rí cuicidh . bliadhain do ri Erenn, O'Curry 1260 (< H 3.18, 509 ). faosum na tri n-airech forgill .xx. laithe cechtar de na deisi si is taire . mi don fir is ferr, O'Curry 1261 (ib.). See also discussion on periods of `f.¤ ' in connexion with distraint, Laws i 100 .

Fractions of `f.¤ ' are referred to: masa lainbiathad cu fodnaidm, is lanfoesum fagabhar ara sgath . masa lain-biathadh cin fosnaidm ... is lethfoesum fagabhur ar a sgath, Laws ii 28.22 Comm. in t-ainmrainne don biudh ro caith curub é in t-ainmruinne sin don lanfoesumh fagbus ara sgath ib. 31 . miter foltaib .i. dus cia foessamh, in ōgh, in leth ... nō mitear ┐ rl. .i. in ndlighe foessamh etir ... nō ... in ndlighe fosister itir, O'Curry 510 (a fragment in H 3.18, 258 ; unfortunately the context has not been found).

If the guests fail to arrive, a fraction of `f.¤ ' is still valid: ca hait a faghbas [leg. fāgbhas ?] duine faosam fair budein ┐ a biadh do caithem dō ? ... an inbaid ro dáilestar dámh na tainic fechtus aile dia saigid, madh ro faillidhedar in dámh bodeisin, no mad docuadar re tosca deithbire ┐ ro chaithestar biadh, is a lethfaosam fagbus air, ┐ ise sin aon ina[d] isin mberla Feine ana fagbann nech faosam air ┐ a biadh budein do caithem dó, O'Curry 2448 (< Eg. 88, 36b ) = Laws ii 30x Comm.

The following refer specifically to prevention of distraint , i.e., seizure of cattle: a tabairt do snadud as tualaing a turtaigthi (.i. faesam d'facbail uirri, .i. crui) mad cen airis snaite, mad don snadud rongabthar asrenar log n-enech in snaite (.i. is uais ernither log enech fir in faesma don athgabail do lecon fon caill), Laws i 92.1 (98.13) . f.¤ sin tainic re re n-apaidh ┐ troiscthi, 100.1 . man ro airbertnaig a faesam cur gabadh athgabail de is anadh dechmaide ar in athgabail, 100.5 Comm. mas a n-aimsir lobtha [tainic in f.¤] nocha saorund ar fogelt na ar bleith na ar lobad hí, uair ni téit an faosam amach 'na deagaidh, ┐ téit in turbhadh, 102.4 Comm. cach baile atáit dá foesum no a tri ann, deghuidh i ndeghuidh tangatur na foesmhu ann, ┐ damadh i n-aínḟecht, nocha bia acht in foesumh bu sia . ┐ i bforbad ré anta táinic in foesam ann, ┐ dama[dh] re ré n-anta, isedh budh anudh di re ré in foesma uili, ii 102.15 Comm . mad ro urfaem in bidbaidh apadh, ┐ troscadh i faesam, cia no airberedh a faesam ria ngabail athgabala de, teit turrtughadh la fogail ann; is slan athgabail do gabail de, Laws i 98x . cf. téd turrtugh la fogail .i. téd an comairce deisim la fogail do denamh do mhuin na comairce ... no dno, téd de an turrtugh ┐ bí fair in faosamh, O'Curry 2441 (< Eg. 88, 36a ).

Cf. ní féith [ = féich ?] faosam fo chaoill .i. an faosam ar dibail ma ro thairmisc apa ┐ trosca, O'Curry 2650 (< Eg. 88, 55b ).

In some passages `saíre' and `fáesam' seem to stand for different aspects of the same process, e.g.:

Leath saire mad fuit notfuide neach fri fothugh[adh] tēchta (.i. leth foesum fagbus masa neach eile fuidhius uadh i[n]neach sin do caithiumh bid céilsine flatha) `Half free-quarters if another person sends [some] one upon lawful entertainment (that is, he loses one-half of protection if it be another person that sends him to consume the food which is due to the chief from his tenant)' Laws ii 26.16 . In H 3.18, 332 (reading: no da fuidhe) this is expld.: .i. leath faesam facbaith mad fuidet fuides neach iad do chaithem ineich na fothaigend co dligech biad celsine na flatha, ┐ leathfaesam no fuicfed fein for a ceile, ┐ isseadh facbaidh in coindem cuirter dia cathem fo aicned na flatha, fáesam imorro fon aicned [féin ?] facbaid in coindem for in flaith, O'Curry 682 . In Eg. 88, 36 , which gives of the text only the last four words, the commentary reads: .i. biadh ceilsine na flatha sin, ┐ in flaith do chuir a dam [feachta] fele da caithem, ┐ faosamh na flatha do facbail doibh ar in ceile, ┐ a lanfaosamh do facbail dona damhaibh ar in flath fo aicne [fon aicniudh budein ..., Laws ii 28 ] ar ise tuc biadh doibh . Ocus is ann sin ataitt da faosam a dualgus aonbidh, O'Curry 2446 (also Laws ii 28.1 ff . with slight verbal variants). `saíre' in this passage surely = exemption ? On the same page it is 6 times rendered "`saire'—exemption." See also footnote on p. 18 .

In these passages `saíre" apparently = the exemption due to the presence of `fáesam.' Cf. also fír faosma fosearnathar saire, saoire biata, saoire foghnuma, saoire faosma do cach fo miadh miter cach coir cirt, O'Curry 2443 (< Eg. 88, 36 ) = Laws ii 20.15 , where the rendering of the text, fir foesuma `true protection' cannot be right. Leg. fri faosma (or -am) fo-sernatar, etc., exemptions are arranged according to protection ? ni tuaslaige nach saire no nach faosam bes isle agra bes uaisle enech .i. ... ní is mo na logh enech fir in faosaim don athgabail do legan as re ré in faosaim in inbaid is dar an fis faosma i n-ecmais ro gabadh an athgabail .i. lubra ┐ bidh, ┐ fonadma, O'Curry 2657 ff . (< Eg. 88, 56 ). ni fil saire fri dithim iar n-eagar. ata imorro turbuidhe ┐ faor ┐ faosam, O'Curry 2728 (< Eg. 88, 61 ).

(d) Attrib. gen. :

cēle faesma (foissmad LB) a tenant under the protection of his lord Corm. Y 532 (see ZCP xv 247 and cf. faísitiu). cele faesma .i. in cele faoismither [sic leg.] ac neach, O'Dav. 1327 . Of taking into protection, adopting: seoit foesma the `seds' paid for the admission of children of doubtful origin into the `fine,' apparently to the more legitimate children whose shares in the family property might be diminished thereby: conic in t-athair mac na mban aititin do gabail re re budein cen fír ┐ cen ṡeotu foesma ┐ nocho roindind se dibaid in athar iar n-ēc an athar ris na macaib aile co tuca seotu faesma dona macaib aile, ┐ fír da mberait amarfis fair. Na huile meic taide uile conic in t-athair a ngabail re re no iar re cin fír, ┐ nocho coinig cen seotu faesma, ┐ inti no berad dibaid an athar otha na mic taide amach curab e beris na seotu faesma rl., O'Curry 702 ( H 3.18, 338 ). mic na mban taighe, ce nogabhta a oen no dedhe dibh docum na fine co fīr no co setuibh faoesmha, ma ro forbridar co bfuilet coimlín fine is ecin fīr Dē anosa dia fastadh, Laws iv 294.5 Comm. (of certain classes of women :) Ni berat comperta for fine .i. nocha berait ini comairbertnaigter uathuib for in fine can fīr ┐ seotu faosma leo don fine amach, v 276.25 Comm . cain-berad meirdrecha ... .i. is taitnemach berait na mna is merdrech in ní donither riu i lanamnus ... acht co tucait fīr ┐ seoit faesma leis .i. a altram do denam di, 452.24 Comm .

cin log faesma (.i. cen log ar a faisitnighudh .i. secht cumala), 456.23 (of admission of illegitimate sons to tribe). i taidhe dorinnedh na mic so ... ┐ fior ┐ seotu faosma doberaid lais dia fastadh for in athair amach, O'Curry 2236 (cf. 2235 ). cor faesma `a contract of adoption ' Laws iv 60.13 (.i. in cor curtar risin mac faesma an fine `a covenant which is made with the adopted son of the tribe' 62.3 ). mac fáesma adopted son : in cutruma bias o duine do mac faesma du geilḟine no do deirbḟine ar dénum a gaire ... uair nugu roich in trian no in leath cu cóir acht re macc faesma d'anḟine, O'D. 2255 (< Rawl. B 506, 20a ). fine taccuir .i. na meic foesma `adopted sons' Laws iv 288.14 . fine taccuir issede domberat cuir bel a foessam `who give verbal contracts in adoption' Laws iv 284.16 . `mac fáesma' is distinguished from `dalta': dighail daltadh na fine .i. dalta coitcenn na fine, ┐ dighail fir foseisiter fine .i. dighail in ḟir ḟaoismighes in ḟine don ghaire in tseanorach .i. in mac faosmadh, O'Curry 391 (< H 3.18, 219a ). in dalta ┐ in gormac ┐ in mac faosam [leg. —ma or —aim] eneclann dleghaid in fine ina marbad sen ib. See Thurn. ZCP xiv 371.27 . aitire fáesma a supporting guarantor (?): the guarantor of acceptance (?) (dist. from a. luigi and a. nadma), Bürgschaft 22 § 64 . caide aitire foisma ? fo-sisithar side smachta dam in fasach sin, 25 § 68 (passage corrupt, in Thurneysen's opinion). fath faoisimh (ni fáth fáoisidh v.l.) `cause of protection' BNnÉ 249.15 . Cf. co bér breth for ḟáth faosmha, fer fotha ... fer faosmha, fer foghnamha, Ériu xiii 16.12 (expl. : faesamh .i. foghlaim ut est co ber breith for fátha faesam [fath faesma v.l.], O'Dav. 859 ) = cotober breth fo[r] fath faesma ib. Ériu xiii 59w (< H 3.18, 207a ). cis lir ó ndleghaid filidh faosmha raith ? easpuicc righ saoi, file fireon ..., Ériu xiii 34.9 .

II In Early Mod. Ir. relief, assuagement (cf. the use in c above which sometimes approaches the meaning relief), esp. recovery (from illness): fiabhras ar nach foil faoiseamh 'a fever for which there is no relief', Celtica xxvi 98 § 13 . an tan gheibhid na heasláin faoisiomh, 23 K 42, 19.1 . a ttosach an ḟaoisiomha, 20.15 . an uáir fúair sé fáoiseamh = when he began to amend John iv 52 . gan fortacht gan faoiseamh, Keat. Poems 1585 .

foglaimid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. foglaimid or dil.ie/22754

 

Forms: fogluimeóbad, -fogluimeób, fogluimear

v ā (denom. from foglaimm) learns (with LA, OC or O of teacher): fut. 1 s. fogluimeóbad (-ébad), -fogluimeób (-éb); subj. pres. fogluimear (also fagl-) IGT, Verbs § 107 .

ros foglaim sium na huili riagla aici, Lat. Lives 105 . ro fogluimestur an berla nEgeptaca la Cai, Laws i 20.14 . ro ḟoglaim na huili cleas, Ériu i 124.9 . intí nar fóglaimm littri riam, Trip. 392.24 . ro foghlaim ind eccna, Anecd. iii 31.6 . cur ḟogluimset ceol síde ... ó Chnaí, Acall. 651 . go bhfoghlamadh ... teanga na críche until he should learn Keat. ii 51 . foghluim fulang = disce pati Instructio 6.4 . ar eagla go bhfoghluimféa a ṡlighthe lest thou learn Proverbs xxii 25 . ... na da chenel sechtmogad o ro foghlaimet na hilberlae `were learnt' Auraic. 216 ( BB 316b23 ) = ra foghluinti, Auraic. 2532 ( YBL 221a48 ).

With stem foglamaid-(= aigh ?): an te ... thegaisges no ḟoghlamaidhes draoitheacht, Ó Héodhusa 135 .

foglaimm

Cite this: eDIL s.v. foglaimm or dil.ie/22753

 

Forms: foglaim, foglim, foglaimme, foglamo, foghlamae, foghlaim, faghlaim, -aime, -ama, fogluma

n n, n.; later f. (vn. of fo-gleinn) n s. foglaim, Ml. 14c10 . 11 . foglim, Wb. 30c15 . g s. foglaimme, Ml. 42c2 . foglamo, O'Mulc. 537 . foghlamae, 512 . foghlaim , faghlaim (g s. -aime, -ama) IGT, Decl. § 42 . As vn. ib. Verbs § 107 .

(a) learning, studying, study , with obj. gen. and O, LA or OC of teacher: bidfoglim doib (gl. semper discentes) Wb. 30c15 . f.¤ inna hirisse, Ml. 14c10 . tanic Patraic dochum nÉrend íar foglaim after studying LU 271 . dochoid ... d'oglaim fades, 268 . oc foglaim druidechta úad, 5037 . luid do foglaim gaiscid ... la Scáthaig, 4835 . oc foghlaim oca studying with him Lism. L. 215 . do fogluim na screpttra, Lat. Lives 60 . Lism. L. 182 . nā dēna foghluim ag mnāibh, Lat. Lives 105 . re rē na foglama while learning (studying) Laws iv 236.21 . og fochlaim fhesai ┐ eolais, RC xii 56 § 2 . cia dhib noraghadh ... do fodhlaim na Tāna, ACL iii 5.30 . ag foghlaim snāmha, AFM v 1684.12 . g s. imud fesa na fogluma ōn oidi dun dalta, Laws v 56x Comm. noí n-araid foglomma charioteers in training (apprentices) LU 7610 ( BDD 115 ). doras faghlama in fissin, IGT, Decl. ex. 1140 . dénaidhsi imthecht ... do dhénamh bhar bhfoghluma, Comp. CC 72.25 .

(b) acquired learning, knowledge: ba-sa bodhar foglime i findfocluib fis, ZCP xii 365.19 . fear ro dhearsgnaidh ar eccna ┐ ḟoghlaim do lucht na hEorpa uile, AFM 867 (= doctissimus Latinorum totius Europae AU). idna beoil ┐ foglomma, LL 30d37 . an rolla foghlama parchment of learning TD 23.7 . scolaide ┐ lucht foglam(a) leaburda, CCath. 5079 . A branch of knowledge, a science: teaguiscit ... leighenn ┐ gach foghloim imchupaidh archena, Fl. Earls 182.2 . Literary knowledge, letters: cionnas do thuicfidh ... leitreacha ┐ gan fhoghlaim aigi?, Instructio 167.34 .

(c) instructing (rare): imat ... maigistrech ag teacusc ┐ ag foghloim ... don chlann-mhaicne si, Fl. Earls 180y .

(d) concrete, a teacher (?): gur tuirsighedh aithre ┐ oidigh ┐ foghloma dhá leasughadh, ZCP xii 396.26 (prob. gs., a preceding noun having fallen out).

1 foirbthe

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 foirbthe or dil.ie/22949

 

Forms: foirbthea, forbtiu, formbthi, foirfe, foirbthiu, fuirbthium, foirbthea, foirbthiu, foirbthi, foirbthi

adj io-iā (part. of for-fen) n s. foirbthea [sic] Wb. 19a11 . forbtiu, Mon. Tall. § 36 . formbthi, § 35 .; in later lang. frequently written foirfe. Compar.: foirbthiu, Wb. 13d29 . Superl.: fuirbthium, Mon. Tall. § 25 .

Lit. ` finished, completed ,' hence

I

(a) complete, perfect , in moral sense, usually of persons or abstract qualities : ba foirbthea a ires sidi, Wb. 19a11 . nert f.¤ (gl. perfecta virtus) Ml. 35d14 . serc f.¤ , Tur. 32 . d s m. i mbethid noib foirbthiu Ml. 74d9 . d s f. isin frescsin foirbthi , Wb. 6d11 . a p f. foirbthi (gl. perfectas) Ml. 124c4 .

lucht na deṡerci forpthi, LB 168a58 ( PH 3494 ). foirbthi, feidli, SR 4857 . do folsigud a umalloti forbthi, LU 2572 . naemthacht f.¤ , ZCP xiii 179.21 . filedha forbthe finished poets (i.e. masters of their art), Ériu iv 162 § 24 (cf. file neamhfoirbhthe, Content. xxv 6 ). ridire glic forbfe, Fier. 28 . With I N- of subject, quality, etc.: ba foirfe in gach foghluim, Ériu v 78.11 . gurbo foirfe isin scriptuir é, BNnÉ 317 § 3 . forbtha i ffoc[c]hluim gach gaisgidh, Leb. Gab.(i) i 222 . fer rob ócc n-aoisi, ┐ roba foirfe i n-eineach ┐ i n-eangnamh, AFM v 1690.13 . Cf. corrop f.¤ cách in operibus ministerii aeclesiae, Wb. 22a10 .

In religious lit. used like NT Gk. ἅγιος in sense religious, holy: oís f.¤ , Wb. 22a13 . comarde oísa foirbthi (gl. sanctos) 22b15 . forcital oísa foirbthi (gl. spiritalibus .i. hominibus perfectis in fide) 8c3 . hua huathad do aís foirbthiu (gl. paucis uirtutis studio praeditis) Ml. 90c11 . dond áos fuirbti, Mon. Tall. § 23 . coic deichnebuir ... do aes foirfe, Lism. L. 2071 . combat foirbthiu ar chách for ṅgnímae (gl. stabiles estote et immobiles abundantes in opere Domini) Wb. 13d29 . tech sruithi bet fuirbthium hisind tír that are holiest Mon. Tall. § 25 . timmna forbthi in Athar nemda holy (contr. with `accobar anforbthi') LB 132a17 . ba forpthi anoraigthe a lá-sa (of Sunday) 203a51 = Ériu ii 196y . ni co forpthi noscarait, acht is co collaide spiritually ... carnally PH 5802 .

(b) Less frequently, in literal sense, of things: foirbthe ar anfoirbthiu `a perfect (number) for an imperfect ' (gl. decem millia) Wb. 9a10 . aram f.¤ a perfect number Thes. ii 31.25 . āirim anforbthe amal atā a .iii. ... āirim forbthe ut est a sē ... airim ollforbthe ut est a dō dēc, Auraic. 1445 . nuimir foirpti, 3052 . hi foraithmut airmae foirbte inna n-apstal, Stowe M. 65b ( Thes. ii 254 ). fiche bliadhain buanḟoirfe, Content. xxx 11 . Of buildings, hills, etc.: san ráith ḟoirfe, TD 25.2 . learga foirbhthe `smooth slopes' 13.13 . eadrod ┐ sliabh Sióin is iomdha ... beann ḟoirbhthe uathmhar, DDána 20 § 5 . fionnráth ... líoghfhoirfe `perfected in colour' O'Gr. Cat. 474.14 .

(c) of persons and of age ripe, mature, often aged: foirfe ` perfect, also old, ancient, antique, ripe for the grave ' P. O'C. in tan ... robu lan a tricha bliadan ┐ ro siacht a n-aes f.¤ , Trip.² 241 ( ACL iii 12 ) = Anecd. iii 30.23 . foghlaim ad lenph ani ... dodenad tarbhad dhuit anuair do bethea mor no foirbhthe, Ériu v 134 § 82 . na ule dóeni do esergi i fer forbthe fully grown LU 2620 ( RC xxv 244 ). do chéile ní fear foirbhthe `not yet a grown man' GF, Ir. Monthly 1919, 455 . ar mbeith 'na mhacamh foirbhthi do [sic leg.] a grown-up youth ITS xvi 100.28 . Of old age: Aedh ... do tesdail a n-ais foirbthi, RC xvii 374 . duine ... robui a n-aoiss foirpthe, Fl. Earls 130.6 .

(d) hence of persons old, aged (a late use, see P. O'C. cited in prec. section): ba foraesta forbthi ... in rigan. TTebe 2749 . Phorfas foirfi, 2650 (= senior Phorbas Theb. vii 253 ). a Dhé nimhe ḟoirbhthe óig ! `aged and yet young' A. Ó Dálaigh xxxvii 5 . atá tu ársaidh foirbhthe liath, Oss. iv 38.9 . atáimsi foirfe agus aosta ..., Joshua xxiii 2 . Of things : drochbhothán ... foirbhthe, TSh. 2721 . as e an tAdhamh sin ... prim-iosdad foirbthiu ... gacha foghalta fine, MR 98.12 . Cf. Flann F.¤ , AU 715 (rendered `Old Flan' in the 17th cent. transl., see n .).

(e) denoting a high degree, of quality, etc.: fuacht foirfe, ZCP xii 389z . cf. a mbeirt fhuarfhoirfe iairn (of armour), Studies 1921, 418 . foirfe an coll `complete is the ruin' 1919, 73 an fíothal foirbhthe `the veriest wretch' Ó Bruad. iii 8 .

n II As abstr. : an ḟoirfe, an ḟoirpe (v.l. oirpe), IGT iv 123 .

Cf. 1 forbaide.

gentliucht

Cite this: eDIL s.v. gentliucht or dil.ie/25696

 

n (based on Lat. gentilis) ā, f. gentilism, heathenism ; esp. heathen lore, wizardry, heathen spells, etc. : i scéláib et senchassaib recto et geintlecte, Wb. 31b14 . fri dubrechtu gentliuchtae, Thes. ii 357.5 ( Hy. vii 51 ). ro milled in gentlecht, Fél. Prol. 213 . ni roadairset in Coimdid acht génntliucht ┐ adrad hídal, LB 128a30 . nachn-erbbad i ṅgentliucht, na n-erbbad i fírinne, ZCP xi 88 § 56 . [tin]tud ngeindtlechta, Laws i 8.16 . intuth i ngintlecht, O'Curry 758 ( H 3.18, 358b ). combtar fortilde for suthib cerd ngenntlichtæ, RC xii 56.16 ( CMT § 1 ). LU 4413 . Cf. Anecd. i 19.19 . rachuaid im munigin ... a gessi ┐ a gentliuchta, TTr. 362 ( LL 222a20 ). rolā ... tūathi ocus gentlecht isna hilblassaib sin `charms and heathen spells,' MacCongl. 5 . mucca gentliuchta, RC xiii 448 § 34 . d'ḟoghlaim druidhechta ┐ geindtliuchta ┐ ḟeasa diabuil, BB 27b10 ; 19a33 . Cf. with above : expelle gentilitatem ab homine isto, Stowe M., p. 5 . transformavit se in multis formis per gentilitatem, RC xxiv 276 § 9.

i

Cite this: eDIL s.v. i or dil.ie/26891
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: isin, isint, isind, isind, sind, issa, is, sa, isteampull, ansan, isnaib, isnaib, isna, ands[n]a, annsna, issinn, isa, issa, is, isin, insa, ionnsa, sa, isna, annsa, istech, istig, immach, immaig, indium, innium, ionnam, iondam, indiut, inniut, iniud, ionnod, ionnat, inneat, and, ant, and, ann, annt, indi, hindae, indti, inde, inti, inte, ind, inn, inte, innte, indiunn, indiun-ni, annainn, indib, innibh, ionnaibh -se, indib, indeb, intib, innta, ionnta, annta, intiu, inntu, ionntadh, im, inna, inná, innar, inar, 'nar, i bar, hi far, in far, ina, inna, ana, ann, i, i, san, i, ann

nasalising prep., folld. by dat. and acc. Usually written i or í when eclipsis is shown : i nÍsu, Wb. 3b6 . i ngiun, 4d33 . í n-éutt, 6b2 . i nneurt, 6d11 . i ndegaid, 30b14 . i mbiam, Ml. 21c3 . i ndia, 29d5 . i mbí, Tur. 9. i n-oénṡillaib, Sg. 120b2 . i llathiu, Thes. ii 319.2 ; but cf. hi n-iriss, Wb. 10b28 . hi rrecht, Ml. 54c2 . hi llaim, 96d6 . hi ndóiri, 125a9 . hi rriucht, Tur. 85. hi mbítis, Sg. 5a15 . hi ndilsi, 28a4 . hi mbrethir ... hi ngním, Thes. ii 253.11 . hi nDruim, 260.21 . hi mbrot, 290.9 . When eclipsis is not shown, most freq. written hi or hí : hi noibad, Wb. 3b31 . hi rect, 3d14 . hí crist, 4d21 . hi far n-irnigdib, 7a12 . hí flid, 9b14 . hi tosuch, Ml. 2a6 . hí tintud, 2a15 . hi rogabad, 24d14 . hí libur, 16c10 . hi cairptib, 43d3 . hi far crichaib, 115b10 . hi fers, Sg. 6b23 . hi roṡoithe, 73a11 . hí frecndairc, 204a5 . hi rogénair, Thes. ii 291.11 ; but : í cach thír, Wb. 1a3 . i corpu, 2b5 . í rúnaib, 2b10 . i tuil dée, 5c20 . (no exx. available of this from Ml.). i persin n-aili, Sg. 189a8 . i fogur, 6b1 . í titul, PCr. 15a3 . i comus, Thes. ii 244.30 (Camb.). In Ml. and Tur., frequently written inn before vowels : inna diad, Ml. 17c6 . inn aithchi dorchi, 30a4 . inn echaib, 43d3 . innar neurt, 43d3 . inn ecin, Tur. 134. In Wb. freq. inn before proclitic beginning with vowel : innar leid, 4b11 . inna chridiu, 10b20 . inna corp `in their body', 11d11 . inn aláil, 12a10 . In Mid. and Early Mod. Ir. i n- is often written a n- : a n-inad, PH 203. a persainn, 7577 . a sendataid, 3977 . a ngaire, BNnÉ 168.10 . a bus, SG 135.6 . cáit ambí in fer sin, 135.36 . a mmedón, TBFr. 103.

With article :

(a) dat. sg. isin chrud sin, Wb. 8b10 . isint senmim, 13d18 . isind óin uáir, 25b16 . isind laithiu, Ml. 21c3 . sind ló, TBC-LL¹ 444. issa baile-seo, Acall. 3360. is tir, BNnÉ 301.15 . is' taig, ScM. § 6.12 . is tig, BDD² 525. is’ tilaig, ITS l 38.13 . is tulaig, LL ii 13336 . is dorus, i 7318 . is tṡenchoss, iii 21254 . is treairiut 'in the three periods' UR 114 § 24 . 'sa dorus, Feis Tighe Chonáin 75. isteampull 'in the temple', Stair Nic. 32.602. Cf. 28.524 (v.l.) . ansan ūair-sein, Ériu iv 178 § 31. pl. isnaib fochidib, Wb. 14b19 . isnaib innib, Ml. 28a7 . isnaib sechtaib, Críth G. 303. isna airigthib, TBC-LL¹ 3552. ands[n]a... dúilib, O'Gr. Cat. 233.23. annsna righaibh, CF 922.

(b) acc. sg. issinn aíar, Wb. 25b24 . isa n-indarbae, Ml. 23c8 . issa suthin, 21d4 . is' tech, ScM. § 15.2 . isa tech, TBFr. 124. isa ndún, Trip.² 1464. isin ngnimrad, BCrólige § 37 n. 1 . insa curach, Feis Tighe Chonáin 920. ionnsa bhfiadh, 1173 . 'sa mboin, Fianaig. 72.18 . pl. isna bithu, Wb. 4c4 . isna lucu, Ml. 23d23 .

Distinction between dat. and acc. lost : annsa chéill, TSh. 3219. annsa gcéill, 2532 . neimhsheadh do thabhairt san tsaoghal, 339 . nach raibhe seadh san saoghal aice, 1866 . The distinction remained however in istech, istig ; immach, immaig, qq.v.

With pron. suff. ; s. 1 indium, Wb. 8d26 . Ml. 74d7 . innium, TBC-LL¹ 4382. ionnam, iondam, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1912 , 410 . s. 2 indiut, Ml. 106c15 . inniut, TBC-LL¹ 4350. iniud, TTebe 3673 . ionnod, TD 40 § 2. ionnat, DDána 2 § 11. inneat, 68 § 38 (: mbreac). s. 3 dat. m. + n. and, Wb. 1a5 . Ml. 45d15 . Sg. 3b5 . ant, Ml. 48c29 . and, Críth G. 100. ann, ML² 45. BDD² 91. annt, ZCP vii 481.29 (Enchir. Aug.). f. indi, Ml. 21c3 . Sg. 18a3 . Críth G. 105. BDD² 745. Laws iv 112.9 . hindae, BDD² 513. indti, 661 . inde, Laws iv 112.10 . inti, TBC-LL¹ 5211. TBFr. 200. inte, BDD² 498. acc. m. + n. ind, Ml. 22b1 . Críth G. 93. BDD² 196. Laws iv 136.x Comm. inn, 250. 5 Comm. f. inte, Sg. 6a6 . Críth G. 219. innte, DDána 1 § 9. pl. 1 indiunn, Wb. 5d18 . indiun-ni, Ml. 44d3 . annainn, Luc. Fid. 225.x . pl. 2 indib, Wb. 14c18 . Ml. 122c3 . innibh, DDána 68 § 23. ionnaibh -se (: fionnsoillse), 122 § 12. pl. 3 dat. indib, Ml. 30c17 . Sg. 216b4 . BDD² 475. indeb, 1468 . intib, TBC-LL¹ 174. TBFr. 35. innta, ML² 75. ionnta, DDána 122 § 17. annta, Luc. Fid. 285.10 . acc. intiu, Ml. 21a8 . Sg. 7a10 . inntu (for dat.), Ériu iii 160.24 . ionntadh, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1065.

With poss. : s. 1 im hulcc-sa, Wb. 2a8 . im chuimriug, 30a5 . iom giolla, TBC-LL¹ 5662 (St.). am f[h]ochair, ML² 774. am chlaidim, TTebe 1309 . s. 2 it senmathir, Wb. 29d11 . id ḟlaith, BDD² 178. id chémanduib, ML² 1654. at rēimennuib, 1655 . ad ruire, 1450 . it olcaibh, Studies 1933, 310 § 27 . s. 3 m+n. inna suidiu, Wb. 13a12 . inna thechtu, 13a28 . inda sesam, Mon. Tall. 129.13 . inna chumbu, Críth G. 111. ina suide, ScM. § 10.10 . 'na adhbar rīg, ML² 30. f. inná loc, Sg. 17a5 . pl. 1 innar leid, Wb. 4b11 . inar n-óccaibh, BS 112.18 . 'nar mbél-ne, Ériu iv 118 § 37. ionur ttríar, RC xxix 112 § 7. pl. 2 i bar tolaib, Wb. 3b8 . hi far selbad-si, 8d26 . in far n-Ultaib, TBC-LL¹ 1636. i bar (v.ll. in for, in bur) ngnáis-si, Fél. Ep. 375. i nbhar láimh, DDána 100 § 5 ; but cf. 'nar lámhaibh `in manibus vestris', TSh. 8579. pl. 3 ina ndúm, TBFr. 244. inna mbrucc, BDD² 1282. ana n-usci, Maund. § 136.5 .

With rel. : before a rel. i n- is not folld. by the demonstrative particle a n- as is the case with the other prepp., but is folld. directly by the verb which it eclipses : i mbiam, Ml. 21c3 . ind aimser hi rogabad, 24d14 . i mbí, Tur. 9. hi mbítis, Sg. 5a15 . indat sláin, Ml. 76a6 . aní i táa cuntubart libsi `that as to which there is doubt among you', Wb. 13a35 . intí i mbíi in spirut, 8b10 . arná torthaiset isnaib sechtaib hi tuitet enech cáich, Críth G. 303. i mbí toirm cech thempuil, Fél. May 10. cairm indom-acca ?, ScM. § 11.5 . triasand láim a mbaí an scíath, BDD² 1511. i mbiat smachta ni biat caiche ; i mbiat caiche ni biat smachta `where the requisites commanded by law are observed there are no penalties ...,' Laws iv 70.3 . cā háit a bfuil an fear feasa, Feis Tighe Chonáin 811. In Mod. Ir. on the analogy of the other prepp. i n- came sometimes to be folld. by the demonstr. particle: tuar neith ina dtú tacha | bheith gan bhú ..., Dán Dé vii 3. cath ... inar' thuitetar sochaidhi, RC xvii 377.22 . an dara halt 'na gcuirthear i gcéill ..., TSh. p. 13. (cf. san áit i bhfuil do thriall, TSh. 7137 ). an ait ann ar hiomchuibhthe an urnaighthe do dheanamh in which it were fittest, Luc. Fid. 73.1 . In Mod. Ir. also, i n-+ro frequently appears as ar : a thruaill chriadh-sa ar cuireadh mé, Dán Dé xi 4. áit ar marbhadh C., Keat. iii 2545. In the O. Ir. glosses the form of the prep. before ro was (h)i. Later in came to be used : irrufollnastar, Wb. 13b29 . hi roba, Ml. 62a13 . hi roṡoithe, Sg. 73a11 ; but : in ro lád, TBFr. 307. With neg. rel. : ainmnetach ret ... cride rig nime in nach dortai in doman ... i fudomnuibh pian `in that He doth not ...', Ériu ii 118 § 56. in gach uile ní 'snach cuirthear lá `in quibus dies non ponitur', TSh. 5175. trí neithe ... is nach raibhe an Tighearna, 9859 .

Before cach, cech : in glosses (h)i, later somet. in : i cach réit, Wb. 20c11 . hi cach ceniul, Sg. 2a2 . in cech úair, Fél. Dec. 29. in cach coiri, ScM. § 1.12 . in cech áis, PH 7115. in cach thrāth, Hail Brigit § 11. in gach errach, Fen. 286.x . in gach aon-duine, TSh. 2545. in gach en focal, BCC 436.29 . Occasionally is : is gach sochar, TSh. 798.

I Place .

A. Folld. in O.Ir. by dat.

1 Denoting place where (in both abstract and concrete meanings) :

(a) in : i mballaib caích `in everyone's members', Wb. 13d27 . attósa i sslabrid, 23a2 . i bar tolaib marbdib `in your mortal desires', 3b8 . Of an author's works : i nAmbaucu `in Habakkuk', 19b17 . amal donairchet hí fáithib et rofiugrad i rrect et amal asnindedar i ssoscélu, 13a36 . amal bid hi frecndairc no beth `as though he were present', Ml. 24c15 . i n-óen ṡosuth ṡillabe `in one position of a syllable', Sg. 7a3 . air thechtaid cach gutae a guth n-indi, 18a3 . comdire cach fri aroile i nnos chana `every person has equal dīre with another in cāin regulation', BCrólige § 5 . ni lugae mbis ind menme hisin cheill `the thought is no less occupied with the meaning', Mon. Tall. 142.23 . dam ocus tinne in cach coiri, ScM. § 1.12 . secht ndoruis isin bruidin, ib. 11 . bíann n-erbbad impu a mmedón, TBFr. 103. secht mílchoin i slabradaib argait, 33 . ar robōi Fergus fēin isin gliaid sin, ACL iii 5.7 . co facbath fuillecht ┐ eis (.i. lorg) a cos isin cloich, 10.12 . in raibhe i fāistine nó i ttaircetal accaibh ..., RC xxvii 294 § 58. nocho roibe dath nad beith inntib, xxiv 144.5 . uaitne dib i ndath snechta ┐ araile a ndath fhola, D IV 2, fo. 42c14 . adeir Auicenna go ndéntur céd comshuidigud na ndáine ands[n]a ceithri dúilib `that the primary composition of men is of the four elements', O'Gr. Cat. 233.23. go ndingnaid ... foslongport im chellaib `will besiege my churches', BCC 156.7 . a mac bec fein ina laim `leading her little boy by the hand,' Celt. Rev. viii 296.17 . Denoting the possession by anyone of certain qualities or characteristics : furrthain ó gCais san choghnach the chief is sufficient to succour the seed of Cas, IGT Decl. ex. 1125. ní ḟoil ionnod acht ionann `thou art exactly similar,' TD 40 § 2. ionnus gu mbiadh innta an righe do sdiurad `that they may know how to govern the kingdom,' Ériu v 132 § 67. ní raibhe ionnta acht buannadha do ríoghaibh Éireann `they were nothing more than ...,' Keat. ii 5079.

(b) among : a comgraidh isin tuaith `their equals in rank among the laity', BCrólige § 4 n. 3 . fuair a chrochad hi Parthib `met his crucifixion among the Parthians,' Ériu iii 196 § 12. easáonta ... na ndáoineadh ... ina bfuil sé `among whom he is,' v 92.9 .

(c) at, on, upon : hí flid Crist `at Christ's feast', Wb. 9b14 . huare is hi tilchaib ardaib no bitis, Ml. 14a9 . menme isind aurnaigti `mind fixed on prayer,' Mon. Tall. 151.19 . i mmulluch Usnig, Ériu iv 152.15 . Domhnall ... do bhualadh ... do chloidheamh i mbun ordóige, i 102 § 63 . dortad donnfala do shiltin as in aeer i cennaib na curad on to the warriors' heads, viii 26.15 . ro-an a chenn i fertais in charpait, ScM. § 19.7 . robenta corne ina cendaib `tonsures were shorn on their heads,' BColm. 26.6 . a mbun Cart[h]i na nGīall `at the foot of the pillar-stone ...', 72.20 . gelscíath co túagmílaib argait inti, TBC-LL¹ 5211. gemel crūaid i (v.ll. ar, um) coiss a hard fetter on the foot, KMMisc. 270 § 43. i n-erblib ech at the tails of horses, Fen. 66.4 . súil i gcuid mo chomhursan, A. Ó Dálaigh xxviii 5. o smuaintighib ... na mairtirech a crechtaib Crisd `thinking on the wounds', BCC 4.17 . ro baí ballán ... isan adart `on the pillow', Ir. Review 1912, 248 § 7 . i n-imiul in baile on the edge of the town, RC xxvii 292.10 . i mbruach alltorach in tsrotha, CCath. 459. atci buidin moir chuici isin drochat bui tarsin sruth, FDG 715. is file [i] gcois ma-raon ris ` on foot ,' A. Ó Dálaigh lv 5. an chroch ... do Chríosd ... 'gá chrochadh innte, Dán Dé xx 22. is aibind duit, a thuir, ... is aibinn in radarc fuil innud (to a tower), ZCP vi 26.31 . cuirid láimh i seizes : co nachar' lamh nech... lamh do chur ann durst lay hand upon him, RC xix 288 § 225. cuiris lámh i Mochuda ┐ tug ... as an mainistir amach é, Keat. iii 1948.

2 Denoting state or condition in which : hor bi accobur láe nebud dó i nnoidenacht `that he should not be in infancy', Wb. 24d11 . isind inducbáil sin `in that glory', 4c40 . i lláni etargni `in the fulness of knowledge,' 24c6 . ind fir bíis inna suidiu `who is sitting', 13a12 . bíid cach gnim inna thechtu `in its proper order', 13a28 . inna imned-sin i mbiam isind laithiu, Ml. 21c3 . in i comsuidigud fa hi comasndís bíit `in composition or in apposition', Sg. 217a1 . i bar ngnáis-si `in your company', Fél. Ep. 375. dol asa eol a richtaib con `to stray in wolf-shapes', BCrólige § 32 n. 13 . cach ['la] gabal i ssuidiu araile hi sesam `every [other] division is sung sitting, the next standing', Mon. Tall. 140.4 . conna-ētai focul fort chenn i córai properly , ScM. § 14.7 . ataat inna mbrucc in a state of dejection, BDD² 1282. tusu ad c[h]ollad, ACL iii 234 § 6. minub ina duthracht bes if it be not with good will, Ériu v 20.y . is é timairg for cech eclais co raib a durrthech ┐ a relec hi nglaine `to have its oratory and its burial-ground purified', i 219 § 6 . fororbart a cland-side ... co mbatar i mmílib so that they were thousands, LL 649 . tainic ... i n-uaite ṡloig `with a small company', Fen. 144.y . do bhī in Pelagius sin ... a nāemthacht foirbthe ┐ a mbethaid inmolta, ZCP xiii 179.21 . batar a n-itaid ┐ i tart mor, RC xxiv 196.11 . bai sidhe hi cocadh fri Find, xiii 7.z . in duine nach biadh isnna dubhailchibh marbhthacha, Études Celt. i 78.15 . ro bo cinti crīch i mbethaid i n-imḟogus dóib `certain end of life' (taking place of the more usualgen.), Fianaig. 92.29 . a thabairt i rricht feola aili `in the guise of other flesh', TTebe 1861 . bu gairid bía ad bethaid risna cathaib, 1030 . ar bhfaicsin Críost i gcruth bháis, DDána 16 § 5. cor fhoscail C. C. a suile ... ┐ e 'sa mbas `and he dying', BCC 414.3 . gach mac ... | dá raibhe i n-aois an airdríogh, Studies 1934, 90 § 22 . 'san luas na ttreigfitt as quickly as , BNnÉ 148.25 .

With poss. before certain vnn. : comtha ... ad lenamain, Prolegomena 27 n. 2 . an tṡlat oile 'na adrad the other youth worshipping him, ZCP viii 563 § 28. ion bhur lenmhuin, ML² 331. as-bert fria ina sloindiud `as he named himself (?)', BDD² 47.

3 Denoting manner in which : by means of, through, by : direnar hi comdire ... fri grada ecalsa `is paid for by equal dīre with the church grades', BCrólige § 7. nad airnaidet a tir ina frithfoltaib coirib `who does not sustain his land by performing the proper corresponding duties', § 16. ailid cac otrus a arag hi coraib bel `every sick-maintenance entails its binding by contracts', § 55. i mbommannaib arberad bith ind lítain a cuid uli `he used to consume all his portion of porridge in morsels', Mon. Tall. 135.9 . Cairbre ... do mharbhadh i bhfeill by treachery, Ériu i 101 § 55. forbhfáiltigter : an radhorc a ndath uaine, an t-eistecht a bhfoghor éttrom `gratification is afforded: to the sight, by the colour of green ; to the hearing, by a `light' sound', O'Gr. Cat. 277.27. rofersum failti friu ina n-anmannaib uadéin by their own names, D IV 2, fo. 45c5 .

4 Apposition.

A noun in apposition may be preceded by the prep. i n- (governing dat.) + poss. This was a development of the older use of the dat. without prep., e.g. is bés dúibsi far n-Ultaib, ScM. § 9.4 . ro bámarni .xu. feraib ┐ ar cúic súili déc desa do chaechad dó, BDD² 1130 and note. Hence with prep. : dúinni nar nUltaib, LU 4637. is bés dúibsi in far n-Ultaib, LL 112by . cid ma ta in mhorc[h]oinne seo acaibh in bhar nGeistedhaibh why have ye, Gesteda, ..., Ériu v 148.56 . dobudh nár dhúinn ionur ttríar Ulltach `to us three Ultonians', RC xxix 112 § 7. ní iomdha dhúnn i n-ar ndaoinibh `not many of us men ...', Dán Dé xii 1. do bhríogh gurab ennádúir amháin dhiadha gan roinn atá ionnta na ttriúr, Ó Héodhusa 25.5.

5 In predicates

(i) with subst. verb : itā mo chorp 'na c[h]amra, ACL iii 239 § 34. 'na bidbuid no go mbí fear until a man is an enemy, Ériu iv 212 § 2. dia mbadh mo chomairli-si do gneithi ann ... is 'na chath no biadh, Leb. Gab.(i) 252.23 . do bī 'n-a adhbar rīg, ML² 30. Feidhlimid mac Toirdelbaig ... ina Húa Conchubuir `... was the Húa Conchobair', Maund. 6. tét sé a comlaidir sin ... co mbí sé 'na uiscci mhilis .xx. míle 'sa fairrcci móir (of the Danube), 7 . is dearbh go bhfuilim-se im dhuine shomharbhtha, TSh. 143.

(ii) with other verbs : tanic in mac i n-a aenur, RC v 199 § 6. doberad ingen prinnsa da muindtir fein dam ina mnái, Maund. 47. tanac-sa im baidb buaidertha `I came a troubled ghost', TTebe 1899 . tarla ... an mac ... 'n-a dhalta foghluma ag Ciarán ar tí bheith 'n-a mhanach, Keat. iii 826.

6 After verbs of dividing, changing, putting, ending, etc. somet. folld. by dat. (but see infra B. 4) : trí traigid .x. a [a]ircha[e] ara rorandathar bés a thige indi, Críth G. 105. i nniarcomrucc ... forcenda ollbairdne, IT iii 11.2 . do-roinded a chorp i cethri blogaib, PH 1856. rocúmscaig i ndelbaib brechtnaib, 1740 . gur claechló an t-ór ina ghran ... eorna, BNnÉ 233.9 . timarcad i llige chro `after he has been forced into blood-lying', BCrólige § 1 n. 1 . aca cur hi cís ┐ a foghnam dermar, ZCP xi 65.10 . do c[h]uiredur insna reachtuibh-si mē, Feis Tighe Chonáin 437. nár chuirthe seadh sna sealbhaibh saoghalta, TSh. 364.

7 Various abstract meanings.

in the matter of, in respect to, in regard to : adib éolig and `ye are knowing therein,' Wb. 26b12 . cosmili fri Adam ngnímaib et accobraib, 13d12 . aní i táa cuntubart libsi `that as to which there is doubt among you', 13a35 . ar nebmóidem hi magistrib `our not boasting as to masters', 8d26 . i ndiad nach aili aridfe(i)t i llugu over whom he takes precedence in swearing, Críth G. 42. annsom i n-otrus la Fēne `most difficult in regard to nursing', BCrólige § 15. brithem eola(i) i mbiadaib `a judge who is knowledgeable about refections', § 31. ni fil bríg laisiom hisind accobar sin `he considers that such desire is no great matter', Mon. Tall. 151.13 . rosuidiged cutramas eneclainde ... isna bechaib `equal honor-price was fixed for the bees', Laws iv 200.8 Comm. i pendit ind áosae galrich `in the case of penance laid on sickly persons,' Mon. Tall. 146.27 . indat mebhair-siu ... isna airigthib gascid, TBC-LL¹ 3552. nīmda cuimcech-sa hi suidiu I am not capable of that, ZCP viii 310.11 . do agra Fechín isin saer `to expostulate with F. about the wright', RC xii 346 § 39. a n-abar ann dámadh fíor if what is said in this regard be true, Dán Dé xxvi 17. gurab eigin don liaigh éolus do bheith aige i naduir na heaslainte-si, 23 K 42, 186.3 .

according to : nach fer ... folongar i fenechus `who is being maintained according to native law', BCrólige § 22. rocoraidhid ... cách fo gradaib ┐ i ndanaib ┐ a ndligemnus `everyone was seated according to rank, profession and lawful claim', Ériu v 234.35 . a fīraicned screptra ┐ chuibsi according to the true nature of scripture and conscience, i 214.6 . adeir N. 'na ugdaras fēin on his own authority, ZCP xiii 181.20 .

instead of, in compensation for : inni uil do chach ... i crolige bais d'fertain air `that which is due to each for inflicting a mortal blood-lying upon him', BCrólige § 1 n. 6 . eiric in gac gruaid iarna brisidh `wergild for every cheek after it has been broken', § 64 n. 1 . cidh bias isin beoguin `for the life-wound', Laws iv 232.21 . in bur cintaib for your crimes, Anecd. i 44.2 . is olc an t-íc dhamh thu annsna righaibh... do thuit leat a poor compensation for the kings, CF 922. déirc sin (sic leg.) saint `almsgiving instead of greed', Dán Dé xxiv 9. beag an éaraic iarrfa id ghuin, DDána 30 § 16.

in contrast with, as against : is étrum in digal i mméit in pectho `the punishment is light for the greatness of the sin', Ml. 126b6 .

for the purpose of, with a view to : d'imcoimet na mna doberar isin ngnimrad `who is given to do the work', BCrólige § 37 n. 1 . a ndilgud chinad, PH 2993. i comartha dilguda, 3117 . i ndíoghail a athar in revenge for his father, Ériu i 101 § 56. rogabus ben ar eicin. Cid indaragbais ? why did you seize her ?, ZCP xii 362.18 . cf. bat becda fri becdataid, i ndēntar do thol that your will may be done, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 18 § 8.4 . bat tó fri tó[i], i n-étsider aisnēis, ib. 6 .

In expressing the specific extent by which one thing exceeds or falls short of another : to the extent of : corop máa i n-óenṡillaib in comparit, Sg. 40b7 . a nnád foirpret i n-oenṡillaib `when they do not increase by one syllable', 48b5 . teora cethramdin huare aequinocht indid mailliu a tuile ar cach óen laithiu `by which the flood is slower day by day', Thes. ii 14.35 (Bcr.). a coic indid óa (of the moon) `by which it is less', 20.41 . mad i ndib n-uarib deac nammá bas laigu cach mí ..., 10.4 .

8 ann 3 s. dat. m. and n. form of i + pron.

Freq. to be translated there, therein : bid [prec]eptóir cách and `every one will be a teacher there', Wb. 13a13 . maní bé est ánd tuas ┐ mad argumento bes ant, Ml. 14d1 . issed inso nád chumaing ara-n-ísar and ` 'tis this which cannot be found there', Sg. 209b13 . robatar indsin (rectius and-) etir da tráth din ló, RC iii 184.28 . teid Conán onn (=ann), Duan. F. i 67.29 . feirinnsgne sáoi ┐ flaith : an sáoi, an flaith as cóir ann, IGT Introd. 9.7 .

Used predicatively

(i) with subst. verb expressing existence and in identification clauses : ma beith nech and tra labrathar ilbélre `if there be anyone who speaks many languages', Wb. 13a4 . tuc an ingin aithne gurbh 'e righ Eirenn do bí ann, Ériu iii 152 § 6. rofiarfaig Fechin don rigain scéla in claim ┐ ro innis do gur 'uo he Isu ro ui ann, RC xii 344.15 . is é droch-nós do mhothaigh do bheith ann, TSh. 359.

(ii) with other verbs : fagham saor ann dá mbudh eol let me find an artificer who would know, Dán Dé ix 24. is tú thug na haibhne ann | 'sna maighre ar fhud na habhann, vi 38 .

Used pleonastically :

(i) with clauses introduced by áit : Cath Bhealaigh Féile ... áit ar thuit iomad do Mhuimhneachaibh ... ann, Keat. iii 2338.

(ii) anticipating a follg. adv. or adverbial phrase : is and rogab ar tús tes it began in the south, RC xvii 416.24 . is and ata mo chumachta comlai[n]d am chlaidim, TTebe 1309 . is ann batar dá dhuirb isin uisci there were two worms in the water, RC vi 175.44 . = is amlaid: is and ro boí Cu Chulaind iar mbéim dei a lened ┐ in snechta immi, LU 5856 . is and ra buí Finnachta oc imbirt ḟidchilli, LL v 39060 . is ann buí-seom: oc sním irchomail fo Grip, SCano 238 . ? atá ann = atá amlaid, Celtica xii 190 : atá and iarom conid hé ainm in cnuic Forgemen, LU 5830 .

(iii) in a rel. clause expressing identity : as é as faoisidin ann, gerán tuirsech doní an pecach, Mac Aingil 165.10 . is eadh is treas bás ann .i. bás na péine, TSh. 1948. Contrast : issí poetica licentia and tormach inna á , Sg. 31b12 .

B. Folld. in O.Ir. by acc.

1 Denoting place whither : i nníulu `into the clouds', Wb. 25b23 . tri dul isna lucu arda, Ml. 23d23 . dulluid Pátricc o Themuir hi crích Laigen, Thes. ii 241.5 (Ardm.). aratesed b isin sillaib tánaisi `that b should pass into the second syllable,' Sg. 21b9 . corop si cetathe ... hi tech n-óil that she go first, LU 8825. tecmaltar a insce dó hi teora bríathra his statement is gathered into three words, Críth G. 40. a guin inna dí chúlaid, 538 . snáidsiunn in sab slúagach | i sossad n-ard n-óiblech `into the high sparkling station,' Fél. Sept. 21. arna tailctis isa ndún, Trip.² 1464. do ḟeitheam a long ... as ┐ ind `to watch his vessels (going) out and (coming) in,' RC xvi 142.6 . cloictheach ... ┐ eoin duba diairme índ ┐ as `passing into and out of it,' xvii 394.32 . ar dhol ionnsa bhfiadh, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1173. gan dul isin mbelach mbodhba sin, ML² 337. éirg i férmaig Taillten tall, Ériu iv 106.2 . a chroch dhearg i ndeachaidh Íosa, DDána 2 § 15. dat. for acc.: arna digsed i nUlltaib, Ériu viii 175.3 . rachaidh i sosadh aingeal, TSh. 801. téidheadh isteach i bpurgadóir Phádraic, Keat. i 48.65 . ná heirg i slánaibh síotha, TD 15 § 45.

2 Denoting state into which : ar cor hi far selbad-si `into your possession', Wb. 8d26 . dotháod som im muindterus ndé, Mon. Tall. 134.31 . ros-lá i socht na h-Ulto, ScM. § 9.1 . is inna réir tíagait `they submit to him', BDD² 791. dol ina troid `go to fight him', Duan. F. i 79.3 . go ndeach mo chorp i gcaoile, Dán Dé vii 23. do chuaidh i dtarbha don tsagart (of a prayer), L. Cl. A. B., 20.12 . Apparently folld. by dat. : co ndechaidh i muinighin Brighte (? or read mBrighte), RC xxvii 292.y . docuadur a millsi brīathar ┐ a cāine comrāidh re chéile, ZCP vi 105.9 .

3 After words denoting hope, trust, belief, respect, liking, attention, etc., and their opposites: ní intiu fadesin dorecachtar `it was not in themselves they hoped', Ml. 53b11 . do neuch no-dn-eirbea ind `that shall trust in Him', 51b10 . tri chretim i n-Ísu `through belief in Jesus', Wb. 3c2 . gan cás at anam agad `not to care for thy soul', Ériu viii 195 § 4. tuigther dhún ... gurub faill tug 'nar tegmáil `that he has neglected our quarrel', iv 216 § 17 . ni raibh cadhas aige i gcill no i dtuaith `he recked naught of ...,' ZCP iv 398.5 . a menma indeḟeithmech dogrés i nDia, RC ii 400 § 42. in midochus dobi acu annsa tor do cosnum, xix 282 § 212 . uair is iniud ata mo tairisi ┐ ni ha caruit cumachtaig ele, TTebe 3673 . san tsúil ... ná cuir suim (dat.), DDána 8 § 5. déin trocaire orainn do réir ar ndochais ionnad, Parrth. Anma 9.2 . d'egla go ccuirfidhe amharas na bhas, Ó Héodhusa 63.8. dimbríogh do thabhairt san uile ní, TSh. 343. dúil ag duine i gcraos ┐ i ndrúis, 396 .

4 After verbs of changing, putting, dividing, ending the acc. is more common (but see supra A. 6) : cona tintuuth i mbélre n-aill `with their translation into another language', Wb. 13a1 . in tan domberam ar menmain intiu co lleir `when we give our mind to them diligently', Ml. 21a8 . fodailter i cóic libru `is divided into five books', Hib. Min. 46. forceinnfitis anmmann inte `nouns would be ended in it', Sg. 6a6 . co ro-deglad a ndeich renda, PH 1212. gurb i luaithreadh do claochlódhthaoi é, TSh. 300. do chuir sin do thuicsin innti curbé Gaibriel aingil ticced do labairt ris `made her understand ...', Maund. § 126. i n-am cruais dá cur im chúis `will be brought against me in my day of trial', Studies 1933, 140 § 12 .

5 Various abstract meanings.

for, on account of : nimbia durata ind `he will have nothing to give for it', Ml. 57a13 . connabáe níi indid n-ingaba á chocubus `for which his conscience may reprehend him', Wb. 11d8 . i ngabál (sic) lóge `for taking pay', 16d4 . bó i ndéicsin [n-]ind for looking into it, Críth G. 211. ca hindeochad do-bérad in rí forru ind (in punishment) for it, BDD² 196. do-gníth in chomairle hísin ┐ do-bertatar glindi ind di síu ┐ anall on both sides securities were given for it, 421 . esrócartha isan ngním sin | seasca lanamna, Snedg. u. Mac R 12 § 50. dobértar dā boin 'sa mboin ┐ dā cháirigh 'sa gcāeirig, Fianaig. 72.18 . doté(i)t aitire ar ḟer feras in fuil i córus [n-]othrusa, i mboin (`an aitire goes surety for the man who inflicts the wound for [his due observance of] the rule of sick-maintenance, [i.e.] for a cow [as penalty for non-observance ?]', tr. Ériu xii 83.26 ), Críth G. 53. ainmnetach ret ... cride ... rig nime i nnach dortai in doman ... fudomnuibh pian `in that He doth not ...', Ériu ii 118 § 56. Contrast : tucc buidechus do Día in a tindlaicibh, ZCP xi 128.26 .

Cf. indid Niall ... ro malart since it is N. ..., AU i 438.26 . faelid-sem ... hi nglen luch inna gerchrub, Thes. ii 293.24 ( SP ii ). indid Alend is dún fás, Hail Brigit § 14. inid mo athair ... ortabairsi, BDD² 737. olc i n-a ndligend bás d'fhagbail `for which he deserves', PH 2719.

as (see GOI §249.2 ) : tabeir i taurchreicc céile as a fief for a client, Críth G. 252. fáccaib in .vii. maid mboin ... i fochraic in tíre as payment for the land, 94 . gebtit iudei i n-apid, Wb. 26a8 . dobreatha i n-asgaidh dhó as a gift, TBC-LL¹ p. 367 n. 6 . i llóg a batsi `in payment of his baptism', BColm. 10.17 . dia ndechadh ... iom giolla fo[glamma] i n-Espain `als Lehrling', TBC-LL¹ 5662 (Stowe). ar is īatt robói ana farrad ann a fían a saert[h]a `as his protecting fian', BColm. 94.8 . a screbull a todúsc[th]e as fee for bringing him back to life, ACL iii 226.2 (= i screpall, RC xxvi 370.27 ). gur marbhadh é féin 'na éiric, Ériu i 102 § 63. go dtug Brian fáinne óir ... i n-almsain ar altóir Árda Macha, 82.3 . i comhardha na mīrbaile in token of the miracle, RC xxvii 300.14 . ro íarr a n-impidhe `as a request', Fl. Earls 50.23 . co tarttsat a mbú ... i lón sloigh día n-amhsaibh `as provisions', Hugh Roe 68.14 . dat. i forciull ar cainte `as a testimony of', PH 1576. a n-eisimplair ogachta na hi Muire, D IV 2, fo. 45c37 .

II Time.

1 With nouns of time : (a) with dat. to express point of time, (b) with acc. to express duration.

(a) isind óin uáir, Wb. 25b16 . hi cach láo, 4b21 . hi tossuch, 5c16 . i n-aimsir in tindnacuil-sin, Ml. 55c1 . i n-aínib ┐ domnachaib ┐ chorgasaib, Críth G. 145. isin blíadain, Fél. Prol. 281. fíach n-aidci lúoin do tabairt isind Sathurn, Mon. Tall. 137.3 . isin laithiu i rrogénair, BDD² 111. a láoibh áille `on fine days', Ériu ix 168 § 44. lim congébat sind ló baga, TBC-LL¹ 444. i n-aimsir thēchtai at the prescribed time, Ériu i 218.22 . a[n] nemlabhuirt a n-aimseraibh airithe, v 130 § 47 . i ló an mheasa `on Judgment Day', Dán Dé x 6. re sidi ... ngaithi inn a[i]msir gairb, TTebe 2403 . i ndeireadh bheatha, TSh. 885.

(b) is dia bendachthe isna bithu `He is God, blessed for ever', Wb. 4c4 . ní tremfeidliget immurgu issa suthin `(they) do not endure for ever,' Ml. 21d4 . i flaith Conaire in the course of C.'s reign, BDD² 229.

*1 (With verb) when : inraptar lán[a] a c[h]óic blíadna 'when he was five years old' TBC-I² 537 . hi nglen luch 'when a mouse sticks' Murphy Lyrics 2 § 6 . hi tucu cheist 'when I understand … a problem' ibid . imsa naídiu 'when I was a child' 86 § 5 . imbu macán when He was a small boy Blathm. 90 § 1 . inde-cluinethar ... inden-aici 'when he hears it ... when he sees it' AM 18 § 59 . i mbi 'when it is' CIH ii 529.20 , Pagan Past and Christian Present 26 . Succat a ainm i tubrad 'Succat (was) his name when he was carried off' Thes. ii 308.18 , Ériu lvi 41 n. 58 . 2 ann = then, in that case :

in tan mbís diabol n-airech désa lais is and is aire désa dia n-eper[r] ..., Críth G. 258. is and is rí(g) in tan dodnimmchellat dréchta[i] gíalna[i], 569 . ar fochraic tucustar duine a fearunn ann-sin, Laws iv 136.7 Comm. is and dixit in ben thereupon , ScM. § 3.4 . in tan ro ngabsat na curaig tír, is and robuí Mac Cécht oc béim tened i mBruidin Dá Derga, BDD² 479. is ann sin trá do-luid Conaire íar Slighi Chúalann, 429 . ba forpthi, anōraigthe a lá-sa ar na mirbuilib imdaib-si forcóemnacair and, Ériu ii 196 § 14. cuirid daeine úaisle comurtha ... ara n-aighthib, óir ann is dóig léo fein co ra bíattis uáisle 'sa doman `for then they think ...', Maund. § 158.

Pleonastically after nouns denoting time, when these are used adverbially :

do-luid feachtus n-ann dar aenach mBreg Léith `once upon a time', BDD² 2. a mbūi-seom laa n-and for Bendaib Bairchi one day, Ériu ii 22.5 . luid C. fecht n-aen ann do accalldaim in ríg, RC vi 175.52 .

III With nouns denoting occasion or circumstance : i cach caingin `in every dealing', Wb. 25b5 . isin tsenmim dedenach `in the last call', 13d18 . ar mu sémi-se ... isnaib fochaidib, Ml. 22d1 . foghlaim ad lenph when thou art a child, Ériu v 134 § 82. co mbo ḟortachtaigthid do Pátraic ┐ co mbo dítnith in cach guasacht ┐ co mbo comdídnad iarsna saethraib, ACL iii 10.13 .

IV Frequently forming prepositional and adverbial phrases, e.g. i n-agaid against, opposed to : gē mōr do shluaguibh ... biadh ionn bur n-aghaidh, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1907. armad treisiti a nert ind aghaid a namhat, Ériu viii 174.15 .

i cend

(a) against : do scáin in comla 'na cend `the door burst in towards them', Ériu iv 118 § 28. nach tuigit a nguasacht no go tecat lucht innill na sás-sin i n-a cend, PH 7739. coimēirghi na cōig cōigedach i n-a c[h]enn, ML² 1136. ná digis t'aenur | i cenn ríg Temra, SG 365.10 .

(b) as well as, in addition to : cech cúmsanad hi cend a chele, PH 3647. do-chuirfed tuilled i n-a chend, 7730 . cion Eabha i n-aghaidh an Dúilimh | doirbh téarnamh ó théid 'na cheann `when others are added to it', Dán Dé iii 16 .

i cinn at the end of : hi cind nói mblíadan, Ériu iv 94 § 12. conarba luga hí hi cind mis oltás orcc cránai, PH 7210. hi cind Ruis Omna `at the head of ...', BColm. 82.19 . i ndead after : i ndead innanísin, Sg. 1a5 . regad i nbar ndīaid, TBC-I¹ 509. amal atberum i n-ar ndiaid, PH 63. i ndegaid after : cech consain i ndegaid araile, Sg. 7a4 . foraindi ┐ for ar maccaib i n-ar ndegaid, PH 2731. i ndochum towards : ronfáid ... i ndochum n-Iffirn, SR 1856. i ndorus in front of : for-ránaicc ... a ndorus a lis, BDD² 1514. i ndorus do thige, ScM. § 11.5 . ro cing Poimp indorus a pupaill for in eac[h] sin, CCath. 4738. i ndorus Ierusalem, ACL ii 144.22 . suidis Cáilte ar in carn i ndorus in dúin, SG 139.10 . i fochair along with, in the company of : is it fhochair-siu bed-sa, CCellaig 789. am f[h]ochair, ML² 774. i fus here : in slog biid i fus, SR 4537. in tan nad bi Adam hi fos, 1193 . fad gairit bias Cáilte ibhus, SG 139.x . Somet. of this world as opposed to next : na da bethaid iarsa fhognann (MS. ḟogh-) cech iresech i-fhos (MS. i ḟos), PH 3547. do nirt a shúalach i-fhus (leg. i ḟus) i nnert a fhochraice forórda ┐ a bethad suthaine thall, 4674 . i lleth with, in the company of : ní-terpi illed nach áili `thou dost not trust thyself with anyone else', Wb. 1d10 . hóre attá innar leid `because He is with us', 4b11 . Colmān ... im leth `by my side', BColm. 94.23 . dire so fuil i leth inneic is dir do biadh along with what is due ..., BCrólige § 17 n. 4 . i leth fri in regard to, with : batar ... i nilar comperta i lleith re mnaibh ilarda `in many unions with several women', BCrólige § 57 n. 7 . is cinntech i leth fri Dia ┐ ecinntech i leth fria dainib `finite to God, infinite to men' (of the number of the angels). PH 6218. cen co derntar gabail ... i lleth friu `though an attack be not made.in regard to them', BCrólige § 37 n. 2 . iss ed fodera in comrorcu sin dam il-leth frit-sa that caused me to doubt you, MacCongl. 57.6 . i tossuch at the beginning : i tossoc[h] ná epistle, Wb. 14b2 . i tosach nach lae, CCath. 3807. adv. a n-as irchride is hed doralad hi tossuch, Wb. 13d8 . i tús at the beginning : indroet som sochaidi hi tús `at first he had received many', Mon. Tall. 135.17 . i suidiu then, thereat : ro-boí buille dar áo i suidiu, ScM. § 18.4 .

imchor

Cite this: eDIL s.v. imchor or dil.ie/27400

 

Forms: imchar

n o, m. vn. of imm-cuirethar. imchar m. IGT Decl. § 17.

I

(a) the act of carrying, bearing: corn Finn ... ┐ dá ghilla imchuir aici, Fianaig. 56.8 . gin gu beth acht si (i.e. a shield) ┐ fear a himcair, Tromd. Guaire 15. dá shleig shéta shenlethna | atá aige dá n-imchar, SG 260.16 . ni fíu mheisi a bhróga d'iómchur, Matthew iii 11. na mairbh d'onórughadh ┐ d'iomchar re a n-adhnacal, TSh. 5560. eathar .i. artrach iomchair, O'Cl. soidheach iomchuir an airdríogh, A. Ó Dálaigh ix 2. co nach mó ina ceithri fir décc do mhair lé hiomchar airm, AFM v 1776 x . aroile d'eachroidh Uī Nēill ar a roibhi pāirt dā airget dia imachor, Fl. Earls 86.y . bít ag imchar chéri as chopán | méinne macámh, IGT Decl. ex. 101. géill fa shíthlaibh óir ghá n-iumchar, ex. 955 . guin sgeine fa-deara dhamh | gan sgeana eile d'iomchar, ex. 2047 . fear iomchuir an dúilimh `the Creator's viceregent' (applied to the military chaplain), Ó Bruad. iii 42.12 .

In passive sense: cuiris iomchar faoi ┐ beiris leis da theach é he was carried, Keat. ii 3210. for (ar) i.¤ being carried: ro chuirsiot na fir for iomchar eissiumh gus an nglionn, AFM vi 1918.20 . gur bhris cnámha a chloiginn, gurab ar iomchar rugadh go teach Briain é, Keat. iii 4239. is imdha ón Fhailghech ar imchur | gaillcherc agus ganndal `many a foreign hen and gander is borne by the man of Offaly,' Studies 1920, 417.37 .

(b) Used fig. of bearing, carrying (a dignity, tradition, etc.): 'sa righe (sc. Colla Uais) i nam a hiomcair | acc barr íle o Eireannchoibh `his kingship while he bore it,' BNnÉ 281 § 266. ar mbeith dá gcorpaibh marbha 'na n-ablachaibh neamhchuibhdhe ré hiomchor garma onóraighe san bhioth, TSh. 1381. beid ag na daoinibh ó bheól go beól dá n-iomchur (of sins), 1255 .

(c) the act of behaving: mar as cóir dhúinn iomchar rér ccomhursain, Parrth. Anma 28.11 . cionnas dhlighther don fhior é féin d'iomchar do thaobh a mhna pósda, 165.17 . is go bhfuile ag iomchur ruinn | dar leat amhail nach diongnuinn, Content. xvi 1. do chuir roimhe ... a iomchar go foighideach, GJ iii 68b22 .

(d) the act of supporting, maintaining: ní fhuil díobh fear a hiomchair | d'éis ar imthigh d'Éirionnchaibh `since these Irishmen have departed there is not one to support her (?),' Ériu viii 193.45 . lucht iomchair supporters, partisans , AFM v 1590.10 .

(e) the act of bringing up: fer imchair in leinibh gl. pedagogus, BLism. 76vb35 . gan fer a hiomchair iná haltruim, ALC ii 218.20 .

(f) the act of enduring, suffering (trouble, etc.): éugcruás na ndáoineadh meirbh d'hiomchar, Romans xv 1. lón an lóirghníomha d'iomchor, TSh. 1877. re hiomchar ualaigh thruim pheannaide na haithrighe, 8883 . acc iomchar ettualaing a easccaratt, AFM v 1824.z .

II As ordinary noun.

(a) In concrete sense a charge, burden: cuirfead iomchar mo chroidhe | ar dhuine eile a mbliadhna, Dánta Gr. 49.9 . nar ba hiomchar d'fhiach a corp a burthen for a raven, Dánta P. Feiritéir 729 .

(b) In abstract sense

(i) bearing, deportment, behaviour: a dhrochiomchar leis féin `his misbehaviour,' ZCP iv 430.20 . tá cuid de na daoinibh spadánta gan iomchar, De Imit. 245.2 . tre bheith diadha deagh-iomchair, 17.14 . fear a aoise dob fhearr n-iomchuir ` attainment (?),' TD 25 § 14. is gnáth dúndam i n-iomchur na bhfeadhmannach, Ó Bruad. i 76.11 . tig iomchar re foghlaim , Hard. ii 408.9 .

(ii) forbearance, suffering: a ngloine a neólus a n-iomchar fhada, 2 Cor. vi 6. le hiomchar fada cláochluighthior prionnsa `by long forbearing,' Proverbs 25 § 15. ar fhuilngis d'imneadh is d'olc ... ní hiongnadh iomchar ionnaibh forbearance ?, Maguires of F. § 100.24 .

lám

Cite this: eDIL s.v. lám or dil.ie/29507
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: laám, láme, láam, láim, láma, láime, nondalámgaba

n ā, f. n s. ind laám , Wb. 12a23 (see GOI 20 - 1 ). g s. láme, Sg. 68a1 , 68b13 . g p. láam, Wb. 9a6 . n s. later also láim, and g s. láma, láime. IGT Decl. § 192.

I

(a) hand: gnúis et láma et cossa, Wb. 12b4 . is sochrudiu láam oldōsa ol coss, 12a21 . precept dosom fri dei et saithar ho lámaib in nocte gl. operantes manibus nostris, 9a5 . ine láim nú ine méraib, Thes. ii 245.37 . ind l.¤ gl. manu, Ml. 36b1 . lam, 131b4 . torad a láam is hed dodtoisged `it is (the) fruit of his hands that used to support him', Wb. 9a6 . orddu lámae gl. pollex, Sg. 68b13 . dunecomnacht Dia inní saúl inna lama som delivered S. into his hands, Ml. 55c1 . ro bendach Pátraic asa dib lámaib in Machai, Trip.² 2799 . conid eiter a lamaib rothathamir cú rui (leg. Cú Roí) `in their hands that C. expired', Mon. Tall. 65 . idna láme (one of the `streams of poetry'), LL 3900 ( IT iii 58.2 ). bud bhinn lam ┐ bel a fine instrumentalist and vocalist, AU iii 340.7 . claidhemh gacha lamha, Cog. 252.9 . ro-gab . . . lān a lām do c[h]ochall an c[h]lērig, BColm. 36.10 . líon mo lámha `the full of my hands', Dán Dé xxx 7 .

With adj. or attrib. gen.: l.¤ bennachtan as opposed to l.¤ soscéli right hand v. left hand (see Stokes, Ériu iii 11 - 12 ): in ferand ar do láim soscéla ic dola sís . . . no ar do laim bennachtan anís, Ériu iii 11.14 - 15 . See soiscélae. l.¤ choitchinn: airgitur langilli na bo iar fir i llaim coitchinn ra aichne `in gemeinsame (neutrale) Hand', Cóic Con. 17.2 . lámh chlé (lámh chlí prohibited form), IGT Decl. § 139 . ros-mugaig, ros-mill, ro tracht / trí coecat barc co laim clí, Fél. 200.28 . na findad do l.¤ chlíí an a n-dingne do l.¤ dess, PH 5950 . lámh deas right hand, IGT Decl. § 137 . bennuch, a Dhe, . . . / cot laim dheis mo cuili-se, Lism. L. 1287 . fíréin láma deise Dé, PBocht 26.34 . l.¤ doí see lámdoé s.v. 1 doé; l.¤ (in) scéith left hand or arm; see 2 scíath and cf. ar laim congmala a sgeith, Ériu xi 189.30 .

In l.¤ des, l.¤ chlé of directions; in a variety of uses: a lleth o laim deiss dexteram ejus partem, Sg. 17b2 . for láim deis aníartúaid . . . for laim chlí anairtuáid, BCr. 19c2 , 3 . éla fort láim ṅdeiss `decline ab eis in dexteram partem', Lat. Lives 80.15 . Fir Domnand co trí rígaib / lam des fri hErinn n-íraig `up the west coast', MacCarthy 148 § 3 ( LL 14718 ). impoit . . . for a láim chlí they turn to the left, AU ii 120.7 . ro ghabsat iaramh laimh cli fris an loch `with their left to the lake', AFM vi 1940.18 . do chuaidh . . . hisin . . . long . . . lamh dhes frí hérinn soirttuaidh, 1966.z . dia lāim deis on his right, ZCP viii 108.3 . Note also: is í so slighe ina ttáinig . . . .i. láimh sgéith re Ráith Ḟionnchaoimhe, Ériu viii 135.24 .

In a number of idioms with vb. gabaid: gabaid láim x seizes, abducts x: nis gebh do laim . . . ar med do nóimhe, BNnÉ 304.17 . gabais laim ingine Foraid . . . ┐ fordoscarastar, Rawl. 131b24 (Cf. Ériu iii 135.4 ). dodechaid in chaillech do béim chluic . . . gabais Ailill a láim, ┐ dos tascar, ┐ dogéni a coblige seized, RC ix 452.14 . See gabál. Cf. ní má ar gabáil ar lámha / úaind, ZCP viii 219.36 . M. . . . do gabail . . . l.¤ Huí L. . . . asint ṡuide apad `expelled', Ann. Inisf. 1052.5 . gabaid láim x dochum leads x to: gabais a chomalta a laim dochum mara led, Anecd. iii 59.9 . gabthe mo laim mattin dochum mara, 1 . With follg. prep. AS expels: ni ragh sa adiu . . . go ro gaba ri no espoc mo laim as, BNnÉ 302.4 . gebatt sa . . . do lamha sa asin suidhi righ ittaoi, 305.13 . conid ari rogabad al-lam a Pardus `on this account they were driven out of Paradise', Ériu vii 164.7 .

(b) arm : cumgabail inna lam i crosfigill is sí briathar l.¤ insin, Ml. 138a2 . tócaib do dí láim i n-airdi frisin Coimdid, MacCarthy 64.10 = suidig do da laim cech thrath / fri ruirig nime, SR 1605 . doe láme gl. lacertus, Sg. 68a1 . a di láim tri derca ṡedluch allenith immach, TE 4 ( IT i 119 ). gur ben in lamh des aga gualaind de, ZCP vi 36.18 . lámh on gualuinn a fad, ALC i 184.20 . láma caolrigthecha, Caithr. Thoirdh. 104.27 . Of clothes, sleeve : lēinte lainneardha lāimhgheala lín 'brilliant, white-sleeved linen tunics', BDC 226.57​ .

(c) Of the hand used in measuring length: on fir do ní in tomus o laimh, Laws ii 232.22 Comm . ocht nduirn a fot, do toimsib laime techta fil fri mesu ┐ toimsiu, Laws ii 246.8 . tinne tri mer a mbun laime, Laws ii 250.2 . See 2 tinne. is í sin is áis do'n ésga do réir láime (of calculating the moon's age by disposing the verses of the Golden Number upon the finger-joints), O'Gr. Cat. 300.14. Of the whole arm as measure: fád láimhe laoich do chrann, Keat. ii 5200.

(d) Attrib. g s. cennach láime: fuair . . . na seacht Laoighise dó féin . . . mar cheannach láimhe i ndíol an cheannais do rinne `handsel', Keat. ii 4812 . cin láime distinguished from cin coise, tengad, etc.: cin laime de guin, no gait, no mi-imirt, Laws i 238.11 . cís láime: ní cíos láime atá acutsa orra acht rígféinnidecht ┐ maer choiméta atá acut innte tribute of the hand i.e. won by force(?), SG 338.22 , 337.17 . triatha uaisle dho i mbuannacht do bhíodar / a chíos láimhe mar ránaig ar ríoghraidh, Hackett² 30.290 . See dígbál. fer láime: fer láma ríg Themra thair / Illand ergna mac Erclaim `henchman', Metr. Dinds. iv 88.13 . Legal perpetrator, distinguished from sellach spectator : mas lethbrostu ┐ ro fes in cu do rigne in fogail is amuil fer laime tigerna in con do rigne in fogail the master of the dog which did the injury is taken to be the perpetrator (of liability for dog injured in a dog-fight), Laws iii 194.y Comm . noco fo lan fir laime icus sellach a lan, 100.z Comm . See sellach. Also áes láime guilty persons: is iat is aes laime ann lucht in combaiti (`hand-party'), Laws iii 252.13 Comm . flesc láime see 1 flesc. liacca lamh, CCath. 5657 (see 1 lía). rogad láime, see rogad.

Extended meanings: gesce ┐ lama imda branches (of tree), RC x 74.3 v.l. gur teig lamh na lainne dā lethtaoibh handle, ZCP xiv 233.1 .

II In various abstr. and fig. applications.

(a) prowess, valour, accomplishment: ar eagla a laime ┐ a dighultu[i]s, ZCP vi 273.9 . ni caithimsa sin noco fagar do laim iat (do nert laime, v.l.), RC xix 34.2 . do chuaidh A. a llos a láma as by his own valour, ALC i 302.23 . Cf. CCath. 68 . ba fearr lamh na luighe `one better in deed or word', Duan. F. ii 176 § 5. clú láimhe, Hugh Roe² 104.5 . fer . . . go lán ainm láimhe ┐ tighe aoidhed, AFM v 1628.18 . fear . . . ro ba maith lamh ┐ oineach brave and generous, 1692.10 . teist ┐ tuarasccbháil láimhe ┐ einigh, 1684.18 . Sir Gyi ┐ sir Heront rob ferr lam ar gach taebh acu, ZCP vi 45.29 . ní fuil . . . ridiri is ferr lamh, 52.2 . ni frith fear mo laimhe riam `a man to match with me', Duan. F. i 63 § 33 . l.¤ láitir might: techt do fein ar los a lame laitiri as, Ann. Conn. 1373.5 .

(b) control, power : is he nert Dé ┐ l.¤ Dé, LB 138b46 . san tír dar ghoire do ghrádh / lámh ag rígh oile mon-uar another king rules, DDána 45.6 . as é dob fearr eineach is ágh / ní deachaidh lamh ós a cionn `never was he overpowered', Duan. F. ii 218 § 8 . adubhairt riu gan an rigacht do chur as a laimh, BCC 246.34 .

In phrase l.¤ i n-úachtar upper hand, conquering arm : rapo doss díten ┐ rapo buinne bratha ┐ rapo l.¤ i n-uachtur leo Conall, CRR 44.1 . go dtug Dia an lámh i n-uachtar ag Scotaibh is ag Pictibh orra, Keat. ii 6144 . In legal phr. lám gabálae forcible seizure : do-beir in fer ada-gair comrac forsin mil sin co tét i lláim gabálae 'the man who brings a claim against them causes a confrontation over that honey so that it (the honey) passes by forcible seizure', Bechbretha 186 (e) .

(c) Legal active part in crime : icad fer tairce trian . . . a dualgus a tairci; ┐ cutruma re aenfer don dá trian aile a dualgas a láime the inciter pays a third due because of his incitement . . . because of his share in the deed (of fine for killing by soldiers), Laws iii 114.x Comm . asren cāch a chinta ar a láim `for his own hand', Cáin Ad. 43 . im fiach a laime, ┐ im fiach a tairci, Laws iii 116.1 Comm . See tárcud. ? síoll Eoghain ní hosadh ghealloid / ní ghébdís duit díol i láimh, L. Cl. A. B. 223.106 . In phr. l.¤ derg murder, murderer (cf. We. llawrudd) (in latter sense more commonly fer láime deirge): cumal aithgina fo fer laime dergi laes na gona and, Laws i 244.2 Comm . bid fir lāma dergi ina suidedaib apad, BColm. 62.19 . ba comeirque laime derce nach bruidhen an asylum for a murderer, RC xxi 314.6 . bud í in phláig dibse is a bedg / in l.¤ derg dimbert oram murder, SG 55.37 . ná déantar lámh dhearg acht dí / ar ghrá na dtrí ndealg a Dhé `that my body alone be treated as a foe', Dán Dé ix 9 . atú mar láimh ndeirg ag Dia, ii 30 .

(d) In metonomy, pars pro tota . Of warrior: dob iomdha lamh áthasach do Dhom[n]allachibh ┐ Ghordonchib do bhi san lathair sin, Rel. Celt. ii 192.13 . ni roibi . . . aenlamh fa crodha coscur a cathaibh, ZCP vi 43.33 . lámh ar nár cheisd an cheisd chrúaidh, L. Cl. A. B. 265.9 . marbthar lais Conn O Concobhair in aen lámh mharcaigh as lugha rob olc i cConnachtaibh, AFM vi 2040.11 . With descriptive gen. of generous person: in l.¤ tidnaicthi (of Cú Chulainn), LL 7962. da láim thidnaicthi ratha (Cú Chulainn and Fer Diad), 10729 . lámh chothaighthe deibhléin Dé she who supported God's orphan, DDána 32.24 . Of help: don bocht a tibred laim, PH 6145 . a lámh nach lámh tar threise `o arm unsurpassed in strength(?)', PBocht 23.49 .

(e) In phrases ref. to plighting of troth, wedlock, etc.: dobhi ar fes laimhe ┐ leaptha ag an inghin an oidhche sin, RC xxix 134.18 . roḟai ar laimh ┐ ar leabaid le, RC xliii 24 § 22 . See foaid. sáith ríogh ar leabaidh 's ar láimh / gach inghean ard álainn óg, Dánta Gr. 5.31 . tug mná cneasta i bhfeis leabtha ┐ láimhe married, Hackett² 53.106 . Cf. mé th'éadach láimhe is leaptha (said by cloak to its owner), 32.33 . nascis . . . for láim ind fúatha sin `bound that (boon) on the Spectre's hand', Moling 20 .

(f) In proverbial expressions: ba lam i net nathrach . . . insaigid fair `a hand into an adder's nest', LL 225b7 ( TTr. 608 ). ba luam a net natrach . . . cor fri sluag na Fomoire, RC xii 96.17 . lámh an eirr easguinne unsafe grip, IGT Decl. ex. 587 . l.¤ déoraid (status of) a person whose protection and rights had been forfeited ( ZCP xxxiii 87 ): bid l.¤ déoraid dó, LU 5137 ( TBC-I¹ 654 ); 'he is as good as dead' ZCP xxxiii 87 . See deorad. l.¤ latrainn ba l.¤ latraind i n-árbaig la Hercoil isin chath sain, LL 226a15 ( TTr. 651 ). conid de sin ata `lam clé Ulltain in agaid in uilc', Fél. 200.19 . cach lāimi a lāindīrgi, ACL iii 226.21 (see ZCP xviii 48 ). mairg do loitfeadh láimh eadruinn `it were pity for any to hurt his hand (intervening) between us', Studies 1921 589 § 6 . Legal maxim: ni fognai lam laim, Laws i 228.16 .

III In phrases with follg. prep. (in most cases also with prec. vb.).

(a) DI: dothongusa . . . conna get-sa láma dib, conastarddur uile fo thalmain that I shall not release you, TBC-LL¹ 943 . nír' scar lámha díbh cor' ḟalaigh díden na coilltedh íat fair, CCath. 195. See scaraid. ní thall in gáeth láma de / co foraim bága in bile `the wind withdrew not its hand until it brought down the Tree's pride' (of Bile Tortan), Metr. Dinds. iv 244.51 .

(b) FO: do-beir láim fo undertakes : ni-s-tibrea liaig doenna laim fo-m leiges-sa, PH 424 . in ni fo dard láimh, CCath. 1795. lámh do tabhairt fán marbh ndíocháirdeach (sic leg.) bhíos i bpurgadóir, dá ḟóirithin as, TSh. 4752 . tabhair mar thugais roimhe / lámh fúm `deal with me', Dán Dé vi 33 . l.¤ fo act of undertaking : ba l.¤ fámórobairsin, TBC St. 3830 . lām fo crābud deduirn dūr, ACL iii 306 § 4 . lámh fá othar mádh áil leo / is beo ar n-a chrochadh dháibh [Dia] `if men wish to touch his wounds', but perh. rather if men wish to attack the wounded, Dán Dé xxvi 34 . Prov. of impossible undertakings: as trágadh lacha as a lār / lámh fa bhádhadh ratha an rígh, IGT Decl. ex. 1036 . is lámh fa chraoibh nach cromann / bheith réd chumann, DDána 4.5 . ríomh réadlann nó gainimh ghil / . . . lámh fa ríomh a sochar sin, Content. xxviii 24. Cf. tabraidh mo lamh fa comhall sin, ar Corbmac. ┐ donaisc orra amlaid sin swear by my hand, Irish Texts iii 8.25 .

(c) FOR: l.¤ for áirithe an undertaking certain of success : níor bó lámh for airidhe a n-ionnsaighidh muna luigheadh líon lam . . . forra, AFM v 1826.8 . ni bad lam ar airgthi doibsium sin mana deonaiged in toichthi, Fen. 138.20 . foceird láma for: foceirtt lamae fair she laid hands upon him, Mon. Tall. 66. Cf. ro láiset láma do they arrested him, PH 3101. Of ordination: cuirfid . . . a lámha arna Lebhítibh, Numbers viii 10. Cf. ni comairleiced . . . dó cor lamha aire (.i. dul do sacarbaic) cin foghlaim `put hand upon him' (i.e. on Christ in the Eucharist), Trip. xlix 11 . atgeall in filidh lāmh for a dān to attempt, ZCP vii 305.6 . do-beir láim for (ar) proposes, attempts : do beartsatt . . . laimh for imdhecht, AFM vi 1900.10 . gabaid láim (láma) for: si dobeir phoíc la cech n-oendig dó, isí geibes láim for a chuit arranges, TBC-LL¹ 2180 . Gaileoin . . . .i. an trian nó ghebadh lamha for an dá trian oile fo ghail fon airredh (leg. airrigh) excelled, Leb. Gab.(i) 118.16 . Of course of action undertakes: do ghabh lam for an Easpain d'fágbhail, ML 44.2 . do gab E. lámh for imtheacht d'fágbhail na h-innsi, ML 36.9 . Of persons enjoins upon, the action enjoined usually being denoted by imm: rogab A. lama (lam, v.l.) ar Perelass im ergi dochum in cluichi sin ordered P., TTebe 2474 . in tan gaba lam forainn, BB 418a51 gabais lāma for in úathad slúaigh robúi ina ḟarrad im calma do dēnom, Fianaig. 86.23 . rogabhagh lamh ar an oglach im dul dochum na teneadh, Ériu iii 156.31 . Also petitions : ragabsad T. uili . . . lama air um thuilleadh fhís do denam doib `entreated that a further vision should be made', TTebe 4156 . ní rigise a les lam do gabail forainn there is no need to ask us (to protect you), Celt. Rev. iii 314.6 . Note also: ragab láim ar a araid (itbert re a giolla, v.l.) ara ngabad a eochu, TBC-LL¹ 3252 . ní ḟedabair an lá no an uair i ngebthar lamh foraibh `a hand will be laid upon you', RC xxv 388.17 . imm-beir láim for practises violence on, see imm-beir. Med. operates on: ro himred lámu . . . for Eogan co mbí ina chinnte bás d'fhaghbáil do, SG 50.25 . Note also: a thaoibh-se ar a dtá mo lámh on which I rely(?), Dán Dé xxv 43 .

(d) FRI: l.¤ fri act of avoiding, renouncing : lam fri idal ṅglethech ṅgal (command against idolatry), SR 4845 . lāim fri lochta, ZCP vi 264 § 9 . lam fri cath fri cēilide, Ériu ii 56.9 . lámh fri turbhaidhe domhnain cé, AFM ii 618.18 . As prep. beside : tainic laim re fiannbhoith mac mBrocain, ZCP xi 40.11 . ealba fhiadh is eadh at conncas / cealga Laoghaire láimh ria, PBocht 10.16 . rohadnaicedh laim re haltóir (sic leg.) Chiarain, RC xviii 182.4 . tarr láimh riom, Gen. xxvii 21 . muna raibh do dhearbhrathair láimh riot, Deuteronomy xxii 2. Also of motion along by (see also under I (a) above): lodar . . . laim re muir siar co rangadar Teach nDuinn, Anecd. i 18.5 . doberat a lam fri h-Etail `skirted', Aen. 138 . tar Dūn ac Loduin . . . / lāim re gach loch go Loch Rīach, ZCP viii 222 § 3 . a lam re fairrge co hAth Cliath, RC xviii 51.26 = laimh fri faircce co rocht co hAth Cliath, AFM ii 1028.x . Note also: tug Muire láimh ris an leas / an uile sháidh do shaidhbhreas `besides salvation', A. Ó Dálaigh l 39. Also compared with: láimh re hAodh ó fhior eile / mion gach taom dá thaidhbhsighe, L. Cl. A. B. 64.159 . ionnus nach fuil i n-uile ṡeanchus . . . láimh re seanchus na hÉireann, Keat. i 44.22 . do-beir láim fri refuses, rejects : na tabair laim frim (Potiphar's wife to Joseph), SR 3182. Of renunciation of world, sin, etc: dia mba maccleirech fa mām / tapuir lām fri holc, ACL iii 319 § 87 . na hulca imgabamít, is e in ecnai erailes ornn laim do thabhairt friu, PH 6867 . do rad láimh ris an saoghal, TFrag. 204.2 . fo-ácaib fri láim excepts: facbaim Concobur fri láim . . . dáig a rige, LU 9217 ( FB 94 ). dochta do neoc[h] dáles dāil / fācbas (?) dáil n-éco fri lāimh, Fianaig. 10 § 3 . Note also: fa-rácbaisemne fri láim deitsiu . . . nád ṅ-íurmais orguin we stipulated, BDD² 659 . scaraid láma fri desists from: roghabh acc timchelladh in chaithmhīledh co nāro-scar lāmha fris go ro eiderdelaigh a cenn rea chúilmēidhe, ZCP xiv 232.12 . ni rosccarsat lamha fris go ragbhatar an caistiall ar eigin, Hugh Roe² 100.16 . Cf. dochuaid re láim he went security, O'Curry 2157 ( Eg. 88, 4a ).

(e) I: do budh dána dul le bréig / do chur lámh 'n-á (leg. 'n-a) leithéid `to resort to guile in attempting such a thing(?)', Dán Dé xxi 21 . cuiris lámh i Mochuda ┐ tug go heasaontach as an mainistir amach é seized, Keat. iii 1948 . dobeir láim i láim neich becomes someone's vassal: ní thug a lámh a láimh riogh occlach dob'fhearr treisi gniomh, ITS v 176.20 . ri Uladh na n-iath solus / . . . dobhera se a lamh ad laimh / gidh be len b'ál gan t'anair, Irish Texts ii 98 § 14. Hence accepts the protection of someone : tuc al-laim il-laim Ḟind, Acall. 5972. Also shakes hands : nach tarmchillend Heriu óclách do neoch do-beir a láim i llaim tigerna nach aichnid damsa, CRR 16.x . tuc a lam in a laim in la sin, Cog. 132.13 . go dtugsad uile a lámha iona láimh, ML 54.31 .

(f) ÍAR: l.¤ íar cúl reserve force : gan lámh ar gcúl uile againn / Muire dhún go n-agaill é `none of us having any support', Dán Dé xix 18 . With cúlu: cusna buidnib medonc[h]aib . . . ┐ cusin laim ar culu, CCath. 5771 . cinnas as áil duit techt i ndáil Medba . . . atágur l.¤ ar cúl aci, LU 6154 ( TBC-I¹ 1669 ).

(g) IMM: gaibid láim imm manipulates : do ghabhadar na fóirne . . . lámha um na leabhar-líontaibh, ML 46.24 .

(h) LA: do-beir láim la helps: is olc in lam tucadar na dee . . . linn, Fier. 106 . móide do-bhéara láimh linn the more wilt thou help me, Dán Dé xi 9 . ag tabhairt láimhe liom féin / a-tá meise, xxii 17 . ní fhuil duine agam do-bhéaradh lámh liom, TSh. 4735 . fo-ceird láim la with same meaning: nach áil cur lámha lat `they will not help thee' (of Mary and mankind), Dán Dé xix 25 . dlighidh cur a láimhe linn, L. Cl. A. B. 251.52 . nior chuir an samhradh lámh linn, Rel. Celt. ii 232.35 . Cf. lámh muna chuire re a gcosg, PBocht 15.5 . l.¤ la help, assistance to: lámh linn ar do bhreith ní bhia `to save me will not be in thy power', PBocht 13.38 . do ghuidh é (sic leg.) fa lamh leis chum síobhail ró mhóir do bhí na éigean air do dhéanamh, ZCP ii 558.22 . as maith an tráth láimhe linn / is cách ré'r ndáin[n]e ag doichill, Ériu v 52.15 .

(i) TAR: fochertar lama tairis they seized him, LU 5941 ( TBC-I¹ 1475 ). do-beir láim tar takes possession of usually by force: co tarad láim dar Corco Loígi, Anecd. i 13.21 . co tarat laim dar hIffern (of Christ harrowing hell), SR 7772 . tuc-som laim tarsan tir ┐ do lomarced leis . . . hi, Ann. Conn. 1249.2 . dochoid A. . . . do índriudh innd idhoiltige ┐ doberait laim tairis, LL 402b31 ( TTr.² 505 ). tugad l.¤ tar na luathcrechaib soir go slioschlár sluag Mhaonmaige they were carried off. Caithr. Thoirdh. 53.39 . do rat lá[i]m dar a longphort, Arch. Hib. ii 72 § 31 . tuc sisi lamh tar an mbiorar báoi for an sruth, BS 82.22 . Note also with pl. láma: tabraiter láma tairis let him be seized, LU 5937 ( TBC-I¹ 1471 ). do-beir láim tar a agaid. Of person waking from sleep: itraacht C. . . . asa chotlud ┐ dobert l.¤ dar a agid, TBC-LL¹ 2495 . do-icc tar láma violates, disobeys : ticcedh thrá Suibhne tar lamha an chleirigh, BS 175.20 .

IV In phrases with preceding prep. (and freq. vb.):

(a) DI: ceb é tan no ghebhudh dia lámh fair `whensoever he should receive the eucharist from him', Lism. L. 2886 . rogab comaind ┐ sacarbaic do laim Tassaig espoic, IT i 22.2 . Of reception of viaticum: téit Comhgall docum nimhe . . . do laimh Ailbhe, Lism. L. 2883 . co nabail dia laimh (i.e. Mochuda) iar mbreith buadha o dhemhan ┐ ó dhomhan (i.e. he died after receiving viaticum from M.), BNnÉ 295.9 . sáeraid di lámaib liberates from : amail soersai Abram / de lamaib na Caldae, Fél. Ep. 456 . rosoirad in chathir di lamaib assar, Ml. 61d2 . See saeraid.

(b) DO: gaibid do (orig. di ?) láim undertakes : ro erb M. fris frestal na hatha. Ro gab-sum sin do laim undertook, Fél. Pref. 12.10 . ro ghabh do láim . . . athaghidh [in muilind], Lism. L. 1969 . rogab Cuipidh do laim o Uenir inni sin, Aen. 387 . do gab . . . Domnall . . . do laim é, Cog. 174.18 . gabhmaitne do laim iatsom `we shall take them in hands', Caithr. CC 63 . do gab du laim cin toidecht i n-agaid mac Ruaidri aris, Ann. Conn. 1225.17 . gabh do láimh i ló na héigne / . . . bheith ós ar gcionn mar chrann díona, PBocht 10.49 . sibh-se . . . gabas do láim an t-eolas who profess learning, Content. xviii 10. Note also: do ghabhadar do láimh dhó nách roichfeadh . . . tochradh a dtigearna tairsibh `they pledged themselves to him', ML 116.8 . rogab H. do láim ón tṡiair sein, LL 226b40 `accepted that charge', TTr. 707 . téit (do-icc) do láim goes to communion : oc techt do laim at the Communion, Thes. ii 254.14 (Stowe Missal). in tan na tiagar do láim dia domnaig, tiagar dia dhardaín ina dhegaid, Rule of Tallaght 15 . fecht n-aill do B. ic techt do Laim in epscuip quadam die accessit B. ut Eucharistiam sumeret de manu episcopi, Lat. Lives 84.15 . gab do lāim / cen tabairt ngotha ar fer ngráid / . . . lēic don churp bīs ina lāim, ACL iii 222.18 . ni dlegar escómlad cen dol do lāim (`without being shriven'), MacCongl. 23.9 . as mitidh a n-anmain De techt do laim `it is time . . . to go to communion', RC xxvi 374.11 = do thāed do lāim `for you to take food(?)', Ériu i 44.24 . ic techt do láim in epscuip (`confess'), Three Hom. 80.21 . téit . . . Gillas . . . do churp Crist annsin do laimh Brenainn, BNnÉ 84.14 . sacairt ic dol do laim celebrating mass, Grail 1326 .

(c) FO. In various uses with téit: téid an bhuidhen fó láimh `submitted', ALC ii 350.12 . otcondai[r]c . . . na hairberta móra sin do thecht fo laim lé Césair being undertaken, CCath. 2389 . gur bhó heiccen do . . . dul fa lámhaibh legh (of surgical operation), AFM vi 2232.21 . See síned. téit fo láim n-epscoip receives confirmation : ní thic comlāine in spirta nóim mane tē fó láim n-epscoip īar mbathus, Ériu i 218.24 . confirmatio, no dul fa laimh easpuig, Luc. Fid. 3688 . Cf. Siluestar ap na cathrach / eirg fo [a] laim ar is rathmar, Fél. 46.29 (where however penance may be intended).

fo láim in the power of, at the discretion of: baí sé seachtmuine ina othairlighe fo lamhaibh legh, AFM vi 2116.2 . tug Dia fád láimh féin lesúghadh do thabhairt uait nó gan a thabhairt, Mac Aingil 3521 . fuair bás fánar lámhaibh, TSh. 5591. Hence subordinate to: guibernōir ar leith fo lāimh in ierla uassa, Fl. Earls 96.14 . Of swearing : gebatsa a luige fó láim Chiaráin by C., LL 274a16 ( SG 416.5 ). lúghu fo láim rig Caisil `by the hand of', Leb. Cert. 70.3 .

(d) FOR. for láim x beside x: asber fris suide for láim Findabrach, TBC-I¹ 1532 ( LU 6001 ). robéosa fort láimsiu, Fél. Prol. 273 . fer buí for láim Airt, ZCP viii 310.7 . Cf. alaile for laim n-ainsedo `another agreeing with(?) the accustive', Ml. 23c21 . Hence of possession, control: nach raibh ar láimh ní fa nimh in his possession, A. Ó Dálaigh 1(50) 10 . do bhí ar a láimh é d'fheithimh it was in His power to watch it, PBocht 21.33 . a bailte móra ar a láimh, Rel. Celt. ii 182.14 . do-beir for láim places at the disposal of: dos bert for láim Eogain, IT i 81.20 . tug a' Gen. na caisléin an boili ┐ na braighde ar lāimh a' Ninntius, Cín Lae Ó Meall. 46.13 . an tan tug ar láimh na heaguilsi eochracha cengail ┐ sgaoilte cháich, Mac Aingil 179 . Note also: beir an dall ar láimh libh `take the blind man by the hand with thee', A. Ó Dálaigh vi 9. Of imprisonment: do cunnbhad ar laimh é gur fháguibh a dheic bhliaghna fichead d'aois, Rel. Celt. ii 162.21 . do bhi an ri san nam sin ar laimh aga naimhdibh .i. Parlameint Shagsan, 202.31 . Cf. dan-indnacht ar láim `by the hand', Blathm. 90 § 3.

(e) FRI. fri láim on behalf of, deputizing for: is e Niall . . . ro gab rigi nErenn . . . acht cheana is é Brian ba tuairgnid catha fri[a] laim side `in his stead', RC xxiv 180.7 . tigerna airthir Connacht fri lāimh a athar acting for his father, AFM ii 836. 10 . With difft. meaning: nochar gabhadh re lāimh T. T. was unassailable, ZCP viii 225.2 . nech padh calmai fri laim imbertai cloidib when it came to swordplay, RC xii 72.22 .

(f) I: gaib id lāim mo fāesam airtho undertake, TBC-I¹ 409. i láim captive, subservient (to): i láimh atú i ttalmhain, Dán Dé xii 7 . minic mē a láim acc dreasaibh, KMMisc. 352 § 7. do marbad U. isin lam-sin `captivity', Ann. Conn. 1270.7 . mé mar bhráighid bhíos i láimh, Dán Dé iii 32 . Aedh . . . do bí illiamh (leg. illáimh) sa chaislén, AU ii 466.18 . grádh mná 'ga bhfuilim i láimh, Dánta Gr. 8.5 . is fiacha i láimh / na féich ar a bhfuil admháil as good as paid, L. Cl. A. B. 162.13 . do thuaslucud chimmeda bai illāim oc ríg qui erat in vinculis apud regem, Lat. Lives 80.11 . Also in pl.: ro gabad annsin Marcus Crasus, ┐ tucad il-lámhaibh é docum airechta na Partecdha, CCath. 136. Also with gen.: cá láimh ataí, a rioghain? I láimh Anadail mic Rí Conchend . . . ar sí, ITS v 54.8 . tugas grádh éagmhaise d'Eoin . . . / 'na láimh tharla an rí [dá] réir `he can make the Lord obey him', PBocht 27.1 . caide . . . an bean i rroibe mo mac sa laim (na laim, v.l.), TTebe 2125 . tuc i lláim Michil . . . in imerci sin, Ériu iv 118 § 36 . With same meaning: a leith a lámh bítt na mná so [do]gres `are always obedient to her', Maund. 135.

In extended sense: ón bhan-óigh do bheith im láimh / budh dáigh breith ar anóir [uainn] my winning regard is likely, the Virgin being on my side, Dán Dé xxiii 39 . do bhí sise im láimh gach laoi she has always been by my side, 40 . beid go luinneach im láimh thall `shall be active for me' (of saints), xxv 69 .

(g) IMM: atbert int aingel friu ni de min do chummisc doib ar an im . . . arna toitsitis an aes penda immallama die on their hands, Mon. Tall. 73.

(h) SECH: léim sech láim false leap(?) LL 307a12 ( SG 386.23 ). nichat léicfider sech láim (of a sword) thou wilt not be laid aside, RC xx 12 § 21 . ná léicetsom sech láimh neglect, LL 301a48 ( SG 373.y ). ? conralta dibh sech laim, Anecd. ii 63.10 .

(i) TAR: tar láim. In oaths by: dar láimh do chinn ┐ do choise, Gadelica i 44.302 . dar láimh Moling, Ó Bruad. i 54 § 5 . tar láma(ib) in spite of: ro chongaibh an Breifne gan baoghlucchadh tar lamhaibh a chomharsan, AFM v 1804.15 . Legal: i slanuibh dochuaidh an duine . . . ┐ tar a lama tecar . . . tiachtain tara lamuibh, O'Curry 393 ( H 3.18, 220a ). tiachtan fo'n cundrad tar do láma `in violation of thy security', Laws v 508.16 Comm . is e dogab Eirinn dar lamaib Chormuic uí Chuinn (ni th[ar] a lamhaib dogab uair fa gilla og Cormac an tan sin), CGSH § 142 n. k-k​ .

V Adv. phrases. a láim i láim from hand to hand : á tinnacul a llaim hillaim, Ml. 96d6 . l.¤ (láim) ar láim equally balanced : dá mbeith an ní láimh ar láimh / idir Eoghan is Conn cáidh, Content. xviii 35. Also: comhraicis Iollann ar a' traigh / Maghnus lamh ar laimh `hand to hand', Duan. F. ii 326 § 31 . d'óenláim together, unanimously : d'oen láim, LL 296b30 . érgit slúaig Ulad innáig / ┐ a n-ardrí d'oenláim, 299a1 ( SG 368.1 ). nach maithfidhe le Dia dháibh / go ria a n-aithrighe d'énláimh, O'Gr. Cat. 467.4 . fo láim secretly: co ndechaid fein as fo laim, Ann. Conn. 1278.6 . maidhm for Maghnus dana ┐ é fén do dul [as] fo laim `secretly effected his escape', AFM iii 452.17 . gabais reime fó láim for lergaib in tsléibe `privily', SG 381.2 ( RC xiii 92.20 ). l.¤ fri láim side by side : in cailli selga noghabhdais dosreathdais 'na uirtimcill lamh fria laim, Marco P. 89. Note also: lecit sírthi fo cricha na Camandi ┐ in lamh ag aroile dhibh `keeping near one another', Marco P. 10 . (ó) láim do (co) láim one and all : do chuala a chloinn láimh do láimh, DDána 46.10 . leis na haingle ó láimh go láimh, 38.20 . tucsam lughi lámh do láimh / fian meic Cumuill einechnair, Acall. 1443 . l.¤ tar láim: do chuirsead fós lámh tar láimh clú a bh-feadhma ar fud an domhain `upon all hands', Miscell. Celt. Soc. 374.17 .

cacha láma (láime) on either side : secht cumala gacha laime go tri nonbura, Laws iv 234.9 . annam lend aithled cecha lama itiaid-siu, LL 286b15 . Gall faoi ┐ Gall gacha láimhe dhó, Ériu i 87.14 . gadaidhe gach láimhe leis, Dán Dé xx 24 . breac beó gacha lámha leis / dála an dá eó nír indeis, IGT Decl. ex. 2135. Cf. in literal sense: do bheredh cend gacha láma would take a head in either hand, Caithr. Thoirdh. 75.30 .

In nn. pr.: Lām-fri-hēc, Mug láma, see Corp. Gen. Lámh Ghábhaid, Cóir Anm. 280 . L.¤ Luath, Acall. 7476. Cf. Lám áed `hand Aed' (as nickname), Trip. 200.7 .

COMPDS. With nouns: ¤aire, see separate article. ¤anart napkin : teagh budh lonnraighe lámhanart, Studies 1924, 244 § 22 . ¤arm, used of small weapon which a warrior took to bed with him for use in emergency: lámh-arm gach laoich ar a leabaidh, ML 76.10 . ¤brat: lambrat gl. mantile, Sg. 172a3 . gl. gausape, 128a1 , 3 . ¤bréit towel : nipsa lambreid lamhglanta, Anecd. ii 60.7 . ¤bró handquern: ni meath log-einech ar ithlaind ┐ lambroin, Laws v 88.11 Comm . ¤chartad ` masturbation ' O'Dav. 1474 . in sesmac pectac imorro le lamhcartad dogeibh a toil, BCrólige 29 . ¤chlaideb: cen arm occaib . . . acht lamcloidmi becca bidis ina lamaib, BB 439b2 . ¤chloc: iseal a treoir in tan is lamclog (gl. aistreóir), Laws v 22.8. Comm . ¤chloch: gebid lamhcloich do lár thalman dar bo lán a glac, TBC-LL¹ 1181 . ¤chomart clapping of hands in grief, lamentation : darindidar lam-chomairt mor ┐ nual-guba dearmair, YBL 147b8 . lámchomairt . . . ┐ basghari do mathrechaib, LB 141a3 . lamcomairt .i. basgaire, O'Dav. 1193 . oenach ina lamcomarthae in quo ignis ┐ tonitru similitudine die judicii. ind lamhcomart hi feil Michel dianepred in tene di nim, AU i 240.1 - 2 (A.D. 771) = AFM i 370.15 . in chantaicc Solomon ┐ ind Lámchomairt libuir Ieremiae Book of Lamentations, Hib. Min. 26 § 186. ¤chongnam: gan lāmh-chongnamh ar doman, Fl. Earls 72.15 . ¤chor: lámhchara .i. lamhchora .i. cur láimhe ar ní, O'Cl. (cf. BB 419a25 below). corugud (sic leg.) cach cuaille iar n-uachtar, ┐ lamcur doib co nach urfaema in (sic leg.) talam `they are pushed down by the hand', Laws iv 112.11 . dorinne lamhchur air laying on of hands, Keat. iii 1603 . ¤chorrán: rolá . . . lāmhcorrán iarnaidhi [uada] d'fastudh na luinge `grappling-irons' CCath. 2083 . ¤chrann. Of part of a harp: olc a l. olc a corr, Measgra D. 7.121 . ¤chruit: a lámh-chruit do leiséaghuinn, Gleanings from Irish manuscripts 115 § 12 . ¤déraigthe (cf. 1 dérgud). In phr. ar feis leptha ┐ láimdéraighthe in cohabitation : do berdais a ndaermná (sic leg.) ar feis lepta ┐ láimhdhéraidhthi daib, ZCP viii 545.21 = TBC-LL¹ 1738 - 40 . is and sin ro ḟaietar (sic leg.) in lánamain sin ar feis leaptha ┐ láimhdheraighthi, Acall. 821. Cf. 7842 . ¤día household god, idol : tuc lea lámdeo á athar (of Rachel), SR 3016 . beir leat t'athair Anachis ┐ do mac ┐ do bean ┐ do laimdea, Aen. 578 . tabhraidh láimhdhia chugaibh, ┐ adhraidh dhó, Keat. i 142.43 . ¤dóe (dóit): lámdoti na laechraidi, LL 235a22 ( TTr. 1345 ). ¤écht: an t-iarla ó Lúcan . . . / triath is iomdha láimhéachta, Ó Bruad. iii 144.z . ¤fheidm manual effort : tar lám-fheadhmannaib na laoch, ML 46.26 . ¤ḟile: Feidhlime Ruadh . . . / gá togha is dírighe do luadh gach láimhfhile poet with a patron(?), Hackett² 43.4 . ¤ḟrestal: láimhfhreastal sámhghasda saoitheadh, Hackett² 28.234 . ¤ḟritheolad: do láimh-fritheoladh Choncubhair `to deal with C.,' CRR² 82.x . ¤gaí: gur tholl an lamh-gai an luireach, MR 286.1 . ¤gésca twig : lamgesca mora, RC x 74.3 . ¤glanad: lambreit lamghlanta, Anecd. ii 60.17 . ¤glés wringing of hands : mor lámchomart ┐ láimglés . . . fógensat cumala, Alex. 389 . ro crochtha oca he isin laimgles doroindi, YBL 172b18 = SG 74.4 . ¤lecc: imbertside na lamlecca foraib, LU 4966 ( TBC-I¹ 479 ). ¤nert: re cumas láimhneirt, Oss. iii 264.14 . ¤maide: na soighde, ┐ na lámhmhaideadha, Ezekiel xxxix 9. ¤raite by-road, secondary road : madh for laimraitib beacaib, is i nde randait, CIH v 1549.37 . lamraiti .i. iter di sligid 'by-road, i.e. between two highways' EIF 538 . See also ¤rót(a) below. ¤ rinda: lamrinda nó luathrinda .i. ligatura inter diversas picturas gl. plectas ( 1 Kings vii 29 ), Thes. i 1.30 . See lúathrinde. ¤rót(a) (? properly ¤raite, perh. confused with 1 rót, rota) by-road: lamróta .i. iter da ṡligid, Thr. Ir. Gl. 38 = lāmrotae, Corm. Y 1082 = lomrottea, laimroitea, Corm. Bodl. 36.38 . lamhrod .i. ród láimh le ród eile, O'Cl. mad for rot mor . . . mad for laim raitib becaib, O'Curry 2004 ( H 4.22, 31 ). ¤scaíled manumission: mic mhuinntire, ar nach déantar lámhsgaoileadh, TSh. 5121 . ¤scíath small shield : tú ar láimh-sgiath lá an ghuasochta, A. Ó Dálaigh xix 4. trí chéud láimhsciath, 1 Kings x 17 . ¤scor: gursad . . . lúthmhar ar lámsgor `till our hand teams are . . . spirited', CRR² 62.12 . ¤smacht: na mic nach bí sgaoilte ó lámh-smacht a n-aithreach, TSh. 5122 . ¤thapadh: tuc in t-iarla lamtapadh laechda . . . fora cloidim, ZCP vi 274.32 . As name of Conall Cernach's shield: Lamthapad Conaill Chernaig, LL 12508. ¤thargair .i. oirchi beg no mesan `i.e. a small hound or lapdog', O'Dav. 1153. Cf. lamtairrṅgir, O'D. 2226 ( Nero A vii, 152b ). ¤thoca. As comic n. pr. Lonidh mac Lamthoca, Anecd. ii 55.x , perh. for ¤thoccad. ¤thomus lit. hand-measurement : tugador dhá fhorghomh . . . do na leabhar-armaibh lámh-thómais with their weapons at arm's length(?), ML 136.7 . ¤thorad handiwork, what is produced by weaving, sewing, etc. as opposed to frithgnam: abras . . . .i. lamt[h]orud inailte, Corm. Y 90 . ben lamtoruid `a woman of profitable handicraft', BCrólige 31 . leath do mnai a etach no lamtorad snithiu handiwork consisting of spun material (of what is due to a woman when separating from husband), Laws ii 372.15 . See Thurn., ZCP xv 340 - 1 . See also sníthe. As comicn. pr.: Lenn ingen Lamthora (Lamthoraid v.l.), Anecd. ii 56.2 . ¤thúag: lámtuag gl. hoc manuale, Ir. Gl. 857 . ¤thort. Fig. of warrior: lamtort n-irgala uae beolaig Bressail, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 22 § 2 . meic Labradha lamhtort n-irghalach, LL 393a54 .

With adjj. (many of the follg. are applied to individuals as sobriquets). ¤daith nimble-handed . Of Cú Chulainn: an lāmdhait[h], Fianaig. 42.y . ¤derg: Lugaid lámderg, MacCarthy 176 § 6 . RC xx 136.20 . Frequ. of Leinster and Leinstermen: ri coicid lámdeirg Lagen, CRR 26.7 . DDána 100.26 . ¤des: Loarn laimdheas, Todd Nenn. cv.z . As n. pr. = Manus Dextera, Reeves Ad. 136.z . ¤dóitech. As comic n. pr.: Lámdóiteach mac Lethircind `Wristy-hand', MacCongl. 77.22 . ¤échtach: Mac Lugach [lámechtach], Acall. 227 . re Lúghaidh lámhéachtaicc Lágha, Flower Cat. 401.z . ¤ḟíal: ó C[h]orc . . . lāimhf[h]īal, Ériu ix 177.4 . ¤ḟind: Lugóir . . . lámfind, LL 2428. As n. pr. Láimhḟionn is Lámhghlas, Keat. ii 523 . ¤ḟota: is hé . . . leithinchind lamfota, TBC-LL¹ 5400. In n.pr. Lug(aid) Lámḟota: airemh Logha Lamhfoda for na Fomhoraibh, TBC St. 570. As nickname: Osbrit lamfota, BDD 116 . ¤gel: Lughach laimgheal, Duan. F. ii 72 § 22. Fiachaidh láimh-gheal, ML 86.24 . ¤garb: Mani L., RC xiv 426.10 = xxiv 276.16 . ¤gerrtha: laochraidh láimh-ghearrtha, TSh. 6610 . ¤glan: a degmic lāmglain Lūachāin, BColm. 50.17 . ¤glas: Láimhḟionn is Lámhghlass, Keat. ii 523 . ¤grod: go lámh-ghrod dian, Oss. iv 132.22 . ¤idan: d'Aengus Laimhiodhan, Anecd. ii 37 § 2 . ¤licthe: nadh bi lamlicthi (of a food-rent), O'Curry 880 ( H 3.18, 393b ). ¤nertmar: go m-biadh sé láimhneartmhar go leor, Oss. iii 268.19 . ¤rúad: Lugaid Lamruad, RC xx 136.24 . ¤thapaid: ina laem loinrech lasamain lamthapaid, Ann. Conn. 1256.6 . go leidhmheach lámhtapaidh, AFM vi 2072.15 . ¤thenn: fear láimh-theann, Oss. iv 110.2 . ad lamchara laímhtheanna . . . bar trenmilídh, BB 419a25 .

With vb. gaibid in artificial formation: nondalámgaba gl. mancipare, Ml. 43a2 .

? méinid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? méinid or dil.ie/31785

 

v learns (in B. na filed): ca halt . . . nachar mein? (.i. ca haiste . . . nachar foghlaim?), ZCP v 489.1 .

? rothches

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? rothches or dil.ie/35592

 

ind ré cen ḟoghlaim, | cāch oc rothces (prophecy of a degenerate age), ZCP viii 196.7 .

séim

Cite this: eDIL s.v. séim or dil.ie/36913

 

Forms: semiu, sémi

adj i compar. semiu gl. exilior, Sg. 14b6 .

(a) slender, thin, narrow, slight; smooth: `seim' cach seang, cach sircumang, Metr. Gl. 3.5 . `séimh' beag, ib. 29 § 48 . intí as sémiu .i. intí as mindchichthiu (gl. tenuior), Ml. 19d8 . sémi gl. exiles, 54b17 . sémi .i. sémigte in corp gl. extinuata (sic) (ieiunia), 86a10 . s.¤ gl. macer, Sg. 37a3 . huan dlúithi s.¤ gl. tenui . . . rima, 46a10 . sluinnter ní s.¤ ina sarugh . . . .i. aisneithar go nach beg aní ata do neoch ina tsarugad no slight matter, O'Curry 2626 ( Eg. 88, fo. 53 (54)c ). s.¤ anim ocnait `slight is the blemish of a young man', RC xxvi 16 § 14 (glossed: .i. is étrom nó is bec ind anim . . .). Cf. Laws iv 386.13 Comm . isém dúnn . . . in membrum hisiu, ZCP viii 176.4 . clann Mhaoilchainnigh na gcuach seimh, LL 394.41 . sliocht na righi is seimh snoidhe, ib. 54 . na seolcrannu séimi sithardda, LL 235b3 ( TTr. 1367 ). minslabraidh segda seimi seic-rigne, CCath. 5279 . gur bhris a dróm séanna séimh ar (sic leg.) a dhó, CF Eg. 193 . do rosg . . . | mar oighreadh seimh snúadhamail, BS 18.22 . Cf. rosc s.¤ sruth meda, SG 241.18 . a chruth séimh, TD 21.38 . a fhinne-bhean tséimh shéaghanta, Keat. Poems 973 . Adv. leasg leo buain acht go séimh ris, Content. xviii 88 .

(b) In later texts, mild, lenient, not heavy or oppressive : na gcaoimh-reacht séimh, Oss. vi 8.8 . a bheit[h] foighideach ┐ séimh re na lucht freasduil, Donlevy 328.6 . fa na bpeacaidhe do léigion thortha go réigh, ┐ fa bheith ro shéimh ris an aithrigheach, ib. xv 23 .

(c) direct (cf. Mod.Ir. caol-díreach, and séim-dírech below): rith roseim os bith, SR 39 . ná bad s.¤ do deog deccair | cen chéim do 'na comlepaid that he would have no direct approach to . . ., Ériu iv 104 § 47 . ni fuilngenn in craidhi eslainti trom acht o cuis roseimh a very direct cause (?), Rosa Angl. 138.8 . (`a slight cause'). Adv. directly, or perh. clearly (?): an tuisci fliuch tiugh ac lethnugadh ┐ ac ramrugadh an radairc ann ┐ a bacail de dul co seim na naduir fein dinnsaidhi an duine, Ir. Astr. Tr. 28.6 (of the enlarging effect of water on the appearance of a submerged object).

(d) in various applications. Of food, meagre, moderate, slight, light : baí s.¤ sáth .i. ba becc a saith, LU 655 ( ACC 25 ). ol cen itu cen mescai | proind ṡeim cen saith cen gortai, LB 100 marg. inf. le beagán do shásadh shéimh | tugais a ndaoithin dóibh-séin (of the five loaves and two fishes), DDána 20.26 . victus tenuis atque exquisitus in morbis longis . . . periculosus .i. ata an diet roiṡéim guasachtach . . . is na heaslaintibh righne, 23 K 42, 4.4 . oir is seimhe in chilus na in t'aran `for the chyle is tenderer (nearer digestion) than the bread', Reg. San. XI x . biadha séimhe sochaitmhe, PCT 102 . Of liquids, thin, diluted; volatile: lan do linn seim somes, IT i 291 § 72 Eg. (FB). tairrngid teasbac na greine an cuid as [s]eime ┐ a s millsi duisci na fairrgi suas, Ir. Astr. Tr. 42.7 . fīn . . . is é seim arna mesrugad le huisgi, Rosa Angl. 92.6 . an fual séimh uisgeamail (tenuis), 23 K 42, 216.14 . Of air, rarefied: na haer . . . ata na corp chael tseim tsogluaisti ┐ is mo 7 is seime 7 is luaithi a gluasacht na gluasacht an uisci, Ir. Astr. Tr. 154 . 20 - 21 . rithid an taer seimh rompa ┐ togaidh se gaeth, 148.3 . Of cloth, fine, thin: lénti sémi . . . sítaidi, TBC-LL¹ 183 . ? To this: in sét s.¤ | is ingantu fūair Find féin | . . . cochlān caemdlūith Crothrainne, Fianaig. 50 § 25 (`dainty'). Of fire, clear (?): ar teinidh seim, gan detach, Rosa Angl. 84.19 (`slow'). Cf. bruth feda dair úr | ó nach gnáth nech s.¤ | tinn cenn tís ó a dhúil | tinn súil ó a ghrís ghéir, SG 245.32 (`from him none may escape unhurt'). Of sounds, thin, gentle: crōnān sē[i]mh (of insects), K. and H. § 25 . in guth s.¤ attruag, LB 157a54 . idir an fodhar a[s] seime ┐ an fodar as reimhe, Ir. Astr. Tr. 154.29 . glór séimh, Content. ix 8 . na mbriathar seimh somblasta, AFM vi 2116.20 .

(e) of corporeal matter, subtle, insubstantial, thin : hi corpaib dlútaib ┐ i corpaib tiugaidib bias esergi na ndóeni ┐ ní i corpaib sémib ┐ rofollib mar aer nó gaíth, LU 2627 (H). is s.¤ ┐ is imétrom ┐ is sídamail in tuarascbáil (of people who were invisible to those about them), MU² 569 . is demin cetus cuirp na hesergi co mbat foille ┐ séime tria imfhulang in aicnid spirutalda, PH 6746 . furtachtaigidh inn (sic) t-usci fuar an dileghadh san adbur coilerda seim (materiam colericam ┐ subtilem), RC xlix 29.20 (opp. to: adbur reamur, 30.4 ).

(f) as gramm. term, lenited : .n. cédus .i. Níall .n. séimh gan Níall, IGT Introd. § 7 (5.4) . dá .g. . . . gibé cruth a mbíd, lom no séimh, § 46 (14.8) .

(g) of mental processes, subtle, ingenious, acute: is séimh in muin doberat Ulaid ummum-da `subtle is the treachery', Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 26 § 5 . a c[h]omrād ba soglan sēim | ōs līnib lebrāin 'ga lūadh (of Columcille), ZCP vii 303 § 4 . ni bfuil . . . ni as airdi ┐ as seime . . . ina in egnadh, Ériu v 140.133 (`more comely'). do foghlaim sé leigheann agus crábhadh . . . ┐ do bí iúlmhar s.¤ . . . ionnta, ITS xvi 14 § 7 (= astutus, V. SS. Hib. ii 38.20 ). macānta, crionda, séimh, Eg. Gl. 457 .

Compds. ¤bairdne name of a metre: is airi asperar sem-bairdne ar semhí gach nech dorimí, IT iii 28.6 . Cf. 14 § 30 . ¤dírech: ro loi[s]cset gach lis . . . tharla doibh a seimhdhirech gacha sliged, Caithr. CC 54.1 . ¤fher: sgáth a dheirbhfine an séimhfhear as suilbhire, L. Cl. A. B. 146.4 . ¤guibín gentle little mouth : le seol-ghuth a séimh-ghuibín, Keat. Poems 110 . ¤lí: gné shéimhlí a aighthe, L. Cl. A. B. 217.64 . ¤nembocht: slat shéimhnembocht ón Bhóinn bhinn, | éinbhennocht do fhóir Éirinn, 103.75 . ¤rigin slender and tough : cona snat[h]cenglaib seimrighnib sitaidhi, CCath. 5464 . ¤ṡeng fine and slender : xl. lathe lanṡeṅg | doruacht in sathe s., LL 5b14 . a ghruadh ṡéimhṡeang ṡíodhamhail, TD 2.26 . lór don bhaisgheal bhairrṡéimhṡeang `of the fine soft hair', 12.1 . teagh . . . | na naoimhfhear suarcghlan séimhsheang, Aithd. D. 88.21 . Of a country: a chuiléin . . . | ro thaisdil tír ts. (of fairyland), SG 353.11 . fa chlár séimhṡeang na sreabh nglas `smooth, beautiful land of blue streams', TD 31.30 . ¤ṡíthcháin: do rinneadar neóil uachtracha an aeidhir ┐ dúl na firmament sith ┐ séimhshíothchána re chéile `gentle accord', ITS i 78.5 . ¤thana thin, meagre : séim tana gl. exilem, Sg. 14a8 . ¤thecht an ingenious crossing (?): fuair treoir na dtonn laideanda | d'éis séimhthechta a srothann bhfis having expertly crossed their streams of knowledge, L. Cl. A. B. 175.95 (: éifechta).

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