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Cite this: eDIL s.v. bothas or


n o (2 both) legal servile tenure, bothach-ship; cottier tenancy (Plummer MS. notes): g lenomon bothais ┐ fuidrís fo a tír tabeir, Laws iv 320.17 , Críth G. 325 (see notes, and Ir. Recht 81 f .). techta do bithbunud biid: im bothus, im fuidrius, im senchleithi flatha . . ., Cóic Con. 21 § 14. baogal .i. isedh do bheir i mbothus baogail a ndrochgnima, O'Curry 466 (H. 3.18, 246). cach beres do chin ┐ do raith . . ., na airbir mainchi na giallna na bothus na dilsi (i.e. the status of b.¤ , among others, disbars from suretyship), Bürgschaft 28 76 . ? ni for biu bera b.¤ a belaib fir aro segar fir forgeall , O'Curry 2599 ( Eg. 88, 51aa ). See also dóer-bothus, Críth G. p. 78.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. forbach or
Last Revised: 2013


Forms: forbach

(-bech) (vn. of for-boing ?) the instances suggest an extraordinary levy, `surtax'; e.g., when a client is wounded and the victim or surviving kindred is powerless to enforce the legal penalty, the lord (flaith) intervenes and levies it. As a result, his lord is entitled to a third of the fine, so not only can the lord levy his own coirpdire but also a proportion of another's; the latter is a forbach ( O'Curry 1623 , cited below. This third, however, is apparently levied out of the amount due to the injured man, so does not increase the payment due from the defendant) (see Stud. Hib. xvi 23 ): f.¤, forbuain ` exaction, extortion, additional fine exacted by the chief', O'Don. Suppl. forbag .i. for fiach, O'Mulc. 581 . f.¤ .i. cuid na marbh: cumal fhorbaigh do mhuinntir Dhe, O'Cl., folld. by P. O'C. with definition ` donations or legacies left by the dead for charitable uses' (cf. Cáin Ad. 43 , cited below). In following exx. seems used of a due or tribute (possibly a supplementary one): nach forbech dliges rí Locha Léin de Chorco Tri ┐ Orbrigu ... is rand i ndē etir ríg Eoganachta ┐ rí Ciarraige ┐ nach forbech bis la ríg Ciarraige do righ Locha Léin fācabar la Ciarraigi ┐ la rig ┐ is hoén inna foltaib o rig Locha Léin ZCP viii 316.11 (see folud). gabhla flatha forbach .i. ate forbuain gablaighthear don ḟlaith sech cach duine is isle inás: a beochoirpdire fein dó, ┐ trian beocoirpdire a daorceile dó, etc. O'Curry 1623 (< 23 Q 6, p. 76 ) = O'Gr. Cat. 81.6 (where the text is rendered `Reparations due to a chief are in excess [of those payable to others]'). cuit forbaig (.i. ... cuid tobaig) `Eintreibungsanteil' Ir. Recht 34 § 36 (but see Stud. Hib. xvi 23 n. 20 ). (`der Anteil der in dem forbach besteht' p. 35 ). imcengair flaith a foltaib forbuigh forgeall .i. as eimh cheimnigther a foltaib risna flathaib do ní forbuain n-indlighthech tre forg[ell] imdenma for a ceilib, no eimceimnighther i reir nach aile on flaith do ní forgell is forbuain n-indligthech ima foltaib cona nach aile is brethemh for a ceilib, H 3.18, 241b ( O'Curry 452 ). cf. imcengair ┐ rl. .i. cona berir [benir ?] lan forbhach ina miḟoltaib, H 3.18 246.29 ( O'Curry 468b ). na foachta fo[f]echar i Cáin Adomnan, dligith munter Adomnain f.¤ dé [leg. Dé, Plummer, but that does not suit the constr.] ... .i. cumal forbaich do muntir Iae airm i n-icatar secht cumala ┐ lethchumal di leth secht cumal. se seuit fon trichoit sét any injury that is inflicted in [violation of] Cain A. the family of A. are entitled to an over-levy (?) from it, ... i.e. a `cumal' of over-levy (?) [is due] to the family of Hy when seven `cumals' are paid, etc. Cáin Ad. 43 (see Thurn., ZCP xviii 394 ). banbeim aicnid ro ferustair ... ar nech do muindtir na heclaisi ... is da eclais fein ro soich in f.¤ sin conadh ocht screpaill fichit tic as in cumal sin, H 3.18, 426b ( O'Curry 997 ). Here it evidently means a proportion of the fine exacted. oirggis Insi Gall in gargri ... nirbo dograch tuc a f.¤ i tír Temrach `their trophies' (tribute wrung from them ?) Arch. Hib. ii 73 § 50 ( LL 184a45 ). Franc forbbaig `an extorting Frank') Arch. Hib. ii 71 § 18 ( LL 183b52 ). Form and meaning doubtful in these two passages. See also O'Curry 1756 (ferr frestal f.¤ ). O'D. 686 , 638 , 873 . ( H 3.17, c. 503 , 474 , 624 ).

Cf. bid f.¤ dond imgail `eine Vermehrung(?)' TFerbe 912 .

forgell, forgal(l)

Cite this: eDIL s.v. forgell, forgal(l) or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: forcell, forcal, forgall, forcoll, forgal, forggal, forcill, forcaill, forgaill, forgul, forcell, forgall, forgell

n (For the phonetically regular forgal which is not uncommon see Bergin, Ériu iii 60 § 30 ). o, n. later m. (vn. of for-gella) n a s. (with art.) a forcell , Wb. 25d21 . Ml. 42c1 . a forcal , 42d4 . cain-forgall (: ordan), Hy i 50 . Cf. forcoll, LU 8479 ( FB 33 ). forgal (ordan), SR 7051 . forggal (: orddan), 7003 . g s. ind forcill , Wb. 28b7 . forcaill, Ml. 46c24 . forgaill, SR 4302 . d s. forgul (: ordun), Fél. Ep. 488 . Cf. forcell .i. for ciall .i. fri éc, O'Mulc. 584 , where, despite the etymology given, -c- may = gg (unless the form here belongs to fo-cíallathar) dia forciull-som, Mon. Tall. § 31 is a vb. according to note in Rule of Tallaght p. 95 (but the true reading seems uncertain).

(a) bearing witness, testifying; testimony, attestation, affirmation: gl. attestatio Ml. 42c1 , d4 , testimonium Wb. 16c4 . rún ind forcillsin no pridchimse, 28b7 . foirghioll .i. foillsiughadh, O'Cl. fis timnae nDae ┐ a forcaill, Ml. 46c24 . cach fiadain a foirgell, ACL iii 226 ( Aib. Cuigni 10 ). foirgell o fiadnaib, Laws v 366.12 . forgeall gufiadnaise (.i. in gufiadnaise dfoirgell do), iv 52.26 . ni saig naidm fecheman cin fiadna dia forgell without witnesses to attest it H 3.17, 550.4 ( ZCP xviii 402 ). tuitfit ina forgolld `in witness of it' Fianaig. 82.7 . oc forcell esergi Crist, PH 3676 . Often in introducing a corroborative: conid da forcell sin atbeir in fāid, Lism. L. 691 . da orgeall sin part of the corroboration of that Cog. 180.25 . conad do forgell na ngnim so ro chan in senchaid, RC xxiv 184 § 17 . conidh da foirgell sin ... do chan in file, BNnÉ 223 § 120 . Cf. síl Ṡolman ... cen forgal ... cen ordan, SR 7051 . is guforcell doberam do Dia false testimony of God Wb. 13b15 . ni thēiss hi [cu v.l.] forgull fri nech, ACL iii 312 § 6 = ni thois i forgiull for n., LB 261a8 . ri fors tardad guforgall, SR 7752 . cf. Susannam ... iarsind ḟorgul fuirri, Fél. Ep. 488 . ri rosáer Susannam ... don guforgull, SR 7359 . Hence prob. forghal ┐ forghall .i. brég, O'Cl. airlama forgill glib in asseveration (of women) Tec. Corm. § 16.27 .

(b) in wider sense a statement, pronouncement, esp. an authoritative one, passing into sense of command, authority: forcgel nĒl, Rawl. 116b50 ( Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 31 § 53 , `ein Zeugnis Gottes'). ri roraidi friu ... forgal febda firinne SR 7706 . la forggal Fiadat, 7568 . ba lór forggal os cach maig (of Solomon) 7003 . fri frecru forgal fírdrong, 7026 . forgal fírian (chev.) 2678 . rótbiat limm anige in tslúaig ... fom forgal fēin, 5848 . testimony; accusation: F. mac G. ... do mharbhadh ... ar forgall mhec R. `at the instigation of' AFM iv 928.16 . Tadg ... do ghabháil le C. ar forgall Fhédhlim, ALC i 358.6 = Ann. Conn. 1242 § 10 (= furail AU ii 302.5 , forchongra, AFM iii 304.23 ). Mag C. do marbadh do S. tre forgoll in Iarla, AU ii 378.14 (= forgall, Ann. Conn. 1292 § 5 ). tria forgall Aeda, Ann. Conn. 1350 § 7 ). Ros I. nír tréicc A. ... ar impidhe na ar fhorgall, BNnÉ 260.10 . The form forgall seems to have been appropriated for this use and perhaps had become differentiated from forgell.

Aire forgill a landed proprietor next in rank to a `ri': aire forggaill cid ara n-eperr? Ar is hé fortgella for na gráda doruirmisem, Críth G. 417 ( Laws iv 326 ) `testifies to [the character of] the grades'; `makes affirmation above the grades' Mac Neill, MacNeill, Law of status 29 (see Críth G. p. 72 , BCrólige p. 70 § 46 ). aire forgill, Críth G. 11 ( Laws iv 298 ). a. forggaill, LL 29b22 . Called also: fer forgaill ZCP v 499 § 5 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. imm-cing or


Forms: immodcing, imderoich, immcengar, imchim, imching


(a) goes around: indic. pres. s. 3 atá sruth usci ... co n-eraig fri cach lin co n-anfir immodcing `it rises against all the truthless who go around it,' Ériu ii 114 § 40. a dama cana imcing do crich .i. ceimnignus tar an crich do denam cairde, Laws iv 380.15 Comm.

(b) circumvents, evades: ata dono naidm gaibes gnimu raithe .i. naidm son imacengar saigid a slan iarum ar aithgabail, `das ist ein naidm der umgangen (übergangen) wird,' ZCP xiii 24.10 (translated Bürgschaft 13 § 42 ). Subj. pres. s. 3 perf. atait secht tobaig a tuaith naco ndlegat dire ... for nech a n-elo no a n-imcim cidbe imderoich (sic leg., GOI 394.5 ) whoever may disregard them, Laws v 178.3 . ? to this, reading in both instances immcengar: imcengair flaith a foltaibh forbuigh forgeall .i. as eimhcheimnigther a foltaibh ris na flathaib do-ní forbuain inndlighthech, O'Curry 452 (< H 3.18 , p. 241b ). imcengair seoit .i. imcengar hin conar in tan diamba suillsi na gneidh imta samlaid ni fuasnaidh cen senchaidhe, O'Curry 2025 (< H 4.22, p. 49 ).

As simple vb.: pret. s. 3 imchim .i. sarugh[ud] ut est ar is Conall ceta ro imching aitire rig ... isind indsi so .i. ro saighi no ro saraighi `for Conall was the first who absconded being a king's hostage?' (Plummer MS. notes), O'Dav. 1116.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. sainigidir or


Forms: sainigthe, sainigud

v (1 sain)

(a) intrans. is different, distinct : issí chetne aram sainigedar fri hunáir `that varies from unity' (of the number two), Sg. 41b9 . longphort . . . | ro sainig co srethaib sét | for maigib na cairechtrét stood out (?), SR 6347 . ni suail ro sainig not little did they distinguish themselves, Arch. Hib. ii 70 § 9 . ni sai[ni]get i tomsib . . . sainigit imorro i forgnéib cuibdius differ (of metres), IT iii 7.16 .

(b) trans. makes different, distinguishes, gives pre-eminence to: mainip samlaid sainighiss if he does not observe these distinctions (i.e. the grades of poets? Perh. to (a) if he is not distinguished by these qualities), ZCP iv 238.10 = Leb. Cert. 236.y . ní errdarcaiged ní . . . no ni shainiged ní hi canóin gave no undue prominence to anything (?) (of Colum Cille), LB 239a44 ( ACC 97 Comm . ).

Legal perh. appropriates (defines? specifies?): na seoit ro sainigedh aicce do dilsi, O'Curry 577 ( H 3.18, 287 ). as foirgeall for saindílsib .i. as forgeall sainighes a dilsi, 1891 ( 23 P 3, 22b ). cron .i. a chur a cron no sainigenn i n-urlaim coitcind, O'D. 1631 ( H 5.15, 17a ).

Part. sainigthe, vn. sainigud.