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1 aicned

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 aicned or dil.ie/808

 

Forms: aigneadh, aignidh, aigeanta, a., a., aicnid, aicniud, aigenta

n o, n. Later m. aigneadh m. (g s. and n p. aignidh, aigeanta), IGT Decl. § 49 . (referred by Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 544 to a compd. *ad-gní. See Vendr. Lex.). n s. a.¤ , Ml. 146a2 . a s. a.¤ , 67c12 , ZCP vii 299.15 . g s. aicnid, Wb. 32b6 . d s. aicniud, Ml. 17b26 .

(a) inherent quality, essence, nature: combad a.¤ nindib a nolc gl. naturalis `that the evil is natural in them', Ml. 76a11 . a.¤ ind reto, 20a19 . is trom . . . ho aicniud, 20a20 . foillsigthir as nísel in doinacht iar naicniud, 25c5 . atgleinn assa aicniud fessin air is inunn folud techtas frisin bocht, 61a8 . fri a.¤ inna deachtae, 67c12 . ni ó aicniud na cétne tuisten act is o aicniud pectho doforchosalsam ó adam gl. eramus natura filii irae, Wb. 21b4 . fírmac aicnid ní a uccu gl. filius meus es tú, 32b6 . cesu locdatu as a.¤ and, Sg. 217b12 . ba tressio tol aicniud will was stronger than nature, LU 10730 . sechtar aicniud duine preternaturally, RC ii 402 § 43 . i nd-oendacht aicnid ┐ i trédacht persainde, PH 7086 . ro túaslaicthe for a.¤ na ndul dia ndernta they have been dissolved into the nature of the elements from which they were made (of the dead), LU 2518 . muna raibhe i nacchaid aiccnidh contrary to nature, ZCP x 16.23 . tīagat sium asa n-aignedaib cōirib they leave their proper natures(?), viii 104.7 . aigneadh an ois éigcríona the instinct of the young stag, Content. xxv 7 . aigned suighte fil indti sen they have magnetic properties (of stones), BB 7a13 . a oifficech dia dīrgadh i n-a aignedh cōir `a driver directing it in its proper function' (of a mill), Fl. Earls 72.16 . Opposed to poetical invention: is fuirmed filed romīdair ina hanmand sa dona airc[h]etluib do ṡluind na n-ilaltae . . ., nī ha.¤ romīdir leo, Corm. Y 41 . Attrib. g s.: is firindi aignidh dia lentais `they followed Natural Truth', IT iii 202 § 80 . ferinnsci aicnid, is e in fer, ferinnsci saerda, is e an neam i.e. natural as oppd. to conventional masculine, Auraic. 595 = f. aigenta, 3126 (cf. aicnetae).

Nature as a basis of law: cid i n-agar breithemnus berla Feini? . . . i fir ┐ dliged ┐ aignead, Laws v 2.2 . fir n-aignaid, 430.23 . i mbreathaib aicnigh ┐ cuibse in judgements oḟ nature and conscience, 452.20 . a fir breith iar cubus ┐ aigne, ii 18.20 Comm. a hurd Feine ┐ aicnidh, v 466.21 . in tan na fuidbiter a cosmailius hi is a breth a lom-aignid `when no parallel case is found it is to be taken from bare nature', 8.z Comm.

In phr. fo a.¤ according to the nature of: fo aigned a graid, BCrólige § 21 . is fiach fo a.¤ ar inti dorinne, § 61. fo a.¤ na ré, O'D. 1651 (H. 5.15, p. 21a). fo a.¤ na fogla `according to the nature of the trespass', Laws iv 76.1 Comm. fo a.¤ cetmuindtire urnadma no adaltraige, 44.y Comm. fo aignedh craind, 170.15 Comm.

(b) mind, spirit, feeling: do ṡaine ergna ┐ aigenta ┐ inntlechta, CCath. 1617 . dearóile th'intinne ┐ th' aigeanta `how miserable thy mind and spirit', Keat. iii 3150 . cessis a menma ┐ a a.¤ ┐ a innithim forthu, CRR § 26 . tuc toil a menman ┐ a haigenta dhí, RC xxix 132 § 46 . as gairdiugud menman ┐ aicenta dúin, Acall. 287 . ar dorat Dia a seirc ┐ a grad fom a.¤ , BB 239b2 . ra érig . . . fích immarcraid i nacentaib ánruth, LL 240a13 ( TTr. 1724 ). go ndearna . . . taom budh aithreach dá aigneadh, TD 17.59 . do chuaid a aigned as a inadh he was beside himself, Celt. Rev. iii 10.31 . aigneadh dúnta 'gun rígh ruind since the king's mind is closed against us, Ériu iv 220.19 . ba brisedh aiccnid mor la Cesair sin `that was a great heartbreak to Caesar,' CCath. 3321 . In phrase do-ice a.¤ x for x is moved (towards, by) (cf. do-icc cride for, s.v. do-icc II a): tainig aignedh C. andsin ar briathraib na hingine C. was greatly moved at the girl's words, TTebe 4606 . tanic a n-a.¤ co mor forro the Greeks were greatly moved for them, 3125 . In sense of high spirit, courage: mosgail th'aigneadh, eirg ad lúireach, SGS iv 138 § 5 . anger, wrath: eirghidh a.¤ in cleirig friu, Lism. L. 2972 . ni lamdhais . . . ní dó . . . ar mhét a aicnidh, 2999 . rocendsaiged . . . a.¤ O., TTebe 2959 . do ḟiuch a ḟearg ┐ do ardaigh a aigneadh, ML 138.30 . amal rochúala Cairpre / téit a a.¤ i n-airdde `his anger is roused', Metr. Dinds. iii 444.66 . benaidh aignedh Molaga fris et téitt bás Molaga's anger struck him, Irish Texts iii 21 § 18 .

(c) disposition, character, behaviour: a.¤ ailgen cen ainble, ZCP vi 264 § 10 . ronbé ō christ aigned n-arge, ACL iii 297 § 55 . ba hanrata a.¤ ind fir sin, TTebe 1544 . fear dob aithreamhail n-aignidh `like his father in disposition', TD 17.37 . a Eoin go n-aigneadh coluim (to John the Baptist), Dán Dé xi 19 .

(d) mind, attention, thought: ni roibe a aigned isin ernaighthi, RC xii 330 § 18 . suidh th'aigneadh im uradhall `do thou heed my words', Dán Dé xi 2 . caide th'a.¤ uimmi siút? opinion, Acall. 7537 . intention, idea: an t-aignedh do g[h]abhabhair do láimh `the said resolution you have taken', Ériu xv 50.29 . fillem go ár ccéudaignedh uime so, Geneal. Tracts 20.16 . ar demni ind aicnid, lúthige ind láthair ┐ méit na gaile the certainty of the intention (of performing a feat), LU 9142 ( FB 88 ). a chor i gcrích do réir aigeanta an tí dar thiomna é, TSh. 6145 . In phrase is a.¤ la: ní bad aigned la haon co fetfaide a ngeinemain nobody would ever imagine, Aisl. Tond. 109.2 . más aiccnedh libh a lenmain `if ye mean to abide by it', BNnÉ 288 § 276 . atá i n-a.¤: ni fuil i n-aigniudh co bfuighbhe an breth connaighe o Ultaibh it is not to be expected that you will get the reward you expect from the U., ZCP xiv 226.6 . dia mbeith in aigneadh dhó a shláinte dfaghbail if he were likely to recover his health, AFM v 1772.9 .

(e) knowledge, science (cf. 1 ecna(e)): dá n-iccad a.¤ oendrúad if the skill of any druid were of avail, LU 3549 ( SCC § 29 ). ard shaoi . . . in gach aicniudh atces do dhuine, AFM ii 1166.16 . gebé haigneadh ar a dtiubhra mé aire `to what study soever I apply myself', Carswell 195.9 (O'Rahilly compares aigniodh nuaidhe, Desid. 6449 , see p. 362).

comḟorlethan

Cite this: eDIL s.v. comḟorlethan or dil.ie/11209

 

adj (forlethan): is comforlethan a fuirmed ┐ a inde (of the word bonus) equally broad , Auraic. 3400 . in teitged is comairleathan i cintaige ┐ i slaintige embraces both a bad and a good sense, O'Curry 1388 ( H 3.18, 630ab ) = 900 ( 400 ).

dígal

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dígal or dil.ie/16293

 

Forms: dígla, digal, dígle, digla

ā, f. vn. of 1 do-fich. See GOI § 98 . IGT Decl. §§ 10 , 37 , Verbs § 124 . avenging, punishing; vengeance, punishment . Later n s. usually dígail, PH 5346 . SR 1781 , 2345 . Laws iv 254.15 (text). Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 4.22 . a s. dígal (for dígail), Wb. 17a10 . g s. in Mid. Ir. dígla. With obj. gen. of persons or things avenged or crime punished, and FOR of person punished. Rarely with subj. gen.: dígal Dé, Ml. 31d1 . PH 303 . d.¤ fiadat, Snedg. u. Mac R 13.24 . With gen. of description: de dígail na carcrae, Fél. Ep. 516 . With gen. of person punished (in pl.): do diglaib na nEgept[ach], SR 7332 . n s. in digal (gl. sententia), Ml. 24b2 . conatissed etir in digal, 27c4 . docoith d.¤ forru, Wb. 11a22 . tanic d.¤ Dé fair, PH 303 . tan tanic in digail truag, SR 2345 . toticfa d.¤ no chath, 6855 . deissidh d.¤ ocus dith | for sil clainne Cuinn, AU 942 . is mairg forsṅdessid a ndígal, LL 44a1 . nirbo fhand do dígail gress, 146a30 . ní gnath dígail no horgain cen sceolu n-éisi, Imr. Brain ii 287 . a d s. brethem beres digail cech ancridi, Ml. 27c1 . tabair digail (gl. ultor adsiste), 27c12 . intain dombéra dígail for pecthachu, Wb. 25d19 . dorat Dia digail ndermáir | for clainn S., SR 7046 . cech ní gargg . . . mani roistis d.¤ fair unless they could punish it, Ériu iv 26 . pecad cin d.¤ , Laws i 8 . cen d.¤ n-uilc i cridi desire for revenge, Ériu iii 96 . romṡóerae . . . m'anmain ar cech nd.¤ , Fél. Ep. 546 . du digail (gl. ad vindicandum), Ml. 31c17 . mithig dún dul d'a dígail, CRR 5 . dolluid F. do d.¤ a maic foraib, TBC-I¹ 2894 . condechaid frisin carraic do dígail in gotha furre, LL 165b31 . do d.¤ catha . . . ar Fí mac L., Anecd. iii 61 . do dhioghail a mhisccne for R. to wreak his vengeance, AFM vi 2330 . do dígal in domnaig to punish (the non-observance of) Sunday, Ériu ii 192 . co ndeochatar . . . dia rodigail to wreak dire vengeance on his behalf, LL 202a24 . fun digail (gl. sub animadversione), Ml. 29c12 . a tabairt fo thromdigail, SR 2412 . ic dígail ar cned, LU 9903 . i ndígail in revenge or punishment for: romarb Abner 'n-a dígail, SR 6596 . i n-d.¤ a thromgreisi, Laws i 64 . a ṅdígail a chēsta-som, PH 3030 . romarb Cuchulaind . . . i nd.¤ bó Dectere, LL 165b37 . i nd.¤ chind m'athar-sa, RC iii 181 . a nd.¤ fola Críst, ZCP ix 476 . a ndíghail na creichi sin, RC xvii 389 . triallais do lot Laighean a ndíoghail an mhíghníomha sin, Keat. iii 4992 . i ndíoghail a n-uilc féin, TSh. 4896 . is it dígail . . . rohortsat Unci to avenge thee, LL 193a45 . g s. bémen dígle , Wb. 17d2 . inna diglae Dæ, Ml. 31d1 . tabairt inna diglae (sic leg.) argair denum nuilc, 27c21 . breó digla, FB § 46 . inmidir F. bém ndígla for C., TBC-I¹ 3586 . builli digla do ḟuirmed a mullach nDaired, Aen. 1103 . dosrat fo chlaidiub digla (: mná), SR 4148 . cona chlaidem dighla, ZCP vii 312 . tugsad guin gach aon laoich ar E. ┐ ni dheachaidh duine dhíobhsan gan guin díoghla air o E., ML 140 . pl. it digla erlama lesom do neuch inna dualchi do denum, Ml. 18c6 . bit ilardai a píanai ┐ a ndíglai, Harl. 1802, 49 . co tarat Dia dígla móra for feraib Eirenn, SG 409 . dorat a digla, SR 6507 . dosfil digala mora foraib, Snedg. u. Mac R 42 . co tabrad cech oen tromdígla forru, LB 128a31 . fóidfet mōr ṅdīgal di shain, SR 3855 . d'fáidiud dígal is dígním to lament revenges, Metr. Dinds. iii 2 . dit diglaib siu (gl. de animadversionibus tuis), Ml. 40a6 . co roslig . . . diglaib demnib, SR 5656 . Later dígailt, q.v.

feidm

Cite this: eDIL s.v. feidm or dil.ie/21472

 

Forms: ḟedma, fedmuim, fedman, fedmand, fedma, fedmand, feidhm, feadhma, fedhmanna, ḟedhma, fedmanda

n n, n. later m. n s. féidm n -úag, SR 6837 . g s. ind ḟedma TBC-LL¹ 2967 . d s. fedmuim, Laws v 488.35 Comm. n p. fedman AU 821 . fedmand, LU 10816 (M). a p. fedma, LL 216a31 . g p. fedmand, LL 146a5 . feidhm, m. g s. n p. feadhma, IGT, Decl. § 41 . pl. also fedhmanna (canamain) ib. ex. 1134 . 1143 . The primary meaning seems to be load, stress, strain, passing into the senses of utmost effort, effort, exertion; burden, service, function . The transition may be illustrated by such an example as: buí f.¤ cuinge sesrige ina samthaig there was the load of a plough-team in its handle = it would take a plough-team to move ... LU 9191 ( FB 91 ). carraig ... a roibi f.¤ seisrigi do tharraing, TTebe 942 . Cf. fri ētnu dam bátár fedmand la firu Herend cosin n-aidchi sin. co n-aicces la lucht in tsíde fora formnaib. dogníth samlaid la E. ... is aice toísech tucad cuing for muinélaib dam, LU 10816 . is leis doradadh cuing for muinélaibh damh ar tús, ar is fria n-édnu na ndamh do bhíth a feidm gó sin, Cóir Anm. 103 . dam ro boí fon feidm, LB 60by . a n-ingeilt fo fedmu[i]m (of oxen) grazing while at work, under the yoke Laws iii 266.23 . .x. damu dagfedma ten oxen able for a heavy load (?) Ériu ii 4.7 . ba he feidm toisech doriacht an eclais a fh.¤ his (ox-drawn) load (of timber) was the first to reach the church Lism. L. 2558 . co ructha graige ┐ eti ┐ fedman iarmaib so that steeds and flocks and loads could be brought along them (of frozen streams and lakes) AU 821 . [doghniat] fedmunna ramhōra do thinol ... cu nach lugha inās in cnoc ... in dumha chonnaid fil aca they are gathering together great loads (of firewood) RC xliii 106.13 .

(a) strain, stress, effort, exertion, undertaking: f.¤ as mo, | comrac re Coin Culainn, TBC-LL¹ 3117 St. adfét scéla in mórfedma atconnairc enterprise (i.e. labor of constructing a causeway) LU 10826 . fri deiscin ind feadma dobertatar do dénam an tochair `the effort they put forth' Ériu xii 178.7 . Cf. TBC-LL¹ 758 St cited under feirtche. bíd féidm ferrda ocaib be of good courage PH 6504 . tresim fedma strongest of effort Auraic. 5556 . fedmanna ós niurt `exertions beyond one's strength' Tec. Corm. § 21 . da mbe in corp athach san uaig | a dhēchsain (sic leg.) is f.¤ firchruaid, ACL iii 239 § 27 . beg a f.¤ da degbois De | deilb dā tegdais small the effort for God's hand (?) 236 § 8 . ba f.¤ adbal d'oeinfer ... triall cosnama na cruinne, CCath. 4740 . tucsat f.¤ ferrda cacha fir furri cor chuirset assa tuinide in tromchloch, Acall. 2810 . tucsat a lāma ... chum na cloiche da tarraing ... ┐ ni raibe tarba issin trenfeidm ór nir ḟētsat a becc di, 2754 . briathra forránta, f.¤ tim `violent verbiage followed by feeble effort' O'Gr. Cat. 556.17 . dol re [a] gcosg ... fa feidhm ós cionn a bhfuluing, Content., xviii 71 . Folld. by qualifying subj. gen.: f.¤ cēt and do nirt he has the strength of a hundred TBC-LL¹ 1006 (= atā nert cēd ann, St). gegnaid banb ... ┐ nusberaid leo dia fuini ┐ a ḟ.¤ uili ann it was as much as they all could do = it took the whole of them (to carry it) ICM xiii Harl.

(b) work, service, duty, function (cf. d): ro forcongair ... for dam n-allaid ... in f.¤ sin do denam `ordered a stag to do that work' (i.e. to take the place of an ox at the plough) Fél. 72.28 . imāin na ndam dochom a fedhma dlighthi[gh] budein .i. a n-oibre, Laws v 136.15 Comm. ni f.¤ flatha nā fīrlaich duitsi aiscc feicheamnais do thabhairt ... `it is not the act of a prince in thee' MR 284.15 . na grāda do c[h]othugud | is f.¤ uasal mor aonfir, ZCP x 45. 4 . atá f.¤ ar leith ac cach aenḟer acaind a separate function Acall. 5460 . cret t'ḟeidm-si what is thy service ? 5465 . drong ... ic na bia f.¤ aili san cath acht a ngaire catha do tabairt, CCath. 5514 . bídh a ḟis ac [gach] aenduine díb cred is f.¤ dó, Maund. 202 . gach fear ag freagra a fheadhma, GF, Ir. Monthly 1919, 106 . no geibhdis betha gan f.¤ ndaonda leó acht ernaigthe ... BNnÉ 320.22 . gan feidhm ndaor ar mhnaoi servile occupation Content. v 77 . do rinneas ... feidhm díbh I have done you a service xxix 4 . déanaidh feidhm don Tighearna = servite Domino TSh. 6767 . is é feidhm do-níodh an coileach dó, iarmhéirghe ... do choimhéad, Keat. iii 1120 . gurab contrárdha na feadhma iarras Dia ar na daoinibh ┐ an feidm iarras an saoghal (comm. on non potestis Deo servire et Mammonae) TSh. 9881 . do fedhmaim anmcharat function (obligations) of a confessor YBL 408a marg. sup. fer fedma steward (?): Finn .h. C., fer fedma ┐ ferannuis moir do righ Connacht ` agent ' ALC 1223 (p. 266z) .aes, lucht fedma soldiery; servitors, attendants: dochuir a glaslaith ┐ a aes fedma ... d'argain Aeda g., SG 66.28 . IT ii2 135. 325 . Oss. iii 162.7 . lucht fedhma an dunaigh, L. Chl. S. 11 . Folld. by defining gen.: denasa f.¤ gabunn act as smith Lism. L. 3783 . f.¤ a ngreagh uatha orra | longa lūatha ... on the swift ships they impose the function of their steeds (?) IGT, Decl. ex. 2140 . feidhm na gcogthach re cois long, | feidhm teanchaire i dtigh ghabhonn | ... tarla oraibh `god airdrígh, TD 19.16 . do bhamur ... a bhfeidhm ollamh in the capacity of ollaves KMMisc. 56 § 5 . ní fili ... | hí f.¤ eoluis ilcrothaigh in the practice of various kinds of knowledge ZCP iv 237. 11 = Leb. Cert. 236 . ni faict[h]e ise fri f.¤ a lēiginn ┐ a grēsa, ACL iii 308 , VI 12 . f.¤ n-eclastacda, YBL 166b5 . i bfeidhm na súiste `wielding the flail' O'Gr. Cat. 532.7 .

(c) of a warlike effort or strain (often in broad sense of attack, onset, defence, etc.): cach f.¤ catha ┐ comlaind ... dingebatsa díb uile sin, Acall. 5462 (corresp. to: eigen catha v.l.). do réidhighedh láithir iombuailte dona ... miledhibh sin ar go bhfesdís fein f.¤ comhlainn a chéile, B IV 2, 146b19 . feidhm na leirge a aonar air, GF, Ir. Monthly 1919, 104 . ar a angbaigheacht i n-ionadh fedhma `his valour in the field of conflict' AFM v 1778.15 . lá feadhma day of stress, battle Ir. Monthly 1927, 552 ( 23 L 17, 81b ). an bhuidhean ... bhíos iomad i n-am ḟeadhma `in time of stress' TD 21.6 . re hinnarba cach fedma ┐ cach foreigne `to repel every attack and violence' MR 160.23 . f.¤ catha `exertion of battle', duty of service of a warrior in battle: dober-sa m'ḟ.¤ catha ... la P. I will exert my battle-strength with P. CCath. 1121 . do tabairt a fedma catha ┐ comluind leo `to give them their help in battle' Cog. 74.24 . rogabsat ... a ffedhmanna catha forra, ZCP xiv 231.16 . ro ba cruaidh in comthuargain ... doronsat ... ic gabail a fedmann catha forru, CCath. 5907 . ro láa ... fortocbhail a fedhma catha forru, 2016 . mongur na curad ac comghabail a bḟedhmann catha, Marco P. 61 . (for gabáil fedma cf. co ngabad feidm fois that it should undertake the duty of stillness (?) Ériu iii 14 , but in the instances above there may be the notion of standing up to the stress of battle, taking punishment). cia dib no laccadh a fedm catha whose battle force was weakening CCath. 5975 . roba gairit in caill comarchi uathaib iat, ┐ a feidm catha forro, ┐ a ndruim riu, Cog. 176.23 . ro-ordaigh C. a ffedhmanna catha for na curadaibh assigned to the warriors their duties ZCP xiv 240.4 [or does this belong to (b) ?]. Cf. cur fedma: ní lamh cách ... luadh cogaidh ná cur feadhma, TD 21.39 . cur feadhma dóibh risan druing | sluagh T. ní budh tualuing, 2.11 . g s. as attrib.: nertlia do chloich ḟedhma , ZCP viii 543.8 . bertais a eire fedma leis da trelamh ghaisgidh (i.e. as much as he could carry) TBC-LL¹ p. 303 n. 5 . tuc fuirmed fedma do gae ... air `a strenuous thrust' TTebe 2817 . tuc fuirmeadh feadhma ... fuirre (lifting a heavy stone) ML 2y . is fis fedma `a labour it is to learn' Metr. Dinds. ii 62 . pl. tucad leo fedmanda fillti for bogadaib bending strains (i.e., they strained bows to test them ?) TTebe 1275 . re haidhbhliu na fedmann no fuilngitis of the stresses CCath. 5872 . ag airiúghadh an ḟeadhma sin perceiving their labor (of men lifting a stone) ML 2.20 . Common in chevilles: f.¤ n-úag, SR 6837 . f.¤ as uaisliu, Fél. Jan. 21 . f.¤ ngle, BB 51a30 . f.¤ as détlu, ACL iii 297 § 52 . f.¤ ngialla, MR 204 . Transf. of persons: in Congenchnesach ..., in f.¤ nach fuiliṅgther, TBC-I¹ 2205 . gurab é an feidhm nach fuloingther ... .i. Fer Diadh, ZCP x 276.7 .

(d) use; efficacy, cf. (b): mór a bhfeidhm i n-aimsir the | d'fionnḟuaradh ceathra is daoine (of rivers), Content. vi 71 . Cf. ní feidhm do an Ghaoidheilg do léaghadh ... gan a bfios do bheith aige do mheabhair `without having them by heart it is a vain effort for him to attempt [he will not be able for] the reading of Irish' O'Gr. Cat. 630.24 . bíd drong ... doitheagaisg ann, ionnus nach bí feidhm ... an bás do bhagar orra so that it is no use threatening them TSh. 554 . dogní f.¤ de (re), makes use of: is é feidhm do-nídís do sheicheadhaibh na dtarbh, Keat. ii 5441 . nachar bhfer feadhma do dhéanamh re clogat é the man to use a helmet O'Gr. Cat. 510.26 .

benaid f.¤ de makes use of; causes to work: ag buain fheadhma dá eachraidh, RC xlix 173 § 33 .

atá f.¤ ar there is use for; need of: ní ḟuil feidhm ar th'iomarbháigh your arguing is needless (useless) Content. xxii 31 . dá mbeadh f.¤ ar .ae. do leathnughadh if it were needful to broaden `ae' IGT, Decl. Introd. 7.6 . ní haige an muinntir a tá slán a tá feidhm ar an líaigh, Matthew ix 2 . ort o nach bfuil a bfeidhm since they have no use for thee Carswell 24.11 . an uair nach roibhe f.¤ ar chlogat ag énduine, agus dá mbiadh nach aigesion do bhiadh f.¤ riu, O'Gr. Cat. 510.24 . fuair feidhm ar a ghuidhe `he found his prayer efficacious' A. Ó Dálaigh 50.28 . Without AR: is móide ata féidhm againn Dia do ghuidhe, Eochairsg. 17.21 . d'ḟ.¤ of use, needful (with AR of pers.): go bhfoighe an ghloir ṡiordhaidhe ┐ gach ní atá d'ḟeidhm air dochum a faghala, Ó Héodhusa 224.10 . na neithi do bhí df.¤ orra do bhreth leo, Mac Aingil 64.17 . éin-rí ... dob ḟearr d'ḟ.¤ d'Éirinn ná Niall of greater service to Content. v 70 . Cf. má do chuireas d'ḟ.¤ orra cuaird ... if I have constrained them to search xiv 19 . Hence with obj. gen. need, necessity, occasion: ní bhí feidhm lóirghníomha air, Mac Aingil 303.13 . do gach duine do beith 'na feidhm who might need it BCC p. 132.16 . Cf. mainnear i bhf.¤ a faire adhbha an anma in need of guard (?) Studies 1931, 81 . ag so an fáinne i bhfeidhm na ndrol ib. cor faesma .i. in cor curtar risin mac faesma ... ┐ ní ar feidm gaire o geilfíne, Laws iv 62.4 .

Compds. ¤láidir strong of effort, energetic: fuirmeadh feidmlaitir, TBC-LL¹ p. 95 n. 1 St. fer foirtill feidhmláidir, AFM vi 2258.9 . gluasacht ... go foisdineach f., ML 64.17 . -nertmar id.: a fhlaith ... fedmnertmhar `mighty in enterprise' Aen. 1850 . a fiodhbhacaibh ... feidhmnertmara, AFM vi 2130.5 .

fo-ruimi, -fuirmi

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fo-ruimi, -fuirmi or dil.ie/24043
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: for-r(uim)-, fo-fuirm-, fo-d-ruim, forruimi, forruibi, forrumai, -fuirmi, fosrumet, fosraemet, forroma, forruma, -fuirmema, fuireama, fuirmeba, -furmud, furruimtis, -forurmius, fomruirmius, for-uirim, forfurim, forḟuirim, forruim, forruib, -forroim, forrumai, forromair, foruirmiset, -furimar, -fuirmider, forrumither, forruimther, -fuirmithe, foruirmed, forfuirmedh, forumad, -forromadh, -forrumtha, rofurmethe, fuirmithe, fuirmiud, f.

possibly more than one verb is represented in the following citations ; some forms suggest for-r(uim)- but cf. Ériu xxxv 201 ; some are assigned by Pedersen Vgl. Gr. (ii 463 ) to for-ben. (In later MSS f is sometimes repeated in deuterotonic forms : fo-fuirm-). Ipv. 2 s. fo-d-ruim, Fianaig. 12 § 23 . pres. 3 s. forruimi, Corm. Bodl. s.v. pattu (= forruim, Corm. Y 1045 ; forruibi, Thr. Ir. Gl. 35 ). forrumai (fosrumai ?) LU 5320 . -fuirmi, Wb. 8c1 . pl. fosrumet, BDD 13 D = fosraemet Y. pres. subj. 3 s. forroma, ZCP iv 39.13 = forruma, LL 250a10 ( TBFr. § 15 ). Cf. -fuirmema, Laws v 96.28 Comm. (< B 346az = Y 202b47 ; fuireama, in the corresp. text Laws ii 348.26 Comm. is a misreading of the MS., H 3.17, c. 451z , which O'D. 597 gives as fuirmeba, but the last two letters are doubtful). past subj. 3 s. cf. -furmud, RC xi 448.78 . 3 pl. furruimtis, Thes. ii 242.5 ( Ardm. 18b1 ). pret. and perf. 1 s. -forurmius, LU 9381 . fomruirmius, Fél. Ep. 38 . 3 s. for-uirim, Ml. 2a6 . forfurim, Ériu ii 132 § 106 . forḟuirim, Alex. 262 . forruim, Thes. ii 242.8 ( Ardm. 18b1 ). forruib, Hy ii 8 . cf. -forroim, LU 5679 ( Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 463 gives this and forrumai to for-ben). With depon. ending : forromair, TBC-LL¹ 3315 . 3 pl. foruirmiset, Rawl. 142a21 . LU 6670 . Pass. pres. s. -furimar, Ériu ii 116 § 45 . pres. subj. s. ? -fuirmider, Rawl. 125b29 . cf. mad ... forrumither , Corm. Bodl. s.v. nescoit = forruimther Y. past subj. s. -fuirmithe, Corm. Y 1059 . Bodl. pret. and perf. s. foruirmed, Ml. 74c20 . forfuirmedh, Fianaig. 14 § 35 . forumad, Lism. L. p. 328.25 . -forromadh ZCP iii 459.2 . pl. -forrumtha, Ériu ii 110 § 30 . rofurmethe, BColm. 32.4 .

Part. fuirmithe. Vn. fuirmiud.

(a) sets, places, of local relations: in tan foruirim obell ... fair, Ml. 2a6 . arimbad and furruimtis a n-eclis that there they should put [i.e. build] their church Thes. ii 242.5 . immalle doaurcbad doib a cossa ┐ fosruimet lift ... set down TBC-I¹ 3312 . is tō didiu forruimi in phattu a chossa `silently does the hare put its foot down' Corm. Bodl. s.v. pattu (= Corm. Y 1045 ). furmid ... a rigthi tharis (of wrestling) TBC-LL¹ 1308 (here treated as simple vb.). forruimther a cend forsin chloich, LL 122b24 . gaibidsi a da cois co ro ḟurim a cend fon usci, 279b43 ( SG 414 ). ro fuirmed hé isin Sábraind, MacCongl. 19.10 . foruirmitís ... a tengtha dar slesa a cloideb used to lick their swordblades Alex. 660 = ro ruirmitis, BB 494a38 . forrurim a láim eter di fertais in carpait co mmebaid in carpat , LU 5065 (here the meaning `thrust' seems implied, cf. fuirmiud, d). as fora mhuinel ro fuirimh C. a lāmh AFM i 182.4 . foruirmiset ... a mind ríg for Tamun, LU 6670 . forruim imbe in cassal, Ériu ii 204 § 22 . cladair fert fuirmigter lia, 23 P 3, 22a ( O'Curry 1886 ). is i Temair. ... fo ruirmed [in chloch], ZCP xx 219.15 ( xiii 372 ) = Temair ... i forromadh, iii 459.2 . co foromad in cúach ar bélaib Cholmáin, Ériu i 46.6 . ardnem ... fora forramad cuairt ind rīchid on which ... has been set ii 110 § 28 . airm i forrumtha na noī tuirid ib. § 30 . Of planting a blow, etc. (Cf. forruim .i. ro gon, LU 457 ). ... in baill isin duiniu hi fuirmither in crēcht ... mad ind agaid ... forrumither, Corm. Bodl. s.v. nescoit ( Corm. Y 975 ). sochaide forḟuirim a buille hi ceand araile, Alex. 262 . ro fuirmeastar beim ... ar in coin, TTebe 605 . Cf. formis [fornis, fuirmis v.l.] ... béim ... do cloidhemh dó, CCath. 2063 .

Impers. constr.: do fuirim snechta foraib snow fell on them LL 287b35 (cf. ro fer snechta, in same text 287a3 ).

(b) of fig. and abstract relations confers, imposes, inflicts , with FOR of pers. or thing affected (similar in use to do-beir): huare ... foruirmed cenn forsnaib cotarsnaib ... (= have reached their climax) Ml. 74c20 . ni fuirmi nech dimiccim foir som, Wb. 8c1 . for nech ni furme dimes thou shalt not treat anyone with contempt Ériu ii 228.1 . resíu forruma bine fornn, TBFr. § 15 . día ro fuirmed recht Adomnáin for Góedelaib, LU 2257 ( FA 32 ). oc B. forurmed a forus sae for feraib H. `was enjoined on' Cáin Ad. 28 . ro furmethe grada forru-sum, BColm. 32.4 . mor do dhelbhuibh ... forruirmeth for sil nAdhaimh, Ériu ii 132 § 105 . is for in Fiachaich se foruirmiset ... in fingail committed Rawl. 142a21 (= ro fuirmiset, ZCP viii 317 ). fuirimh ... briathar ... ar Choisimnach lay a curse on C. BNnÉ 314 § 8 (cf. fuirmedh .i. abradh, O'Dav. 835 ). do fuirmedh támh forra plague came upon them AFM i 58 . in ní forsna fuirmither aigi that [loan] for which no term is fixed Laws iii 492.20 (cf. fuirmither .i. fīraemthar, O'Dav. 853 . foruimter tuinide la cétchor, 824 ). Of exchange (?): fuirimh sin samhaisg ar dhéin, Ériu xiii 25.19 = IT iii 50 (gl. tabair, O'Dav. 849 . Perh. f. here = lay down, i.e., impose, enact ). With omission of pers. affected: da fuirmett faill `if they practise deceit' [neglect ?] Fen. 148.7 . tar ēsse na hālgese forfuirmis the boon thou hast requested (forruirmis v.l.) ZCP ix 449 § 2 .

? Absol. : ó dorochair Duach ... ro fuirmiset for Eochaid Fer fuirmid .i. mac Duach .i. fer forrofuirmed, ZCP viii 303.11 (= ro firmiset Ernai ... for ..., Rawl. 147a32 ; LL 319a42 ; ro fuirimset ... for E. `abased E.' Cóir Anm. 31 . Cf. fer fora ndernadh fuirmheth .i. a lagadh ┐ a laighdugud ┐ a aimnertugud co mor ib. cf. c below). nachas fuirmeda damsa may [the combat] not be imposed on me (?) TBC-LL¹ p. 301 n. 5 . lōg enech in grāid a fuireama, Laws ii 348.26 = v 96. 28 may belong to this. Cf. go sechtmhadh fodhail fuirmither, Ériu xiii 30.27 . ... cach ferainn fuirmhither uadh tre fīrécin nō foruimenn nech ar écin, O'Curry 429 (< H 3.18, 233a ). Cf. fine ar a ḟuirmim (= fuirbim, BB 269a25 ) `on his march' as if = foraim) Leb. Cert. 38 .

(c) lays prostrate, overthrows: in Rí dorósat a chrí | ro fuirim a frithisi has brought it low Metr. Dinds. iv 242.20 (ra urim v.l.). co foraim trí coícta troch ib. 39 . co foraim bága in bile, 244.52 (furim; foraib v.l.). ? sund ro báidit ... echrad E. ... báeth in fíad rosforaim and, 182.7 . Cf. inmain uatni óir | ra ḟurmius ar áth (Cú Chulainn lamenting the death of Fer diad) TBC-LL¹ 4179 = forfuirmedh for áth TBC-I¹ 2729 .

(d) in refl. and middle constr. betakes oneself, goes (= Lat. se confert); in this sense the historic pres. is commonly used instead of pret.: fotruim [fodruim, MS.] dot daim `betake thee to thy house' Fianaig. 12 § 23 . fusrumat a n-éin [ = ind euin, 23 N 10, 62 ] remib dia ndaim tar Sliab F., LU 10567 ( IT i 136.10 ; tiaguit, Eg.). farruma do Emain TBC-I¹ 2984 . forrumai do Teumraig, ZCP iii 252 § 72 = faruim, RC xi 448.88 . farruma dano C. la cách dond oenuch LL 125bx . farumai ... co ránic Temraig, Ériu vi 149 . farrumaí immach cucu, LU 7892 ( BDD 148 ). forumai O. for a hiarair, Cymmr. xiv 104 ( Rawl. 131b25 ). fosraemet [fosrumet; tiagait v.l.] ind eoin forsin tuind, BDD 13 . farrumae Concobar ar cind Fergusa, TBC-I¹ 3579 . forrumai [ fosrumaei, TBC-I¹ 843 ] Allechtu ... co mboí forsin chorthi A. goes and perches on the pillar LU 5320 ( ZCP x 208 ). forrumaidi ... co mbui for feinnithecht, RC vi 174 v.l. 17 (-idi is prob. anaph. pron.). Cf. ro lingestar lēim ... conadh ann ro fuirmistar ar glan-aiglind scēith in churad alighted MR 234.3 = ro uirmesdair, LL 410a2 (see airmaisid). forrumai nonbor díib thoromsa ┐ Conchobar, LU 4886 . conid forruim isind tulaigh, RC x 74 n. 1 (= co ro tairis, 72z ). condfurruimset ib. n. 16 (= condaturnsad, text.

Cf. farumai co Sencha dus cia dogenad he betook himself to S. to see what he should do (?) H 3.18, 367a37 ( O'Curry 785 ); `referred it' (of a decision) Plummer, MS. notes.

? fuirem

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? fuirem or dil.ie/24880

 

x is mac dán do f.¤ a dana, Corm. Bodl. s.v. muccairbi v.l. do fuirmed, du fuirim, Corm. Y 855 . See fuirmiud (d).

fuirmed

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fuirmed or dil.ie/24897

 

x see fuirmiud.

fuirmiud

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fuirmiud or dil.ie/24902

 

Forms: furmiuda, furmid, fuirmid, fuirmighi, furmedha, fuirmeadh

n u, o, m. (vn. of fo-ruimi) The m is occasionally shown lenited ; O'Cl. distinguishes between fuirmeadh .i. toirneamh ; fuirmeadh .i. foreimniughad no siubhal, and fuirmheadh .i. cur (see below) but there is no reason to doubt that all these represent the same word.

(a) in primary sense setting down, placing, depositing: fuirmedh .i. indell no cur, O'Dav. 932 . fuirmheadh .i. cur, O'Cl. delba clochda ... cen sigin na crochi do f.¤ indib PH 754 . a fuirmidh a ngradh to place him (the pupil) in a grade Laws ii 348.21 Comm. aithne fuirimiudu (.i. fuirmither for dealgan aithgin ind ...), SM Facs. 55b . aithne fuirmidha .i. in aithne fuirmither a n-inad airithe (one of the seven deposits which are to be restored even though there has been no pledge), Laws v 196.3 (14) . But cf. tri aithne na dlegat taisec ... aithne fuirmeda, Triads 157 , glossed in the 18th cent. copy : .i. do fūigfidhe gan aithne do thabhairt go cinnte i ccumhdach acht go héccinte air, p.40 (i.e. a deposit left without proper security ?). ro laoi fiadhnuise fair fuirmhedh, Ériu xiii 15.10 (= ro le, etc. .i. gugudh fiadnise tiscaidh dire n-aire, O'Dav. 1344 ). See furmada.

(b) transf. of inflicting, imposing (a punishment, obligation, etc.) : co f.¤ na sraigell ... foraib plying the scourges on them FA 30 (LB), where local sense is still implicit ; cf. la furmed in mátan fair belaying him with the cudgel LU 8546 ( FB 40 ). co f.¤ in rechtasa Adamnáin imposition FA 32 (LB). In fig. sense : noco tabair in scel f.¤ doridhissi furri never touches on (alludes to) her Acall. 6437 .

(c) laying low, prostrating, overthrowing: is ainm fuirmheadh ... do turnadh is d'ísliúgud, LL 395a11 = Metr. Gl. Ff. 7 . fuirmeadh .i. toirneamh nó ísliughadh, O'Cl. fer fora ndernadh fuirmheth .i. a lagadh ┐ a laighdiugud, Cóir Anm. 31 . cing catha ri furmiud fer, LL 238a5 ( TTr. 1561 ; `for laying low men'). iar fuirmed Bili Tortan ` felling ' Metr. Dinds. iv 244 . flaithe re fuirmeadh princes to be laid low ML 86.3 .

(d) a violent aggressive effort, blow, thrust, tug, etc. dobeir fuirmidh dia sāil ina cenn `tramples them with his heel' CCath. 3665 . ba bec leisiom fuirmed a llām na laech co mbeth fuirmed a cos mar aen ris, ML 164.22 ( YBL 330a21 ). dorat A. furmiud fortren ... fair ... don lágin, LL 244a33 ( TTr. 2041 ). dorat ... fuirmed niad don urd iarnaige, LB 157a 52 . tuc fuirmed fedma ... do gae ... air `an effective thrust' TTebe 2817 . tug fuirmeadh feadma ... fuirre (of a stone fixed in the earth) ML 2.21 . ni hoirchios fuirmedh fedhma for fhlaithibh `to put service upon (? use violence towards) kings' 116.25 . ba diulaing dīn ar a ndianbullíb ri fortressi a fuirmiuda, LL 238a33 ( TTr. 1583 ). pl. nachasrostis airm nā hilḟáebair ... nā thendfurmiuda túag ib. LL 238a 18 . g s. as attrib. : ana n-oireadaib firmora furmid `very great burdens requiring great effort' TTebe 3991 . a heire forbheadha [fuirmedha v.l.] ... do bhiadh ┐ do dhigh fuirre, Ériu v 84.20 . (See furmada). ail fuirmedha (complimentary epithet of a chieftain) ML² 1579 .

Perhaps gs. in the expression : mac fuirmid (fuirmeda), the name given to a bardic pupil of the second year , although this is probably to be read as a compd., maccfuirmid. mac fuirmeda occurs at least once. Cf. cidh díre Mac-ḟuirmidh, Ériu xiii 25.27 . díre mar mac ḟuirmhidh, 22.26 - 27 . maccfurmid ┐ fochloc irchruachait doib, LL 29a col. e (3664) . triar for fecht feili dofhidh | dam thoga do mac furmidh, Auraic. 2248 . tri seoid don macfuirmid, YBL 198a13 (= Laws v 60 ). in macfuirmid da ba a eniclann ib. YBL 198a 21 . la mac fuirmid moín soer setrotha senamain ... , O'Mulc. 537 . muccairbi .i. mac fuirmid .i. is mac dán do fuirem a dána, Bodl. Corm. = ... do fuirmed a dana .i. no is macdan du fuirim a dana, Corm. Y 855 [leg. mac dan dū f.¤ ?] m. fuirmida, IT iii 31.16 . mac fuirmid .i. mac fuirmither re dān ōs mac .i. is mac da [ = maccda ?] a dān `who is set to learn an art from his boyhood' (who is intended for ... ?) Laws iv 360.5 . Cf. mac airbi ib.

(e) arranging, composing ; inventing (?) : is f.¤ filed romidair ina hanmand sa dona airc[h]etluib ... ni haicned romīdir leo (i.e. the names are arbitrarily invented by poets), Corm. Y 41 s.v. anair = fuirmedh poetarum romidhair haec nomina , etc. H 3.18, 63aw ( Phil. Soc. Trans. 171 ). cf. fer fuirmid, supra, fo-ruimi, -fuirmi.

(f) in gramm. name given to a subst. preceded by the prep. oc (probably an extension of sense a) : oc fir a furmiud `depositive' Auraic 1521 . oc feraib a fhuirmed ilair, 1776 .

(g) in gramm. the ordinary application or use of a word, oppd. to `inde' its etymological or inherent sense : f.¤ foucal, Auraic. 3393 (e.g. the Lat. word lapis, analysed as id quod laedit pedem [cf. Isidore, Etym. xvi 3 ] its `inde,' is used in restricted sense of a stone, its ` fuirmed '). `bonus,' is comforlethan a fuirmed et a inde, ar ni habar `bonus' acht bail a mbí cáil bonitatis the application and the etymology of bonus are co-extensive, for bonus is not said save where the quality of bonitas is Auraic. 3400 .

(h) in concrete sense, in pl. : fuirmighi [furmedha, Eg.] a leaptha d'ór ┐ do safír, Maund. 249 corresp. to `the forme of his bedd is of fyne saphires bended with gold' EETS 153 (O.S.) 183 . ` framework, setting ' = Abercromby, RC vii 361 , comparing O'Dav. 932 , cited above (a). Cf. fuirmeadh ` seat, foundation ' O'R.

(i) fuirmeadh .i. foréimniughadh no siubhal, O'Cl. No exx. from lit., but cf. fo-ruimi (d).

la

Cite this: eDIL s.v. la or dil.ie/29233
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: le, le, lé, lasin, lasa, laisin, lesin, lasna, laisna, leisna, lemm, lem, leim, limm, lim, lium, liúm, lat, latt, let, letha, leiss, leissem, leissom, less, lessom, lessem, les, lesom, lesem, laiss, laissem, lais, laisem, lais, laisseom, lasim, leis, leiside, lee, l, laee, lǽ, lea, léi-se, lenn, leinn, linn, línn, linni, linnai, liun, liunn, lenne, lib, leu, léu, leo, leö, liom, leam, leat, lat, leis, lais, leis, lé, linn, leinn, leann, libh, leibh, le, liu, lelele, li, lam, lam, láad, lat, lad, lea, lia, l, liar, lasmbi, lastorchair, la, leis

prep. with accus. See GOI § 845 , Fraser, ZCP viii 46 ff . Occasionally with d p. of 1 suide: la suidib, Sg., 4a9 , Wb. 6b17 . 8a12 . 9c2 . 17d11 (but a p. la suidiu, 8a11 . 9b17 ). In IGT listed among the nine unaccented particles which do not cause inflection of masculine nouns ( IGT Introd. § 75 ). See also Magauran 4227 n. For the form in immaille(i) ille(i) see GOI § 44 , § 841 .

FORMS. With follg. noun: le, Cambr. ( Thes. ii 247.22 ). la, O. Ir. glosses and SR pass., also in early Middle Irish MS. texts, and concurrently with le, lé in later ones (le (sic MS.), AU 1085 ). For exx. see citations below. Doubling of follg. m, n, occurs sporadically in the O. Ir. glosses: la mmaccu, Wb. 19c15 . Ml. 49a20 . la mméit, 95d13 . 91c19 . la mmarbu, Wb. 25b22 . la nnech, Ml. 42c13 ; cf. also la gglais, Ardm. 17a ( Thes. ii 238.12 ). In later MSS. h is prefixed to a following stressed vowel. In later lang. also leis before certain proclitics: leis gach fear, TD 9.101 . leis gach neach, DDána 100.1 .

With article: s. lasin, etc. lasin conair, Ml. 45c9 . lasin sruth, Dinds. 52. lasa (n.), LU 10652. laisin, ZCP viii 107.3 . lesin, TBC-LL¹ 2374 , PH 7339. In later lang. leis an ( Dán Dé xviii 10 ). pl. lasna, Sg. 28a18 . Hib. Min. 3.75 . LU 8202. laisna. Ériu iii 140.184 . leisna, BNnÉ 70 § 116 , ZCP v 495.z .

With suff. pron. 1. s. lemm, Wb. 1b10 . 2c27 . 4b17 . 7a3 . lem, 5b31 . 14d16 . leim, Sg. 209b30 . limm, Wb. 19b7 , 23a18 , 23 . 23b34 . 24a27 . Sg. 188a19 . SR 1595. 3353 . lim, Wb. 7d3 . 8a3 , 8c17 . 23a27 . Ml. 55a4 . SR 1201 , 3361 . lium, Wb. 18a1 . Ml. 45c7 . 46c18 . 87b17 . 96a10 . 105b7 . 117d4 . 127c13 . liúm, 106b6 . 2 s. lat pass. in O. Ir. glosses: Wb. 10a10 . 16b11 . 29d18 , etc. Ml. 65a2 . 73a10 , 111a5 , etc. Sg. 215b5 . SR 1757. 2443 . latt, Bvi 74. let, SR 1593. 3 s. m. and n. Archaic (m.) letha, ZCP xx 401.8 ( GOI § 433 ) leiss, Wb. 6b8 , 16 . 14a22 . Sg. 29b12 , 13 , 19 . 61a16 . 93b8 . leissem, Sg. 10a11 . 28a18 . BCr. 32a5 , 32b6 . leissom, Wb. 33a2 . less, Wb. 6b21 , 26a8 . Ml. 35d24 . 71c12 . 129a9 . lessom, Wb. 10a14 , 24a17 . Ml. 47d2 , 131c14 , 132c6 . lessem, Sg. 77b6 . les, Wb. 10a2 , 32c2 . Ml. 18b1 , 34c17 , 55c1 . lesom, Ml. 18c6 , 23b12 , 53a1 , etc. lesem, Ml. 50b10 . laiss, Wb. 24b27 . SR 5791. laissem, Sg. 149b4 . lais, Sg. 153b7 . laisem, 158b6 . lais, SR 639 , 1631 , 2185 , 2591 , 2799 , 4969 . laisseom, LU 1425. lasim, Mon. Tall. 138.15 . leis, Sg. 111a3 , 202a7 . SR 637 , 2791 , 4971 (: geis), 630 . leiside, LU 1418. 3 s. f. lee, Sg. 167a4 . LU 3882. l, Laws ii 372.5 . laee, Wb. 14a37 . lǽ, 24d11 . lea, SR 3016. léi-se (: éise), Dán Dé ii 24 . 1 pl. lenn, Wb. 4a27 . SR 1615. leinn, GOI § 433. linn, Wb. 13b9 , 18a16 , etc. Ml. 30a2 , 5 . Sg. 198a6 , 207b11 . línn, Wb. 25a27 . linni, 4c23 . Ml. 26b6 , 10 . 30c3 . Sg. 149b7 , 160b2 , 207b9 , etc. linnai, Ml. 92c5 , 120b2 . liun, Ml. 89d6 . liunn, 112b13 . lenne, LU 1387. 2 pl. lib, Wb. 5a13 , 5d33 , 7d3 , 26a9 , etc. Ml. 115b10 . 3 pl. leu, Wb. 1d15 , 5d20 , 26d22 , etc. Ml. 3a6 , 14 . 33c13 , 35c23 , 43d1 , 102c8 , 139c3 , etc. léu, Wb. 30c11 . leo, 7d10 . Sg. 148b9 . 147a10 , 203a4 , etc. leö (disyll.), Blathm. 102 § 41. Archaic(?) lethu, Thes. ii 241.4 , Hy. ii 17 (see notes). Otia ii 86.8 ( GOI 52.3 ). For classical verse the forms given in the tracts are: liom leam leat lat leis lais (m.) leis (n.) lé linn leinn leann (lionn `lochdach') libh leibh le, 24 P 8, 194 (see also 190 , 218 ) = Bard. Synt. Tr. 7 ; cf. lionn: cionn, O'R. Poems 308. liu, Luc. Fid. 3212 .

With aile: lelele, Wb. 16c24 . li alaile, GOI § 845.

With possessives. 1 s. lam menmuin, Wb. 3d13 . lam' rig, SR 336. 627 . 2 s. láad muindtir, Mon. Tall. § 6 . lat tarb, LL 7644 . lad gráin, BDD² 1500 . 3 s. and pl. lea, Thurn. Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 37 § 5 . lia muntir (3 s. m.), Thes. ii 249.9 . lía mathair, SR 2828 . lia n-athir, Ml. 127b2 . lea hanāil, LU 10599 . le a, Ériu ix 164 § 17. l, Content. ii 15 . le athair, DDána 65.31 . lá olc, LU 1390 . la náimtiu (3 pl.), LL 260b33 (Lg.). lea fuaire . . . lena thes, Maund. 136 . lena choin, Feis Tighe Chonáin 757. So also TSh. 1 pl. lar tir, Ériu iii 136.44 . liar, GOI § 845.

With rel. In O. Ir. las(a) n-: lassa ndenatar, Ml. 84a11 . lasa ndernad, Thes. ii 289.5 . lasa mbiat, Ml. 75b2 . lasmbi, 24a19 . lastorchair, ZCP viii 302.20 . lasra chētgabtha, 303.1 . Later forms: le ndingnad, PH 7526 . le ffaicfe, BNnÉ 74 § 133 . lea ttuitionn, Párl. na mB. 1207 . le gcurthaoi, Ériu i 101.7 . le a ndamnuighthear, Luc. Fid. 2989 . le ar chuireas, ML 110.4 . lé 'r-buail, PH 7653 . lé n-ar chuiris, Párl. na mB. 907 . Note also: leis a mbí, Bard. Synt. Tr. 4. lé n-a n-oiltior, Párl. na mB. 917 . With copula: O. Ir. la sin(n), Ml. 53c16 , 129b3 , 131d11 . Later: an fear lena holc ┐ lenab olc ┐ len holc . . . an fear le nach olc ┐ leis nach olc, Bard. Synt. Tr. 25 ( leis nach beag, DDána 37.4 ). learbh annsa, Feis Tighe Chonáin 762 . na fir len leis an fearann, Bard. Synt. Tr. 26. (cryptic) loiscia .i. liath (? = lia 'with his' etc.) Goid. § 163 (Dúil Laithne) , ZCP xlix-l 612 . losca (? MS. losco) .i. leo 'with them' Goid. § 181 , ZCP xlix-l 612 .

In a number of idioms used concurrently with FRI, which it to a large extent replaces in the modern language.

MEANINGS.

I Denoting spatial proximity

(a) beside, by, touching : dollécet a láma la tóeb fochetóir, LU 8212 ( FB 16 ). amal roboí . . . laa and la toíb ind locha, LL 14439 ( Ériu v 208 ). snidig banna la taeb na columa medonchi in cech aimser, PH 6356 . trí chéad each le gcurthaoi srian, Ériu i 101.7 ( co n-allaib óir friu, LL 13246 ). a uille do leicen leiss to rest his elbow upon it, Fl. Earls 216.26 . gur léig a leathcheann lé a leathbhrollach, PCT 557 ( Gadelica 127 ). dia mbúi fecht lasan muir amuich go bfacuidh an días Erionnach dia ḟios, Ériu iv 63.26 (here the pseudo-archaic `lasan' may be a scribal affectation). ar bhfaicsin déar le a gruaidh, DDána 69.11 . Cf. beith le remonstrating with: dob é rún Ríogh . . . , beith léise ar lot na habhla, DDána 5.25 . Cf. FRI I (b).

(b) along by (see also I (d) below): flesc for dib ṅgablaib lasin conair immetiagat do erissem dia lethlaim furi a railing along the way they go on which to rest a hand, Ml. 45c9 . a sescunn da cor la descert léni la fur conrici hucht noi nomne `from the Moor of two Hillocks by the south of the meadow, by Fur as far as the Nine-Trees Hill', Thes. ii 238 ( Ardm. 17a ). ótha crích drommo nit cu glais tamlachtae dublocha la gglais cu grenlaich fote `from the border of Druim Nit to the stream of T.D. by the stream to G.F.' ib. le hairer nÉrenn, BDD² 253.

(c) along with, in the same direction as; in motion with: luid leo fades, Thes. ii 240.18 ( Ardm. 18a ). luid espscop fith leo for longis, ib. do thuidecht lat illei, Wb. 30b17 . ar tuidecht leu do brith macc nIsrahel i ndoiri for coming with them to carry the children of Israel into captivity, Ml. 113c8 . in gilla do thecht . . . / le . . . istech talman, SR 3196 . is amlaid tánic A. ┐ a tri meic les, LU 17. do hindled a carput forsna heocha ┐ nusfaīdhe pātric cen duine leo cu feótur ina dísirt la Mochtae, ZCP viii 106.24 . tairsiu féin lat tarb, LL 7646 ( TBC-LL¹ 106 ). ní regat lend they shall not go with us, LU 4632 . ticfaitis fosta fer Fernmaige leiss, TBC-LL¹ 833 . tánic ┐ cóeca ingen lee connici in comdáil, LU 3882 ( SCC 39 ). tanic . . . co n-epscopu ┐ braithri imda lais, PH 1587 ; cf. a taidchrec co sommataid ┐ setaib leu, Ml. 123c10 . do ruacht fer . . . sin tech ┐ fer fo lind leis, LL 7672 ( TBC-LL¹ 135 ). dochóid F. lasin n-athesc sin F. went with that reply, LU 8099 . is é seo mo chétḟechtsa latsu bud é mo ḟecht dedenach, LL 8599 ( TBC-LL¹ 1207 ).

(d) following the course of, secundum (flumen): lotar lasin sruth gó a bunad, Dinds. 52 ( BB 377a41 ). o indill Laeg in gae Aife / lesin t-ṡruth, TBC-LL¹ 2373 . is ann luidhes lasin mBoind sair, ZCP i 464.24 . rosnaid Osine in snaschur ┐ focheird e la sruth na tiprat co hAth na Feile, Dinds. 52 = BB 377a38 . ba sed comarc boi eturra, tomlacht na mbo do lecun lasin sruth, cor'bo find in glaisi in a ndocum, Dinds. 53 ( BB 378a38 ) = ra doírt . . . blegon . . . lasin ṅglassi, LL 169b53 . (cf. Ériu ii 22 , Keat. ii 226 . lasin sruth is represented in the first by: iarsan abaind, in the second by: ris an sruth, see FRI II).

(e) with, in the company of: conrobith i n-indocbáil la Crist `so that ye be in glory with Christ', Wb. 26a28 . attrab la Dia `to dwell with God', Ml. 92a9 . ciatasode lat ar écin `though thou keep her with thee perforce', Wb. 10a10 . nepproinde la geinti `of not dining with Gentiles', 19a10 . bes nobed nech aile leis ocind airchellad, Sg. 202a7 . bíad ind nim láad muindtirsiu `they shall be in heaven along with thy monks', Mon. Tall. 6 = fa re do mhuinntire si, Rule of Tallaght 40 . dubbert Pátricc cumtach du Fíacc . . . ┐ fácab morfeser lais dia muintir, Thes. ii 241.17 ( Ardm. 18a ). ainfa lib `I will tarry with you', Wb. 14a8 . corran célide libsi, 7a17 . congab iar suidiu i nDomnuch Féicc et baí and contorchartar tri fichit fer dia muintir lais and `after this he set up in D.D., and abode there until three score men of his community had fallen there beside him', Thes. ii 242.2 ( Ardm. 18a ). conna hacced nech leo hí that no one might see her with them, LL 260b13 ( LMU 11 ). In sense of alone . dob annamh thusa leat féin thou wert seldom alone, KMMisc. 346.8 . (see further Éigse viii 101 ). focal leis féin a word in its own right, a self-contained word (distinguished from a mere prefix such as comh- deagh-, etc.), IGT Introd. § 100 . See Celtica i 390 . In special sense: ni legend rollegusa la Petor `it is not a reading which I have read with Peter', Wb. 19a6 (cf. V (e) below). mosaithin aicce í / do lēigenn lē entrusted her to her to study with her, ACL iii 308 vi 9 .

(f) with , of mental relations and abstract qualities or notions; in some exx. assistance is implied: ls leu dorignius chomgnimu studivi innocentibus coniungi, Ml. 47a20 . socii .i. fodaimet immalle lium ón ┐ con dogailsegetar lium immalle dano `who endure along with me, and who also are sorrowful along with me', Ml. 87b17 . dia feidliged ires foirbthe leu, 136d2 . frithbruduth ointad la fírianu `refusal of oneness with the righteous', 76c4 . contísed P. do thoorund a luic lais, Thes. ii 242.7 ( Ardm. 18b ). gorb'é bés bfer nErenn beith leisan tí budh treisi to side with him who was strongest, Expugn. Hib. 74 . do thabhairt a lla baige leou, Ann. Conn. 52.12 . níl aoinfer ar in sgelsa leis, Rel. Celt. ii 293.28 . guidhim sibhsi fa beith lium uma cend I pray you to aid me concerning it, Fier. 96 . guidim sib fa cend beth lium im cach ní I beg you to side with me, 122 . With ellipse of verb: guidhim liom . . . / an chéad míle mairtíreach, Dán Dé xxv 62 . gā tarbha an béal do bheith lais / san inntinn ina éagmhais, xxii 20 . an lucht do-beir iad féin do shainnt an tsaoghail . . . óir saoilid go mairfeadh sin leó do shíor, TSh. 220. feib atré in mac bec atresat a gníma oclachais leis, TBC-LL¹ 985 . teid in ingen co n-ēgaīne moir lé dochum a hathar, RC vi 174.16 . scela lat hast thou news ? LU 7987 ( BDD 166 ). ZCP xiii 177.15 . dochóid F. lasin n-athesc sin F. went with that reply, LU 8099 ( FB 7 ). an teachtaire tig le haitheasgaib Dé, Dán Dé xiv 26 . an toisg lér chuirios iad the errand on which I sent them, ML 110.4 . abradh fris conā tardad gráin na hirfuath leis ina dochum, ACL iii 5.8 . cona gabur . . . e can fir De lais, Laws iv 294.20 . dá gcaitheam thú leis an toil if I consume Thee with (sinful) desire in my heart, Dán Dé xviii 10 . Also in spite of: ní léigfiom úainn . . . / le a bheirt . . . nglanmháilligh . . . / an sduaigh I will not let the chieftain go, for all his suit of polished mail, Ériu ix 164 § 17 .

(g) with, in custody of, at the disposal of; carried or worn by: fodord doib di dommatu ┐ dufuairthed ní leu forasaith din main, Ml. 97d10 . fáccab Áed aidacht la Conchad, Thes. ii 242.20 ( Ardm. 18b ). admuiniur in slánicid foracab dian cecht lia muintir, Thes. ii 249.9 . co lóg leu á fognama hiro-batar di mainib inna n-egiptacdae, Ml. 84c12 . mar aes mbraith . . . / cen scribenn lib, SR 3479 . gaisced lasin n-íngin, LU 4522 . claidib gelduirn léo, TBC-LL¹ 175 . is leis . . . frith escra na E., SR 3592 . ra leiced Fer loga . . . siar dia bliadna ┐ da gabair Conchobair leis, LL 13246 ( Sc.M² 20 ). doriacht Niall immach ┐ in indeoin cona cip lais, RC xxiv 194.6 . rofhóid . . . a gilla, ┐ a bréit allais lais, airm a mbói, PH 2193 . is amlaid tancatar, co slogu mora ┐ co n-ascadaib examla leo, LB 198b27 ( PH 6972 ). co n-imat piast . . . co mellaib dergaib umaide leo ina lámaib, PH 8312 . ni dlegait lōn leo for sét / . . . acht an ccéin rabhaitt amuigh / rī Érenn da bhfriothāilimh, ZCP viii 116 § 12. Common in this sense with beirid and do-beir (q.v.): an rí chondaigi hi foss / manimbera latt ní fogbai, Thes. ii 296 . iarsindí dunnucsat i ndoiri leu `after they had brought us into captivity with them', Ml. 92d1 . manimbera su latt if thou dost not carry me off, LL 260a43 ( LMU 9 ). do bert a chend ┐ a fodb lais, LU 5144. co ructáis a chend leo, TBC-LL¹ 1433.

(h) along with, and, in addition to, as well as: la cach cuimliucht ol chenae gl. hoc reliquis quoque commodis iungetur, Ml. 112c9 . ni lour in degforcitlaid maní be indithem leir . . . lasin `withal', 53c18 . tórmaig la cach maith dubir dúnni ar ṅglanad hua . . . chomroircnib gl. adde ad augmentum benignitatis tuae ut ab errore nos convertas, 105d4 . la sassad inna n-anmandae gl. et quod est amplius post expletionem . . . animantium, 129d16 . is airi nistabur la k ┐ q gl. h . . . aspirationis est magis nota, Sg. 4b13 . lasin ngutai inna degaid, 7b6 . co ndechatar [int sailm] mudhaigh hi tempal lasind canoin ol chena, Hib. Min. 7.210 (`they were lost in the Temple with the rest of the Canon', Strachan, RC xxviii 203 ). int[ṡ]ailim lasna noibscribhinna atarimim `I reckon the Psalms with the Sacred writings', Hib. Min. 3.75 . ataruirmiset la gerind `they have reckoned them (i.e. participles) with the gerund', Sg. 188a1 . biit remsuidigthi uaraib cen briathra leo, 215a6 (cf. friu in similar sense, 5). sens magis ┐ posit leiss `the sense of magis and with it the positive', 39a29 . atá dechor n-aimsire hi suidib la cumscugud coibedne, gl. etiam in prima persona habent differentias temporum, 146b15 . da cet mile . . . / la tri cethair cethrachat, SR 116 . tricha lathi . . . / la dech n-úara ┐ lethuar, 225 . immon Michil lasin crosfigill so, immon Muiri lasind crosfigell n-aile, Mon. Tall. 28 . masui dina[i]p Psalmaibh [in tituil] cid arna gabtair leu ? Minip dinaib psalmaib, cid ar[a]scriphthair leu?, Hib. Min. 7.230 . gaibti seom tra teora biadi ┐ magnificat la cach naí, Mon. Tall. 5 . ronbiat da tír lar tír we shall have two countries in addition to our own, Ériu iii 136.44 . bennacht fort . . . la céol nimhe deit dara éisi, BNnÉ 92 § 202 . co ndechaid [in rí] docum ithfrinn . . . la dilsi a thire do Senán ó sin amach, Lism. L. 2328 . condasloic . . . lasa loim gabais asind lestur swallowed her along with the draught, LU 10652 . atat sin sin duma . . . / iii. meic ríg . . . / la tri ingena, 2866 . See also s.v. taeb (la, fri, t.). In leiss (etc.) also; either : ind indocbál doratad do Crist condartar dúnni less gl. coheredes autem Christi, si tamen compatimus ut et simul glorificemur Wb. 4a18 is possibly an early ex. of this (cf. ZCP xvii 223 ). sine é sin ná tusa ┐ na mise leis, Celt. Rev. ix 142.25 (text and MS. late). rachaidh leis féin ar foghuil / raghaidh leis le féin bhFuinidh will go also, Bard. Synt. Tr. 8.10 . lais in this meaning forbidden, ibid. ? ré bliadhna ┐ beagán lais, TD 15.10 .

(i) with, assisting, on behalf of: ar debaid . . . leis fri Senach, LU 3342 ( SCC 13 ). dena ernuighthi leamsa curab reidh dham dhul, Lism. L. 1560 (= ora pro me, Lat. Lives 82 ). ro ghabh B. pater leis, Lism. L. 1566 (= orante B. pro eo, Lat. Lives 82 ).

II Of temporal relations.

(a) Marking point of time, coincidence of occurrence or action. Of point of time: is gnád bróen . . . oca turcbáil ┐ lia fuined, BCr. 18c2 . dognisom ind figild la matain `he performs the vigil at matins', Mon. Tall. 30 (= ar maidin, Rule of Tallaght 96a ). la turcbáil ṅgréne at dawn, TBC-LL¹ 634 . la fuinead ṅgréne, Ériu iv 138.24 . PH 5108. la fescor, PH 1699 . ro imthig reme la doshoillsi na maitne, Grail 1324 . ni tigdis acht le deghdil (= dedail) laoi nó le tosach seachdmuine, ZCP x 291.16 . Cf. la linn (3 linn). Of actions: cóichet na heichsi a gilli for se la fegad co andíaraid fair, LU 8522 ( FB 38 ). la fuirmed in mátan fair, LU 8545 ( FB 40 ). gairfitit . . . le guth a Dūileman (sic leg.), ZCP viii 212.22 . adbered-seom iarum la déicsiu in chuaich . . ., Ériu i 46.11 . tinoilis T. a muintir . . . fo cetoir la hairiugud Cesair cuige, CCath. 3735 . forba ┐ crich do dul for in forbunn rechtaide la tuidecht soscela, PH 3450 . rogab . . . imecla Sir Persaual la faicsin inn eich, Grail 1974 . Freq. in la sin and esp. la sodain with that, immediately, thereupon : dofeccai secha a gabuir . . . lasin donic in gabuir chuci, LL 14155 ( RC iii 184 ). See 1 sin. colláa th'ais tra ol sesem . . . La sodoin fochedoir slechtais C., Mon. Tall. 7 . la sodain téit úad, LU 6100 . ni thó or seiseom. La sodain focheird bedg cuce, LL 260a41 ( LMU 9 ). See 1 suide. Note also: cani du pater fothrí lase thereat, Thes. ii 249.3 . leis sin thereupon, TSh. 364.

(b) This sense sometimes merges into that of III (a); cucut . . . thánac do nim / la forngairi De, SR 1696 . luid for muir . . . lá forcongra Pátraic, Trip.² 2633 . do choid ass . . . in draicc iar sin la brethir in apstail, PH 2505 (cf. soithis A. fri brēithir a mathar, Cáin Ad. 8 . issí . . . rotathbēogadh . . . fri brathair nA., 10 ). rofacsat i n-aenla i la clois[t]eacht Cesair amain `merely on hearing of C.', CCath. 815 . ro eirigh an ben iar sin lé haithne Maodócc `at the command of M.', BNnÉ 218.28 . attracht in duine . . . la cloisteacht in sceōil `on hearing the story', Fl. Earls 194.1 . Cf. VI (b).

(c) during : dogéna sibh an caiscc si mara ndernabhair hí leisna secht mbliadnaibh ele si, BNnÉ 70 § 116 . ni lamar la graifne in gáid / élud, aithne, athgabáil, Metr. Dinds. iii 18.223 . lé ló in his time Content. ii 15 (cf. réd lá, xxiii 4 . rem lá, ACL iii 304.20 ). le haimsir, Párl. na mB. 17 . This use seems confined to later texts and is probably derived from FRI IX (b) q.v.

III

(a) on account of, because of, by reason of (see also II (b) last para., and FRI IV (b)): ní aicci ní lia mescai `he sees nothing for his drunkenness', Ml. 94c3 . gabail mo gotha dim la mméit inna nimned forodamar, Ml. 95d13 . ingnad lesom cutuim doib lammeit inna soinmige hirobatar, Ml. 91c19 . co mbo nem tened indala leth dind rígthig lasna claidbiu ┐ la fáebra na ngái, LU 8202 ( FB 15 ). lasin siabrad ro síabrad immi, LU 9143 ( FB 88 ). ce do faidsad snathat for lar . . . rocluinfide lasin tuí imbítis, LL 12557 ( Ériu iv 30 ). co mboi C. oc sirchuí lásin ngolltraighes, RC vi 183.16 . ba failid lais labra fris la somillsi a indsci, Grail 2187 . gu ro facsat sruithi . . . a n-istuda . . . la homun Cesair, CCath. 772 . ba huathad ro ela dib la f[a]ebra ┐ tennti ┐ biasta what with blades and fires and wild animals, few of them escaped, PH 6326 . le [a] mhéd rachas da ríodhún / a n-íobha slógh mear Mumhan / budh hól gan fear n-ealudhan, Ériu v 54.30 . Cf. II (b). ar ecla Chuind ┐ la hecla rīg Ulad, ZCP viii 274.25 . techit la crith ┐ omon Meic C., LU 7237 `with trembling and terror of Mac C. they flee', BDD 90 . tobur nach etir le duine . . . d'ol lea ḟuaire a ló ┐ lena thes a n-oidhchi, Maund. 136 . ní caomhnactar a feughadh . . . leis na ruithnibh diághadha, ZCP v 495.z . le na fad liumsa co faca tusa anocht, docuadhus . . . gut' iaraid, ZCP vi 66.21 . ni cumgat ni la Mac nDe, Anecd. iii 55.27 . nir ḟētsat in tech d'fāgbāil la daingne an iadhtha bái fair, Irish Texts i 42.10 . níorbh iongnadh le méad a sluaig ar ngéill do Chian it was no wonder we submitted to C., considering the size of his army, Ériu i 93.18 . tic la egsamlacht an inaid . . . examlacht an blassa (o, a, v.l.), Ir. Astr. Tr. 40.11 .

(b) In the following exx. the notions of purpose and instrument are more prominent; through the agency of, by means of: in tan scaras fria thola leo `when by means of them he separates from his desires', Thes. ii 247.7 (Cambr. Hom.). am dechaid a trian sin la bruith `when that third had boiled away', Mon. Tall. 52 . dolduid bannan bec bec as lasind fascad fottai `by reason of the long squeezing', 61 . rogabtha a cossae cona dernae figild rée mor ria necaib lasind forcrid dorigni dia naild, 34 (= ar an iomarcaigh dorighne se cheana, Rule of Tallaght 103 ). Cf. nombeir fort muin connesbiur dich latt take me on thy back that I may get (lit. drink) a drink with (by means of?) thee, RC x 214.z . gach paiter dar gabus riam lesin mbelsin, PH 7339 . is í so in t-ochtmad plág lér buail Dia Faró, 7653 . gach ní at-chluinim leis an gcluais, Dán Dé ix 6 . in spreid la ndíngned nech a bethugud, PH 7526 . clann do dhénuimh . . . dhi / le féghuin an éoin eile, IGT Decl. ex. 496 (= ar fēgad, ACL iii 238 ). rostad a n-éisg doníd ar chlochaib leisan grēin, Maund. 49 . maothuighthear í . . . le fothrogadh fola do thabhairt dí, Mac Aingil 306 . dogheba sibh . . . soinean maith le ffaicfe sibh an t-oilén so, BNnÉ 74.9 . geas do bhí ar an sleigh sin . . . gan bainéacht do dhéanamh lé, Keat. ii 4390 . an t-urchar . . . ler thuit morbhar G., Rel. Celt. ii 194.13 . ag gáire le guth mór, Dán Dé xxix 5 (cf. ro nuall o guth mor, PH 2898 = do éigh do ghuth ard, Matthew xxvii 46 ). Of persons: dochotar martra la heachtrandu, YBL 12a28 . ata Muma lais i ssíd through him M. is at peace, LL 19073 . tairthe na bhfeadh leat do lúb, L. Cl. A. B. 234.6 . Cf. II (b).

(c) Of accompanying circumstance or condition; contemporary action: nach comai[r]le . . . dognither la fortach[t] Dae is bithsuthin adae, Ml. 51b28 . ar bá fio factus sum dogéni prius; suffio sufiui immurgu la cumscugud n-inne, Sg. 185b4 . ní choímnacair a fogbail lá doirchi na aidchi, Trip.² 1446 (126) . focheird deit chubus . . . la slemni `send him away from thy confession gently', Mon. Tall. 2 . a mesrugud do neuch tra buddesin la eolus ind fita, 63 . ni aurcail dano laisiom do neoch cid chodala a lórtid acht rop la forcomet na trade colleir `provided that he diligently observe the hours', 82 . praind do tomailt la marb hi tig to eat a meal whilst in a house where there is a dead man, 65 . dá ndeach le bás mbeannaighthe, Studies 1918, 282 § 16 . isin rainn is nesam do dochuaidh la cundtabairt he goes (lit. has gone) to the next division to it by reason of the doubt, Laws iv 192.7. Comm . do-chúaidh an gort san choll go ndearna an tsoil .g. aris de la a bheith bog na choll chumuisg (i.e. g + c = cc but s + cc = sg), IGT Introd. § 30 . gan duine . . . do dol faoi . . . acht le custam do dhīol, Fl. Earls 90.4 . caith le daondacht a bhfoighe, O'Gr. Cat. 29.5 . dochuir urnaighthe diochra go Dia . . . gidh edh nir treicc . . . a troim-easlainte leissin hé for all that, BNnÉ 275 § 257 . Cf. la dēcim felmac (.i. is amlaid ataciim conid mac foglamma) `according to what I see (he is only) a pupil' RC xxvi 14.12 . ( Rawl. 108a5 .)

(d) Expressing purpose with follg. vn.: lé a congbháil ó fhéin fhuinidh `to guard it', TD 10.16 . ní le rádh uirre is iomdha (of Jerusalem), 17.25 . la furtacht d'faghail in order to get help, Stair Erc. 78 . ar an leabhar . . . noch atā le taisbēanadh, Párl. na mB. 133 .

IV Expressing agency by, by the hands of, by direction or order of.

(a) With pass. verb. dogéntar aidchumtach tempuil less, Wb. 26a8 . congabtis gabala linn, 19a4 . a molad . . . lúaidfidir láedib limmsa `it will be sung in lays by me', Thes. ii 295.7 (Cod. S. Pauli). indí lassandenatar inna cumtach `those by whom the ornamentations are made', Ml. 84a11 . gabthe dunad les fris `a camp was pitched by him (Saul) against him (David)' Ml. 55c1 . dichossecrad inna cathrach conrotacht la duaid `of the consecration of the city that was built by David', 48d27 . conoscaighther du scath immut la cumscugud inna grene gl. sicut umbra corpus sequitur et conversionibus solis inflectitur, 118c12 . amal asrobrad leusom, Ml. 37b24 . oroit ar Thurcain lasandernad in [c]hrossa, Thes. ii 289.5 . oroit . . . do Flaund . . . do rig Herenn lasandernad a cumddachso (i.e. to whose order?), 11 . ised canir leisim, Mon. Tall. 131.11 . rothinolad lais . . ./ na fuair frisna secht ṁbliadnaib, SR 3393 . díaro sáertha na mná la Adomnan ┐ la Fínnachta Fledach, la ríg nÉrend, ┐ la mathib hErend ar chena, LU 2258 ( FA 32 ). do toglad in dun la Coin Culaind, RC vi 184.28 . Tigernmas . . . / leis ro berbad . . . méin óir a tús i nHerind, LL 2046 (cf. is aciside doronta ilbrechta i n-étaigib, 2037 ). darónad urgnam bíd ┐ lenna leo, TBC-LL¹ 811 . ro alt la Conchobar, LL 260a11 ( LMU 6 ). C. . . . lasrachētgabtha comgni, ZCP viii 303.1 . rohailed in mac sin la Cathbad, RC vi 178.129 . Marchelli din . . . is lais do-ronad leiges in abbad, PH 555 . gabthar Ailill la hÉ., RC xxiv 186.2 . a chlár . . . ler cabhradh cách, DDána 2.6 . Sometimes with ellipsis of the verb: ni do chach la Meidb in lind dálter for Fer ṁbáeth, TBC-LL¹ 2167 = ni do chách berar la Meidb, TBC St. 1926 . lechtain le Pedar / isan offrend ard uasal the lectio was introduced by Peter, ZCP viii 115 § 31. Frequ. with impersonal forms of intransitive verbs: dutiagar leu du failti fris[i]n ríg, Ml. 116b5 . dochuas (docuas v.l.) limsa chuici I went to it, Ériu iv 134.11 . cid fa bfuilter damsa lib what do you want from me, TBC-LL¹ 2261 . sciobadh na miasa . . . is trialltar leo tar sleasaibh an mhúir amach, Keat. iii 1012 .

(b) Denoting agent after vn. or an appellative so used: tri óenpheccad la Adam, Wb. 3a5 which could also be rendered one sin of Adam's. Cf. VI (a). conaroib diupart neich lelele `so that there be no defrauding of one by another', 16c24 . connabí asse a aicsin leu `so that it is not easy for him to be seen by them', Ml. 116a1 . Cf. cid fodruair latsu . . . mo dímiadsa fiad andrib, LU 3901 ( SCC 41 ). ba ferr a comaitecht . . . oldaas a tuitim la náimtiu, LL 260b33 (Lg). dogniat nuallguba . . . ic a riagad la drungu demnu, PH 8316 . cúirt . . . ag a cor suass lesin diūc, Fl. Earls 78.35 . Here may be assigned the type: ni sí ar sercc less `that is not the love He hath for us', Wb. 4b16 . méit for serc lemsa, 14d16 . Cf. 23a27 , 25a27 , 27d8 . ara seirc lind because I am so fond of her, Fing. R. 392.

(c) Denoting agent after active verb, at the hands of: cutrummae neich forodamair som leu `the same measure as he had suffered at their hands', Ml. 54b28 . Cf. maided fair lib `let him be routed by you', Wb. 7a4 . rombith lat . . . a lestar give me the vessel, Irish Texts i 11.2 . cach la tan ba leo. tan aile ba forro, LU 223 . co torchair .l. leis cona ḟiaclaib, LL 14054 ( RC iii 181 ). fuair bás na chomland chatha / la D., Arch. Hib. ii 85 § 41 . dáig ni bam béo meni thaeth cara nó náma limm, TBC-LL¹ 669 . táet a bás lim, 907 . mad dia tóetsad latt, 2088 . E. lastorchair C., ZCP viii 302.20 . tuitfe tú liomsa, Duan. F. ii 256 § 31 . is lais tra forodamair in martrasa, lasin forcongarthid . . . Datianus, PH 1109 . o atchualaid tra Dioclian . . . in bisech bui for in cristaigecht lais (i.e. Paphnutius), 539 .

(d) With neg. vb. denoting preventive agent: mainbad tairbad bāis . . . / lem ni bud fien cen dīgail, Fianaig. 10.18 .

V In at, among, with (apud, chez, bei).

(a) Of locality or population-group: ucc domnuch mar criathar la auu censelich in Uí Ch. Thes. ii 241.6 ( Ardm. 18a ). la laigniu `in Leinster', Thes. 241.16 (ibid.). Raith Cathbaid .i. la Cruithintuaith Raith C. in the country of the Picts, RC vi 175.38 . Cf. la di[a]mair a inchlidi som gl. apud arcanum virtutis suae, Ml. 53a5 . nach loinges roḟitir E. la hEirind, Ériu iii 138.103 . érlamae Cille F. la Áu Amalgada, Trip.² 1540 . Mag Ṡeired la Tethba. Mag Tochair i Tir Eogain, LL 626 . Ui A. la Muaidh `on the Moy', Hy Fiach. 4. Cf. nach namae ro bói lia n-athir `any enemy that their father had', Ml. 127b2 . is de atā Trāig Ési la hUltu, Ériu i 118.35 . Crimthann la Hū Maine, ACL iii 308 § vi 1 . la hErinn huili throughout Ireland, RC iii 345.6 .

(b) Referring to persons or peoples generally: bat he berte bretha lib `let it be them who give judgements among you', Wb. 9c12 . lia muntair `among his household', Ml. 71c16 . no cainte tobchetal leusom hi tosuch cech mís, 102c8 (or to be referred to IV (a)?). rechtga[e] ríg amail rongab rechtga[e] righ Caisil la Mumain, Críth G. 520 . in Cú ro chúalammár la hUltu, LU 4832 . mad me bad chend athchomairc laisna Déisib, Ériu iii 140.184 . máethmaccáem co n-gabh armu lind, TBC-LL¹ 1249 . is hē ba tuaircnid flatha la Fiachaig, ZCP viii 317.18 . da ech bas ḟerr la Connachta `the best pair of horses to be found with the C.' LL 13031 ( Sc.M² 2 ). is é cétna ro gabh in ceim sin la Romhanchu `the first to obtain that rank among the Romans', CCath. 77 . do mheaduigh cert lem gach lá, Rel. Celt. ii 240.y .

(c) in, amongst, with, of customs and usages, corresponding to in, amongst, with , in such phrases as in Virgil, in Shakespeare, (it is the custom) in France or amongst the French, (it is a custom) with him; in the days of (cf. VI (d) below): intí lasmbi ind encae . . . intí bís isind encae (sic), Ml. 24a19 . file athir leíss `that he has a father', Sg. 29b12 . ní áis aeccalsa ata brithemin lib, Wb. 9c7 . lebedan .i. ised ainm forán la ezechiál `Leviathan, that is Pharaoh's name in Ezechiel', Ml. 93b7 . do thintud in suin ebraidi sluindes . . . ilintliuchtu la ebreu, 37a10 . dundgniat ind filid linni, 26b10 . briathra āildi la cechtar de frialaile, 31a24 . is la grecu atā a ndliged sin, Sg. 95b1 . dund lathar fil la Dia ocar nditin ni `to the purpose which is with God in protecting us' Ml. 103d27 . nad fel dliged remcaissen la Dia, Ml. 27d10 . mascul la baedam són immurgu `this however, is masculine in Baeda', Sg. 124b6 . arecar forṅgarthaid sechmadachti la Grécu gl. apud Graecos etiam praeteriti temporis sunt imperativa, Sg. 147b6 . ind interiecht nad rann insce la Grecu, 26b6 . cit comsuidigthi la Grecu ní ecen dunni beta comsuidigthi linn, 207b11 . aní as nomen lasna littridi aili is cognomen són la Priscien, 28a18 . is follus nach mór bríg articuil linni, 26b3 .

Very frequently in Laws i n phrase la Féine (Féniu) (frequently abbreviated lā) according to (the custom of) the F.: cis lir fodlai fine la Feine?, Laws iv 282.10 ( SM Facs. 3b ). atait tri comurba la Feine nis comsaer a cuir, Laws iii 46.18 . atait secht cella la Feine, na dlegad dire na dicubus, v 118.1 . dichenglaiter cach chor cen raith fine la Feine, iv 206.z . is [s]ruithiu la Feine in foesam andsen óldas a tir as a tairidnither, 9 ( Ériu xvii 64 § 3 ). Note further: ní heclas, acht ūam latrand ┐ tādat a hainm la Crīst, Ériu i 219.z . ar is fern laisin laidneoir ┐ u laisin Gāidel, ZCP viii 107.3 . ni facai . . . tuaslucud for selind n-imbe la muindtir Máolrúoin, Mon. Tall. 22 . atat tri altai leusom for ind gabail, 33 . ni fogni laisim fachmarc scel dóib `it is not his usage to ask them for news' 2 (see fo-gní). ba sollamain gresach la maccu Israel in sollamain-sea in Cengcaigis, PH 5417 . is meinic leis na hoideadha techt . . . do lathair na ndaltadha, RC xxix 110.x .

(d) Various: is bés leosom in daim do thúarcain ind arbe Wb. 10d6 . is bes leusom torand hi tempul delbae inna rig, Ml. 65c16 . ba lugae leu in sin gl. per . . . exempla iurabant, 118c5 . ba bés leu . . . ferthain ind óenaig, LU 3230 ( SCC 2 ). as breth la F. leth diri gach graid tuaithe for a mnai, Laws iv 306.17 . In the opinion of, according to: issi a bríg liumsa atechtae som huaim amal ni confessin etir I care no more about their going from me than if etc., Ml. 117d4 . ba bibdu báis leusom intí nád imdibthe, Wb. 1d15 . is cert a míad linn do beith-siu etrainn we deem it a sufficient honour, Mer. Uil. 49. See dar.

(e) from, at the hands of: gabais caille la patricc took the veil from P. (i.e. was professed by P.), Thes. ii 238.16 ( Ardm. 17a2 ). rotbia less lóg do daggníma, Wb. 6a11 . rotbia limm airmitiu intslóig, SR 3353 . nanní asbertisom frisom . . . ba ed a frecrae adi lesom `whatever they used to say to him that was the answer to them that he had', Ml. 62c13 . ba hísin tochuiridh Patraic leo the invitation they had for P., Dinds. 68 . in eitchi connaigh, nī sunn atā dhó acht a Clūain mic Nois ┐ la Ciarán, ACL iii 4.35 . amail rochualatar som lassin faith commad tria chumachta na hingine rogebtais tír, Ériu iii 138.80 . ro chuala la nech legas libru I have heard from one who studies books, LL 19060 ( Misc. Hib. 17 § 1 ). cia hairm ita in chleth, cluinem lat, Rawl. 84a21 . rot bia tír lind cen chís cen biathad, Ériu iii 140.168 . dia mbui Crist hi croich la hIúdaigib, PH 671 . rodbē a lūagh la Dia `may God reward you for it', Ériu i 46.27 . cīa lóg rombīa latt ar a fagbāil what reward shall I have from thee? ZCP iv 44.5 ( TBFr. 23 ). Cf. further: luid C. do forceatal gaiscid la Scāthaig . . . ilLetha, Ériu i 114.3 (cf. Wb. 19a10 cited under I (e) above). tathum cech maith la Gūaire, Ériu ii 16.13 . cía fogaba mōrchennsa / lassin dūilem īar ndola, BColm. 98.8 .

(f) The following also are most simply explained as developments of the sense with, amongst, at ; exx. of the types cited are very numerous in Old-Ir. glosses: trachtad lesom anisiu this is his commentary, Ml. 74c9 . cosmuilius aile lessom in so this is another of his similes, Wb. 10d14 . cosmuilius roisc anísiu lessom, 12c10 . canoin centrachtad in so lessom (of a verse without commentary), Ml. 132c6 . analogia laissem anisiu do thaidbse cheille `he has here an analogy to shew the sense', Sg. 149b4 . Cf. forsani as corda trachtad (dtrachtid, MS) lesom anisiu, Ml. 53a1 .

(g) according to, in the opinion of in phrases with copula: ished aperficere lessom (to do) this he deems perficere, Wb. 3d5 . is peccad diabul lesom he considers it a double sin, Ml. 97d10 . issí ind inducbal lesom in molad, 126b17 . arathis leusom anintamail fria ndeu `they deem it as a reproach', 138c10 . This construction very common at all periods to indicate possession of opinion, notion, feeling, desire, impulse, etc. The predicate can be (i) a noun, or (ii) an adjective. (i) iscían ós accobor lemm farríchtu I have long desired to come to you, Wb. 7a3 . intí lasinformat maith dodegdoinib, Ml. 129b3 . is machdad limm, Sg. 6a4 . cid as mó miscais lat atchí, IT i 81.18 . cach ní ba tol libse, PH 637. (ii) robu maith leu they would have liked, Ml. 105b8 . aní asmaith ladia doguidi, Wb. 4b4 . condib sain . . . linn, Tur. 86 . an robo dech leó dona tri coectaib ingen, LU 8724 ( FB 54 ). ba holc le anisin, RC xxiv 192.21 . amal ba lór leo, PH 3300. Common with menma: bá maith lais a menma, IT i 257.5 . See menmarc. See also dar. With certain predicates the meaning is more concrete, see doich, étir, mebair, etc.

VI Denoting possession, ownership, etc.

(a) attá x la y y has x (cf. oc IV (b)): nistá leo leth docoiset they have nowhere to go, Mon. Tall. 128.10 . robadar cethtri cridiscél liomsae `I have had', 136.19 . See also 144.28 , 130.1 , 135.19 , 135.28 , 148.20 . boí fled . . . la B. do Ch. B. had a feast (prepared) for C., LU 8041 ( FB 1 ). itá a rigan la cach ríg sund has with him, TBC-I¹ 190 . in filet scéla lib?, ZCP viii 318.20 . tresin ceird toṡuigthi fil lib, LL 13770 . mór na tiorchanta atá lionn, TD 27.30 . In St. Ercuil common in archaisms (see Introd.); elsewhere replaced by attá . . . oc . . . Cf. an lá nocha liom do bhí it was not my lucky day(?), Aithd. D. 47.1 .

(b) x la y y has x (perh. as (a) with ellipse of subst. vb.): ceist limm dúib, Wb. 19b7 . óenchoimdiu lib `one Lord have ye', 22d7 . sainred n-eulais leu, Ml. 37b12 . As subordinate clause: ho ro mmoidisom cumachte less that he had power, Wb. 17a12 . is torbach do popul flaith firian leu it is profitable to the people to have a righteous prince, Ml. 90b11 . conrubaidh fri m'enech gin mháthair nó athair lium (.i. agum), ZCP v 523 . Of personal attributes: rosc nglan . . . lais, LU 7078 ( BDD 75 ). berrtha lethna leo, TBC-LL¹ 181. Of relatives: da brathair limm, TBC-LL¹ 50 . E. . . . oenmac leis, Rawl. 148a5 . ni fess celi le, IT i 139.26 = nácon fes céle for a seilb, LU 10606. Various: de[i]ch mbaí lais, Laws iv 306.x . breithemnus dogrés la clandaib L., Críth G. 133 . leth in tigi . . . la Connachta the men of C. occupied, Sc.M² 5 . rob tusa lemsa / rob misi latsa, Ériu ii 89 § 4 (see Éigse x 46 ).

(c) is la x y x owns, possesses y, y belongs to x (also with ellipse of copula. See Éigse x 45 - 8 ): ní lanech huáin alaile, Wb. 6b20 . commimis less huili, 21 . leissom a tech, 33a2 . amal ata les inna nert, Ml. 108c11 . á aii .i. comtis les gl. uoluerit eos suos uocari, 92c10 . is limsa in cauradmir, LU 8974 ( FB 73 ). A. . . . ba leis ind Hériu, LL 14786 . latsu na rucais, PH 3217 . bud le a maccaibsi a cuit de, Laws iv 46.3 Comm . diamtis lat, LU 3310 ( SCC 11 ).

In extended meaning x has a right to (do) y: ni limsa superedificare it is not for me to, etc., Wb. 8c17 . is la B. tocht isan cath it is B's part to go into battle, RC xxiv 194.24 . riaguil proinntige . . . ní linni a rád it is not for us to fix the rules of the refectory, ZCP xiii 27.21 . is liomsa a chogar ó chiort I have a right to be heard by him, DDána 121.33 . Note also: in let / dál dia fuair doirthe dost thou know why? Metr. Dinds. iii 412. 27 . do ba leam ise d'aithmhealladh it was in my power to, Aithd. D. 89.32 . imtheachd . . . is é bhus libh, DDána 26.3 .

(d) Phrase x la y as adjectival complement of a noun: petta sindaig la rig L. a pet belonging to, IT i 46.22 . dorime an mac aite ile lasin n-athair many places belonging to (that many places belong to?), Anecd. i 51 § 3 . E., cathair . . . lé hEoin, Maund. 31 . go baile le diūc de L., Fl. Earls 74.28 . Cf. Créd la Marcán, Anecd. i. 7.14 .

Personal forms used reflexively: atdubelliub lemm, Wb. 7a4 . décce lat corintiu, 10c20 . atreba leiss possesses, Sg. 33a1 , 4 . addella leis tech[t] do thig filed N., Otia ii 86.2 . faichle lat atair mo thairbhse, BB 384b36 ( Dinds. 66 ). Áth Chliath fégaid lib, Metr. Dinds. iii 100.1 . finta lat in ranic ní Fer baeth, TBC-LL¹ 2198 . an fitir lat?, YBL 13a24 ( Snedg. u. Mac R 46 ). imthigid don halla leó féin, Maund. 203. áirimh leat, Content. v. 71 . tiomsaigh leat, TD 2.5 . See Duan. F. iii 75 n ., Celtica i 390 .

Idiomatic uses with verbs, nouns and adjectives are given under the words concerned.

In later lang. 3 s. n. leis as adv. visible, uncovered : ná léig leis do bhrághaid bhán do not expose, Dánta Gr. 26.7 . a n-aighthe ┐ gach ní do bhí leis díobh all that was uncovered. Beatha S. F. 2347 . leigmíd ár mbrollach . . . leis, Párl. na mB. 562 . ? duit ó nach léis na lomróid, Rel. Celt. ii 298.26 . (Earlier ris, see Duan. Finn., Éigse ix 227 , fri IX (f)).

lethan

Cite this: eDIL s.v. lethan or dil.ie/30046
Last Revised: 2019

 

adj o, ā bean leathan, IGT Decl. § 137 . na mná leithni, Abstr. Nouns 255.13 .

I

(a) broad, wide; wide-spread : fo thonnaib lir lethain, Fél. Nov. 23 . súid . . . / ata lethna lindi, Ep. 82. ro milled in gentlecht / cíarbo lígdae l.¤ wide-spread, Prol. 214. fuar inocht Mag lethon Luirc, RC xi 130.22 . fairend diarbo chumu[n]c ar thús ┐ díarbo l.¤ fo deóid . . . in sét, LU 2160 ( FA 23 ). lecca lethna tentide, LU 2234 ( FA 30 ). muir l.¤ , Otia ii 82 § 5 . berrtha lethna leo, TBC-LL¹ 181 . Ruide mac Luigdech lethain `broad-built', Metr. Dinds. iv 368.23 . do thraigthe luchra lethna, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1912, 439 § 5 . co laighnibh lethna, Cóir Anm. 174 . tri fasaib leathna lanmora na Lombuirde, ZCP vi 35.22 . sirtha lethna wide-ranging, Comp. CC 80.7 . longp[h]ort lethan, ML² 1060. linnti lethna, 1231 . is l.¤ ┐ is fairsiung in sét, PH 4000 . for méis lethain, 902 . is comartha ar laidirecht an eich mong l.¤ ┐ druim gerr, Celtica ii 44 § 34 . an dara ród, bhíos leathan fairsing, TSh. 9646. In chevilles: l.¤ scél, SR 6215 . l.¤ smacht, 1295 . l.¤ slicht, Airne F. 259. Fig. bad l.¤ for menme et for cride gl. dilatamini, Wb. 16a15 . cid uathad in timna-sa i ḟoclaib . . . is l.¤ hi ceill of wide application, PH 5839. In gramm., conson lethan a velarized consonant : dísbeagadh cáol no leathan, IGT Introd. § 113 . ag oireamhuin don fhocal bhíos roimhe bhíos an barr madh cáol no leathan é, § 149 . gach ainm iollraidh cáol ┐ a thochlughadh lethan, § 158 .

(b) level: tuicter gorab cruinn ataid fein ┐ nach l.¤ `spherical, and not flat', Ir. Astr. Tr. 88.10 . da madh na claraibh lethna do bedis `level planes', 4 .

Equat. (see Bergin, Ériu xiv 142 f .): duillind . . . / lether seiche[d] rodoim, Snedg. u. Mac R § 30 (see Gwynn, Hermathena xx 68 ). leithir damseithi ind oenṡúil, BDD² 516 . oenṡúil . . . leithigthir damṡechi, 406 . leithidir tri artemu, LL 252b40 . leithir leth ndamsheiche cechtar a nda thraig, 23 . lethidir cró dernann, Ériu iv 96 § 14 (= lethi na, LL 4492 ). lethithir fria gach cethrar don droing dhaenna a bhfhir ┐ a mna, Marco P. 187 (lethightir, MS.).

Compar. as letha gl. latiore, Ml. 44c27 . nícon ba letha a scíath, Fianaig. 24.10 (leithe, lethe, lethei, v.ll.). scíath . . . / ba lethiu indá damseche, SR 5772 . iadais indara súil connárbo lethiu indás cró snáthaiti, LU 4881 . poll talman bus lethne inás, TBC St. 4671 = leithe, H, TBC-LL¹ p. 821 n. 2 . leithne . . . ná an fairge, Job xi 9 . Fig. more comprehensive, of wider application : is lethiu enech ríg aidbriud `a king's honour is wider than any claim', Triads 235 (of the difficulty of going security for a king). leithiu firinde fasaigib, O'Curry 1746 ( 23 Q 6, 32 ). do trōcaire . . . as lethi cech muīn, Otia ii 97 § 31 . patronoimic is leithe a fuirmed quam a innde its application is wider (implies more) than its intrinsic meaning, Auraic. 3394.

II As subst. broad part : ar l.¤ Locha Eirne, SG 26.26 . ó filltibh a occsall co llet[h]an a les `to the broad of his thighs', CCath. 5238 . buille . . . a l.¤ an sceith, ZCP x 295.y . na tri lethain do horduiged isin ech .i. l.¤ idir a da suil ┐ idir a da sáil ┐ idir a da máoil, Celtica ii 56 § 28 .

Compds.

(a) With nouns. ¤chlais wide trench : ro claided lethanclais landomain, CCath. 3437 . ¤lott widespread destruction : teidhm leathanloit thiar is toir / bha Thrían gcreachordhruic gConghoil, L. Cl. A. B. 144.151 . ¤los broad end : cuarsciath . . . cona let[h]anloss inncael, CCath. 5316 . ¤muir: is lūath lūi re l., Otia ii 82 § 7 . ¤rosg: 'na lethanrusg, ZCP viii 539.4 . ¤scíath: dá lethanscíath landaṅgni, TBC-LL¹ 3611 . ¤slúasait: da let[h]ansluasait . . . ica fulang `two broad feet', CCath. 4034 . leathan-ucht, Keat. Poems 885.

(b) With nouns. to form adjj. ¤chenn: a llaigen lethanc[h]enn, CCath. 5820 . ¤enech: Longsech leth[an]ainech, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 41 § 31.

(c) With adjj. forming dvandva compdd. ¤cháem: each ríg Lifi lethanchae[i]m broad and fair, BColm. 90.10 . ¤ḟota: tíre lethanfoda Lochlann, CCath. 153 . ¤gér: na hairm līmtha lethan-gēra, ML² 1723 . ¤glas: laigni . . . lethanglasa, Cog. 158.24 . dubṡlega lethanglasa, BDD² 750 . co Luimneach l. / frismbarca ben, Ériu iv 154.2 . co hAlmain lethanglais Laigen, Acall. 5708 . ¤lebar broad and long : do laighnibh lethanlebraibh, CCath. 1962 . ¤mór: ind Almain lethanmoir Laigen, Acall. 5862 . laighne lethanmhóra, Cóir Anm. 162.

(d) With part. ¤scaílte widely-spread : trí monga liathghlasa . . . leathansgaoilte forra, ML 120.1 .

See also s.vv. bordach, 2 meirlech, 2 muirnech, scíathach, slúaistech.

mac(c)fuirmid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. mac(c)fuirmid or dil.ie/31191

 

Forms: macfuir[m]edh, macfuirmidh

n i, m. (= mac fuirmid? the second component may be a gen.; see fuirmed ) a poet of the sixth or second lowest grade in the Irish order of `filid'; his special species of composition were the `setrad' and `sainemain (senamain)'. See IT iii 112 , 116 . mucairbe .i. mac fuirmid, is mac dofuirmed a dāna (.i. no is macdan dufuirim a dāna), Corm. Y 855. macfuirmid, O'Mulc. 537. macfuir[m]edh , IT iii 97.1 ( BB 294a31 ). do macfuirmidh , Auraic. 2248. g s. mécnach m̅c̅ fuirmida, IT iii 31.16 . Called mac már, ZCP v 499 § 7. See muc(c)airbe.

midithir

Cite this: eDIL s.v. midithir or dil.ie/32192
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: midiur-sa, forsa-mmitter, midithir, midedar, nachib-mided, midid, mestar, condid-messed, mesor-sa, num-mesur, miastar, messimmir, nos-messammar, mídar, midair, miditir, midetar, mesair, coni-messar, mestar, meser, messtar, misir, meiser, messatar, miastir, miastair, miastar, ron-mess-ni, mesta, messe, messi, mess, midem, -ain, mid-, mid, midet, mider, mide, mhidea, mess-, con-messind-se, mesaid, midfess, midfed, mid, midset, fora-miset, midatar, miter, midfidir, mided, midir, midr-, roda-midir

dep. vb. O.Ir. forms: pres. 1 s. midiur-sa, Wb. 9a2 . 2 s. forsa-mmitter, 6b22 . 3 s. midithir, Ml. 30c8 . ní midedar , Sg. 63a14 . Imp. 3 s. nachib-mided, Wb. 27a24 . 2 pl. midid, 3b5 . Subj. pres. 3 s. rel.) mestar, Ml. 127d12 . Subj. impf. 3 s. condid-messed, Wb. 8d26 . Fut. 1 s. in mesor-sa , Sg. 179a1 . amal num-mesur , Ml. 94b8 . 3 s. miastar, Wb. 1d9 , cf. Ml. 56c10 . 1 pl. messimmir, Wb. 9c10 . nos-messammar, ib. Pret. 1 s. ra mídar , 9b5 . 3 s. ru midair , Ml. 72b21 . Pass. pres. pl. miditir, Wb. 4c9 . (rel.) midetar, Ml. 128b2 . Subj. pres. 3 s. co mesair , 36a17 . coni-messar, 42d14 . (rel.) mestar, Wb. 9c6 . Ml. 24a10 . Cf. meser, Corm. Y 1135 = messtar, Corm. 40.10 ; misir, O'Dav. 1442 ; meiser, ib. 868 (? 2 s. subj. pres.). pl. messatar, Ml. 70a9 . Fut. s. miastir, Wb. 9c9 . miastair, Ml. 30d25 . rel.) miastar, 57c7 . Pret. s. ron-mess-ni, Wb. 4b22 . mesta (spurious form for messa), Laws v 394.1 . Part. messe q.v. Gerundive messi. vn. mess; midem, -ain (late forms).

In Mid.Ir. treated as act. vb., stem mid-: imp. 2 s. mid, PH 609. pres. 3 pl. ní midet , 6856 . Subj. pres. 1 s. (dep.) ro mider , 3961 . 3 s. ro mide , 4149 . ro mhidea , 4166 . The older stem mess- still persists: con-messind-se, RC xxv 22 § 4 (LL), but falls together with mesaid q.v. Fut. 3 s. rel.) midfess, Trip. 258.16 . Condit. 3 s. midfed, LU 2741. Pret. 3 s. ro mid , LL 14b7 . Metr. Dinds. iv 88.2 . 3 pl. midset, PH 6563 , cf. fora-miset, Cog. 116.5 . ro midatar , Trip. p. lix 13 . Pass. pres. rel.) miter, Laws iv 352.28 Comm. Fut. midfidir, LU 2169 ( FA 24 ). Pret. ro mided , Cog. 116.5 . The 3 s. pret. ro midir continues in use, and gives rise to a spurious stem midr- occas. found (see mídraid).

Orig. weighs, measures , hence

(a) judges , with acc. or FOR: in Glosses commonly translates Lat. iudicare; diiudicare, Ml. 30c8 ; comprobare, Sg. 179a1 . is macc míastar in die iudici , Wb. 1d9 . nebmess for nech . . . condid-messed in Coimdiu until the Lord should have judged him, 8d26 . is tria ḟír flathemon tuatha móra midetar, LL 293b5 , cf. ZCP xi 81 § 10 a . Día már midedar [mided ar MS.] cach ní, LU 3042 ( SG 235.38 ). i mBeluch Mugna rat-mess thou wast proved (of a sword), RC xx 11 § 12. is and sin midfed-som co fíren forsna dóenib, LU 2741 ( RC xxv 254 § 38 ). is fo gnimaib midither Dia for duine, Laws i 48.24 . i lló brátha in tan midfess for torad a proaecepta, Trip. 258.16 . ro midhis fort fen thou hast passed judgement on thyself, ZCP xiii 177.21 . ra midestar si . . . for cach n-óen dint ṡlúag dús cia díb na thogfad i tochmarc, LL 221a8 ( TTr. 282 ). With cogn. acc.: is and míastair mess díriuch for cách, Ériu ii 194 § 7 ; cf. co na ro mide . . . anforlond nā indliged for nech (= neminem iniuste opprimere), PH 4149.

(b) adjudges, assigns ; cf. ni midedar cenel n-indib does not decide the gender in them, Sg. 63a14 . secht cinela aire . . . as a miditer dire seven kinds of satire for which `díre' is adjudged, Laws v 228.26 . an ro midair mo Dia dam . . . ni chumaing nech a thormach nach a digbáil, SR 3121. ro mid do chach díb a chert, LL 14b7 . biathadh . . . do righ Muman mídhit báird bards adjudge . . . to the king of Munster (?), Leb. Cert. 36.10 . is fuirmed filed ro midair in[n]a hanmand sa dona airc[h]etluib, Corm. Y 41. in miad [leg. miach?] foramiset . . . is fai ro mided doib, Cog. 116.5 .

(c) measures: appraises, estimates: gl. aestimare, Wb. 4c9 , Ml. 24a10 , 42d14 , 128b2 . fat lethet tige Tephi . . . midit súthi, Metr. Dinds. i 8. meiser ailt (.i. teach) iarna ait thou shouldst appraise a house by its situation, O'Dav. 868. miastar cach iarna thochus let him assess each one according to his fortune (?), Tec. Corm. § 6.43 . fo lin maine midhidear `the property is judged among the whole group', Stud. in E. Ir. Law 140 , cf. Laws iv 38.12 . mesta Mugdorn . . . fri cumail n-uinge M. was estimated at a `cumal' worth an ounce, v 394.1 . cid óen a siball namá | mesa fri secht laíc[h]esa `has been priced at seven lay-women', Fianaig. 14 z . With compl. of pred., esteems, counts (as): gia ra maess menmnach Ferbáeth though F. was held courageous, TBC-LL¹ 3515 ; cf. Ml. 36a17 : co mesair, gl. digna honore ducatur.

(d) deems, thinks, supposes: gl. putare, Wb. 9a2 , existimare 3b5 . ro mídir Patraic nad baí baili bád cuidbiu . . . indás hi Maig Breg, Trip. 40.12 . midset conid for dásacht boí, PH 6563.

(e) meditates (an act, plan, etc.), intends: ro midair in rí a trécud, LU 4236 ( SG 83 ). cor-ro midair marbad in cleirich, Anecd. iii 34.17 . ro midatar orccoin Pátraic, Trip. lix 14. mairgc ro mídhair bid fa t[h]núth `woe to him who has resolved to be under wrath', BColm. 100.5 . Hence plans, devises: ro mid 'n-a menmain mírún, Metr. Dinds. iv 88.2 . mórgním do mnaí brath a fir, | dóig is friss rodas-midir it was against him that she devised it, iii 254.4 (leg. roda-midir, see v 135 ). ro mid . . . comairle duaibsech, MR 198.14 . maircc menma ro miodhair . . . an chomhairle, AFM vi 2358.13 . an mi-scel ro midsebair, Leb. Gab.(i) i 28.22 .

1 recht

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 recht or dil.ie/34898

 

Forms: rect, rechto, recto, rectto, rechta, rechta, recht, recte, racht, reacht

n u, m. O.Ir. n s. in rect , Wb. 13d27 . g s. ind rechto , 15a34 , cf. 1d16 , 21b13 , Ml. 60b12 , 74b7 . recto, Thes. ii 247.15 ( Cambr. 38a ), Wb. 2b26 . rectto, 1d15 , 4d11 . rechta, 18c9 , 21c1 (rccta). Ml. 74b5 . Mid.Ir. rechta. n d. in da recht , Wb. 29a16 . n p. recte, 29a16 . a p. tri dub-rechtu, Thes. ii 357.5 ( Hy. vii ). In Mid.Ir. occas. treated as neut.: n s. recht n-airberta, Eg. 88 f. 21a ( O'Curry 2280 ), Alex. 851 below (perh. to be taken as d s.). Occas. written racht. reacht m. (g s. n p. -a), IGT Dec. § 95 (p. 127.14) .

(a) law , in wide sense of a collective system of prescripts, whether traditional or codified or inherent; in Glosses = Lat. lex (later superseded by dliged). reacht, dlighe, lagh, Eg. Gl. 520 . forcetul recto Dee, Thes. ii 247.15 . iar riaglaib in rechta diada, PH 4227 . rom-soír-sa rect spirto di rect pectho (gl. lex spiritus . . . a lege peccati ), Wb. 3d20 . in rect comaccobuir file i mballaib caích the law of concupiscence , 13d27 . ro taisfen filidecht ┐ brethemnas ┐ recht fer nErend olchéna, RC vi 165.2 ( LU 9777 ). is tre ḟír flathemon cach recht rán, ZCP xi 81 § 12 . recht, ┐ enech, ┐ ainim (foundations of social ordinances), Laws i 230.4 (glossed: recht, .i. flatha. Enech, .i. Feni . . . Ainim, .i. eclasa, ib. 9 ). fer rechta i n-ecosc dilsigh . . . . . . do marbhadh, iii 214.20 (i.e. killing a man who is within the protection of the law, a homo legalis, in mistake for an outlaw). elodhach rechta `an absconder from law', v 174.17 . breth rechta a legal judgement , PH 2810 . mar ar horduigheadh reacht is dlighe . . . ar Éirinn, Keat. iii 2349 .

(b) recht aicnid the law of nature (morality arising from natural instinct): tar recht ṅ-aicnid, gl. cis naturae leges, Sg. 217b16 . Used esp. of the moral law before the Mosaic legislation: recht aicnig ro bai la firu Erind [sic] co tiachtain creitme, Laws iii 26 y . ateoch huile thuicsenchu rechta aicnid, im Aibel, im Sheth, etc., Ir. Lit. 32.15 . ni aidlingcet o nachaib rechtaib nā fúiglib nā brethemnachtaib acht recht n-aicnid namma, Alex. 851 .

(c) in Glosses and earliest rel. lit. used (generally without art.) in special sense of the Mosaic law (later a qualifying gen. or adj. is usual): is he-side ro fiugrad i rrecht et adfiadar i soscelu, Wb. 18c8 . is ed ro boi hi rrecht digal cutrummae frissin peccad, Ml. 54c2 . in recht arsata Muisi, PH 487 . Gamaliél .i. sai rechta, 1649 . aos rechta (those under the Mosaic dispensation), Hib. Min. 7.206 . luid fo recht . . . Críst i callaind Enair was made subject to the law (by circumcision), Fél. Jan. 1 . do fuagradh isin tsenrecht can muic do ithe, Maund. 61 . eagluis an tsean-rachda, Eochairsg. 5 z . ro scríb [Moyse] i llébraib in rechta fáthacda, PH 5731 . ateoch huli thuicsinchu rechta fatha, im Eliam, im Eliseum, etc. the law of the prophets , Ir. Lit. 32.20 . racht faide . . . .i. diriataidh na faistine ro bi ac na faidhib anallut, Laws iii 30.23 .

Of the new dispensation or Gospel law: in da recht . . . uetus et nouum nó na tri recte .i. naturae rl, Wb. 29a16 . on dib rachtaib .i. ho phetarlaicc ┐ nufhiadnaise, PH 6783 . coinneal tóidhius teóra reachta (of Colum C.), ZCP viii 197 § 11 (as fem.). ateoch huile thuicsenchu rechta nuafiadnaise, Ir. Lit. 32.22 . scéla an rechta naeí, RC x 184.3 . seacht sacramuinti an nuai-reacht, Mac Aingil 2.8 Pref. ).

r.¤ litre the written law, scripture: racht n-aicnig ┐ racht litre (.i. tucastar Patraic leis), Laws iii 28.3 , 7 . Cf. ib. 30.31 . ateoch huili thuicsenchu rechta litre, im Moysi, etc., Ir. Lit. 32.18 (where recht. l. is used of O.T.). Similarly: doridnacht recht bérlai báin do Moyse, Ériu iv 136.7 (where bérla bán = Latin, the lang. of Scripture).

In later writers of Scripture or church law: don Choimdi[d] ni comharba | nech nā lega a recht, ACL iii 313 § 14 . a n-aghoidh reachta ┐ chreidimh eguilsi De, Fl. Earls 112.28 . éin-eglas, éun-bhaisdedh ┐ éin-réchd, Parrth. Anma 52.20 .

(d) of a particular law or ordinance : dia ro fuirmed recht Adomnáin for Góedelaib, FA 32 = r.¤ nA., LB. intí téte fo recht n-imdibi the law of circumcision , Wb. 20a12 . do rect fognama do fiur the law of service to a husband , 10b22 . So in pl.: i carnd fhind na racht is na riaghal, Ériu x 84 § 75 (: seacht, leg. reacht). sruth Tibir i rRóim na recht, ZCP viii 106 § 7 . Loosely used in chevilles: innis dúinni tré rechtaib (i.e. as is due?), Anecd. i 29 § 34 .

(e) authority, rule : Maelmorda . . . glorda a ṡét is a recht ríg. LL 30a29 . do chruas rechta ríg Ailig `sway', O'Gr. Cat. 384.7 . níor chanas . . . glór ribh acht do reacht leabhar `according to the books', Content. xxiv 23 . recht n-abaidh iar sein ro gab the authority (office) of an abbot , ZCP viii 115.6 .

(f) in abstr. sense right, lawfulness : racht .i. ceart, Lec. Gl. 116 M . recht .i. cuimsech, O'Dav. 1349 . lucht mo ríartha ba recht lais do beith accom he thought it right that I should have people to serve me (?), ZCP viii 220 § 31 . a ndernadar a daoine | re Dia dh'adhbhar egaoine | reacht lind go dtanaig astegh | ar brághaid ghill na nGaoidheal we deemed it just until it was visited upon the hostage of the G. , Irish Texts ii 105 y . ? ra recht rubad, TBC-LL¹ 1667 (`das Recht der Erstechungen', Windisch). ? fri cach racht cid fiala a flaithe though their chiefs be generous to every claim (?), ACL iii 296 § 38 .

Rare in compds.: mór a recht-blad dar rígaib `his rightful fame', Metr. Dinds. ii 48.34 . dā recht-iarla `two just rulers' ( administrators of law ?), MacCarthy 176 § 5 ( LL 128a51 ).

sigen, sigin

Cite this: eDIL s.v. sigen, sigin or dil.ie/37486

 

Forms: tṡigen, sigin, signi, sígne, sighnibh, sigen, sighean, sighin, sighni, singin

n (Lat. signum) ā and i, f.: n s. in tṡigen , TTr. 952 . a s. sigin, Lat. Lives 110.13 . PH 754 . g s. na signi , BB 431a12 . n pl. sígne, LB 257a66 . d pl. sighnibh, CCath. 4835 . Somet. m. a s. sigen, Lat. Lives 63.1 . RC xxiii 416 § 29 . See also IGT Decl . sighean f., § 54 , sighin f., § 150.5 , sighni (pl. only), § 180.3 . The form in TSh. is singin m. and f.

(a) a sign, token, mark; an omen or portent : dobered s.¤ na crochi dar a agaid, Lat. Lives 63.1 . na delba clochda . . . cen sigin na crochi do fuirmed indib, PH 754 . do sighnibh ┐ derbairrdibh . . . a naidedh omens, CCath. 4835 . for mergedhaibh . . . ┐ for signib na slogh, 2619 . fíugra . . . ┐ sígne, LB 257a66 . ná bíodh ar inmhe n-ísil | sighne ríogh san Rúaidhrísin, IGT Decl. ex. 24 . ? súil tar chineadh cCuinn do chuir | sighean gá buing ag biodhbhuidh, ex. 1410 . cuirther d'íathmhagh Chinid Chais | sighin gu híarthar Irrais, ex. 2006 . as a sighnibh bíaidh fa bhladh | ní gar d'inghin í Bhríain bean, ex. 2077 . soighead go sighnibh toile | is í d'arm na hionmhuine with marks of affection, DDána 78.5 . sighin luath is guidhe ghnáth, 93.16 . cúig sochair mar sighne ríogh, Content. xiii 24 . féach ar ṡíghnibh an aedhir `portents', Oss. iv 66.12 . sighin .i. comharrdha, sighne .i. comharthadha, O'Cl. trés na dearbhthuibh, trés na sighnibh, ┐ trés na comharthadhuibh do gheibhim, Desid. 4710 . dearbhtha ┐ sighne, 4718 . mar ar orduigh Dia don aingeal singin tau do chor i n-éadan gach aoin, TSh. 703 . le lamhuibh na n-absdol do nithidhe sighnte ┐ gniomha uathbhasacha, Luc. Fid. 380.15 .

(b) the name of a particular spear said to have been the property of Saturn: is andsin rogab . . . Hectair .i. in sigin Satuirn a ṡenathar ina láim: gai side slindlethan sithremur sithard, TTr. 1729 . sigean ┐ sust gaili do senatharsu sin .i. Satuirn, BB 431a3 . tech irrabi in tṡ.¤ Shatuirn . . . cona sigen-chomētaid, TTr. 952 . tainic saint na signi co soigsinach ┐ do eirig a aigned co harachta la Hechtair, BB 431a12 . go ttug Prímh in cloidhemh corr | issin tsighin ó Sadorn, Duan. F. i 51.18 .

Compd. ¤chométaid the keeper of the `sigen Saturin': is andsin ra chonnaic in sigen-chometaid sain, TTr. 971 .

sroigell, sraigell

Cite this: eDIL s.v. sroigell, sraigell or dil.ie/38824

 

Forms: srogill, sroigill, sroigle, srogell

n (Lat. flagellum) g s. srogill, Wb. 17d3 indicates o- stem, but in Mid.Ir. a d s. sroigill, pl. sroigle. scourge: sroghal .i. sgíursa, O'Cl. srogell gl. flagrum, Sg. 48b3 . sraigell i llaim cach ae, LU 7621 ( BDD 117 ). is [s]rogall do esargain (of Hell), ZCP iv 243.10 . israigell do esorgain, LU 2448 . do-rigne sroigill do shuainemaib becca, PH 4526 . sainchenelae sroigill i mbí .xl. loman, Wb. 17d3 . indara fer co n-a durn, in fer aile co n-a shrogaill, LL 280b51 . co srogill mbicc, PH 4502 . sroigli tenna, SR 924 . co fuirmed na sraigell tentide sin foraib, IT i 191.22 . di óig . . co sroiglib tentidib, LU 2090 = sraiglib, FA (LB) 16 . co ra-t-piantar . . . o sroiglib ┐ todernama dermáire, PH 6644 . in Badhbh catha . . . cona sraighlibh fuilidhibh ina laim, CCath. 5956 .