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abus

Cite this: eDIL s.v. abus or dil.ie/101

x see 1 foss .

?2 aige

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ?2 aige or dil.ie/915

n (cf. 3 aig?): dech áilche ainmne foss, fiss, feidle, age, airle, ZCP xi 86 § 42 ` courage ', p. 105. Cf. 2 áige.

áitt

Cite this: eDIL s.v. áitt or dil.ie/2826
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: átt, áttaib, átachad, áitt

n f. Perh. orig. átt ā, f., cf. d p. áttaib, Críth G. 173 , átachad, IGT Verbs § 106 . See Mac Airt, Celtica iii 263 . Vendr. Lex. Lochlann ii 213 .

(a) place, situation, position, dwelling: hi cech ait isin chathrig, Ml. 68a13 . co cach inchruth a thige inna áttaib córaib with all the furniture of the house in its proper positions, Críth G. 173 . ni fuair ait forstarrasad (of the Ark), SR 2572 . ro facsat ait na scainnre do S., CCath. 3697 . áit buailte do thabhairt dóibh a place for defeating them, Mac Aingil 1748 . arna shuidhiughadh san áit is onóraighe don chlár, TSh. 855 . na háiti d'folmughadh, IGT Decl. ex. 723 . a buird 'na n-áitibh gá n-uaim planks being joined in their places (of a building), DDána 119.35 . anuidh an connsuine bog na áit féin remains unchanged, IGT Introd. 26.31 .

Abode, dwelling: ra curit ina n-aitib ┐ ina n-imdadaib (of men after feasting), CRR 20.2 . a hait ┐ a hadba, TTebe 186 . do chuaidh gach aon díobh d'a ait (bhaile v.l.) féin, ZCP iv 400.19 . techit na harrachta asa n-attib, PH 743 . aitte (háit v.l.) cumhsanaidh lair (of an animal), BNnÉ 317 § 5 . hi senáitibh slechta Conuill Chernaigh in the hereditary seats of the race of C., AFM vi 2186.12 . anmhain ar ar n-aitibh fein in our own districts, O'R. Poems 3906 .

Passage (in a book): gibé thuigfeas na háite do haithleigheadh linn, Eochairsg. 111.1 . do réir na háite sin (in Bible), TSh. 22 . léaghthar san áit chéadna, 285 . ar lorg na háite-se san Leabhar Ghabhála, Keat. ii 796 .

Perh. crossing-place of a river in: hae aite (in a list of things (on private property) of which there is no exclusive ownership) i.e. salmon seen at a river-crossing can be appropriated (?), Laws v 482.23 (see Mac Airt loc. cit.). Or w.r.t. the location of one's house, EIF 286-87 . Or áe as in the plant-name áe aba, Peritia xvi 390-92 ; see 1 áe.

In phr. á.¤ i n- as conj. where: a tírib beó ait inna bí bás, LU 9996 . ait hi funend grían where the sun sets, 3691 ( SCC 33 ). áit i mbaí a h-adba inmain, Sc.M² 24 (e) . áit i comraicfead díabolnámaid, BDD² 733 . lige Fergusa maic Rōic āitt in rohadnacht ar Mag nĀi, ACL iii 3.3 . áit i farggab C. . . . a chend .i. cenn-áitt F., TBC-LL¹ 2915 . tomaidm Linmuine edón Locha Echach áitt dollégad síl nD., RC xvi 413.16 (Tig.). áit ar marbhadh C., Keat. iii 2545 . Note also: áit mal connairnechtatar where they met, TBC-LL¹ 1441. 1565 .

Combines with interrog. to give cáit where (in dependent and direct questions) (perh. a modification of O. Ir. cote, see Mac Airt, loc. cit.): ní fes do Galafas cait a ndeachaidh, RC x 185.9 . do c[h]uireadar fesa da fhis cáit a rabatar, ML² 911 . cait hir-raibe?, PH 201 . cāit a fhuil Finn?, ML² 1492 .

(b) place formerly occupied by someone or something: ní fuaradar acht a ait ann they found the place empty, ZCP vi 76.13 . do níd áit leabhar dona tuatadhaib they take the place of books (of images), Ó Héodhusa 143.12 . fear a áite his successor, Mac Aingil 6004 . cead . . . an easbuig . . . nó fhir áiti delegate , 4389 . fear āite Chriosd, Parrth. Anma 2934 . do dhiúltuigh . . . ar gealladh d'oifig is d'fhurthacht is d'áit dó place, office (of an Irish chief who resisted the bribes of the government), Hackett xl 192 . imprint, mark: co fil āit a beōil isin c[h]loich fóss ann, BColm. 64.8 . lorg cneadh ┐ áit áladh, DDána 54.9 . Hence in phrase i n-á.¤ with gen.: nach faicim acht fís . . . i n-áit an mhóir-eoluis cheirt instead of, Content. xvi 87 . mar íoc i n-áit an tsochair `as requital for those benefits', ix 26 .

(c) In phrase of doubtful meaning do áitt , diait, diad etc. See Mac Airt loc. cit.: Ri ro sáer Iacob do aitt / do láim Isau meicc Isaic, SR 7313 . teine do áitt etc., for exx. see 1 teine.

allaboss

Cite this: eDIL s.v. allaboss or dil.ie/2922

adj (allae + i foss , see 1 foss ) on this side, on the hither side: allathall don ess . . . alla boss don es ceadna, ALC ii 128.10 .

amfos

Cite this: eDIL s.v. amfos or dil.ie/3129

n (1 foss ) in etymol. expl. of amus: amfos no anfos .i. inti nabi foss [air] acht ho locc do locc (de loco ad locum), Thr. Ir. Gl. 1 = amos .i. am-ḟos, Corm. Y 12 . So also Ériu xiii 62 § 5 .

anfoss

Cite this: eDIL s.v. anfoss or dil.ie/3600

n ( foss ) restlessness, wandering: amḟos no anfos .i. inti nabi foss [air] acht ho locc do locc, Thr. Ir. Gl. 1.16 (= Corm. Y 12 , etymol. of amus). Tuan mac Cairill . . . / dorad Ísu for anfos whom Jesus sent wandering, ZCP iii 31.3 . īar sain tucad écomlond / for Echdaig . . . / co fil a charnd for Maig Rois / a lín robói deas anfois, ZCP iii 44 § 18 , where Thurn., ZCP ix 208 would read: d'éis a.¤ `nach dem Schweifen'. ni laig aimsir for rinn . . . fir ḟuis na fir anfuis, O'Curry 2470 ( Eg. 88, 38 (39)a ) = 1901 ( 23 P 3, 23 (21)b ) `absentee', Plummer MS notes. Cf. anfois.

astud

Cite this: eDIL s.v. astud or dil.ie/4546
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: astad, astád, astúd, astód

u, m. vn. of ad-suidi. Also astad, astád, astúd, astód. IGT Verbs § 64 , § 106 .

(a) act of holding back, detaining, keeping (in a place): cen nach n-a.¤ gl. sine ullo . . . adpensu, Ml. 15a15 . a.¤ gl. qui non digni aliquo aestimantur adpensu, 15c4 . in Satan aridralastar insin dot astad etir tuaid `to detain thee among the laity', Ériu ii 222.6 . dodechoid . . . inna diaid día a.¤ , Trip.² 2682 . Ui Neill ic triall a thabarta do A., Ulaid occa a.¤ occu, 3015 . ata-roí a n-astod (astód v.l., LU 6793 ), BDD² 308 . cen caemachtain astada, Laws v 468.32 Comm. rogabastár éssi astuda a ech, LU 6398 . ic arichill astuda na laédeṅg, LL 236a26 ( TTr. 1425 ). rogabh gá astadh a brat she took to holding him by his cloak, BS 6 . fastod na fola mista 'suppression of the menstrues' Ériu x 148 § 4 . Of holding back an enemy: a mbī ēcmacht / hūë nAirt a.¤ / ar cūl cāich / ni bu tlāith fri catha castud, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 39 § 6 . ? gabul asta echtranda, Laws iv 38.15 . astúd rurech, LU 4755 (TBC). ac trena.¤ fer ṅ-hErend, TBC-LL¹ 3195 . ? cachain in dail n-asdadha do Gaidelaib: gebat foss findgrinde (sung by Lóch who had undertaken to ward off the Fomorians), RC xii 102 § 141 . Of retaining, keeping (in service): do a.¤ inna filed . . . ar robas ica n-innarba (sic leg.), LU 300 (ACC) (corresponding to fastódh na bhfileadh, Keat. iii 1453 ). Note also: cia bet . . . carru . . . / oc breth imerge . . . / is astadh doib in aidchi sin / dia mberther bo cach aicme do rig `they may rest for that night', Laws i 136.6 .

(b) act of fixing, establishing: ni ar far n-a.¤ i n-ógi gl. [porro autem ad utilitatem uestram dico] non ut laqueum uobís ineiciam (iniiciam, 1 Corinth. vii 35 ) to bind you to celibacy, Wb. 10b14 . do asdud pectho . . . foir gl. adversus prespiterum accusationem noli recipere, to convict him of sin, 29a15 . astad caich in[a] sochar ┐ ina dochar `binding of all to their good and bad contracts', Laws i 50.30 . ni conberedh breth . . . gin teora ailche astudha cacha breithe, 24.23 Comm. is i cetna leac astuga cacha sealbha .i. is e in cetna ni amail lic astus dilsi caca feraind, v 498.8 , 500.2 Comm. ? ni fulangar cuccai go tairi no ast— uadh fri laim brithi in laa sin, Anecd. iii 24.1 . rucus oenfer do a.¤ for diis one binds (proves) against two (Thurn.), ZCP xv 327 § 19 ( xvi 221 ). rucside deichenbur ar fhichit dá fastud `to bind him in his rights', Ériu xi 48.2 . dligid āi a.¤ , Anecd. iii 14.z . ferr a.¤ (astúd v.l.) amaires certainty is better than doubt, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 15.27 . co nastudh sualach, Lism. L. 2460 . do astad a císa ┐ a righi ar eigin foruib, RC xii 74 § 50 . a asdadh i n-aen .i. in trefocal, Auraic. 1027 . a asdadh a ndeichthe `its establishment' (of alphabet), 1022 .

Cf. fastód, fostad, aitside, astaithe, astaigthe.

beirid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. beirid or dil.ie/5583
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: biru, -biur, biri, berid, -beir, -ber, berthi, beirthi, berthus, rom-beir, beres, berma, -berid, berit, berait, -berat, bertit, bertae, berda, -bered, -bertis, biur-sa, ber, beir, -bered, beram, beirith, -berae, -bera, -bere, beraid, -bera, -berat, berte, -berinn, -berad, -mbérthai, -bertais, -bēr, -bér, béra, bera, -béra, beraid, -bera, bæras, béras, -béram, -berum, berait, bērtait, bérait, béraitt, -berat, -mbérat, mbértæ, -bertha-su, no berad, -berad, -bermáis, -bértais, -mbértaís, -bertais, -berdais, birt, bert, -mbert, -bert, -breth, berte, ra bertatar, bertar, -bertatar, bertatar, ṁbertatar, berir, berair, -berar, berar, berair, bertair, berdair, bertar, bertis, berar, -berar, berthir, berthair, -berthar, -bertar, -berar, berthe, bérthair, berthair, bért[h]ar, bérthar, -bértar, bértha, brethae, breatha, -breth, -rucaim-se, -rucaim, ro-ucca, -rucai, -rúgat, -rucat, -rucad, -ructais, -rucca, -ruccæ, rucus, rucainn, uiccius, roúcos, ucus, rucus, rucais, ro-sn-uicc, uic, ro-ucc, rá-uc, ro-da-ucai, rofuc, rohuicc, -ruc, roucsaid, ra-ucsat, -rucsat, rota-thuigsead, ruucthar, -ructhar, -ructar, -ructhae, -rructhae, -ructais, -ruccfaither, -rucfaiter, ro-n-ucad, rohucad, rucad, uctha, ructha, ructa, brith, berim, -berai, beiridh, -berend, bermait, -berad, -bertís, -berear, bheire, -beraind, mbeirt[h]ea, berait(se, bérat-sa, béar, -berair, béaraidh, bermuid, bertus, bertis, ro-das-beir, beiris, bertsat, -berair, -beirthir, -bearar, béarthar, ruc-, -rucur, rucus, -rugus, rucais, ruc, ruc, rugsamar, -rucamur, rucabhar, rucadur, rucad, -ruccad, rucait, rugaid, biriu, berti

v see GOI 353 , 358 , 360 ; KZ xliv 113 - 114 . Also IGT Verbs § 13 for forms in bardic verse, and Aithd. D. ii Vocab. s.v. beirim .

The perfective forms are supplied by ro-ucc-. The O.Ir. t-pret. is often replaced in mid. Ir. by an s-pret. as well as by mixed forms of t- and s-prets. Later the perfective form ruc- (also in some contexts tuc-, e.g. TBC-LL¹ 2935 v.l.) completely replaces preterite forms as a past tense. For exx. of conj. forms see also as-beir and do-beir.

Indic. pres. 1 s. biru, RC x 88.2 (see KZ xliv 114 ), Anecd. iii 28.15 . -biur, TBFr. 131. 2 s. biri, Ériu xii 135.7 . 3 s. berid, Wb. 6a13 , 29b9 , TBC-LL¹ 1271. -beir, Wb. 6c9 , -ber, Ml. 86d16 (but see CMCS xiii 1 ). (With suff. pron.) berthi, Wb. 23a19 . beirthi, Ml. 42b7 . berthus, Mon. Tall. 158.6 . (With ro) rom-beir `can bring', 148.13 . Rel. beres, Ml. 27c1 , LU 3776 ( SCC 34 ). 1 pl. berma, ZCP iii 222.13 , TBC-LL¹ 477. 2 pl. -berid, Wb. 9d15 . 3 pl. berit, Wb. 18c10 . berait, TTr. 1599. -berat, Wb. 28d26 . Ml. 103b16 . (With suff. pron.) bertit, Wb. 13a16 . Rel. bertae, Ml. 63c18 . berda, Laws v 198.2 .

Indic. impf. 3 s. -bered, Thes. i 494.28 , TBC-LL¹ 403 , Ériu ii 222.24 (sic leg.). 3 pl. -bertis, ZCP iii 204.1 ( LU 9568 ).

Ipv. 1 s. biur-sa, Metr. Dinds. iii 210.18 (cf. Ériu xvi 76.25 ). 2 s. ber, Ml. 38c28 , TBC-I¹ 450. beir, Thes. ii 310.30 , Fing. R. 722. 3 s. -bered, TBC-LL¹ 5962. 1 pl. beram, SR 2744. 2 pl. beirith, Blathm. 99 § 29.

Subj. pres. 2 s. -berae, Ml. 74d13 , 94a1 . -bera, Thes. ii 296.6 . -bere, ZCP viii 310.19 . 3 s. beraid, Ml. 37a9 . -bera, 43a2 , ZCP vii 308.29 , TBC-LL¹ 5963. 3 pl. -berat, Ml. 54a28 . Rel. berte, Wb. 9c12 . Impf. 1 s. -berinn, Wb. 10d36 . 3 s. -berad, TBC-I¹ 1337 , Ériu ii 196 § 11 , TBC-LL¹ 2488. 2 pl. -mbérthai (sic), LL 8051 ( TBC-LL¹ 595 ). 3 pl. -bertais, TBC-LL¹ 4340.

Fut. 1 s. -bēr, TBC-I¹ 1284 , -bér, BDD² 69. 2 s. béra, TBC-LL¹ 3689. bera, ZCP vii 308.10 . -béra, RC xxiv 198.5 . 3 s. beraid, Ml. 37a9 , TBC-LL¹ 1266. -bera, Wb. 1a8 . Rel. bæras, Ml. 94b7 . béras, TBC-LL¹ 3484. 1 pl. -béram, Wb. 29b15 . -berum, PH 608. 3 pl. berait, Sc.M² 4R. (With suff. pron.) bērtait, 4 . bérait, TBC-LL¹ 5773. béraitt, BS 94.25 . -berat, Ml. 54a26 . -mbérat, TBC-LL¹ 144. Rel. mbértæ, BDD² 548 , MU² 930. Condit. 2 s. -bertha-su, TBC-LL¹ 1047. 3 s. no berad, TBC-I¹ 1336 , PH 906. -berad, TBC-LL¹ 4300. 1 pl. -bermáis, TBC-LL¹ 1051. 3 pl. -bértais, Ml. 124b6 . -mbértaís, TBC-LL¹ 3616. -bertais, PH 599. -berdais, 611 .

Pret. 3 s. birt, Thes. ii 242.17 , ZCP viii 309.11 , RC xi 446. 11 , LU 10611. bert, 3160 , Metr. Dinds. iii 88.11 , SG 187.31 . -mbert, Sc.M² 10.8 . -bert, LU 10601. With pass. form -breth, Metr. Dinds. iv 232.19 . Rel. berte, Fianaig. 28.2 . 3 pl. ra bertatar, TBC-LL¹ 2875. Rel. bertar, Ml. 127d6 . -bertatar, 82d9 , bertatar, Corm. Y 1059 (91.7) . ṁbertatar, Tur. 130.

Pass. indic. pres. s. berir, Wb. 12d38 , 23c11 , 29a28 . berair, ACL iii 309.19 , TBC-LL¹ 2041 , LL 31255. -berar, Mon. Tall. 164.21 , Laws iv 62.17 , RC xxiv 182.21 . Rel. berar, Wb. 16d7 . Mon. Tall. 154.28 . berair, 155.23 . 3 pl. bertair, Ml. 26c6 , BDD² 212 , TBC-LL¹ 4722 , berdair, 4718 . Rel. bertar, Wb. 25c23 . Impf. 3 pl. no bertis , Wb. 16d4 . Ipv. s. berar, Wb. 7b4 , TBC-LL¹ 1643. -berar, Wb. 27a24 . Subj. pres. s. berthir, Wb. 27d13 . berthair, Ml. 37a8 . -berthar, 134c6 ; Fél.² Prol. 3. ? -bertar, LU 3295 ( SCC 9 ). -berar, PH 7563. Impf. s. no berthe , ZCP viii 309.15 . Fut. s. bérthair, BDD² 570. berthair, TBC-LL¹ 110. bért[h]ar, ZCP viii 212.13 . Rel. bérthar, Wb. 12d27 . Pl. -bértar, Wb. 15a3 . Condit. s. no bértha , TBC-LL¹ 1611. Pret. s. brethae, Ml. 52. breatha, BDD² 98. -breth, ZCP viii 309.24 .

Perfective forms. Indic. pres. 1 s. -rucaim-se, LU 5755 (= TBC-I¹ 1283 ). -rucaim, ZCP xiii 179.11 . 3 s. ro-ucca, Laws iv 176.1 . -rucai (racu, MS.), Críth G. 601. 3 pl. -rúgat, Ml. 75b3 . -rucat, 87c3 . Impf. 3 s. -rucad, BDD² 301. 3 pl. -ructais, ib. Subj. pres. 3 s. -rucca, Wb. 12c32 . -ruccæ, Mon. Tall. 154.8 . Rel. rucus, Ériu v 128 § 35. Impf. 1 s. do rucainn , Feis Tighe Chonáin 395. Perf. 1 s. ro uiccius , Wb. 9b6 . ? roúcos, LU 869. ron-ucus , BDD² 217. rucus, ZCP xv 307 § 2 (Caratnia). 2 s. rucais, LU 8246 ( FB 19 ). 3 s. ro-sn-uicc, Wb. 5b3 , ro uic , 27a22 . ro-ucc, Ml. 63c18 , rá-uc, 45a1 . ro-da-ucai, 46a19 . rofuc, Ériu v 36.30 . rohuicc, Fianaig. 12.12 . -ruc, MU² 953. 2 pl. roucsaid, LU 9205 ( FB 93 ). 3 pl. ra-ucsat, Wb. 26b11 . -rucsat, Ml. 23b5 ; 54d16 . rota-thuigsead (-huicset, v.l.), BDD² 200 - 1 . Pass. Indic. pres. s. ruucthar, Ml. 35b10 . -ructhar (perh. subj.), Ériu i 202.4 . Subj. pres. pl. -ructar, TBC-I¹ 1129. Impf. s. -ructhae, Ml. 104a8 . -rructhae, Thes. ii 241.9 . pl. -ructais, Ml. 125b7 . Fut. s. -ruccfaither ( rucfaider, LU 5395 ), TBC-I¹ 918. pl. -rucfaiter, 921 . Perf. s. ro-n-ucad, Ml. 104a8 . rohucad, Sg. 174a1 . rucad, ib. pl. ro uctha , Ml. 132a1 . ructha, 102c7 , ZCP xi 57 § 2. ructa, MU² 913. Vn. brith (see breth).

Later forms. Indic. pres. 1 s. berim, LL 8688. 2 s. -berai, TBC-LL¹ 925. 3 s. beiridh, TSh. 9670. -berend, PH 7574. 1 pl. bermait, LL 17003. Impf. 3 s. -berad, TBC-LL¹ 891. 3 pl. -bertís, MU² 275 . Subj. pres. 1 s. -berear: dheireadh, Dán Dé xvi § 12 . 2 s. bheire, Duan. F. ii 72.20 . Impf. 1 s. -beraind, Ir. Review 1912, 250 § 19 . 2 s. mbeirt[h]ea, ZCP viii 109 § 9. Fut. 1 s. berait(se, Trip. 238.3 . bérat-sa, MU² 320. ZCP viii 312.8 . béar, TSh. 10521. 2 s. -berair, Ériu iii 164 § 17. 3 s. béaraidh, Dán Dé xxvii § 3 . 1 pl. bermuid, ZCP vi 66.8 .

Pret. and perf. 1 s. ra bertus-sa, TBC-LL¹ 2888. 3 s. bertis, TBC-LL¹ 4435. ro-das-beir (beras, v.l.), 4728 . beiris, ML² 396. 3 pl. ru bertsat , ZCP viii 104.12 .

Pass. indic. pres. -berair, IGT Verbs ex. 169. -beirthir, 172 . -bearar, Introd. § 13. Fut. béarthar, TSh. 1153. Forms from ruc-. Subj. pres. 1 s. -rucur, TBC-LL¹ 1870. Pret. and perf. 1 s. do rucus , Feis Tighe Chonáin 1277. -rugus, 367 . 2 s. rucais, PH 1868. 3 s. ruc, SG 112.14 . ruc (rugustair, v.l.), ML² 404. 1 pl. rugsamar, TTebe 3966 . -rucamur, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1901. 2 pl. rucabhar, 998 . 3 pl. rucadur, 405 . Pass. rucad, PH 304. -ruccad, Ann. Conn. 1307.10 . pl. rucait, ZCP xi 62.8 . PH 2002. rugaid, TTebe 4750 .

I

(a) carries: nosbered gl. crucem . . . portabat, Thes. i 494.28 . is do thabirt díglae berid in claideb gl. gladium portat, Wb. 6a13 . hi fēnai bretha arm laiside, TBC-I¹ 1279. ara rucca cách a mám `that each may be able to bear his yoke', Ériu iii 104 § 33. berid iarum a muicc 'na hucht `carries', RC xiv 246.20 .

(b) In abstract senses adduces; infers etc. (of arguments, facts, etc.): berit in soscéle do imthrenugud ueteris , Wb. 18c10 . dearbhadh eile bheir tu asteach other proof that you adduce, Rel. Celt. ii 293.22 . bertit alaili tra combad spirut nóib robói in profetís `some take it', Wb. 13a16 . scél asa mberar co mbad hé Find mac Cumaill Mongán, LU 10938. is edh rucc-som assin what he inferred from that, CCath. 3241. ná beir uaim nach fuair Féidhlim `do not think I deny that F.', Content. v 104. b.¤ dígail inflicts vengeance, punishment: amal adnaigther fírbrithem beres digail cech ancridi, Ml. 27c1 (cf. do thabirt díglae, Wb. 6a13 ). See dígal.

II bears, brings forth, in pass. is born: in tan ṁberes claind is failid iar sin, Ml. 129c8 . indí . . . duamberar cland, Mon. Tall. 132.2 . rugais toircheas is tú it óigh `thou hast conceived', A. Ó Dálaigh xiv 7. cia tir i rrugad Gaedeal `in what land was G. born ?' Auraic. 15. Fig. an tan ghabhas an ainmhian, beiridh an peacadh (= parit peccatum), TSh. 6970. tarnocht . . . beirthear sinn (= nascimur), 7722 . Of animals: bi slan oga ceathra an tollbaire beres ba, O'Curry 2527 ( Eg. 88, 43b ). Of laying eggs: aen ogh beires isin slíab sin cacha bliadna, RC xxiv 377.3 .

In more general sense yields, produces: berid in bo atúaid trian mblechta sech in mboin andeas, Dinds. 60. no berta na harbair fo thrí cecha blíadnae, Airne F. 352. Fig. tosach rabhuidh rug a dealbh `His aspect became threatening', Ériu iv 112.15 .

Intrans. absol. in: sanntaigh an saidhbhris rucus gu maith dot anaim desire the riches that may profit etc., Ériu v 128 § 35.

III judges, passes judgment (usually with breith, etc. in figura etymologica and with FOR introd. indirect obj.): cisí breth rucais?, ZCP xv 306 § 1 (Caratnia). rucus, etc., 307 ff. § 2 - § 52 . nách beir for nach néle gl. non iudicat, Wb. 6c18 . bat hé berte bretha lib, 9c12 . berir breth foir gl. deiudicatur, 12d38 . birusa for firu soera, Anecd. iii 28.15 . bertid brith (bertaid breith v.l.) for ēc Dēāth, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 54 § 15. is me dano bæras mes firian foraib, Ml. 94b7 . ní berat fírbrithemnachta, 103b16 . ní ruc gói riam . . . fer rodhuc, ZCP viii 311.31 . biriu glossed brethemnuigim, O'Curry 440 (H.3.18, 237a). diamba brethum nis bera gan ḟis cin forus cin fasach, O'D. 2211 (Nero A vii 145b). nāthó . . . ní rucaim I cannot pass judgments, ZCP xiii 179.11 . ber breith iter do macaib, ol si, cia dib gebus t'forba. Ní bér, ol se, acht béraid Sithcheann drai, RC xxiv 194.1 . rucc Maodhócc do breith air féin cona cléir . . . guidhe tara chenn, BNnÉ 261 § 221 . rugatur in cúaisti ┐ in breithiomh maróen Brian do beith sáor, ZCP i 117.25 . b.¤ fuigell see fuigell. Hence of dreams interprets, expounds: ruc tra Patraic forsinn aislingi `expounded the vision', Trip. 176.25 . ruc Ethne breith na haislingi sin, Lism. L. 800.

IV carries away, takes (with one) (opp. of do-beir) (freq. with LA with reference to subject):

(a) In concrete or physical senses: na berat a n-erpther doib, Wb. 31c12 . ni berthar ind imerge `must not be taken', RC x 222.24 . nī scarfam . . . co rrucsa do cheand-so, TBC-I¹ 1200. beirthe lais S. `S. takes him', Blathm. 97 § 23. in rí chon-daigi hi foss / mani-mbera latt, ní fogbai, Thes. ii 296.6 . rucusdar leis ar a muin é, Ériu i 124.27 . beirit a n-eachroidh ar aradhnoibh leō `they led their horses by the reins', Fl. Earls 66.21 . dinaib brataib bertae `of the spoils they carry off', Ml. 63c18 . genti bidbaid bertar (: trebtar) `guilty pagans who are carried off', Fél. Prol. 175. acht a mbértae eóin ina crobaib, BDD² 548 . no bertis Con[n]achtai a bú-si `the C. used to carry off her kine', ZCP iii 204.1 - 2 . fir gontair mna bertair women are being carried off, LL 11451 ( TBC-LL¹ 4722 ). beiris leis na curna, Ériu ii 186.27 . ni berend in gadaige leis acht a mbeir cen fhis, PH 7574. antí dorat as ē ruc, ZCP vi 269 § 3. nach feas cá galar rug é, Keat. ii 2118.

(b) In fig. and abstr. senses: berthi (leg. bérthi, edd.) leiss co cenn gl. perficiet, Wb. 23a19 . ba hé less nod-ṁbert `the purpose which had brought him' ( Études Celt. ii 6.2 ), TBFr. 156. bret[h]a barann coimdhidh cáidh `was subdued' lit. was carried off, AFM ii 594.19 .

V Hence with meaning carries off absol. and in phrr. b.¤ barr, búaid, cluiche, etc. secures, wins (highest place, a victory, a game, etc.): bid hé beras in curadmír who wins the champion's portion, LU 9014 ( FB 76 ). is andsin dorimgart-seom / a eneclaind for Midir / . . . / conosruc iar ndáil dligid `he demanded his honour-fine from M . . . . and obtained it after award by law', Metr. Dinds. ii 4.28 . créd ima ruguis an baire orm? Má rugus báire ort . . . béarad leat arís é, RC xxix 116 § 13. cia haca le mbearthar barr `that excels', TD 28.24 . ni bertais buaid díb they would not overcome them, IT i 72.10 ( LMU 8 ). birt būaidh [n]-eccna / hi cūairt Éirenn, ZCP viii 197 § 6. ba mor do coscur chathbuadach rucas-[s]a tred chumachta-su `much . . . triumph have I achieved', TTebe 3178 . a mbuaigh ní rugadh a-riamh they were ever unconquered, O'Hara 3387. beirigh sisi bhuaidh ar gach n-énní dá ttairgionn a claoi, Desid. 2161. nobidis oc im[b]irt fithchilli cach dia . . . nobered C. cluithi na nona for I., Anecd. i 11.26 (SCano 358). ní rugadh aonchluiche air `he never lost a game', O'Hara 1373. ni rodam nad beir a roí `who does not win his battle', Ériu ix 49 § 34. birt a ráena forru he defeated them (in a game), LU 4984 (= TBC-I¹ 495 ). rucsat ar in ríg in raen `had overreached the king', Ériu vii 227 § 62 . ní biur do thóchaill dind ḟithchill `I do not win against thee at chess' ( Études Celt. ii 5 ), TBFr. 131. is [s]ainmuinter cach la fechtus bēus beress a tochell ( cluithe, Thr. Ir. Gl. 21 ), Corm. Y 607. (with implied direct object) uair roucsaidse for nUltaib . . . do slúagaib na tíri sin you U. have excelled, LU 9205 ( FB 93 ). rucsat na Troiannai do daínib in domain amal nabad do ṡíl daíni doib etir, LL 32109 ( TTr. 1296 ). rucc (glossed ro dersccaigh) Ith do breithemnaibh a aimsire ar amhainse `I. excelled the Judges . . . in cunning', Leb. Gab.(i) 244.16 . is samlaid ruc cach ben dia seitche ar écin each woman forced her way ahead of her companion, LU 8256 ( FB 20 ). Cf. ro élaidhset ass na Gaill febh as déine ronuccsatt dialaile, Hugh Roe² 98.11 .

VI gets, obtains; takes: cach crich roucca a techta ni dligaide tairgille na smachtu `every land which has given (recte taken) what is lawful', Laws iv 176.1 . aisic na set rugadh do muin na comairce `restoration of the `seds' which were given (taken?) on account of the protection', 232.25 . uaire na biur (nach berim, LU 1567 ) th'ascaid, IT ii2 209 § 3 . ni béra (berair, v.l.) usce uam, ol sisi `no water shalt thou get from me', RC xxiv 198.5 . bertís dliged `they received their due', Metr. Dinds. i 24.18 . bērtait (berait, R) in coin, Sc.M² 4. ní ruc na cepóca cé ruc na heocha, Sc.M² 20(R) . Legal obtains, inherits (land, etc.); incurs (liabilities), is liable for: moirseisiur nosbeir co mbuaidh / cumal tsenorba ní suaill `seven persons obtain, with triumph, the `cumal tsenorba',' Laws iv 42.4 Comm. ( Stud. in E. Ir. Law 141.9 ). iar n-ecaib in fir berius orbae a brathar `of the man who receives the inheritance of his kinsman', Stud. in E. Ir. Law 137.20 . berti `he (the son) takes it (i.e. inheritance of land)' ( Stud. in E. Ir. Law 156.29 ), Laws iv 48.3 Comm. beirid cach dibad ┐ cinaid araili `each receives the inheritance and incurs the liability of the other' ( Stud. in E. Ir. Law 149. 18 ), 42.31 Comm. (of tutors) nocha mberait cinta na mac bis ag foglaim foilfecht (see F s.v.) aca `they do not sustain the liabilities', 236.19 Comm. (of a woman's `coibhche') isin coibhche tanaiste is dá trian no beireadh a athair ann; . . . is lugha beireas brathair oldas athair `her father . . . would have had two-thirds; and a brother gets less than a father', 64.4 Comm. in fer berus techtugad isin ferand, 2.16 Comm. i n-orba cruid no sliasta a mathur beris sisi in techtugad sin `that she makes that entry', Stud. in E. Ir. Law 133.20 ( Laws iv 14.26 Comm. ).

In phr. b.¤ díriug `carries off, obtains' ( GOI § 381 ), see díriuch. With adverbial as takes away: rom-beir as Pátraic ┐ ron-bennach `P. took him thence', Lism. L. 513. rugadh dá sheisi úam as `two comrades are snatched from me (by death)' (Notes), Bard. Synt. Tr. 28.y . saves, rescues: mac side ingine Lōith . . . bert a māthair ass ina brú his mother preserved him in her womb (from massacre by the Aitheachthuatha), ZCP xi 91.3 . cred beirius C. ass cen tuitim limsa, FDG 697. With refl. pron. takes oneself off; escapes: not-ber as dom'inchaib depart from my presence, ZCP i 105.1 . notbeirsiu as fó chetóir, SG i 312.1 . nod beir as amhail as ferr cotniocfa escape as best you can, TFrag. 208.16 .

VII In expressions of time.

(a) spends, lit. takes (time) (cf. do-beir I (m)): ? issí no bered in sechtmad n-aidchi i ṅgalad d'ḟeraib hErend for in t-ṡluagad do lacht, TBC-LL¹ 403. With adverbial as: na beir th'aimsir ass do réir mian do cholla, PH 7816.

(b) Intrans. lasts, endures, keeps (see Duan. F. iii 47 ): in fad (sic leg.) bhéaras as long as it endures (viz. an duan-sa, 75 ), Dán Dé xxv 76 . fada b[h]ēruid (sic leg., ed.) `long they shall live', Duan. F. i 54.16 . d'éis na buidhne nách buan rug `after that shortlived company', TD 25.34 . béaraidh mé go buan, Dánta Gr. 90.22 . ? an feadh rug a teas don ghréin, 85.6 . beiridh a brigh a cnáim craidhi in fiadha deich mbliadhna fichet `the virtue lasts for 30 years', O'Gr. Cat. 230.9. With as: gurub meinic beireas an easlainte so as gu ceann ceithri la ┐ da .xx. ead that this illness sometimes continues, 23 P 10³, 35b14 . rucatar as in adaigh sin co solus-trāth ēirghi ar n-a mārach, ML² 1079. ni rug og na sen a comfad-so as damh riam gan toitim lium `held out against me', ZCP vi 101.7 . do rugadar as mar sin go haimsir E. they continued in that way, PCT 392.

VIII carries off, away (from etc.) with prepp. A, AR, DI, etc. cf. IV; note b.¤ as under VI, VII. ni béram ass dano gl. quod nec aufferre quid possimus, Wb. 29b15 . bertair dano briathra asin stoirsea innun, Ml. 26c6 . nocon ructaisseom cid a delg asa brot-som nammá, LU 4991 ( TBC-I¹ 502 ). do foglaim na Tāna rucc in sái rōmānach á hArdmacha, ACL iii 5.30 . berid . . . a sūil asa chionn plucks his eye from his head, ACL iii 309.1 . ní berae a salm ar assaph tri nephscribend in tituil se riam `thou shalt not take from A.', Ml. 94a1 . rucad a rosc airi he (viz. the dying Cú Ch.) was deprived of his sight, RC iii 181.27 . etach berar do áos tuati a garment that is taken from the laity, Mon. Tall. 154.28 . nicon berat a drúcht dind fhéor, MU² 565. dos lēicim-se dō in ngaī cétna co mbert a lāim de it struck off his hand, Sc.M² 10. gan mharthain do mhac Áine (sic leg.) / rug don éigse a hamháille `has robbed poesy of her gaiety', Studies 1924, 89 § 30 . In phr. beirid ed di (ó), see 2 ed. ní berae siu hua duaid in salm so `thou shalt not take from David this psalm', Ml. 74d13 . masa indeithbir ro-n-uc uad . . . no ro-n-uc deithbir uad, Laws iv 34.32 Comm. tanic merlech . . . co mbered molt cech uare uadi, Thes. ii 336.43 . dia ructar (ructhar, ed.) ar mnā dōera uand, TBC-I¹ 1129. do-thíaguit na mná immi, ┐ berdait (beraid, v.l.) úaidib i ssíd Crúachan, TBFr. 131. ní huaibhse rug an nglaic ngloin, Studies 1918, 282 § 15 . cía ráott beres rígi Temrach . . . ó chlaind C. `what is it that deprives the offspring of C. . . . of the Kingship of Tara', BColm. 76.3 . bearar uatha an corp ré sruth na Bóinne the body is swept away from them by the current of the B., Keat. ii 5414.

With advv. berthus ind arbar sis `the grain carries it (i.e. water in gruel) downwards', Mon. Tall. 158.6 . acht a mbeir (sc. in gadaige) cen fhis, PH 7574.

IX carries, brings to, etc. (with CO, DO, DOCHUM etc.) (= do-beir). (Somet. with LA, cf. IV) berid taisi B. co Ros Cam les `takes B.'s remains to R.C.', RC xxiv 182.11 . forcmath mo brīathra, bērtait co būaid they will bring him to victory (?), ZCP xi 98 § 63. nombered cách ar uair dina maccleirchib dochum a tigid (sic) leu, Mon. Tall. 155.6 . beram co noibi nemthech let us carry it (i.e. the tower of Babel) up as far as holy heaven, SR 2744. go mbeiri Rí . . . sinn dochum coda na beathadh sīordhuidhe, Parrth. Anma 744. In more or less abstract senses: teinnes . . . beris nech cum atcomuill `disposes a person to dropsy', Rosa Angl. 322.3 . i toimtiu nábad do hierúsalem .i. opes nobertis, Wb. 16d4 . beirsiu lat é do[t] tigernu, Thes. ii 310.30 . noco rucaimse cend úain bic don dúnud `I am not the man to carry . . .' ( Stories fr. Táin 49 ), LU 5755 (= TBC-I¹ 1283 ). ? ní bertis da rótaib / ar uamain a cathmi, LL 6595 ( MS. Mat. 493 ). is do soscelu berid int apstal in salm so gl. transferre, Ml. 42b7 . cia beraid doib a remeperthe though he refer to them the aforesaid, Ml. 37a9 . namber du chesad `he applies it to the Passion', 86d16 . berir dano fri laa brátha, Wb. 29a28 . ruucthar fri cach rét it can be applied to everything, Ml. 35b10 . mad fri frecur cheill De nosbera, 43a2 . ae freslighe . . . cid la dechnaid berthair though it be included under, IT iii 74 § 34. nachib berar i smachtu rechta fetarlicce, Wb. 27a24 . nos berad i llías ṅgamna they carry her into, BDD² 76. bertair immorro da boin ind `are . . . brought thither', Dinds. 60. berthius C. mac E. i n-Aird Ladrann fodes immirge na n-Deisse `C. sent the wandering host of the D. to A. L. southward', Cymmr. xiv 108.4 . b.¤ i mmudu see madae. ros bertsat uile fóe in oenḟecht they all fell upon him at once, TBC-LL¹ 912. no-bar-beraid uili fóe sút, TBC-LL¹ 907. biru iarom mo chois forsan carraig, RC x 88.2 . ninruc for maith ar sóire `has not brought us to good', Wb. 21b3 .

V. freq. with prep. FOR (later AR) catches up, overtakes, etc.: b.¤ Tigernan . . . forru ic Ath Fhirdeadh `comes up with them', AU ii 120.1 . ni ḟil fiad arna bermís `would not overtake', RC vii 294.24 ( LL 29171 ). da mberthar ort, ZCP viii 541.6 . ruc an oidhche air `night overtook him', ZCP xi 136.16 . go rucc for esparta na manach `returned . . . in time for the vespers', BNnÉ 295 § 21 . mana fághbadh fortacht fá cend trí lá nách bérthai ara fortacht that it would be too late to help him, Expugn. Hib. 32. nach bérthaoi i mbethaidh forra muna thíosta dia ccobhair a ttraitte, AFM vi 1918. 5 . go mbéaradh (Niúl) ar aimsir Mhaoise san Éigipt `should have survived till', Keat. ii 243. ní bheir an athmhadan ort / gan a mbí id dhún do dhúsocht `no morning finds thee', Aithd. D. 8.36 . an trath beris se ar a leth dorchaigid se uile e `when it spreads over half of the moon, the shadow (of the earth) obscures it completely', Ir. Astr. Tr. 86.24 . d'éis leighis orchra Uladh / beiris ortha an t-urdhubhadh, Aithd. D. 23.22 . ní fhuil cadad eidir .s. ┐ .c. le mbéradh bogadh air by which it might come to be devoiced, IGT Introd. § 30. ní fhuil cruth a mbearar ar .sh. nach amhlaidh as cóir úaim ria .sh. is not found in any position such that . . ., § 13 . beires L. ar Aódh seized, TBC-LL¹ 3897 n . (of a key position) beire ar sheas meadhóin Midhe, Aithd. D. 15.13 . beiris i n-a bheōl . . . ar lampa airgit seized a silver lamp in its mouth, Fl. Earls 138.1 . is ar bhrághaid uirre bheireas, TSh. 2324.

With imm (= do-beir II (d)): arrombuí dech . . . do thimthaigib . . . issed bertatar umpu ind éicis, Corm. Bodl. 32. With tre: berir dano a ndede sin trisin testimin so, Wb. 10b19 . co rucasdur bern .c. ┐ .1. tresin cath siar sechtair he cleared a gap for 150 . . ., Ériu viii 32.25 . co mbert crand trít transfixed him (with the spear), LU 1576.

X With nouns expressing movement: berid iarum a cem annuas `he steps down', Ériu v 32.30 . is ing ma rofuc nech díb a choiss sech araile, LU 8253 ( FB 20 ). nach bēram oired ordlaig tar ar n-ais nō cēim ar culaib, ML² 1379 - 80 . hisse leth rucsum a reim he directed his course, Rawl. 87a29 , ZCP viii 264 § 15. bertais amus arna sluaghaib he attacked the hosts, 543.18 . ruccsat ruathar dochum an cleirigh, BNnÉ 34 § 55 . in ruathar ronuc fon sluag the onslaught that he made upon the host, Ériu v 240.30 . ruc sidhe dian dasachtach futha he made for them, Fier. 233. bheireas léim ainmhear inntibh, Content. xxv 7. béra ó bháirc a caladh chúairt, IGT Decl. ex. 1005. b.¤ súr, see súr. Note also: feibh as deine ronuccsat as fast as they could go, AFM vi 2120.21 .

XI For do-beir gives: bertais rabudh ┐ oirchisecht do she gave him warning and commiseration, ZCP viii 541.4 . co rohuicc secht cētguini `dealt', Fianaig. 12.13 . bertais beim do, ZCP viii 552.27 .

XII Various phrases.

In greetings, salutations; malediction, censure, etc. with meaning takes (somet. = do-beir): tabhair is beir mo bheannocht (addressing a letter) `carry my blessing', Studies 1920, 569 § 25 . berid Émine bennachtain ona flaithib ┐ facbaidhsium alaile, Anecd. i 45.6 . See bennacht, búaid. bērat-sa slán lim I shall take my leave, ZCP viii 312.9 . In phr. b.¤ airbiri receives reproach, see airbire. berid trīst ┐ mallachtuin nōem nHērenn take with you the curse, ACL iii 3.23 .

In phr. b.¤ aithniu (aithne) see 2 aithne.

b.¤ buide gives, returns thanks: `tucc dúin uile,' ol in cerdd `berma buide,', ZCP iii 222.13 . See 2 buide. b.¤ cádus, onóir (do) (cf. do-beir) pays respect, honour (to): onoir ┐ cádus don dardáin, amal no-s-bertís don dómnach, PH 327.

b.¤ díga di see dígu: fis a mbrígha do-beir d'ḟilidh / nach beir (geibh, v.l.) díga d'idhibh óir who does not spurn, IGT Decl. ex. 75.

With eól, eólas (for earlier do-beir): beiridh th'inneach iul do dháimh, DDána 74.67 . beir eolus díreach damh-sa / . . . / don chathraigh guide me straight, 73 . beiris Abán eolus conaire doibh lasin tapar, BNnÉ 9 § 32 .

b.¤ fis (a ḟis), see 1 fis gets, obtains information, etc.: ni berair let a ḟis ní as mo na sin `that is all the information that thou wilt get', Ériu iii 164 § 17. bhéar mé fios mo bhríathar = I will make known my words, Proverbs i 23. rucad īarum a fis-sin co Colum Cille `that news was brought to C.C.', BColm. 54.20 . birt (bert, MSS.) mōit/mucu búaid-Bairchedo (see móit (a)), Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 21 § 2. bertsa mo chubus co grian / in gach cath andecha riam, SG 187.31 .

b.¤ do rogu: ber-si do roga anois cia dib gresfi dochum an chatha `take thy choice', TTebe 4321 . berid Sreng cuigidh Connacht do rogain S. makes choice of the province of C., Ériu viii 56.38 . rogha do ríoghmhnáibh Uladh / ruguis, TD 27.41 . maor rugas mar ragha riamh, A. Ó Dálaigh xxxii 4.

bél

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bél or dil.ie/5607
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: beoil, beóil, beolu, beula, beulu, belu, bélib, i mbeolu

n o, m. g s. beoil, Sg. 14a16 . n p. beóil, Wb. 7d9 . a p. beolu, Wb. 3b11 , beula (gl. ora), Ml. 19c9 . beulu, 35d22 . belu, Thes. ii 251. 16 . d p. bélib, Wb. 7d10 . b.¤ m., IGT Decl. § 61.

I

(a) In some exx. explicitly lip , in pl. lips, but here usually mouth: don b.¤ gl. labio, Ir. Gl. 107. Gild. Lor. 139 § 40. tri beulu dlútai gl. fixis labris (17), Sg. 6a18 . ni radi ní trí thalmaidchi, amal dundchuirethar inna beulu as it rises to his lips (`as he takes it into his lips'), Ml. 35d22 . anasberaid hó bélib `what ye utter with (your) lips', Wb. 7d10 . anasbérat mo beiúil, 12d12 . (of a hag) tacmaicced a b.¤ íchtarach coa glún, LU 6828 (BDD). i socraidi labrait biuil (: Iúil), 3875 ( SCC 38 ). niamdai a beóil partardeirg (partuingdeirg, v.l.) her crimson lips, IT i 69.8 . ( LMU 4 ). co ṅditned a srona ┐ a beolu `so that it protected his nostrils and his lips' (but perh. transl. nose . . . mouth), CCath. 5265. folcuit a n-aighti uile lena mbélaib úachtair upper lips, Maund. 176. beoil lethna thick lips, Marco P. 187. cúiseach bind asa bēalaibh `sweet piping from her lips', Ériu iv 174.15 . maille siabhradh beóil ( = labium . . . pervertatur), 23 K 42 , 54.14 . do scoltad an croimbeoil ┐ in béil iocht[a]ir of chapping of the upper and lower lip, O'Gr. Cat. 191.z . baile .i. maith . . . digbail dubha baile bel .i. is maith í o belaib no i mbel `from lips or in mouth', O'Dav. 224. (in application of an incantation) imbir in da mér . . . it bélaib, Thes. ii 249.11 . doberar in salann i mbelu `the salt is put into the mouth', 251.16 . asoilgg a bēolu . . . combo ecna a [g]inchrāes, TBC-I¹ 396. (of a witch) a beóil for leith a cind her mouth in the side of her head, BDD² 540 . gebid dano cenn in tarra ina béolu, Sc.M² 17.6 . do-lleblaing int éicne ara chend, ┐ gabsus inna béulu took it in its mouth, TBFr. 209. an tan immoro no berid an leg laun ina beolu `when he used to put the ladle full into his mouth', RC xii 86 § 91. nicon acca beolu eich / amal beolu ín liathainigh, IT iii 68.2 . inbat budig do bēoil do shainól ┐ do shainait, MacCongl. 77.4 . secht traigid eter a ó ┐ a beolo . . . ┐ secht n-artim inna bélaib, Ériu iv 26.9 , 10 . acht nad neibre dod belaib nama `although thou hast not said so by word of mouth', Laws iv 108.1 Comm. cuit mo b.¤ (term of endearment), LL 18576.

(b) mouth in sg.: sróin súil b.¤ , Ardm. 434a marg. (220va). i cinaid do laime, do sula, do thengad, do beil, Laws i 156.32 . issin ṁb. tacras sin in the mouth that asserts that, MU² 369. laech . . . belmar . . ., meit a beil beolu eich, TBC-LL¹ 5400 n.4 . fuil rochuiread tara bel ┐ dara sroin, TTebe 2414 . beiris i n-a bheōl . . . ar lampa airgit seized a silver lamp in its mouth, Fl. Earls 138.1 . Note also: na beula gl. ora, the mouths (?), Ml. 19c9 . Fig. gá tarbha an béal do bheith lais / 's an intinn in-a éagmhais, Dán Dé xxii 20 . an b.¤ dúnta as eadh budh ḟearr better be silent, IGT Decl. ex. 1285. Prov. is binn beál ó bheith iadhta, Dánfhocail 55 . By metonymy person : cerd cach ṁb. .i. eladu cech duni do ḟoglaim ar dáig forcitail caich (`art for every mouth', RC xxvi 22 § 62 ), LL 24410. crochadh ar bh.¤ na bréige! `perdition (lit. a hanging) to him who tells the lie' (Gloss.), LBranach 1072 . b.¤ na psalm (nickname of St. Fintan), Mart. Don. Mar. 27. Grigoir Béil óir `Gregory the golden-mouthed', BNnÉ 172 § 16 .

(c) In phrases: derg-mír i mbélaib lit. red (raw) morsel in (the) mouth apparently of property illegally acquired or attached: atait tri deirg-mireanda naidet usa a mbelaib cacha hecalsa (glossed: is indligthech do'n eclais a ngabail cuichi o belaib, 432.3 Comm. ), Laws v 430.22. at-ballat, ¤bailet (a) béoil with poss. or foll. subj. gen., see at-bail(l): co n-aplat a beoil i mmbron (leg. mbrōn ?) ┐ toirrsi `they perish', Ériu ii 114 § 38. Note also: bás fort béolu, Fing. R. 72 `death on your head!' RC xiii 378.11 .

(d) Of the mouth as the source of speech: iss ed bói i mbēlaib cáich this was the common talk, ZCP viii 317.26 . go rabhadar na lán béil ┐ buanteanga ag gach aon that they were a continual subject of conversation to everyone, RC xiv 28 § 6. lán beóil don ríoghfhuil Bhranoigh, LBranach 3581 . budh lán beoil an Brianachsoin, Studies 1925, 253 § 6 .

By extension word(s) ; subject of talk : fer na ropeccaig o bel na o gnim `in word or deed', Ériu v 20.2 . idna beoil integrity of speech, LL 3901. roiarfaided o Fiachroig Muillethan . . . dia belaib his advice was asked by F., ZCP xiv 156.14 . gurab mó do theagascdaois . . . ó theagasc beoil ioná ó scríbhinn by traditional instruction, Keat. ii 976. (explanation of the name of Eogan B.) b.¤ cach tuaithi ina thimchell `the mouth [i.e. the acclamation] of every country round about', SG 64.z . b.¤ cach flatha ina lenub / ar ó Fiachrach foltlebur, 65.2 . In phr. breth a b.¤ féin self-judgment, -doom: atetha breth do b.¤ (sic leg.) féin duit, RC xiv 430.8 . co tucsat Gaill breth a beoil fein d'O Neill, AU ii 270.8 . In adv. phrase ó óen-b.¤ unanimously: o aen bel, PH 7233. dh'aoinbheul, Luc. Fid. 2856. Legal. cor b.¤ , see 1 cor 12.

II Applied to various things resembling lips or mouth .

(a) edge, rim ; mouth of cavity, orifice, opening : b.¤ gaili, a mbél an gaile ( = orificium stomachi), RSláinte 3698. do fínégra ar b.¤ an gaile `on the pit of the stomach', O'Gr. Cat. 193.25 . b.¤ cridi (used as term of endearment): a bél mo chraidi, ACL iii 243 § 24. edge, opening of wounds: bador beoil na ccneth ag claoi a cheile, ZCP x 292.9 . a lomma cro ic teprisin dar belaib na n-alad batar fair, Grail 685 . rucc b.¤ na cneidhe chum a chéile ┐ ticc sele fuirre, ITS xvi 42.13 . Other applications: co fil āit a beōil isin c[h]loich fóss ann `the mark of its rim (i.e. of a bell) is still there in the stone', BColm. 64.9 . sileadh deór rúadh ar ruisgne / mur uisge a beól (mbéol v.l.) úar eisci like water out of a vessel (?), IGT Decl. ex. 1081. mé is b.¤ na cróine ar mo chind, ex. 81 . lase foruillecta beóil in chalich di mil, Wb. 7d9 . īadais indala sūil . . . asoilg alaile comba mor bēolu fidchōich as large as the orifice of a wooden bowl (?), TBC-I¹ 395. b.¤ dabcha ele 'na b.-si anúas (of one vat turned over another), BColm. 72.6 . (of a bag for chess-men) a ferbolc, is amra sceúil / de ór imdernta a beúil opening (`rim'), Fianaig. 14.22 . go bhfuilti claoidthe . . . a mbeul an tsaic (of opponents silenced in controversy), Luc. Fid. 4127. béil a ngunnadh `the muzzles of their guns', Rel. Celt. ii 194.11 . (of prongs of pincers) do briseadh teanncuir an ghobhann, ┐ an t-īarann dearg 'na beal `with the red-hot iron in its jaws', ZCP ii 562.30 . beola crot ┐ bolg ┐ buinne `mouths of harps and bags and pipes', RC xii 108 § 163. the eye of the upper millstone (Studies on Early Ireland 16 ) : iss e sin doberimsi a mbel in muilinn si, RC xiv 52 § 62. upper of shoe: bróg tar teach do teilgeadh leam . . . nar bhean tall a b.¤ fa a bonn `a shoe whose upper was detached from its sole was thrown at me' (Notes), Bard. Synt. Tr. 2.z.

(b) Further extended applications: mén mara .i. bel na mara, O'Cl. ( mēn .i. bēl, Corm. Y 948 ). fri beolu mara, Trip.² 1581 ( = in sinu maris, Lat. Lives 33 § 25 ). dá thraigid .x. lethet a b.¤ the width of its opening (an earthwork), Críth G. 571. (of Tara) deis fri Banba, b.¤ fri Bóin `her front towards the Boyne', Ériu iv 92 § 3. tir cen beula without entry, Corm. Y 674 ( Corm. 22 ). tir cin toin cin beolu bis itir da ferunn cin conair `ingress', Laws iv 158.14 Comm. cuiris comla dar a b.¤ (a well), Metr. Dinds. iii 326.19 . triall istech tar beolu na hecuilsi `threshold of the church', Marco P. 173. léigthear suas beoil na bruighne `portcullis', Aithd. D. 3.19 . siar go b.¤ na sráide `the entrance of the street', AFM ii 900.2. Of gunwale of a ship: chuir iad am beòil mhòr re chèile, SGS xviii 107.1 .

III In phrases with prepp.

(a) prepositional. With A: crithre sin a beól (mb. v.l.) bhruithne sparks from boiling heat (?), IGT Decl. ex. 1296.

With AR (FOR): huare romboi ar belaib tempuil `in front of the Temple', Ml. 48d8 . ar beolu diabuil `before the Devil', Wb. 3b11 . gontai Cūchulaind, co tabrad a marb ara (ar, LU) bēolu a brāthar, TBC-I¹ 1637. ar belaib ind ríg ( = in conspectu regis), Lat. Lives 10.8 . arbelaib (.i. a fiadnaise) fer nErenn, ACL iii 14 § 31. finta cia as toisech fodla ┐ ar a ndentar bélaib `before whom it is made', RC xiii 446 § 26. cathair . . . for bel ḟasaigh dhimhoir `at the edge of a great desert', Marco P. 20. dán bog ar bh.¤ na slighiodh `on the open road', Studies 1918, 617 § 5 .

Freq. of replacing in kingship, headship, etc. one who had the normal claim, before, in preference to, in place of : rogab F. righe ara belaib, RC xvii 233.32 (Tig.). gabais C. flaith ar belaib a athar, Ériu iii 142.4 . an crioch do ghabail for a belaibh `to snatch . . . the country away from him', Leb. Gab.(i) 226.5 . mar tugadh ceannas na slógh / ar bhéal Éibhir d'Éireamhón `to Ê. rather than to Ê.', Content. xvi 33. With verbs of coming, etc. do-tét indḟine ar beolu de(i)rbḟine `the ` indḟine' comes in front of (i.e. is preferred to) the `derbḟine', Ériu xvii 64 § 3 ( Laws iv 206.7 ). D. . . . do beith ag dol ar bélaibh a athar `attempted to depose', AFM vi 1891.1 . an tánaiste do theacht ar beulaibh mic tighearna an fhuinn `that the tanist takes precedence of', Keat. i 66.6 . dul fora mbelaibhsiomh `to anticipate them', Hugh Roe² 172.2 .

With FRI (RE) before, at, close to; on the point of : fri beolu báis on the point of death, Fél. 74.19 . cen bith ria mbeolu oc airiuc thuili dóib not to be close to them, Fing. R. 432. ag so anois an bás rem bhéal close to me, Dánta Gr. 63.15 . re béal a theachta don toigh `before its reception' (of the Blessed Eucharist), Dán Dé xviii 2 . cosg fiabhrasa re b.¤ mbáis, Studies 1919, 613 § 12 .

With I N- i mbeolu, i mbeól, i mb.¤ before : in bo boi 'na beola sin `that was in front of her', Dinds. 142.10 . a mbeol an dunaidh `in front of the fort', BNnÉ 187 § 27 . do-chífe bárc a mbeól chúain `in the harbour's mouth', Ériu ix 168 § 46. towards, to : do-bhir im béal teachtaire `He sends a messenger to fetch me', Aithd. D. 83.3 . sgath dealg 'na beol muna bheath `had not the thorn-points been in the way', 95.20 . over, across : seolais iarsin Brenainn . . . i mbéolu (a mbhél, v.l. , = for beluibh, Lism. L. 3590 ) in aiccéin iongantaigh, BNnÉ 97 § 5. Note also: ro herbad da oclach lais da chur i mbeolu na tuinne to cast it (an infant) upon the sea (?), LL 14623 ( ZCP xii 273.17 ). do chur a mb.¤ mara ┐ mor-fhairrge set adrift on the open sea, KMMisc. 313.13 . a mbēl na h-oibre at the beginning, ML² 1.15 . i mbeol airechtais at the very beginning of sovereignty (?), Ann. Conn. 1410.2 . ni ḟuil amuigh gidh seól síth / crích nach fuil a mbeól a bláith, IGT Decl. ex. 992 . i mbéal a tharbha do thoigheacht, Aithd. D. 25.4 .

With TAR: tar béolu out of : adre amach dar beolu in duin, Marco P. 23.

(b) Adverbial. With FOR (always with possessive) on the face, face downwards : for a mbeulu gl. prone, Ml. 131b6 . tairniud form béolu bend face downwards, LL 36766 = Goid. 180.10 = Fél.² cv 8. an corp bis ina rogad ar in talmain for a beolu, RC xv 491 § 31. tolduid iarum taurtaim fair fora beolu `a trance fell upon him, as he lay on his face', Mon. Tall. 155.15 . (of a collapsing house) amal ro clóenad a thech conda tarla for a lethbeólu uli, LU 8382 ( FB 25 ). (of a cup) rohimpa iarum Patraic in copan fora beolu upside down (?), Anecd. iii 35.9 . b.¤ ar b.¤ , ó bé(o)l go b.¤ face to face : truagh gan sinne bel ar bel, TTebe xv 7 (scribe's note). (of a bird-decoration) ealta 's a mbeoil béal ar bhéal, Aithd. D. 9.7 . ag labhairt libh beul ar bheul (os ad os, 3 Joh. 14 ), Eochairsg. 15.30 . go labradh se riss ó b.¤ go b.¤ `face to face', ZCP xi 118.2 ( BCC 236 ). meic ollamhan Innsi Fáil / . . . / god choimhreic ó bheól go b.¤ `repeating thee from mouth to mouth' (i.e. the contents of a manuscript Gaelic Miscellany), Studies 1919, 440 § 12 . adeirid o bheol go beul they say so currently, Luc. Fid. 4088.

With IAR N- iar mbélaib (contrasted with iar cúlaib): i ngilfine iar mbelaib, amuil atá athair ┐ mac ┐ ua ┐ iarmua ┐ innua co cuicer; ┐ geilfini iar culaib .i. brathair thathar, ┐ mac co cuicer beos `in the direct line', Laws ii 160.z Comm.

(c) In fig. phrase do-ní a b.¤ re turns to, seeks help from : do-ghén . . . mo bh.¤ ré seabhcaibh Saxan `I will turn my face to', Studies 1924, 242 § 11 .

Note also: muna thí dhíom bas rem béal unless I can keep a guard on my lips, Dán Dé ix 4 . a-tá 'gan chol bas rem béal `raises its hand against me', xxiii 31 . In nn. loc. see Hog. Onom.

Compds. With nouns. ¤braise: feib atféd mo bhélbraisi `eloquence', Leb. Cert.² 164 § 9. ¤deirge: beildeirge redness of lips, Prolegomena 43 § 26 . ¤étan: (of a charioteer) dara béletan mouth and forehead (?), LL 24905. ¤mod manner of speaking (?): caistidh ria bēlmod, ACL iii 307 § 28 ( Measgra Uí Chl. 153 ). ¤proicept traditional teaching, tradition : bēalphroceapta nó teagusg bheōil na n-absttal, Mac Aingil 5949 . béulphroicheapta asbaltha ┐ eagalsa, Desid. 4942. With vnn. ¤chengal: ar mbélcengal a mbeochréchtadh when their fresh wounds had been sewn up, Caithr. Thoirdh. 124.7 . ¤tuidme: fiacuil .i. fia figo . . . fiacuil didiu bēl-t. fastening for the mouth, O'Mulc. 507.

With adjj. ¤balb: do piastaibh bel-balba `dumb-mouthed', Ériu iii 164 § 20. ¤binn: longphort . . . bíthe bēilbhinn melodious (?), Butler Poems 556 and n. ¤blasta of excellent sound : (of `Gaedelg,' the language) in berla b.¤ bind, LL 17716. B. blaith belblasta well-spoken (of a hand-maid), BB 237a2 . ¤buide yellow-lipped : (of a famine-stricken appearance) ina n-ímágib b.¤ nochtḟiaclacha, LB 154b61 . In n. pr.: Eochaid Bēlbuidi, ZCP viii 274.1 . ¤chamm crooked-mouthed : la hUnchi mbrúachda mb.¤(-mall, v.l.), Metr. Dinds. iii 98.6 . ¤cherr: in senBodb Barchi b.¤ `wry-mouthed', Metr. Dinds. iv 338.20 . ¤chert: mo dhaltán búilid béilchert `right-spoken', SG 190.7 . ¤chorcra crimson, red-lipped : belchorcra banamla detgela, TTebe 730 . ¤chráibhthech hypocritical : Content. vi 270. ¤chumang narrow-mouthed, having a narrow opening, entry : a crocan (leg. corcán ?) belchumang narrow-necked, Lia Fáil iii 122.20 ( 23 P 10 ³, 11b7 ). ar na bernadhaibh bélchumhgaibh, AFM v 164.22 . ¤derg red-lipped, red-mouthed (in good and bad sense): buriud berna Baidbi béldergi, LL 10872 ( = TBC-LL¹ 4024 ). na brithemain bēilderga `red-mouthed brehons' ( = severe in judgement ?), Ériu iii 30 § 7. cáinead in barrchais béilderg `the curly-headed red-lipped fellow', iv 216.20 . F. file m. Oengusa Bēlde[i]rg, ZCP viii 326.1 . ¤dub black-mouthed : comairge b.¤ becenech `a black-mouthed guarantor of small honour', Tec. Corm. § 33.2 . a curaig blaithe belduba `black-prowed', Ériu viii 10.36 . sgéala libh go báirc mbéalduibh `tidings to your black-decked barque', RC xlix 173 § 32. ¤ḟairsi(u)ng wide-mouthed, having a wide entrance : .l. bléide buabaill belḟairsiuṅg, LL 7292. ro cóirged bruidin brotla bélfairsing `wide-doored', Fianaig. 70.31 . ¤ḟota long-lipped : D. b.¤ , LL 354c64 . a mbíala belfhoda `wide-edged', Hugh Roe² 174.24 . ¤ginach: na trī badhbha bēl-ginacha three witches with gaping mouths, ML² 1585. ¤glicc: mo bhreath bheilghlic gan bhine `my skilled oral judgement', Keat. ii 1287. ¤lethan broad-doored : ós bruidin béllethoin, SG 230.24 . ¤lúath hasty of speech : 'ná bheith baoth beul-luath aig teagasg cách, De Imit. 13.24 . ¤maith: C. b.¤ `C. Fair-lips', Metr. Dinds. iii 324.11 . ¤mall slow of speech : la hU. mbruachdha mbelmhall, BB 365b37 . ¤remor thick-lipped, big-mouthed : belremur bolcsuilech, LU 8516 ( FB 37 ). badhbh béil-reamhar, TSh. 6623. ¤ṡalach foul-mouthed : Badb birach belsalach, RC xxiv 52.1 . ¤scaílte wide open; split open ; scattered : i mbrudin bronnḟarsing bélscailti, RC xiv 414 § 28. ina mbuidhnib bega bélsgāilte, Fianaig. 54.4 . (of a cast-up ship) go ndéantar blogha béal-sgaoilte dhi, TSh. 735. ¤tais with soft, moist lips : an chuideachta chuanna bhuadhach bheóltais (of fair women), Hackett xxvi 57 . ¤tana: go mbiailibh blathsnaoighte b.¤ `thin-edged battle-axes', AFM vi 2126.25 . ¤tirim: bérla breganta beoiltirm (spoken) with a dry mouth, O'Gr. Cat. 518.30. ¤trúag: na bid fri baisi ṁbeltrúaig poor-mouthed (?), SR 3890.

See béillic, bélaites, bélscál, bélscálán, bélscáth.

3 bus

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 3 bus or dil.ie/7482

n in i bus see 1 foss .

cepp

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cepp or dil.ie/8719
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: cip

n o, [m.] (Lat. cippus) n pl. cip.

(a) tree-stump, log, block : dobert buille don c[h]ip bói isin étach (i.e. as dummy body), Corm. Y 690 (p. 57.19) . c.¤ ina láim chlí i rraibe ere .xx. cuinge do damaib, LU 9189 ( FB 91 ). cep ferna, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 28 § 10 . ar ceapaib ┐ ar coirthib in talman, ZCP viii 553.22 . for bennaib sleg ┐ c.¤ ┐ cuaille in baile, LB 156b19 . do cheppaib ┐ do chorrḟótaib ┐ di ḟuatnib talman, LL 12811 . cep gl. cepus [cippus?], Ir. Gl. 480 . adaich . . . a braghaid tar in cep chopping-block , RC xiii 30.10 . ceap críonchonnaidh, DDána 50.21 . do shín a muinél . . . co humhal . . . ar cep no ar clar (= truncus), Smaointe B. Chr. 1994 . amharc daill idir cheapaibh (rith daill . . . , amharc daill ideir cranuibh, v.ll.), Dánfhocail 68 (prov. for a useless proceeding). ní dhéan adhradh don cheap do róine mo cheard féin, Keat. ii 5395 . cip thuislighthe stumbling blocks, Jeremiah vi 21 . By extension: olc do dhíol isan chiop chriadh `earthly stock' (of the body), Aithd. D. 62.16 . an ceap nach bia binn go bráth (disparagingly of a harp), Measgra D. 7.96 . fán gceap oireas don chonntaois shoe-maker's last, Ó Bruad. i 136 xiv . Cf. ceap mo dhuaine, ii 86.x (`burden of my poem').

(b) anvil-block : mad si a indeoin do cuaidh as in cip, O'Curry 926 ( H 3.18, 406 ). in indeoin cona cip, RC xxiv 194 § 6 . Prov. of taking up permanent residence: c.¤ i clandta do indeuin, Mon. Tall. 134.7 (§ 19) . t'indéin do béimim i c.¤ / buith i foss co bás `a striking of thy anvil into the block', Ériu iii 108 § 53 (cep, cip, v.ll.).

(c) stocks (for confinement), pillory, log to which a snare or trap was attached: i cip gl. in ligno (Acts xvi 24), Thes. i 497.27 (Ardm.). in ceap ┐ in cuithe ┐ in slabradh co pein . . . sarcomrac cip no cuithe, O'Curry 2384 ( Eg. 88, 30 (31)a ). gebend carcar c.¤ , LL 18642 . mar chimid i cip, ZCP vi 263.12 . i carcair ┐ c.¤ dar a chosa, PH 1170 . chum smachtuighthe an chip, Proverbs vii 22 .

(d) genealogical stock; ancestor: D. . . . is ceap do shíol gCeallaigh uile, Hy Maine 165.16 . ceap Í Domhnaill Dhúin na nGall, DDána 93.24 . do chrú na gceap i gCaisiol, Ó Bruad. ii 202 lxviii .

In comic name: Dorn Ibair hua Cipp Goband, CRR 18 . In n. loc. maidm Atha-in-Chip, AU ii 342.13 .

In sense of cippe q.v.: cep mór brathar a large body of friars, AU iii 524.12 . a chip catha, Duan. F. ii 312 § 51 . ? cnoi . . . daberar lan coid dib i monaid, gu n[d]enand ceap dib and `a stock(?)', Laws v 408.19 Comm.

1 coic

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 coic or dil.ie/10031

Forms: coca, coici, choic, coca

n m., g s. coca, coici (Lat. coquus). Treated as f. in ind choic (n s.), Mon. Tall. 159.23 . cook : c.¤ ōndī as cocus [.i.] cocaire, Corm. Y 241 . coca (g s. ?) .i. cocaire, O'Cl. crist do c.¤ doibh `having Christ as their cook' (of miracle of loaves and fishes), Blathm. 34 . dochum in coc[a], Mon. Tall. 147.5 . do lāim coicci basglain, ZCP iii 35.14 . cūic coici ┐ cūic banchoici, vii 300.5 . mac De ar ṅdálem ar c.¤ , LL 3780 . tri chóicait coica ngalach, Metr. Dinds. i 34.77 . fo lámu dagchoca, MacCongl. 93.18 . coimitecht foss ┐ coic(n)e `in the company of the attendants and the cooks', Ériu xix 83 § 16 . ? bid coicc indraic ilmartra, BColm. 12.8 . for coice ┐ bligre ┐ cuchtrori, Rule of Tallaght 7 .

Compd. uí. ba ar coicthigi `for cook-house building', Laws v 94.5 Comm.

1 cró

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cró or dil.ie/13021
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: chrao, crai, cr, crui, cruu, cruib, crú, craoithe, chraí, craí(the

n o m. n s. croa, ZCP ix 453.9 . a s. chrao, Ériu i 214.4 . g s. crai, Laws iii 494.11 Comm. d s. cr, Corm. Y 306 . n p. crui, Laws iv 20.5 . a p. cruu (guaranteed by metre), ZCP iii 216.4 . d p. cruib, Stud. in E. Ir. Law 36.12 . Later also with n s. crú. Cf. n p. craoithe, Leb. Gab.(i) 32 n. 3 . c.¤ (an eich) m., g s. an chraí , n p. craí(the, IGT Decl. § 87 . c.¤ (an eich), c.¤ (ón chroaigheacht), c.¤ (cáolaigh), inann ghabhaid, Cró (Cuinn) mar sin acht gan illradh aige, ib. acht craí lána do láoghaibh (proscribed), ex. 1627 .

A term of very wide application, the basic meaning being enclosure, enclosed space, fold, pen, etc. crābed .i. . . . crau imme ar Dia, O'Mulc. 208 . cro gl. [haec casula], Ir. Gl. 122 . cro cumung, Metr. Gl. 20 . cro .i. cumang, Lec. Gl. 551 . M 345 . cruimt[h]er .i. crō-imbi-ter .i. crō og a māinib ┐ crō ima imrād ┐ crō ima brēt[h]ir ┐ ima gnīm, Corm. Y 396 .

I

(a) Of animals sty, stall, pen, fold : airleng for cro na muice, O'D. 1701 (H 2.12, 8.2). c.¤ roimh oirc (prov.), Ir. Gl. 156.25 . orc a cru finni (letter a in pig-ogam), Auraic. 5675 . muc as gach crú, BNnÉ 265.35 . Cf. ocht n-anmanna in[n]a muc . . . cro . . . ceis, deil, O'Dav. 360 . ic sádud a crúi `in planting the stakes of her cattle-pen', Metr. Dinds. iii 376.4 . deich crái gacha dorais . . . .x. loig in gach crúo, Fél. 88.20 - 21 . hūan corcra a crū asaine, ACL iii 244 § 14 . i gcrú an asail, Aithd. D. 73.10 . aonchro caorach, Luc. Fid. 5678 . cro con anfaitig, Laws iii 416.6 Comm. Cf. techtughudh do breith isin fearann co cruibh ime no cen cruibh ime, O'D. 2272 ( Rawl. B 506, 23c ). crui tire do tellach, Laws iv 20.5 `to occupy separate enclosures', Celtica vi 235 = cru .i. ime, ut est crui tire do theallach, O'Dav. 527 . tar chro, ┐ is leth muna bét(h) crui fences, Laws iv 30.22 Comm. By extension, space between an animal's legs: .ix. duirn a fot airtem (a) leithet a crui iar nairthur (.i. in bail ar coraiged teascad in tarra iar nairthir itis da chois cinn na muice) dorn leithet a crai a niarthur (.i. iter a da cois tona) 'nine fists its length, a fist with thumb extended its fore intercrural width (i.e. the place where the tarr was cut in front between the two front legs of the pig); a fist its hind intercrural width (i.e. between his two hind legs)' Peritia xv 317-18 .

(b) Of persons hut, cell, prison : fo chrú cacht `an imprisoning pen', Metr. Dinds. iv 122.9 . C. beó 'n-a crú chumung, iii 6.64 . duine do-dheachaidh fa ch.¤ became prisoner (?), Aithd. D. 51.4 . at cru, a cullaig! (said to seeker of sanctuary), Ann. Conn. 1342.3 . ag coimhéad an chraoi 'n-a raibhe S.M. i mbroid `the cell', Keat. iii 1524 . c.¤ meathaigh, Mac Aingil 2460 .

(c) With gen. of n. pr. or n. loc. (freq. in poetry): do chuartaigh tar c.¤ n-Uladh `beyond the far limits', Miscell. Celt. Soc. 374.3 . c.¤ Chrúachain Connaught , IGT Decl. ex. 1354 . buaidh a mbiodbadh ac crú Cuind Ireland , ZCP ii 342.29 budh tréad gan bhuachaill crú Cuinn, DDána 81.14 . oighir Chraoi Connla, Ir. Syll. Poetry 68 § 5 . ar lár croi Ia `in the middle of Iona', AFM iii 134.19 .

(d) Encircling band of weapons, persons, warriors, etc., hence bodyguard, troop, (line of) battle: c.¤ sleg ┐ scíath . . . 'ma ríg ṅHerend, LL 38703 . a ngúaille risin c.¤ crann, IGT Decl. ex. 1156 . i gcrú chleath, DDána 117.24 . saor an chraoi `the man who forms his circle of spears', O'Hara 2402 . imos cuirset c.¤ sciatrach do sciathaib órda . . . impu, Alex. 470 . muinter Í Ch. cro teand im tighearna, IT iii 92 § 136 . do ládh c.¤ uimpi d'ḟeraibh guard (of Christ's tomb), Ériu iv 112.11 . ina mbuaili bodba ┐ ina cro cat[h]a, CCath. 4980 . dorinedh cro gaile imon airdrig, Ériu viii 40.18 . ? crai mialata, BB 378b20 = crumlata, KZ xxxiii 83.22 . a bharr c.¤ `O lord of battle', Aithd. D. 20.17 . Cf. c.¤ aingel . . . oc anorugud a anma, LB 275a54 ( onórugud, SG 59.23 ).

(e) Miscellaneous exx. with attrib. gen.: dos-ratais i c.¤ bidbad iat you left them at the mercy of enemies, MU² 884 . The following examples (crú bodba, crú fechta) may properly belong to 1 crú. Pokorny translates ' raven' and connects it with Lat. corvus, IEW 570 . c.¤ bodba (bodbda ?), RC xiii 114 § 156 . Cf. is crú fechta (.i. badb) modcernae, LU 8904 . Cf. cru fechto .i. badb, Corm. Y 308 . crúḟechta .i. bodba, O'Dav. 375 . cru .i. badb, fechta .i. cath . . . cairbidhib crúfechta, H 3.18, 61b10 . c.¤ búada precinct (of Temair), Metr. Dinds. i 28.20 . Cathir Chroind c.¤ buada, LL 3540 . focresa cro comairle ┐ cindti `a meeting for council', Ériu viii 56.9 . i gcomhdháil ndruadh chraoi gcorma in a ring round ale (?), Hackett² xvii 39 . c.¤ cotaig ┐ oentad `covenant and union', RC xiii 72 § 75 . c.¤ cadat ┐ caradraidh, xxix 138.30 . ? cro cuil im Chellach i foss , O'Mulc. 208 . c.¤ cummaisc of metres using features belonging to different structures ( Murphy Metrics 77 ): cro cumaisc etir randaigecht mbicc ┐ casbairdni (i.e. 73 + 72), IT iii 68 § 9 . cro cummaisc etir randaigecht moir ┐ casbairdne (i.e. 72 + 71 ), § 7 . lethidir c.¤ dernann dil `the hollow', Ériu iv 96.1 . Cf. an c.¤ Logo, RC xii 78 § 69 prob. `some hut or other enclosure in which Lugh put his winnings', n. ethais corp crín c.¤ péne `fold of torment', Imr. Brain 46 .

In n. loc. sruith shenoir Chraoi Caoimhghin, AFM ii 1020.z `St. Kevin's kitchen', n.

(f) socket, hoop (of lance), eye (of needle) etc.: sleg . . . co fethan óir impi o irlond co c.¤ , LU 10665 . líathga mór co tríchait semmand trina c.¤ , TBC-LL² 4488 . lán a glacc . . . da hindsma ┐ da c.¤ (of spear), Acall. 4922 . ? c.¤ trí rinne bodb moslinge, SG 409.10 = AFM i 302.x . gearr do bháoi an cróisin gan chrann, IGT Decl. ex. 577 . co tarla cach snáthat díb hi c.¤ araili, LU 8858 ( FB 65 ). c.¤ snáthaiti, 4882 (TBC). im snathait, .i. set int snaith ina cro, Laws i 152.30 Comm. dul tré ch.¤ shnáthaide, Mk. x 25 .

(g) box, container : trian a cruib glaisne, leth mad coitethe 'vom Waid in crōs (containers, in Vorbereitung) ein Drittel; wenn er gehärtet (fertig) ist, die Hälfte' Stud. in E. Ir. Law 36.12 . .i. [trian] asin glaisin ina cet cru leth . . . .i. as in cru tanaiste no madat hurlam, Laws ii 372.23 Comm . nomhadh na glaisni ... ar a buan ... trian as in chet-chru, ... leth as in chru tanaisi, 'out of the first container … out of the second container' 418.9 Comm. , Celtica xv 5 . iarna minugad co techt a cro, [.i. . . . ina cet cro], 'until it goes into the container' Laws ii 374.2 Comm , Celtica xv 5 . trian iarna cét cotadh .i. isin cru tanuisi, O'D. 303 (H 3.17, 237) .

II hereditary property, inheritance : D. co lín c.¤ , Trip.² 392 . cislir rann fil for crū ?, Ériu i 214.14 . isna hībh crōaibh aile, 215.11 . confoglaither cin iar ndibad ┐ croaibh, O'D. 548 ( H 3.17, 436 ). daer gabla no crai, Laws v 518.18 Comm. nī crō co cōiccir fo cosmailius clīaro, Ériu i 215.y . do chunchid roith croi for Aed . . . .i. delg nos facbad cech rig di aroile, LB 238cb23 . re c.¤ a shean `steading', Ériu xvi 133 § 24 . DDána 74.60 . a shéd craí na dheaghaidh dhuit, IGT Decl. ex. 1629 . re taisgidh is c.¤ carad (of a harp) `relic', Magauran 886 . tairgid cairt ar c.¤ a cinid `land of their family', Ériu iv 224.23 . ? im chrú nochar fhuirigh aonarc, Measgra D. 61.111 (in sense (a), Ed.). Note also crui `cattle', Laws i 214.25 , 298.15 Comm. , crai, iv 26.11 , 12 etc.

In follg. exx. wd. is of doubtful application and/or meaning): turthughadh craoi, Ériu xiii 23.24 . fuidir goible, fuidir chrui, fuidir gola 'der fuidir des Galgens, der fuidir des Bluttodes, der fuidir der Grube' Ir. Recht 65-66 . og na bi fer craidh, O'Curry 2546 ( Eg. 88, 45 (46)d ). ni acair nad caemclai o croib in forais, Laws i 102.y `sheds'. ? lan . . . di cormaim no as co cro(?) . . . lan di as cen cro(?), O'D. 936 ( H 3.17, 658 ). bid croa na trī forus (of saint), ZCP ix 453.9 . is cro timorgne cach aighnedha a arach fri comus n-æi, xii 364.7 . tri cro in tuile (of waves), BB 374a11 (cf. Dinds. 45 ). is ed rosaigh inn ardrígh asin cruid, Ériu i 215.3 . rachoidh sí c.¤ tar comhaidh (untranslated), O'Hara 4105 . cro Grigair gan rath nā rabh (sic leg.) / da minaigh cath 'ga chosnamh, ACL iii 245 § 25 ` house ', Aithd. D. 49.25 . is crō dá sét .i. coimhét, ZCP v 486 § 7 (B. na f.). in c.¤ caem (of willow tree), SG 245.25 . ni thiaghaid feacht nó sluaigheadh acht ar chródh `for pay', Leb. Cert. 96.26 (crod ?).

Compds. With nouns. ? croaithlich torgi fiann, ZCP viii 306.21 . ar chróbhothaibh bochtán `hovels', Keat. i 54.11 . in crobuaile cat[h]a `fold of battle', CCath. 5378 . 'na gcróbhuaile chumhaing (of hell), TSh. 6696 . i ngonaib ┐ i crobuillib baís (1 crú ?), LL 12785 . cróichíor chruinn a déad, Hackett² iv 22 . crō-c[h]līat[h], Corm. Y 371 . conboing catha cróchombág, LU 8352 ( FB 24 ). ag cróinnsmadh a ccraoisech fitting out their spears, Hugh Roe² 224.2 . sin chro-inse (: millsi), Rawl. 164a54 . gus in gcrōmhainnir chatha, Celtica i 117.125 . crotacra . . . .i. tagra . . . do-ghnither i cro airechta, Cóic Con. 60 § 144 n.4 . beit it chróthreibh coitechta `populous household', Leb. Cert.² 158.6 . With adjj. drud re roibhthibh, cúilte cróbhodhbhdha warlike(?), DDána 83.8 . caór catha crobuilnig, ZCP viii 306.15 . a ṡlegha crannremra cródhaingne, Acall. 1553 . a dhá chraoisigh . . . chró-fhairsinge, ML 112.21 . ech . . . coelchos cálethan (leg. crua-) broad-hoofed, LU 8665 ( FB 50 ) = crualethon, Eg. ( IT i 278 n. 18 ). dá craísigh . . . cróremra, CF² 681 . fr isrengad cucu na crusighi crothuilli open- socketed (?), B. Fermoy 77b24 . In n. loc. Cathir Chróḟind, Metr. Dinds. i 28.20 .

dán

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dán or dil.ie/14559
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: dáno, dánu, dánou, dána, dáin, dána, dánai, dána, dánta, dánae, dána, dán, dánai, ndán, dán, dánae

n u, m. g s. dáno, dánu, dánou, dána; mod. also dáin. n du. dá dána , LL 99 a 29 . n pl. dánai, dána (both in Wb); mod. also dánta. g pl. dánae, dána and once dán (supported by the metre) SR 7212 . —Dim. dánán ( ZCP x 370 ), q.v.

I A gift, bestowal, endowment, present , translating Lat. donum, donatio and glossed by ascid, tindnacol, tidlaic, bronntanas. dán do thabairt (do thindnacul, do dáil, do ḟodáil) do to bestow upon. Dán in sense I is not found in the Laws; the legal terms for gift are tidnacol, 2 aiscid.

(a) in a material sense. dán .i. tidhnacul, Stowe Gl. 311 . dán airgid .i. maoin no aisgid airgid a gift of silver O'Cl. P. O'C. alali caillech dobert dán ṁbec disi hi rusc who gave her a little present (of fruit) in a basket Lism. L. 326. 14 , cf. Todd Lect. v 75. 7 . na draid tancatar do adrad Críst co ndánaib examla, PH 7113 . nothictis mic Israel co ndánaib ┐ dliged ┐ idpartaib don eclais sin in choimdhed, LB 122 a 24 . dánai na hecailse gifts given to the Church, its goods : airchinnig bíte ós inchaib martra nannaeb for dánaib ┐ dechmadaib na hecailsi, FA § 25 .

(b) in a spiritual sense.

(α) a gift from man to God, a spiritual offering; often in connection with idpart or dependent on adopair: na trí dána édbras ind eclais do Chríst .i. óige ┐ aithrigi ┐ lánamnus dligthech, PH 7082 . cura edpram dó na dána logmara sa .i. deigimrád ┐ deigbriathra ┐ deiggnim, ib. 7115 . co nérnend na dána trédai iris frescisciu ┐ déircc do Dia, ib. 7093 .

(β) a divine gift to man from God or the Holy Ghost, a Christian virtue looked upon as an emanation from the Holy Ghost , usually plural dánai. donationes secundum gratiam differentes: is sain dán cáich, Wb. 5 d 5 , 7 . sechiphé dán tra doberthar do neuch bad fri cumtach necolso immabera, ib. 13 a 3 (the same thought is expressed Wb. 22 a 11 : in aedificationem corporis Christi (i.e. the Church): is hed dothéit de tre ilar na ndáne). gratia habundans propter multos: mrechtrad inna ndáne tindnagtar do chách, ib. 15 c 2 . nítat ildáni do oenfiur et ní oen dán do sochuidi, ib. 21 a 16 . na decad in dán doradad dó fessin acht dán á cheli, ib. 23 c 16 . acht rocretea deacht Críst bit less ind huili dáni et na huili timne, ib. 27 b 15 . ni riat na dánu diadi aran indeb domunde, ib. 28 c 2 . fortgellam Dia dana (: slána) De we declare by God God's gifts SR 3611 . dán buidech briathar dimbrass a grateful gift is speech without boasting Ériu ii 63 st 3 . i coṅdiulg cech dána rothídnaic Dia do sruthib fetarlaice is dermáir in tidnacul tuc indiú dona hapstalu PH 5450 . in spirut noem inṡorchaidius ┐ ḟoillsigius dána ┐ derritus inna ṅgním ṅdiada, ib. 8082 ; cf. in spirut noeb ...roinṡorched dána ┐ derritiusa na ndliged ndiada don eclais, FA § 1 LB (which seems to correspond to the passage `arfuirid derritussa ┐ fochraice écsamla nimi dona bennachtnachaib' in the LU version). rodánaigthe a dánaib Dé tria secht fáthaib fáthsine, ZCP iii 21. 42 . duine co ndán ndligthech ṅDé, MacCarthy 40. 17 . dánai in spirto nóib the gifts of the Holy Ghost: doadbadar sunt ata nili dána in spirto et as nóindæ in spirut, Wb. 12 a 11 ( 1 Corinth. xii 11 ; cf. PH 5491 infra ). tairchella híc huili dánu in spirito, ib. 12 b 33 . tre thindnacul inna ndánæ in spirito do chách, ib. 21 c 2 . isé in spirut noeb sin ḟódlas a dhána dilsi do chách, PH 5491 ( 1 Corinth. xii 11 ). dána examla in spiruta noíb do thidnocul don eclais, ib. 5571 . They are seven: uair is secht ṅdána airegda airmither don spirut noem, ib. 8028 . hí figuir .vii. ṅdana spiritus sancti, Thes. ii 254. 9 . secht ndána in spiratu naoiṁ, O'Don. Suppl. 615 ( = secht tidluice i. s. n., 23 Q 1, p. 24 b 6 ). Their names are wisdom, intellect, counsel, vigour, knowledge, piety and fear of God: ecna intliucht comarle nert fis gaire gúr omon Fiadat for bith ché secht ndána Dé dún ZCP v 499 (stanza 4) .

(γ) in a special sense, a natural endowment, faculty, ability or talent, ingenium . fear creanus ... dliged ... dia tallaind tidnaic Dia do .i. isé Dia dotidnaic na dána sin do, Laws v 20. 13 , 25 .

II Skill in applying the principles of a special science; science; skill applied to the material or subject-matter of art; artistic faculty, art; especially the poetic faculty; the art of poetry . It translates Lat. ars. Synonyms elada, elatha, 1 fis, sous, airchetal. proficiebam in iudaismo, gl. ropsa airchinnech isin dán sin I have been a leader in that science Wb. 18 c 15 . is ecen do neuch fosisedar dán inna grammatic cotinola inna huili doilbthi, Thes. ii 6. 13 b 1 . badar liubair cacha dana issinn aracal irraibe Colum Cille books of every science Fél. 198 n 2 . ni bói dán aile innte acht legend ┐ scribend nammá quia ars ibi exceptis scriptoribus nulla habebatur Lat. Lives 92. 14 . Lochru ┐ Lucat Mael ithé...roptar auctair in dána sin inna sæbfáthsine inventores doni illius (sc. the druidical art), ib. 2. 6 . ocht ṅdalta do æs in dána druidechta na farrad, TBC-LL¹ 1071 . bar sciam ┐ bar ndán (v.l. náni) la Fiachra, RC xxiv 194. 10 . tria dan ┐ fisidecht a athar, ib. vi 178 l. 132 (v.l. from YBL). dénaid bhar ndána (i.e. music and dance)... Adubradar na mná nách dignidis dán go feastais a dtuarustol, Ériu iv 178. 16 , 18 . is dom sous matchous: a ndorigénai (sc. Brigit) do maith .i. is dom dán .i. is dom filidecht, Thes. ii 337. 21 . bretheam ...co ndán duis dfilidecht aigi a brehon with the skill of a `dos' in poetry Laws v. 92. 2 . aes cach dána núi cen inandus (sic leg.) na nastib, LL 197 a 9 ( Metr. Dinds. iii 180. 168 ). mac ind ḟiled cosin dán let the poet's son take to poetry ib. 148 a 11 . filid oldam anroth clí cano doss mac már...morsesser dian dan the seven who practise poetry ZCP v 499 st 7 (the bárd áine does not: ní fil dán lais, IT iii 5. 11 , 24. 10 . ní tuiremar dán lais, ib. iii 28 ). is oendán tegait .i. bairdne, IT iii 24. 18 , cf. ib. 6. 10 . i n(d)airib dána (sic leg.) in oakwoods of poetry ib. iii 106. 10 . dligid dan dúscad dligid fis foillsigud (sic YBL) MR 94. 16 . Gilla Aengussa O Cluman ollam Condacht re dán, RC xviii 165. 9 . beanuimsi fós (says Marvan to the sgeulees) a hucht mu dhia bar ndán díbh uili gan énrand do dhénumb ó so amach acht aenduan namá I deprive you all of your poetic faculty Oss. v 102. 18 . Ecna mac na trí ṅdea ṅdána, RC xxvi 30 , 139 . áes dána people of art ZCP x 370 , After Rome 34 , esp. poets (cf. IV): is annsin doeirgheadar aos dána an rígh do ghabháil a nduan ┐ a ndán do chách, Atlantis iv 198. 15 . re haes dána dénta duán, Acall. 587 . dá tí dano aes dána sin crích...corop siat a duana saṁ ┐ a dréchta gabtair ar tús i nEmain, TBC-LL¹ 1154 . oes dana Uladh im Fercertne sin, ib. 5466 . filid ┐ aes dána ┐ aes glamtha gruaidi, ib. p. 441 n. 1 . aos dána in ríg co rinnib, O'Mulc. 830 d . Also áes dán: file bard dúanaire áos dán, Eg. Gl. 350 . Cf. SR 7212 . fer dána (cf. IV)

a poet ZCP x 370 . a chlaidib ríg...fogéba duit thḟer dána tigerna do diṅgbála RC xx 12. st 19 .

atbertatar a chliar risin fer ṅdána...massed bar in file, &c. , Bor. § 132. 3 . Cú Condacht ó Dálaigh in fer dána is ḟerr dobai, RC xviii 157. 24 .

In a figurative sense in the phrases dán ecnai, d.¤ forbai, d.¤ laechdacht: maith dán egna ferr dán forba doiligh dán laech[d]acht...mairg dianad dán laech[d]acht, ZCP vi 261. 30 ; cf. LL 346 a 40 . dán ecna dogní ríg do bhocht the art of wisdom makes a king of a pauper LL 346 a 35 .—PERS.: Dán mac Osmenta Poetry, son of Scrutiny RC xxvi 30. 130 .

III A poem, song, verse, rhyme . dán an ode, poem, lay, song or ditty; hymn. gen. dáin or dána, P. O'C. adrad maicc dé dán búada, Thes. ii 349. 7 . baudar amra [a] dana, Laws i 22 , 28 . i nduais filed....i. logh ar admolad uair ni dlegar dib dan do chennoch, ib. v 129. 1 . érned ar cach ṅdán as dír ┐ is dliged do reicc, LL 215 a 22 . cid i ndeochraigetar (sc. na baird)...i ndánaib ┐ grádaib ┐ anmandnuibb in poems, grades and names IT iii 5. 5 ; 24. 7 . na soerbaird cid nosdeochraigethar i ngradaib. ní hansa asa ṅdánaib forberat, ib. 6. 2 ; 24. 11 . Cid nosdeachraigetar ┐ nosæntaighedar ina ndánaib, ib. 24. 17 . do ghabháil a nduan ┐ a ndán do chách, Atlantis iv 198. 16 . dia seichmis cech dia do dán, ZCP vi 266 st 8 . dá mbeirthea dán lat, ib viii 109. 26 . is fírdliged deit dan mic rigfiled Ruirend, MacCarthy 132 iii a . dagaiste in dána, IT iii 106. 2 . is iat sin ardaiste in dána, ib. 27 . reacfad feasda dán re dia, 23 D 13 , p. 25. 1 . Further examples Exodus xv 2 . Deuteronomy xxxi 19 . 2 Samuel xxii 1 . 1 Kings iv 32 . Job xxxv 10 . dán do chumtach to compose a poem: conutaing duine dán, H 3.18, 53 b . conrotacht dan duib, TBC-LL¹ 1707 Y. dánta diaghachta psalms Donlevy 454. 17 . i ndán in verse : aithghiorra an teagaisg chríosduighe a ndán, ib. v 7 ; cf. lii 18 ; 487. 2 . dán dírech the name of a metrical system used by the Irish: asé dochúm na duanta senchasa so i ndán díreach, AFM v 2320. 5 . dán d., Rel. Celt. ii 297 . 34 . O'Molloy 144 .

IV An industrial pursuit of a skilled nature; a craft, trade, business, office, calling, profession . Sometimes hardly distinguishable from II. Glossed by tidnaiced, Laws v 14. 23 , 26 , ib. 90. 26 ; translating Lat. professio, Sg. 33 a 25 , ars Todd Lect. v 92 , Sg. 156 b 4 , and often used synonymously with cerdd ( Laws i 14. 25 ; Thes. ii 293. 15 ; RC xxvi 21 ff .) and eladu ( Laws v 98 pass.). is ionann dán ┐ ceard, Keat. 666 . dán .i. ceárd, P. O'C. —dán do aittreb to hold or possess a profession (Sg). dán do aurfognom ( RC xii 78. 13 ), d.¤ do frithgnom ( Ml. 37 b 12 ; RC xii 76. 2 ), d.¤ do dénom ( Wb. 27 d 10 , Laws pass. ) to practise a profession. dánae do chongbáil ( Laws v 104 ; RC xii 78 ) to keep up or practise several professions (only pl. dánae). dán do ḟoglaim to learn a profession ( Ml. 37 b 12 ; Laws). dúlchinne or lóg in dáno ( Laws pass. ; ACL iii 227. 29 ) the pay of the profession.

The various dánae were divided into prímdánae (dagdánae) and fodánae (drochdána); compare Laws and LL 215 a 20 : lucht cech dána eter prímdán ┐ ḟodán. The latter class included according to Laws v 108. 20ff . the aes ciúil ┐ oirfidid oilchena monaig ┐ araid ┐ luamain ┐ comail ┐ daime ┐ creccoire ┐ cleasamnaig ┐ fuirseóire ┐ brugedóire ┐ fodána olcheana...nísta saíre cena foleith. While the aes ciúil thus are graded with jugglers and buffoons, an exception is made for the harpers, the cruittiri: cruit isé aendán ciúil indsein dliges saíre, ib. 106. 27 . All who practise a profession are daernemed-persons with the exception of the filid ( Laws v 14 ff ), because they serve saernemed-persons and receive payment from them. `Every profession has its nemed' (cach dán a nemed) and `Every profession has its emoluments' (cach dán a duilgine) says the Alphabet of Cuigne mac Emoin ( ACL iii 226. 14 ; 227. 29 ). Highest among the aes dáno rank the saír `carpenters,' gobainn `smiths,' umaidi `braziers,' cerdda `gold-smiths,' legi `doctors,' breithemain `brehons,' and druid `druids' ( Laws v 90. 19 ). Other professionals mentioned in the Laws are the ailtiri (probably a subdivision of saír), cairemain `shoemakers, leathern-bottle makers,' círmairi `combers,' geibich `cloth-figurers,' iascairi `fishermen,' nascairi `chain-makers,' rindaigi `engravers,' tornóiri `turners,' tuathait `shield-coverers,' v. Laws v 106 ff . To these may be added from other texts the senchaidi `historians,' the grammarians, the chess-players, the lucht cumachtai `folk of might' (including the corrguinig, tuathaig `sorcerers,' ammaiti `wizards'), the araid `charioteers,' selgairi `hunters,' deogbairi `cupbearers,' &c., cf. RC xii 76 ff . 88 ff . But farmers of land exercise no dán; in the Tecosca Cormaic LL 375 c 20 dán is used in opposition to orbae 'inherited property'.

The Laws make a distinction between dánae inunna the various branches or subdivisions of one and the same profession, and dánae écsamlai different professions, as is evident from the following passages: cethri dána inunda aigi he has four parallel professions (viz. the building of sea-ships, barques, canoes and vessels), v 104. 7 . fer congeb trede .i. trí dána inanna aigi .i. durtech ┐ muilinn ┐ ibroracht, v 104. 21 . fer congeb dede .i. fer congbus dá dán examla .i. goibnecht ┐ cerdacht smithwork and goldwork v 104. 18 . fer congeb ceatharda .i. cethra dána éxamla .i. goibnecht ┐ cerdacht ailtirecht ┐ gebidecht smithwork and goldwork, carpentry and cloth-figuring ib. v 104. 30 . dia mbeth dána éxamla aice beith eneclann cacha dána dib, H 3.18 , p. 126 . O'D. Suppl.

Salutat uos Lucas medicus, gl. dicit híc ainm dáno dorigéni i tossug, Wb. 27 d 10 . alia a professionibus .i. hua ḟóisitnib inna ṅdáne frisgniat ┐ ataimet, Sg. 33 a 25 . ut mechannicus .i. arindí atreba in dán sin. ind ḟiss asberar michanicé , ib. 33 a 26 , 27 . grammaticus .i. airindí atreba in dán inna litredachte, ib. 33 a 28 . dual dán, Laws v 104 . artium vero nomina .i. dana .i. anmman araḟóimtar di danaib ut doctor de doctrina , Sg. 156 b 4 . quos multa peritia facit ab eiusdem artis consortibus eminere .i. sainred neulais leu isin dan frisgníat sech cách fodglein olchene, Ml. 37 b 12 . cechtar nathar fria saindan, bíth a menmasam fri seilgg mu menma céin im saincheirdd, Thes. ii 293. 14 . maith la cechtar nár a dán, ib. 294. 2 . isé a prímdán budein filidecht, Laws v 12. 17 . is saer cid cách creanus a suíre dia dán, iv 14. 28 . in cách...cendaigis saeiri dó dun dán bís aigi amail atá in gaba, v 14. 30 ; cf. ib. 20. 14 , 22 , 33 . is feardi in fear sin na dána sin do cindemain aigi that man is the better of those professions having fallen to his lot, v 20. 28 . cethri ba do ar gach ndán four cows for each profession, v 104. 8 . in dán is uaisli dib, ib. 104. 22 . dá prímdán do beith aigi i fotha .i. clochsairsi ┐ crannsairsi ┐ in dana dan as uaisli dib do beith aigi i fotha .i. damliag ┐ duirrtech, v 92. 2 f.b. fégad arna dánaib eile, v 94. 3 . in dúil chinntech doberar dontí aca ndéntar in dán .i. lóg in dána, v 266. 12 . seisid doben allógh gacha dána dib, ib. 94. 4 . Cf. sesid do asna dánaib eli, v 104. 25 . saer daer dagdána dáig fogniat ┐ fogníter free, unfree are the good arts, because they serve and are served, v 96. 10 , 13 . in oiret bes (sc. in dalta) ica ḟoglaim .i. ic dénum a dána dligthig (apparently = while he is learning his lawful profession, though dán do dénum usually means to exercise a profession), v 96. 24 . a étail dána uile...┐ cédtuilleam a dána the entire profits of his profession and the first earnings of his profession, v 96. 28 . dia congba dá dán díb if he unites (keeps up) two of these arts, v 106. 8 , 15 . ni ḟuil nach ní doib ara ndán nothing is due to them in right of their profession, v 106. 25 . ma feraind fuair ara dán hé, ib. iii 50. 3 . ara dhán no ara leginn no ara filidecht, ib. 50. 6 . mad étail brethemnasa no filidechta no nach dána olcena, iii 50. 4 . a dualgus a dána in right of his profession, v 108. 16 , 17 , 36 . nach dán asrubartamar dliges saire, v 108. 1 . gan a dán, 108. 2 , 7 . intí aca mbia aendán the person who has one profession, v 108. 13 . intí ca mbed dána ilarda, ib. 14 . ildána (n pl.), ib. 16 . damad hé dán dliged na fine if it was the lawful profession of the tribe, iii 50. 10 .

cipe dán ara corat[h]ar neuch láiṁ ised as dech dó foss occa, Mon. Tall. 159. 6 . cid hé mo dán though that be my craft FB § 92 , cf. Strachan ZCP iii 422 . ni hé mo dan dogrés atát dána lim chena, FB § 93 . a gillai forcitail (a mmo sruith) cia dán dognísiu, RC xxvi 20 § 54 , 22 § 70 . oc dénum a dána, H 3.17 , col. 175 . cia dan frisag[n]eie al sei ar ni teid nech cin dan i Temruig, RC xii 76. 2 (compare ní théiged [don fleid i.e. fleid Temrach]...duine cen dán, Ériu iv 124. 12 ). abair ... an fil les oeinfer codogabai ina danu sæ ule, ib. 78. 9 . na huili dano arufognot det muntir si atát les ule a oenor conedh fer cacha danai ule ei, ib. 78. 13 . bo suí cach dáno é, ib. 78. 24 . ruaicill Lug cach ar uair dib fria ndanoib, ib. 92. 13 . bid furside cech dán, ib. xxvi 36 § 185 . fer sotal im gáis im dán im thocad, Tec. Corm. § 32 . romeasc cách ar dan a chéle IT iii 187 § 7 (= MS. Mat. 511. 24 . BB 261 a 25 ). ro hordaigheadh cách díb fora dhan díleas, ib. ferr dán orbba a trade or profession is better than inheritance LL 345 c 20 . rofiadaiged ar grádaib ┐ dánaib ┐ dligedaib, &c. TBC-LL¹ 997 . rocóraidhid iarum cách fo grádaib ┐ i ndanaib ┐ i ndligemnus, Ériu v 234. 9 . na hollumain ┐ anis deach fri cech ndán olchena, FDG 25 . an dán cétna dóib sund, BColm. 20. 23 . dober Colmán dó hi fus in dán cena cétna, ib. 74. 23 . Here also O'Mulc. 222 : cerd graece cires .i. manus unde cernach .i. buaidh lám dicitur. ar cach dán dogniat lámae is cerd dongairther .i. lámdae because every craft, exercised by the hands, is called `cerd.'

dán ciúil the profession of the `áes ciúil.' cruit isé aendán ciúil indsein dliges sairi, Laws v 106. 27 . aes dáno (pl. aesa dána, FB § 12 ) .i. in lucht aca mbí in dán, Laws v 98. 6 . The practisers of a profession, people of any trade or art (other than farmers of land) = aes cerdd, Laws iv 316. 25 , aes tidnaicthe, ib. v 14. 23 , 26 , aes eladan, v 90. 28 , though v 98. 11 a distinction is made between `aes dána' and áes borbeladan 'workers in unskilled professions'. Opp. aes trebtha, Cóir Anm. § 149 . tarrcomlad cach aes dána la hÉrind co tarfen cách a cheird fia[d] Patraic, Laws i 14. 25 . aithgabáil cach aes (sic) dána, ii 118. 21 . breithem bes tualaing fuigell frisind aes ndána, v 98. 1 . duilgine cach aesa dána adroilli duilgine, v 264. 15 . formna láth ngaili Ulad arcena ┐ a maccæm ┐ a næsa dána, FB § 12 (p. 258. 13) . rofáid C. filedu ┐ áes dána ┐ drúdi Ulad dia saigid... rotriall som dano in næs ndána do marbad, SCC § 48 . aragarud...oes danu Erionn, RC xii 84 § 85 . degníth lesin oes ndanou indsen, ib. § 86 . den oes dana, ib. § 124 . do ḟiledaib ┐ aes dána, TBC-LL¹ 2708 . aes cacha dáno, Laws v 14. 18 . rodeiligsid arís æs cacha dána fria aroili, IT iii 187 § 7 ( MS. Mat. 511. 26 ) aes cacha dáno olchenae 'any other professionals': daerneimead imorro aes gacha dána olchena, Laws v 14. 17 . daernemed tra saeir ┐ gobaind ┐ umaide ┐ cerda ┐ legi ┐ breithemain ┐ druid ┐ aes cacha dána olchena, ib. v 90. 21 (gl. .i. lucht cacho tidnaicthi uili cena ┐ na fodhán). iter eclais ┐ tuaith ┐ aos gacho dána olchena, ZCP viii 111. 21 . doescarṡluag ┐ oes dímain ┐ oes cecha dána olchena, LB 116 a 27 , cf. di daoscarsluag ┐ daos cecha dánæ olchenæ, RC xii 104. 2 . cóicedaig Érenn...┐ a rígu ┐ a toísig ┐ a nócthigernn ┐ a namsaid ┐ oes cacha dána gnáthaig ┐ ingnáthaig olchena FDG 158 . aes dánae, aes dán (pl.) = aes dáno; cf. dér as g pl. Fél. Epil. 400 . cen aes ṅdán, SR 7212 , cf. aos dán poets Eg. Gl. 350 . ceth ind táos dánae ol Máolrúin in gobui[n]d ind tsáoir ┐ reliqui , Mon. Tall. 135. 30 . For the use of the pl. compare the synonymous áes cerdd. fer dáno a member of the aes dáno, a professional man: mad fer dána, Laws iii 48. 18 ; in a spec. sense a poet, v. II. Idiomatically in asseverations: dar mo dán by my craft (profession): d. m. d. is luag noragad duid ar sin do dénum, Anecd. i 46. 6 . Cf. fo mo cheirdd, LU 75 b 30 ( TBC-I¹ 1685 ).

V A craftsman : cach dán dogní aicdi flatha nó ecalsa 'every craftsman who manufactures articles for a lord or a churchman', Críth G. 486 , Ériu lxvi 2 . cruit, is ē āendān cīuil ind sein dliges saīri 'a harpist, that is the only skilled musician who can claim independent status', CIH v 1616.31 , Ériu lxvi 2 . sāer dāer dagdāna 'good craftsmen are [at once] noble and base', CIH v 1613.22 , Ériu lxvi 2 . cis lir fodlai for soírneimthib? ... a cethair - ecnae, eclais, flaith, fili; it é doírnemid dánae olchenae 'how many divisions are there of noble privileged ones? ... four, ecclesiastical scholar, churchman, lord, poet; the remaining craftsmen are base privileged ones', Ériu xl 8 § 1 .

VI A profession as represented by its practisers collectively; the members of a trade as a body. cach dán dogní aicdi flatha no ecalsa all craftsmen who make the manufactures of a chief or a church Laws iv 332. 1 . dán cimbeda probably= captives, prisoners (if not corrupt for damna cimbeda, see damnae I (b)): gabtar na fir ┐ ná gontar iter dáig nimmó ná dán cimbeda rothoegat, TBC-LL¹ 5120 . That the sense is a concrete one and Windisch's translation wrong is proved by TBC-LL¹ 5122 : Conchobar gan a guin do gabáil ┐ dán cimbeda do dénam dona deich cét ar ḟichit cét bátar na ḟarrad.

VII An occupation, function, business; an allotted task . dán .i. obair, Lec. Gl. 446 , Stowe Gl. 59 , 330 . cumal .i. ben bís oc bleth brón ar isé dán na mban ṅdáer riasiu darónta na muilind for this was the business of bondwomen Corm. s.v. cumal ; Zeuss² 245 . trí dána dobertsat slóg na Galia fair úir do tarradh ┐ muighi a fedhaib ┐ scáileadh murgabla srotha Ligir three tasks the people of G. imposed upon him RC xv 434. 26 , where dán= obair, l. 29 below (┐ adaigestar obair naile do thabairt fair). tri dán tucsat for R., LL 196 a 36 . olc or sí do dan bith oc buadred na Hérenn LU 53 b 8 (Tuc. Ind. na nD.). trí eoin aregda isin chathair ...┐ a menma ina ndúlemain tria bithu issé sin a ndan FA § 7 . bid hé mo dán iter drungu démnu...beth icot mallachad sa, PH 8263 . Hardly in Mon. Tall. 133. 10 : asrubart M. nibu móo dan lais arrobúi isind tsaltir nuli; the translation given seems impossible.

VIII To give in payment; a payment (cf. dawn bwyd payments in kind in the Welsh Laws). dan .i. ic ut est co hiar nde mis rodantar frit no r[o]dana .i. cidh riut icar cidh tu icas, O'Dav. 693 . So in Alexander 382 : rotustuillset fo chísaib ┐ bés ┐ dán ┐ dliged dóib, if it is complete (the line ends with fo chísaib ┐; something might have been dropped at the beginning of the new line). It recalls the passage TBC-LL¹ 997 , containing dán in the sense of profession : rofiadaiged ar grádaib ┐ dánaib ┐ dligedaib ┐ uaslecht ┐ cáinbésaib.

IX PHRASES.

(a) is dán do: bá dán dosom intan ba holc a menma noslocad indala súil conna roched corr inna cind it was his custom (?) SCC § 5 . ar is do is dán tidhnocol for to him `belongs to make presents (O'Don.) Leb. Cert. 192. 14 . gottí an tairrngeartaigh dar dhán sí asa hairmbertaibh diompádh who is allotted to Tadhg O'Huiginn (R.I.A. 23 L 17 , f. 576 § 12 )=dá mbed i ndán. Cf. VIII (b).

(b) i ndán (do) destined to, in store for; espec. destined by fate, fated, allotted ; phonetically i nán. Synon. i cinniud, i tairngiriu.—Only in connection with atá or dorala. The phrase does not appear in the Glosses, and the earliest instances collected here are taken from the YBL and the LB. Dán used independently in the sense fate, destiny , is not common in Irish, though this meaning is frequently given by modern lexicographers (dán .i. cineaṁain P. O'C. , cf. Coneys, O'R., Dinneen ). A late instance is quoted VIII (a). It occurs, however, in spoken Gaelic: is duilich cur an aghaidh dàin to oppose fate is difficult ( Macd. Gael. Dict. i 310 a ); but as a rule in Gaelic also it depends on i n- (ma tha e 'n dàn dhoṁ a bhi beò). robai i ndán ┐ i tairngire in aided úd diar mbreith doréir faistine in druad was fated and foretold RC xxiv 280 § 19 (YBL). aspert in sruith [fri]usuṁ imthecht uair ní hannsut boi i ndan [do]ibh eserghi, ib. xiv 58 § 72 (Book of Fermoy; v.l. nách ann rocinnedh doib a neiséirge). mata a ndán duit, ib. xxiii 420. 28 (YBL; compare l. 24 : do bi i tairngiri dam). ma rocollit riam a gessi rocollit innocht .i. boi a ndán a coll for their breaking was fated MacCongl. 15. 13 (LB). na nethe aurdhalta bis a cinded ┐ a ndan doib, Fen. 38. 17 . ag déunaṁ réiṁḟiadhnuise airna neithib dobhí a ndán do Chríosd dḟulang, RC vii 359. 10 ( 1 Peter 11 ). noco tí an ridiri da fuil a ndán an pócc do thabairt, ZCP ii 24. 28 . ca fis nach da cloidhem féin atá a ndán a marbadh ib. vi 103. 7 ; 'who knows that it is not his own sword that is destined to kill him' x 371 . cip hé for talmain...dia da (leg. dia d[t]a) i nndán a fúaslocod (sc. inna cest), ib. iv 234.1 f.b. , RC xxxvii 18 . a beith i ndán dam bás dagbáil in lá dá gebthasu bás, Cog. 172. 8 . ní fhuil a ndán do bás dḟaghail nó go mbuailtear trí buillidhe don luirgḟearrsaid atá aige air, Oss. iii 120. 6 . fothrugadh luaidhe ar do chind sa óir dobhi a n[d]an do thiachtain annso, Ériu iii 164. 3 f.b. dobhaoi a ndán...tocht do ṡluaigh go hiathṁaigh (sic leg.) nAdhair, Hugh Roe 198. 17 . gach ainiarsma da mbí i ndán dó féin ó thosach a gheineaṁna go síorraidhe tre ṡaoghal na saoghal, TSh. 72. 18 . Further instances Acall. 6876 . Miscell. Celt. Soc. 150. 23 . SG 65. 45 ; 234. 5 . RC xiii 222. 39 . Aen. 84 , 93 . Gadelica ii 93 . 8. OCL 6 . BS § 76. 2 .—The following examples do not involve the sense of fate or destiny: na cóicedaig archena do ṡuidiugad amail robuí a ndán do chách, FDG 203 . do Luaighni atá i ndán in tres, Fianaig. 68. 11 . dobhraith cách uili den láiṁ (leg. d'ēnláimh) go bfuil caphair a ndán dí, Ériu vi 128. 6 f.b. , ZCP x 371 tárla a ndán di teagṁáil aran gcuid don ṁachaire noch fa le Boas it was her hap Ruth ii 3 .

(c) beith doendán i cenn oppose together, be on the same side against; the same as beith doenláim i cenn, as is evident from the passage LB 140 a 15 : co ndernsat caratrad do beth doeṅdán i cend Aristobuil...o rabtar oentadaig dénlaim i cend A. &c. Developed from sense IV.

MOD. dán (Connaught also nán, nnán, abstracted from i ndán), gen. dáin (dána obs.), n pl. dáin and dánta, d pl. usually dánaibh, a song. fear dáin a poet : is mór an fear dáin docheapadh é (Kerry). i ndán (with tá) fated, in store ; also able to: níl tú i ndán anacht id ṡuidhe ( Finck ii 99. 6 ); cf. Acall. 2396 : ní raibhi a ndán dúinne a marbad we could not kill it (sc. the monster). In the sense of I-II, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII (a) and (c), dán is now obsolete, and in the sense of III words like amrán, dúan, laíd are now more usual.

Compd.: ós cech dándíne drong trén 'over every gifted host of strong bands', SR (Greene) 6703 .

dech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dech or dil.ie/14869
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: deg, dechu

adj indecl. deg, Wb. 23 a 3 . 31 a 6 (in both cases before the verb as a verbal particle and only slightly accented; deg- as mad-(génatar) and not due to dag, as Thurn. Hdb. 227 suggests). deich, Tig. A.D. 648 . tech with unaspirated d after the cop. as, Ml. 37 d 3 . 73 a 10 .—Old- and Mid.-Ir. sup. of maith good. In Mid.-Ir. gradually superseded by ferr, the constant v.l. of dech in late MSS. Analog. dechu, Alex. 57 (LB). deacha O'R. — dech .i. maith, Stowe Gl. 315 . ACL i 62 no. 115 . O'D. Suppl. death .i. maith, Stowe Gl. 76 (if not = deagh). deach .i. fearr. ba dheach .i. ba fearr, O'Cl. is deich .i. is fearr, H 3.18 p. 530 .—Rhymes with ech, Anecd. iii 56. 12 .—Traced to Gk. δίκαιος: dech graece deceos iustus , O'Mulc. 303 .

A In the sense of the superlative. (1) in apposition to a subst.: Eo Rossa...dech duilib díriuch dronchrand best of creatures Dinds. § 160 . (2) predicatively in principal clauses: is dech a llécud ammain mani ni aithriged it is best to Mon. Tall. 128. 5 . dech dó (viz. do ríg) fosta cen ḟeirg, Tec. Corm. 1. 2 . (3) predicatively in relative clauses. (a) aire échta is deach, Laws ii 152. 1 f.b. ib. 280. 19 . leth is deach the best half, ib. v 78. 9 . ind ḟir as dech i nÉire, FB § 19 . (b) followed by a genitive or its equivalent (di): anastech tíre ised dorat dam, Ml. 37 d 3 . ised as dech na riaglae, Ériu i 193. 1 . anas dech dagóc fer ṅHérenn, TBC-LL¹ 441 . do neoch as dech engnomma bái díb, TBC-LL¹ 1675 Y.— ise læch is dech di ócaib domain, SCC § 13 . in áge is deach don ḟine the best chief of the tribe Laws v 502. 21 . sét is deach díb, ib. 242. 11 . anas dech di ócaib Ulad, TBC-LL¹ 441 . isé is deach díbsin uile, FDG 495 . (c) with do: it is best for . cid as dech do mnáib, ZCP viii 113. 5 . cid is dech do chléirech, LB 260 b 62 . cid is dech do ríg, Tec. Corm. § 1 . ised as dech dó foss occa, Mon. Tall. 159. 6 . (d) with la: deems the best , often = is ferr la prefers: ised insin astech latsu adopair dait, Ml. 73 a 10 . laech bas dech lib do Ultaib, FB § 13 . an robo dech leo dona trí cóictaib ingen, ib. § 54 . isí cethern is dech la ríg Temra, CF 73. 25 . cia lán bá deach lais, FDG 732 YBL (v.l. budh ferr lais). (e) as dech + verb: laech as dech fil la Ultu, FB § 9 . gaiscedach as dech fil díb hé, § 14 . in cúicedach is dech búi i nHérind, TBC-LL¹ 1618 . fáith is d.¤ búi i nÉri, ACL iii 3. 13 . TBC-LL¹ 1104 Y; ib. 1297 . FDG 46 . —Superl. of mad + verb (cf. C): hiress innaní as deg rochreitset hi Críst, Wb. 31 a 6 (positive †madrochreitset). inní is dech reithes uad, Laws iii 294. 3 f.b. cliar Augustín... dech nochartais tredan, Fél. Nov. 16 (v.l. dóig, dáig). Looser is the connection with the verb in the foll. instances: anas dech dorala i Cruachain, TFerbe 384 . rí as dech tánic in ndomon, BDD § 39 . isí oiged (= aided) as deachu dothaed ríg, Alex. 57 . ib. 56 . Frequent in the phrase Fib (amail) as dech + verb just as, exactly as Celtica xiv 1 : fib as deg ropriched, Wb. 23 a 3 . eclais Dé...bíd a cert for leth feib as dech robái, Fél. 4. 10 . feibh as dech atsaitar dilsi, Ériu ii 4 n. 46 . feib as dech atchuas, LL 147 a 16 . coro ícthar friss feib as dech atberat fir Héirenn, TBC-LL¹ 1613. 1622 . feib as deach rocuṁdaighedh feathal a nÉrinn, AFM ii 1156. 12 .— tucusa cor ┐ coibchi duit amail as dech téit do mnái, TBC-LL¹ 44 . ib. 2041 . donug amail is dech, Anecd. iii 56. 12 . amal is deach rotarclumad cech fled riam, Alex. 54 .

B In the sense of the comparative and followed by oldás, indás: ní rogab Albain ríg is deach oldás Domnall Brecc FDG 455 YBL (v.l. as fearr, Stowe MSS). ní rabatar ceitherna ríg Temrach ní ba deach ina occu side, YBL 325 a 25 . This usage arose through analogy with ferr.

C Oir. dech mad + verb = dech + verb (A e supra), superlative of mad + verb (mad-bocht, mad-búi, mad-génair &c.). This idiom has been concluded from the following instances: caite téchta prímgeine...cach fermac arosloice broind a máthar iar cétmuintir cóir cona coibsenaib réir a nanmcharat dech mo lesaigther eclais, Laws iii 38. 10 (Senchus Már, main text). .i. is deg mo lesaiges in eclais... .i. as dech lesaiges eclais, ib. 38. 22 (Comm.).— Ragallach mac Úatach gaeta dé muin geleich: Muirenn deich morochich (.i. rocaín) Cathal deich modereich, Tig. A.D. 648 (Oir. Poem, disyll. deäc, neët).— is tri ḟír flatha cach tlachta dia nime dech marómnaiter, LL 293 b 18 . Cf. dechmó-fuirmhe fionnsrotha 'bestens sollst du klare Ströme verbreiten', Akten Linz 136 § 1 ( Ériu xiii 35.23 ) The Mid.-Ir. equivalent of mad- is mo- (ma-): mogénair, or mon-: mon- génair, LU 36 b 7 ; BB 479 a 29 ; ní mandernais, LL 268 b 43 . The latter occurs in the Four Masters version of the poem quoted above: M. dechmon ro cich C. dechmon derich AFM i 260. 4 . See GOI § 384 .

adj dech fri best or most distinguished in: na hollumain ┐ anis deach fri cech ndán olchena, FDG 25 .

díḟoisse

Cite this: eDIL s.v. díḟoisse or dil.ie/16260

adj ( foss ) unstable: Deissi .i. difoissi, ar ní bhói airissem forro, Cóir Anm. 169 . Prob. coined for the occasion.

doos

Cite this: eDIL s.v. doos or dil.ie/18246

n (do + foss ?) sloth, dilatoriness (?): noco techtand in spirut noeb dolma no d.¤ ina gnimaib (= tarditatem nescit), PH 5443 . See doüs.

dorus

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dorus or dil.ie/18427

Forms: doros, doros, dorus, doruis, dorais, doirseo, doris, doiris, doirsea, doirsi, doirsi, dorse, dorsi, doruis, dorais, torus, doirsi, doirsea, ndoirsea, doirsib, dorsib, doirrsech, dorus, doirsib

n u, n. later o, m. (cf. 1 dor). n s. a nd.¤ , Ml. 132d2 . doros, Thes. ii 292.6 (Mil. Cod.) d s. don doros (: foss), SR 1180 . Usually dorus. g s. doruis, SR 357 , 410 . dorais, LL 200b58 et pass. doirseo, Críth G. 592 = doris, Laws iv 338.15 . doiris, i 144.7 Comm. n p. doirsea, Ml. 46a19 . doirsi, SR 8189 . cetheora doirsi , TBC-LL¹ 5604 . dorse, LU 9386 . dorsi, 2338 . doruis, SR 405 ; Triads 173 . dorais, LL 277a24 ; ZCP viii 108.13 . a p. fris na torus , Ml. 46a12 (see RC xx 114 ). doirsi, SR 412 , 2152 . voc. p. a doirsea , Ml. 46a14 . g p. inna ndoirsea (= ndoirse), 46a16 . d p. doirsib, 46a19 ; SR 358 . dorsib, Gild. Lor. 245 ; PH 6905 . In later lang. pl. occas. shows a guttural stem: g p. doirrsech, BCC § 296 . dorus m., IGT Decl. § 53 .

Gateway, doorway, opening or entrance (in earlier lang. usually distinguished from comla door-valve): gl. porta, Ml. 46a16 , Ir. Gl. 124 ; limen, Ml. 132d2 ; fores, Gild. Lor. 245 . dorus lis porticus, Ir. Gl. 580 . co rancatar . . . doirrsi Eamna, RC xviii 294 . co d.¤ na Trói, LL 238b5 ( TTr. 1601 ). tar doirsibh na Rómha, TSh. 3088 . isin stuag-d.¤ . . . don chathraig arched gateway, TTr.² 1129 . comla d'argut . . . cech doruis, SR 410 . tegdais . . . inna fil act oendoros, Thes. ii 292 . co d.¤ na huamhan, ZCP ii 24 . d.¤ an tuaim, ACL iii 310 . úaimh dorais a cave with an entrance (?), Imr. Brain i 63 . fert aendoruis d'fir . . ., fert co ndib doirsib for mnai, feart cen doirrsi . . . for maccu, for ingena, BB 403b34 (cf. TSh. 5766 ) = rath oendorais, LL 200b58 . for d.¤ a uaigi, PH 2932 . d.¤ in ádnacthi, 2965 . tre dhoirsibh élaidh an bhaile `postern doors', AFM vi 1956 . dorass na heguilsi . . . d'aonchloich amháin itir dī ursain is fordhorus, Fl. Earls 250 . d.¤ puple, TBC-LL¹ 1928 . More specifically door, gate (that which is closed): dorse ia[i]rn for cach slis, LU 9386 . dorsi glainidi, RC iv 248 . ita d.¤ orda for tempull in choimded, YBL 169a24 . rocuirset glas iarnaigi for doras na cubacla, PH 2952 . doirsib foriatta (dat. abs.) with closed doors, PH 6672 , 6685 , 6742 , etc. dorsib foriattaib, 6905 . doirsi na firmiminte, SR 2152 . co mba dúntai . . . doras na flatha nemda, PH 6906 . a d.¤ nime! (of Mary), LB 74a20 . dóirse ifrinn d'iadhadh orra, SG 15 . Aperture, entrance, passage in general: atáit nái ndoirsi ar Ghleann in Scáil passes leading into, Oss. v 48 . as amlaidh ata Glenn mB. ┐ ceithre doirsi ag an ngaoith ann, BS 22 . an d.¤ dorinne an t-aingel tresan teine, RC xxv 394 . ic iarraid a dorais trying to force a passage, TBC-LL¹ 5137 . gur bo doirsi debtha diancrechtacha bruinneada na mBretnach, MR 264 . senistri ┐ doirsi debhtha fair portholes (of a siege-tower), CCath. 1816 . t'iorradh daingen . . . nach éider aond.¤ air in which no opening can be found, O'Gr. Cat. 376 . cetheora doirsi . . . ar cach roth, TBC-LL¹ 5604 . muirlan glas cruind mór ┐ gan doras fair itir, acht 'na certle comchruind, GJ iv 88 ( D IV 2, 50b1 ). do bhris d.¤ ar a bhraghaid, Eochairsg. 102 . Med. le neichib togas lesa ┐ doirsi aran mball openings, incisions , 23 P 10, 150rb22 . doirrsi in c[h]uirp openings of the body, ACL iii 239 § 31 . tanic in bás tar doirsib mo chuirp istech, PH 7805 . ó-doirrsi éistechta ear-passages , MR 232 . coimhéad d.¤ mo phuisíneadh, Psalms cxli 3 . is ime sin tuites [in fuil] cum doruis na nadúire, 3 C 19, 183ra28 . Fig. ar bernadaib baegail no ar doirrsib aideda, BB 446a23 . as d.¤ báis beagshluagh, ML 104 . gurbho doras báis gach cneadh dhíobh, 132 . tri doruis gúa, Triads 173 . doras faghlama in fissin, IGT Decl. ex. 1140 . déanaid doras ar an obair enter on the work, Ó Bruad. ii 70 .

i nd.¤ (with gen.) in front of (see ZCP viii 348 - 9 , BBCS viii 20 ): tánaic óclaech iondoras lis, RC xii 78 . oc cros ind d.¤ lis, Mon. Tall. 151 . i nd.¤ lis, TBC-I¹ 445 (YBL) = i nd.¤ ind lis, LU. for beind chroisse i nd.¤ chille, LL 286b50 . co ndechur am' carpat a nd.¤ in lis, ZCP i 105 . ar in tiprait atá a nd.¤ na ratha, Acall. 4527 . atchonnairc carthe cloiche a nd.¤ in tsída amuich, 7802 . tarrasair in cenn i nd.¤ Hierusalem, SR 2238 . Crist rocrochad . . . i nd.¤ Ierusalem, Ériu iii 194 § 1 . troscem . . . i nd.¤ na cathrach, Thes. ii 311 = Trip. 418 . dia raibe F. ag proigept dona tuathaib a nd.¤ na mainistrech, RC xii 328 . isin oribert dobi a nd.¤ a phalais, Fier. 113 . an tobar bhí i ndoras na hinse, Keat. ii 3289 . in dorusa uerbi at the beginning of a word, Auraic. 1286 . ar d.¤ id.: co n-acadar in aelraith moir . . . ┐ cethror oclach . . . ara d.¤ , Ériu viii 157.4 = ina d.¤ , 15 . roscart maccu na curad . . . ar d.¤ a lis, TBC-LL¹ 949 . rachuir M. . . . cath fri F. for d.¤ Dúni Sobairchi, 2049 .

Compd. ¤bél opening, entrance, passage: im dorusbel na huamha, CCath. 4109 . d. uama, ZCP vi 102 . roléiged d. mór dó isin chath, Fianaig. 92 . d. mór chum na bésti, 66 .

1 dúnad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 dúnad or dil.ie/19229

Forms: dúnaig, dunaich, dúnadh

n o, m. (orig. neut., Hog., CRR 143 ) (dún); g s. dúnaig, Imr. Brain i 68.23 , Todd Nenn. 80.3 ; dunaich, Lec. 600b14 . dúnadh (ón dún) m., IGT Decl. § 53 , (ón tsluaighedh) m., § 11 .

(a) encampment , i.e. the entrenchments cast up by an army on march round its halting-place (= L. castrum), oft. synon. with longport; hence used also of a permanent entrenchment or fort , as synon. of dún: dunadh .i. sluaghadh no nert no fas (= foss) no faslongport, O'Dav. 657 . dúnadh .i. foslongphort, O'Cl. nogaibtissom dunad hisuidiu they used to encamp (of children of Israel in wilderness), Ml. 83a4 . gabthe dunad les fris ar in(o)illus a camp was pitched by him, 55c1 . dosnetarraid oc gabáil dúnaid, TBC-I¹ 1701 , cf. 1348 . ar abba dunad ┐ longphort do gabáil dóib, TBC-LL¹ 431 . gabsat cethri ollchoiced hErend dunad ┐ longphort inn aidchi sin ic Belut A., 1589 (cf. 5090 and TBC-I¹ 1772 ). can aidchi ndunaid ┐ longphuirt sund, 612 . luidh slogh huadh asin dunadh du saghaid arba, AU 913 , 859 . blai dúnaid freedom of encamping (?), ZCP xi 83 . co rasaerur mna Erind . . . ar feacht ┐ ar sluaiged ┐ ar dunad till I free the women of Ireland from (participation in) march and hosting and encampment, Lec. 336a4 . Fort, residence (of chief, etc.): ní ba d.¤ cen rígu, IT iii 50 . ní bia dunadh na rígh-ráith | gan dul uile a n-anflaitheis, Cog. 204 . Dunbléisci . . . Blesc ainm muccida ríg hUa C., is e robui isin dunud sin, Fél. 40 ( LL 355a ). baí rí amra do Grecaib i ndunud fecht and, LL 279a36 ( SG 413 ). do rīgaib in dúnaid-sin (of Heaven), PH 4354 . dochuaid do dunad in corad . . . do proceapt dó, Todd Nenn. 78 . coem in d.¤ rancamar, MacCongl. 37 . ar mhullach gach aoin tighe dá raibhe san dúnadh, SG 5 . roscart maccu na curad . . . ar dorus a llis ┐ a ndúnaid fadessin, TBC-LL¹ 949 . o ranic co faidche in dunaid i mbái Culand, 1017 . do badar tri dunaidh a n-iarthar na crichi .i. Dun Cais, etc., CF 83 . raloscit ar ndúnaid ┐ ar ndegbaleda, CRR 3.15 . isin d.¤ sa, MU² 613 . Fig. of a person: dunadh dōini . . . Ruman mac Cathasaigh cain, AFM 919 (poem).

(b) encamping army, host: dúnadh .i. sluagh, O'Cl. secht trichait cét deac . . . iss é lin ar ndúnaid, TBC-I¹ 189 , cf. 917 . adreth riched rúnach | d.¤ Adriani, Fél. Nov. 6 . ronsnádat dond rígu | cona ṅdúnud dánu, Fél. Jan. 23 ; cf. July 22 . Cf. cen dunad, cen biathad, Cymmr. xiv 118.4 = cen slóged, Ériu iii 140.17 .

1 dús

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 dús or dil.ie/19294

Forms: duús, dúus

( do ḟius, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 136 ; duús, Wb. 5b20 , dúus, 9b19 , 26b27 ) conjunction folld. by dependent question to see, to find out (if, whether, etc.): noscrutain-se . . . d.¤ in retarscar cairde nDæ, Ml. 91c1 , cf. 87c4 . d.¤ in nad-n-utmaligetar gl. utrum . . . non nutent, Thes. ii 4 ( Acr. 10c1 ). 239 ( Ardm. 17a2 ). fegait-se for caircha dus in marat ule to see if they are all there, 336.5 ( Hy. v 35 Comm. ). condessamar in n-ubull . . . dus in fír mar atbeire, SR 1268 . dus in fagba sliab, 2551 . dochúaid Ionothán immach . . . d.¤ in rathaigfed Dauid, 6152 . tabram fíanláech do seilc fair dus in tairsimmis a baegul, TBC-I¹ 1650 . faitsine do denam doib dus in bud shoraid a séd, MR 60 . cuirid cuairt dūn dus hi (= in) fogbar tech dūn, IT i 137.18 (Eg.). rogab in cetne salm d.¤ cia atrebea isin chathraig to learn who will dwell, Ml. 35b24 . ceist cid immeráidfem? Ní ansa. dus cia cumachta as treisiu fil for talmain, YBL 138a25 = dus cumachta, LL 282a47 . conniacht Medb comarli dus cid dogēnad fri C., TBC-I¹ 1656 . ro imráid B. inna menmain d.¤ cinnas doragad, FB § 8 . With dá for in: luid Boand . . . d.¤ dá tairsed in tiprait, Metr. Dinds. iii 36 . With notion of expectancy: nā scarad frisin fer d.¤ in ríctar tria gnaissi until it be seen whether he can be saved, Wb. 10a3 . an-su i ḟoss d.¤ in tibre Dia ní duit (= expecta donec), Lat. Lives 83 . a ingen, fói la Eogan d.¤ in biad ríge Muman uaim-se, SG 314 . arnā ructhar ind ēit desin . . . dus in tair cobair ō Ultaib foo until we see if help comes, TBC-I¹ 1141 . asbeir . . . dús asks: asbert-side frie d.¤ in dénad do chobair anma a cēli asked her whether, Imr. Brain i 42 . atbert fris dus ind aithcomraictis banscale fris asked him whether women took counsel of him, Mon. Tall. 150 .

The specific meaning of dús is often obscured and it is used (with in, cia, etc.) to introduce a dependent question (= whether, who etc.) after vbs. of asking, seeing, etc.: iarmoracht . . . d.¤ imbat imarcidi laissim inquired whether he held it allowable, Mon. Tall. 137 . co ro iarfaig-se do R. . . . dus inna rabái étach acci asked if she had not a garment, Hy. v 82 Comm. rofiarfaidh C. dúss cid rombádar na dúile, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 16 . dia deicsin dus in bruithe in tarr to see if . . . is cooked, Corm. Y 825 . dia fegad d.¤ in rosmarb ind neim, Hy. iv Pref . co n-accad d.¤ cía las-mboth scíth to see who was weary, TBC-I¹ 154 . So with do ḟius: messi tarlaic dia ḟis d.¤ in diriuch m'urchor, TBC-LL¹ 1185 . fóidid Cuchulaind Loeg dia fis (do fis, LU) scēl dūs cia c[h]ruth mbotha isin dunad, TBC-I¹ 1572 . tiagar chucca do fis scēl dūs cid rochāinsid, RC xxiv 149 .

With follg. co to denote expectation or purpose: boi in phailm . . . cromm, dus co n-abrad fria ergi in tii atbert fria cromad waiting till he who had told it to bend should tell it to rise, LB 141b54 . isí comhairle doróine M. dul do Róimh d.¤ co scribha[d] a beatha innti to the intent that there he should write his life, SG 29.8 . With nách: dēntar carpat becc libh . . . dus nach faicet na tuatha in fén mór so that the people may not see the big wain, BNnÉ 94 .

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