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fo-émid, for-émid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fo-émid, for-émid or dil.ie/22654
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: -fémd-, forémid, forḟémid, foremdim, forémid, faemdet, femdit, forḟemid, foremmid, forémid, foremestair, foremdetar, forḟemdetar, foremdes, -ded

v ( fo-ess-mid-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 579 ) protot. -fémd-; not represented in O.Ir. Glosses. The form forémid is prob. due to infixed potential -ro-; often with inorganic f forḟémid ( SR 3209 etc.). Pres. 1 s. foremdim, LL 284b29 . 3 s. forémid, LU 9132 ( FB 88 ). faemdet, Ériu vi 135.57 . 3 pl. femdit, LU 8555 ( FB 41 ). perf. 3 s. forḟemid, SR 3209 . foremmid, LU 8397 ( FB 27 ). forémid, LU 9132 ( FB 88 ). foremestair, BB 492b29 . pl. foremdetar, Thes. ii 344.36 . forḟemdetar, TBC-LL¹ 1564 . Pass. perf. foremdes -ded, see III below.

I As personal act. vb.

(a) is unable, fails (to do something), with vn. or equivalent as obj.: forémdim tairnim I cannot bend Fél. 154x = LL 284b29 . forḟemdinn a thimargain I could not constrain him SR 1338 . forfémmedus cach rét nogniind remi do dénam I was unable to do all that I used to do before LU 1319 ( Imr. Brain ii 290 , uaremedhus, baremidus v.l.). forféimdhius-sa sealladh fair I could not bear to look at it BNnÉ 93 § 203 . uair forémid ní dó since he could do nothing to him (i.e. could not influence him) PH 4726 = forémdid, 4891 . dammidethar fá dí día lémaim ┐ forémid, LU 9132 ( FB 88 ). barémid nech díb a aged do ṡoud fodess none of them could turn southwards TBC-LL¹ 2407 (corresp. to : connāchcǣmnacair ... ronucad a ainech secha fades itir Delca ┐ muir, TBC-I¹ 1745 ). forḟemid cor de could not stir Trip. 450.6 ( LB 26b12 ). forḟeimidh in mogh a tógbáil the slave was unable to raise it Cóir Anm. 40 . foremdid immáin a bo, Lat. Lives 83 = forḟeimigh, Lism. L. 1588 . forḟemdid lasin aingel a mallachad, LB 123a1 = foremidh risin a., YBL 294a8 (of Balaam). huair forḟemid ... a óentagud do Ioseph SR 3209 (the wife of Potiphar) = triallais in ben forecin fairsium uair forḟemid ais, LB 115b10 (forfemhidh hi chena YBL 286b4 , but: foremidh he chena, 63b29 . BB 237b43 ). carraig ... foremestair Ercail do thogail, BB 492b29 . foremdetar Ui F. a turcbáil, Thes. ii 344.36 . barrobratar in ṅGlassi ┐ forḟemdetar a techt, TBC-LL¹ 1564 (= nior fedsat teact tairsi St). tancatar ... fri taeb na Glassi, dáig fosremdetar a techt, 1582 . forḟemdhetar a chosc oc bendachad mac nIsrahel, LB 123a4 = rofeimdetar, YBL 294a10 ( Num. xxii - xxiv ). do feimgedur dol forin caslen, Ann. Conn. 1246 § 8 (= ni roḟedsat dol FM). cach ndoraid forfeimdibitis fir Erenn every difficulty the men of Ireland should fail to solve Dinds. 117 . Cf. femdeth gail, SR 3155 .

With pers. obj. in ellipt. sentence: tuc M. a máthair a gentlidecht; forémdid im[morro] a athair (Patre in malis perseverante) Lat. Lives 91 .

Cf. nosfémded cach dechenbar `no ten men were a match for him' Metr. Dinds. iii 156 .

(b) refuses, shirks (doing something): ni dlig a dilsi co forfemde cach `he is not entitled to the ownership until everybody refuses (disclaims) it' Laws v 262.4 . rosfeimdetar fir Fótla ... altram Néill, Ériu iv 94 § 10 (Rawl. = forḟeimdetar LL). foreimidseat Bretain a mbiathad refused to feed them Todd Todd Nenn. 84 . indrocht fír fo-n-éimed fiadain 'fraudulent (unlawful ?) is an attestation that witnesses disclaim' ZCP xxix 177 . See éimdid.

II In impers. construction (act.) in sense (a) : dolluid crini chucum-sa ... ┐ forémed imtecht I was unable to walk LU 1241 ( Imr. Brain ii 287 ; addró imthecht v.l.). With FOR: forfeimidh forra a erslagadh, Hugh Roe² (f. 4a ) = forḟémhidh, AFM vi 1898.16 .

With acc. FOR: conattecht Medb Fergus ... do chomrac ra Coin Culaind, ar rosfemmid ḟiru hErend the men of Ireland had refused (had failed ?) to do so TBC-LL¹ 2858 = ro emgeatar fir E. dul do chomhrac St.

III Pass. constr.:

(a) forfeimdes a hergaire no one could hinder him SR 4808 (of Balaam). rucad iarum do muliund Ratha C. ... ┐ foremthes a bleith it could not be ground Thes. ii 335.31 . forreimdes [foremthes v.l.) a mbreith la Buchat B. was unable to take them RC xxv 30 § 13 . forémdes ... o Chobthach dul issin tech C. was unable to enter LL 270a12 ( ZCP iii 7 § 24 , foroemthes, atroas v.l.). da laeg ..., foréimdes comairle forru co ndergena fiadmíla díb two calves ... they could not be controlled, so they went wild LL 165a49 (= conad feta ni dib nothing could be done with them RC xvi 153 ). forfeimdhetth breth ┐ eraic ar méd an tsaraighthe judgment and compensation could not be awarded BNnÉ 313 § 4 . roféimed ní dó nothing could be done for him (of a sick man) Acall. 7571 . ro femed a airium ... ar marbad do Gallaib the number of foreigners slain was past counting Cog. 38.1 .

In sense (b): atbert in ben ... fri hIosep dul ina coemthach ... forḟemdius tra o Iosep inni sin J. refused to do so LB 115a53 .

fópairt, fóbairt, fúabairt

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fópairt, fóbairt, fúabairt or dil.ie/23269

Forms: fóbairt, -airte, -arta, fuaparta, fuaparta

(older -art) f. (vn. of *fo-opair see fúabair). fóbairt (g s. -airte, -arta) IGT, Decl. § 42 . ib., IGT Vbs. § 46 . The freq. omission of accent and the occasional len. of -b- may indicate confusion with FOBAIRT (fobhairt), q.v.

(a) attacking, assailing; an assault (usually swift and sudden), absol. or with obj. gen.: fóbairt is ainm d'innsoighidh, Metr. Gl., Ff. 54 (v.l. to `fóbhairt') atregat ... ┐ doberat fobairt trén ... co rrucsat an n-imdorus inna cind LU 1606 ( IT ii2 214 ). na slóig cen [ḟ]opairt frisin ré sin LU 6362 ( TBC-I¹ 1847 ). ro ba fada laissiumh baoi Ó N. ... gan fobairt, AFM vi 1932.7 . tanic do ḟuapairt Con Culaind, TBC-LL¹ 1942 . tanic do ḟopairt C., 1981 . is i comairli doroine ... fobairt in caisil, CCath. 3513 . fuabairt Atha Luain la Concobar ... ┐ ni ro léced tairis iat, RC xviii 57 (Tig.). gan cath gan fuabhairt [sic], AFM ii 968.11 . g s. trelam fuaparta TBC-LL¹ 1090 (t. gaisgidh St). gae ... re faga feig fobarta 5313 (= fobartach, TBC-I¹ 3249 ). nac[h] filet side lin for fobarta in number sufficient to attack you CCath. 5509 . pl. ra bertsatar teora fuaparta dona sluagaib, TBC-LL¹ 4533 . Folld. by descriptive gen.: dosbert fobairt bidbad ... foraib, LU 6498 . 6509 . tobert fobart mbidbad forro, 7895 ( BDD 148 ). dobhert fuabairt biodhbhadh ... forra, AFM vi 1930.17 . C. do mharbhadh hi fuabairt aidhche a night attack AFM ii 630.12 . tuc fobairt chatha doib, RC xviii 268.15 . Of animals: adchondairc in noidin ... ┐ na hethaidi ica fuabairt, RC xxiv 192.1 .

(b) attempting, essaying, setting about (an undertaking): fobairt cuirp Muiri do loscad, LB 151a17 . dol d'fuabairt an chlesa, RC xxix 112 § 5 . ba dícra le D. fobairt oirlich Fergusa to attempt to kill F. Celt. Rev. iv 118.32 . fobairt felli do indisin do M. do denam do N. fair ┐ fobairt an tire do facbail do N. iar sin M. was told that N. had attempted to betray him and N. made to leave the country Ann. Conn. 1291 § 7 . ag fobairt chomhmarptha a cheile, Fl. Earls 124 . ná tí dhím dénamh an uilc. ná tí am inntind a ḟóbairt may it not enter my mind to attempt it IGT, Decl. ex. 1193 . dá dtíosadh as aonglór uilc níorbh í m'inntinn a ḟ.¤ , Content. xviii 129 .

(c) hence with ellipse of vn. and gen. of place, attempting to pass (over or under, to cross, traverse, etc.): ? admidair Fergus fobairt Locha Rudraighe `to enter ' Ériu xvi 38 (< H 3.18, 364b ). Laws i 72.14 (corresp. to: dochuatar isin loch da fothrugud, SG 250.10 . Cf. fobairt) do eiridh laech ... d'uabairt Ghlaisi Cruinn, ZCP viii 543.7 (corresp. to: do thaet ... dia fromad na Glassi , TBC-LL¹ 1570 ; gabais liic ... fri ais do thecht darsin n-usce, LU 5365 ). do dheachatar M. andeas ... do fobairt na coillteadh `to scour the woods' AFM ii 1078.4 . Cf. luathfoibirt cacha srotha (.i. slán aentarraingin lín) `the quick drawing (of a net) from each stream' Laws v 482.24 (484.10) quoted O'Dav. 759 with gl.: fobairt .i. tarraing nó tadhall ... luath-fobairt i. is slán entarraing nó entadall in lind cid lín gabala ...

1 for

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 for or dil.ie/23272
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: for, far, bar, fuir, AR, FOR, AR, forsa, fora, fara, forsin[d], forsa, forsna, farsin, barsin, barsan, forin[d], forna, fornaib, forsn, forin, forna, formu, form, fort, fort, bard, fora, forar, forar, f., forar, f., form, fórm, formsa, fórmsa, forom, foromm, forumsa, foromsa, forum, ḟorum, orum, orum, orumsa, formm, ormm, fort, ort, fortsu, foir, fair, ḟair, foirsom, foirsem, fairseom, fairsem, foir, for, foir, fair, ḟair, ḟairside, faride, forrae, furri, ḟurthi, uirre, fuiri, furi, fuiri, furri, fuirri, fora, forra, fuirri, fuirre, uirre, fornn, fornd, ornn, fornni, forunni, forni, forund, forond, foirn, foirnn, foirnd, oirn, oirnd, foraindi, foraind, forainde, oraind, orainne, forn, forinn, orainde, foirib, forib, fuirib, furib, fuiribsi, furibsi, foraib, foraibh, foraibse, foirb, foirbsi, oraib, forru, forrusom, forro, forra, orru, forthu, fortho, forta, forib, foraib, forib, foraib, forroib, forru, forthu, foraib, for, ar, fair, air, AR, FOR, orat, orad, airiut, erut, AR, AR, f.

prep. with acc. and dat. See Thurn., Gr., and Fraser, ZCP viii 34 ff . Lenition of the obj. occurs once in the Glosses: for chenn, Ml. 44d29 , possibly a scribal error. Even in the modern period non-lenition is regular in some expressions after AR representing FOR, cf. the alliterations: feall ar filidh IGT, 24 P 8, 190.5 ; nā bí ar filidh go fortuil ib. (= Studies 1924, 245 ).

Forms: for (in Mid. Ir. MSS usually denoted by f surmounted by horizontal stroke) Glosses, pass. and later; occasionally far: Wb. 5b3 . Ml. 82d10 . Sg. 90b1 , 2 . Thes. ii 39.28 , 29 . TBC-LL¹ 3782 . LL 176a7 ( CRR 34 ), LL 268b20 ( MU² 860 ). bar, LL 265a39 ( MU² 452 ). TBC-LL¹ 2820 . 3613 , etc. fuir, Thes. ii 39.22 .

In later MSS. gradually replaced by AR. This appears occasionally in LU, more frequently in LL. In Maund. FOR still appears though AR is commoner.

With rel. part. forsa n-, fora n-: fara n-: forsa taith, Wb. 20b6 . forsa robae, Ml. 82d10 . forsa n-airisedar, Sg. 139b1 . forsmbeth, SR 1364 . forstā, 1839 . forsnaicci, Imr. Brain § 38 . forsmbí, § 43 . forsmbīd, Metr. Dinds. ii 42.2 . fora sernte Wb. 18c8 . fora taibre, 29a23 . fora n-idparar, 5b6 . fora mboí, Tur. 60 . fora ṁbi, Thes. ii 41.27 . forá mbí ib. 17 . fora mbiat, LU 2639 . fora taí, SR 3096 . farsa n-immér TBC-LL¹ 5961 . barsa mbatar, 3738 . fara mbí, Thes. ii 40.32 .

See Strachan, ZCP iv 63 ; 488 - 9 .

With article: forsin[d], forsa (n-), forsna, etc., Wb. 1d2 , 9d5 , 32d2 ; Ml. 22c12 , 46c3 , 48a21 , 84d4 ; Sg. 8a13 , 207a6 ; LU pass. farsin, Trip.² 1948 , barsin, TBC-LL¹ 4553 . barsan 3387 . Without -s-: forin[d], Ml. 60b14 , 94b11 , 120d7 . forna Ml. 51d19 . 69a11 . 138a6 . fornaib, Wb. 5a5 . Ml. 27d22 . See Strachan l.c.

Rarely with elision in sg., as in: forsn uscisin, SR 4632 .

In Mid. Ir. MSS. maintenance of -s- is the rule, though it is occasionally dropped by some scribes, e.g. forin, PH 3594 . forna, LU 2552 (H). CCath. 2574 . Marco P. 64 .

With poss. pron. 1 s. formu naimtea, Ml. 86c10 . for mo namtea, 88a8 . for mu mud, Thes. ii 294 . for mo menmuin ZCP x 338 ( Laud 615, 104 ). for mo thir ┐ for mo thalam YBL 113b47 (= form ... form, LL 270b46 . for mo chuit ..., Rawl. 134a4 ). form ḟuil, SR 1542 . form thigerna, 3188 . form laim ┐ form gail, LL 121a12 . See KZ xlviii 55 . 2 s. fort athair, Trip.² 1759 (= fort ha., Trip. 150 ). fort cheniul, Trip.² 1760 . bard, TBC-LL¹ 3230 . 3 s. and pl. fora. 1 pl. forar ndail, SR 3633 forar morsluag, 3974 . (cf. fer ruc breith for fis ... | for ndís bámar i cumriuch, SR 3286 , where f. is possibly a contraction of forar). 2 pl. f.¤ far naimtib, TTr.² 1775 .

With pron. suff.: 1 s. form, Wb. 8d26 . Ml. 2a6 . 59a18 . 104d2 . SR 1584 . fórm, LU 5669 . formsa, LL 224a28 ( TTr. 513 ). fórmsa, LU 4507 . forom, SR 1404 . foromm, TBC-LL¹ 3752 . forumsa, Ml. 44b29 . 89a2 . TBC-LL¹ 3750 . LL 234a34 ( TTr. 1278 ). foromsa, LL 223by ( TTr. 488 ). forum, Acall. 3357 . ḟorum, LL 234a13 ( TTr. 1261 = orum, BB 426a47 ). orum, Acall. 304c . 6994 . orumsa, 7696 . formm, LB 8a52 . ormm, LB 246b55 ( PH 7807 ).

2 s. fort, Wb. 6a14 . 28d9 . SR 6258 . LU 4789 . 6252 . ort LU 6097 . fortsu, Ml. 113d11 . LU 6593 .

3 s., m. n., acc. foir, Wb. 4d15 . 28b30 . Tur. 85 . 110c0 . Ml. 2a6 . 41a5 . 53a19 . 54c16 . Sg. 209b12 . fair, Wb. 7c4 . LU 6299 . LL 227b30 ( TTr. 777 ). ḟair, LL 220b ( TTr. 262 ). PH. CCath. pass. foirsom, Wb. 8c1 . foirsem, Sg. 209b12 . fairseom, LU 6239 . fairsem, CCath. 1803 .

dat. foir, Wb. 6d6 . 10b9 . Tur. 123 . for (older form, GOI 275 ) LL 49b19 ( Hail Brigit § 4 ). YBL 12a10 (cf. foir Ériu ii 55 § 3 = i 138 where rime with tol is required). fair LU 2051. 7554 . LL 98a34 . 99a40 . Acall. 89 . ḟair, LL 224b5 ( TTr. 533 ). ḟairside, LL 235b13 ( TTr. 375 ). cf. faride TBC-LL¹ 5173 .

cf. acc. forrae, Tur. 79 . furri, Acall. 6437 . furri, LL 224b39 ( TTr. 556 ). ḟurthi, LL 230a41 ( TTr. 968 ). uirre, Acall. 1253 .

dat. fuiri, Wb. 3d34 . Sg. 4b9 . Ml. 95b6 . furi, 45c9 . 118d6 . fuiri sidi, Sg. 199a5 . furri, LU 3918. 4512 . 7993 . LL 218a32 ; 221b19 ( TTr. 90 ; 323 ). LL 66a39 . LB 7a40 . fuirri, LU 4517 , SR 3108 . Marco P. 10 . fora (v.l. forra, fuirri), Imr. Brain § 3 . fuirre, Marco P. 12 . uirre, CCath. 1947 .

1 pl. fornn, Wb. 2a13 . 8d18 . 30b2 . Ml. 46b26 . 119d6 . fornd LU 3254 . 5220 . 6780 . 9244 . ornn, PH 6865 . fornni, Wb. 14b15 . Ml. 77c6 . 88a4 . 90d17 . forunni, 111c13 . forni, LU 1674. 8554 . forund, TBC-LL¹ 2974 . forond, LU 8620 . foirn, TBC-LL¹ 617 . PH 2060 . 7848 . foirnn, 1502 . foirnd, CCath. 648 . oirn, PH 6863 . oirnd, 8063 . CCath. 652 . foraindi, TBC-I¹ 3578 . LB 162a62 . foraind, Acall. 4867. 6165 . forainde, LB 34b56 . 162a53 . oraind, Acall. 2996 . CCath. 1679 . orainne (v.l. forn. forinn) 1659 . orainde, Acall. 5074. 7655 .

2 pl. foirib, Wb. 14c40 . 21d5 . Ml. 46a14 . forib, Wb. 6a17 ( ZCP xvii 223 ), 27c11 . fuirib, 14d17 . 20b2 . furib, Ml. 115b8 . fuiribsi, Wb. 7a4 . furibsi, 18a18 . foraib, Trip.² 1589 . LU 7233. 7755 . LL 239a15 . CCath. 3569 . foraibh, 610 . foraibse, TTr.² 119 . foirb, SR 5534 . Trip.² 1651 . foirbsi, SR 3116 . oraib, Acall. 7539 , YBL 376b42 ( Aithd. D. p. 158 ).

3 pl. acc. forru, Wb. 1d3 . 10c5 . 28c3 . Ml. 53d13 . 73b17 . 127b6 . LU 4784 . 5309 . LL 66b10 . 241b88 ( TTr. 1859 ). CCath. 3738 (Fr.). ḟorru, LL 223d27 ; 242b2 ( TTr. 438 ; 1908 ). forrusom, Wb. 9c10 . forro, LU 5796 (M). 5836 (H). Acall. 5317 . 7117 . CCath. 1237 (S) (in dat. meaning Acall. 2458 . 3501 . 3745 . LL 223b21 ). forra, CCath. 1640 (H). 3754 (Fr.). fortha, CCath. 3599 (Fr.). orra, CCath. 1237 . 1488 . orru, Acall. 3299 . forthu, SR 3942 . fortho, LU 2556 (H). fortha, CCath. 3599 (Fr.). fortu, forta, 1488 (v.l.).

dat. forib, Wb. 4d2 . 29b20 . foraib, Ml. 121a5 .

dat. for acc. forib, Wb. 28c4 . foraib, 4c35 . Ml. 49b6 . 54a4 . 54b30 . 90a25 . 118d19 . forroib, LU .5608 .

Cf. fortus.

In Mid.Ir. MSS forru (forro, forthu, etc.) and foraib are often found without distinction of case. In the Laud-Lismore text of Acall. pretonic for is very rare; it is regularly replaced by ar. But with suff. pron. 3 s. m. n. fair is predominant; there are very few instances of air. In the other pronominal forms those with and without f- seem to share the field equally.

In classical verse the pretonic form is AR, but the pronominal forms are regularly those of FOR without f. an exception is orat, orad (beside ort). Cf. O. Ir. airiut, erut from AR. See 24 P 8 (McKenna, Tracts).

Synopsis of meanings:

I Of local relations:

(a) on, upon , expressing both contact and relative position ( over, above ) also of mere external contact or position.

(b) of approximate position juxtaposition. on, at, by .

(c) in sense upheld, supported by; being worn or carried by .

(d) after verbs of placing, hoisting, over, up .

(e) of things attached to or forming part of the body, etc.

(f) in, amongst; forming a portion of .

(g) with acc. after verb or verbal noun implying motion on, over, to, towards .

II Of quasi-local relations, and in abstract and fig. expressions:

(a) of form, appearance, hue, etc.

(b) of arrangement, state, process; division, classification, naming .

(c) of point of time; coincidence of occurrence .

(d) on (of that by which something is evident, known, recognized, etc.).

(e) with words expressing quality, talent, success, etc. , indicating the possessor of these.

(f) over, of rule, sway, superior might .

(g) upon, in addition to; in succession to, after .

(h) on i.e. affecting, afflicting (of emotions, physical or mental states or conditions).

(i) governing object of blessing, cursing, punishing, etc.

(j) (existing) on, by means of (a food, diet); relying on; depending on .

(k) with abstr. or verbal noun, also with adj. in (a state or condition).

(l) at (an occupation or task).

(m) to express the dativus incommodi, the person adversely affected by the action.

(n) expressing constraint, compulsion: ata f.¤ is incumbent on; owing from (see 1 fíach).

(o) expressing worth, value .

(p) phrases.

(q) after adj.

III In verbal construction.

IV Replacing AR.

I Of local relations: on, upon , expressing both contact and relative position ( over, above ); also of mere external contact or position.

(a) on, over, above: buith f.¤ ochtrach, Ml. 129c2 . a mbís f.¤ altoir ind idil, Wb. 10a6 . ind altóir fora n-idparar, 5b6 . cen chaille f.¤ a ciunn (gl. non uelato capite) Wb. 11c9 . den chamull fora mbói, Tur. 60 . Conall ... forsin Deirg mounted on LL 122a34 . bretha ind óic ... f.¤ fúataib immach were carried out on biers LU 1595 . contuletsom f.¤ a ndergodaib 1829 . suidfid ... f.¤ a chathair, 2319 . luid ... co raba f.¤ a úaitni, 1723 . is fota a chubat f.¤ lár his measurement is long (when he is stretched) on the ground 1605 . fochartatar grith imme co mbátar f.¤ lár in tige, 7560 ( BDD 109 ). See also s.v. lár. Often = in: co mboí f.¤ medon ind lis, LU 1608 . cach óen creitfes ... f.¤ nim ní bá tróg, LU 9495 . cid f.¤ tír cid f.¤ usci cid f.¤ fidchill cotrisam whether it be on land or on water we contend, or over a chessboard 1674 . dia ḟagbáil i fid no i fidbaid, f.¤ tír no usci, LL 220ax ( TTr. 237 = ar muir na ar tir, BB 414a37 ). co forcongrad lais ... | na beth f.¤ crích n Israhél, SR 6216 (cf. atat cinedhaigh ar an fásach sin dianad ainm B., Maund. 49 ). co ra churet cath forsinn [ḟ]aithchi sin co torsed fuil formna fer furri, LL 221b18 ( TTr. 323 ). Cf. coro airet ... lá n-air ar inn [ḟ]aigthisea, LL 221b15 ( TTr. 320 = ... isin f.¤ , BB 415a23 ). atchiu fer ... for sin maig, LU 4564 . cid fó cid for ... beme whether we be above or beneath YBL 12a10 . in fú talam no f.¤ talam?, Trip.² 1118 . iarna bádhadh forsan abhainn `after she had been drowned in the river' Cóir Anm. 255 . ind uisci f.¤ ind nim anúas (gl. super caelum) Ml. 120d7 . domarfás and ... mothur ... ḟairside anúas, LL 235b14 ( TTr. 1375 ). cíid f.¤ in mac weeps over the child ZCP viii 311.14 . ro chí f.¤ a muime, Trip.² 115 . No chanta ór fírindi fair used to be chanted over him BDD 11 . banchuiri f.¤ colaind Fraích, LU 5236 . a fuini f.¤ grís to bake it on the embers SR 3903 . a scéith f.¤ a cennaib dia sáerad, LU 5888 . f.¤ bith, f.¤ domun, f.¤ talmain, freq. in sense above ground, anywhere on earth, in existence: in dia as dech f.¤ bith buan, SR 3973 . in t-én as luaithiu luamain f.¤ bith, LU 2477 (cf. ní boí isin bith ..., 3377 ). cenco beind acht óenlá f.¤ domun alive 5060 . ni raibi forsin domun ingen bid chaime ..., YBL 189b3 ( RC xxiv 198 ). (cf. ni fuil ní ar doman ina esbaid acht fín, Maund. 159 . ni fuighbither ... ar bith ná ar doman, CCath. 262 ). cech mil beo baí f.¤ talmain, SR 1930 . See also s.v. fot, 2 fúait, 2 ed.

Of wounds, bruises, etc. cned f.¤ corp, Laws ii 156.20 . facbait .l. cned fairseom, LU 4967 . co lín crechta f.¤ a chnis 4547 .

(b) Of approximate position, juxtaposition, on, at, by: ... file cuimrecha formsa, Wb. 23a5 . ata árchú lemsa ..., tri slabrada fair, LU 5001 . buithe f.¤ dese Dé on God's right hand Ml. 128a3 . ani f.¤ laim deis `that on the right hand' [side] Thes. ii 255.8 . Fergus ... f.¤ láim Ailello isin phupull ... M. f.¤ a láim aili do Alill, LU 4619 . Cf. O. ar a láim clí, ┐ M. f.¤ a láimsein, ┐ E. ara láimhsein, Acall. 2256 . (but: bachla f.¤ láim, SR 3915 corresponds to tenentes baculos in manibus Exodus xii 11 . See lám). dún ..., dorus umaide fair, LU 1793 . batar ... da dorus forsin uaim, PH 6316 . dorus ... as nesu ille is fair ro sudiged M., LU 2084 . ra sudigit ... secht ṅdorais furri, LL 227a ( TTr. 737 ). conéracht Glaiss C. fríu ... féotár fuirri (.i. f.¤ a bru), LU 5363 . cath f.¤ brú Derguist, 224 . f.¤ brú puirt G., LL 219b marg. inf. ( TTr. 142 ). f.¤ a mbeulu (gl. prone cadentium) Ml. 131b6 . form dreich sea facing me LU 3892 (see 1 drech). dofessid f.¤ gualaind C. seated himself beside C. 8076 (but in 5293 , 5294 , 5295 the literal meaning `on the shoulder' is probably intended). See 1 gúala. sléchtaid ... f.¤ díb traigthib ind noeb, Ériu ii 204.9 . Cf. is ar bordaibh cuirid iat they put them (sitting) at tables Maund. 39 . fon domun f.¤ cech leth (gl. longe lateque) Ml. 53b9 . tho ḟolt scailti ... f.¤ cach n-óenleth, SR 1602 . biait ar mná ... f.¤ bróntib at the querns (i.e. grinding corn, cf. II l) LU 5610 . nírb áelid dóib ar buí in slúag forro for cech leth, LU 1441 .

Cf. the fig. expressions: f.¤ belib (gl. in caritate non ficta) Wb. 15a37 . f.¤ bréthir (oppd. to in corde) 15d5 . indí forsa n-airisedar in gním (gl. in quem fit actus) Sg. 139b1 . is mithig forchenn fair, Ml. 118b6 .

Of pregnancy: in tan robtar lán a n-noí mís f.¤ Cormac when she had carried C. for nine months ZCP viii 310.31 . Cf. ba torrach f.¤ C. ib. 29 . See torrach. Possibly this use belongs rather to II.

(c) Freq. in sense upheld, supported by, also being worn (esp. of weapons, ornaments; IMM is regularly used of clothes) or carried by: Crist co crunn a cruche foir fesin (i.e. carrying it) Tur. 123 . acht robed arma Dae foirib, Wb. 22d15 . gaibid armma Dae foirib, 22d11 . día mbeth gaisced foraib if they carried arms LU 7296 ( BDD 94 ). fotalsceith foraib, LU 4491 . sciath f.¤ a chliu, LL 241b34 ( TTr. 1856 ). scíath ... f.¤ a muin, LU 10664 . claideb f.¤ a ṡliastaib, 9269 . claideb ...f.¤ a chris, 6561 . dulend f.¤ a bruinnib, 9267 . ticfat da dam ... ┐ tabraidsi in carpat foraib (= harness them to it) 3124 . ro inled a carpatt forna echu, Trip.² 2852 . ro loisc ... in cherdcha forro `set fire to the forge in which they were' (cf. II (m)) RC xxiv 194 ( YBL 188b ). f.¤ óenchoiss (standing) on one leg LU 6983 . atchiat insi ... f.¤ óenchois on a single pillar LU 1936 (cf. II j, 2).

(d) after vb. of placing, hoisting, over, up: focress a phupall f.¤ Ailill, LU 4618 . Claitir in fert fair, ZCP viii 560.33 . tuargabsat T. idnaid catha forru, LL 225a37 ( TTr. 552 ). toccbaid for mergedha foraibh, CCath. 610 . ro toccbait a fainbreiti siuil forta, 2870 . ra tocbait a eoin gaithi ... ḟurri `its vanes were uplifted' (of a ship) TTr. 140 ( LL 219a8 ). (fig.) tuárgabad fornn aire fochide, Wb. 14b22 .

Cf. la turcbail a mátan fair, LU 6560 , where the prep. evidently refers to the performer of the action. Similarly: tócbaid in derba fair ┐ dobeir bulli in [sic] cend na mná 4357 .

(e) Of things attached to, or forming part of a body, etc., as, parts of weapons; hair, limbs; leaves of trees, etc.: manais f.¤ crúnd midsing, LU 4491 . folt buidi furri 4512 . mong ... fair, 10795 . in folt ... ro asair furri 4231 . tri cruindberrtha foraib, 7139 . ni lugu bís finn fo a dernaind oldās fuirri anúas (of a hare), Bodl. Corm. s.v. pattu. a chend féin f.¤ ind ir út, LU 460 . cēt muinēl furri ┐ cét cend f.¤ cach muineol, 2430 . cét bass ... cét n-ingen f.¤ cach oenbaiss, 888 . .l. torc ... co cruib eich foraib = having the hooves of a horse Ériu xii 176.9 ( TE III 9 ). rethi co n-olaind ordai fair, LL 218a36 ( TTr. 93 ). lia nat luibi f.¤ maigaib, SR 935 . nach crann fors mbeth duilirath, 1364 . ásfaid ind oland forsnaib cairib, LL 291b26 ( RC xiii 462 . Cf. olann ... mar bis ar caerchaib ..., Maund. 181 ). di lus bís forsnaib caircib, Tur. 115 . lir ... fér f.¤ faichthi, LU 7233 ( BDD 89 ). lir ... dulli f.¤ fidbaid, LL 120b33 . Cf. dorigni cúach cera da gnúis ┐ da agid fair, LU 6453 . brisfed mo chend formsa, 5275 . co mmebaid a chend fair, 5300 where the prep. apparently imparts precision or emphasis, but cf. II (m). co tarla a di bond bána fair (= he became a corpse) LU 1497 ( MU² 987 ). a mbuind banai forra iarna trascrad RC xii 90 (see 1 bonn). Cf. techtaid delba ... fair, LU 2701 , cited II (a) below.

(f) In, amongst; forming a part of, mixed with: Colman diata Clann Colmáin f.¤ Feraib Li (i.e. belonging to F.L.) ZCP viii 293.31 (= a quo Cl.C. hi F.L., Rawl. 140a18 ). Mail D. a quo sil M.D. f.¤ Huib Echdach, Rawl. 140a21 = ZCP viii 294.4 . bátar Cristaidi forna cathaib sin diblínaib in both those battalions Marco P. 64 .

(g) With acc. After verb or vn. implying motion on, to, towards: intí do thuit foir, Wb. 4d15 . for a mbeulu (gl. prone cadentium) Ml. 131b6 . dosfuit f.¤ lar, SR 1719 . techt f.¤ nem, Wb. 15c22 . lotair f.¤ muir, LU 1697 . amal no théigtis suas forin drochet, 1794 . dofutitis écne ... anúas f.¤ talmain, 1916 . berthair uaimse f.¤ altóir A., 1932 . ro díbairgsi certli forsin luiṅg, LL 221b46 ( TTr. 344 ). ní cían ro saig mu suil forsa muir not far doth mine eye reach over the sea Trip.² 1312 (114) . na taít f.¤ culu, Wb. 25c14 . in grían do thecht ... f.¤ culu, Ml. 61a13 (see cúl). cingid ... di cach biur f.¤ araili, LU 5733 . téit ara chend forsin taulaig, 5759 . saidsíus f.¤ medón na glassi , 4797 . timachtatár taris ... la crand f.¤ scíathu by (beating) shafts against shields 5828 . do theged fian ... do seilg fairsium, 6138 . benaim beimend ... f.¤ slóg, 6171 . Cf. nicon tetarraid béim ... fair, 5977 . ní lamar fuligud forrosom, 4960 . Also fig.: léim ... dind tinchosc ... f.¤ aisndiis di thuiste dúile, Wb. 5c16 . ni tāinig cride neich fair no one had pity on him RC xxiv 48 (see do-icc).

In late MSS. the dat. pl. is common here: guro tuitseat f.¤ fanglenntaibh na tiri, CCath. 866 .

Across, by way of: nachab ticfed for rí ... do imthecht foirib a doirsea, Ml. 46a14 . f.¤ sligi M. dochoidsi, LU 5788 . issed dollotar ... .i. f.¤ Muicc C. ... f.¤ Crond, hi Cualngi across Muicc C. ... across Crond, into Cualnge 4593 - 4608 . tiat A. ... f.¤ Midlúachrae. ragmaine ┐ F. f.¤ Bernas nU., 5396 . comergit ... ara ammus, araill dib f.¤ less, araill f.¤ doras liss 5017 . fócoislé f.¤ forlés in tige, 10910 (cf. con-acca in n-én forsin forléss a ddochum, BDD 7 ). co tánic a inchind f.¤ a chlúasa, LU 5286 . co ndeochaid f.¤ a béolo sair, 6026 . docoised ferchend fora beolu, 5919 . maidid a loim fola f.¤ a beolu LL 273az .

See also under the verbs of motion referred to in III below, and such words as leth, 1 lorg, 1 selg, slicht, etc.

In follg. ex. the meaning is not clear: ro túaslaicthe f.¤ aicned na ndūl dia ndernta, LU 2518 (`according to the nature' Stokes, RC xxv 237 ). Cf. ro tuaislaiced fo aicned na ndula `was resolved into the original nature of the elements' PH 6980 .

II Of quasi-local relations, and in abstract and fig. expressions:

(a) of form, appearance, hue, flavour: delb a bais som form, Wb. 24a8 . delb anmandae foraib, Ml. 130a3 . ecosc n-abstal forib, Wb. 24a25 . condarbastar gné fírinne fuiri Ml. 95b6 (cf. delb domárfas fair, LU 4576 ). atá comarde fuirib, Wb. 21a5 . (Cf. the lit.: bíth comardae f.¤ a mbudin LU 5540 ). techtaid delba ┐ gnei écsamla fair, LU 2701 , cf. I (e), end. is follus ... gné mbróin fairseom, 2279 . datha na flesc ... hed nobid forsna huanaib, SR 2964 . na treoit ┐ dath óir f.¤ a n-alaind, LL 218a45 ( TTr. 99 ). sruth ... co rath somailse foir, Ml. 89d3 . bieid rath somailse f.¤ a belru 89c15 . secip blas bá mellach ... fogebed fair, LU 1788 . tintud Septin ... is he fil forna psalmaib (= the psalms are translated from the Septuagint version) Hib. Min. 10.334 .

(b) of arrangement, state, process; division, classification; naming: inna imthanad .i. fele [ = file] forsnaib ráthib, Ml. 93c7 . ataat .uii. ngne forsin chombug `the confraction is of seven kinds' Thes. ii 254.7 . oengles foraib huile, SR 92 . ataat deora erndaili forsin canoin, Hib. Min. 3.63 . atat cetri gnuse forsin canoin ib. 78 . cis lir rann fil f.¤ crū? Ériu i 214.12 . atat tri altai leusom f.¤ ind gabail (of singing the Canticles), Mon. Tall. § 33 (= atad dá mhodh ara n-abairthear íad, Rule of Tallaght 102 ). cia ord bias forru, LU 2575 . is diall femin file fair it is of the feminine declension Sg. 93b2 . doralsat óenclár catha foraib dia tobairt, LU 1478 ( MU² 955 ; `formed themselves into a solid phalanx' SGS v 30 ). daringsetar comraind slúaig forru, LL 224b30 ( TTr. 550 ). ni rabi cumsanad forsin chathugud sin ... the fighting did not cease LL 242a3 ( TTr. 1873 ). conach bui nach tairisimh f.¤ a n-urcoraib occo, CCath. 5660 . ro tṡeindestar C. a timpan ┐ tuc nuallorgan sidhe fuirri, Acall. 4620 . ro dercsat na moli ... for fogluasacht, ┐ ni facadar seoladh no iomramh fortó they saw the ... masses in movement yet they did not see them being sailed or rowed CCath. 2655 . Of names: nipa far n-ainmsi bias forib, Wb. 4d2 . da n-ainm fuirri, ZCP viii 106 § 5 . roboí ... oc iarraid a anma do bith forsin cnuc, LU 3150 . combad de sin nobeth Almu furri 3145 . Mane f.¤ cach fir díb ┐ forainm f.¤ cach Mani, 6847 . a ainm do bith forsin luing ┐ f.¤ a fairind, LL 219a30 ( TTr. 158 ). atá Dún tri liacc d'ainm fair, Acall. 1178 . See also s.v. for-tá.

(c) Of point of time; coincidence of occurrence: fēli ... do curither for dardain no mairt, Rule of Céli D. 9 ( LB 9b ). do toscelad aiss aesci far caisc `to ascertain the moon's age on Easter' Thes. ii 39.24 ; 27 . cid lae sechtmaine fora mbí Kl. Ian., Thes. ii 41.17 . calainn Enair for dardaín, ZCP viii 111.6 . Ann. Conn. 1226 , etc. Kl. enair for Domnuch ┐ xuiii furri New Year's day on a Sunday and the 18th of the moon on it [lit. her, calann, f.] Ann. Inisf. 43c (1206) = ALC i 234 . in la forsmbi bisex, Fél. 78.11 . ind naob asa feil bís for ind láo, Mon. Tall. § 8 (= sa feil do biodh ar an la sin, Rule of Tallaght 42 ). for cach ló every day CCath. 358 .

(d) on (of that by which something is evident, known, recognized, etc.): rēil f.¤ a mbrēthir ōn a n-andach imme ro[r]daisset `is clear from their word' Ml. 90d16 . is reil fornn ... condrancamar fria morolcc, SR 1347 . follus f.¤ th'erlabra fén do pheccad, PH 5169 . ni ro airigsium fort ... .i. f.¤ do gnímrad ... ailcius dula dochúm nime ocut, 8213 . is follus f.¤ suidhichthibh na Roma conad docra ... congbail in cadusa ina fogbail in ratha, CCath. 803 . Cf. ba follus a n-anádh [sic leg.] fein f.¤ na Romanchaib the ill-luck of the Romans was manifest 810 (cf. e). Cf. ba mor in galur di, dael oca diul ... ni fitir nech sin furri, Fél. 44.1 (possibly = she showed no sign of it, though also it might = no one knew she was so afflicted). Cf. also: ni fitir nech dib f.¤ araile a n-imchossait do B., LU 8251 . Cf. (m) last cit., and see 1 ráthaigid.

(e) With words expressing quality, talent, success, etc. indicating the possessor of these: is foraib bíaid búaid in tslóig, LU 4631 (`it is to their credit the victory of the hosts will be' Faraday, Cattleraid of C.). ní fair bías a nós nách a allud nach a irdarcus acht is fortso, LU 6376 (cf. is oraibsi bias a nós ┐ a allud ┐ a urdarcus, Acall. 3575 Fr; R). itát tri búada formsa .i. búaid roisc, etc. I have three talents, i.e. the talent of sight, etc. LU 4791 . rath fortsu ... ina lōg sin, 3114 . bátár teóra búada aradnachta forin n-araid in lá sin, 6407 (cf. buaid lamaig ort!, Acall. 4809 ). ba ferr leo a mudhughudh innas a somain f.¤ a naimdib `they preferred to destroy them than to benefit their enemies there with' CCath. 2484 . Cf. ni fil do chonāch formsa in fer sin im fiednaisi, 3576 (testem hunc fortuna negavit Luc. Phars. vi 159 ).

(f) over (of rule, sway; superior might): a cumacte f.¤ a mogaib, Wb. 27c16 . mu chumachtae forna doini, Ml. 56b2 . bit flathi f.¤ cāch, 85b2 . a cumachta f.¤ dúlib, LL 218b6 ( TTr. 106 ). doratsat rīgi ... | do Dauid ... | f.¤ túathaib, SR 6620 . i n-aimsir Cinaeda ... f.¤ Albain, 2350 . Temair ... cen rechtgi ríg furri, LU 3440 . mairg forsa mbía do thigernu demon, 2225 . ro gab tra nert Saxan f.¤ Bretnu ... ┐ rogab O. rige forru, 277 . bui rí amra f.¤ Érinn, BDD 1 . bai rí f.¤ Ultaib, YBL 114b6 . co raghbhaitis oénrig forru, TTr.² 1339 . (cf. rí ar gach tír, Maund. 243 . Eogan mac M. ... ar tsil nA., 6 . Magidoin ... is uirri sin da bí Alaxander na ríg 21 ). tussu ... do giallud forni, LU 1674 . ropada[t] trēn f.¤ ōcaib, 6720 . ni fríth fornert nacha fini foraib cosindiu `never until to-day did any tribe oppress you' TTr. 1645 ( LL 239a13 ).

(g) upon, in addition to (see do-formaig): fair anuas in addition to it Cáin Ad. 25 . cach ae f.¤ alaill (gl. cumularentur) Ml. 96b4 . cumal f.¤ a secht eight cumals Laws iv 330.8 ( Críth G. 464 ). óen f.¤ trí secht twenty-two Metr. Dinds. iii 98 . sé scripuil f.¤ unga an ounce and six scruples Cáin Ad. 44 . mis f.¤ bliadain a year and a month ACL iii 3.9 . ro marbhadh fer f.¤ a deich diobh, BNnÉ 107 § 25 . fer f.¤ leth Connacht `more than half the C.' Cóir Anm. 251 (cf. treab ar leth Alpan, IT ii2 123.32 . duine ar leith fer nErenn, SG 20.36 ). tercda arro tuilled da forsin focul cert where `da' has been added to the right word LU 462 ( ACC 2 Comm. ). dobeir Dia traig cacha bliadna f.¤ a lethet adds a foot to its width LU 1843 . ind forcraid fil f.¤ aicniud what exceeds nature 2559 . a nduesta día aīs som co ndigsed f.¤ áes a maicc, Trip.² 1268 . Cf. da beind f.¤ tri fichtib rend, LU 1271 (`Two antlers with three score points' Imr. Brain ii 297 ).

forib nó sech na huili predicta (gl. super omnia autem haec) Colloss. iii 14 ) Wb. 27b20 .

From this use arises the sense in succession to, after , the development is plain in the earlier exx. quoted below: du fuairthed ní leu f.¤ a sāith din main = some of the manna used to remain over when they had had their fill Ml. 97d10 . a canar ... for sen `what is chanted ... thereafter' Thes. ii 253.14 (Stowe Miss.). loim f.¤ sāith, LU 3610 ( SCC 30 ). cleirech ... lasmbí ní f.¤ a leortu who has more than suffices him Ériu vii 156 § 10 . doformagar a dligid ... forsanní doruirmisem over and above what we have enumerated Ériu i 220 § 15 . in biat forsa canar immon Muiri `the Beati after which the Hymn to Mary is sung' Mon. Tall. § 30 (corresp. to: don bhiaid le n-abradh I.M., Rule of Tallaght 90 ). ind bi[a]t forsa ndene ind crosfigild `the Beati after which he performs the cross-vigil' ib. (corresp. to: le ndeunamh an chr., Rule of Tallaght 90 ). canair magnificat furri ib. (= Cantar M. uirre, Rule of Tallaght 90 ). cétbliada[i]n f.¤ bisex ... bliada[i]n tanaiste f.¤ bisex the first year following leap-year ... the second year ... RC xviii 296 - 300 . cf. it bliadni fuir bissext, Thes. ii 39.22 (cf. Ann. Inisf. 1101 ). ind ráithe dothét foir .i. samrad ZCP viii 175z . forsind ochtmugait bliadnae són `over the eighty years' (gl. supra uotum uiuendi) Ml. 111b22 .

In the follg. exx. we have a slightly different development of meaning; in addition to, along with: oc ool usci ... do dig forsna glasluibib, SR 1894 = ... fér in talman do chaithem ... ┐ usce do dhig fair, LB 113a26 (cf. superbibere). Cf. further: o duillib in crainn sin d'ól ar uisque , Maund. 160 .

(h)

(1) on, i.e., affecting, afflicting (of emotions, physical or mental states or conditions, joy, sorrow, fear, anxiety, sickness, pain, hunger, etc.; see also under words expressive of these): comadas lobre et immomon forsin mug, Wb. 8b1 . ni bi nach dethiden foir, 10b9 . ata dethiden fuiri cene, 3d34 . sním fora menmain, Ml. 89b7 . is e for snimsa fil formsa `it is care for you that I feel' CCath. 5148 . dond imniud roboí forsin popul, Ml. 103b9 . ni baí imneth foraib, LU 5832 . nicon robae ni form acht failte, Ml. 104d2 . biith galar ... fortsu, Wb. 29a26 (cf. mina roibh cosachtach air, Rosa Angl. 288.10 ). cia rodbatar tirbithi aili fornn, Wb. 14d13 . boí toirrsi f.¤ a muime, Trip.² 156 (cf. ni do thabirt toirse fuiribsi anísiu, Wb. 14a14 ). atā ēcen mōr fornd, LU 1562 . in machdad ... roboí forsnaib doirsib, Ml. 46a19 . in cóe ... boí f.¤ sluagaib I., SR 5806 . intí forsa mbeith ítu mór, Mon. Tall. § 48 (= damadh mor an ita do bhiadh ar neach, Rule of Tallaght § 98 ). bo geis don filidh anfis do beith fair, ACL iii 4.20 . Cf. i n-ítaid, i ngalur, etc. LU 2350 - 51 . cen ainbthini foraib (gl. fluctus ... in stationes suas rediunt) Ml. 121a5 .

With adjectives: arnap trom fuirib for n-oínur Wb. 14d17 . trummu foraib som imram ... quam techt ..., Ml. 126a4 . ní réid fort you do not find it easy LU 4789 (cf. ro étrummaigset doíri forna cenela, Ml. 113c8 ). ni ba mór forumsa sain, LL 234a34 ( TTr. 1278 = BB 426b42 ). ni mó formsa ... cid fiala a flaithe, ACL iii 296.38 . See also s.v. bec (beg). Some exx. with 1 esbaid, esbud may be mentioned here although in O.Ir. it takes 1 ar of person deprived : na raib form esbaid, SR 1584 . cen essbaid nacha maithiusa foraib, LU 2042 ( FA 12 ).

(2) of purpose, attention: scríbend menmman .i. robboí f.¤ a inndṡliucht som `it had been in his mind' Sg. 178b4 . in sét atá form aire on which I am intent Ériu vi 115 . Cf. nicon fil f.¤ menmain damsa sin, Ériu viii 156.22 .

(i) governing object of blessing, cursing, punishing, etc.: mallacht ... for a n-apaid, LU 2436 . mallacht fort beolu, LL 272b2 . dígal ... forru, Wb. 1d3 . conicc dígail forib, 6a17 . ni dechudsa cucuib ... do aidbiur foirib, Wb. 14c40 . bendacht Dé f.¤ Díchuin, Trip.² 387 . bendecht f.¤ Firu Cúle, 2157 . bennacht dé ┐ ande fort, LU 6852 . bai a mbennacht f.¤ Iosiaph, SR 3552 . ní ó gothaib ... dogénat ... in molad sa f.¤ Dia, LU 2676 .

(j)

(1) existing on, by means of (a food, diet): ros altatar f.¤ carnaib mac ṁbec reared her on Rawl. 132a5 ( Expuls. 8 ). adbert nad ebalta lee hē f.¤ lacht, BB 497a17 (= Dinds. 142 ). teora bliadnai f.¤ usciu ┐ bargin, Ériu vii 140.5 . secht mís ... f.¤ usce ┐ bargin, RC xv 489z ( ar usci ┐ b., 491.1 ). rosáeth linni do bithsiu f.¤ uisciu, LU 6051 . Cf. xl dies f.¤ doborfiit forty days on water-diet Thes. ii 38.29 (see PIT, and Thes., p. 67 ). roboi si f.¤ suidiu co cend mbliadna she was on that ration for a year Mon. Tall. § 60 . dā cēd bliadhain doib f.¤ iascc, f.¤ enlaith, Leb. Gab.(i) i 30 . conid furri [ = forsin chloich] buí sásad dó etir biadh ┐ digh (of a stone placed in his cheek), Cáin Ad. 12 . Cf. coro rosind mo ṡáith f.¤ t'acaldaimsiu, Mon. Tall. § 25 (= mo shaith cainnte d'fhaghail riotsa, Rule of Tallaght § 81 ).

(2) a similar use is relying on, depending on; sometimes = content with (some of the citations however seem to approach the meaning under k): do berar mac an righ ... f.¤ aoncois ┐ aonlaim ┐ aonshuil (i.e. having the use of these only, cf. the corresp. passage: Rex ... habebat filium qui erat c[a]ecus, claudus et surdus V. SS. Hib. ii 146 ) BNnÉ 185.14 . Cf. .ccc. fear f.¤ aencossaib ┐ f.¤ aenlamaib ┐ aensuilib, BB 372a45 ( Dinds. 41 ). See also I (c), end. cethri coicid E. form laim ┐ form gail ┐ form gaisced do aurscartad di Maig M. `on my hand and my valour and my weapons it rests to sweep the four-fifths of E. from M. M.' RC iii 179 ( LL 121a12 ). Ni horum ata, acht forma tuismidhtoraib (= it is not for me to decide), Stair Erc. 932 . mád día loga bemitni f.¤ a breith mani loga ... ni bemni forsind recht sin if he forgives we will abide by his judgment ... if he does not forgive we will not abide by that law LU 9753 . foemuis ... oirisium f.¤ dliged a sen, Marco P. 25 . on tsaeibhdliged fora taithe, 24 . bid inund comairle f.¤ a mbiat, LU 2639 . ni bar óenscéol atát na druid the druids do not agree LL 265a39 ( MU² 452 ), a airm f.¤ congbail ina laim grasped in his hand CCath. 3546 . conimragba f.¤ greis. ┐ dītin ... dom imdegail ar demnaib, YBL 327a16 ( Ir. Lit. 34 ), see 1 greis(s). See also commairge, fáes(s)am, etc. Here probably: bid maith a ana f.¤ cethru his wealth in cattle ZCP x 225 § 2 . dogegaind | anad sunn f.¤ bicc ḟeraind, Trip.², 1273 (= content with ?). Cf. also Corm. Y 211 cited supra, col. 192.3. appraind ná bása f.¤ mo nirt would I had been in my strength ! LU 6370 . Cf. in tan roboí Mac C. f.¤ a áltaib isind ármaig when Mac C. lay wounded on the field LU 7964 ( BDD 162 ). Cf. far diall tanaisiu of the second declension. Sg. 106b20 . is fuire side daroine O. in Félire in this (metre) O. composed the F. Fél. 4 .

The uses illustrated, respectively, in the two sections following are not always easy to distinguish. The principal difference is that (k) usually expresses passivity rather than activity. Some of the exx. there might possibly be assigned to (j), while in (l) action, purpose is implied. For later exx. see 1 AR, where the absence of lenition in these uses betrays the original prep.

(k) With abstr. or vn. , also with adj. in (a state, condition) : amal mbīs rothmol ... f.¤ bithimpud, SR 200 . f.¤ tuili doib they were in flood 2523 . sruth ... f.¤ teibirsin, Marco P. 5 . sornd tentide f.¤ lassad blazing LU 2101 . ina lócharnaib f.¤ lassad, 2055 (but : secht míle ... oc lassad 2057 ). aithinni f.¤ derglassad, CCath. 903 . co togrennitis ... inna heonu f.¤ luamain, LU 5159 . co mbui f.¤ foluamain imma chend, LL 225aw ( TTr. 600 ). batar na Desi f.¤ fainnel as cach inud na chéli, LU 4433 . f.¤ fainiul a lluc i lluc, 249 . foendul ┐ sechrán, PH 1909 . co rabatar lestra ... in tige f.¤ snám, Trip.² 114 . co rabhadur na botha ... f.¤ snam `floating' CCath. 2347 . o ro linad ind arc ... robaí in digal f.¤ imluad SR 2510 . a mbatár ... f.¤ imluad forsna tonnaib, LU 1864 . Rí ... ro horddaig in nUan iarsin tsleib f.¤ a imluad, SR 594 ( Rev. xiv 1 ). Cf. na bi f.¤ snim th'aislinge, SR 3282 (= na tab- hi snim, LB 115b46 ; nacatabrad imsnim, BB 238a24 ). f. Cf. f.¤ othrus, f.¤ folach, BCrólige 26 ff . f.¤ longais in exile Ml. 93d3 . cia bemni f.¤ longais, LU 4861 (= f.¤ loinges riam TBC-I¹ 371 ). cach oen fil f.¤ loinges ┐ teched, PH 460 . Cf. ba hé a lín f.¤ a longais, SR 6276 . boí f.¤ merogod, LU 1642 . rabaí f.¤ merfaill ┐ merugud ic iarraid a aite, LL 220a41 ( TTr. 233 ). bith deitsiu f.¤ merogod tige oiged, LU 6757 ( BDD 27 ). f.¤ aig thaig, SR 3477 . forsin reim sin, LL 232b ( TTr. 1239 ). f.¤ comrorcain in error PH 6602 . f.¤ fírinne in the right 2671 . is fír forstā Lucifur, SR 1839 (j ?). anmanda ... bis f.¤ cennsacht ┐ pettacht `tamed and petted' CCath. 2453 . conacca dá ech f.¤ sgur unharnessed ZCP viii 106.23 . roboí F. f.¤ altram la hAni, LL 165az (= Dinds. 142 ). boí leis f.¤ cui LU 10941 (see cáe, fecht). dind riuth forsa taith, Wb. 20b6 .

connfaca na tri leogain ... f.¤ dasacht ina ndocum, Stair Erc. 389 . sccuiridh don dasacht fora taithi the madness which possesses you BNnÉ 7 § 23 .

Cf. dā fercoin ... fur an dath cētna of the same color ZCP vi 29.18 (rosg ar dath gloine guirme, GF. DDána 234 . ar chruth ┐ ar dheilbh Dé, TSh. 1329 ). With adj. f.¤ cloen inclined Thes. ii 254.19 . ni bia lamnad f.¤ cōir normal delivery ZCP viii 111.25 .

After verb of motion : docoid O. ... dochum Poil f.¤ longis `had gone to Paul into exile' Wb. 31d19 . di[a] luid D. f.¤ longais, Ml. 55c1 . tiagat f.¤ teiched, 54b12 . ar foít f.¤ techtairechta, Wb. 15a15 . téit f.¤ teched, LU 4917 ( tíagait ar teched, 4965 , both in hand of M). tigc ceo ann ... ┐ do luid an ri f.¤ merugud, BColm. 70.28 . ria ndula doib f.¤ a fecht, SR 3505 (see fecht). In : téit ina ndíaid ... f.¤ echlascad, LU 6786 ( BDD 32 ) the meaning is almost `by dint of' (cf. j). Cf. tainic ina dhochum ... f.¤ a tuitmennaigh `came ... stumbling' CCath. 2199 . ni far maid rosnuicc `it has not brought them to good' Wb. 5b3 . ní thaudchaid a brú f.¤ cóir LU 6078 . ní téighedh béim ... f.¤ dimaín `no blow was delivered in vain' CCath. 2012 .

See 1 téit, do-tét.

(l) At, engaged in (an occupation or task) : cach la sel dún f.¤ imrádud Dé, in sel aile f.¤ precept, Wb. 15d9 . f.¤ foigdi 25b11 . basa f.¤ a imcabail I was avoiding him LU 1244 . ma beith nech f.¤ a iarair if any one be inquiring about it Rawl. 70a44 . cia f.¤ a tai iarair ? whom art thou seeking ? SR 3096 ( co ndechos f.¤ iarair Etaine, LU 10644 ). frisin coais f.¤a robae som, Ml. 64a12 . ... inna ndrochgnímae f.¤sa robae, Tur. 60 . buid f.¤ tectairecht hó Isu, Wb. 13b5 .

This construction is widely extended : mí dhóibh forsin fleighsin they spent a month at that feast Marco P. 88 . go rabhattar f.¤ a bproind at their meal BNnÉ 9.10 (cf. similar use of Engl. `over'). airet batar ... f.¤ a trealmaibh diubraicti `so long as the hosts were discharging their missiles' CCath. 5662 . a mbatar ... f.¤ a mbriathraib `as they were speaking' Ériu xii 182 § 14 (= LU 10895 ). ro uhatar tra for [sna] himdigluib sin cēn romarsat `they kept up these mutual retaliations' ACL iii 2.15 .

(m) To express the dativus incommodi, the person adversely affected by the action, = in despite of, to the detriment of. (Cf. the apparently similar use of AR in : ducer airi airitech ind ríg `he let fall the king's drinking cup' Lism. L. p. 324 = Irish Texts i 10 § 32 ). cf. atbath airund, LU 593 ( ACC 14 ): fó'n missi ro briss recht ... | foirb ? or was it I that broke the law to your hurt ? SR 5533 . arna bristé fír fer f.¤ Coin C., LU 6259 . conbocht fír fer fairseom, 6239 . gabais B. ... in n-insi sea forsna cenela robátar inti, LU 1343 . atraigsetar ... L. do gabail in tiri sin forro di cach leith, LU 4390 (see gaibid). dobersa ferand duib ... la Osraige ... ┐ is cet duibsiu a forsingud foraib, 4439 . iar togail Duin S. furri, 5823 . congair ... immá tech dia gabáil f.¤ Ulto, 1506 ( MU² 1003 ). Tancatar a námait ... do gabáil tige fair, RC xiii 86 ( LL 304a17 ). luidh A. ... do irghabhail a chathrach fair, Marco P. 7 . do choll etha na hindsi sea fair to injure him by blighting the corn Dinds. 18 ( BB 360a15 ). tarraidh Hectoir baegul f.¤ Achíl, LL 244a16 ( TTr. 2029 ; see báegul). co tairsedh cach dib a mídúthracht ... f.¤ araili, CCath. 255 (see tárrachtain).

In some instances it is difficult to distinguish this use from the local meaning (I c), e.g. ro línad fair in sliab di énlaithib = graues aues fuerunt erga illum Trip.² 1300 .

Cf. also: ní tae dám i tech fort, BDD 16 . is aurgart ... corr colpdai do brisiud fair hi tig, Ériu vi 136.85 is taken in this sense by the editor (fair `in his despite' 141n .), but cf. I (e) end. In : ro foilghiusa sin ... ┐ ní fitir nech form cusaniu, RC xxvi 366 (= ní fitir nech in folach sin cusandiu LB 260a20 ) this sense seems implicit, though at first sight the ex. might seem to belong to (d).

Cf. use with 1 do-fich (togal), do-gní, fellaid (fell).

(n) expressing obligation, constraint, compulsion (see 1 fíach; do-beir) : nech forsa tabar a denum `one who is compelled to do it' Ml. 54a2 . folach f.¤ fer nad fuic `where a man who injures not has to maintain' BCrólige § 15 . aithgin fuirre i mbās in case of death she is liable for restitution Laws v 146.6 Comm.

(o) expressing worth, value (late and rare.Cf. IV a) : dá cét punt f.¤ cach n-eoch, Marco P. 9 .

(p) for phrases such as : f.¤ aird, f.¤ cel, f.¤ cúl (cúlu) f.¤ enech (inchaib), f.¤ fáesam (comairce), f.¤ son, etc., see these nouns.

(q) after adj. gov. obj. of emotion, faculty (rare) : ni pu f.¤ seotu santach, Hy v 7 ( Thes. ii 328 ). nirbat santach forsin bith | nach f.¤ innem cloen, LB 261a8 (= imman mbith, YBL 407a17 ). isam eolach sa f.¤ a muintir, Aisl. Tond. 113.2 .

III With a number of verbs in regular syntactical construction or in special expressions. It indicates the indirect (in some cases the direct) object (pers. or thing) after verbs of asking, entreating, seeking; tempting; discussing, meditating; fighting, attacking, routing, defeating, overthrowing; blessing, cursing, censuring; suing; enjoining, commanding; estimating, judging, punishing; giving, bestowing; binding, pledging; putting, placing, throwing, etc., etc. For exx. of use see especially : ad-cobra, ad-cota, ad-eirrig, ad-fét (as-indet), ad-slig, ad-suidi, aithnid (ad-noí), beirid, bris(s)id, 1 ceisid, con-dïeig, dáilid, 2 do-alla, do-beir, 1 do-cain (díchetal), do-cuirethar, do-éccai (1 dercaid, fégaid), 1 do-ella, 1 do-fich (dígal), do-gní, do-icc, do-indnaig, do-léci, do-scé(u)lai, do-sluindi (diúltad), do-soí, do-tét, do-tuit, dúnaid, feccaid, feraid (ferthain), foaid, fo-ceird, fo-coisle(a), fo-dáli, fo-luigi (see II above), for-congair, fo-ruimi, fothraicid, fúabair, fóbair, gaibid, guidid, íadaid, íarmi-foich (íarar, íarair), imm-beir, léicid, liïd, lingid (léimm), maidid, midithir (1 mes(s)), moídid, nascid (ar-naisc, fo-naisc), 2 nertaid, roínid (sroínid), saidid, 1 saigid, soïd, sreid, 1 téit, 1 tráchtaid.

Cf. IV below.

IV In Mid. Ir. MSS. sometimes misused for O.Ir. AR, especially in verbal constructions (see III) :

(a) on account of, because of, for the sake of: foracsabairsi foromsa cach maith, LU 2397 (H). císsi lóg conattaig f.¤ a eladain, LL 219a27 ( TTr. 156 ). tabuirsiu f.¤ do soīre give [it] for the sake of thy freedom Anecd. iii 30 = ar do sh., Lism. L. 190 . ni accatarsom cinnas boí ... a huachtur túas f.¤ a hairde, LU 1927 . ni f.¤ crabud léce do miltnidecht uait, acht ar omun in catha, LB 59b62 ( RC ii 388 ). in fath forar crochad Isu, PH 2877 . Cf. na huile noebnoidenu ro damatar marttra forut [ = erut] YBL 327a2 ( Ir. Lit. 34 ). combad f.¤ Martain dogneth Dia in mírbuil for M.'s sake LB 60a4 ( RC ii 388 ). dia n[d]erntasu formsa if you would do as I tell you TBC-LL¹ 1802 . ni dearnnsad fair they did not obey him Dinds. 79 (= BB 390a39 ). ni dernai E. ḟurri anisein, LL 222a6 ( TTr. 351 ). dorónadh fairsium sin, CCath. 2896 . See do-gní. ro oentuigset in ní sin f.¤ Chaillin according to C.'s advice Fen. 178.7 . ic attach in Choimded ... f.¤ animmib na ndoine on behalf of PH 6393 . ro guid M. in Coimdid forru, LB 61a5 ( RC ii 398y ).

(b) Freq. with indirect obj. of verbs of concealing, delivering, rescuing (e.g. ceilid, do-essuirg, fo-luigi, saeraid, q.v.). In : gan nert cobharta forra fein incapable of helping themselves BNnÉ 5 § 11 , FOR replaces FRI, or direct acc. (= gen. after vn.). (But cf. use of f.¤ with fortacht, and AR with the late formation foirid, fóirid) : cid ara n-anci in laech ḟorrum, LL 284a13 ( TTr. 1261 ).

(c) in some phrases : f.¤ bélaib (= ar b.) SR 4568 . f.¤ a n-inchaib, CCath. 2407.3633 . f.¤ cend, LU 5954 , 5958 (H). f.¤ cind, 5890 (H). f.¤ tús, LB 61a5 ( RC ii 396x ). FA 3 LB (= ar thús, LU 1967 ). Cf. f.¤ dus (v.l. f.¤ tus), CCath. 303 . See also under these nouns.

V ? Adverbial use of 3 s. neut.: na for aircella echdrund n-aircend 'nor in addition does it take away the definite property of another' Peritia iii 446 (Text II) .

glais, glaise, glas

Cite this: eDIL s.v. glais, glaise, glas or dil.ie/25955

Forms: glaise, glaisi, glaisedh, glaisidh, glasa, glaisi

n f. There seem to be four distinct declensions: (1) glais ī, f. g s. and n p. glaise, glaisi, IGT Decl. § 14.7 . (2) glaise f. g s. glaisedh; d s. glaisidh (as if from a d-stem), § 7 . (3) glaise , f. (4) glas ā, f. a p. glasa, AU i 336.22 (an. 835) . TBC-I¹ 3357 . a stream, streamlet, rivulet, current : common in place-names; conéracht Glaiss Chruind friú, TBC-I¹ 886 . Cf. IT iii 241.184 . otha glais telchæ berich, Thes. ii 238.6 ( Ardm. 17a2 ). lasin ṅ-glais, TBC-LL¹ 1600 . dochorastair in glais for cūlu, TBC-I¹ 890 . fri cóel-glais n-usci, BDD 87 . glais na fer | bid hé in topur suthain sen, Acall. 2863. LL 298a22 . Glais an Iomomhan ainm na habhann bige, ML 68 . in glassi bec theid a [N]emnig, LL 30a3 . airm i tǽt in Glassi assin t-ṡliab, TBC-LL¹ 1583 . icun glaisi, Trip. i 138.5 . Ériu iv 102 § 44 . radoirt ... blegon na trí n-erc ... lasin nglaisi ... comba finn in glaise, SG ii 482.48 , 49 . mar ghabus glaisi muilinn Mairteil i Sleib cain mill-stream , Lism. L. xxxvi 25 . in lis seach a teged glas, Auraic. 1065 ; 4021 . Laws v 204.8 Comm. g s. medōn na glaissi, TBC-I¹ 305 . TBC-LL¹ 1570 . uisce glaise water of a streamlet, Laws iv 144.10 . Acall. 4566 . pl. glaisi gainmidhe, BS 22.17 . romallach dano P. glaisi in mennatta-sin, Trip. i 210.1 . tond romara bāides minglaisi, TBC-I¹ 3215 . muir tar glasa, 3357 . mes mor ... ┐ ro iadh glasa cor ansat di riuth, AU i 336.22 (an. 835) = glaisi, AFM i 452.13 . dar glas[sa] in mara mōir `currents,' Ériu vi 122 § 9 . go glassib ┐ go aibnib Conaille M., TBC-LL¹ 4208 . rogabh siubhal do glaisibh `impeded the course of the streams,' AFM ii 888.17 . Du. Magh itir da glais Magheraglass, AU i 398.11 (an. 881); (di glais) 470.6 (an. 951). Trip. i 250.9 . secnap Tire da glas, AU i 402.7 (an. 883 ). dí prím-glais déac, Imr. Brain i 56.13 .

1 in

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 in or dil.ie/28194
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: int, -nt, -(s)int, int, na, inna, inna, in, -n, ind, in, ind, int, ind, int, int, ind, s-, -ss-, ocin(d), immin, immun, indá, dundaib, -b, -b, inna, na, na, in, in, na, ind, in, int, inna, na, a n-, a, a, -(s)naib, -(s)na, -d, na, inna, in, ind, an, an t-, in, int, ind, ind, a n-, in, mbúaid, a, in, ind, in, in, na, inna, inda, ind, indá, inna, na, inna, na, na, inna, na, ina, inna, na, in, -n, in, in, in, in, in, in, in, isin, isin, ind, na, in, in, na, na, na, in, in, na, na, na, an, na, ind

def. art. the. See GOI § 467 ff . Zeuss pp. 210 - 217 . Paradigm in O.Ir. Masc. Fem. Neut. Sing. N. in, int ind', in', int a n- A. in n-, -(s)in n- in n-, -(s)in n- a n-, -(s)a n- G. ind', in', int inna, na ind', in', int D. in' -(s)ind', ind', -(s)ind', in', ind', int, -(s)in', -(s)int, -(s)in', -nd', -n' -(s)ind', -(s)in', -nd', -n', -nt -(s)int, -nd', -n', -nt Plur. N. ind', in', int inna, na inna, na A. inna, na, -(s)na G. inna n-, na n- for all genders D. -(s)naib

The forms int, -nt, -(s)int are used before ṡ, except int of n s. masc. which occurs before vowels.

The forms na, inna g s. fem., n p. fem. and neut., and a p. of all genders, geminate follg. consonants and prefix h to vowels (but this h is very rarely written in O.Ir. Cf., however, inna hirise, Sg. 209b24 ).

Before the dual the art. always has the form in, -n except ind da la, Thes. ii 33.21 (Bv.).

The dat. forms without preposition, in, ind, int, occur in the formation of advv., see II (a) below.

Irregularities are not uncommon, e.g. ind for int, int for ind, etc. See Strachan, ZCP iv 62 - 3 and Zeuss, loc. cit.

The original initial s- appears only in the dat. and acc. after prepositions which originally ended in a consonant, with which it unites to produce -ss-, e.g. cossin n-óin, Wb. 2a21 . isin anmim, 9c30 . The s- does not remain after OC though this does not lenite a follg. subst. TRE lenites a subst. but the s- of the art. remains, perhaps through analogy. After FOR, which did not originally lenite, occur forms both with and without -s-, those with -s- being the more usual: forsin dígail, Wb. 1d2 . fornaib gnímaib, 5a5 . After prepositions originally and in O.Ir. ending in vowels both the initial s- and the vowel of the article are lost: ón bunud, Sg. 33b2 . dind insci, Wb. 5c16 . dont lathur, ib. With OC occur ocin(d) (so always in Wb.) and ocon(d); with IMM, immin and immun.

In medial position -nd- had become -nn- by the O.Ir. period but in a few archaic examples, -nd- is written: indá érrend gl. stigmata, Wb. 20d5 (a prima manu). inda fodb gl. exuias, Thes. ii 47.24 (see Thurneysen, ZCP iii 53 ). dundaib abstolaib, Thes. ii 247.12 (Camb.). dendibh Airgiallaib, AU i 178.8 (A.D. 726) . After prepositions the -n- is single even between vowels: cosnaib, frisna, donaib.

Occasionally even in the O.Ir. glosses the first syllable of the dissyllabic form is dropped, and this becomes the rule later: na teora persana, Wb. 9c30 . na cétne tuisten, 21b4 . na cetnae rainne, Sg. 18b1 . For other exx. see below. In the follg. instances from Sg., in (acc.) seems to have dropped out after -r and before a numeral, leaving an eclipsing n. etar ṅdi rainn `between the two parts,' Sg. 2b2 . etar ṅdá n-ulla , 45b19 . far n-óeṅdeilb `according to the same paradigm,' 90b2 . for n-óin ṅdeilb, 201b6 .

The forms in -d (ind, -sind, -nd) remain only before vowels and before lenited f, r, l, n and, in Wb., sometimes also before lenited m and b.

In forms such as dinab fochidib, Wb. 11b4 , dinab gabalib, 13d33 , arnab uilib cumactib, 21a13 , the quality of the final -b of the article is assimilated to that of the following initial. d p. forms without the final -b developed from such examples as donaballaib, Wb. 12b2 , huana fochaidib, Ml. 54a18 , hona mainénaib, 69c5 , where the final of the article became assimilated to a following initial labial. These forms, however, are still infrequent in the O.Ir. period. Three times in the glosses the n p. fem. and neut. form occurs as masc.: inna leomain, Ml. 80a10 . na tri recte, Wb. 29a16 . na sothe, Sg. 64a14 (see GOI § 309 ).

The art. is regularly sg. before collectives and personal numerals.

When an ordinal numeral adj. follows the art., in the older texts the inflection is regular: na dechmaide bliadna, IT iii 54 § 99. inna treisi dūalchae, ZCP iii 25.35 (but see 2 tress). inna cōicthe dūalche, 26.26 ; but later it varied, the masc. form of the art. being somet. used before a fem. noun: n s f. in ochtmad taidbsi, PH 6716 ; but cf. in cethramad taidbsi, 6702 . is í so in t-ochtmad plāg, 7653 . g s f. na hochtmadi oesi, 3582 . i gcionn an treas bliadhna, Keat. iii 1919.

The chief changes occurring in the form of the article in Mid.Ir. are

(i) The n p. masc. forms ind, in, int gradually disappear and are replaced by the forms common to the fem. and neut., inna, na.

(ii) By 1000 A.D., a n- in the n s. and a s. neut. has virtually disappeared, the only certain examples in SR being: a lleth n-aill, SR 5152 , a mbé, 5974 (see Strachan, Phil. Soc. Trans. p. 7 ).

(iii) -(s)naib in the d p. gives way to -(s)na.

(iv) the -d forms are less common.

(v) the monosyllabic na tends to displace inna.

In Mod. Ir. in, ind > an, an t-.

I Forms (divided into (a) forms from O.Ir. glosses, (b) forms from other texts).

Sing.

nom.

masc.

(a) in fer, Wb. 22c9 . in corp, Ml. 22d9 . in ball, Wb. 12b11 . in senduine, 27b8 . int athir, 4b13 .

(b) int othrus, Críth G. 47. in sluag, LU 4563. in t-ara, 4507 . in cing, 347 . in fer, PH 92. in t-espuc, 25 . in slog, 7237 . an samhradh, TSh. 6345. an t-adhaltrach, 6482 . an ciste, 2951 .

fem.

(a) ind leire, Wb. 13d15 . ind nóibe, 9c30 . ind rún, Ml. 45a3 . ind fáilte, Wb. 16b2 . in fírinne, 9c30 . ind almsan, 17a3 . in ben, 22c9 . ind bendacht, 19b15 . in tol, Ml. 18c9 . in chiall, Sg. 27a8 . int ṡillab, 25a1 . cf. ind sillab, 26a4 .

(b) ind ḟlaith, Críth G. 573. ind ingen, LU 4525. ind rígan, 5205 . ind lánamain, 5403 . in tslige, 5077 . inn orcuin, BDD² 493. ind aimser, PH 5032. in eclais, 86 . in tslanti, 275 . in rīghan, ML² 45. an aislinge, 69 . an chiall, TSh. 985.

neut.

(a) a n-accobor, Wb. 3d3 . a mbás, 15b28 . a teg n-oiged, 4a7 . a ndede n-isiu, Ml. 62c3 . a laithe, 21c3 . a folad, Sg. 3a2 . a rrind, 70b7 . a nnu-iedniss, Wb. 15b2 .

(b) a n-ag, LL 112b31 (Sc.MMD). a n-ude, LU 4866. a llá-sa, 5039 . in laa, 5057 . a llathe, 9743 . a n-ainm, 6182 . in n-écosc, PH 6442. a sessed ngrad, 6246 . (Cf. in t-ochtmad grad, 6251 ). in ainm, 672 . in iach-lind, 381 . in ní, 897 . ind ni, 5251 . an ni, 6194 .

Acc.

masc. and fem.

(a) frissin popul, Ml. 46b26 . trisin recht, 46c20 . in digail, 40c3 . in soscéle, Wb. 18c10 . frisin n-iarfaigid, Ml. 20c9 . in n-almsin, Wb. 16d7 . tresin n-aimsir, Sg. 188a26 .

(b) fón slóg, LU 4654. lasin n-íngin, 4522 . in domon ndron, 3566 . in mbelra, PH 2619. frisin ṅdeilb, 125 . in anmain, 2068 . romolsadar in t-ardrīg, ZCP v 25 § 10. ro gab naire in t-airdrigh, Stair Erc. 1135. gurab é Dia ... do-rinne an bás, TSh. 1052. an cheist, 2855 .

neut.

(a) a mbúaid , Wb. 11a6 . tresa n-acomol, Sg. 32a8 . trissa ndede-se, Ml. 123c5 . cossa laa-sa, Wb. 23a17 .

(b) isa tír, Imr. Brain § 62. a fér, LU 4733. lasa comérge, 4880 . isin n-ármag, 4943 . issa sudiu, 9080 . isi[n] sudi, 9082 . in n-aicned doennai, PH 179. in mboimm, 2373 .

Gen.

masc. and neut.

(a) in betho, Wb. 1a3 . in cháich, 2b11 . ind lóge, 3c1 . ind rechto, 15a34 . ind fir, 13a12 . ind ḟolaid, Sg. 28b19 . ind apstail, Ml. 26a2 . int soirtha, 46b26 . (cf. ind senduini, Wb. 27b8 . ind ṡrotho, Sg. 35b7 ). int srotho, Ml. 93b11 . in tairmchrutto, Wb. 15b6 .

(b) in muilt, Críth G. 73. in tairb, LU 4610. in chon, 5013 . in pheta eóin, 5289 . ind ríg, 4757 . in rothclessa, 8844 . ind laí, 4858 . in locha, 9098 . ind athig, 4684 . ind fir, 4765 . in tṡeuin, 4508 . ind rig, PH 4365. an fhir, 1177 . in apstail, 1991 . ind ecraibthig, 6062 . ind imdibe, 5652 . in t-sacairt, 2508 . in slaníceda, 5146 . an fhedhma, ML² 20 . ind fhir, TTebe 1544 . and fhir, 2433 . inn eich, 2278 . en foulachtae, CMT² 60 § 133 . an bhrátha, TSh. 1014. an tsein-reachta, 404 .

fem.

(a) inna deacte, Wb. 5c16 . inna flaithemnachtae, Sg. 2a1 . inna aidche, Ml. 21c3 . na aimsire, Sg. 188a28 . inna hirise, 209b24 .

(b) na llongsi, IT i 77.3 . na mmucci, LL 112b43 ( ScM. § 8 ). inna conaire, LU 4710. na glassi , 4797 . na haidche, 9058 . ina óidche, PH 1490. na hindsci, 6213 . na colna, TSh. 947. na haithne, 1009 .

Dat. m., f. and n.

(a) isin chétne tuiste, Wb. 1a1 . forsind immarmus, 1d2 . dind fiur, 22c9 . dind failti, Ml. 21c3 . isin anmim, Wb. 9c30 . huant firinni, Ml. 57d8 . isind laithiu, 21c3 . dont lathur, Wb. 5c16 . isint saltair, Ml. 23c19 . isind salm, 50d4 . isin biuth, Wb. 12c16 . dind béstatu, 5c16 . don duini, 4b3 . dond macc, 7c13 .

(b) don chath, LU 4557. isin phupull, 4620 . iarsind frecra, 4772 . don tslúag, 4570 . don ṡlúag, 4748 . dond ríg, BDD² 99. don ríg, 85 . asind aimsir, PH 4928. isin eclais, 3181 . don tsacart, 3140 . assin sinagoig, 110 . asind lucc, 4099 . donn ītadhach, ZCP viii 215 § 75. don fhíréan, TSh. 1146. don pheacthach, 1137 . don tsaidhbhir, 954 . san bhioth, 832 . (cf. san mbioth, 837 . san Sabboit, 4114 ).

Plur.

nom.

masc.

(a) in phreceptori, Wb. 5a2 . in chnamai, Ml. 22d7 . in pecthaig, 55d11 . ind rig, 85d10 . ind apstail, 42b7 . ind fir, Wb. 5a5 . ind ḟilid, Sg. 162a3 . int soirthi, Ml. 19b11 . inna leomain, 80a10 . na tri recte, Wb. 29a16 .

(b) na trí maccáin, Fél. Aug. 2. inna druing-sea, Fél. Ep. 285. (All other examples in Fél. follow strict O. Ir. paradigm, Stokes). inda sacairt, Mon. Tall. 134.11 . in doíni, TBFr. 55. na doíni, 306 . in maic, LU 4900. ind eich, 4733 . na heich, 5070 . in tṡlóig, 4609 . inn óicc, BDD² 896. na heóin, 142 . ind eolaig, PH 7313. in augtair, 6944 . na noim, 3649 . na hapstail, 1826 . inda hapstail, 5371 . ind apstail, 6720 . ind ēcis uile, Anecd. iv 93.10 (Corm.). na tri coicait, LL 114a29 ( ScM. § 21b ). na trenmilid, TTebe 4478 . na cinn, TSh. 73. na haidhmillte, 6088 .

fem. and neut.

(a) indá érrend (gl. stigmata), Wb. 20d5 (a prima manu). inna briathra, Ml. 22c5 . inna ancride, 27b15 . inna anmmann, Sg. 28b18 .

(b) na tigi, IT i 74.7 . inna buidne, LU 4685. na bai, 5398 . na cenna, 4806 . na mna, PH 4997. na créachta, TSh. 1013.

Acc. m. f. and n.

(a) inna fíraingliu, Wb. 9c10 . frisna preceptori, 14d37 . lasna fileda, Sg. 63b4 . na rúna, Wb. 12c11 . lasna anmmann, Sg. 51b10 .

(b) na firu, LU 4626. inna heonu, 5159 . inna echraidí, 4712 . na pecdachdu, PH 3619. na briathra, 3660 . na cóic ṡéotu, Críth G. 162. inna .vii. sa, 307 . na teasta, TSh. 6771.

Gen. m. f. and n.

(a) inna ndóine, Wb. 5c16 . inna fer, 7c8 . inna mban, 22c10 . na n-abstal, 18d14 . na sacardd, Sg. 54a11 . na conson, 9a19 . na forcetal, Wb. 16a12 . inna rrath, 15c3 .

(b) ina ndescipul, Hib. Min. 54. inna muccaide, LU 4670. na nGalión, 4648 . na fíren, PH 437. na ḟer (sic leg.), 1017 . na mbeo, 3648 . na n-ilberla, 5484 . airdena ana cóic la ndéc ria mBrath, RC xxviii 310 § 1. inna fer, TTebe 1845 . na n-ánrad, 951 . na bpeacthach, TSh. 991. na sácramainteadh, 1561 .

Dat. m. f. and n.

(a) donaib ballaib, Wb. 7d14 . donaballaib ailib, 12b2 . arnab uilib cumactib, 21a13 . dinaib fochaidib, Ml. 19b11 . isnaib consonaib, Sg. 9a22 . donab huilib doinib, 189b9 . forsna huilib remṡuidigthib, 212a13 . ocnafothaircthib palnacdib, 217a4 . honai gabalaib, Ml. 54b25 . donab nemindithib, Thes. ii 33.28 (Bv.).

(b) oconaibh insibh, AU 851. donaib Galionaib, LU 4659. dinib collaib, 4937 . dona druídib, 5061 . dina lecaib, 5889 (H). forna bochtaib, PH 3603. dona noemaib, 3620 . donaib maithib ┐ dona holcaib, Ériu iii 2.13 . fornaib coic cathrachuib, ii 140.5 . dona hōgaib, ML² 173. dona daoinibh, TSh. 968. arna heasbadhaibh, 973 .

Dual.

(a) In the O.Ir. glosses, before the dual, the art. always has the form in, -n: Nom. m. in da fersin, Ml. 58a11 . f. in di bai, 2b11 . n. in da n-ainm, 34d6 . Acc. m. in da airdigtha, Sg. 77a8 . f. etir in dí ṡillaib, 59a17 . Gen. m. cechtar in da popul, Ml. 46b30 . n. cechtar in da leithe, Sg. 25b6 . Dat. f. isin dib bliadnib, Thes. ii 30.35 (Bcr.). n. isin dib desmrechtaib-so, Ml. 114b1 . ( ind da la occurs in the Vienna Beda, Thes. ii 33.21 .).

(b) Later the art. preceding the dual is sometimes na, but in remains more common: in dá erred (g.), LU 8057. na dá ech (a.), 8590 . na da ban (g.), 8375 . na dá Maine (n.), BDD² 106. in da gilla chétna (a.), TBC-LL¹ 677. túath in dá Maine (g.), BDD² 210. na da ánrath ┐ na da rind n-agha (n.), TTr.² 583. na dá n-ug n-urchoidech (g.), MR 110.4 . na dá neirrech (g.), Laws iv 336.16 . an dā rīg (na, v.l.) (n.), ML² 776. asna dib berlaib, Lec. 167d31 . don da thóisech, Ériu v 152.126 .

II Article used in formation of adverbs ( GOI § 251.3 and § 379 , § 382 . Zeuss 608 - 9 ).

(a) When nouns of time and manner are used adverbially in the dat. sg., they may be preceded by the article, e.g. in chruth as coir, Wb. 7b1 . in chruth sin, 7d16 . ind echt sa, 3a7 ; but cf. cruth ro pridchissem, 24c17 . inni rombatar riam hí tempul, Ml. 62b2 .

(b) In O. and Mid. Ir. the article (but see alternative explanation, GOI § 379 ) was used with an adj. in the dat. sing. neut. and with some participles in -de to form an adverb. The follg. list is illustrative only: in biucc gl. paulatim, Sg. 12b1 . in mór, Wb. 14b21 . in már gl. adeo, Sg. 8a2 . in deurb ` certainly ,' Ml. 70b2 . ind fír ` truly ,' Wb. 14c32 . ind ḟír, Sg. 106a5 . in demin gl. quidem, Ml. 37a13 . int soer gl. libere, 31b18 . int sainriud, 54a22 . in chomocus ` nearby ,' Sg. 188a19 . ind imdu gl. passim, Ml. 35b5 . in fortgidiu ` covertly ,' 30a3 . in chlidiu, 50c13 . in chotarsnu gl. e contrario, Sg. 17b9 . ind ulcc male, Hib. Min. 432. ind infholach secretly , PH 6085. in infholuch, 7998 . In a few exx. the form of the adj. is that of the nom.: ind utmall, Wb. 26b10 (but this form may also have been used for dat.). in madae, 19d16 . ind immdae, Sg. 26a5 . Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii § 419 explains this as being due to the similarity of nom. and dat. masc. and neut. forms in some adjj. Cf. also: in tsainrethaig, LU 5514.

With compar. and superl. of adjj. to form comparative advv.: ind ichtarchu gl. inferius, Ml. 24d30 . int serbu gl. amarius, 24c10 . in máam gl. primum, Wb. 1c20 . ind luindiu gl. commotius, Ml. 32d1 . ind feliu gl. uericondius, 58b1 . ind lugu gl. minus, 123c12 . in mó ┐ in mó, Trip.² 2108 , 2628 . in mor-mo, PH 3369 , 3605 . See GOI § 382.

(c) In the case of adjj. in -d(a)e (except imdae) and participles in -th(a)e (but see in fortgidiu, in chlidiu, above), instead of the dative a form in -id, -ith combines with the art. to form the adv. A few instances also occur of advv. formed in this way from substantives. From adjj.: in doracdid `in the Doric fashion,' Sg. 204b9 . in chorpdid gl. corporaliter, Wb. 27a12 . ind óindid once , Ml. 29a3 . int slanidid ` salutarily ,' 71a1 . in tuailngigthid ` deigningly ,' 78c1 . ind inchlidid gl. latenter, 100c7 . in tuasailcthid ` absolutely ,' 32d5 . From substt.: in mesid (<mess) gl. iudicialiter, Ml. 51c21 . ind frithoircnid (<frithorcun) ` offensively ,' 127c23 . in diglaid (<dígal) gl. ulciscenter, 62d3 . ind áirmith (<árim) ` numerically ,' Sg. 27a17 .

III Usage.

The article is always proclitic and is used before a substantive to express the definite character of that substantive unless this is already apparent either from the nature of the substantive itself, as in the case of proper names, or from some accompanying defining word or phrase, e.g. when the substantive is followed by a definite genitive, or preceded by a possessive adjective.

A Exx. of the ordinary use of def. art.: accaldam auctor ind recto `an address to the teachers of the Law,' Wb. 3c4 . risiu rocloammar in fogur `before we hear the sound,' Ml. 112b12 . intan labratar ind ḟilid `when the poets speak,' Sg. 162a3 . oc déscin na macraide, LU 4859. in trénfir ┐ ind láith gaile, 8104 . an cúigeadh cinéal, na mairtírigh, TSh. 4842. In: amal in scrissid .i. amal in n-altain n-áith `as a scraper i.e., as a sharp razor,' Ml. 72b8 , translate: as the scraper etc., regarding it as a type of instrument rather than a single instrument of its kind?

The article is used

(a) in the sense of each, every, also a single in such phrases as: ced fan fer, Stair Erc. 1471. 1532 . berad-sa anam a flaithess duit a n-agaidh an ruainde da fuil ad brat `for every thread in thy cloak,' BCC 358.14 . is assu duinni in fer cech laí andás a cét cach n-aidchi one man every day, LU 5622.

(b) sometimes with cách, when this is followed by a relative clause: ní lat in cách forsa mmitter `not thine is everyone on whom thou passest judgment,' Wb. 6b22 . úar in cách dodechaid úad, Trip.² 1198. congnamh lásan ccách nó chathaighfeadh dar cenn an chreidimh, AFM vi 2290.22 .

(c) with oen-, intensifying the idea of singleness: nabīd D. fut ind ṡamlāi oc breith na hēnbrethi `giving a single judgment,' ZCP xiii 179.1 . con-accai ni ... .i. in n-aenmnái for fertais in charpait, TBC-LL¹ 202. hespach do neoch a thríall acht dond oen ḟialluch, 415 .

(d) in speaking of two things (cf. Fr. l'un, Germ. der eine): focherded a líathróit ┐ focherded a loirg ... Níbo moo in band oldas a chéle one stroke was not greater than the other, LU 5006. timchillid a teach ón dorus colaile, RC xxiv 145.14 . dā ṡenrand ... dun rand díb ... don rund aile, Fianaig. 48 § 14 , § 15 .

(e) frequently, and particularly after verbs of seeing, before a noun which is logically indefinite to draw attention to it and to render the narrative more vivid (for an alternative explanation see GOI § 470 ): co facatar in tsentuinne they saw an old woman, Corm. Y 1059.43 . co n-acca ara chind in fer ┐ leth a chind fair, LU 4933. co n-aca Cú in n-ócben cuchi, 6082 . co n-acca in tech find, MacCongl. 67.12 . co n-accas na trí coícait ban co n-inaraib corcraib, TBFr. 258. rataiges in triar marcach dochom in tige, LU 6779. is and dosnarraid in fer máeldub, 6820 . doringni in mac bec in tres gním `eine dritte That,' TBC-LL¹ 1068. duscōtar īarum condusrulai isin mag n-ālaind co n-acatar an rīghrāith isin [maig], ZCP iii 459.18 . is iarum bert in Liath Macha na tri dergruathra, RC iii 181.36 .

(f) before nouns followed by the demonstratives so, sin, tall, ucut: in chrud sin, Wb. 13a6 . tarsin corp sin 15c16 . in teintide tall, ZCP v 25 § 7. isin tsalm tall, Ml. 58a11 . don mac so, BDD² 107. in tan sin, 130 . in triar ucut, 295 .

B The article is not usually used before

(a) personal names. In O. Ir. names of individuals take the article only when they are qualified by an adj. or a demonstrative, or when used as common nouns (e.g. á ṅIacob the name Jacob, Ml. 34d6 ): ol Duaid, Ml. 95d7 . mad la Cirine `according to Jerome,' 74d13 . ho Isaác, Wb. 4c7 . for érlam Patraic, Thes. ii 305.5 ; but: in Scip Emelendae gl. Emilianus Scipio Sg. 31a2 . in Caesar Octauienda gl. Octauianus Caesar, 31a3 . in Fiac sin, Thes. ii 307.3 . co tech in Dubthaig sin, ib. 9 . Exceptionally: Nabál sin slebi Carmil, SR 6307. In Mid. Ir. it is somet. used with anaphoric force: a n-Inis meic Uchen robai in Gartnan, Anecd. i 1.3 . in Cathal, MacCongl. 41.28 . iman Mormael, Ériu xii 190 § 23. do marbsad in tEochaid andsin, ZCP viii 274.13 . ba rí hi Temair in Fīachu Sraptine amal adrubrumar, 317.16 .

(b) place-names: i Corint, Wb. 14b5 . i nEgipt, Ml. 88a12 . téicht do Róim, Thes. ii 296.3 . co nōgaib Hérenn, 306.1 ; but: ind Róm fil hí Constantinopoil ... inna Rómae, Sg. 174a1 . In Mid. Ir. the article became more common particularly before a noun in the genitive, but the omission of the article was still much more frequent than its use: ind Eriu, LU 4042. íar sligi na Temrach, BDD² 131. do Themraig, 149 . fonaidm ṅgíall Temrach, 164 . sethnu na Hérind, 608 . i tír Hérend, 690 . i nOenuch na Crúachna, LU 2888. hi cathair Cruachna, 2886 . isin Taltin, 2894 . hi Taltin, 2896 . In Mod. Ir. some geographical names regularly take the article, e.g. an Fhrainnc, an Spáinn. Others sometimes take the article, but in the gen. only: Éire, i nÉirinn, tír na hÉireann. Alba, muinntear na hAlban; but cf. lucht cuarta Éireann, Dáil Éireann (Dinneen, s.v. Éire).

(c) names of peoples and patronymics: arindí atrebat Romáin and, Sg. 33a11 . atrebat Laitnóri and, 14 . di Romanaib, 33a10 . Romoldai, 31b4 . la Ebreu, Ml. 26c1 . di Iudéib, Wb. 27d4 . fri Saxanu, Críth G. 523. la hUltu, BDD² 977. do ríg Rómán, LU 6389 ; but: ind Romain, Sg. 31b5 . int Ṡabindai, 28a10 . forsna Egiptacdu, Ml. 96c11 . do choscc inna nIsrahélde, Wb. 5a16 . na nDéisi, Thes. ii 297.5 . in Galióin, LU 4656. co tríchait chét na nGalión, 4648 . The absence of the article would seem to be the earlier usage, cf. la Féniu (a phrase common throughout the law-tracts), Críth G. 125. chórus Féne, 588 .

(d) nouns that refer to things of which there is one only, or one outstanding example (these nouns approach in meaning to proper names): is samlid dano gniith demun, Wb. 21b2 . amal indocbáil dáe, 21a10 . as tualang deacht todiusgud Crist `the Godhead,' 13c15 . i tempul, 26a8 . hi fudumnaib talman, Ml. 40d16 . di chosecrad tabernacuil, 48b11 . gein maicc hua athair `the birth of the Son from the Father,' 85b11 . conapad firdía mac `that the Son should not be true God,' 21c12 . amal as toisegiu grián indáas laithe, 85b11 . o hescgu co grein, SR 113. o thosuch domuin, 517 . dochuaid diliu don domon, 2592 . co lluid trít co talmain, LU 5767. do diabul, PH 4889. nī dlig sāire ... i tūaith nā i n-eclais amongst the laity or in the church, Ériu i 218 § 2. roaithbeōaig Cairbri ō marbaib from the dead, ACL iii 225.v . Siuir agus Máigh ag gréin dá ngeimhliughadh, DDána 109 § 11. for fairgi, Corm. Y 1059.14 . fri tīr, ib. 15 . slánaigh le hóigh t'oileamhain `make good to the Virgin her nursing of Thee,' Aithd. D. 67 § 26.

Here belong the names of parts of the body: ho giun et ... hi cridiu, Wb. 5d14 . ind foisitiu i ngiun `the confession in the mouth,' 4d33 . a n-asberid hó bélib, 7d10 . a lleth o laim deiss `the half from the right hand,' Sg. 17b2 . risiu rocloammar in fogur hua chluasaib with the ears, Ml. 112b12 . anuas co imlind, LU 5780 ; but cf. intan citambí ind lám in terochraic, Ml. 36b1 . in geno gl. oris, 82c5 .

(e) a noun occurring in apposition to a proper name as a sobriquet: for Lomnae Drúth, BDD² 705. Suibne Geilt, Thes. ii 294.10 . for Tamun drúth, LU 6670. Cauland cerdd, 4975 . aided Redg cáinte, 5803 .

(f) the names of abstract ideas, virtues, vices, etc.; nachin rogba úall `that pride may not seize us,' Wb. 15d40 . is asse dúib maid do denum, 4a4 . inne maith ł uilcc, Sg. 39a32 . nephdenum neich di ulc fri nech dogní olc frit, Ml. 23c20 . dechair eter olcc is maith, SR 1255. erig, ... córu achāch duit mormenma, TBC-LL¹ 3978. ni rabi a samail ... ar maisse ┐ míne ┐ mórdacht, TTr. 621. ní fhuil nert agud gun techt lium, ZCP vi 48.12 . na ndenad (leg. denad) uaill na diumus, PH 4255. Exx. with the article are: ind huall gl. arrogantia, Ml. 51a11 . gl. elatio, 28a1 . frisin noibi ┐ in glaini, 98d2 . ised a nnert foirbthe imgabail cech huilc this is perfect virtue, 35d14 . immeradi a n-olc, 33d2 . a mundit[i]a .i. ōn gloine, Corm. Y 900. attach inísel ... tairnid in díumus `superbiam excludit,' PH 8035. sanntaiged in rig ... in fírinde, 4254 . ro coimnertaigiss an coir `thou hast strengthened justice,' Stair Erc. 429.

(g) a subst. followed by a definite genitive. (The article is used when the gen. is attributive rather than defining, e.g. á cenele ndoine, Wb. 5c16 . a llaa mbrithemnacte sin, 6b26 . forsa cenélae metir sin, Sg. 8a13 . in Briccriu Conaill Chernaig (name of a shield), BDD² 977. in Brug mna Elcmair, Ériu viii 175.9 . an Iodh Morainn, Keat. ii 3659. as an gCraoibh Dheirg Chonchubhair, ib. 3086 ).

The gen. is a proper name: ar iriss Crist, Wb. 25a10 . di doiri Babelon, Ml. 46b26 . ó Thuind Clidnai, BDD² 1087. la firu Hérenn, 123 ; or approaches in meaning to a proper name: precept soscéli, Wb. 1b10 . Exceptions are rare: in tṡlóig Herend, LU 4609. gol mo matharsa so ┐ na mban mBoine, TBFr. App. § 20 (= ... ┐ bantrochta Boínni, text).

The gen. is preceded by the def. art.: ar meinci inna indithme, Ml. 85d1 . ardlathi in betho, Wb. 1a3 . dar cenn ind Iudidi, 2a4 . tri hiris in cháich, 2b11 . fri bás inna clóen, Thes. ii 320.1 . for lorg in tslóig, LU 4782. lucht in baile, PH 49. In O. Ir. there are a great many exceptions to this rule but in Mid. Ir., comparatively few, and fewer still in Early Mod. Ir.: inna ndánae in spirito, Wb. 21c2 . in pian inna diglae, Ml. 28c19 . din chamull in diumsa, Tur. 60. in dluthe ind flechuid, Ml. 81c8 . in dán inna litredachte, Sg. 33a28 . an fír-thsochraidecht an bethadh suthain, Ir. Lit. 26.18 . leth in orba in athar, Laws iv 46.24 Comm. in prīm-cathraig mōrglain ... in dúnaid, MacCongl. 87.27 . an dara cuing an catha, Irish Texts ii 9 § 24. issind aurlaind in dúine, TBFr. 60. isin sinagoig moir na nEbraide, PH 48. na cuic cuicidh na hEirenn, ZCP xi 43 § 31. oc saigid na cána in domnaig, Ériu ii 208.15 . in mér medhon na láime clí, O'Gr. Cat. 270.29. in fer na tocla, TTebe 1601 . ingen in rig na nEberda, 4645 . In PH there are two cases where this rule does not apply (a) when the governing noun has a demonstrative suffix ¤sa or ¤sin, (b) when it is defined by an ordinal. Exx. (a) na scéla-sin in aingil, PH 2975. in rath-sa na n-ilberla, 5484 . cf. O. Ir.: don dlúim máir sin inna pecthach, Wb. 9d5 . in gnim sin in tengad, Ml. 31b24 . (b) in cetna mís na bliadna, PH 3516. isin tress uair ina óidche, 1490 . In TTebe, s.v. in , Calder notes that while a few instances of the double use of the article occur this is especially the case when the governed noun is followed by sin. The use of the double article when the governing noun is defined by an ordinal though very common is not invariable: cosin tres mac imlesan na hoensúla, BDD² 641. in treas rann sesgat ind uile, Laws ii 370.21 - 22 Comm. an tres gaisgedach na Tiabanda, TTebe 4879 ; but cf.: dorumalt Moisi ... | ann tresraind a aimsire, SR 3784. tres ṅdírime na tána, TBC-LL¹ 2656. i tres boin in brugad, Laws v 402.7 Comm.

The gen. is preceded by a possessive adj.: di foirbthetu for nirisse, Wb. 1a9 . lóg a pecthe, 1c3 . do thudidin do menman, 1c15 . do ind a oenláime, TBC-LL¹ 676. lín a teglaich, TBFr. 8. Exception: lasin flaith far mbretha ifos, SR 1215.

The gen. is defined by cech (Mid. Ir. cach), nach: du thuistin cech dulo, Ml. 85b16 . imfolang nach gnima, 80d2 . tri thesbaid naich baill, Sg. 5a5 . fo cosmailis nacha cat[h]rach, Hib. Min. 219. céol cach ḟir, LL 207a18 . cend cech ḟir díb, TBC-LL¹ 682. i tossuch cach dúnaid, 571 .

The gen. is defined by a further definite genitive: ó soilsi deachte Crist, Wb. 26a17 . irchre fla[tho] Román, 26a5 . co maithib fer nÉrenn, BDD² 1441. An exception is: dar fíartharsna in dunaid fer nÉrend, LU 6291.

C The article is optional before an ordinal adjective: isin chétne tuiste, Wb. 1a1 . cetnae accuis inso `this is the first cause,' Ml. 118d12 . co nómád n-aó `to the ninth generation,' Críth G. 327. cetna gnim gnisset, SR 4197. cethramad gnim, 4209 . (The omissions in SR are necessitated by the metre). Cf. in chethramad accuis, Ml. 118d18 . ón chétna duini, SR 7889. in tres gnim, 4205 . Cf. ll. 83 ff. col. 183 above.

D As a rule substantives defined by a relative sentence take the art. unless they are preceded by is é, conid é, is inunn, etc. (However, before words like airm, baile used adverbially the article is omitted: ría ríg Hérenn airm hi foí, BDD² 488. co ránic na díberga baili i rabatar, 647 . tancattar na hingena airm a mbói Hiruath, PH 905. bail hita a athair, 1380 ): dund óis nad chaithi cach tuari, Wb. 6c11 . a forcell doberam, 25d21 . isind huiliu labramar-ni, Ml. 31b23 (exceptionally: ra mbía ... carpat bas dech bess i n-Aii, LU 5587 ); but: is hé cruth inso áem no-s-messammar, Wb. 9c10 . is inunn chiall isindi as scit ┐ as nōuit , Ml. 114b1 . issí inne fil hi cechtar de, 114b1 . is he titul fil i ndreich ..., Hib. Min. 1. is é óencharpat insin nad foglentais dirmand na hecrada, LU 10177 - 8 . is tú láech as dech fil i nHerind, 5768 . is ed gen n-imarbága fil la firu Hérind, BDD² 1135. is é céadchrann tarla dhó, soileach, Keat. ii 2687. is é áit ar ghabhadar tír, i gCúan an Bhainbh, iii 5055 . is e recht ro buí isin Libia in n-inbuidh sin, Stair Erc. 1101. When the antecedent of the relative sentence is qualified by an ordinal the article sometimes occurs: fá hé Colum ... an céadduine do thógaibh mainistear i n-oiléan Í, Keat. iii 1344. ionnus gurab é an treas fear do chreid ..., ii 5372 . conidh e sin an cedcath do cuir Ercuil, Stair Erc. 966 ; but: gurab é C.C. céaddoctúir do chuaidh, Keat. iii 1347. is si sin cedmainistir caillech ndub ro buí isin Teib, Stair Erc. 890.

1 ocus, acus

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ocus, acus or dil.ie/33483
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: focus, facus, fogus, oicse, oicsi, oicsiu, foicsiu, foisgi, faisge

adj. and subst. u-st., Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 116 , Thurn. Hdb. § 838 ; cognate with prep. oc, cf. W. agos. In Wb. always ac(c)us. In Mid.Ir. commonly with prosthetic f, focus, facus, mod. fogus; ocus .i. focus, O'Dav. 1330. In forms in which the second vowel drops out before an inflection, the stem is treated as palatal: g s f. oicse, n p. oicsi; compar. oicsiu; foicsiu, TBC-LL¹ 3607 (but facsiu, 3699 ). In later lang. -cs-(-gs-) somet. > -sc- (-sg-) by metathesis: bean ḟagas (ḟogas), g s. na mná faigsi ┐ faisge, IGT Dec. § 127. compar. foisgi, ex. 1216 . faisge, ex. 1905 (but foigsi, 1906 ). See GOI § 373 and 1 nes(s)a.

I As adj. near , oft. folld. by DO.

(a) in local sense: écndairc cian . . . ecṅdairc ocus, Sg. 138a2 , 3 (gl. personae absenti vel quasi absenti; lit. absent near, i.e. though present regarded as absent). ho etartetarcur cián . . . ho etartetarcur ocus, Ml. 88d13 . Dia fírocus (i. quia est deus ubíque ┐ prope omnibus), LU 518 , 520 ( ACC 5 ). oicsi du imaechtur talman (gl. prope in ultimo terrae sitae), Ml. 78c2 . indat facsi don purt? are they near the shore? LU 1873 ( RC x 10.15 ). as fogus doibh ata dun na hingine, Ériu iii 166.6 . cricha ciana ┐ foicsi, Marco P. 28. a n-is dech foruair do ṡaeruibh faicsi ┐ nemhfhaicsi, 17 .

Of proximity in time, etc.: sechmadachta n-ocus ┐ cían (a preterite expressing a recent or a long past event), Thes. ii 229. 26 ( PCr. 62b1 ). ropo accus bás do, Wb. 23d12 . foccus doibh ecc is ifrionn, BNnÉ 261.26 . is fogus béul an amadáin d'aidhmhilleadh, Proverbs x 14. éagcóir comhmaoidheamh Chairbre; dob ḟogus duit a chairde `it was easy for you to leave him out', Content. ii 29. tabhair mar do radais reimhe | cabhair bhfagais eile ann `grant me ready protection', Dán Dé iii 22 . Compar. is foicsiu lind don ág in t-imrubad . . . andā dond (leg. ind) imburgun we deem spear-thrusting nearer slaughter (i.e. a decisive issue) than missile-hurling, TBC-LL¹ 3607. (with DE) combad ḟacsiti . . . na hairigthi bíd ┐ lenna doib, 400 . Superl. isan gcrích ba foicsi dhó, Keat. i 68.36 . an ceathram- hadh fear dob fhoigse don rígh the fourth nearest man to the king, ii 4821 .

As adv.: glassi . . . brunnid . . . facus d'Albine, Fianaig. 50.7 . cara sheasas ní is foigse ná dearbhráthair, Proverbs xviii 24. an t-úghdar is foigse thig don áireamh so who comes nearest this reckoning, Keat. i 88 y . an mend . . . nach leanann go fagas acht a bhfad, Luc. Fid. 337.20 .

(b) fig. of kinship, etc.: is acus a coibdelag near is their kinship, Wb. 9c32 . is ocus ar cundu close is our friendship, Fél. Ep. 230. ba focus a fhialus a ṅdís .i. Eoin ┐ Hiruath, PH 862 . is brathair focus dam-sa he a near kinsman, ZCP iv 383.11 . ni foigse Conn . . . d'aoinḟear oile ná d'Eoghan, TD 26.47 . ni faicsiu ar cairdeas dō inas in fer ro marb, Anecd. i 2.8 . an ḟuil as ḟoisgi d'ḟuil Muire, IGT Dec. ex. 1216. do chroidhe . . . fa aigse 'n-a fheoil is d'fhuil . . . dod bhráthair, Dán Dé xi 13.

II As subst. nearness, proximity ; only with prep. i n-, folld. by gen. or prep.: imb i céin fa i n-accus beo-sa whether I be far or near, Wb. 23b41 . i céin ocus acus, Fél. Ep. 110 (ocus, occus, a foccus v.l.). i focus, i céin, Ériu iii 14 § 6. i n-occus don dúnud, LU 5272 = ind ocus, TBC-LL¹ 796. hi cíanfocus on tig at a considerable distance from the house, BDD 67. is a ḟocus na hecalsa sin ata adnocul Lazarais, LB 158b56 . nat fetur ecc a facus that I know not that death is nigh, ZCP vii 498.18 . deiredh a bhethadh do beith ina fhoccus, BNnÉ 264.8 .

sáidid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. sáidid or dil.ie/35941

Forms: sáithid, sádaid, sáthaid, saidius, sádud

v i later freq. sáithid. Less freq. sádaid, sáthaid ā (cf. sáthud). See Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 605 . IGT Verbs § 71 .

(a) thrusts, fixes, implants ; common of pointed weapons: conoscaig in gae ┐ saidsi . . . hi talmain, Ml. 55c1 (= sāidis-i). sádid corthe tría medōn in drūith, TBC-I¹ 1409 = LU 5877 . sáidid . . . C. a bachaill isin lēna, BColm. 52.12 . sadais . . . ind snathaid . . . inda dernaind, Mon. Tall. 149.19 . i tóeb Néill . . . | sadis . . . sleig, Metr. Dinds. ii 36.16 . gabhais a thshleigh . . . ┐ saidhis triasan ingin, Cóir Anm. 41 (306.4) . sádis C. a chlaideb co ránic conici a elta trisin tech, MU² 888 . ra sháid a shleig i nÁne, LL 27b1 . nach airm . . . in rosaidi Medb echfleisc, LU 5824 = i rosāidi, TBC-I¹ 1352 = cach bail ro sháid, TBC-LL¹ 2046 . benaid gabail . . . cona claidiub ┐ saidsíus for medón na glassi , LU 4796 (3 s. pret. + pron.) = saidius, TBC-I¹ 305 . do sáidheadh crann . . . | i n-ucht an Dúilimh, Dán Dé iii 11 . deilg i gceann uain na hóighe | sáidhtear ar chóir choróine `thorns in form of a crown are thrust', xx 21 . ni mochen ocan cen ail | i saidhfithe in tshenfiacail, RC xvii 135.4 ( AFM i 178.4 ). sáithid na cleatha caorthainn tresna marbhaibh, Keat. i 204.29 . ra sháidsetar na nóe ṅdesṅdurnu fichet . . . ina chend, TBC-LL¹ 2957 . saidhis a trosdán isin carraic, Acall. 1325 . doshaith da spor isin sdét, ZCP vi 39.y . Fig. ro saith P. a menmain co hinnfeithmeach i nDia, D IV 2, 73va16 .

(b) fixes, plants, erects (freq. of tombstones): cladar a fert . . . sátir a lia, LU 5704 = sāitir, TBC-I¹ 1230 . sádis da lia déc leo i talmain, TBC-LL¹ 2912 . ro clai[d]ed a lia ┐ ro saithed a cairthi, Ériu viii 36.11 . ro sáitheadh a leacht, Keat. i 178.80 (poem). is Gaill ceta-rosāithset nó rosuidigset i nĒre (of boundary stones), Corm. Y 683 (p. 55) . in charruc triasar sáided croch Críst, LB 157b53 ( ZCP xvii 227.24 ). do saithedh cros onoruch san inadh a raibe Colum C., BCC 262 (266.18) . san bhláithigh . . . | sáithidh barr na sróna sís, IGT Decl. ex. 1389 . ro chlannustair (saighisder, v.l.) C. tri slata isin ionad sin, BNnÉ 293 § 13 . in ni ro saidestar a lam bodein . . . .i. d'arbor ┐ do roid, Laws v 500.23 Comm . gl. ro clanda, 13 . ra sáithit a mergedha la Cesair, CCath. 571 .

(c) pitches (a tent); erects, builds (a house, etc.): ro saided pupoll Pátraic isin inad sein, Trip.² 435 . feib ro shaidset-sum a pupla, CRR 20 . ro saitea na pupla immpa, LB 210a48 . saditer sosta . . . lind, TBC-LL¹ 804 . sáitter ar sosta and-so, CRR 23 . ro saittea a sosta, 24 . ra sádit a sosta, TBC-LL¹ 809 . is and ro sháidset . . . less ┐ machad dia n-almaib, 1594 . an port 'n-ar sháith Tuathal teagh, Aithd. D. 16.45 . teagh budh lia . . . | nár sáidheadh 's nach sáithfidhear, Studies 1924, 244 § 24 .

(d) with transference of obj. pierce : sáithfighear thríd é `shall be thrust through', Isaiah xiii 15 . an drong sháithfighear triotha, Jerem. li 4 . Of spurring a horse: doshaith in t-ech cum an draguin, ZCP vi 61.22 . do saith in t-ech arís ar E., Stair Erc. 2342 .

(e) intrans. with FOR (AR) sets upon, attacks : co fúicedh sibh gan rath | da sāiti orm, ZCP xiii 211.6 . a gilli . . . na sáith ar fer co n-imnedh, 227.4 . meic Senaigh ar nach sáidhfem, SG 146.22 = saighfem, Acall. 2354 . saithis [an chú] ar n-a hechaib d'a n-airlech, Celt. Rev. iv 116.20 . Note also: do saith sein co hainfethach inntib `attacked them', 202.19 . do saitedur in dias-sin a comdail a cheile, ZCP vi 88.23 (perh. spurred (their horses), see (d)). ? ná báidh ar do mórdhacht mí (me, v.l.) | sáid a ccórdacht ar cceirdi, IGT Abstr. Nouns ex. 1033 .

Part. d'armaib sāiti seasmacha `fixed', TTebe 1516 , cf. 2738 , 990 . gath teinntigh[e] . . . sáite in gach súil d'a súilibh, ZCP iv 418.z .

Vn. sádud.

taeb

Cite this: eDIL s.v. taeb or dil.ie/39454
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: tóib, tōib, tóeb, tóib, toib, tóeb, tuib, taib, taoibh, thóib, thóeb, thoib, táib, tóebu, tóebaib, toeibi, taoíbhe, táib, taib, táeib, taoib, tháib, tháobha, taíbe, toibe, taoibhe, tōeba, taeba(dh), taobha, thaobha, taepa, taobha, taoibh, taoibh, taobha

n o, m., later also ā, f. and u, m. As o, m. n s. tóib, Wb. 21c6 . tōib, Bruchst. i 37 § 89 . tóeb, LU 3401 . a s. tóib, Wb. 15b2 . toib, Ml. 131c12 . tóeb, LU 3356 . g s. tuib, Thes. ii 254.4 . taib, PH 271 . taoibh, A. Ó Dálaigh viii 5. d s. thóib, Wb. 20d13 . thóeb, LU 8341 . n du. thoib, Ml. 67d14 . n p. táib, TTr. 1715 . a p. tóebu, SR 6162 . Fél. Ep. 324 . d p. tóebaib, TBFr. 40.

As ā, f. g s. toeibi, RC vii 363.34 . taoíbhe, ALC i 6 note . a d s. táib, KMMisc. 266.2 . taib, LU 3446 . táeib, PH 4426 . taoib, CS 124 note 2 . a du. tháib, IT i 68.6 . n p. tháobha, Ezekiel xlviii 1 . IGT Decl. § 39 . The g s. taíbe occurs also as masc.: isind achsaill toibe deiss I., LB 251a68 = Ir. Eccles. Rec. ii (1865) 176.8 . an taoibhe , AFM v 1636.z . Content. xiii 34 . Hence noted as [s], n. in Wi, PH, etc.

As u, m. g s. tōeba, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 17 § 4 . taeba(dh), Laws iv 74.22 Comm. an taobha , IGT Decl. ex. 979 . A. Ó Dálaigh xxx 14. IGT Decl. § 38.

Note also d s. thaobha, Content. xiii 9 . taepa, Fl. Earls 164.19 . 172.33 . Perh. infl. by the phrase gacha taobha (adverbial g s.).

I side in concrete sense.

(a) Opposed to airchend end (of field, etc.): congaibther tóib et airchinn and `side and front are held together in him' (corner-stone), Wb. 21c6 . ar congaibsom toíb ┐ erchinn issuidiu, Ml. 131c12 . fer i taib (.i. in fata) no [in] airceand (.i. ín gairit), Laws iv 120.y .

(b) side of human, animal's body: síc rundgabsat ar ṅda thoib du ditin ar n-inmedonachni, Ml. 67d14 . fosceirdside issa tír súas in slig, ┐ a mmíl inna tháeb, TBFr. 236 , `while the monster held on to his side,' Études Celt. ii 8 . comben a chend den míl co mbaí fora thóeb, TBFr. 241 . dobert brat fa a taob, Mon. Tall., 155.9 . ní thabair a th.¤ re lár does not lie down, SG 172.6 . Adam ... iar tepe Eua as a thoeb, PH 3428 . cech taebh dom thaobaib gelaib | bid tana o daolaibh dubae, ACL iii 216.18 . d'fertuis do taebh seda seng, IGT Decl. ex. 548 . In n. pr. Fastaib mac Lonlongen, MacCongl. 77.21 . Of Christ's side: geguin ... tóeb án álaind Íssu, Fél. Oct. 23 . goin an taoibh, A. Ó Dálaigh viii 5. side of face, cheek: áille táobh nglan do ghrúaidhe, IGT Decl. ex. 1066.

(c) Hence by metonymy the human body, form: a toeb seng seta sidhamach, IT i 120.4 . inat mo thaeibh isin indsi-sea, Lism. L. 2438 . is tretholl do thaebh, TTebe 3599 . ceilt gach taoibh leabhair fa lic, Dán Dé xxv 13.

(d) Of hills, etc.: toéb Tailltenchláir, Ériu iv 98.7 . buinne milis a táobh tolcha, Studies 1919, 75 § 18 . Of a territory: im thaebaib Totham, SR 3104 . im tháebaib an talman da gach leth, RC xxiv 373.23 . is íad so a tháobha soir ┐ síar, Ezekiel xlviii 1 . Of a building: a t.¤ ind lis, TBC-LL¹ p. 673 . ar taebh in dunaidh, Stair Erc. 1167 . go taobh an tighe neamhdha, Dán Dé vi 6 . Of a vessel: a dorus assa firthoeb (of Ark), SR 2468 . im stuagach .i. cilorn .i. bis ┐ an stuag as a taib, Laws i 134.4 Comm. mar théid clár a taoibh thunna, Studies 1924, 89 § 30 . page (of book): isin scribtuir ... cia beth do thoib inti ... asa ṅgabtha nuimir, Rawl. 75a49 . cíall fhíre na taoibhe daille-so `of this obscure page,' ALC i 6 n. .

Various: i tóeb na gabla, LU 4808 . scéith ... co n-esnadaibh ... iarna tóebaib, TBFr. 40 . fa thaobh leice | do loighis, Dán Dé xvi 22 . ní bhearrfuid táobh a bhféasog, Levit. xxi 5.

Attrib. g s.: ar na sleasaibh taoibh `the side walls,' TD 11.17 . éadach taoibh ` shroud ,' A. Ó Dálaigh xli 9.

II In certain more abstract senses.

(a) side in a dispute argument, fight, etc.: cid he in cu risi ndechaid taib `the dog which he went to help,' Laws iii 196.12 . isin dreim sin ris i ndecha taebh the party whose side he takes, Eg. 88 fo. 29 ( O'Curry 2377.20 , 21 ). bí ar mo thaobh a Thríonóid, A. Ó Dálaigh iv 7 . feall taoibhe an untrustworthy companion, DDána 55.6 . an rí go n-a shluagh do thaoibh ┐ Guaire ... don leith oile, Keat. iii 927.

(b) direction, part, region: tighearna an taoibhe thoir do Cloinn Choiléín eastern part of, AFM v 1636.z . fo tháeb in talman an-des, RC xxiv 373.1 . d'ionnlach an taoibhe theas `the South ,' Content. xiii 34 . ós tú tóir an taoibhe `since Thou art the stay of Thy people,' A. Ó Dálaigh iv 7. do teilgeadh don t.¤ oile ... lucht oileamhna an iomarbhais were cast out (i.e. of heaven into hell), PBocht 16. 2 , see note. gidh bé taobh a niompoighionn, Proverbs xvii 8 .

(c) fine taíb, see taebfine.

(d) side, branch of family , see V (d) ii infra.

III trust, reliance, confidence (fri, later la in).

(a) ba hédána leis t.¤ fri Ciarán, SG 52.14 . toeb fri bennachtain `faith in a blessing,' Ériu vii 154.7 = ZCP iii 26.11 . ba t.¤ re tollairbe do thigearna t.¤ re ferglonnaib bar firlaech-si `trusting to a broken fence,' MR 126.9 ; cf. ZCP viii 203.15 , Content. viii 19 . taobh re guidhe fhir eile, Dán Dé vii 29 . ? To this: t'olc a dhuine as deaghtháobha | da ccuire ort aithmhéla, IGT Decl. ex. 1045.

(b) In phr. do-beir t.¤ fri trusts, confides in: fri corpthadid ... doberat iudei tóib, Wb. 15b2 . ní ní i n-Erind áin | risi tabraim thoéb, LU 9968 . on uaimh risa tartais taob, Anecd. ii 37 § 3 . tabhraidh taobh re sruith-nert, BNnÉ 308.6 . ZCP x 43.8 . do-beir t.¤ do x fri y entrusts x to y: suil do beradh taobh da bhaidh | le drochbreithir nD., Cog. 88.24 . riom-sa as mó dobheir Dia taobh | don naoidhin, BNnÉ 132.17 . But: tugsat taobh re Laighnibh a g-coigeadh féin dia n-eis `confided to the keeping of the Leinstermen,' ML 60.12 . With other verbs: leigim táobh riot mhuile dhochas, Parrth. Anma 294.11 . taebh leis rolamhusan, ZCP viii 206.19 . nocha raghaind [si] re taobh I would not rely on them, x 30.29 . urusa teacht ar a thaobh, ` trust in (?)' A. Ó Dálaigh xxxiii 2. In the follg. exx. the sense may be the same, though various translations are given by editors: contardad tōeb fri muir `keeping along the sea,' Fianaig. 36.6 . ni rolam táeib ríu, acht tánic cách díb sech a chéile ` accost ,' TTr.² 454 . ni tucsad na mic righ Laighnecha taobh fris in nGiúsdís `did not side with,' ALC i 384.20 . is fri senchus ... dobeir int airecht t.¤ concerns itself with (?), ZCP xii 359.21 (cf. taebairecht). (?) o robtar anffuirithe do bertsat taobh friú acc airisiumh fri a n-orducchadh `turned aside from them,' AFM vi 2284.7 . tōeb frisin cocad núa | ni ḟulaing in senrūa ` awaiting ,' RC xiii 397.5 . ar ndul duit i gcré ... ní thiobhrainn riot taobh I would not lie with thee (?), DDána 8.9 .

(c) tae(i)b fri with adjectival force relying on, dependent on, hence having no other ... but (perh. orig. dat. of accompaniment): t.¤ re lēgenn cretrai is chīn, ACL iii 306 § 11 . go mbiodh féin taobh riu mar bheathadh depending on them for food, BNnÉ 165.34 . níor bho lór leis na tréinfhearaibh a bheith taobh ris na háládhuibh sin to have only those wounds, ML 88.11 . taobh re freagra ar labhradh leam | níor anais `you were not satisfied with answering what I said,' Content. viii 9 . nach taoibh ris an aon-bhás gcorpardha bhíd exposed not merely to the death of the body, TSh. 3851 . taoibh riú do thuarastal they have no other reward than these, 10128 . ná bí táobh ré do thuigsi féin `lean not unto thine own understanding,' Proverbs iii 5.

IV In various adverbial phrases:

(a) With following adverb anís, anuas, etc.: ┐ a leburbarc in t.¤ anís ┐ forran na tonn anuas from below, Aen. 246 . ó thá seanT. taobh thall, TD 17.14 . madh glan an corp don taoibh thall, Dán Dé xxvii 31 . taobh a sdigh, Donlevy xii 8.

(b) With cech on each, every side , in g s. or governed by preposition: ag amharc uaim gacha taobha , Feis Tighe Chonáin 1184 . do bhris hi gacha taebha, ITS xix 26.24 . do cach taibh ┐ do cach leth, TTebe 3619 (cf. 3773 ). dá bhféachadh neach ar gach taobh, Content. v 17.

(c) ón taíb co araile from one side to the other , Sc.M² 3.5 . cur-ua taobhtholl treghdai an (leg. ón ?) toebh co 'raill andsin P. through and through , TTebe 3824 .

(d) t.¤ fri t.¤ side by side, adjoining each other, together: atát ... a da fert táib fri táib and sin béus, LL 12b34 . toeb fri toeb is Muir Romuir on either side of M.R., Rawl. 78a9 . do druidsed na het(h)aidi ... t.¤ re t.¤ ... fīarut Érend, ZCP v 22 § 12 . call is abhall taobh re taobh, Dán Dé ix 24 . taobh ar taobh, PBocht 1.4 .

(e) d'aent.¤

(i) together, united: is d'oén(oén)taib bátar ind fir se hi cend Ulad, LU 3446 . dochuiretar sút a comuirli dēntáib chugat-sa, Fianaig. 84.17 . dom breith d'éantaoibh da thigh thuas `Who brings me with Him,' A. Ó Dálaigh xxxii 3 .

(ii) simultaneously: díth dá marcraidh mac úi Chaoimh | díth da nollamnaib d'aontaoibh, O'Gr. Cat. 444.8. gidh a nen taib doniter an toirneach ┐ an teinnteach, Ir. Astr. Tr. 154.9 .

(f) do th.¤ aside, laterally: romarb D. in dreim caém | iar comrac dáib and do thaeibh, LL 153b28 . cumal dire dibh do derbhbrathair, do taoibh `to a brother, collaterally,' Laws iv 258.19 Comm. sceinm do cul no do thaeib rebounding backwards or sideways (of a flail), v 158.10 , 12 Comm. , cf. iii 180.10 . dá mbeidís dá chonnsuine édtroma do tháoibh side by side , IGT Introd. 9.18 .

V In prepositional phrases.

(a) Without preposition or adverb: bíd measardha taoibh bídh ┐ díghe as regards , Corp. Astron. 70.17 , cf. 96.2 . taoibh na gcáilidheachta do-beir na comarthaidhe so do na créatúiribh on account of , 122.13 .

(b) With foll. adv. and prep. (a prep. frequently precedes as well): a fiacla ... don toéb muigh da mórchend outside , Fianaig. 64.15 . taobh astigh do se bliadhnuibh deug under twelve years of age, MS. Mat. 578.46 . don taobh eile d'Oirghiallaibh, TD 13.17 . do'n táibh tuas dinn above us, O'Gr. Cat. 291.38. taobh istigh dhe sin, TSh. 8958 . taobh astoigh dā gach nduine, Celtica iv 119 § 31 . ataid don taobh amuigh don Eaglais, Parrth. Anma 109.2 . Cf. taobh amuigh go n-admhamaoid ar gcreideamh, foillsighmíd · gurab criosdaidhedha sinn not only do we admit our faith, but we show, etc., 51.1 . don taibh amuich do peacadh marbta `a moins de pècher mortellement,' Études Celt. ii 290.7 .

(c) With preceding and following prep.: da gach thaib dib, TTebe 2226 . anaidh ann so ... d'entaibh rinne along with us, KMMisc. 319.2 . 's an ógh don taobh oile uaim, PBocht 18.5 .

With preceding preposition and following genitive or preceding possessive.

(d) With de (in some cases possibly do ?)

(i) beside, on one side of: a n-inad diamair ... do taibh in muighi, TTebe 3836 . do thoeb ele in ádnacthi, PH 2968 . a Tuillsci do t[h]aobh C[h]ruachan, ML² 2054 . anadh dá dtaobh let Him stay beside them, PBocht 3.24 . Cf. ní fachaidh sē ēnni do thaebh in tíre acht slūaigh armtha `over all the land,' ZCP vi 45.23 . méala ag teacht dá dtaobh `from them,' Aithd. D. 52.5 .

(ii) in regard to, with respect to, concerning (cf. is a himut t.¤ as dochar hē `in many respects it is injurious, Marco P. 24 ): do t.¤ na ngras n-imarcach tucc se do, BCC 378.29 . na tindlaicthe roarda do t.¤ an t-shaegail `too great endowments as regards the world,' 2.18 . pian trom do thaobh fhuachta torture by cold, DDána 32.33 . do thaobh toile willingly , 40.29 . an deithbhir atá idir na húghdaraibh seo do thaoibh an fhocail seo, Keat. i 102.93 . cuid don bheagán breise féin | do ghéabhthaoi libh do thaobh Néill `which you might find N. to have,' Content. v 118 . With reference to descent from one side or another of the family: do shliocht Eachdhach ... dó do thaoibh a athar on the father's side, Mart. Don. 260.4 . do thaoibh ban is dar mbunadh | Tomás Iarla Urmhumhan `on the female side,' Content. xxix 33 . don taobh 'n-ar dhuine an Dúileamh, DDána 23.4 .

(iii) on account of, as a result of: do thaobh a mbrathairsi re aroile, AFM iii 634.12 . do thaob tnútha `from jealousy,' Content. vi 77 . is mór da thaoibh t'oirbhire `great contempt hast thou therefor,' Ir. Monthly 1919, 344 § 72 . gibé thí do thaobh t'eachtra `whatever comes of thy venture,' Studies 1921, 74 § 10 . gach ní órduigheas an eagluis da th.¤ sin `for that purpose,' Donlevy 314.12 .

(iv) from, having regard to: cobhair dá taobh sireadh sé `let him ask help of her,' Studies 1927, 439 § 21 . tig do thaobh na hannsachta | a bhreath broide `from very love,' PBocht 11.1 . mar is follus do thaoibh Elias, TSh. 8433 . tuigthe do thaobh an tsoisgéil ... go mbia, PBocht 14.1 .

(v) do thaoibh Eibhir ... tarla an t-oirfideach `to E. fell the musician,' Studies 1920, 98 § 6 . díon cháigh is dá taobh tarla `the world's salvation is with her,' 1932, 242 § 3 .

(e) With fri (ré, la).

(i) beside, near: bróenán fola ... la toeb crand, LU 3839 . fri toeb in chuirp, PH 811 . le taobh an roid near the highway, BNnÉ 253.13 . ri for bith fria thaebh `any king on his frontiers,' Marco P. 127 . núall ri táeb reilcci, ZCP v 496 § 4 = Measgra D. 42 § 4.

(ii) along, by the side of: tancatar na sluaig fri t.¤ na Glassi , TBC-LL¹ 1582 . snidig banna la t.¤ na columna, PH 6356 - 61 . roelus mo enur uaithib re t.¤ in mara (`to the sea'), TTebe 2054 .

(iii) as well as, in addition to, besides: ré taoibh a bhiata (sic leg.) don t-sluagh, TBC-LL¹ 6114 . cuic seoit re taob sin, Laws i 104.13 Comm. la taobh gacha maithesa oile, AFM i 534.8 . re t.¤ conad greit rig is brathair bailcc duinne in addition to being, Fél.² ciii 32.

(iv) in comparison with, compared with: clú maithesa ní mhaídh neach | re taíbh maithesa Muimhnech, IGT Decl. ex. 1007 . ré thaoibh gá mo míorbhuile `what greater miracle is there than that?' Dán Dé vi 41 .

(v) with respect to: in cutruma ro hícfaitsim re t.¤ sin amach `in respect of it,' Laws iii 160.14 . cóir do ghabh Torna ré dtaoibh | do seacht gceathrair `T. took the right course in reference to your twenty-eight kings,' Content. iv 44.

(vi) tucus ri toeb crīche cia hēraic bad mó `I left it to the choice of the territory which eric would be greater,' PRIA iii 3rd ser. 552 § 43 ( LL 147a50 ). ? narap dál bas sía | ra táib dia dénaid, SG 377.6 (= RC xiii 76.6 `let there be no agreement more lasting than that which ye make'). la tóeb na llā lān-garit `throughout the all too short days' ( in anticipation of ?), Ériu vii 2.8 . maircc don fhine téid re a thaoibh `woe to the sept that sides with him,' ZCP x 32.10 .

(f) With i n-.

(i) beside, near: cocairse cach ae dib hi taíb alaile, LU 8601 (FB) `the harmonious adjustments of each of them beside the other,' ZCP iii 419 . bruigen F.M. a taebh Luscai, Sc.M² R § 1.12 .

(ii) as regards, with respect to: atcūalaidh ... beccān do brīathraib slānaighibh 'na thaibh-siumh `as regarded him,' RC xxv 394.11 . a los tnútha i dtaoibh eagnaigh `your jealousy of him as a sage,' Content. x 25 . re bhfuil im thaobh `of all my conduct,' PBocht 1.25 . i dtaobh ar seinchion as a result of , Aithd. D. 66.19 . bheith san guasacht a mbātor a ttaep se(ac)hrāin ┐ aineōluis ┐ teirce dighe, Fl. Earls 10.31 .

(iii) cuir mo mheanma i dtaoibh [do] thoile `set my mind upon thy love,' A. Ó Dálaigh xvii 3 ( O'Gr. Cat. 539.11 ). féagh libh an dtuilltir na taobh `see if ye merit at her hands,' A. Ó Dálaigh iii 1. a d'taobh me fhágbáil cómh fada a b-péinn, Oss. vi 96.12 .

(g) With imm (fo): fo taob mic foesaim in favour of (?), Laws ii 282.16 Comm. feran eclasa, cid fo taobh tuaithe, cid fo taob ecalsa in respect of (?), v 316.3 Comm. (cf. ii 30.23 Comm. ). firtuiges he fo t.¤ anfine o flaith eachtrand `on the side of an extern,' v 462.15 Comm. fam thaobh is tráth síodha `'tis time for peace with me,' A. Ó Dálaigh iv 1.

(h) With ó: ó dhá thaoibh nó a trí `on more than one account,' Aithd. D. 100.9 .

(i) With tri: is tria n-a táib tucsat na claidib in Furbaide on account of her (?), LL 125a3 .

Compds.

(a) With nouns. ¤ammus flank attack: ga ttacmaing ┐ ga ttimchealladh ... gá ttaobhammus (sic leg.), AFM vi 2056.26 . ? ¤chomach: denam a forgneama iter tigib ┐ t. ` out-houses ,' Hy Maine 90.12 . ¤druimm side of the back: claideb ... iarna th., TBC-LL¹ 5389 = iarna formnai, TBC-I¹ 3287 . ¤gael: an taobh-ghaol thall do thiormuigh `His heart-love,' Ir. Monthly 1928, 439 § 20 . ¤glaine purity of body: tāebgloine an tālgadha, ZCP viii 200.21 . ¤imell border, boundary: dar taeb-imlib in betha, MR 112.14 . ¤léim jumping aside: an inmhe is each fíorchaillteach | ní haoinreim dha heurma soin | taoibhléim deunmha 'na deaghaidh, L. Cl. A. B. 172.8 . ¤ler: a th. nach te `ruffled surface' (of a lake), Metr. Dinds. iii 378.19 . ¤lerg sloping side: fo tarrib t. tuignech, Auraic. 5152 . ¤letrad hacking the side, body: na cailleacha ... 'ga thaebhledragh, Ériu iii 166.21 . ¤lot wounding the side, body: ag toghail troch 'gá dtaobhlot, TSh. 6633 . Of bad weather injuring a horse, 2562 . Of a boat, 734 . a tír uile agá taoblot, Caithr. Thoirdh. 10.9 . ¤lomradh shearing, devastating: tír T. do taobhlomrad, Caithr. Thoirdh. 17.3 . ¤rád: gan taobrádh ag duine ar a degheinech `no man sought with sidelong hints to fleck his honour,' Caithr. Thoirdh. 31.31 . ¤rigne sluggishness: an t-each ... dá mbeith ... taoibhrighne innte, TSh. 10668 . ¤shnám swimming on the side: ic culshnámh ┐ ic t. ┐ ic traigirsnám, Acall. 3212 , cf. 3785 . ? ¤tidrone: la t. Cormaic `um C. zu verspotten (?),' ZCP xiii 254.11 . ¤thomus side measurement: tri athcomairc cech doruis | cain glanthogairt toebtomuis, SR 462 . ¤thrácht: do toeb-tracht in tened hearth (?), BDD 155.10 . ¤thurtaid: culturtaid ┐ t. ... in aith ` side-striking ,' Laws iii 224.1 . ¤ucht breast: ar tonnaibh an taobhochta, Studies 1932, 433 § 5 .

Other nominal compds. treated separately.

(b) With adjj. ¤adbal huge-sided, spacious: do threb thóeb-adbal, Metr. Dinds. iii 350.44 . drong tóeb-adbal, SR 8253 . ¤álaind fair-sided: conice in tulaigh taebalaind, Acall. 2803 note . fúathróc ... thaebalaind, TTr. 1541 . ¤balc strong-sided: a fhir ... | cosa thathig tond taebalc, LL 211b44 (but see Metr. Dinds. iii 426.2 s.v. taet). ¤chirrthe having the body hacked, wounded: ba tren talchar taebchirrthi rocuired in chuibleng sin, Aen. 2015 . tren-fhir thaeb-chirrthi, MR 238.24 . ¤chorr: tolcha taobhchorra ` smooth-sided ,' Studies 1920, 568 § 20 . ¤chúrtha wounded in the side: tesgtha taobhchurtha, Comp. CC 126.21 . ¤daingen firm-sided: eathar ... taobh-dhaingean, TD 7.37 . ¤dána lit. bold-sided: na secht nime ... gebaid tene toebdana | otha thurcbail co fuined, SR 8263 . ¤dein pure-sided: greni fri turcbail toebdein, SR 4434 . ¤derg red-sided: ar n-a loscud o na haithindib taeb-derga, TTebe 3146 . ar thindib taeb-derga ... tellaig, MR 238.8 . ¤díllid (?): mar táid na litre 'na línibh | 'na sráid thilte thaoibh-dhíllidh, Ériu v 58.100 . ¤donn brown-sided: na mbeann dtaobhdhonn, TD 28.22 . ¤dorcha dark-sided: is tiugha taebdorchai tonna srotha Ismen, TTebe 3602 . ¤étrocht bright-sided: barruachtar a tonn tulgorm taebedrucht, CCath. 870 . ¤fota long-sided, tall (of persons): maccán Eithne tóebfhotta, Trip. 150.12 = Three Hom. 98.30 . toebfota Temrach long-sided one of Tara (Niall Nóigiallach), RC xxiv 192.6 . ¤ḟrémach: tamhan ... taeb[ḟ]remach widely rooting, MR 98.13 . ¤gel white-sided, bright-sided, fair in form: a Dauid toebgil, SR 6366 . a theglach toebgel, 7594 . rith find fris' tóibgel tondat, Imr. Brain 4 . acc brisedh tor ttaobhgheal ┐ caislén ccomdaingen, AFM v 1658.27 . ¤gerrtha hacked: ina ttamhnaibh taoibhgherrtha, AFM v 1758.15 . ¤glan pure-sided, fair-sided: Temuir thōibglan, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 20.7 . for tractaib taeb-glanna, TTr. 1146 . tonda ... taebglana, TTebe 3532 . os ferlannaib ... in prephir taeb-glain, MR 112.11 . ¤glas green-sided: dar rian re[i]dmas tond dian t., Anecd. i 68 § 159 . ort a t. a tulach, Acall. 739 n. . ¤gorm blue-sided: asa truaill taebguirm, TTebe 974 . ¤grind: tech mór fo thalmain t., Metr. Dinds. iii 246.68 v.l. (-tirim text). ¤lán pregnant: ocus si thaeb-lan torrach, Metr. Dinds. ii 74.50 . ¤lasamain, ¤lasamna side-flaming: teni taidlech taeb-lasamna, TTebe 2221 . na tenti t., 2256 . ¤lebar slender-sided: am égni tháeib-leaphur, Anecd. i 28 § 26. torc taeibhleabar, Acall. 1555 . ¤lethan broad-sided: don chrích ... thaoibhleathain, TD 26.18 . ¤nembán: gnúis taoibhneambán rosy-cheeked , TD 28.26 . ¤nocht bare-sided, naked: cia beo i ngortai, ciam toebnocht, SR 1540 . atai co truag ┐ co t., MacCarthy 62.15 . uair nocho n-aenlocht cen on | is taebhnocht i trefocul, Auraic. 2078 . ¤nuaide fresh, young: dá dhreich thaobhnuaidhe, DDána 109.16 . a cuaine taobhnaoidhe tais, Ó Bruad. iii 54.11 . ¤réid smooth-sided: a Teamraigh taoibhréidh, Ériu viii 85.101 . ¤rigin sluggish, slothful: da raibhe taoibh-righin i saothrughadh na subháilceadh, TSh. 10671 . ¤ruad red-sided: Eó Tortan táeb-rúad, Metr. Dinds. iv 242.28 . ¤scaílte having wounded sides: comdaís taebh-scaílti ... colla na curadh ` side-gaping ,' MR 302.23 . ¤sheng slender-sided: dia treib toeb[sh]ing, LL 7b2 . múr gainmech fo thuind tóeb-sheiṅg, Metr. Dinds. ii 46.6 . Tadhg taoibhsheng, ZCP viii 221.6 . Of land: tír táebsheng, FDG² 21.658 . ¤shlemain smooth-sided: tarbh ... taeipslemain, CCath. 4788 . do tighibh taeibhshlemhnu, 5823 . ¤shnoighthe lopped (?): coill o a tortaibh taobsnoighthe, ZCP ii 349.4 . ¤sholus bright-sided: dom triath talchur táob-ṡolus, LL 385b14 . dá drong dég ... ar in treib tolgmóir taebsoluis, SG 249.15 . ? ¤taisean: o ri Temrach t., BB 281a41 (cf. Leb. Cert. 254 ). ¤thana thin-sided, slender-sided: co n-immud tond tóebthana, Metr. Dinds. iii 262.38 . edach t., Leb. Cert. 250.14 . ¤thescaigthe side-cut, having the sides wounded: gur ba taebhtheascaighi treoin da treas, CF 554 . ¤thirim dry-sided, dry-sloped: la ri Temrach taebthirma, BB 46b24 . co mbidis na d-taiseandaibh tartaighe taeb-thiorma, MR 102.5 . ¤tholl having perforated, wounded sides , IT ii1 183.235 . curua taobhtholl treghdai, TTebe 3824 . ¤threbraid having plaited (?) sides: do thimsugad luirech ... t., MR 224.8 . ¤throm heavy-sided, stout: in talum taebthromm, KMMisc. 158.140 . re torcaibh taebhtroma, Acall. 915 . Treblann taebhtrom stately (?), ZCP xiii 174.4 . Stair Erc. 510 . Of women pregnant: fúair a bhean taebhtrom torrach, Imr. Brain (Comp. Mong.) 61.3 . ZCP xiii 197.7 . ¤uaine green-sided, —sloped: arin muir torthaig taebúaine, Acall. 6260 . ilar tonn taebhuaine, CCath. 308 . do tolcha t., IT ii2 127.143 . ¤uar cold-sloped: a tulchaib taebuara T., TTebe 2656 . Tlachtga togha nar thaeb-fhuar `not chill was her bosom,' Metr. Dinds. iv 186.18 = ZCP xiv 159.14 .

toirm, tairm

Cite this: eDIL s.v. toirm, tairm or dil.ie/41256
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: tarm, torm, torma, torme, toirm, tairm, ttairmcriotnughadh

n i, f. (Earlier torm, tarm, u, n.: torm ndil, SR 7821 . g s. torma, torme (sic leg. with MSS.), Immrama 88 § 28 , 90 § 46 .) toirm tairm, IGT Decl. § 14 (p. 69.4) .

I

(a) sound: co cloisind torm na tond tana | forsna cairrge, ZCP v 496 § 4 . sephain cogrinn ceol (sic leg.) ṅglain ṅgil, | bái a th.¤ dind fo secht nimib, SR 2160 . golaīs íarom, ba torm diartain, Immrama 62 § 75 . binnither t.¤ tét n-umi, Ériu iv 96.3 .

(b) noise, tumult, trampling: is and sin bias tairm adbul ... na n-anmand nglan ic céimnigud for deis a rrig, LU 2464 . metighter tairm tuinni treni i n-aimsir robarta ... seselbe na sochaidhe, TBC-LL¹ 5610 . tairm ocus glor na sochaide do cloistin, Laws iii 202.7 Comm. co t.¤ rig ┐ co seisselbe sochaide, RC xxi 154.8 . adbal gáir | la t.¤ teglaig co tromgráin, TFerbe 908 . ni torm teglaig domeso, Anecd. i 14.11 . ba trombalc a tairm, Todd Nenn. 142.4 . fá lán talamh dhá thairm agas dhá threathan, ML 94.13 . as mór tra an t.¤ ┐ an fothrom baoi eturra, TFrag. 190.x . gabtar cassa na n-each ann sinn ... bátar gan tsegh gan tairm tra, SG 26.20 . le tairm ngreagh srianbhuidhe seang, TD 8.6 . tairm na néal, foghar na n-uile ainmhidhe, Studies 1932, 142 § 17 . t.¤ gan treise, O'Gr. Cat. 556.16. Hence shock (?): sceinnis a chridi ... immar th.¤ tuinne trethan-glassi ra tír, CRR 12.17 . ni thainic riam tairm catha bud mó inas in cith dluithsnechta ro fear ann, RC xxiii 418.5 .

II report, fame: is glae thegdais, tórm rochlos, Thes. ii 292.17 . hi sídfhlaith ind altair | i mbí t.¤ cech thempuil, Fél. May 10 . t.¤ .i. molad, O'Dav. 1575. is éol dam ainm cach fir eím | a blad a thairm im thig thíar, LL 32a47 . oenmac mná, ba t.¤ truagi, | ba marb do bidc oenúaire, SR 7169 . fogur tuinni t.¤ Noisi | ba ceol bind a bithchlóisi, IT i 78.25 . a thairm ┐ a clu, CCath. 333 . lan da tairm Teamhair Mide, Celtic Scotland iii 454 19 . ainm uathi for tuind na tarma | dia sluind co calma iar n-a crad, RC xlvii 293.5 . ba t.¤ troch riana thrágud, Metr. Dinds. iii 412.31 . ní súail in tairm in tescul | ó fúair gairm is glan-gestul, 348.19 . desin atá, ni tairm tó | senchas Locha Léin iar ló, 264.49 . Fúat mac Bregoin ... | ba t.¤ dar tíre treboind, iv 164.34 . ail forsn-dessid a thairm tricc | rolen a ainm in aird-licc, 224.35 . mór tairm na bláithe buige | binn fogar na caemchruite, SG 108.25 . teid a thairm na tairm teinn-mhir, Top. Poems 84.11 . a bhuga as báthadh dá ttairm, Ériu v 54.3 . acht giodh teann tairm a n-iomráidh, Arch. Hib. i 96 § vi . Common in chevilles: t.¤ ṅglan, SR 2033 . t.¤ trén, 7897 . tarm trén, 5961 . torm tenn, 6771 .

? muinntear Baidhbh ina boithrind | mar gach tairm in Lochlaind lēir, Ériu x 84 § 77 . fear do tsil Erimoin uasail, | oirrdric Tigearnach in tairm, 85 § 81 . maidm locha Érne cen ail | tairm dar trocha rathócaib, Metr. Dinds. iii 462.28 . mod táire, ní tairm cen taig, ii 68 31 .

Compds. ¤chles noise-feat (cf. torannchless): tairm-cles nónbair .i. cles cait ┐ cles cúair, LU 9288 . ¤chloth great renown: tarmclotha in tigernais, MR 248.z . -chonflicht noisy conflict: loc do i tharmconflicht rolatar genti ann fri Patraic, O'D. 10 ( H 3.17, col. 10 ). ¤chres noisy shaking: la na ttairmcres .i. isin la in a mbia an ttairmcriotnughadh ar crechedh an aeoir, Leb. Gab.(i) 130 n. 4 . ¤chrith trembling, quaking, rumbling: tuitid na tiaga ... Sochait uili frisin tair[m]crith sin na leabar, Fél. 198.26 . tarmcrith nime ┐ talman, KMMisc. 144.26 . táinic t. mór ┐ torannchles ... isin cathraigh, SG 30.27 . t. mor do thiacht 'san aidheor, AU iii 624.4 . ¤chrithnaigid trembles loudly, rumbles: gur ob suaill nar tharm-chrithnaig in talam fa a thraigthib (of the approach of a warrior), MR 196.2 . Vn.: isin lá in a mbia an ttairmcriotnughadh ... .i. lá an braith, Leb. Gab.(i) 130 n. 4 . ¤chruaid noisy and hard: co tracht portaib tarmchruaide, MR 106.1 . da tren redg ... tarm-cruaidi, 298.16 . ¤gáeth noisy wind: ar trencheathaib ... tarmgáithe, MR 236.20 . 1 ¤gal noisy fighting: ri abhaisibh na n-arracht ri tarmgail na trogan, LL 409a20 . 2 ¤gal noise and steam: tarmgal na troimt[h]einedh, ZCP viii 212.5 . ¤grith noisy vigour (cf. armgrith): re tairmgrith a trenfher, MR 190.22 . ¤nime: dom chaomhna ar teinidh thairmnimhe, Aithd. D. 76 19 . ¤thren noisy and strong : eass ... tairmtren, MR 104.12 .

Cf. tairim.

1 trethan

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 trethan or dil.ie/41848
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: trethno

n o, m. (? tre + 1 tonn Ériu xx 232 , Thes. ii 352.35 ) IGT Decl. § 11 (55.8) ; but g s. na trethno , RC xi 131.60 . See Meyer Prim., Glossary .

(a) sea, partic. stormy sea, storm: treathan .i. tonn, O'Cl. treathan .i. fairrge, ib. treathan .i. ainbhthean, no gairbhthean mara no uisge, ib. treathan, Eg. Gl. 604 . t.¤ gl. gurges, Sg. 66b1 . saill tuirc trethain (.i. mara), Thr. Ir. Gl. 133.1 . tabuirt tar t.¤ , Laws v 298.11 .i. do lar na fairgi, 19 Comm. torad cach trethain, 484.1 . céssad cáin Clémentis | eter tonna trethain `among the sea's waves,' Fél. Nov. 23 . as aidbliu cech th.¤ `who is vaster than any sea,' April 22 . ata mórthruimm threthain `whose seas are great and heavy,' June 27 . t.¤ trom ainbthine, LU 8709 . rí conic trethnu torann, SR 5254 . Dauid co trethnaib tor trell, 6697 . estecht re t.¤ tuinne, Anecd. ii 24 § 9 . tríath trethain co trumma thair `a great and mighty sea in the east' (of a lake), Metr. Dinds. iii 224.23 . fo threthun in tṡaeb-chaire `beneath the whirlpool's stormy water,' iv 84.48 . doaitne ... na treathnu sroibthenedh imm na tuatha derga `illumines ... the seas of sulphurous fire,' Ériu ii 124 § 68 . ic tinol na ramadh robristea do threthan na fairrgi, Aen. 1012 . la tolgān ┐ t.¤ na ttonn, Fl. Earls 12.26 . lotar lá t.¤ an tsrotha go rangatar an mhuir `with the current of the tide,' AFM v 1862.y .

(b) Metaph. uproar, fury, thundering: t.¤ ágach (of a warrior), Sc.M² 15 . coná ro sguirsed do'n treathan, ocus do'n tarb-gleic `they did not desist from these mighty struggles,' MR 256.11 . do toirneamh a threthain `to restrain his fury,' 254.13 . co cūalatar trechan an marcaigh ar a cend, ZCP xiii 372.30 . co cluinte ... a t.¤ ┐ a tograim isin aéor úasa, RC xxvii 270.26 . ar muir ar tir mor a t.¤ , Fen. 228.23 . tanic t.¤ ┐ talam—chumscugud mor isin talmain, TTebe 2932 . gáir na mbadhbh treathan na teineadh | leathadh arm tre sgeimheal sgíath, IGT Decl. ex. 1341 . ro bātar na srāide ar comhchrithnughadh ... ō th.¤ ... na heachraidhi, Fl. Earls 186.11 . la t.¤, ┐ lá tendáldacht na teineadh, AFM vi 1964.29 . Mac Rónáin i ngleoágh ba treathan `strong in fray,' Ó Bruad. i 40.y . borb a threathan ar gach tráigh `bold on every shore was the fury,' Content. ii 1.

The follg. exx. may also belong to this word: tren for t.¤ in-Egept, SR 3644 . cetnagnim gnisset marchloc | dabach humai ... | t.¤ derb tri fer ṅdeec, 4200 . fairsing treathan a throm-shluaigh (`the tracks of his heavy host'), Content. ii 2.

Compds. ¤borb furiously fierce: ina tuinti t. `in their furious band,' Fianaig. 88.13 . ¤gáir stormy roar: treathangair adhbul ┐ tairm tonn-mar na n-uili uisci, RC xxviii 310.11 . ¤garb rough and stormy: trí tonna tul-ghorma treathan-gharbha, CRR² 88.8 . ¤gel bubbling and bright (?): do thiprait trethangil, LL 34a39 (= don tiprait tonngil, Ériu iv 100 § 36 ). ¤glas foaming and green, sea-green: immar thoirm tuinne trethan-glassi , CRR 12.18 . ingen Togach trethanglais, Ériu iv 156.26 . gusin tTeamhraigh treathain-ghlais, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1304 . ¤miscnech hateful and stormy: fregartha tenna tul-borba treathan-misgnecha na tonn, ML² 660 . ¤mór furious: sraonanna teineadh treathan-mhóire, CRR² 78.24 . i dteinidh threathan-mhóir thréanlasrach, TSh. 5740 . ¤ruad fiercely blazing: dorinde Ercuil tor treathanruagh ... teinntighi, Stair Erc. 2535 . tor tenedh trithinruaidhe, 1362 . for tuind trethanruaidh, ZCP vi 297.29 (see trichem). ¤tond: tathig trethan-tonn do dind `the sea tide,' Metr. Dinds. ii 12.42 .

See also 3 tríath.