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cáin

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cáin or dil.ie/7786
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: cānae, cánanda, cánann

n i, f. Later also with dental and velar inflection. Note also g s. cānae, Cáin Ad. 48 . IGT Decl. § 201 . n p. cánanda, ibid. g p. cánann, ex. 2162 . See Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 193 , O'Brien, Celtica iii 172 .

Law, regulation, rule; fine, tax, tribute. Precise legal significance difficult to define. Appar. regarded as statute law (a law imposed by a king, perh. by an over-king) or by the church ( Ériu xii 69 , Ir. Hist. Stud. xiii 101 - 3 ) in contrast to aurradus customary law. It is always more severe than the latter, ZCP xiv 339 . See Cóic Con. pp. 65 - 66 . Frequ. glossed by ríagail ( Laws ii 222.3 Comm. etc.). The wider meaning written law undoubtedly derived from the numerous monastic ordinances issued in the 8th cent., Thurn. ZCP xviii 396 . By annalists appar. equated with lex (see AU 733 , 736 , 766 and Index s.v. Law). In legal commentary, denotes the law as recorded in old books in contradistinction to aurradus which denotes current law ( The Irish Jurist xxxiii 359 , Literature and Politics in the Celtic World 199-200 , Ériu lii 136 n. 39 ).

(a) law as a system, set of regulations : c.¤ a canoine .i. regula , O'Mulc. 200 . cis lir cain i tir, na bi imaclaid la Feine?, Laws v 480.8 . ro suigideadh (? leg. for-suidigthea) na cana so o tosach domain, 480.22 . ata[a]t .iii. cáini (caine, MS.) nad chumgat comarbai do chumscuchud `there are three rules (servitudes) which heirs are not capable of changing i.e. three types of servitude to which one's land may become subject by adversative prescription', Ériu xvii 68 § 9 and note. c.¤ cach uisci thairidne .i. riagail inn uisce . . . , § 8 . comdire cach fri aroile i nnos chana, BCrólige 5 and note. it cetheora arag . . . fris-tobngiter na ceithri aur[r]athais: athgabail fri brat[h]a Cai, giall fri cain, etc., Bürgschaft 75.16 . adarbetar a cain ┐ rechtgi echtca sin, O'Mulc. 368 . Of the regulation for exacting satisfaction for injury (see (b) below): techta cana caich la derbfine .i. dliged na riagla tobaig caich, Ir. Recht 34 § 36 . fer cána the cáin lawyer: ca heiric bhias i nguairiuga[dh] cána, uair nar innis fer cána éiric inn i c.¤ , O'D. 873 ( H 3.17, c. 626 ). In phr. luige cána, see 1 luige. Contrasted with aurradus (see above): deithbirugh[ad] itir c.¤ ┐ urradus (one of the qualifications of a brehon), O'D. 925 ( H 3.17, 657 ). diablad coirpdire urradais sin, ┐ a da cutruma in diablad corpdire cana, Cóic Con. 38 § 51 . is doib do r[or]macht cain do cach duine da fuil airem eneclainne ar cumalaib i n-urradus, 50 § 97 . noco nfuilit ree nanta re athgabhala cána amhuil atá re athghabhála urradhuis, O'D. 621 ( H 3.17, c. 461 ) (see further under aurradus). Distinguished from cairde: imdích dliged a chéle cintaib cuir, c.¤, cairddi[u] co neoch atallen `he defends the rights of his clients in regard to liabilities arising from contract, written law and treaty(?)', Críth G. 340 and note. muna tabri c.¤ no cairde, BCrólige 43 and note. deichniubar aice ac denum cana ┐ cairde (of the aire désa), O'Curry 2057 (H 4.22, 64a). issed . . . doberar do . . . ar a chain, ar a chairde, ar a rechtnge, Laws v 520. 5 . See further under cairde.

Note further (from non-legal texts): is hí . . . cāin robūi . . . la Bretna: in biodba inna chinaid do neoch forsesed a chāin nō forūasnadfad a chāin, Corm. Y 883 ( Anecd. iv 76.3 ). ní duaichnid is í in ch.¤ ro mebaid and in tan ro gabad for loscad in tíre, BDD² 243 . hi ṅgíallnae nár choillet ith na blicht i nHérind tara ch.¤ téchtae, 921 . ar febus na cána ┐ in tṡída, 607 (of prosperous reign). is coll geisi ┐ cána dam-sa inní sin (the Paschal fire), Trip.² 448 . cia chollit araile in cánaid sea, LB 203b56 . ní dlig laech a enecland dia mbé i n-écmais a arm. conid c.¤ midlaig no ndlig fon samail sin law applying in the case of the m.(?), LU 6156 (TBC). ro leasaiged . . . fo chain lesaighthi, RC xliii 114 § 120 . c.¤ dilguda i.e. (Christian) doctrine of forgiveness, LU 9747 . foclaim rim chain is rim chubus / . . . na roaerus duine remhe by my troth, IT iii 86 § 89 . do fhregair in sámaid sin / a cánaib is a caingnibh, SG 69.18 . ón lá do cailleadh do ch.¤ when Thy law was broken (of the offence of Adam), Dán Dé xxviii 17 . In phrase do-gní c.¤ fri makes a law regarding: dogēna cāin fri banscāla, ACL iii 231.20 .

In names of particular laws or titles of tracts: is a Senchas Mar ro airletha na cetheora cano:— cain iarraid, cain saerraith, cain aicillne, cain lanamnussa techta, Laws i 40.21 . cain lanamna, ii 342 ( Stud. in E. Ir. Law 2 ). c.¤ aigillne, ZCP xiv 338 ff. cain airlicthe, Laws v 370.9 . cain dornn cliath, 474.13 .i. riagail na cleithi donither o'n durn, in cathcliath, 476.16 Comm. cain ona, 368.9 . cain othrusa `rule of nursing', BCrólige 25 . amail atberr a Cain techta bered darba, O'Dav. 629 = beridh darbha, muchaidh ainbḟios, etc., Ériu xiii 39.12 . in cain einech, 13.14 . ite na filidh do-bongad cain n-enech, 23 . In eccles. contexts: at éat so ceithri cána Erenn .i. cain Patraic gan [n]a chleirchiu do marbad, ┐ caín Adamnáin gan [n]a mna do marbad, Cain Daire ga[n] bú do marbad, ┐ Cain domnaig can toirimtecht etir, Fél. 210.31 ( Keat. iii 1705 ). forus chano Patricii hi Cruachnibh la Dubdaleithi `promulgation of the law of P.', AU i 258.5 (782). is i so tra in Cain Patraic, Laws i 18.1 . cutruma cumal cana Padraicc ┐ cumal cana Cormaic, O'Curry 577 ( H 3.18, 287 ). cain fuithribe, Laws iii 60.4 Comm. rith cana Patraic . . . r. c.¤ Diarmada . . . r. c.¤ boileachta . . . r. c.¤ Adamnain, O'Curry 2132 (H 4.22, 87b). mad iar gc.¤ Adamhnain, O'D. 673 ( H 3.17, 493b ) i.e. if the suit is brought under the law of A. (as oppd. to mad iar gc.¤ i.e. ordinary law), Plummer MS. notes. conid sí cētchāin lāithir for nimh ┐ for talmain Cāin Adomnāin, Cáin Ad. 21 . brithimain cānae Adomnān, 37 . bendacht . . . for anmain Adamnán . . . / rolā cāin forsna clanna, Thes. ii 306.4 (Hy. i). crannaig cana Darí ┐ Moling, O'Curry 343 ( H 3.18, 191 ). ni fil dithach .i. cain Dari .i. cain boslechta dia mbe tuarasdal cana Patraic ag nech, 2577 ( Eg. 88, 48 (49)d ). C.¤ Domnaig, title of tract on the observation of Sunday, Anecd. iii 21 = Ériu xx 151 .

(b) legal due, tribute : commotatio martirum Petir ┐ Poil ┐ Phatraicc ad legem perficiendam i.e. to exact the `cáin', AU i 188.12 (see further Index s.v. law ). conid desin dliges Ciaran cana coidcenda fo Erinn, YBL 171b12 . oc denamh a chana levying his tribute, Anecd. ii 12.13 . fo chánaibh Chiaráin, AFM ii 1096.8 . maor cána Adhamhnáin, 620.20 . LU 9376 . fó óenmám ┐ fo chís ┐ fo ch.¤ , LL 116 . commeít a ḟeraind . . . gan ch.¤ . . . gan ecendáil, 10073 ( TBC-LL¹ 3029 ). tucadh . . . a chana dligid do C. . . . nai fichit bo . . . , RC xliii 12 § 5 . co tuc caín esti, RC xvii 402.10 (Tig.). co nderna . . . c.¤ for cach tūeth, ZCP viii 316.20 . fer cāna a tributary(?), xv 336 § 28 . c.¤ ar na cnoibh tax on nuts, Aithd. D. 1.24 . ní cíos a-mháin ar Mumhain / bhíos acht c.¤ Í Chonchubhair, 7.12 . tug iomad maoine ┐ mórchánach as (of Armagh), Keat. iii 2974 . ó initt go caisg gan c.¤ / acht madh páin ┐ bioror `without (receiving) tribute save only bread and cress', ZCP i 64 § 105 . ní thabair cóir ina gcána / cóir Danair dá rádha rú, IGT Decl. ex. 2163 . fáoigfidh leth a gcos ad chána / dá mbeth cros gach ágha d'fir, ex. 49 . c.¤, dubhchíos no custum, Ezra vii 24 . fuagraim oruibh cain bhrisde focal penalty fine for breaking one's word, Luc. Fid. 4341 . Atonement (esp. of Christ's a. for Adam's sin): emenda .i. c.¤ , Ir. Gl. 98 . crann díola croinn na cána, Aithd. D. 88.3 . an té do choill an gcánaigh, A. Ó Dálaigh xiii 1 . ag so dhuit, a Dhia . . . / . . . an chalann 'n-a cánaigh féin, DDána 62.13 . íc ruibh do chuid don chánaidh / d'ḟuil Ádhaim duid a Dhúilimh, IGT Decl. ex. 2164 . Note also: mar ch.¤ an pheacaidh, Donlevy 348.23 .

In phrase cen ch.¤ (cheville): na ceil orm innis cen chain / ca lín dofaeth dom deslaim, RC xxiii 420.9 . can ch.¤ , LL 4381 . Cf. cain .i. cainte, O'Curry 94 ( H 3.18, 66 ).

fo-fich

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fo-fich or dil.ie/22676

Forms: fofich, fofith, fodafith, -fuich, -fuith, fofechat, -fuichit, -forais, forroi, forae, fofesat, fofeisit, foruasat, forriasat, foroesad, rofessed, -forruích, foruich, foruich, forfuich, forruachtatar, foruachtatar, fofechar, fo echar, -fuachar, fofeisear, -fuastar, -fuasdar, forruastar

v ind. pres. 3 s. fofich, Laws iv 362.16 . BCrólige § 23 . O'Dav. 929 . Cáin Ad. § 35 . ZCP xi 87. § 48 . fofith, Laws ii 22.27 Comm. Cf. fodafith, v 462.2 . -fuich, ACC § 129 (-fuaith v.l.). -fuith, Laws v 462.1 . 3 pl. fofechat, 404.22 . -fuichit, Bürgschaft I § 47 . subj. pres. perf. 2 s. of. -forais, Ériu xii 186.6 . 3 s. (perf.) forroi, Laws iv 220.12 . forae, iii 66.15 . O'D. 928 (< H 3.17, 658 ). 3 pl. fofesat, O'Curry 700 (< H 338 ). fofeisit, O'Curry 2142 (< Eg. 88 2 ). (perf.:) foruasat, O'Curry 219 (< H 3.18, 115 ). Cf. forriasat, O'Curry 700 (< H 3.18, 338 ). ? past 3 s. foroesad, Corm. Bodl. s.v. Mug eme ( forsesed Y, rofessed, Harl. See also s.v. fo-fúasna). perf. 3 s. -forruích, LU 7013 ( BDD 66 = foruich Y). foruich, LL 261b9 ( IT i 81.5 . forfuich Eg.). ? pl. forruachtatar, Corm. Y 876 . Bodl. = foruachtatar , O'Dav. 1223 . Pass. pres. s. fofechar, ZCP xi 87 § 48 . rel. fo echar, Cáin Ad. § 43 . -fuachar, Laws i 256.9 . BCrólige § 11 (-ur). subj. pres. s. ? fofeisear, Laws iv 144.32 - 3 Comm . Cf. -fuastar, 376z . -fuasdar, v 462.2 . forruastar, ii 396.31 . ( Stud. in E. Ir. Law 63 ). BCrólige § 44 . Part. foachta, q.v. Vn. fogal q.v.; see also fúachtain.

(a) trespasses, commits an offence, does injury , intrans. or with cogn. acc., FRI of pers.; common in Laws where it is generally glossed by fúachtnaigid or a phrase formed with fúachtain: ciasa cathach fofich cū fri tir ... ? what trespass does a hound commit on the land ? Laws iv 120.15 . ma forae neach cinuid n-ainceas, `if one has committed a crime unintentionally' iii 66.15 . nach fuil ales fiacha ... ni dligh focruic leada on fir fodafich any wound which entails fines does not oblige payment of the leech by the man who inflicts it BCrólige § 19 . ind fir fofich `of the man who commits the injury' (.i. roferustar in cneid ... .i. doni an fuachtain) § 23 . folach for fer nad fuic(h), § 15 . direnar triun dire neich frisa ḟuachur (.i. ... risa ndentar an fuachtain), § 11 . atat .iii. mna ... nad alet ot[h]rus ... cia forruastar friu, § 44 . cia forruastar fria, Stud. in E. Ir. Law 63 ( Laws ii 396 ). atat .iiii. fogla fofich cach ben fria cele, O'Dav. 929 . di cach fogail ... fofechar fris, Laws iii 536.8 . cip foghail forae cach díbh fri araile, O'D. 928 (< H 3.17, 658 ). ma[d] fri neithe fofeisear if the offence be committed against privileged persons Laws iv 144.32 Comm. = fri neimte, O'Curry 32 (< H 3.18, p. 13b ). ? i fuissed fael allaid for oisc, O'Curry 227 ( H 3.18, p. 123a ) = a fuirrecht faol allaidh for oisc, O'Curry 2512 . (< Eg 88, 42 a - b ). ni forrúich (foruich Y, furaich D, marbann, Eg.) mac tíre ina flaith acht tárag firend ..., BDD 66 (U). nad foruich an cintuch in cinaid that the defendant has not committed the offence Anecd. iii 24.14 . di pecad etraid foriacht-aide, Trip. 234.15 ( foruich-ide, 2775 ). fo-fechar (fo-feich-, fo-sechar MSS) cairde huaitsiu ... roga ... dochum na fine fod-ruich the border contract is broken by thee. I shall go to the kindred who have broken it Bürgschaft p. 32 § 1 . cuir bél doerdae ni fuichit fine common express contracts do not injure (form a liability of) the kindred, p. 14 § 47 . see also s.v. fo-roich.

(b) attacks , with acc.: cumma fofiched muir ┐ tir (of a `banféinnid'), Rawl. 143a33 . Perh. abs. here; ravages by sea and by land ? ni fuachar muir ... .i. nocha tabair fodiubadh ar in muir, O'Curry 1424 (< H 3.18, p. 639b ).

fo-fúasna

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fo-fúasna or dil.ie/22686
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: -fúasna, rofuasnaibter, nosfuasnaither, nusfuassnaigther

v -fúasna

(a) agitates, disturbs , in physical and fig. sense: fufuasna fairggae findḟolt tosses the ocean's white hair Thes. ii 290.4 . amal fufuasnither (of sea) Ml. 66d17 . gresis E. na gaetha ... ┐ fuasnaid in talmain ┐ int aer o anfine dimoir, Aen. 220 (leg. fuasnaidther?). ma beth nech fodḟúasna (boduasna, foruasna v.l.) if any one disturb (the order of the chapters) Fél. Ep. 102 (hence: foruasna .i. cumscaighis, O'Dav. 895 ). fafuasna són ┐ faceird dia aicniud perturbs him Ml. 94c8 . nachat-uasnad ... soine na haisnéssen let not ... disturb thee LB 232b36 . ? dia mbi fergi fúasnadar mac F. frind, LU 8652 ( FB 38 ; dep. according to Wind.). día fúasnaither frind LU 8656 (ib.). ma fōsnather trist do tabirt for nech if thou art wroth so as to lay a curse Mon. Tall. § 36 . otchuala in ri inní sein for[ḟ]uasnad co mór, Trip. 42.15 (452) . trén rom-fúasnaidh-si (sic leg.), BS 98.14 . fuasne ar légióna 'you perturb our legions', Stair Nic. 92.234 .

(b) in Laws, attacks, impugns (a contract, etc.): fofuasnaide a curu `she can disturb his contracts' Laws ii 382.1 ( Stud. in E. Ir. Law 46 ). itir dā sochond nād fuasnaithter cuir `whose contracts are not impugned' Laws iii 4.10 ( SM Facs. 46a ). cach bidba ina chinta do neoch no ḟuasnabad cáin (= si quis legem violaverit?) Thr. Ir. Gl. 30 = do neoch forsesed a chain no foruasnadfad i (= a) chain, Corm. Y p. 76 (= do neoch foroesad [a cháin], Bodl. See fo-fich). rofuasna bthar adbarta `offerings will be disturbed RC xxvi 38 § 193 (= for-fuasnaighfithear YBL. rofuasnaibter, Rawl.). Impers. pass. with IMM of pers.: nosfuasnaither im Coin Culaind ... oca clostecht sin C. became enraged LU 10477 = nusfuassnaigther , ZCP iii 261 § 88 . otchuala H. in scél sin rofercaiged ┐ rofuasnad co mor imme, LB 144a41 . o atchuala ... in mathair na scela sin ro fuasnad co mor impe, 222b6 .

See fúasnad and fúasnaide.