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accobrach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. accobrach or dil.ie/166

 

Forms: Ocobrach

adj o, ā (accobar) desirous, greedy: cid a.¤ gl. si uolens, Wb. 4c34 . nidam eirr imtholtanach a.¤ imgona indiu, LL 13790 . is acobrach dam fritt `thou hast made me greedy', MacCongl. 75.24 .

n As subst. ro-gairm in mí-ocoburach mallachtach ut cu praind, PH 87 .

As n.pr. Ocobrach mac Innil, Anecd. ii 49.13 .

ad-slig

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ad-slig or dil.ie/575
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: adslig, adsléi, aslacht, aslaigid, faslaigid, aslach

v (* ad-slig-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 631 ). Indic. pres. 3 s. adslig, Wb. 14d27 . Subj. pres. 3 s. adsléi, 20b2 . Perf. 3 s. ro aslacht , SR 1404 . Later as simple vb. aslaigid, faslaigid. Vn. aslach.

Tempts, entreats, urges, tries to induce. Usually with FOR and follg. verbal phrase: ciadsléi nech fuirib `though anyone tempt you', Wb. 20b2 . where the sense is to be completed by the Lat. ueritati non obaedire. ró aslacht foraib ainmne do dénum entreated them to be patient, Trip.² 2790 . is si ro aslaig fair combad he bad reilic adnacthi dó, LU 4109 . is me roaslaig for Adam . . . in imarbus ┐ for Cain Aibel do marbad, Fél. 74.26 . noaslaicfind for ind ríg na dernai olc fritt I would persuade the king not to harm you, Anecd. iii 74.13 . is ed ro-aslaigset Barabás do anocul ┐ Ísu do crochad this is what they urged, to release B. and crucify Jesus, PH 3272 . co roaslaighset for A. . . . techt do thóchuiriudh Achíl, TTr.² 1451 . ro fhaslaig ar áis ┐ ar écin fors in uile chinead . . . a adrad amal Dia, LB 235a17 . nacha nfasluighiunn dlighedh ar duine `the law does not require of a man', Laws ii 222.23 Comm. aisleōchad-sa Fearghus fēisin teacht ann 'I will persuade Fergus himself to go there', BDC 252.476​​ . Note also: ro aslaigh iad im chomhalladh in ro geallsat, AFM v 1872.23 . do asluigheadar . . . cead suaimhnis dóib féin, Maguires of F. § 66 . co ro faslaiged gradh Aenias i cridhi Didaine `and instil love of A. in the heart of D.' Aen. 386 . roaslaighsium . . . gorta for a muintir we have brought down famine on his people, CCath. 4587 . roaslaig mōr n-uar / isin mBrosnaig bāin `he endured much cold', BColm. 16.23 .

ar-beir

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ar-beir or dil.ie/3976
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: airbeirid, arbeir, araber, -airbir, ar-id-beram, arberat, ar-berar, aramberar, arberr, -airberar, arbertar, airberedh, -arbered, -erbirmis, armbertis, arabertis, airbir, arambere, -erbara, -arbera, arambera, -airbera, araroibrea, aramberam, -arbaram, -airbirid, -arbarat, -arberat, armberthar, aramberthar, ar-bertar, arberainn, -airbertha, arberad, -airbertis, -airberthe, -airbéer, -erbæra, -erbera, -erberad, -airbértaís, araruburt, arbert, arrubert, -arbart, -erbart, -arbert, arrubartatar, -arrbartatar, erberdu, airbirthi, erbirthi, aurberta, airbert

v ( air-ber-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 464 - 5 ). Later as simple vb. airbeirid. Indic. pres. 3 s. arbeir, Wb. 10c6 . araber, Ml. 46b7 . -airbir, Laws v 252.11 . 1 pl. ar-id-beram, Sg. 26b2 . 3 pl. arberat, Sg. 198b7 . Pass. sg. ar-berar, Sg. 31a3 . aramberar, 148b13 . arberr, 146a1 . -airberar, 192a1 . Pl. arbertar, Sg. 33a19a . Indic. impf. 3 s. airberedh, RC xvi 60.14 . -arbered, RC x 50 note 2 . 1 pl. -erbirmis, Ml. 135d3 . 3 pl. armbertis, Sg. 196b5 . arabertis, Ml. 131d10 . Ipv. 2 s. airbir. Wb. 29a25 .

Subj. pres. 2 s. arambere, Wb. 28c11 . -erbara, LL 14162 . 3 s. -arbera, Ml. 72b26 . arambera, Sg. 192b2 . -airbera, O'Dav. 1092 . With ro: araroibrea, Thes. i 498.2 . 1 pl. aramberam. Sg. 148a1 . -arbaram, Sg. 40a11 . 2 pl. -airbirid, Wb. 11b25 . 3 pl. -arbarat, Wb. 10c1 . -arberat, BColm. 78.28 . Pass. sg. armberthar (leg. aramberthar, edd.), Ml. 53c9 . Pl. co ar-bertar , Ml. 121b3 . Subj. impf. 1 s. arberainn, Trip.² 2106 . 2 s. -airbertha, ZCP iii 29.35 . 3 s. arberad, Mon. Tall. 135.9 . 3 pl. -airbertis, Wb. 10b8 . Pass. sg. -airberthe, Ériu i 114 § 2 .

Fut. 1 s. -airbéer, Wb. 32a20 . 3 s. -erbæra, Ml. 110c2 . -erbera, Ml. 48b12 . Condit. 3 s. -erberad, Ml. 48a5 . 3 pl. -airbértaís, LU 1224 .

Pret. and perf. 1 s. araruburt, Ml. 108a2 . ro erberius, Ériu lv 15 . 3 s. arbert, LU 765 (ACC). arrubart, Ml. 21a11 . arrubert, BColm. 84.5 . -arbart, Ml. 36a4 . -erbart, LL 13811 . -arbert, Thr. Ir. Gl. 34.z . 3 pl. arrubartatar, Ml. 34c4 , 91b1 . -arrbartatar, Sg. 40b9 .

Part. erberdu ( d s.), Ml. 97d2 . airbirthi (n p.), 94d1 .

Vbl. of necess. erbirthi, Ml. 98c10 . aurberta, LB 11b17 .

Vn. airbert. IGT Verbs § 83 .

I With biuth (d s. of bith world , see GOI 162 ).

(a) lives: araberat biuth gl. degentibus, Ml. 50d13 . coarbera biuth gl. degeret, 72b26 . forcane ┐ arambere biuth gl. ut scias quomodo oporteat té in domo Dei conuersari `that thou shouldst teach and live', Wb. 28c11 . .xu. bliadnai i n-ardrígu . . . día n-airbereth bith co craibdech, Trip.² 2104 . ro airbir bith fon tsruth trom she lived, LU 3069 . Without biuth: is intib airbirit co anbsaid . . . i rrotaigib anaitreba, LU 2062 ( FA 14 ). ? is medhōn aratairberat inacethraso ciasanechtar foferthar .i. is asa meadhōn airbertnaighit, Anecd. v 24.18 (cf. airberat .i. aitrebat nó impoait quoting this ex. O'Dav. 54 ).

(b) eats: arbeir biuth a mbís for altóir ind ídil, Wb. 10c6 . amal aramberat biuth inna cethrai . . . inna sástu frisacomracat, Ml. 69a19 . intí arbir bith oss nallaid, Mon. Tall. 146.8 . ni cainairbiur dergflatha na finn ┐ niconn airbiur biuth `nor shall I taste food', RC x 226.188 . tug . . . araill dina bolgaib . . . ┐ arus arubairt bid . . . ar adbertadar bid uad na tri cet laech where he ate the three hundred warriors also ate from it, IT ii2 102.y . Without biuth: dia nairbera samuisci . . . .i. mane esadar samuisc `if he eat', O'Dav. 1092 .

(c) uses, employs etc.: arrubartatar biuth gl. freti, Ml. 34c4 . arrubart biuth gl. usus, 35b11 . amal ni airbertis bith gl. non utantur, Wb. 10b8 . conid cumme aramber biuth hua cech rét frissacomraic so that he enjoys equally everything he meets with, Ml. 69a18 . ararubartatar biuth gl. ob perfunctoriam, 97d2 . intan arbir bith in scribtur . . . do deisimbrecht asna psalmaib when Scripture uses an example from the psalms, Hib. Min. 4.128 . nī hinill do crāibdech airbera bith nach cruth la ṡōerbrāth fēin for it is not prudent for a religious that he enjoy his own will in any way, ZCP iii 29.3 . Without biuth practises (of an art etc.): cia dána airbere . . . ? écse, ol sé, RC xiii 442 § 19 . wields (of kingship): ar-robert-side in ríge iar n-ēcaib Airt, Fing. R. 558 ( RC xxv 24 § 7 ). co n-erbara mo rígise fordo ríge, LL 14162 .

II

(a) pleads, makes use of or applies a procedure, etc.(?): tacra la fear nad airbir a leass a n-airecht `who cannot speak for his own good', Laws v 252.11 . fer a diri ummorro ma arberai tuarusndal, Anecd. iii 23.z . ma ro airberedh a faesam fo cetoir, Laws i 100.2 Comm. ? cain bera do dligedh arbera do turbaid, O'D. 944 (H 3.17, c. 661) (heading of a par. which lays down that notice (tasc) must be given of accidental `turbadha', Plummer MS notes). ? arbert Bassil brathu, LU 765 (ACC). Almost = as-beir in: maro airbeired riu urradh do tabairt leo if they have been told to bring a native freeman with them, Laws i 86.26 Comm. , 88.5 Comm. , 90.3 Comm. , 6 Comm.

(b) a.¤ . . . fri opposes: ni airbéer fritt `I will not reproach thee with it', Wb. 32a20 . ni erbart frit cosindiu I did not oppose you, LL 13811 . munar airbered [.i. imrisin] ris if he has not been opposed(?), Laws i 114.3 Comm.

(c) Gramm. expresses (with A): ciaridberam a céill a pronominibus `though we express their sense by pronouns', Sg. 26b2 . a deilb atreibthig arberar a n-aitherrechthe, 31a3 . arbertar as noéntarmoirciunn .i. aitrebthacha ┐ agnomina gl. ex eadem forma agnomina, 33a19a . atá linn . . . ni asanarbaram dærscugud di neuch di hilib a chenéuil feissin .i. a superlait, 40a11 . arberr chial chesto as indí as difficio, 146a1 . intan aramberar ciall brethre gníma ass, 148b13 . arṁbertis a rrangabáil ḟrecndairc, 196b5 .

(d) subdues, quells(?): nicon ruba dōine, nicon arlaig . . . nicu rarbairt (niconarbairt v.l.) a lighe Lomnae, Corm. Y 1018 ( Anecd. iv 88 ). ? dorairned díumus na mborb / ro airbered cech fodord all murmuring was subdued(?), SR 4496 .

clois(t)id

Cite this: eDIL s.v. clois(t)id or dil.ie/9588

 

v (conflation of coistid and clos?) hears, listens .

(a) With acc. clostid gl. tá chein, LU 6898 ( BDD 50 ). oir do chloisfea-sa é, Imr. Brain 66 § 18 . co cloisind guth na n-én, ZCP v 496 § 3 . ferr duit nā cloisti as do chinn that you should not be heard, xiii 3 § 2 . gáir fói (leg. fo ?) na clósed `so that he should not hear', TTr.² 1189 . má tá . . . nach claistear a gcaoinfhriotal, Hackett xx 39 . cluistear a chlinn a gcríochaibh Éibhir, ZCP v 230.1013 (Midn. Court). is céasta an tásc . . . chlaisim, Ó Bruad. i 34 xix . ? `bess ni hingnad anisin' ar ind ingen, ardaig co cloistis na gillae, Expuls. 19 (but prob. read co cloitis).

(b) With FRI: claisdidh riom, KMMisc. 168 § 7 . comēt dam mo chlūasa / nār' cloistet fritt ēcnach, ZCP vi 259 § 3 . ciúine na ceileabradh / frissa (leg. fris') cloistenn clūas, viii 200 § 8 .

cnesán

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cnesán or dil.ie/9752

 

n =cnes ? fer a damain fritt c.¤ / dogné lesan cach duine(a), Ériu ii 227 § 2 .

con-tuili

Cite this: eDIL s.v. con-tuili or dil.ie/12381

 

Forms: contuilim, -chotlu, -chatlaim, contuili, contuli, contule, -cotli, -chotlai, contuiled, contulmis, cotail, contuilem, contulet, contuilet, contolat, coro chotlur, contola, chodala, contolat, -cotolad, comtalat, contulind, -codlaind, -cotalta, nocotailtea, -cotlad, -comtholad, chomthuiled, contuiliub, contolusa, contuilius, -c[h]otlus, -chotlais, contuil, -chatail, -chotail, -chomtholadh, -collad, contolsat, contuilsit, -chotlaiset, comthuilset, -comtalsatar, conatail, conidtuil, conattail, conattuil, conatail, conatuil, con-atail, cotail, rochotail, cotlaid, catlaid, cotlud

v (* com-tuil-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 655 ). Ind. pres. 1 s. contuilim, Anecd. ii 23 § 4 . -chotlu, LL 34527 . -chatlaim, 28735 . 3 s. contuili, Anecd. i 23.2 . Auraic. 5121 . contuli, LU 10754 . Ériu vii 142.27 . contule, LU 4464 . -cotli, ZCP xi 93 § 22 . -chotlai, BDD² 895 . Impf. 3 s. contuiled, Metr. Dinds. ii 10.21 . LU 10638 . 1 p. contulmis, TBC-LL² 3074 . Ipv. 2 s. cotail, LU 4463. 6309 (TBC). Fél. 12.18 . ZCP vi 272 § 11 . 1 p. contuilem, Alex. 885 . 3 p. contulet, LU 1828 . contuilet, LB 10b16 . contolat, Hib. Min. 71.18 ( Fing. R. 903 ). Subj. 1 s. coro chotlur, LU 8457 (FB). 3 s. contola, RC xvii 189.2 (Tig.) -comthala, LU 5649 (TBC). ? codla, Ériu xiii 27.22 . chodala, Mon. Tall. 161.27 . 3 p. contolat, RC viii 152.17 . -cotolad, TBC-I¹ 993 ( contolat, LU 5469 ). comtalat, Fraech 370 . Impf. 1 s. contulind, LL 12620 . -codlaind, TBC-I¹ 2507 . 2 s. ? -cotalta, ZCP iii 29.36 . nocotailtea, Ériu xvi 36.29 . 3 s. -cotlad, LU 1368 = LL 36425 . -comtholad, ZCP iii 5.10 = chomthuiled, Rawl. 131a13 . fut. 1 s. contuiliub, LL 13486 . Pret. and perf. 1 s. contolusa, Ériu v 36.1 . contuilius, ZCP vii 307.3 . -c[h]otlus, Sc.M² 16 . 2 s. -chotlais, Lat. Lives 79.11 . 3 s. contuil, LU 9982 . Thes. ii 327.2 (Hy. v). Ériu xvi 38 § 6 . LL 15916 . Anecd. iii 58.12 . -chatail, Metr. Dinds. iii 258.43 . -chotail, CRR 1 . Cf. contuiless (: bress), Metr. Dinds. iv 314.20 . Pass. -chomtholadh, Ériu v 36.2 . -collad, iv 130.19 . 3 p. contolsat, ZCP iii 41 § 3 . contuilsit, Ériu xvi 37 § 4 . -chotlaiset, ZCP iii 5.5 = comthuilset, Rawl. 131a9 . -comtalsatar, RC ix 486.13 . With -ad- (later ro): 3 s. conatail, Wb. 29d15 . Ériu ii 222.26 . conidtuil (conatil, v.l.), Mon. Tall. 155.10 . conattail, SR 7613 . Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 20.13 . Fing. R. 408 . conattuil, SG 321.8 . conatail, Trip.² 2055 . Blathm. 225 . conatuil, Fél. Aug. 7 . con-atail, Sc.M² 23 . ro cotail , Trip.² 2647 . rochotail, BColm. 104.11 . Later cotlaid, catlaid (cf. collait (3 p. pres. indic), PH 7459 ), with ē-fut. IGT Verbs § 48 . Vn. cotlud.

Sleeps, falls asleep : maconatil biucc `if it has slept a little' gl. spiritum, Wb. 29d15 . feib conattail (concatail, v.l.) M., ZCP iii 7.1 . ? roṅgab gilla . . . / catlas i Caisiul chabsaid, Rawl. 163b14 . is de contuil mac D. died, LL 23814 . innid acum contuili, Auraic. 5121 . iar celebradh íermérgi contuil in clérech `fell asleep', Ériu ii 204.5 . innus co coiteōlad aés gonta, Fianaig. 58.15 . ní chod(h)lann, Duan. F. i 84.x . do chadail ar bhfear faire, DDána 21A.1 . ni choidél-sa ┐ ni caithiub biadh, RC xxvii 284 § 39 . caidélaidh isin chronn thsiúil, IGT Verbs ex. 427 . ? esnad suiti midcuarta / fris-colluit fiana frasa, ZCP xiii 276.9 . conatail fria firbruinniu `slept on his very bosom', Blathm. 225 . nochatlad B. fri E. (of sexual intercourse), RC xiii 10.19 . cia contola fri rīgaib, xvii 189.2 (Tig.). ó chonattail fritt . . . / B. `has slept on thee' (of a stone), Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 20.13 . conatail B. frisin praicept slept during the sermon, Trip.² 2055 .

With obj. conatail denos, Blathm. 158 . co comtalsatar mesci tri laa ┐ téora aidchi `they slept an intoxication', RC ix 486.13 . cotailsiu . . . do thromthortim cotulta, LU 6309 (TBC). sámh do coideolaind mo cuairt `sweetly would I sleep on my visit', O'Gr. Cat. 338.6 . nī rochotail a becc, TBC-I¹ 2513 . ? ní collad bág i suidiu, LL 333a60 . In figura etymologica: contuil cotlud cimmeda, Thes. ii 327.2 (Hy. v). noco chatlaim catlad sáim, LL 28735 . conattuil T. tromchodlad, SG 321.8 . cona tvilset in Gréic . . . a slanchotlud, TTr.² 1221 .

crith

Cite this: eDIL s.v. crith or dil.ie/12997

 

Forms: cretha, c.

n g s. and n p. cretha. c.¤ m., IGT Decl. § 71 . act of shaking, trembling, quivering; a shake, tremble : talamh fu durbha ro chrith `under gloomy trembling', Blathm. 62 . crioth gan cumsanadh, Ériu xiii 25.13 . cretha granna (descr. of last day), SR 8046 . c.¤ na curad ic comrac, LL 32324 ( TTr. 1513 ). creatha . . . na laech leonta, MR 316.15 . c.¤ ┐ talam-cumscugad a quaking, Grail 4058 . crioth ar na néallaibh fa nimh (of Judgement Day), Dán Dé xxvii 3 . crioth i n-a gcéimibh, DDána 24.7 . crioth . . . 'na bhallaibh, TSh. 2571 . deascaidh chupáin an chreatha = the cup of trembling, Isaiah li 17 . ? o rathaib saer srollaibh mo a c.¤ cairpthibh, LL 392d28 (perh. compd.).

Of shaking with fear etc.: gol ┐ c.¤ leo cech oenaidchi they wept and trembled, LL 34478 (LMU). la c.¤ ┐ omon Meic C. fear of Mac C., LU 7237 . do-dechaid c.¤ ┐ omun . . . índ, PH 1908 . cretha, ┐ támha tremblings and faintings, Cog. 214.26 . crioth ┐ eagla, TSh. 3511 . a g-creathaibh dian `trembling intensely', Oss. iv 128.14 .

In phr. c.¤ for dét(aib) chattering of teeth : ra buí c.¤ ar détaib i Temair L. (of fear), MU² 500 . criot form dhed, Leb. Gab.(i) 260.17 . cói ┐ c.¤ for détaib (of Hell), PH 6165 . cái ┐ c.¤ fiacal, Aisl. Tond. 102.15 .

Med. c.¤ craidhi palpitations , Rosa Angl. 140.2 . isin c.¤ ger `ague', 94.15 . Of animals: in uair bis c.¤ ar na hinnilib isin errach, Laws iv 78.21 Comm.

In phr. for c.¤ (crethaib) shaking : mochridi . . . cofil for c.¤ , Thr. Ir. Gl. 44.30 . ionathar ar c.¤ , Eg. Gl. 395 . cách ar crioth (of Judgement Day), DDána 3.34 . ar crethaib, SG 21.19 . bím ar abhainn chiúin ar creathaibh in fear and trembling, SGS iv 62 § 12 . ? for creatha denaim na tonn, Lism. L. 3810 . Note also: a cridheda fri c.¤ , PH 584 .

With follg. prep. FRI: beti fir Héirenn for c.¤ fritt , Trip.² 1784 . ? c.¤ ri cách cothugud (of a warrior), LL 32369 ( TTr. 1560 ). na gabh . . . c.¤ re gríoghail, ML 100.20 .

Compds. With nouns: ag crithbhualadh na trágha (of horses), CF² 444 . amail corra crit[h]bel, ZCP xiii 15.1 . is pōc do crithcenn a kiss to a palsied head, MacCongl. 125.20 . mo chur fo chrithdelm chaire, / in-Iffern (spoken by Lucifer), SR 1767 . ré huathbhás . . . ┐ ré critheagal mhór, Mac Aingil 1421 . cuirfe mé critheagla oruibh, Levit. xxvi 16 . gach crathad . . . cnes criothfhailme, MR 256.8 (pailm ?). mairg bís fó crithḟeidm comchian in a quaking state (in hell), SR 958 . crithgair cuidbiuda a quavering shout, BB 423b11 . crith-galar, Vita Br. 26 ` palsy ', Ir. Hist. Stud. i 127 . Trip.² 1874 . `ague', Dinds. 143 . gan ciorradh do chuail chrithleoin `rending briars', Ó Bruad. ii 120.4 . in dā crithmhil dēc `shaking beasts', Ériu ii 110 § 29 . an crithoman sin, CCath. 3048 , cf. crothomun, Rawl. 116c12 .

With adjj. ? do-dhéan-sa míodhuaill . . . / criothfhúar mná ` shudder ', Ériu i 18.44 . cco ccarbatt . . . an ccriothluath, ZCP x 284.27 . co corrach crith-lista, ML² 674 .

With adjj. derived from nouns: in mara crithainbtheanaig ` stormshaken ', TTebe 3406 . a slegha . . . crithcennacha, CCath. 482 v.l. C. Crithchosach, CF² 371 . ar na comharrthaibh cricheglacha (leg. crith-, Gloss.) th[i]ocfas roimhe (of death), Parrth. Anma 6055 . im Loch Cúan crith-eólaigh (: Eóghain), BS 98.22 . lucht miana ┐ crithgallraig the agued (as subst.), SG 45.8 . cairche cumasgdha crithluaimneca whisking , LL 409az ( MR 232.4 ). capall . . . crioth-luinneach violently trembling, TSh. 2559 .

With vbs. crith-leagfair mo chroidhe, Dán Dé xxvii 9 . crithfograigid cruinne na firmaiminnti ` resounds ', TTebe 1299 .

dágain, dáigin

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dágain, dáigin or dil.ie/14145

 

n in the prepositional phrases ar d.¤ , fo d.¤ , im d.¤ , tri d.¤ , with gen. because of, for the sake of. In SR always rhyming with Ádaim.

ar dágain: ar dáigin comalladh a dligid faichi, Laws iii 252. 23 . ar dáigin bristi in aile for breaking the fence ib. i 174. 15 ; 180. 7 . nocon ara ṅdaigin fén dogníd som sin it was not for their sake he did it PH 877 . más ar daighin a gaite rug les é, Laws iii 64. 17 . ar dagin a homuin, ZCP iii 38. 10 . AFM iii 280. 10 ; v 1426. 22 . ar daighin caithmhi a [f]eoir no arbha, Rawl. 53 a 1 . Laws v 210, n. 6 . (cf. cid ar daigin scartha ris, ib.). ar d.¤ mellta for the purpose of deceiving, Rawl. 487, v . O'Don. Suppl. ar daighne (sic) lesa, ib. s.v. daighin. ar daigin féise Temrach do dénom, SG 319. 5 .

fo dágain: in cuman lat ... na fuarus dulcc fot dagain SR 1758 . foddagain, ib. 1762 . 1766 . 1770 . 1778 . fo dagin terchomraic, Ériu iv 26. 16 . is fo daigind ina mná feruimsi fáilti fritt , IT i 144. 18 . fo dhaighin feithme ┐ fogluma, MR 268. 1 . tictís...fó daigin óla, SG 89. 1 . roléicceadh fó dhaighin na comairce baoi aca, AFM v 1542. 16 .

im dágain: im dágin na ingine, LMU § 11 . is cumma a ét immon fer ┐ immon mnái...mom dágin se on my behalf RC xiii 383. 4 . Tig. 533 .

tri dágain: triat dágain, SR 1774. 1782 . a fuarusa de ulc ...is tret dáigin se fuarus, LB 112 b 50 (= MacCarthy 68. 1 ).

fo dágin conj. because, since : f. d. issed láa andsin immanárnic dosom frisin Liath Macha, FB § 31 . f. d. isé A. ragrádaig, TTr. 1015 . ib. 285 . fá dáighin doṡáilsat CCath. 1777 . —With con + subj. in order that Lec. 441 b 31 .

Cf. dáig.

dammain

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dammain or dil.ie/14519

 

Forms: dammaint

n dammaint.

I Damage, loss , Lat. damnum. issi ticsál ar cruche duun furnn ma arfoimam [d]ammint ocus martri ocus coicsath ar Chriist, Cod. Cam. Thes. ii 245. 12 . scio humiliari scio et habundare: rommunus dammin dom rommunus imbed dom I have learnt loss (opp. imbed), Wb. 24 b 17 . dochum nime focertha. risiu nobeth at chuile: fer a damain fritt cnesán. dogné lesan cach duinea, Ériu ii 227 (2nd stanza). annma pro ananama. damnam pro damno: anam a nanam. damaint a n[d]amaint, Eg. 88 fol. 19 b 2 ( O'Gr. Cat. 116. 8 ).—Feminine according to Thurn. Hdb. ii 69 b .

II Damnation, condemnation , translating Lat. damnatio, iudicium. This meaning seems due to damnad, whence also the gen. damanta (cf. Donlevy). is dolig nach mball isin churp...do sechmall ón phéin ┐ ón dammain dliges tria chomchétfaid nimarbais, RC xxv 242. 20 . cu ndamain ┐ cu piannadh, LB 233 b 59 . a damunta, ib. 235 a 24 . is la Dia rob áil cach uli dḟoillsiugud a ḟerta...do dhamain imorro ┐ dinchrechad na nainḟiren, PH 70 . in ḟoirend imresnaigit co hanḟíren doib dlegat péin ┐ damain forru, ib. 4076 . dlegaitt na hIudaide dammain forru ó Dia, ib. 6998 . cipe thoimles ┐ íbas co hesindraicc...is dammain dó fén toimles ┐ íbas annsin iudicium sibi manducat et bibit, ib. 5346 . damuint (damnughadh) síorruidhe muna nglanaidh an baisdeadh sinn, Donlevy 148. 25 . chum a gcuṁduighthe... air dhamuint ṡíorruide, ib. 306. 9 (damunta serves as gen.). —damain, damaint a damning or condemning P. O'C.

fáes(s)am

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fáes(s)am or dil.ie/21032
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: faesaim, fóesama, foesma, faesma, faíseamh, foesmaib, f., fáesam, f., fáesam, f., faesam, faesam, f., saíre, fáesam

u, o, m. (vn. of fo-sisedar. Cf. Mid. W. gwaessaf, gwayssav, Loth, RC xxxviii 300 ): g s. faesaim, BDD 162 (foesma Y). fóesama (for this form see Hessen, ZCP x 321 ) LU 4871 = foesma, TBC-I¹ 383 . pl. faesma, Laws v 48.20 Comm. n s. faíseamh (o, m.) IGT, Decl. § 28 (fáeisimh proscribed as incorrect).

I

(a) in lit. sense `standing under,' hence bearing up under, supporting (?): úair nach fóisam in lind, berim-se maccáem ... tarsi, TBC-LL¹ 1305 (`Fuss-Feste' Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 629 ; anuair nach roichther in linn la cách St); cf. bói C. forsin lind ... ┐ ni ba faesam cid si, TBC-LL¹ 1945 . Possibly an extended use: trustworthy, safe . In follg. ex. Dr. Binchy would see a metaph. use of the meaning adopting, taking into protection (see below): issi innfine i fintedaib griain a tir i fuissither; ar i[s] sruithiu la Feine in foesam andsen oldás a tir as a tairidnither, Laws iv 206.9 (glossed: f. .i. in línd, 208.17 ), i.e. the land in which water is collected in a standing pool or reservoir ranks higher than that in which it has its source. Here the four adjacent holdings are in the matter of water-rights likened to the four categories of affinity, viz. gelfine, deirbfine, iarfine and innfine. See ib. p. 166 .

(b) in the literature usually protection, safeguard: co nach fagbad foisam lat | cid do mac nothaesad fritt , Ériu ix 45 § 5 . is ... essamna mór do T. toidecht cen ḟaosam cen chomairche ina tíre, TTr.² 246 . faosamh .i. comairce, O'Cl. `faosamh' is cuime [ = coimge?] ... dhá ainm cumairce, Metr. Gl., Ff. 31 . luid epscop Erc do thig Ḟ. ... ┐ coṅgab in mac ina ucht, ┐ focheird a ḟoesam ┐ a oentaid fris (i.e. bp. E. placed himself under his protection. Cf. the parallel passage: gabh misi cucat amail mhanach ndilius, Lism. L. 3359 = suscipe me monachum tibi obedientem Lat. Lives 102 ), Fél. 132.25 . With prep. DE, FO and esp. FOR (AR), folld. by subj. gen. under the protection (of): for foísam ríg na ndule comairche nachanbēra [ = -mēra ?], Thes. ii 306 ( Hy i 53 ). cor marbad a ri do fáesam Bachla Issa while [i.e. in spite of being] under the safeguard of RC xviii 28.21 (Tig.) = dar comhairge na bachla, AFM 1109 . A. do marbad la T. ... do ḟaesamh na bachla Isu, AU 1015 . pl. in concrete sense: Cinaedh ... demersus est. ... di foesmaib degdoine nErenn ┐ comarbhai Patraic in spite of the guarantees of AU 850 . in cath bar th'oesam ┐ bar do chommairge, LL 176a43 ( CRR 38 ). iar marbad mac nUsnig for a ḟaisam ┐ for a chommairgi, TBC-LL¹ 464 . ba for a foesam boi Fergus F. was under their protection LU 1619 . is ed doroachtmar fort foesam sunn `'Tis for that we have come hither under thy safeguard' BDD 3 . co ndigset som uili ar m'o(e)sam-sa ┐ ar m'imdegail feib dochuadusa ar a faesam sun ..., TBC-LL¹ 941 . rogab indala n-ae for foesam mBuidb ... gabais araile [for] faessam Ochaille placed himself under the protection of Dinds. 57 . Cf. dia ngaba for faosum `wenn er unter den Schutz gekommen ist' Ir. Recht p. 51 . gur bhó heiccen dona bárdaibh tocht diairm for faesamh an Iustís, AFM vi 2272.1 . ar fhaosam nó ar ionchaibh Íosa, TSh. 2716 . do muirbfedh ... fer ar faosaomh bfer talman would slay a man (even though he were) under the safeguard of everyone ZCP xiii 12.19 . Freq. in ellipt. optative sentence: for a [ḟ]óessam dún innocht may we be under His safeguard Hy i 2 . ar th'faosamh dhamh, a Dhé..., Aithd. D. 73.1 . for a foísam dún ar talmain, LL 364 marg. ( Mart. Tall. 122 ). for foessam duit na saille !, MacCongl. 83 . Less freq. with obj. gen.: ced ná ro nass do foessam-su forsna maccu? why were not the boys pledged to protect you? LU 4894 . téit cosna maccu cen naidm a fóesama [foesma Y] forru, LU 4871 . do chor th' aesma ┐ t'imdegla for in maccraid, TBC-LL¹ 881 = do comairci St. can chur a fáisma foraib, 911 . geib-siu fort faesam na macraide, 944 . O. rogab fóesam ḟír-Ḟoebair | oc Síd B. ... fo frith fóesam do R. O. undertook protection of R. Metr. Dinds. iii 272.38 (cf. Dinds. 57 , above). cuirim m'ḟaosamh ar a ḟuil I entrust myself to His blood Ir. Monthly 1928, 439 .

(c) legal uses. In Law texts f.¤ is common in the meaning protection: ni techta nach foessam ar na tegat ratha fine no `f.¤' is lawful which the sureties of the family do not warrant Laws iv 206.17 . ni bi acraidi faesam (nocha bi acra ... don ti bis ar foesam neich) `no person who is under protection is qualified to sue' [can be sued ?] i 102x (104.24) .

The maxim: cach faesam co fognam, Aib. Cuigni 54 ( ACL iii 227 ; ZCP xvii 56 ) is obscure, and has not been found elsewhere. cisa Mumhan ... do Chaisil ... cach bliadhna dobearar .i. smacht ┐ biathad ┐ turgnumh [turtugud v.l.] ┐ faesamh, Leb. Cert. 60 . nocha nuil eneclann na faosam do he has no honor-price or power of protection (Binchy) Laws ii 24.4 .

Sometimes a different meaning is implied: in the following legal expressions the original meaning seems to be acknowledgment (cf. coibsena .i. confessiones .i. comfaesaime, Thr. Ir. Gl. 11 = chomfaoisitin, Corm. Y 292 , and see fo-sisedar): aicc macu hi foisam do raithe frisin fiach so find sureties for assuming thy guarantee of this debt Bürgschaft 28 § 76 . cf. luid iarum i mMumain co ndeirgene foesam a ingine fri (nō for) Oengus. dobert iarum Oengus ferann do mac a ingine, Rawl. 119a26 = co M. do cuinnighid faesam [sic] a ingini for Aengus, BB 121a37 . ro chuindigh ... faosam a ingine for Aonghus, LL 381a24 (Oengus was the father of the girl).

In the sense protection, privilege , `f.¤ ' is found in connexion with entertainment of the lord and (or) his followers, and in connexion with distraint, seizure of cattle for unpaid dues, etc. "`fáesam' often denotes the immunity from legal process which a person of high rank confers on an inferior, usually a client (céle), who has entertained him and his retinue in accordance with the obligations of clientship. This immunity lasts for a certain period after the departure of the protecting person, whose status determines the duration of the `f.¤ ' During this period the `protected' person has `saíre' (= `f.¤ ' from his point of view) i.e., no legal claims which others have against him may be enforced by the process of distraint." (Dr. Binchy). In these passages the phr. `facaib f.¤ fair,' etc., is common. The meaning is evidently `leaves' (i.e. `confers, bestows on') though the translation `relinquish' often appears in the published Laws. The use in connexion with stay of seizure may be the origin of the later sense relief in illness, passing of the crisis, see II below. A satisfactory definition of this legal `fáesam' would involve a concurrent discussion of the terms `comairce, snádud, turtugud, turbaid' and `saíre,' some of which are often equated with `f.¤ ' by the commentators. All that can be done here is to quote a few passages illustrating the usage. See Ir. Recht 73.1 ff . turtugadh ... ré fedh urgnamha in bidh ┐ comairche in aired bes a caithemh a mbaile ┐ faesam ... iar fagbail in baile, uair is a n-ecmais nech bís a faesam ┐ ina coimitecht bis a comairce . amail atbeir a n-edgidh: .c.c. a caemachta .c. faesma a n-ecnairc, O'Curry 1386 (< H 3.18, 630 ). Here, as Dr. Binchy points out, the reference is to the `faesam' bestowed by the lord on his host while he is entertained, and for a period (see below) after his departure. But the note seems somewhat confused, as `comairce' regularly refers to an escorting safeguard. In the following version `comairce' is replaced by `turbaid': dethbir itir turrtugh ┐ torbaidh ┐ faosamh: in turrtugh .i. re ollmuithe an bidh . in turbaid .i. re a caithme . in faosam .i. iarna cathamh, O'Curry 2651 (< Eg. 88, 55b ). Cf. foesam .i. fo-sisithar tar crich, Ir. Recht p. 6 (no context). The lord, when he takes refection from the `céle,' thereby postpones any such impending seizure. While the meal is being prepared `turtugud' comes into force; while it is being consumed `comairce' (or `turbaid'); for a period after consumption and departure of the guest `faesam.' intí aca mbí tech, is fair facabar faosam, O'Dav. 999 . In some passages in Commentary `f.¤ ' is loosely equated with `turtugud,' e.g. throughout the Uraicecht Becc, Comm.: turtugud mīs dō (.i. mī a lānḟaesam bid ┐ fonadma), Laws v 46.25 ( 48.8 ; 50.7 ; 56.17 ). aenlā a t. (.i. aen-lā a lānḟ.¤ bīdh), etc. 58.16 (19) . athgabail tar turtugad cach duini bes tualuing a turtugad (.i. dar f.¤ cach duine is cuimgech f.¤ do gabail uirre), 256.31 (258.19) .

The time for which `f.¤ ' was valid varied with status (see last quot.): cred do beir cona commór faesamh ┐ turtugud ┐ dama fechta feile ┐ foluch n-othrusa do ri tuaithe ┐ mortuaithi ┐ nach commor enech what is the reason that the king of a territory and the king of a great territory are equal as regards `f.¤' and `t.' and followers on a free visit, and sick-maintenance, while their honour-price is not the same? O'Curry 1383 (< H 3.18, 629a ). faosamh na righ so .i. mi do righ tuaithe ┐ morthuaithe. tri caoicthis do ri tuath . raithe do rí cuicidh . bliadhain do ri Erenn, O'Curry 1260 (< H 3.18, 509 ). faosum na tri n-airech forgill .xx. laithe cechtar de na deisi si is taire . mi don fir is ferr, O'Curry 1261 (ib.). See also discussion on periods of `f.¤ ' in connexion with distraint, Laws i 100 .

Fractions of `f.¤ ' are referred to: masa lainbiathad cu fodnaidm, is lanfoesum fagabhar ara sgath . masa lain-biathadh cin fosnaidm ... is lethfoesum fagabhur ar a sgath, Laws ii 28.22 Comm. in t-ainmrainne don biudh ro caith curub é in t-ainmruinne sin don lanfoesumh fagbus ara sgath ib. 31 . miter foltaib .i. dus cia foessamh, in ōgh, in leth ... nō mitear ┐ rl. .i. in ndlighe foessamh etir ... nō ... in ndlighe fosister itir, O'Curry 510 (a fragment in H 3.18, 258 ; unfortunately the context has not been found).

If the guests fail to arrive, a fraction of `f.¤ ' is still valid: ca hait a faghbas [leg. fāgbhas ?] duine faosam fair budein ┐ a biadh do caithem dō ? ... an inbaid ro dáilestar dámh na tainic fechtus aile dia saigid, madh ro faillidhedar in dámh bodeisin, no mad docuadar re tosca deithbire ┐ ro chaithestar biadh, is a lethfaosam fagbus air, ┐ ise sin aon ina[d] isin mberla Feine ana fagbann nech faosam air ┐ a biadh budein do caithem dó, O'Curry 2448 (< Eg. 88, 36b ) = Laws ii 30x Comm.

The following refer specifically to prevention of distraint , i.e., seizure of cattle: a tabairt do snadud as tualaing a turtaigthi (.i. faesam d'facbail uirri, .i. crui) mad cen airis snaite, mad don snadud rongabthar asrenar log n-enech in snaite (.i. is uais ernither log enech fir in faesma don athgabail do lecon fon caill), Laws i 92.1 (98.13) . f.¤ sin tainic re re n-apaidh ┐ troiscthi, 100.1 . man ro airbertnaig a faesam cur gabadh athgabail de is anadh dechmaide ar in athgabail, 100.5 Comm. mas a n-aimsir lobtha [tainic in f.¤] nocha saorund ar fogelt na ar bleith na ar lobad hí, uair ni téit an faosam amach 'na deagaidh, ┐ téit in turbhadh, 102.4 Comm. cach baile atáit dá foesum no a tri ann, deghuidh i ndeghuidh tangatur na foesmhu ann, ┐ damadh i n-aínḟecht, nocha bia acht in foesumh bu sia . ┐ i bforbad ré anta táinic in foesam ann, ┐ dama[dh] re ré n-anta, isedh budh anudh di re ré in foesma uili, ii 102.15 Comm . mad ro urfaem in bidbaidh apadh, ┐ troscadh i faesam, cia no airberedh a faesam ria ngabail athgabala de, teit turrtughadh la fogail ann; is slan athgabail do gabail de, Laws i 98x . cf. téd turrtugh la fogail .i. téd an comairce deisim la fogail do denamh do mhuin na comairce ... no dno, téd de an turrtugh ┐ bí fair in faosamh, O'Curry 2441 (< Eg. 88, 36a ).

Cf. ní féith [ = féich ?] faosam fo chaoill .i. an faosam ar dibail ma ro thairmisc apa ┐ trosca, O'Curry 2650 (< Eg. 88, 55b ).

In some passages `saíre' and `fáesam' seem to stand for different aspects of the same process, e.g.:

Leath saire mad fuit notfuide neach fri fothugh[adh] tēchta (.i. leth foesum fagbus masa neach eile fuidhius uadh i[n]neach sin do caithiumh bid céilsine flatha) `Half free-quarters if another person sends [some] one upon lawful entertainment (that is, he loses one-half of protection if it be another person that sends him to consume the food which is due to the chief from his tenant)' Laws ii 26.16 . In H 3.18, 332 (reading: no da fuidhe) this is expld.: .i. leath faesam facbaith mad fuidet fuides neach iad do chaithem ineich na fothaigend co dligech biad celsine na flatha, ┐ leathfaesam no fuicfed fein for a ceile, ┐ isseadh facbaidh in coindem cuirter dia cathem fo aicned na flatha, fáesam imorro fon aicned [féin ?] facbaid in coindem for in flaith, O'Curry 682 . In Eg. 88, 36 , which gives of the text only the last four words, the commentary reads: .i. biadh ceilsine na flatha sin, ┐ in flaith do chuir a dam [feachta] fele da caithem, ┐ faosamh na flatha do facbail doibh ar in ceile, ┐ a lanfaosamh do facbail dona damhaibh ar in flath fo aicne [fon aicniudh budein ..., Laws ii 28 ] ar ise tuc biadh doibh . Ocus is ann sin ataitt da faosam a dualgus aonbidh, O'Curry 2446 (also Laws ii 28.1 ff . with slight verbal variants). `saíre' in this passage surely = exemption ? On the same page it is 6 times rendered "`saire'—exemption." See also footnote on p. 18 .

In these passages `saíre" apparently = the exemption due to the presence of `fáesam.' Cf. also fír faosma fosearnathar saire, saoire biata, saoire foghnuma, saoire faosma do cach fo miadh miter cach coir cirt, O'Curry 2443 (< Eg. 88, 36 ) = Laws ii 20.15 , where the rendering of the text, fir foesuma `true protection' cannot be right. Leg. fri faosma (or -am) fo-sernatar, etc., exemptions are arranged according to protection ? ni tuaslaige nach saire no nach faosam bes isle agra bes uaisle enech .i. ... ní is mo na logh enech fir in faosaim don athgabail do legan as re ré in faosaim in inbaid is dar an fis faosma i n-ecmais ro gabadh an athgabail .i. lubra ┐ bidh, ┐ fonadma, O'Curry 2657 ff . (< Eg. 88, 56 ). ni fil saire fri dithim iar n-eagar. ata imorro turbuidhe ┐ faor ┐ faosam, O'Curry 2728 (< Eg. 88, 61 ).

(d) Attrib. gen. :

cēle faesma (foissmad LB) a tenant under the protection of his lord Corm. Y 532 (see ZCP xv 247 and cf. faísitiu). cele faesma .i. in cele faoismither [sic leg.] ac neach, O'Dav. 1327 . Of taking into protection, adopting: seoit foesma the `seds' paid for the admission of children of doubtful origin into the `fine,' apparently to the more legitimate children whose shares in the family property might be diminished thereby: conic in t-athair mac na mban aititin do gabail re re budein cen fír ┐ cen ṡeotu foesma ┐ nocho roindind se dibaid in athar iar n-ēc an athar ris na macaib aile co tuca seotu faesma dona macaib aile, ┐ fír da mberait amarfis fair. Na huile meic taide uile conic in t-athair a ngabail re re no iar re cin fír, ┐ nocho coinig cen seotu faesma, ┐ inti no berad dibaid an athar otha na mic taide amach curab e beris na seotu faesma rl., O'Curry 702 ( H 3.18, 338 ). mic na mban taighe, ce nogabhta a oen no dedhe dibh docum na fine co fīr no co setuibh faoesmha, ma ro forbridar co bfuilet coimlín fine is ecin fīr Dē anosa dia fastadh, Laws iv 294.5 Comm. (of certain classes of women :) Ni berat comperta for fine .i. nocha berait ini comairbertnaigter uathuib for in fine can fīr ┐ seotu faosma leo don fine amach, v 276.25 Comm . cain-berad meirdrecha ... .i. is taitnemach berait na mna is merdrech in ní donither riu i lanamnus ... acht co tucait fīr ┐ seoit faesma leis .i. a altram do denam di, 452.24 Comm .

cin log faesma (.i. cen log ar a faisitnighudh .i. secht cumala), 456.23 (of admission of illegitimate sons to tribe). i taidhe dorinnedh na mic so ... ┐ fior ┐ seotu faosma doberaid lais dia fastadh for in athair amach, O'Curry 2236 (cf. 2235 ). cor faesma `a contract of adoption ' Laws iv 60.13 (.i. in cor curtar risin mac faesma an fine `a covenant which is made with the adopted son of the tribe' 62.3 ). mac fáesma adopted son : in cutruma bias o duine do mac faesma du geilḟine no do deirbḟine ar dénum a gaire ... uair nugu roich in trian no in leath cu cóir acht re macc faesma d'anḟine, O'D. 2255 (< Rawl. B 506, 20a ). fine taccuir .i. na meic foesma `adopted sons' Laws iv 288.14 . fine taccuir issede domberat cuir bel a foessam `who give verbal contracts in adoption' Laws iv 284.16 . `mac fáesma' is distinguished from `dalta': dighail daltadh na fine .i. dalta coitcenn na fine, ┐ dighail fir foseisiter fine .i. dighail in ḟir ḟaoismighes in ḟine don ghaire in tseanorach .i. in mac faosmadh, O'Curry 391 (< H 3.18, 219a ). in dalta ┐ in gormac ┐ in mac faosam [leg. —ma or —aim] eneclann dleghaid in fine ina marbad sen ib. See Thurn. ZCP xiv 371.27 . aitire fáesma a supporting guarantor (?): the guarantor of acceptance (?) (dist. from a. luigi and a. nadma), Bürgschaft 22 § 64 . caide aitire foisma ? fo-sisithar side smachta dam in fasach sin, 25 § 68 (passage corrupt, in Thurneysen's opinion). fath faoisimh (ni fáth fáoisidh v.l.) `cause of protection' BNnÉ 249.15 . Cf. co bér breth for ḟáth faosmha, fer fotha ... fer faosmha, fer foghnamha, Ériu xiii 16.12 (expl. : faesamh .i. foghlaim ut est co ber breith for fátha faesam [fath faesma v.l.], O'Dav. 859 ) = cotober breth fo[r] fath faesma ib. Ériu xiii 59w (< H 3.18, 207a ). cis lir ó ndleghaid filidh faosmha raith ? easpuicc righ saoi, file fireon ..., Ériu xiii 34.9 .

II In Early Mod. Ir. relief, assuagement (cf. the use in c above which sometimes approaches the meaning relief), esp. recovery (from illness): fiabhras ar nach foil faoiseamh 'a fever for which there is no relief', Celtica xxvi 98 § 13 . an tan gheibhid na heasláin faoisiomh, 23 K 42, 19.1 . a ttosach an ḟaoisiomha, 20.15 . an uáir fúair sé fáoiseamh = when he began to amend John iv 52 . gan fortacht gan faoiseamh, Keat. Poems 1585 .

fodord

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fodord or dil.ie/22632

 

Forms: foduirt, fodard

n o, m. (dord) g s. foduirt, Wb. 11a26 . a s. fodard (: garg) SR 3398 . Muttering, murmuring , gen. with moral connotation complaining: fodhord ... .i. murmar no briathra nach labhairthear go hard, O'Cl. f.¤ doib di dommatu, Ml. 97d10 . dorairned diumus na mborb | ro airbered cech f.¤ , SR 4496 . f.¤ um cach maith, altugud cech uilc, ZCP iii 26.17 (= fodort, Ériu vii 26.20 ). indarba fodoirt ib. ZCP iii 26.22 = Ériu vii 160.26 . ni bi f.¤ do [ = o, Anecd. v 2 ] neoch dib di arali, Alex. 848 . f.¤ in popuil i n-agaid na n-apstal, PH 1722 . co fil f.¤ mor ... oc na hIudaidib fritt , LB 146c16 . robae P. ic tathair ┐ ic f.¤ for A., BB 433a34 . umla ... cen ḟ.¤ , LL 371c29 . cen fodard, cen foiscenach, ACL iii 320.2 . gan duine fo fhodhord dibh `without one of them murmuring' BS 108 § 54 . fer fodhoird a murmurer ib. tuar fodhoird omen of repining Content. xxiii 1 . cidh ná sīne do mēr da f.¤ chāich ?, Aisl. Tond. 95 § 2 (= ag fanabad fa cāch deriding p. 122 ). tre fhodhord nó tré ithiomrádh do dhéanamh backbiting TSh. 7274 . In follg. exx. the word seems used in some special sense: doróine [Dobhtha] fodhord mor fri Patraicc. Asbert P. fri D.: Biaidh fodhord go brath it dhegaidh. Asbert Binén fri P.: Is ar maith riotsa doróine D. an f.¤ Asbert P.: Madh laoch noscobhradh an fodhord, buaidh ngaisccidh fair ... ┐ is on fodhord sin atá f.¤ muintire Beraigh aníu; ┐ is a maisi téitt dóibh, BNnÉ 25 § 10 . Of natural sounds: atracht ... fodhord dermair isin muir, CCath. 1427 .

Cf. fogard.

for-finnadar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. for-finnadar or dil.ie/23616

 

Forms: forfintasu, forfinnfat, forindfad, forfetar, forḟetamairne

v (corrupt form of ro-finnadar, q.v. See Ériu xii 222 ). finds out, ascertains , in pret. knows, knew; ipv. 2 s. forfintasu, YBL 136b6 . fut. 1 s. forfinnfat, RC v 203z . forḟinnfom-ne duit-si sin, xliii 18 § 12 . sec. fut. cia forindfad dún ca crích ina fuilem?, LL 264a18 ( MU² 287 ). pret. - pres. 1 s. forfetar, TBC-LL¹ 657 . forḟetar co fil fodord ... fritt LB 146c15 . in fetar-su ca crích ina fuilem. nad fetar ... Barḟetarsa ám ar C., LL 264a25 ( MU² 299 ). forfitir a naemdacht co menic fair `recognized his saintliness' Ériu v 20.19 . foritir cach amglicu t'echradsu, LU 8491 ( FB 34 ). forfidir gia rosfiarfaigh, RC xliii 112 § 119 . foretammarni conid áen di chardib ... dosfanic, LU 8553 ( FB 41 ). forḟetamairne ZCP x 288y . foretatársom int imned ... i namḟuilsea, LU 6301 . atbert M. a n-anmunda friu ┐ ní móti foretatar-som sin (= they were none the wiser for the information) PH 1063 .

fri

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fri or dil.ie/24329
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: frimm, rimm, frim, frím, frium, frimsa, friumsa, frit, fritt, friutt, fritsu, rut, rutt, fris, friss, frissom, f., frie, friae, frise, frie, frinn, rinn, rind, friunn, riund, frind, frinni, raindi, frinnai, frib, frithib, fribsi, friu, friú, friu, friü, frithiu, friithu, friusom, riom, rum, riot, rut, ris, ria, rinn, ruinn, ribh, ruibh, riú, r, frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar, fria, frim, frim, frim, ram, frit, frit, frit, rit, rat, rot, friar, friar, fribar, fribar, fria, fria, fria, re-na, rena, fria, fris(s)a, frisi-, risi-, fris-, ris-, frismbiat, fris-mbruchta, fris, fris, fris, risa, frisin-, frisnid, risnad, ris, fria, frisa, re n-, fria-, re, ra-n-adh, re, re, ré, freisin, FRI

prep. with acc. For etymology see Thurneysen, GOI § 839 , Fraser ZCP viii 37 , J. E. C. Williams, Celtica iii 126 . In later spelling prefixes h- to following initial stressed vowel; does not leníte following consonant (cf. frinna aill, Sg. 45a16 . fri nnach ..., Ml. 75a9 , fri nnech 23c20 ; but fri nech further on in same gloss and regularly elsewhere); the initial s- of the article following fri is preserved. In Middle Irish gradually replaced by the forms RI, RE (already in Ml: oc eregim re Abisolon, 44b4 , cf. fre, 90c27 ); RA (common in some LL texts, see CRR 54 , TBC-LL¹ 499 , 602 , 740 , etc.); rarely RO ( SR 1990 ZCP xiii 204 15 ); FRIA, RIA, RE also common. Hence in Early Mod. Ir. there is occasionally confusion with , RÍA `before', see Bergin's note Stor. Keat. p. xix , and section IX (e) below. Apart from this the latter prep. sometimes replaces FRI after fáilid, fáilte and kindred words (as in Mod. Ir.). On the parallelism of some of the pronominal forms of FRI with those of LA see GOI l.c. (with Translator's n. 178 ). Though FRI still appears in some later texts, especially those of the archaising type, it had become obsolete in the classical language. Its later form (RI, RE) remains down to the end of the Early Mod. period and is recognized by the grammarians as distinct from LE (LA), see IGT, Introd. § 75 , 24 P 8, 194 ( IGT VI , Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ). In the modern spoken lang. it is replaced partly by LE, partly by CHUN (O.-Ir. dochum). For a contrary development cf. Engl. `with,' originally `against,' which has absorbed the functions of A.S. mid `(together) with.'

In development of meaning generally FRI shows a remarkable parallelism with Engl. ` with '; it also agrees with ` against ' in several senses.

Forms: With suff. pron.

sg. 1 frimm St. Paul Codex Thes. ii 298.17 . rimm, IT i 123.24 . frim, SR 1422 , 2049 . LU 5228 . LL 110b26 . frím Ml. 38c19 . frium, Ml. 71b9 . frimsa, Wb. 26d17 . Ml. 33a18 . friumsa, Ml. 127a2a .

2 frit, Wb. 5a31 . 10a29 ; Ml. 103d14 . SR 1425 . fritt LL 93a10 . 249b1 . friutt, PCr. 62b2 (= ḟrit, Sg. 151a3 ). fritsu Ml. 91d8 . 112b8 . rut, SR 2031 IT i 123.15 . rutt, LL 110b27 .

3 m., n. fris, Wb. 14c37 . 15a1 . 22c15 . ACL iii 304 [: [Mael] mis]. (: eisleis). SR 6109. 6317 . ([mēt] anfis) LL 33b21 . friss, Wb. 2c24 . 3c6 . 6a4 . 8a12 . 14d22 ; Ml. 91a21 . frissom Wb. 5d39 .

f.¤ frie, Sg. 72b1 . Ml. 40c15 . 67d15 . friae, 130c9 . Wb. 28a20 . cf. frise, Ml. 74c21 , which Ascoli corrected to frie ( Thes. i 722b ).

pl. 1 frinn, Wb. 4b12 . 17b10 . 19d22 . rinn, Ml. 54a3 . SR 1821 . rind, SR 1905 (: herḟi[o]nd). friunn, Ml. 38d20 . riund TBC-LL¹ 1874 . frind, LL 177b39 . frinni, Wb. 17b32 . 17c5 ; Ml. 32c15 . 93a13 . 106c12 . raindi, BColm. 68.9 . frinnai Ml. 91c9 . 114a8 .

2 frib, Wb. 17b16 . 22d9 . 24d26 . cf. frithib, Ériu iv 162.13 . fribsi, Wb. 14c42 . 17b14 .

3 friu, Wb. 4a10 . 4c37 . 24a4 ; Ml. 54c23 , 72b22 , 110c9 . LL 35a21 (: fiú) friú, Wb. 17b9 . Ml. 74a2 , diss. friu, Hy. V. 54 , cf. friü: at-chiü, ACL iii 294 § 10 ; frithiu, Blathm. 94 § 17 ; friithu, LU 4671 (see further GOI 515 ). friusom, Wb. 20c25 ; Ml. 17c5 , 54c18 ; 26 .

For forms found in later texts see citations below.

In the Early Mod. Grammatical Tracts the forms given are: riom, rum; riot, rut; ris; ria; rinn, ruinn; ribh, ruibh; riú, r, 24 P 8 194 ( Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ).

With following poss. pron.: frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar, fria, e.g. frim ort. Wb. 29d2 . frim peccad, 28a14 . frim foraithmet, Ml. 23d9 ; ram anmain, TBC-LL¹ 3692 (rem St.). frit adrad su, Ml. 136c11 . frit c[h]ele, 70d2 ; frit laim, SR 5854 . rit láim, TBC-LL¹ 3055 . rat láma, 3052 . rot chlaind, SR 2031 . friar corp, Wb. 15c22 . friar fochric, 33a9 ; fribar n-ícc, Wb. 24b3 . fribar pecthu, 13b19 ; fria mbriathra, Wb. 31b30 . In Mid. Ir. the form `fria' is often used for the simple prep., hence occas. fria a = prep. + 3 s. pron. In Early Mod. Ir. 3 s. and pl. form re-na sometimes appears: rena ardnaem, BCC § 12 (see III c below). fria n-a, Fl. Earls 214.4 . Cf. the n- prefixed to poss. after le, ó, tre in Mod. Irish.

With rel. pron.: O. Ir. fris(s)a n ...; Mid. Ir. also frisi-, risi-, fris-, ris-: frismbiat, Sg. 202b3 . fris-mbruchta, Fél. June 21 . fris n-agar, E. 406 . fris-reith, Prolegomena 302 . fris-tarddam, Thes. ii 293.19 . risa n-abar, Acall. 53 , etc. With cop. frisin-, frisnid, risnad ail, LB 257b9 . ris na duthracht 256a44 . fria ndechraiged (= frisa nd.) Sg. 28a14 may be a mistake. In later MSS. the form re n- becomes common: fria-cosmailend, PH 7674 . re ndubairt, 7464 . ra-n-adh KMMisc. 156. 124 . re n-abar, Acall. 1241 , etc. re rāiter, Ériu viii 139.4 . ré raibhe, Keat. ii 4467 , etc.

Composition.

(a) In vn. and prototonic verbal forms, before a vowel, frith-; before a cons. fre-, e.g. frecre, fretech; with syncope of a follg. vowel, fres-, e.g. frescsiu, fresndid, fresndís, fresngabal. In Glosses fri is often used in compos. with a vb. to represent Lat. ob-. Later frith- is used before cons. with or without lenition of following cons.: see frithgnam, frithsét, etc.

(b) In deuterotonic verbal forms fris-; before an infixed pron. in rel. construction frith- or friss-: fritum-chomart-sa (= frith-dum-) Wb. 33a12 ; but friss-idn-oirctis, Ml. 39a20 (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 147 and cf. Strachan's OIPG⁴ ed. Bergin, p. 27 n. 2 ).

SYNOPSIS OF MEANINGS.

N.B.—The classification is perforce somewhat arbitrary as, perhaps in the majority of instances, the meaning could derive from the original sense in I. Cf. J. E. C. Williams Celtica iii 122 ff .

I Of local relations

(a) towards, facing, turned to ;

(b) against (touching; cf. d); alongside, down along, by ;

(c) against (implying violent or hostile action);

(d) next to, at, in contact with (cf. b).

II To express association, along with, beside (both of local and mental relations).

III To express figurative direction

(a) aim, purpose (cf. VI), frequently of function, specific purpose;

(b) after adj. in sense of Lat. gerund or with ad or supine in -u;

(c) to express direction of feelings, behaviour towards (cf. I a);

(d) of prayer, etc. to ;

(e) of opposition to, hostile feeling, attitude towards ;

(f) to express protection, guard, watch against, also limitation, boundary;

(g) in elliptical sentences with these meanings.

IV

(a) after adjs., nouns or verbs expressing resemblance, equality or comparison;

(b) to express difference, distinction from .

V

(a) with respect to, with regard to ;

(b) on account of:

(c) on behalf of ;

(d) according to, in agreement with (cf. II).

VI To denote occasion

(a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. verb or equivalent;

(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on which something takes place.

VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion of .

VIII

(a) to denote agent;

(b) to denote instrument through, by means of .

IX In expressions of time

(a) in O.-Ir. in locatival sense;

(b) to denote period during which something continues or takes place;

(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place;

(d) of point of time;

(e) used for RIA ` before .'

X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs.

A classified list of the instances in Wb is given by Fraser ZCP viii 37 ff .

I Of local relations

(a) towards, facing, turned to: do rosc frisna nemdaib = looking heavenward SR 1604 . a n-aiged fri Dia facing God LU 2048 ( FA 12 . Cf. III c). a lām chlē fri muir the sea on their left SR 4074 (see lám). do cumlaiset for fairgi ┐ dochorsatar aurlunn fri tir, Corm. Bodl. s.v. prull . bai D. 'sa druim fri fraig D. had his back to the door SR 6053 . is amlaid bai in gilla ┐ a druim fria thigerna, TBC-I¹ 2327 (see druim(m)). Ethne ... fria chossa E. (standing) at his feet (i.e. at the foot of the bed) LU 3300 ( SCC 10 ). Carpre ... 's a hucht ra hág, LL 32b49 (see ucht). a druim re dimsachaib, a des fri deiblenaib, ZCP viii 204 § 26 . an let[h] bis rinne don rē the side of the moon turned towards us ITS xiv 90.19 . fri bun cruche at the foot of the gallows Mon. Tall. § 1 . síl nÁdhuimh ... re sáluibh a senathar at the heels of (i.e. following) Ériu iv 118 § 33 . níor chubaidh tigearna ... d'ḟágbáil re caladh on the beach [i.e. when about to land; perh. fig. cf. beirid i gcaladh brings to safety, see 1 calad] viii 139.23 . dā traig .x. ... a [sic leg.] fot fri dún its length towards the stockade (of the internal slope of an earthen rampart) Laws iv 336.23 . dā dúncladh ... ré dá taebh na clasach along both sides of the fosse CCath. 1747 . ní thurcaibh crand ... cét míle fria taebhaibh within a hundred miles from (lit. towards) its sides Marco P. 11 [cf. the temporal use IX (c)]. See also phrases s.v. agad, ais, enech, gnúis, sáil, taeb, ucht.

This use is regular in Old-Ir. in stating relative position: fri Grecia aniar ... fri Etáil anáir west of Greece ... east of Italy Wb. 6d17 . fri Alpai ndesiu (gl. cisalpina) Sg. 217b8 . frie anall ... frie desiu (gl. ultra ... citra) 71b1 , 2 . fri Ath F.D. desiu, TBC-I¹ 2183 . frie anechtair outside it Ml. 40c15 . fri Pardus amuich outside Paradise SR 111 . ra chuala sa fri hEmain andess I heard it (as I was) to the south of Emain LU 5056 . altoir fri dorus antuaid, SR 4261 [cf. la taeb ind rigthaige aniar, LL 3810 (30a) ]. a mmag fris anair the plain in front of him LL 122a33 . co ndechaid [in gai] triana chend ┐ co ro marb nónbur ris aníar behind him 121a21 . frit aniar, LU 4134 . is e a chorp in taitneamach rit anall the shining one opposite thee RC xxiv 60 . Also fig. : foscichret i crandchor ... fáicebthair Lugaid fris anechtair they will cast lots for it... L. will be left out of the chance RC xiii 444x ( LL 289b8 ). See also s.v. lám (fri l.).

It is doubtful whether: i mbae neach fri hopair immuig BB 362a21 (= Dinds. 20 ) is an instance of this construction; the literal meaning here is was anyone at a work outside ? The Rennes `amuig' is perhaps merely a late spelling.

After verb or vn.: tan turcbad E. a di láim fri Coimdid nime, SR 5085 . suidig do da laim fri ... clasp thy hands (in prayer) to ... 1606 . rosecroth a chend frisin slúag brandished his (severed) head at the host LU 5269 . crothad in chind frisin slóg, 5280 . donnochtat a mbruinni fris bared their bosoms to him 5199 . rochoraig fri tenid he arranged [them] before the fire RC xiii 6.21 . roscóraig gnúis fri gnúis (see gnúis) LU 2046 ( FA 12 ).

Cf. tuídhleach ind óir frisin ngréin the glistening of the gold against the sun BDD 1 . crand airgit ris tatin grían LU 3700 ( SCC 33 ).

(b) against (touching), alongside, down along by: doesetar ┐ a nglūne fri talmain, TBC-I¹ 3164 . éc fri hadart death against a pillow i.e. a natural death Lib. Hymn. i 62.72 (see adart). fri etnu dam ... bátár fedmand la firu Herend = [till then] the loads had been harnessed to the foreheads of the oxen LU 10816 (= Ériu xii 178 ). tennait a n-ette fria curpu press their wings against their sides LU 2281 ( FA 33 ). cf. doimmaircet ind eoin a n-ette friu ┐ a cossa can scibud ette ná cosse co tairic in precept the birds fold their wings, etc. LU 1361 . dosnimthasa i llai a broit fri a bruinde `gathered her to his bosom in the fleece of his cloak' Ériu xii 154y . co tard a druim frisin liic leaned his back against the stone LU 3284 ( SCC 8 ). dossleced fria thoeb he let them (i.e. his arms) fall to his sides SR 5091 = no thimoirced a lama fria thoeb, LB 124b29 (cf. LU 1361 above).

In local sense of attached to or pending from: úathroic ... cona cimais do banór fria having a fringe LU 6421 . beilge óir friu golden bits on them TBFr. § 3 . srian ... fria graig, LU 3649 . Cf. srian do thabairt fria thoil to bridle his passion PH 4990 (see srían). Cf. la I (a).

Here perhaps: i ngialnai fri fraigid in hostage-ship at the wall LU 7015 ; 7295 ( BDD 66 ; 94 ). (of the brazen serpent, Numbers xxi 9 :) turgabar fri crann ... uasin [t]slúag fri sirsellad let it be hung on a pole to be gazed at SR 4163 .

Cf. an carracc ard ar cuiretar ... an Tigerna da teilgen ría sís to cast him down from it Maund. 106 . tuitim sioss re beinn an ailt, Fl. Earls 86z .

(c) against (implying violence or hostility; cf. III e): rop saiget húan fri demnai, Hy i 20 . friu conuccaib ind oub, Hy v 54 . conéracht Glaiss Ch. friu the stream C. rose against them (= to bar the way) LU 5362 . Cf. conocbath in carpat fris ... ┐ concligtis ind h[e]ich fris the chariot would tilt up before him and the horses would spring at him Ériu vi 134.21 . bēim a cinn fri cloich, Ml. 139c3 . beim cind fri hall, LL 225b38 (see benaid). esarcain cind fri hallib, 176b33 . aiges (feras) in tond frisin mbruach, Anecd. i 12.19 (21) . cf. FB 44 , see fri. See also phrases with cúl, druim(m), lám).

(d) next to, at: folt dond fri toind a chind, folt croderg iar n-airmedon, LU 2564 . dond fri toind cind, 6542 . lene de sról ... i custul fri gelcnes ... dó, 6296 . léne ... sita fria gelchnes, 1810 . cona luirigh ... ria cnes ... ┐ lethan sciath fria gualaind, Stair Erc. 1243 . In this use frequent with ais, cnes, taeb.

II To express association, along with, beside (of local or mental relations, cf. V d): ní bí friu hi comasndeis it is not with them in apposition Sg. 212a5 . in tan mbís nihelas do .u. fri .g. when u is silent beside g, 6b11 . nobiad fri femen `it would be [used] with the feminine' 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them' 215a5 (cf. biit remsuidigthi ... cen briathra leo ib. 6). See also s.v. comṡuidigud. is tabarthi `bonum est' fri cechtar in da fersa so, Ml. 112d1 . cen tabairt anman trén fríu, 30a9 (see do-beir). ni bai crand dond indsi fri aroile (i.e. the walls were shattered) Anecd. i 2.5 . ar choibnius frisna comaccomla sa, Sg. 203a10 . in oentid fri Crist, Wb. 15a12 . ni ba suair[c] comlepaid no comaentu frissi, TBC-LL¹ 2079 (fris St) In: ni reid bith fris im longud no im ligi, LU 5957 , the meaning may be different; see atá (fri). toeb fri toeb ata in ri is Eocho F. side by side LU 2839 (see taeb). comaitecht re hairdrigh, ZCP viii 116.5 . méraid ra cách a chumne TBC-LL¹ 740 (here perhaps: meraid hua chlaind fri claind Ml. 100b4 ). is frit mo chairde `with Thee is my compact' Fél. Ep. 534 . (see cairde). iar corai fri I. after making a pact with I. SR 5946 . Cf. córe fri Dia, Wb. 2d16 . is core doib fribsi (gl. salutate invicem) 18b19 . bad chore dúib friu, 7b4 ; - 14 (`lit. let it be peace to you towards them' Thes., but the original meaning of córe points to `with' as the sense of the prep. here). Cf. also: biid pax libsi fri cách (gl. cum omnibus hominibus pacem habentes) 5d33 .

Here probably: isi no beired teora pōc fria cach copān ... dō, TBC-I¹ 2218 . Cf. further: hi cocetul fri Eman in unison with Hib. Min. 4.12 . do dlommad E. is A. ... fri gorta, SR 1419 . ara toimlid fri sid sain | toirthi Parduis, 1085 . taed as fri sidh ┐ fri subha `let him go ... in peace and happiness' AFM 979 .

In this sense with verbs of joining, connecting, also occasionally with verbs of motion and in nominal phrases, such as imma llé fri, immaróen fri, see s.v. , óen (cf. Ériu xiv 142 n . ) also cos, taeb.

In: crithnaigset ... immar bocsimin fri sruth the meaning of the prep. is doubtful. curtar a fuigill re sruth ┐ re fairgi `be the remnant cast out to be carried off by the sea-tide' O'Gr. Cat. 182w . Cf. perhaps: Drochet Atha do dhul re sruth `D. was carried away by the flood' ALC i 260.7 , though these may be exx. of the confusion of re (FRI) with le (LA). curcas fri sruth, FB 44 ; `against a stream' Strachan ZCP iii 419 . Cf. Ériu i 194.4 . See 1 téit and la I (d).

Passing into sense in addition to: tris fer friu (gl. te tertium) Sg. 2a5 . cethri chet bliadan ... a noe sechtmogat fri sein, Rawl. 68b31 ( ZCP iii 18 ). Cf. is fri ni dona salmaib dognid a figild, Mon. Tall. § 5 . fris sin moreover, besides , Leb. Gab.(i) i 88.1 . Hugh Roe 114.1 (f. 30b) . Cf. mod. freisin. For a special sense of with see Mon. Tall. cited under V (d).

III To express fig. direction (cf. V a);

(a) aim, purpose, freq. of function, specific purpose: cen nech dim chlaind frim foraithmet to preserve my memory Ml. 23d9 . ce notechtad ilgotha fri inchosc in mrechtraid sin `that it should possess many sounds to express that variety' Sg. 197a11 . ní fris arícht fri slond persine it was not for that it was invented, to signify person ib. (cf. cid arna airecht pronomen ... dia ṡlund, 198b3 ). in bríg frissa ndéntar a saithar sin the value for which that labour is performed Wb. 11a9 . am loor fri cach reit (gl. ego ... dedici, in quibus sum, sufficiens esse) 24b16 . altoir ... | fri loscud n-edpart an altar for burning [ = on which to burn] offerings SR 4162 . dá magh ... do ṡlaidhi ... co rabad do grés fri geilt do ceithrib ┐ fri trebad do daīnib, Ériu xii 150.6 . primepscop ... accu fri huirdned a n-oessa graid, fri coisecrad a n-eclas ┐ fri hanmchairdes do ḟlaithib, etc. Ériu i 218.2 . sechtmoga fer fria cobair to aid them SR 4196 . drong ngilla ... fri timthirecht, 6280 . ra ergitar ... dalemain fri dail, LL 173a27 ( CRR 13 ). mōr salm | fri hindarba plāg-tedmann, BColm. 70.8 . slóged hi crích ... fri indnaide slogid tairse a hosting into a country to delay a hosting (coming) across it Críth G. 511 . fergniae fri forngaire ndoirseo, 591 . In this sense perhaps in: fót fri haltóir, see 1 fót (d). pars de feoil fri foimtin terci as a precaution against scarcity Mon. Tall. § 12 . Here perhaps: dognith Saul intleda ... fri Duaid used to lay snares against D. Ml. 30a3 . techt do Roim ... fri foglaim n-ecnai, Trip.² 241 . roairis re sloind senchasa he remained to relate Ériu iv 152.6 [or remained relating ? See VI (a)]. cid frisi farcbad int id for what end the withe was left LU 4752 (= cid imma ndernad int id, TBC-LL¹ 597 ). cid frisindrolais in cloich why hast thou thrown the stone ? LU 5092 . o tancamair friss `since we have come for it' ( = for that purpose) Fél. 72.24 (cf. inní imo tainic ib. 30 ). co ndernur inní fris tánac LU 4347 . Cf. doluid Saul fri tāirsin David i fus, SR 5959 . lurech imme ... fri cathugud, SR 5757 . treb Leue ... immon eclais fria immarchur, 4883 . docúaidh B. frissan umaloitt sin gusin muilenn `on that service' BNnÉ 26 § 19 . téit féin re toisc ┐ re túrus a crichaib na hEspáine on business CCath. 1806 , cf. do chuaidh gach aon rea dtoisgibh ┐ rea dturasaibh féin, ML 26x (= le tosgaib fein, ML² 347 ). The follg. perhaps are elliptical: the idea represented is anticipating, forestalling: dogniad pars de feoil fre terci do t[h]ecmong = as a provision against the occurrence of scarcity Mon. Tall. § 12 . do na .u. gaiscedaib dec no bitís ... hi tegluch C. fri maidm n-airm no fri gabáil ngasced do neoch LU 5046 . Cf. Fél. Nov. 14 cited VI b.

(b) after adjs. in sense of Lat. gerund with ad or supine in -u: leiscc .i. fri fognam, Wb. 31b23 . conid mesc fria rim so that it is confusing to count it LU 4794 . ba gnim ṅdangen fri himluad, SR 7229 . ingnad fria innisin, LU 2074 ( FA 15 ). adhbal rea n-innisi prodigious to recount ZCP viii 204 § 26 . cenco beth ... and acht C. ba lór fri immarbaig, LL 107a19 ( Ériu iv 28 ). lia iná rúainne ... re n-áireamh, IGT, Decl. ex. 1201 . Cf. atait ... re a ttaispenadh go follus are plainly to be seen Fl. Earls 50.12 . In this use modern Irish has le (LA).

(c) to express direction of feelings; behaviour towards, after nouns or adjs., both of persons and things (cf. I a and V a): conroib deserc leu fri cách, Wb. 26d22 . fáilte fri noíbu, 7b2 (see fáilte). ar formut fribsi, 12c29 (see format and formtech). ropat ḟáilti frimsa, Fél. Dec. 18 (see fáilid). hissel fri hard, sleman fri garb, ZCP iii 447z . anmne fri fochaidi, 449.15 (see ainmne). mailli fri cloc slowness at (answering) the bell ib. 21 . dána fri tōla tromsluaig daring in face of an army SR 5778 . uair ná dernsam huimli fri forngaire, 1854 . ar gart friu for generosity to them ZCP viii 313.12 . créd nach frim atā a maithe ? why is not their bounty bestowed on me ? ACL iii 296 § 38 . ní ar maith friu it is not for their good Wb. 4b37 . ar ulc friu, Ml. 72b22 . tar aesi n-uilc huai[m] se friusom, 74a2 (see also s.v. maith, olc). bad chert do cluchi frim play fair with me LU 5228 . ar ngabáil bāide ... dō rena ardnaem having conceived affection for his high saint BCC § 12 . lére duit frí ríg ngréne ┐ réde fri doíni, Ériu i 193 . is buide linn frib (gl. rogamus vos) Wb. 25a39 (see 2 buide). is maith robai Dia rind, SR 1905 . ní maith ro mbátar frim they have not treated me well LU 4891 . Cf. is maith ro ngabus fritt , TBFr. § 11 . bad faitig frisin foirin sin (gl. observate eos) Wb. 24a23 (see faitech). bid cennuis a gnuis risin lucht ra-nadh (= frisndid) rathmar to whom he is gracious KMMisc. 156.124 . in maith frit menma ind airdríg whether the king is well-disposed to thee SR 6114 . ba fearr di frib menma bar mathar, RC xxiv 56 ( YBL 206a47 ). Cf. is beite duit menma fris `thou must take heed of him' Ériu xii 176.16 . Similarly in expressions like: do-gní maith (trócaire, etc.) fri (see do-gní). nech no comaildfed fir fer frimb uime RC xiii 29.6 .

(d) of prayer, etc. to: irnigde fri Dia, Wb. 4d18 . cf. abstanait fri Dia, PH 4988 . ro throiscset ... fri Dia im a ḟurtacht, 7258 (see troiscid). im aīne fri Dia cora faillsigthi dō ... fasting towards God, that ... might be revealed to him Ériu v 120.12 . Similarly: frit, a rí ..., mo dēr | conom thī ... Mīchēl, SR 2091 . co ndēraib frisin coimdid, PH 6292 . (cf. use with ad-teich). cossoít a thuaithe fri Dia, Wb. 5a23 (see cosaít). Here, perhaps, should come such expressions as the following: ar Christ frit, aithirigh pēin dam, Cáin Ad. 13 . ar do chubus riut, a ingen, crét tuc ort ?, Acall. 6012 . ar bar cubus rib..., crét..., 5476 . ar fir do chubais riut..., 5824 . cf. 4544 . ar t'ḟírinne riutsa, nā furáil, CCath. 1659 .

(e) of hostile feeling, attitude, conduct towards: fri aicned contrary to nature Wb. 2c25 . ba fri aicned ... in talam ... do indluch, Ml. 129d8 . frisin n-uall (gl. adversum inflationem mentis) 68c1 . trifar pecthu fri Dia through your sins against God 115b8 . Common after verbs of opposing, hindering, fighting: hóre nád comeicnigther nech fri toil no one is constrained against [his] will Wb. 28b1 . tuidecht fri toil Dé resistance to God's will 4c23 (see do-tét). cf. o dorala ... | frim thala mac I. | duit ... | niba céle SR 6014 , where opposition seems implied despite the similar phrase cited below under V (d). soud a gnuso fri nech frisa mbi ferc do (gl. ne auertas [faciem tuam] a me Ml. 47d8 (`to turn his countenance from one against whom he cherishes anger' Thes., but surely `fri nech' here must also mean either against ... or towards ... ? See soïd). fergach fris Fíadu, SR 6837 . iar ndebaid do fri Duid, 6994 . na cathaig frim do not contend with me 2877 . ni sirsan do Ch. a n-imned i tá a óenur fri firu Herend not happy for C is the trouble in which he is, alone against the men of E. LU 5995 . Cf. do thoitim fria Cu | ba dirsan sad that thou shouldst fall by [ = fighting against] C. (?) TBC-I¹ 2715 (see also III g). Mairg fris ticfa a ḟerg ... Mairg ticfa re cert, Fen. 200 (see do-icc). ar bruc fris `in displeasure at him' Mon. Tall. § 58 . namthi garga fri sluagh nA., ACL iii 297 § 55 . atat frim hi cotarsnai, SR 1520 . Cf. ni bia th'anim fri fugall | ind ríg hí laithiú brótho, Ériu i 196 § 13a . With adj.: cotarsne fri Dia, Wb. 26a18 . is torcda ┐ is díchéill notaí frim, LU 10831 (= Ériu xii 172 ). is bairnech mo menma frit, LU 10832 (= ib.). is tromda atai rim, RC vi 183.13 . olc roba rim, Ériu v 208.8 (see III c). Here perhaps: tromde ... ro buí frisim ind chaillech oc atach Dé, Mon. Tall. § 7 (= do bhí sí roliosda ar Dh., Rule of Tallaght § 41 ). But cf. VII below.

(f) To express protection, guard, defence, watch against: gabthe dūnad les fris, Ml. 55c1 . inna cathrach conrotacht la Duaid fri Ebustu, 48d27 . múr trén ... fri dóini, fri demnai, Fél. Ep. 152 . tocuiriur etrum ... inna huli nert so fri cech nert n-amnas in ..., Hy vii 49 . cor gabad Sinann friu the Shannon was held (defended) against them RC xviii 10.28 . gébtaít ar tír frind, LU 4634 (see gaibid). iadad Caisil frim eochu the closing of C. to my horses Anecd. iii 63.4 . cóir duit arechus ri siút, TBC-LL¹ 1280 (aire do tabairt fri ... St; see 1 aire). Dia lem fri cech snīomh, Ériu iv 236 . Crist credal fri demnaib, ACL iii 221.12 . dín ... re holcaib, ZCP viii 202.18 . Of limitation, boundary: nā bí crích la nech fri peccad that no one sets a limit to sin Ériu i 218.9 . Cf. samaiges crích fri aidchi, Hy ii 55 , corresp. to contra noctem terminum pones, Ardm. 8a1 . See also s.v. inillius.

(g) In elliptical sentt.: leic ... in fognam, ol se; ni lamaim, ol sī, frisin rigain = I dare not disobey the Queen RC xxiv 192 (but perh. FRI here = because of; see V b ). ro an ... ina aenar ru remained alone to oppose them ZCP vi 56.31 . rofetursa a n-as maith dúib fris I know a good way for you to deal with him LU 5934 . tarmairt mo Dia dil frisin tuaid ... a cor fo leittreib lethglenn = my dear God had well nigh (in His resentment) against them cast them down ... SR 4718 . Cf. lām fri idal to renounce idolatry SR 4845 (see lám).

IV

(a) after adjs. and nouns denoting resemblance or equality (esp. those compounded with com-) and vbs. of resembling or comparing: cosmil fri cethir (gl. animalis) Wb. 8b14 . cutrummus fri Dia, 17c8 . i cutrummus fribsi 17b14 . ɔodernain hi cutrummus frim cheliu `to do like my fellows' PCr. 2a2 . (pariter) fri, Sg. 77a2 . i tomus fri nech Wb. 17b11 . intamail ... fri nech, Ml. 22c1 . cen a chondelg fri nech, Sg. 42a6 . cosmaili tuisil `sui' fri tuisliu `ego' ┐ `tu', 200a12 . (similiter) fri, 203a5 . cf. (eandem significationem habens) .i. fri `cum', 218a1 . diatā oenḟolaid ... frissin Athair, PH 177 . ba cudruma re core mōr é, RC xviii 183 . ni caithedh acht coibeis fri gach manach he used to eat only as much as any other monk BNnÉ 300 § 3 . nir chumma nech ris im chath, Metr. Dinds. iv 344 . ru boí i comré ri Cormac, LL 3796 (30a) . i comhrē ris coeval with him Moling 4 . rogheanair i n-aenuair fria was born at the same time as she BB 406bz (= Dinds. 111 ). Cf. IX (b).

Replacing O. Ir. construction with equative: comdhub fri hec, Thr. Ir. Gl. 36 (prull) = duibidir éc, Corm. Y 1059 . Bodl. comard fri fid, Ériu iv 138.26 . meidithir fria hasal as big as an ass Marco P. 10 . corbo chomfota frisin sroin LU 6472 .

See also verbs and adjs. of comparison, e.g. 1 do-ella, samlaithir, in-samlathar; cosmail, 2 cutrummae, etc.

(b) to express difference, distinction from : frissaní immeraidtis (gl. longe aliud) Ml. 61c12 . sain fri .c. `different to c' Sg. 6b7 . do dechor fri praenomna aili, 28a13 . huare nád deligedar fri praenomen , 28a15 . do dechrugud persine fri alaili, 202a4 . is allail pronomen aní sin fri `sui' (gl. `is' aliud pronomen...) 209b10 . (differentia) fri, 213b15 , gl. contra 214b4 . Cf. nipo choím less frinn He was not dear to Him compared to us (?) Wb. 4b12 [Fraser l.c. suggests this rendering, ZCP viii 41 n . `in our case (?),' Thes.].

See s.v. 1 dechor, dechraigidir, deiligidir and other words of similar meaning.

V

(a) with respect to, with regard to (cf. III c) : is sain fri cath sain fri scor different for battle, different for unyoking (of trumpet-call) Wb. 12c46 . idain fri cach réit faithful as to 31c13 . cen chinaid n-uaim fri nech, Ml. 54d16 (see cin). nach é Dia is ciontach riú is to blame for them TSh. 10499 . as eola fri aidgne ind Athar, Wb. 19d9 . it maithi a arilti frib `He deserves well of you' (`literally good are his merits as to you' Thes.) Wb. 16c11 . airle Dé fri Herind, LL 49b13 ( Hail Brigit § 2 ). .iiii. seóit a dire ... is fechem is fiadnaisi friu `four seds are his `dire'-fine ... he is a suitor and witness for them' (i.e. he is liable to that extent) Laws iv 308.2 ( Críth G. 138 ). is amlaid in t-athair frisin mac ngor; ... nimtha in t-athair frisin mac n-ingor thus the father acts with regard to the dutiful son; ... not so with regard to the undutiful one Laws iii 56. 22 ; z 0 . ba fria as-breth: cruth cách co hÉtaín 'of her was it said, 'every woman is fair till compared with Étaín'' BDD 43-44 , Celtica xv 57 . 'fer hi lorcc so,' ol in fer deginuch fri Nero 'a man is following us,' said the last man with regard to Nera RC x 216.48 . conidh ed isberdís cách fris, Cóir Anm. ii § 150 .

Cf. further: crādiis Ultu fri Cethirnd guin Fécc the slaying of F. imbittered the U. against C., ZCP viii 305.32 . ferdha a cathuibh iat, ar is friu ronnaltadh oc imairecc fria geinnti, Marco P. 189 . ro alt ... ind ingen co digrais fri légend ┐ gaís, LL 279a47 ( SG 413 ). Possibly the last two exx. belong rather to III (a), also : is me is cintach fris ni he is cintach frim, BB 479b14 (see cintach). See also : a lleth fri, s.v. leth.

(b) on account of (cf. VI b) : ro lega in snechta ... fri meit brotha in miled, LU 5858 . ba lond F. friside (-suidi), RC xxvi 12 § ix . saeth mār fri luga dige great distress from [?] lack of drink Fianaig. 12 § 20 . cid mís no bheinn gun ríg thess | ro-fess ná bíad mo scís fris, ACL iii 304.20 . ní ḟaicim-si ... ni rís budh choir t'obadh for which it were right to refuse thee Ériu iii 154.5 . atchess ... na haīble tened ... uasachind re fiuchud na ferge, LU 6466 . ba mertnech Moisi fri hilchaingni ... fri orddugugd cāich fo mām, SR 4542 . batar toirsech fri Moisi, 3886 (in these two exx. fri = oc of prose LB 122a etc.). féimdid sim imt[h]echt fri scíss he cannot go on from weariness BColm. 94.16 . ni ro chotail C. fri himṡním, LB 274a55 . ni faict[h]e ise fri feidm a léiginn she used not be seen because of her duty of study ACL iii 308 VI 13 . Cf. la III a.

(c) on behalf of: aitchitt an C. ris comad he noberad, etc. they beseech the Lord for him that it might be he BColm. 98.15 . dogníther airnaigthi frisin ríg co nambed fot saegail do, MacCongl. 59.23 . ica cantain fria Cianoig chanting (a prayer) for C. ZCP vii 308.7 . Cf. also : ata mo briathar ┐ mo comairghi fria ar Tuatha D., Ériu xii 152.9 . o doratsat briathair fris, CCath. 1236 . in tī bes rí is fris beimmi, ZCP viii 316.3 . See do-beir, gell, and ráith.

(d) according to ; in agreement with, with pers. somet. = in obedience to: ni ni nach breith nā bi fri canoin cumtastar [sic leg.] no judgement is valid that is not framed according to the canon Corm. Y 1224 . cf. manib fri fasach fuirmider, Ériu xii 199.23 . fri mes airechta adrimter, Laws iv 298.25 ( Críth G. 22 ). fri saltair nogebad ... a salmu by the psalter (i.e. with the psalter before him), Mon. Tall. § 39 , cf. ni lugae mbis ind menme hisin cheill dia gabail ind tsailm de memur indas cid fri saltair ib.). fosernd clothri Connacht ... fri senchus ... fri buaid ┐ breatha in conformity with (the claims of) pedigree, with prowess and legal decision ZCP viii 108.10 = Ériu v 234 . bid som iarum fria toil (= they will be able to do as they like) Mon. Tall. § 35 (= go mbid ... aca ara ttoil fein, Rule of Tallaght § 35 ). fri tala ind rig ... domrala I am about the king's business SR 6187 (Rex praecepit mihi 1 Reg. xxi 2 ). cia ro delb fria thuil a ndath who coloured them to please himself (?) SR 7675 . For FRI TOIL in a different sense, see III (e). Cf. nitattorbi fri toil Dé (gl. non omnia expediunt 1 Corinth. x 22 ) `against God's will' Thes., Wb. 11b 17a . Also : ind tí dogní ní do maith fria menmain fadesin ... ar ind bo neoch gabti he who does a good thing in accordance with his own inclination ... should openly proclaim it Mon. Tall. § 21 (= chuirios ní maith ... do dheunamh uaidhe fein, Rule of Tallaght 71 ).

VI

(a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. vb. or equivalent = to be at, engaged in or about to engage in (some occupation, process ; cf. III a) : in tinscanfam .i. in biam fris (gl. incipimus ... commendare ?) Wb. 15a1 . ní uisse do mug Dae buith fri debuid to be at strife 30b26 . cf. ní bethe fria acre, 9c20 . ni piam fri aithirgi, 30b17 . ni biat som fria togais adi (= non fallacia ad quoscumque loquuntur) Ml. 31a17 . cechtar nathar fria saindān `each ... at his special art' Thes. ii 293.14 . feib donrala fri comrad, SR 1214 . indí ... bíte fri tnúith `those that are given to lust' Mon. Tall. § 11 . nebbuith fri éthech not to be lying Ériu ii 64 § 6 . céin bete fri soíthar while they shall be at work Fél. Ep. 298 . in tan natbi fri frestal na n-anmand when he is not attending to LB 110b43 (cf. SR 1199 ). ní mo chean ... tarrla re freastal ... na fairrgi sin, CF 42 . amail do beith se re goibhnecht ríam as if he had always been at smith's work BCC § 92 . na saoithe do bhí re seanchus, Keat. i 74 . cuirim suas don ghrádh, | ní fiú é bheith ris, Dánta Gr. xiv 3 . Cf. boí a ben fri idna in travail LU 105.86 (see 1 idu). Similarly without subst. vb. : nachitochthad fria choscc `let him not wear thee out in admonishing him' Wb. 31d11 . conus tarttsat fria ttoghairm chuca an lucht they set about calling the people Hugh Roe § 8 . Cf. airfitech re tetaib, ACL iii 223.23 (= Keat. ii 5358 ). dias fri cerdacht, SR 190 (perh. III a). dá mbeinn re héagnach `had I purposed to revile' Content. v 7 (cf. le hóradh bhriat[h]ar da mbeinn, Ó Héodhusa 4 ). In class. lang. `re' is used with vn. to express futurity : an chathair atá ré teacht ( = civitatem futuram) TSh. 2751 . i n-oirchill na n-olc bhíos ré tuirling orra, 532 .

(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on or from which something takes place (some of the exx. could be explained as extensions of other uses (cf. V b ; IX a) ; often the construction is elliptical) : gaibed cach a greimm ... | fria brethir in primsacairt, SR 4400 . ba huisse soillse fri éitsecht na noeb at the death Hy ii 60 . Cf. co mbidis i nd-aenmaigin fria n-ég, Corm. Y 1233 (fri héc LB. ria n-ec LL 179b ). fri gein Críst ... tindscan lechsa léri, Fél. Nov. 14 (cf. III a). ro eirgis fri breithir Isu, PH 2780 . ret[h]it daim ... ri dorddan na damgaire, Ériu vii 2 § 1 . phreab as G. risan gair, Ériu i 18.33 . ac cantain cheóil ... fris coteltais Síl Adaim, LL 3305 ( Ériu xiv 156 ).

VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion of (cf. similar use of Lat. apud, and see la) : ni cumdabairt fri Cirine is tre metur Jerome does not doubt Hib. Min. 6.187 . nad maith fri C. ciasperthar ..., 7.235 . frithir frisin mac i n-ebras riss, Ériu vii 225 ( LL 209a16 ). ba bind fri cach na canaind, LU 1301 (`sweet to all was what I said' Imr. Brain ii 298 . But this may be ex. of : canaid fri). bid inmain fria cách a ainm loved of all PH 4299 . ba hingnad mor frisin popul sin, 2959 . ba mo a grad fri Gargán oldait a uli cethra G. loved him more than all his cattle 7178 . Cf. Mon. Tall. § 7 cited under III (e) where the meaning seems different. gurbh annsa ré hEóin Críost ioná ré Peadar Christ was dearer to John than to Peter TSh. 10327 .

VIII

(a) to denote agent (a late use, mostly in texts in artificial style). ar na bennughadh fri sanctuss Silvester consecrated by Fl. Earls 196.19 . laech ... frisimbia mo thiglecht (= who will cause my death) Metr. Dinds. iv 360 (but perh. this is ellipt. and belongs to III (e) ; cf. TBC2 cited there). romarbtha na maithe ... frisna crechairib LB 154a63 . in lucht frisa tucad in digal .i. Uespiam ┐ Titus ib. 16 . Constantiana ... .i. eclas rocúmdaiged fri Constantin 157b48 . Of parenthood : trī meic Medba fri Fergus, Corp. Gen. 279.33 . sē meic do Mīlidh fri Scota ┐ dā mac frisin nEspānaig 'Míl had six sons of Scota, and two sons of the Spanish woman', ITS xliv 64 § 424 . do chomthusmed clainni fri hA. to have children by A., Alex. 512 .

(b) to denote instrument, through, by means of, by dint of (cf. similar uses of Engl. `with') : sénais Brigit fria bachaill with her crozier Hy v 58 T = lia F. fria noebainm ... séntae cech slóg subach by [or at ?] his holy name every happy host was sained Fél. Prol. 99 . ícaid [Tipra C.] gallrae ... fri troscud aici, BColm. 52.15 . argain fri daigid (destroying by fire LL 107a21 ( Ériu iv 28 ), cf. multi nobiles ceciderunt ... fri daigidh ro horta uile, AU 900 (see RIA Dict. s.v. daig). go nach deachaidh neach re siúbhal ... as no one escaped by flight ML 88.31 . re dán nglas ... dán breaghdha do bhréagnachadh with a simple poem to refute an elaborate one Content. vii 13 . ro ēirigh fri nert seoin ┐ solaid, Moling § 4 (possibly = with here cf. dol ar fairrge ... ré cóir na gaoithe = with a favourable wind ML 36z = le ML² 466 . cuir me ... chum seoil ... re cóir ghloin, Measgra D. 48.16 ).

IX In expressions of time :—

(a) in O. Ir. in locatival sense in phrase : fri dē by day, in the day-time Ml. 121d8 . Wb. 6a30 . fri dei, 9a5 , 24d14 , 26b17 . Cf. in gabail fri dei ... in gabail cech ráithi a catch (of fish) daily (?) Trip. 250.14 (2950) . fri díe, Mon. Tall. § 55 . fri haidchi by night Trip. 208.25 (2452) . gl. contra noctem Lat. Lives 18 . re lá, Ériu iii 148 § 3 . arna imbreth ... i n-aidchi cía nosgonad fri dé, LU 5609 .

(b) usually to denote period during which something continues or takes place : 'na fuair frisna secht ṁbliadnaib SR 3394 . fri a n-aimsir in their time Laws iv 210.28 . niro chotail C. frisin ré sin, LU 6337 . fria ré hi fut a saegail for their lifetime SR 5932 . bai cocad mor etarro fri re ciana RC xxiv 186 . batar ... fri re secht la amlaid sin, ACL iii 225.1 . conosrala for sechrán fri re bliadna co lleith, LU 1279 . bá-sa i Tul T. fri ré inna dílenn, Ériu iv 144y . maith graig dorat damh rem lá in my day ACL iii 304.23 . D. ba talchar fria ré in his day Metr. Dinds. ii 40 . dorumaltsa ... m'aimsir fri hamsir Nemid, LU 1276 . nir siubhuil in conuir-so re bliadhain aenridiri for a year past ZCP vi 104 z.

(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place : ni ba marb-sa fri sin I shall not die before that ZCP i 105.4 (co sin v.l.). Cf. also the locative use in Marco P. 11 cited I (a). tanic ... uidi na .xii. mís fri .xii. laa made the twelve months' journey in twelve days LB 139a31 . icuis fri teorai nomaidhe within thrice nine days RC xii 66x . nos ithend ... friha brathad sula in the twinkling of an eye LU 1895 ( RC x 56 ; fri b. v.l.) do imredar ... re trí lá, ┐ ní ruc G. énchluichi rissin, Acall. 1348 .

(d) of point of time ; in some cases approaching VI (b) above. fri dead n-aissi, SR 2829 . in tan nadbi fri húair i fos | frithalmi when he is not here at the hour of attending ... 1199 (cf. LB 110b43 cited under VI (a) above). cech dūil ... rosdelb fri oenuair, SR 7864 (similarly 7234 , 7386 ). grend Muman ... grend Connacht ... ra hóen-úair at the same time Ériu i 130.36 ( LL 46b ). buaidh ... damh fri deiredh mo ṡaoghail, ACL iii 231.1 . ra dered flatha Domnaill, LL 185a48 ( Arch. Hib. ii 85 ) = Rawl. 154a52 . Rí dorat na deich plāga | forthu fri huair combāga, SR 3942 . ? cid fri geld bāis nobeth `though he were at the point of death.' Mon. Tall. § 48 (see gell). re húair nfaicsiona at the time of looking RC xxix 128.13 . fri huair tacrai do ghníma, Ériu ii 228.7 .

(e) in follg. exx. perhaps used for ria before: na buidne ... robatar fria Crist...rofhogain don Choimdid fria tuidecht soscela (= turbae quae praecedebant ... ante evangelium) PH 4573 . dorad som a cuibidil fria mbass made his confession before death RC xviii 53.19 . Cf. co ro muid fri maccu Israel, LB 122b47 = re, YBL 293b40 (corresp. to mebaid remib SR 4765 ).

(f) In later lang., 3 s. ris occurs as adv. bare, exposed, uncovered : mar do leig ris a n-aoinfheacht 'how it left [her] uncovered at once' Duan. F. ii 332 § 9 , Éigse ix 228 . do theilg Ercuill a bhrat de ┐ ro leig a lorg ┐ in croicenn leomainn ro buí re cnes ris, ITS xxxviii 997 (Stair Ercuil) . chonarcadar a ccroicinn go coirtighthi buídhe ris, Smaointe B. Chr. 150 . ó bhí mo chroiceann-sa nochtuighthe síos reis, 160 . cia d’innis doit-se a bheith nochtuighthe síos reis (leis, v.l.), 161 . See also la VI (d), léicid.

X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs (and nouns of cognate meaning with them), e.g., those of speaking, addressing, boasting, complaining, asking, thanking ; meeting, touching, striking, rubbing, grinding ; listening ; waiting, expecting ; entrusting ; co-operating, associating, helping ; visiting ; resembling, comparing, differing ; parting, severing (from) ; doing (something to), acting (towards), giving, distributing, apportioning ; requiting, paying, selling ; refusing, rejecting, denying ; hindering, restricting, opposing, combating, etc. See especially : ad-cosnai, ad-gair, ad-teich, ad-tluichethar (attlugud), aigid, 1 anaid, ar-báigi, as-beir, benaid, beirid, 1 caithid, canaid, 1 cingid, comalnaithir, 1 con-clich, con-delca, con-gní, con-ricc, con-sní, con-túaisi, crenaid, dálaid, dlomaid, do-beir, do-gní, do-icc, do-rogaib, do-slí (tuillem buide fri), do-sluindi (diúltad), do-tét, dúnaid, 2 erbaid, fáiltigid(ir), feraid, fo-gella (2 fuiglid), fo-rig, fris-oirg, fris-tairissethar, fris-taít, gaibid (fris-gaib), gellaid, íadaid, 1 íccaid, imm-beir, imm-fogni, imm-fresna, in-samlathar, in-túaisi (éistid), labraithir (labraid), laigid, 1 ligid, lingid, 1 luigid, meilid (con-meil), naiscid, ráidid (ol, ar), rannaid, renaid, saethraigidir, scaraid (and compds.), soïd (do-soí), 1 téit, tongaid.

gaibid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. gaibid or dil.ie/25119
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: gaibim, gabimm, gaibiu, gaibid, gaibthi, gaib, gaibit, gabit, gaibde, gaba, rogba, gebaid, gebat, gabsu-sa, rongabus, gabais, gabis, rogab, gaibthir, rogaibther, gaibtir, gabthar, gabthe, rogabad, rogabath, rogabtha, gabthi, gabaid, gebsa

v see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 527 . O.I. Pres. ind. 1 s. gaibim, Thes. ii 2.35 . gabimm, Wb. 16d4 . gaibiu, Trip. 54.14 . 3 s. gaibid, Wb. 9a3 . Ml. 64c12 . (with pronom. suf.) gaibthi, Sg. 26b7 . ni gaib , Wb. 3d8 . 3 p. gaibit, Sg. 200b10 . gabit, Ml. 38a8 . rel. gaibde, 76a16 . Pres. Subj. 3 s. gaba, Wb. 28a20 . rogba, 15d40 . Fut. 3 s. gebaid, Wb. 8a7 . 3 p. ni gebat , 4c8 . Pret. and Perf. 1 s. gabsu-sa, Thes. ii 291.7 . (ceín) rongabus , Wb. 23b18 . 3 gabais, Thes. ii 238.16 . gabis, i 495.1 ( Ardm. 77a1 ). rogab, Wb. 2c21 . Pass. Pres. ind. s. gaibthir, Wb. 16d7 . (hó) rogaibther , 13b13 . p. gaibtir, Thes. ii 295.16 . Subj. s. gabthar, Wb. 29b5 . Pret. and Perf. s. gabthe, Ml. 55c1 . rogabad, 14a14 . rogabath, 24d13 . p. rogabtha, 133b2 . verb. necess. gabthi, 76d4 . Vn. gabál, q.v. For later forms see IGT Verbs § 23.

I Trans. lays hold of, grasps .

(a) takes hold of, possession of ; passing into sense receives, accepts . With co and reflexive pron. takes to oneself : admits of, allows . Ní gaib cen (acht) insists on. Supports, upholds (= congaib) ; sometimes almost = fogaib.

(b) With pers. obj. receives, admits . g.¤ nech in receives as : g.¤ ar considers as.

(c) takes by force, captures ; takes away ; g.¤ lám, g.¤ búaid.

(d) More rarely holds, maintains (against an enemy).

(e) affects, takes hold of (lit. seizes, possesses) of a mental condition, etc. ; affects injuriously (illness, etc.) paralyses, bewitches .

(f) puts, applies .

(g) puts on, assumes : g.¤ arm assumes warrior status ; g.¤ caille, colann, étach, etc. With imm and reflexive pron. puts on (clothes), cf. inf. V (g).

(h) g.¤ cuan, port, etc., reaches (a destination).

(i) g.¤ dúnad, longport pitches a camp .

(j) chooses, fixes (a day, meeting, etc.).

(k) sets about, begins (an employment, etc.).

(l) conceives (a passion, etc.).

(m) thinks, infers . (m 2) takes down from dictation; edits (?).

(n) conceives (offspring).

(o) With for and reflexive pron. takes on oneself (responsibility, etc.).

(p) With co and refl. pron. assumes .

(q) takes a path, traverses, reaches .

(r) ? celebrates (a festival).

(s) suits (late).

(t) A legal idiom (?)

II Intrans.

(a) goes, proceeds .

(b) lands, settles, takes up one's abode (esp. of starting a community).

(c) holds out, remains .

(d) Gram. is declined ; also is subdivided.

(e) holds sway, reigns .

(f) takes hold or effect .

III Perfect forms= subst. vb.

IV sings, chants, recites , etc.

V Further uses with preps. :

(a) g.¤ ar (1) holds back, restrains (2) distrains (rare).

(b) g.¤ de hinders, holds back : also g.¤ ní de neuch.

(c) g.¤ do (1) sets about . (2) attacks . (3) covers, fits .

(d) g.¤ fa attacks, charges at.

(e) g.¤ for (1) assails . (2) begins, sets about . (3) overtakes . (4) outshines .(5) includes .

(f) g.¤ fri (1) holds out against . (2) warns (doubtful). (3) receives, welcomes (late). (4) commences, begins .

(g) g.¤ imm (1) refuses, refrains from, conceals, withholds . (2) distrains . (3) makes good, compensates . (4) adheres to. (5) dresses, arrays oneself.

(h) g.¤ in assails .

(i) g.¤ la accepts, sides with.

(j) g.¤ oc. (1) sets about, begins . (2) sides with, stands by ; passing into sense is partial to, lets off.

(k) g.¤ ós gains supremacy over .

VI Used in phrases with nouns to which references are given.

I Trans. In widest sense lays hold of, grasps .

(a) takes (hold of, possession of) ; passing into sense of receives, accepts (with mat. obj.) : amal náṅgabimmse didiu ni gaib Lucas, as I do not take it (of a payment), Wb. 16d4 . rogabad gabáal dóib leu, 7a7 . gebid A. in n-id inna láim, TBC-LL¹ 581 . focherd a bunsaich ... condagebed re toitim ... so that he would catch it before falling, TBC-I¹ 518 . gab a Eba in t-uball-sa, Ériu iv 114.2 . rogab ... in mac ina ucht, RC xxiv 192.1 . adubradar nach gēbdais coma ina sārugud, ZCP viii 274.18 . Giabud-sa coma uaib, xiii 240.14 . dogab Buinne na comhadha sin, IT ii2 140.445 . `in ngēbthái cís no cáin uatha ? ' ... `ní giabthar,' ZCP xiii 226.9 - 11 . do-ghéabhainn ... eineaclonn, TD 3.52 . Analogous : roghabhsat a ndíorma `they sent out their squadron' (i.e. took and got together), AFM v 1812.15 . geibid Brigit e fri baithis `B. holds him at the baptism,' Fél. 110.27 . g.¤ ech gets (and makes ready) a horse : gabhthar a ghabhar do Ghuaire, RC xxvi 374.22 . gebid ar n-eich co escaid, vii 296.114 . is gabtha indiu in gabar bán, SG 243.32 .

With non-mat. obj. : gēbaid a ainm dim anmaim[-se] he will take his name from mine, ACL iii 231.16 . ro gab ratha grene ┐ esca `took guarantees of the sun and moon,' MR 2.5 . caibdhi (caibghi v.l.) ler geab sí suirgi a bride-price for which she accepted wooing, IGT Decl. ex. 176 . geb as do thoil fen bás accept death, PH 6631 . gab maithim n-anacail accept protection, TTebe 1030 . níor ghabh umhlocht `did not receive homage,' TD 17.43 . ro ghabh a n-airi cur fir a ndobratar a ndraidhe fein riu it was borne in upon them, RC xliii 76 § 76 . g.¤ sossad (suide, etc.) : rogab á sossad he hath taken his station, Wb. 4b18 . gabsat ... a suide, BDD 59 . gaib do chuil isin charcair take thy corner in the prison, Thes. ii 290.8 . g.¤ ríge, tír, etc. takes possession of, takes over (an office, dignity, property, etc.) : ataat da n-orpe rogab A., Wb. 2c21 . cia dib gebus t'forba, RC xxiv 194.1 . resiu rogabtis tír tairṅgeri, Ml. 123a1 , or under (c) ? tria chumachta na hingine nogebtais tír, Ériu iii 138.2 . doguidhetar ... fá mhac ... dogébhed a nionad dia neisi, BNnÉ 190 § 1 . iar ndul adíu nogabad Tír an Dísirt `that he set up in T.' (of a bishop), BColm. 56.30 . i mbechbrethaib bech ... gaibte crann `bees that have taken up their lodging in the tree,' Laws iv 180.16 . gabaid M. rīge nEírenn, ZCP viii 318.11 . ... nar gaba rath na righi, Fen. 120.11 . Ri do gabustar righi, BCC § 141 . Cf. in lin rig rogab hErind, Fen. 58.14 . ar ghabh dá gcineadh Bóinn Bhreagh, TD 8.17 . géba apdaine ┐ cumachta fors-in domun, PH 2272 . Domnall o Conaill do gabh uadha e a nGaidhilg `took it down in Gaelic from him' (i.e. from his dictation), Plummer Colophons 16, n.4 . Often with co and refl. pron. takes to oneself, undertakes : ma ro gabsat daine aile cuca ar comairce, Laws iv 228.25 . gab chucat sind, a Christ, PH 183 . gabh chugat mo chomairche undertake my defence, Dán Dé 1.3 . blāith rogabais cucut corp, ACL iii 242 § 16 . dogab Serlus sin cuige co mor, C. took that greatly to heart, RC xix 278 § 204 (Fier.). níor gábh Eóghan chuige go maith an t-urfhuighioll sin, ML 44.9 . takes to witness : rogab neam, ┐ talam, Todd Nenn. 126.9 ; lxx 11 . admits of, allows : ni gabait etir na lestair lána a tórmach, PH 5480 . Ni gaband sí a cumdach le h-or no le h-airget, BCC § 52 (of a stone). beac ma gabann leighes quasi non recipit curationem, O'Gr. Cat. 205.21. Cf. dá ngébha an focal chuigi if the word will allow of it, IGT Introd. § 3 . ní ghéabhainn dol go clannaibh séaghainn Saxon I would not consent (?) to go, Gleanings from Irish manuscripts 8 § 5 . ná gabh toirmeasg `admit no hindrance,' TD 2.3 . Ní gaib cen (acht) will take only, insists on : ní ragaib cen chuit cána, LL 376a35 . nī gēb cen sē curu, TBC-I¹ 2274 ; 2260 . na geb-si cen cath insist on a battle, MR 42.19 . adubhairt nach gebhadh gan meisi dḟaghail mar mhnaoi, Ériu v 182.360 ; 209.21 (v.l.). adubairt nac hgébadh gan éraic d'fagáil, BNnÉ 89.9 . Nír gap uaidip gan bangcēd, Fl. Earls 68.25 . ní ghéabhaidh ód ghruaidh gan bheith feithmheach ..., TD 19.6 . ni ragab acht a anmnigud o anmaim (of Lifea and Mag Life), LL 159a31 . ni ro-gabsat uada acht a bréthir do comallad friu, PH 908 . nir gabhsat uadha gan a athchur, BNnÉ 236.31 . ni rogab acht oentech do denam imme, Anecd. i 9.11 . Also ní gaib co : nī rogaib A. co tarta rātha ┐ gremand fris `A. did not rest satisfied till securities and bonds were given to him,' Cáin Ad. § 22 ; § 26 . supports, upholds (?) glossed congbann : in tí na gaibh rechtge, ni tuilledh rechtge dó .i. in tí na congbhann in díretad, O'D. 712 ( H 3.17, c. 520 ). concerns, affects : comaithces ... is cuma no do gaib aire fri aithech, Laws iv 68.4 . In some cases nearly = fo-gaib : ni gaib airechas it does not get leadership, Wb. 3d8 . canas a ngabar índ aile dec `whence is the twelfth derived ?' Laws iv 198.1 Comm. 16.11 Comm. rogab lige n-úar i n-úir, Metr. Dinds. ii 36.4 .

(b) With pers. obj. receives, admits : manumgaibi ar charit (= Si ergo habes me socium), Wb. 32a16 . na gaph tescariut mar caruid, Ériu v 126.8 . rogabad som hirige, Ml. 14a4 . conadragaib ina munteras, IT i 74.5 . arroeta[t]ar (.i. ro gabadar) he co fáilti, ACL iii 30 § 81 . ro gabadh go honórach hé ón rígh, RC xxv 388.6 . sí ar feadh na gorta níor gheabh `throughout the famine he disowned her' (i.e. would not have her), TD 15.31 . g.¤ nech i n- takes, receives as (in the quality of) : gebtit iudei i n-apid `Judaei will receive him as lord,' Wb. 26a8 . Cf. gabsi cadessin abbaith, Thes. ii 242.21 . co ro-n-gabthar i n-ar mbraithrib do Christ, PH 7883 . do gab se 'na la ciunaiss dó fén é `he took it for a day of rest,' BCC 408.12 . A somewhat different idea with ar : gebidh in aimsir frecnairc arna huilib aimseraib he takes the present time for all times, Auraic. 84.

(c) takes by force, captures . duairci bas dun chach ṅgaibde whom they seize, Ml. 76a16 . condagaibtis intais amprom trianintleda that the wicked used to seize them through their snares, 31c6 . damsa bed gabthi (gl. nihil defuit ad capiendum me), 76d4 . fer gaibes fer beogabail, Laws iv 336.8 . Na mna ... rogabad la Creon rofhosclad dibh la Teis, TTebe 4907 . romgab in críne m'imlúad old-age has deprived me of my power of motion, Ériu iv 154.15 . co[r] gabatar tech fuirre they stormed the house in which she was, RC xv 323 ( Dinds. 23 ). Ro gabhadh an droichet forra, AFM vi 1992.5 . gébtáit ar tír frind, TBC-I¹ 172 . gabsit tír and ar chlaideb, ZCP viii 313.21 . gabsat tír im Themair Breg, Hail Brigit § 18 ( LL 50a10 ). For g.¤ láim expels, g.¤ láim for enjoins, see lám and s.v. gabál. Fig. dede huangaibter in descipuil oc eitsecht inna preceptorae `... whereby disciples are taken,' Ml. 122c2 . A Eua, cid arnotgeib ? (= ar-ṅdot-geib ?) what is the matter with thee ?, SR. 1693 . g.¤ buaid wins a victory: ní ba unus gebas a m-buáid, Wb. 11a6 . isóinfer gaibes buáid diib, 11a4 . gabsat búaid, Fél. Jan 28 ; July 6 .

(d) More rarely holds, maintains (against an enemy, etc.): ro gabsat co setrech ... in tech commatain, TFerbe 339 . Cf. ré fer ná ré mnái ... ní gabtar in t-aracul the little house is never closed against man or woman, SG 245.8 .

(e) affects, takes hold of (lit. seizes, possesses) of a mental condition or the like; more commonly affects injuriously (of disease, danger or other evil influence); esp. bewitches, paralyses: nachinrogba derchoíniud, Wb. 15d40 . nachas-ragbad torsi díachessadsom, RC iv 246 § 3 . gabaidh toirrsi mor M.E., Ériu v 72.13 . rom gab trist, TBC(C) 1058 . conidrogbad huall, Ml. 39d22 . nísgaibed tart nā līae, Hy. ii 29 . conidgaib codlad de, TBC-I¹ 371 . do gob ita iarsin iad 'thirst seized them', ITS xxxix 38 § 233 . ro gobustair ferg mor he 'great wrath seized him', ITS xxxix 38 § 233 . romgab imtholta im erscéluib Tāno do ḟaisnēis dam, ACL iii 3.18 . gabsai format, ZCP xi 108.2 . ní-dom-geibend ecal, Metr. Dinds. iii 152.18 . ma rangba crith, Ériu vii 168.30 . rongab failte, BB 493b30 . do gab gengairi ... é, BCC § 98 . in corrmíl bá in sengán nom-gaib isin crecht `that nips me in the wound,' BDD 162 . ni-mragba nathir, Misc. Hib. 20.1 . nin geib rind, TBC-LL¹ 3209 . nachumgabat gái, KMMisc. 256 § 28 . ní geibhtis renna ... he, RC xliii 46 § 45 . Ni báid usce he ... ┐ ni geba iarn, PH 7278 . ni gabad arm é, Ériu iii 166.36 . ros gabsat idain Moncha, CMMucr. 50 § 42 . re siu ro gobad galar `before disease took hold on him,' Ir. Review 1912.250 . RC iii 177.7 . gabais buidre a cluasa 'deafness seized their ears', Blathm. 96 § 21 . nis ragaibh lugha dighe thirst did not oppress them, AFM i 382.7 . Ro chansat-side brechta druidechta ina agid, co ro gabait a chossa ocus a láma so that his legs and arms were stricken, SCC 48 ( LU 4028 ). Cf. do gabhadh a chosae ┐ a lamha fair, ZCP x 14.4 . Lism. L. 3043 . rogabtha a cossae cona dernae figild, Mon. Tall. § 34 . gabtar cassa na n-each (i.e. by the power of St. Molasius), SG 26.19 .

(f) puts, applies: gabais iarom a mér ina bēolu, RC xxv 344.z . geibh ind uisqui put it in water, Lism. L. 2676 . gabhais minn ... fa a cheann, CF 903 . in t-aire rogabsabair foraib, ZCP viii 318.25 . ro-gabsat étach corcorda imme, PH 3295 . rogobad ola ... da churp oil was applied to his body, TTebe 2560 . geibid na claidhmi dar a n-aigthib doip `slash the swords over their faces,' CCath. 5163 . conid hé gebes claideb dó, RC xxi 386.14 . gabais tabaill dōib, TBC-I¹ 1100 . gaibthi dō he plies it on him, 1735 . `gebid dúrna dar a gnúis dó,' PH 2330 . RC xliii 28 § 25 . ord don Chrumm rogab he plied a sledge hammer on C., Metr. Dinds. iv 22.9 . geibidh otrach ... ┐ clocha dó, BNnÉ 34.14 . Idiom: Ní raghatt ... ar nach gabat in sluagh imchumhang an toighi form `lest the army pen me in the house,' BS § 55 ( BS² 1660 ).

(g) puts on, assumes: gaibid mod ṅargumint it takes the form of an argument, Ml. 64c12 . Ca delb rogabais ?, Ériu iv 104 § 53a . rogabsi delb fhir do Grecaib fuirri she assumed the form of a Greek, TTebe 3449 . Ar ghabhabhair do ghné an chróigh the ruddy hue you had assumed, IGT Decl. ex. 318 . g.¤ caille puts on the veil (i.e. becomes a nun): gabais caille la Patricc Lassar, Thes. ii 238.16 ( Ardm. 17a2 ). g.¤ arm (gasced) assumes warrior status: romoch lind ra gabais armu, TBC-LL¹ 1163 . `in gaisced gebis (gebes LU) in gilla ?', TBC-I¹ 562 . g.¤ colaind takes flesh: ro-gabais colaind ndoenda, PH 164 . g.¤ étach, etc. (usu. with imm and refl. pron.) puts on clothes: gaibid immib a n-etach macc cóimsa, Wb. 27b16 . lasse gabas immbi, 13d22 . dond fíanerred ... rogabastár-som immi, TBC-I¹ 1870 . 2038 . gab etach ... pendaite umat, PH 452 . gabhuis a éideadh aithfrinn, Irish Texts i 38.18 . do ghabh fa na ghealghlacuibh á lamhanna, Rel. Celt. ii 262.25 . Fig. na daoine ghabhas orra grádh do bhriathar-sa do bheith aca `such as appear to reverence ... thy word,' Carswell 61.

(h) g.¤ cuan, port, etc., gains, reaches (a destination): gur ghabhsad cuan they put into port, Keat. i 142.51 . ro gabhsat caladh, Leb. Gab.(i) i 224 § 150 . gabuis port curuch C.C., Mon. Tall. § 66 . in tan ro gabsat na curaig tír, LU 6922.

(i) g.¤ dúnad, longport fixes, pitches (a camp): gabthe dunad les fris, Ml. 55c1 . co ro gab longphort oc Muaid, RC xxiv 178 § 6.

(j) chooses, assigns, fixes (a day, meeting, etc.): Do ghabh sé tráth rer teibi he has assigned a time for our destruction, IGT Decl. ex. 160 . gabsat la catha, BNnÉ 10.7 . do gabhsad ... lā cuinne, Duan. F. i 13.23 . do gabatar lá a cend mís do fhregra chatha da cheile, L. Chl. S. § 12 . rogabadh coinne, Expugn. Hib. § 76.

(k) takes up, sets about, begins (an employment or occupation), usu. with vn.: gabais eigsi corbo sui, ZCP xiv 154.11 . Nás rogaibi gním cen gáis, Metr. Dinds. iii 48.13 . Ó rogabsat ... tochmarc Túaige, iv 58.17 . is é cles do ro ghabh an ingen ... dona hógaibh, RC xxix 110 § 4 . gabais cluche arísi, LU 1715 . gabaid ... imbirt a dornn foraib, TBC-I¹ 431 . gaibig (gabaid , LU) immān līathrōide riam darin nārmaig, 455 . rogab formalad na sin (sic leg.) began to extol the weather (Four Old Irish Songs), Rawl. 107a3 ; ni ragab si labrath cid acht, Irish Texts i 2 § 3 ; 14 § 42 . dianragabsa dībrugud isin tailm, 1054 . gebid cách díb ... leod ┐ letrad, TFerbe 728 . ro gab ... scaindred ... int ṡluáig, 732 . geibid glanad na hadba, Metr. Dinds. iii 246.61 . Cid imma ngabthar trebad ?, ZCP viii 112.17 . rogab torad tercugad, rogab talam olcugadh, ZCP vii 309.9 . do ghabadar na díbfergaig teichedh, SG 10.11 . o ro gabhus fogail, Moling § 16 . gabur aile do denam the fence is begun, Laws iv 70.24 gl. With infixed pron. anticipating the object of the vn.: romgab mo thēdi toghaois my wantonness has commenced to beguile me, Ériu ii 16 § 5 . Is labar tonn mara mair. rusgab in gaim comgabáil winter has begun to arouse it, Otia i 125 . Rosngap an mpachlach griseth the churl began to upbraid them, ITS ii 124 § 98 . (Cf. atároí astód he fails to stop them, LU 6793. ) Also gaibid for gaibid oc and gaibid fri, qq.v.

(l) conceives (a passion or emotion) the mental state being the obj. of the vb., a later construction than (e): gabaid feirg Cathal, MacCongl. 51.27 . geibhis aitricche ndiochra inn, BNnÉ 323 § 35 . rogab ét ingen R., Metr. Dinds. iii 94.13 . dogob nairi an ingen, iv 12.13 . gor gabh risin Fhein format, ZCP xi 43 § 44 . na gabh ... crith re gríoghail, ML 100.20 . an ní fá ngabhaim gúasacht, Studies 1921, 419 § 10 . co ngebtais ... ecla reimi, TTebe 2390 . ro gabustar-som uaill ... de-sin, RC xliii 14 § 7.

(m) thinks, infers . Sometimes with oc and refl. pron.: rogab a menma-sum robad budi la Grécu, LL 231b18 ( TTr. 1057 ). rogab a menma conad e Ænias in fer, Aen. 1591 . ni gebad delb eli dib acht `... would form no other conception of them but,' CCath. 782 . conid assin rogabad a tichtain a nelaip ciach, RC xii 58.9 . nī asa ṅ-gabtha, anything from which might be inferred, Rawl. 75a49 . ar mírbuil dino as gabtha do churp in Choimded dul isin tegdais foriatta, LB. 195a42 . Very frequent in Laws Comm. in this sense, e.g. Is ass gabar sin it is from this that that is deduced, Laws passim . na gebed ... nech aicce co mbad ... (= nemo putet ...), PH 6144 . na ragbam accaind ar dhíles na hindmusa do-ratait dúin (= ea non debemus retinere privata ...), 6123 .

(m 2) takes down from dictation; edits (?): Nicol hua hIceadha do gabh a nGaeidilg, NLI G2 248 . Ua Dubthaig do gab ┐ do scríb, NLI G5 f. 5v . See Angus Matheson Essays 88-89 .

(n) conceives (offspring). Common in later Church language. sul ar ghab sí C. ina broinn, SG 1.9 . Géabhair mac ón Athair, A. Ó Dálaigh i 7 . do bhrigh nach gabhthar ón Spiorad Naomh acht Mac Dé, Eochairsg. 120.5 . do gabhadh ón Sbiorad naomh, Ó Héodhusa 7. With object unexpressed: Gabhais an ógh ón Athair, A. Ó Dálaigh i 1 .

(o) g.¤ for, with refl. pron., takes (a burden, responsibility on one's self), undertakes . geibid foraib faisam in meic, TBC-LL¹ 934 . geib-siu ḟort na ticfa d'ḟortacht ... fer n-hErend, 4668 . gabaim-si immorro form ōn Coimdhe co nā ba lugaite di (= do) rath, ACL iii 309.14 . gabhuid sin ortha fein they undertake to do that, BNnÉ 159 § 16 . gabait forro ferta ... nach fétat do dénam dóib, FA § 28 . gabh ort mo choimhéad, Dán Dé iii 19.

(p) g.¤ co, with refl. pron., takes to oneself, receives, cf. TSh. Glossary. Leg. assumes (?): gabaimse cugam a breitheamnaibh nach tarrus aos láime, O'D. 1700 ( H 2.12, No. 8, p. 1 ).

(q) takes a path, etc., traverses, reaches: Is mair[g] mairg ... gabus in athgairit-si dochumm n-iffirn, PH 7608 . conar inna aithrige dia mbeth nech nodagabad, Ériu i 200 § 24 . rogabhsat an clochán astech, v 94.2 . an t-eolass comcoitchenn gabus cach docum an oilen, BCC 234.23 . gabhait in fhairrgi, Fl. Earls 8.19 . With neut. aff. pron. as cognate obj.: gaibte (.i. teit) Moling, Fél. 152.13 . gaibt[h]i sīar she goes west, ACL iii 1.15 . gaibthi inund, Ériu ii 24.7 . gaibhthe ... docum na meithle, Lism. L. xii 2.

(r) provides for, holds, celebrates (a festival): is de sin no geibed Flidais cach sechtmad láa di feraib Herend do bóthorud dia thoscid ocon Táin, LU 1631 . Conchobar ... fessin no gaibed in samuin dóib, Ériu iv 26 § 14 ( LL 106b30 ). a menain si con-gabaind an Chaisc dōib, Irish Texts i 7 § 23 .

(s) becomes, suits (late): is olc ghabhus tú h'atán `badly doth thy hat become thee,' TD 38.48 .

(t) ? legal phrase: is mor nodcuri ┐ nodgabai fein id dhalaib `greatly dost thou put thyself and take thyself (?) in thy causes,' IT iii 201.1 .

II Intrans.

(a) goes, proceeds, extends: gaibid in rí condeissid forsin cholcaid, SG 414.7 ( LL 279b10 ). gebid ... sair, RC vii 300.1 . car ghabh an crodh ?, xxiii 10.6 . rogab remi ar ammus mara, TTr.² 146 . ar fágcbail tslebi San C. ... gebair ... co mainister manach, Maund. § 49 . cualli iairn isin brutt ... co n-geib on gualaind go araile dó so that it extends, TBC-LL¹ 5387 . gaibid ind ōcben chucu draws near, RC xiii 375.18 . cor' gabh in clais sin ó imell an longphuirt co caladh in mara sís, CCath. 1740 . gabhaidh iar sin anfadh for an ath a tempest passes over the ford, RC xliii 86 § 87 . gabh go dún Í Dhonnchadha, Gofraidh Fionn i i 15 ( Ir. Monthly 1919 ). An ruibēr gabus go Louāine, Fl. Earls 64.15 . doirsi tré ngabhann an Críostaidhe, Ó Héodhusa 14. With imm surrounds: coro gabsat immut uli `es hatten dich umgeben alle,' TFerbe 47 6. Fig. dogabsat ara coradaib `they turned to their sureties,' Ériu v 116.47 .

(b) settles, lands, takes up one's abode (esp. of the founder of a religious community): co ragbaiset hi trácht Fuirbthi they landed on F. strand, LU 6921 ( BDD 53 ). co ro gabsat i mBrēntrācht, ITS xliv 12 § 379 = gabsat Brentracht, LL 1466 . gur' gab isin bruach eli, CCath. 2616 . anadh ait a ngabadh fom mo c[h]urach, Anecd. i 72.203 . ara ṅgabtais i purt Semeonta, LL 219b46 ( TTr. 200 ). gabsat ... hic Temuir, ZCP viii 305.25 . mad beich rogabat and `if it be bees that have taken up their abode there,' Laws iv 168.27 . sruth. ... ro gab for brú amnis (of an anchorite), Fél. 42.36 . is é gebhus i rRind Ruis B. `it is he who will found a community at R.,' RC xxvii 274.4 . Asi sin aimsir roghabhasdair F. ... a Sliabh Ealpa, Hy Fiach. 18.7 . a ndíochur as in maighin i raghbhaiset (of troops encamped), AFM iv 902.26 . gabsat ann-sin co mucha lai ara barach, RC xliii 62 § 63.

(c) holds out, remains: ro gab ina chind co maeth-tráth éirgi arnabarach (`behauptete [das Haus],' Wind.), TFerbe 393 . gabus C. ina righi ... cu tainic in bodhith, RC xliii 12 § 5.

(d) Grammat. t. is declined: ionann ghabhuid (i.e. fine, aicme, etc.) d'úathadh ┐ d'iollradh, IGT 37 n. 6 . A fig. use of (a) ? Cf. Clann Charthaigh 's gach gné i ngabhoid `each of its species,' TD 32.15 .

(e) holds sway, reigns: dia éis ro gab C., Arch. Hib. ii 85 § 48 . ro gab ós Mide, 82 § 6 . na ríg rogabsat ō Chimbaeth co C., ZCP viii 326.17 . espoc S. .i. cetna comharba roghabh iar Finnén, Lism. L. 2633 . gebaid mac in duinn nadeig, Fen. 150.16 . BNnÉ 254.10 .

(f) takes hold, takes effect: as tene gabus gu grod `a spark that kindles quickly,' Ériu iv 212.11 dinin disail for gair gabhaidh takes effect on a short [syllable], Auraic. 1547.

III Perfect forms with neut. inf. pron. (ron[d] gabus, ron[d] gab, ron[d] gabsat) are used in O.I. and survive in Mid. I. as periphrases of the pres. ind. of subst. vb. in nasalising relative sentences, esp. after `amal' or its equivalent. In origin an idiomatic use of I (a), i.e. `I have taken it,' GOI § 781. Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 436 . Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899, p. 12 . nobiad chách amal rongabusa as I am, Wb. 9d25 . ceín rongabus i carcair as long as I am in prison, 23b18 . ni fitetar amal rongab they know Him not as He is, 27a11 . [ita] rongab scientia lib as there is s. with you, 6d12 . rongab remcaissiu Daé dinaib dulib, Ml. 20c3 . fobíth rongab torsum ┐ tortum, Sg. 172b1 . amal rongabsat in túisil olchenæ hi tuiter, 71a11 . co ceoluib ┐ ligbothaib amal rongab fo[r]na seacht ndealba ind richid, Ériu ii 106.14 . anruth ... ni nascar fair, amail ro gab rig Erenn, Laws iv 358.19 ; 334.6 . atat araile pectha ... sicut rongabsat fingala, RC xv 488.5 . is maith rongabus fritt I am good to thee, LL 249b1 . is si in derbhfine amuil ro gab bruinne in duine, O'D. 548 ( H 3.17, c.436 ). mar ro gab mét a sochraiti because of the number of their host, Cog. 66.23 . Cf. amail ro gaba (pres. subj.) as it may be, as for instance , O'Curry 2298 ( Eg. 88, f. 22 [23c] ).

IV sings, chants, recites; declares (cf. similar use of canaid). Oc cormaim gaibtir dúana, Thes. ii 295.16 . nosgaibtis for clais they used to sing them in choir, Ml. 2b7 . tre ailli gaibther re proinn, Wb. 28c20 . gabis ailli (gl. benedixit), Thes. i 495.1 ( Ardm. 77a1 ). gabais doib inna rundu sa sis, LU 3307 ( SCC § 11 ). gébdait mecc beca na runda sin, MacCongl. 17.16 . ro gab ceol, Fél. Nov. 27 ; Ep. 114 ; 173 . dogabsat gloria glan aingil, ZCP viii 114.7 . Aedh ... do ghabadh moran dana, AU iii 196.21 . is de gaibthi igitur it is of this that he says `igitur,' Sg. 26b7 . dorumenatar combad fou nogabthe isint faithsini (sic leg.) they thought it was uttered in prophecy, Ml. 35b18 . gaibthir tra déde isin testiminse two things then are treated of in this text, Wb. 16d7 . gabar in pater i sanais, PH 7995 . in tan gaibther ecnaircc neich, Rule of Tallaght § 21 . In leigenn gabur co hard, Ériu v 22.9 . geib t'aiccept, a mic `repeat thy lesson,' Fél. 12.19 . cidbe gabus sin for nim no liun ní bia irchoit de (of an incantation), Laws i 2.22 Comm. `Rogaub an rand sa dam dia gabāil doid-se.' `Gab!' ol sé, ACL iii 1.16 .

V Further uses with preps.

(a) g.¤ ar

(1) holds back, restrains . connā gebethar ar lúamairecht lám dó, TBC-I¹ 1872 = TBC-LL¹ 2528 . na maidid in t-echt, noco ngaba fo thrí ar a anáil until he thrice holds in his breath, Mer. Uil. 135 . neach nach gabhann ar a ghuth, Ir. Monthly 1927, 308.3 . ar mh'osnaidh an uair ghabhuim, Ir. Monthly 1927, 361.41 . gabail ar a fual, Mon. Tall. 147.21 . gabam ar ferge (ḟergaib MS) fīrbruth, ACL iii 321.5 . aithchim ... gabháil díbh ar bhar ngáiribh ... restrain your laughter, Content. xvi § 88 . distrains: gaibter ar a fine comfocus do, co nimcuimet aire, O'D. 2180 (cf. Laws iv 128.5 ). g.¤ for = g.¤ ar: ni raigebthar fort you will not be stopped (i.e. from giving largess), LL 277b6 . dia ṅgabad forsin rúin if he tried to hold in the secret, Ériu iv 32.2 . dia roghabhduis inniu fora n-ítaidh ..., Lism. L. 4404 . Cid forsna geib glas na slabrad ?, ZCP xiii 274.3 . nach gebhtha forra tocht an conair, Hugh Roe 36.20 (10a) .

(b) g.¤ de hinders, holds back: nī gēbasa (gebsa LU) dīt ēm I shall not stand in your way, TBC-I¹ 1588 . ní gebam dít trí ḟornert, TFerbe 83 2. mani gabtáis na mórchoicthi díib, TTr.² 1092 . ma dethbir gabus de if necessity prevent him, Laws ii 58.16 Comm. mine gabad naire dim, Aen. 680 . Also with direct obj.: ní boi ní nogabad díbsom tabart fochaide foir, Ml. 33a5 . Nicongebsa ón dítsu ón cid cossin n-echaire théisi I shall not hold you back, TBFr. 314 ( LL 251a40 ). nī gabt[h]ar dím dul cech conair, ZCP iii 33.18 .

(c) g.¤ do:

(1) sets about, undertakes: do gab dá admolad, SG 309.5 . rogabh A. ... do comrag la F., ZCP xiii 174.33 .

(2) attacks, `goes for': dobeir cesti do chách et ni maith less cia gabthar do, Wb. 29b5 . rogabsat dó ar gach taeb, ZCP vi 79.26 . gabar doib co taethsat ann let them be pressed, MR 128.1 . ra gabhadh dhóib ... do chlochaibh, TFrag. 146.15 . ib. 186.7 . mad gabtha gāi dūaine dō, Bruchst. no. 28 .

(3) covers, fits: con-gebethar dóib o thaul co aurdorn (of mail-clad horses), TBC-LL¹ 2544 . con-gabad do o thana thaib co tiug a oxaille, 2561 . clíabinar ... co ngebethar dó co barrúachtar a dondfúathroci, LU 6557 . go ngabhadh dhó ó fhosadh-mhullach a chinn go a cholpa, ML 112.

(d) g.¤ fa attacks, charges at: ro ghabh fotha amhail faol fo chaorchabh, TFrag. 166.8 . ra ghabhsat ... fo na Loclannaibh, 174.13 . ? gébthir fo mac n-imraichni, Imr. Brain 27 § 57 (see EIL 217 ).​

(e) g.¤ for

(1) assails; attacks: ar gebaid in scol for aréli `one school will attack another,' Wb. 8a7 . gabsait do lorcuibh ... forro, Marco P. § 148 . gebtait forn, Rawl. 132a53 ( Cymmr. xiv 114.13 ). ra gabastar de chlochaib ... bar feraib hE., TBC-LL¹ 4618 . (ar = for) roglac bata ... ┐ rogab orra, ZCP vi 57.26 . Keat. iii 1430 . gabhaidh dá earball air, TSh. 2608.

(2) begins, sets about: gabsat for ól ┐ for aibnius, TBC-LL¹ 999 . ro-gab for toirsi moir, PH 3025 . doghabh for tairchetul, Lism. L. 929 . Marco P. § 114 . (ar= for) rogab ... ar buain in ghuirt, Ériu v 116.2 .

(3) overtakes: gabaid adaig forra, BColm. 78.1 .

(4) outshines, beats, defeats: rogab do chlú for a chlú, LL 50a31 ( Hail Brigit § 25 ). gebthar oirb a dtir nEireand you will be defeated, MR 62.20 .

(5) includes, comprehends: cia hænfocul gebes forna ceit[h]ri ernaili ind Auraicepta, Auraic. 1260.

(6) rules over: gebaid do ṡil ar Erinn, YBL 329a12 ( TMoméra 152.9 ). gēbaid for Liphemaigh, B. in Scáil § 31 . gabhaiss foraibh finnuibh coruibh, ZCP viii 197.6 . gabais for dōine domnaib, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 10 § 5 . mór ríg ro gab for Mide, Arch. Hib. ii 82 § 2.

(f) g.¤ fri:

(1) holds out against, prevails over: ni gebat frib ... i cathaib, SR 4835 . ni gébat frit' gnuis ṅgargdai (sic leg.) buidni borba barbardai, 5015 . ni gébad fri feta in serriti óc amulchach sain, TBC-LL¹ 1961 . ni ragbad riss no resistance was made to him, TFerbe 322 ( LL 255b27 ). nícon gébtar cath no comlonn frit, RC vi 183.10 . xviii 181.z (Tig.). gebaidh side fri dam (of a fence) `it will be a defence against oxen,' Laws iv 112.6 . claideb ... frisna gabtís lúirecha, TTr.² 1000 . ni gabtha friu ar a n-aicenta (of women) they should not be impugned (?) for their natures, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 20 § 11 . gabhaid sealad fri ḟeoil ... ar crabhudh they abstain from meat, TFrag. 124.10 . an tan no-gabdais caingni fer nErenn fris when the affairs of the men of Ireland were too much for (i.e. harrassed) him, ZCP xiii 262.15 . nocho ragaib Find ra ech `F. did not rein in his horse,' RC vii 294.87 . do chogainn crann a chraois[i]dhe (sic leg.) ... go a hionnsma, ionnas gur ab é a cró cruaid ... do ghabhastair re a gheal-dhéadaibh that offered resistance to his teeth, ML 62.19 . nochor béo-sa īarum oc gabāil fris nī bas sīriu, RC xiii 383.8 .

(2) warns, threatens (?): rogebad frind dia caithmis co fuidbemis bas ( LB 110b51 ), MacCarthy 52.15 .

(3) receives, welcomes (?): ro ghabh O Ferghail fris, ┐ do rad ferann dia cethraibh, AFM iv 1018.17 .

(4) commences: gabais fri grisad Cuind, LU 3169.

(g) g.¤ imm

(1) withholds, hides, conceals, refuses, refrains from: is annssa do dāinib gabāil im rūnaib rodochtaibh, Otia iii 49 § 9 . ba galar ... don gillu gabāil im a rūn, 48 § 5 . mian mna torrcha ... ocus ar daigin secdachta ro gabadh im in mbiadh, Laws i 180.6 Comm. ma ro chuindigh sí in biadh, ocus ... is e a fer ro gob im in mbiad, iii 550.14 ; 552.4 . doni eisinnroic don airchindech, mas e gabus uime, v 120.15 . duine do fédfadh maith do dénum ocus gabus uime gan a dénum, SG 40.33 . táinic in fer ros-buail (sc. in liathróit) ina diaidh. Rogab in cerd uimpi, the craftsman refused [to surrender] it, ZCP iv 240.10 . mad ro gabustar gataide im in fiadnaise if the thief withheld evidence, O'Curry 536 ( H 3.18, 265b ).

(2) Leg. distrains (in the matter of) : gaibead imme co n-ímcua `let him be distrained until he fences,' iv 128.4 = gaibet aire, O'D. 2180 ( Rawl. B 487, 66a2 ).

(3) Leg. makes good, compensates, condones (?) : o gebus iman fogail sin, Laws iv 16.13 Comm. foghal no fuaibread duine do denam, o bus cara no coibdeileach do no gebad uimpe, conad ínann do ocus no gabad budein ímpe, 16.18 Comm.

(4) adheres to (?) : mas tria comraiti rucustar ... in gu-breth (sic leg.) ocus ata ac gabail impi if he deliberately gave the false judgment and persists in it (?), Laws iii 304.8 .

(5) refl. dresses, arrays (oneself): lasse gabas immbi (gl. cum ... induerit), Wb. 13d22 . gabais Fráech immi cona muntir, TBFr. 351 ( LL 251b27 ). geib imut is imthigeom, SG 363.28 . Ériu v 156 , 178 . corragbat impu that they may dress, iii 100 § 24 .

(h) g.¤ in assails, belabours : ni gebthar inniut ... rotbia falti, RC viii 52.16 . tallsat in slaitt as a láim cor gabsat ina chend di, PH 3299 . gabhuid do ṡnáthaduibh i súilibh Lionóideach, Hy Fiach. 336.11 . gur ghabhadar da ngaothaibh ann, Keat. iii 3255.

(i) g.¤ la

(1) accepts, sides with, stands by : co ragbatar fir Alban leō ar connalbus, Otia ii 88.1 . gabhaim-si ... let (in answer to an offer of marriage), ZCP vi 283.3 . gab lind mar bar bfilidh féin, ii 348.19 . gin go gabhthasa leam, x 286.9 . gabhaidh Dia leis tar a locht `God forgives him spite of his sins,' A. Ó Dálaigh l.3 . feadh mo ghalair níor ghabh leam Pádraig ... P. did not help me, Dán Dé xiii 5 . ro ghabh an tír ... la Tepoitt, AFM vi 2012.28 . mo rí Gabhra an ngéabhadh lam, TD 12.11 . do ghabh ré n-a dhearbhráthair mar mhac `adopted ... as a son,' Keat. ii 5008 . gabhuimsi lé Pádraig (i.e. instead of the Reformers), Mac Aingil 4333 . prouensi ... gabhus le rīg na Fraingce, Fl. Earls 12.13 . Cf. 190.24 (fri).

(j) g.¤ oc (1) sets about, begins : ro gab ic fostud ... in t-ṡlúaig, TBC-LL¹ 470 ; ib. 1494 . gabaid oc neméle moir, ┐ oc aithrige, PH 814 . gabaidh ... ac snechta, SG 35.8 . gabhmaoid ... ag iompódh a intinne `we attempt ... diverting his mind,' TD 8.27 . (2) sides with, stands by ; passing into sense is partial to, lets off : gab got c[h]omarsain mad fann, ZCP vi 272.3 . dlegar ... co ro-gaba ... ic na fannaib, PH 4157 . a Césair ... ro gabhsum acut, CCath. 541 . sellach slan ... gaibes oca cach nirt ocus cach folud an onlooker (at a deed of violence) is exempt if he comes to their support (i.e. of the injured parties) with all his strength and substance, Laws i 242.7 . gabuid ac lucht mo cille, BCC § 277 . a thigerna, gab agum forgive me, ZCP vi 94.30 . TSh. 3593 . nach gabhann an bás ag druing ar bioth dona daoinibh (i.e. does not pass over), TSh. 50 . gur geb (v.l. gab) gá gáeithib | fúair gach fer a dháeithin díbh till he spared (?) his darts, IGT Decl. ex. 644.

(k) g.¤ ós gains supremacy over : mórrí ... ro gab os Herind, LU 4041 . ro gab ós Mide mongréid, Arch. Hib. ii 82 § 6.

VI Is used in combination with a number of nouns. See achmusán, áilges, aiss, athgabáil, cairdes (alliance), 1 cath, 1 cet, cíall, coinne, comairle, commairge, desimrecht, fáilte, flaithius, forbais, geis, gnáth, goim, 1 grád, 1 gráin, greimm, inad, lám, leithscél, maidm, merg (rust), nert (also trén, 1 treise), ríge, tech, 1 tír, tuinide.

ibid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ibid or dil.ie/27135

 

Forms: ibiu, ibid, ib, ibes, ipius, ibas, eabhus, ebait, ebat, ebair, ibur, n-eabur, ibead, ibdis, ib-siu, eabam, ibid, -eba, —esb, n-eba-su, conasebi, hesboi, esbe, róiba, conusebem, ebthái, n-ebat, n-ebtar, n-eisbhiudh, n-ebad, n-ebtáis, -íba, ib, híb, íobhsa, íobhadsa, hiba, cotenibha, cotaniphtha, no-das-ībai, iobaidh, ibthius, ipthuss, íobhas, n-íbham, ibait, ibthi, ibdait, íbthar, ibthar, ibhaind, íobhainn, íbad, íbad, iobhtáis, eisbius, n-esbius, ibis, itibis, assib, n-essib, nisib, essib, atib, itib, assibsem, adibsem, atibset, esbetar, corasebatar, asibedh, esbed, iphthi, ól, ibe

v indic. pres. s 1 ibiu, Trip.² 550. s. 3 ibid, LU 8826. ni ib , Wb. 28b24 . rel. ibes (v.l. ipius), IT i 77.21 . ibas, SR 1963. eabhus, BB 262b49 . pl. 3 ebait, Corm. Y 468. nad ebat , Mon. Tall. 147.19 . pass. s. ebair, O'Dav. 539. ibur, ZCP vi 257 § 6. asa n-eabur , Laws v 408.23 Comm. imperf. s. 3 no ibead , BDD² 124. pl. 3 nicon ibdis , Mon. Tall. 129.18 . ipv. s. 2 ib-siu, RC vi 175.45 . pl. 1 eabam, Goid. 78 § 195. pl. 2 ibid, Wb. 22c7 . subj. pres. s 1 (subj. stem -eba; the Mid. Ir. stem —esb comes from the perf.) céin co n-ebar, PH 2995. s. 2 dia n-eba-su , Goid. 105.11 . s. 3 conasebi, Trip. ii 436.13 . co nā hesboi , Cáin Ad. § 18. co nā esbe , ib. perf. róiba `der zu trinken pflegt,' Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 551 , q.v. Wb. 31b9 . pl. 1 conusebem, Trip. ii 436.15 . pl. 2 mina ebthái , PH 7927. pl. 3 acht co n-ebat , ZCP i 106.2 . pass. pl. n-ebtar, Ml. 101d5 . subj. past s. 3 co n-eisbhiudh , Lism. L. 118 (for subj. pres.). cein co n-ebad , PH 5236. pl. 3 co n-ebtáis , TTr. 1904. fut. s. 1 (fut. stem -íba) ní ib , LU 1677. nach híb , PH 2994. ní íobhsa , O'Gr. Cat. 463.12. íobhadsa, A. Ó Dálaigh ix 5. s. 3 na hiba , BB 262b48 . cotenibha, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 51.3 (v.l. cotaniphtha). no-das-ībai, ZCP xiii 373.35 . iobaidh, Leb. Gab.(i) 46.18 . With suffix. pron. -us: ibthius, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 51.19 . ipthuss, 50.5 . rel. íobhas, Eochairsg. 99.7 . pl. 1 in n-íbham , BNnÉ 63 § 90. pl. 3 ibait, Ml. 30c18 . ZCP xii 233.18 . ibthi (with suff. pron.), Mon. Tall. 129.33 . With double ending: ibdait, PH 6901. pass. s. íbthar, Trip.² 551. nícon ibthar , Mon. Tall. 129.31 . sec. fut. s. 1 do ibhaind , RC xxvii 300 § 71. ní íobhainn , Dánta Gr. 8.23 . s. 3 nach íbad , PH 5235. do íbad , Maund. § 61. pl. 3 no iobhtáis , BNnÉ 63 § 90.

pret. and perf. (perf. formed with preverb ess-). Later forms have at- (=ess + petrified infixed pronoun 3 s. n.). s. 1 nicon eisbius , Anecd. i 14.4 . ica n-esbius , Bruchst. i 20 § 40. s. 3 ibis, YBL 180a15 . itibis, Ériu iv 158.23 . assib, Bruchst. 53 § 117. co n-essib , LU 4246. nisib (=ni essib ), Ériu ii 186.10 . atib, v 242.164 . itib, CCellaig 823. pl. 1 assibsem, Wb. 12a17 . adibsem, KMMisc. 314.7 . pl. 3 atibset, Thes. ii 323.15 ( Hy. iv Pref. ). meni esbetar , LL 115a47 . corasebatar, Trip. ii 436.16 . pass. s. asibedh, Ériu xii 158.11 (Tochm. Ét.). nicon esbed , Mon. Tall. 129.15 .

part. iphthi, ZCP vi 257 § 6. Vn. ól, later also ibe.

drinks: ib quasi bib i.e. bibe, Corm. Y 748. ni ib fínn combi mescc, Wb. 28b24 . deugaigfit .i. ibait son, Ml. 30c18 . n-ebtar no dundaleter gl. exauriri, 101d5 . gaibiu anfis, ibu [anfis fri sia úathib ibiu lithu in Christo Ihesu] I drink in ignorance ?, Trip.² 549 - 50 . gair chucat thfer cúmtha conas-ebi cumaid araen fritt `that he as well as thou may drink it,' Trip. ii 436.13 . Cain cur Corpri cotenibha hart (=cota n-ība) that he will drink it, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 51.3 . nícon ibthar lind dermait dé and `the liquor that causes forgetfulness of God shall not be drunk here,' Mon. Tall. 129.31 . is tech i nebar in chuirm `in which ale is drunk,' Laws iii 198.22 Comm. ica n-esbius ... srūaim de mid `bei der ich ... einen Metstrom getrunken habe,' Bruchst. i 20 § 40. ibait fíaich lúgbairt lacht, LU 4669. cen dig ... acht meni esbetar sál in mara, RC viii 54.4 (= LL 115a47 ). is si asibedh sin digh `she it is that was swallowed in a drink,' Ériu xii 158.11 . for Coirpri Liphechair fer no-ības tond, ZCP xiii 377.2 . sellaidh [ind] intí nat ibh | iūidh intí dian coïr, vii 269.4 . es bec a ain iphthi compí sāithech, vi 257 § 6 .

Used figuratively : assibsem imróol di rath in spirito nóib `we have drunk,' Wb. 12a17 . ibid imról di suidiu `drink ye a great draught of this' (gl. impleamini Spiritu sancto), 22c7 . ni essibh bass cen dolmai, AU i 404.19 . ni heistibh ebair in t-airchetul, O'Dav. 539. do ibh 'na haondigh an rath ríogh `at one draught she drank the royal grace,' PBocht 2 § 30. ar bhfuil gan fháth nír ibhis `not without good cause didst Thou assume our blood,' 21 § 26 .

In a rather wider sense : a n-iobha slógh mear Mumhan `when the nimble folk of Munster feast ...,' Ériu v 54.31 . ibhthear fleadh re ceann gCláire | ar gheall ḟear na himáine, IGT Decl. ex. 1184.

Of sucking the breast : me rothusim, mo cích ro-s-ib, LB 141a13 . ar na cíche ór ibh, Dán Dé xxv 44.

int(ṡ)liucht

Cite this: eDIL s.v. int(ṡ)liucht or dil.ie/28959
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: intle(a)cht, intṡliucht, intliucht, intṡliucht, intlecht, t-indleacht, intliuchta, intṡliuchto, inntlechta, indliuchtu, n-intliuchtae, inntleacht, indleacht, inntleacht, intlecht

n u, m. (Lat. intellectus) Late Mid. and Mod. Ir. intle(a)cht. The form intṡliucht is due to the analogy of intṡamail (Zimmer, KZ xxx 95 ). n s. intliucht, Wb. 26d23 . int intṡliucht , Sg. 201a2 . intlecht, MR 182.19 . an t-indleacht , DDána 3 § 17. g s. intliuchta, Sg. 210a5 . intṡliuchto, 209b32 . inntlechta, O'Curry 970 (< H 3.18, p. 416 ). a p. indliuchtu, Ml. 18c11 . g p. inna n-intliuchtae , Ml. 26c3 . See inntleacht indleacht, IGT Decl. § 24.5 . Later f. inntleacht mhór, Begley-MacCurtin 550a16. Cf. Dinneen.

(a) faculty of understanding, intellect, discernment; mind; act of discerning, distinguishing between: intlecht (inntlecht, v.l.) gl. ingenium, Ir. Gl. 734. maith a n-intlucht foirbthi a cétbuidi `good (is) their discernment: perfect their senses,' Wb. 33c18 . pad glicc far n-i.¤ gl. [re]formamini ... sensus uestri, 5c21 . ro léiced a n-i.¤ foa réir fadésne `their reason has been left under their own control,' 5b3 . scríbend menmman .i. robbói fora inndṡliuchtsom `it had been in his mind,' Sg. 178b3 - 4 . do neuch lassatá sians ┐ i.¤ `sense and understanding,' Ml. 124c15 . dénam tormach n-eólais | do i.¤ co saichi `to a bad understanding,' Fél. Prol. 318. tabair dam inad it' churp | iar mo dliged, iar m'i.¤ , SR 1154. áes ind intliuchta áin, 7830 . deochair et[er] maith is olcc | cona raib accaib d'i.¤ , 1252 . dethbir eter conn ┐ ceill ┐ inntlecht : conn fri forb[th]etaid ┐ ciall fri himcomét ┐ indtlecht fri etargnugud tuicsina (leg. tuicsen, Ed.) `for distinguishing ideas,' O'Dav. 755. tri búada ... .i. búaid roisc ┐ intliuchta ┐ airdmessa, LU 4791. ar idhna a mesraighthe, ocus ar aíne a indtliuchta `on account of the clearness of his judgment and the nobleness of his intellect,' Laws iv 356.19 . aicned .i. in ghne inntlechta ┐ fhaicsina na nugdar, O'Curry 970 (< H 3.18, p. 416 ). ecna, i.¤, comarle (among the `secht ndāna Dé dún'), ZCP v 499 § 4. coillet bar cialla ┐ bar n-íntlechta, Alex. 910. ni roich intlecht aen duine ... túr na teist, na tuaruscbail D., MR 182.19 . níor chaomhain ... a intleacht Aristotail, TSh. 611. In concrete sense, a learned man, a wise man: nech nosfuaslaiced ... | ni fuar d'intliuchtaib Egept, SR 3312.

(b) ingenuity, skill: míli ... do aes cacha hintluchta, SR 7208. sóifid cách a dán i sáibforcital ┐ i saibintliucht, LL 188c23 . stuagdruimne rinnta ... arna coimecur tre indtlechtaibh ollamhan, CCath. 4729. cuis airic derbad a intlechta `the cause of its invention, as a proof of his ingenuity, Auraic. 5471. maille hilimud inntlechta ┐ eladhan with great skill, Stair Erc. 1625. ar na grabháil ... lé hinntleachd dáonda, Acts xvii 29 . aidhme iongnaithe d'amhainsi ealadhan ┐ inntlechta `with great art and ingenuity,' AFM iii 280.17 .

(c) meaning, signification (of a word or passage) : do línad intliuchta uerbi `to perfect the sense of the verb,' Sg. 210a5 . is tríit astoascther intṡliucht cach muid `the meaning of every mood,' 148b7 . is hinunn intṡliucht sluindite diblinaib, 76b5 . ní redigedar dano i.¤ ind sailm, Ml. 24d22 . iarsint i.¤ ebridiu `according to the Hebrew signification,' 37a8 . do thintud in suin ebraidi sluindes ilsésu ┐ ilintliuchtu la ebreu, 37a10 . in cíul ocus in n-i.¤ fil isint ṡalm, Hib. Min. 174. ar immaircidetaid (MS. ar imairceta) a céille ocus a n-intliuchta friu `because of the agreement of their sense and meaning with them,' 138 .

(d) contriving, plotting, method, plan, stratagem: gebaidh (?) luth n-echtrand tria indtleachthaibh drúadh, TBC-LL¹ 5488. dotuitetar morán tría a inntlecht through his contriving, Aisl. Tond. 105 § 2. muna ffuil inntleacht éigin agaib d'fhurtacht m'fhoiréigin, Ériu ix 6.57 . co fil fodord mor ┐ inntlecht (intled, v.l.) oc na hI.¤ fritt , LB 146c16 ; 'snare' Celtica x 256 . tuig ... nach ineitigh iad acht dentar intleacht uman ni is lugha dofetar da tabairt doib de use strategy ... (when a convalescent patient asks for unsuitable food), 23 P 10³, 27b28 . réidh tre inntleacht do fhéad bheith `by some device He might have gone free,' Aithd. D. 58 § 17. do-rinneadh inntleacht uirre a scheme was devised to deal with it, DDána 88 § 13. do thuit se d'íntleacht Oiliolla ... a cionaidh éada uim a mhnaoi, ITS xvi 74.10 . de ingen[i]is curandi morbos d'intlecht leigheas nan galur, Mackinnon Cat. 301.24 . ... trem inntlecht ┐ trem ealadhnoib diaplaidhi, Fl. Earls 138.10 . ? To this : tú is t'fían ag imthecht an láidh | mar inntleacht ngíall do ghabháil, IGT Decl. ex. 1736.

láechdacht

Cite this: eDIL s.v. láechdacht or dil.ie/29311

 

Forms: láechtacht

n ā, f. (láechda) later occas. also láechtacht

(a) valour, chivalry : fó mo c[h]erd laechdachta, LU 6169 ( TBC-I¹ 1685 ). dolig dán laechdacht chivalry is a difficult art, LL 346a40 . dobert rī Alban grádugad mōr dona Collaib ar a laechdacht, ZCP viii 318.12 . tre laechdacht a llaime, TTebe 1450 . bas ar gnimaib gaile ┐ laec[h]dhachtae, CCath. 3700 . laechdacht leomain, Ann. Conn. 1256.6 . ni haithechus .i. ni laochdacht, O'Dav. 53 . di-bi-arg .i. ni la laochacht adrīmt[h]er . . . nī bī i cōir laochachtae diultad Dē, O'Mulc. 309 . más dealbh, más laochdhacht, más lúdh, Aithd. D. 58.7 . laochtacht, Keat. iii 3061. In phr. fír láechdachta fair behaviour of warriors : ní fír laechdachta dó tuidecht ar mo chendsa, LU 6014 ( TBC-I¹ 1547 ). ar fir do laechtach(t)doi fritt `by the truth of thy valour', RC x 214.21 .

(b) the lay state, life of a layman : dobert a rogha dia dhalta in loechdacht no an cleirchecht, etc., Lism. L. 3058 . is lor dam [a ḟat] itú [oc]on loechdhacht so `long enough have I been at this layman's work', 1950 .

lesán

Cite this: eDIL s.v. lesán or dil.ie/30005

 

ind fer[r?] a damain fritt cnesán / dogné lesan cach duinea, Ériu ii 227 § 2 (`diminutive of less advantage', Strachan).

saethraigidir

Cite this: eDIL s.v. saethraigidir or dil.ie/35918

 

Forms: saethrugad

v (saethar) works, labours.

(a) intrans.: is airi asbertar prímgeindi do suidib huare saithraigte in doini friu (of first-fruits), Ml. 123c8 . serc la Dia maicc Israhél frissaru-saithraigestar oc a tuididen for whom He had laboured, 92c5 . issed a cétna ro saethraiged frissin n-ag the same [amount of] labour had been expended on the ox, LL 285b33 . corp . . . in duine shoethraiges ar Dia, PH 3546 . Pól . . . is e is mó do soethraig dona hulib apstalaib, 1652 . saethraigfit bar saerchlanda your nobles will be forced to work, Alex. 213 . ni saethraigem ┐ ní threbam, 856 . co saethraigseat airdrig imda i cosnum ríghe duibh, BB 490a31 . saothraighet bar cossa, | imdaighter bar lossa let your feet be active (?), BNnÉ 309.5 = ZCP x 43.23 (injunction to monks). na n-aithrigheach shaothruigheas sna subháilcibh, TSh. 8875 . Of mental labour: atberim . . . fritt . . . naro soethraige ┐ naro guide in coimdid be not worried, LB 225b30 . is air sin shaethraighim . . . cindus do gheinfedh mac . . . gan sil duine I am puzzled, perplexed, ITS xix 58.1 (machtnaigim, v.l.).

(b) trans.: cia dhíobh ler saothroigheadh sin by which of them was that (house) built, Aithd. D. 37.29 . an té sháothruighios a fhearann `he that tilleth his land', Proverbs xii 11 . Earns by labour, works for: an solas nar saothruigheadh `the light he has not deserved', PBocht 19.21 . 'san obair dhaonna, le saorthaighthear slainte ar n-anma, Luc. Fid. 226.2 = le saoraighthear, ib. 12 .

Vn. saethrugad: cen saethrugud isin sapoit, PH 2590 . díultuighid a lámha sáothrughadh refuse to work, Proverbs xxi 25 . tar éis saóthraighti doib ┐ móráin tagra do denamh `after their labouring', AU iii 556.17 (of a conference). ag saothrughadh mianaigh airgid, Eochairsg. 115.14 . ré saothrughadh na subháilceadh practising, cultivating, TSh. 1810 . mo dhán ar n-a shaothrughadh le fada, Aithd. D. 19.10 . foghluim do shaothrughadh go dithchiollach, Donlevy 340.22 . dá raibhadar lucht sealga ag saothrughadh tuirc allta `hunting a wild boar', BNnÉ 165.y . do saethrugadh a mbethad earn their living, D IV 2, 42va39 . ag saorthughadh (sic) na beatha suthaine, Luc. Fid. 229.1 . i neamhshaothrughadh na n-ocht seinbheannachta (the Beatitudes), Eochairsg. 93.6 . drong lemh lucht a shaothraighte (of the art of poetry), O'Gr. Cat. 556.3 .

sulbaire

Cite this: eDIL s.v. sulbaire or dil.ie/39288

 

Forms: suilbire, sulgaire

n , f. (sulbair) later suilbire. Also spelt sulgaire.

(a) eloquence, readiness of speech, fluency, rhetoric : sulbhaire .i. deagh urlabhra, O'Cl. s.¤ degbelrai, Ml. 89c16 . sruth s.¤ ind labartha, 89d3 . inna s.¤ gl. oratoriarum, Sg. 9a6 . air indi atreba sulbairi gl. rethoricus, 33a31 . inchosc s.¤ , 209b11 . s.¤ gl. coturnus, Acr. 35b1 ( Thes. ii 9 ). hisin cethramad ceniul na s.¤ romanta `rhetoric', Hib. Min. 440 . a sos, a sodelb, a sulbairi, Ériu iv 146 § 24 . ar sulbhuire a innsce from the fluency of his speech, Laws iv 356.5 Comm . Cf. v 28.13 Comm . ar tshulgaire a innscni (of the ánruth), O'Curry 1948 ( H 4.22, 4 ). ara shuilbere, IT iii 92 § 134 . trí indchoisc ordain do duine .i. sodelb, sáire, s.¤ , Triads 254 . sulbair ro dolbsat filedu sulgaire na faidble bréci, LB 238(c)b49 (ACC). aircetal no sulghaire (gl. ernae fo fris), Anecd. v 27 n. 8 . ? noco sulgaire labarta, BB 498a2 = nidam comshulbir laburtha fritt , Alex. 827 = comsubeis, Anecd. v 2.8 . ? as leór so do solbraib sreth | barr beg do gnímaib cáinbreth `this is enough of eloquence . . .', Ériu iv 138.11 (or to sulbair?). ar s.¤ sluinn siarain glossed: ar solabarthaighe, Leb. Gab.(i) 130.6 .

(b) cheerfulness, affability, merriment : s.¤ gl. lepus, Sg. 50b7 . suilbire, MU² 693 v.l. for chóemi ┐ suilbere ┐ dág-besaib, PH 831 . suilbhire ┐ easguidheacht san gcrabhadh readiness, alacrity, Luc. Fid. 155.11 . cia fochain na suilbire ut ar N. mirth, D IV 2, 42ra38 . an tshuilbhire, Desid. 6693 .

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