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airchomair

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airchomair or dil.ie/1747

n (comair) opposite position: ota aurchomair Sechim co sruth I. from opposite S. to, LB 125b35 . ro gab (sic leg.) . . . a erchomair he went straight on, IT ii1 174.30 . docuredar ass erchomuir in tslúaig they set out in the opposite direction from the host, LL 14093 .

With various prepp. With AR (FOR): ar a.¤ a n-aigthi ahead , LL 240a7 ( TTr. 1726 ). ar urchomair a gnúsi ┐ a agthi, TBC-LL¹ 5138 . inis fil for ercomair an essu for an ccuan, Leb. Gab.(i) 26.19 . With A(S): rapatar as urchomair Chruaiche P., Fl. Earls 8.z . as urchomair chāich before (i.e. in the presence of) all, 140.20 . With FO. In local sense: fo urcomair Innsi hE., AFM v 1580.12 . forsan bfairge fo erchomair Droma cliabh, ii 1104.14 . In preparation for, readiness for: ar oiregdacht a isdud fa nurcomair in readiness for (receiving) them, Hy Maine 140.5 . gan comarba meic leis fá hurchomair to inherit it, Acall. 4914 . dia imdeghail for na celccaibh batar fó a erchomhair `to protect himself against the snares which were laid for him', AFM vi 1920.3 . fait[h]chi urfolam fo ercomhair airechtais a vacant place for an assembly, CCath. 4912 . With I N-: is cuma loisces a mbis issa ┐ huasa ┐ inna erchomair in front of it, Ériu vii 160.12 . fial . . . i n-urchomair a gnúsi a veil before her face, LB 122a27 . tuargaib a tech i n-aurchomair a imdái, LU 8373 ( FB 25 ). iarna beith a n-urchomair na hec[h]tra `after having met the adventure', Ériu iii 158 § 12 . dochuaid cach 'n-a irchomair every one went straight forwards, TBC-LL¹ 1033 . In hostile sense against, in opposition to: i n-urchomair na n-anmonn ad nocendum animabus, Aisl. Tond. 108 § 2 . co nār fuilṅgetar hi n-urchomuir a aighthe `did not dare to face him', Fianaig. 74.19 . i n-urchomair Gall do ghein / Ó C. O'C. was born to oppose the G., Aithd. D. 5.6 . go mbeith-siumh . . . i nercomhair catha doibh, AFM vi 2128.2 . `nar n-urchomhair confronting us, Dán Dé v 20 . Lugaid tra a nirchomair na cell, in dias eili for in tuáith, Irish Texts i 17 § 51 . awaiting, in readiness for: braighde . . . do bheith aca 'na urcomair to have hostages ready for him, ML 52.32 . ocht fichit bó i férgurt ghabála ina urchomair, SG 139.y . gan chomarba meic lais ina hurchomair i.e. to inherit it, 194.26 = fa hurch., Acall. 4914 . Mac Aodha . . . / cáin Fhódla 'n-a urchomhair `the rent of F. awaits A.'s son', Aithd. D. 7.38 . for, with a view to: tri haige seasga . . . a nurchomair airbearnta do dul ina tochas, no a nirchomhair feola, O'Curry 1265 ( H 3.18, p. 511 -2) `i.e. to make good defects in stock, or to be made into beef', Plummer MS. notes. tir . . . a nirchomair féoir to be reserved for hay, ib. esbadh sét i nurcomair cacha haicde na ticfa de, O'D. 1677 (H. 5.15, p. 28a) `i.e. the `seds' are to be diminished to correspond with each `aicde' which is deficient', Plummer MS. notes. a nurchomair frescisin dona buaib in hope of increase from the cows, O'D. 1952 ( Addl. 4783 7d ). trian a nurcomair a hail . . . ┐ trian a n-urcomair a sailtince `in consideration of', Laws iii 372.17 Comm. i n-erc[h]omair in meic ecalsa, BColm. 18 § 19 . Corresponding with: da se bratta fo chis chain / da sé phairt 'na n-irchomair to correspond with them, SR 176 , cf. Laws i 20.28 Comm. Contemporary with: cenḟinna uile cen ail / bai Herend na erchomair in his time, LL 911 = ina aimsir, BB 31a4 . teist ro ḟersur ré siabordai ina urchomair sé ṁbliadna déc dlegma scur, LL 14290 .

2 airlann

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 airlann or dil.ie/2175
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: urlann, orlann, erlann

n (1 lann) Orig. o, later ā, f. urlann, orlann, erlann f., IGT Decl. § 12 . (a) end, butt-end, handle (of a weapon): an baile a negarthar a hadharc fuirre a fochair .i. a hurlann (of a spear), Laws iv 226.10 . Cf. aurlond . . . ainm d'oreill gae .i. ind adarc dub bis mon gai, Auraic. 1621 . ga . . . dá dorn .x. etar a hiarann ┐ a fochair .i. a hurlann, O'Dav. 495 . ro díbairg in ṅgai dó 's a urlond reme butt first, LL 13969 . tummis G. irlund a gai issin n-abaind, LU 1747 . tumais a herluinn, Ériu ix 178 § 13 . cresaigthi . . . in lagin . . . ┐ benaid a hurlond fria a bais, BDD² 1234 . da gae for cach óen crand leo gae for rend ┐ gae for erlond co mbad chumma dagontais do rennaib ┐ do erlonnaib, TBC-LL¹ 4531 . béim d'erlaind in rogaí, MU² 727 . sleg . . . co fethan óir impi o irlond co cró, LU 10665 . crann a c[h]raísighi o hurlainn co a h-innsma, ML² 919 . la tabairt a[i]rlaindi a tsligi for C. `fair t'irlaind dīm', Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 38 § 7 . sleagh . . . an n-uair teilgtear a ndeōigh a hurluinne, Feis Tighe Chonáin 464 . cindus do-béra mé in tsleigh duit . . . in é a gráin do-béra mé roimpe nó an é a hurrlann?, Comp. CC 99 § 31 . maidhm na nUrland . . . for Gallu, RC xvii 364.12 ( = na nErland, AFM ii 808.6 ). éirghi ard ar earluinn ráimhe / balg ar dhearnuinn láimhe láoich, IGT Decl. ex. 591 . point, tip of a staff: teit erlund na bachla triana chois, Trip. 468.26 . do bered in file aurland . . . fors in cend ┐ ro finnad a ainm, Laws i 44.6 Comm. (a form of divination). Cf. tabraid cend na flesci filed fair, Corm. Y 323 . Of the rudder of a ship: intan tra documlaiset ┐ docorustar a lūi nō urland (aurlunn v.l.) fri tīr, Corm. Y 1059 ( Anecd. iv 91.9 ). Fig. cona nurlaind techta, Laws v 438.24 .i. . . . cach grad da daim coir maraen ris, 440.8 Comm. = o a urluth techta .i. dam bas coir inna theg, O'Curry 862 ( H 3.18, 389 ab) `? a persons' retinue or attendance', Plummer MS. notes. co haurlaind a dithma end, completion(?), Laws i 102.8 = co n-aurlund, v 404.22 . Compd.: d'ordaibh . . . urlainnleathna, TSh. 1980 `with broad handles', Gloss.

(b) (? air- + slond) marker (of gender) Sages, Saints and Storytellers 1-3 . In Auraic. of the pronouns é, í, ed (and their Latin equivalent hic, haec, hoc) used to determine the gender of following nouns (cf. also the various applications of 3 a.): aurlond . . . ainm d'oreill gae . . . is di arsisidar in gai, imtha is amlaid arsisidar in indsce don trediu-sa .i. ise isi ised: no dona deich n-urlandaib-sea etc., Auraic. 1621 ff. tri herlonda indsge .i. tri remsloind . . . .i. is se, is si, is edh, 3120 . masgal ┐ feimin ┐ nemutur lasin Laitneoir . . . nus-deochrend a tri herlanna innsge, id est hic, hec, hoc , 3026 = a tri urluimi, 524 . urland ria n-urland ┐ urland iar n-urland ┐ urland inand iter da urland nach it inanda. Urland rie n-urland quidem, iní rie se no rie sí no re séudh. Erland ier n-urland .i. in se no in si no in sedh. Urland inand iter da urlaind nach it inanda .i. in se inand fil in gach focul, ni herlond is achd (leg. achd is) reimtsuidugud: no is fri se no fri sedh. i.e. the a.¤ before an a.¤ is the noun preceding , or sed; an a.¤ after an a.¤ is the word , , or sed; an identical a.¤ between two a.¤'s which are not identical is the which is the same for every word, whether it be for or sed, for `is sed' is not an a.¤ but an `anteposition' ( ni erlond is sed, 593 (i.e. does not indicate gender?), 3114 - 3120 ). cuin is urland, cuin is indsge? . . . Is he [isi issedh: indsci emh intan itberor] nama gan araill imaille fris. Urlond eim antan dobeire fria araill, ut est is he in feur (isé, isí, ised are innsce (gender) when used absolutely but each of these is an airland when it serves to indicate or point out a follg. subst. e.g. isé in fer, isí in ben?), 3103 . Also applied to gender forms of numerals: aurlunna ilair mascul ┐ femen in so sis: se, da, thri, cet[h]ri: si, di, teora, cetheora, 1714 , cf. 1623 ff. See 3 airlann.

1 brecc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 brecc or dil.ie/6620
Last Revised: 2019

adj o, ā speckled, spotted; variegated; patterned, ornamented: aladh .i. breac, O'Cl. cuirither iasg ṁb. mbedg (MS), Ériu xxii 42 § 9 and 48 n. 4h . ernail dhatha . . . etir brec ┐ dond ┐ alad ┐ rúad, TTr.² 881. tri datha na hec[se] . . . b.¤ ┐ fochanar, Auraic. 5249 speckled (raiment), see Thurn. ZCP xvii 291.16 . i fil ilmíli mbrec mban of women (in) variegated (dress), Imr. Brain 19. cochléne breccai plaid (?) capes, BDD² 1204. cet d'étach gach dadha bricc, IT i 125.15 ( TE Eg. 10 ). bróca brecca bernacha, Todd Lect. vi 60 § 80. écne b.¤ , Imr. Brain 54. ní sladar iasc mbrec for ganim deirg (rhet.), LU 8651. nathir bémnech b.¤ `speckled snake', Thes. ii 327.18 (Hy.v). graig ngabor nglas, brec a mong, LU 3692 ( SCC 33.19 ). daim breca brindled (?) oxen, Trip. 176.15 . na heich breca dappled , Celtica ii 42.32 . a chuilim bhric tig ón Spáin `pied dove', KMMisc. 50.2 . ro brecad do semannaib findruine conid brec (sc. a shield named Briccriu), BDD² 976. ba b.¤ do imdornchoraib na claideb n-orduirn `speckled with the hilts of the gold-hilted swords', Ériu iv 26.26 . go frithathartaib óir bricc friu anechtair with rack-clasps (?) of patterned (?) gold (of scabbards), LL 11193 (TBC). bruiden brec bélfhairsiuṅg, MU² 203. d'aebind bricc of speckled ebony, Alex. 593. mo lebrán brec `with chequered page', SG 56.32 . na Banba bricce `of many-coloured B.', Arch. Hib. ii 82 § 1. ós Bōin[d] bricc ` sparkling ', 92 § 3 . sduadh bhreac dhealbhach um an ndún, DDána 119.17 . san gcrann mbrioc (: riot) on the stained (?) Cross, Aithd. D. 86.11 (cf. A. Ó Dálaigh xxvi 4 ). gur bhó breac ó corpaibh daoíne an tulach, AFM v 1784.23 . cardo benedicta .i. an fuafannan breac `speckled thistle' (Gloss.), ACL i 326.36 . adhbhar gotha dod ghruaidh bhric 'a cause of reproach to your freckled cheek', Giolla Brighde 108 § 3 ​​. See galar.

As subst. fex olei .i. aní imbi brec specks (?), O'Mulc. 42. adberar an Bhrec fría, ó comhmbrecadh taisedh na naomh ┐ na naomh-ogh a n-áoinfeacht . . . innte (a reliquary), BNnÉ 266 § 232 . ? rop ecem secc da selbaib / in b.¤ asin b.¤ Temraig, LL 376a46 . brec mor `great dotting' (a form of Ogham alphabet), Auraic. 6010. rand[aigecht] bec mor andso ocna filedhaibh . . . carrdechnaid vero acna druthaibh . . . ┐ is edh on a b.¤ that is its diversified form (?), IT iii 86 § 86. Cf. § 85.

As epithet in n. pr.: féil Chóemáin Bricc, Fél. Sept. 14. ? innisios fer brec nach beo, SG 362.7 . Appar. n. pr. m.: co B., TBC-LL² 4074 .

Compds. With nouns. Símón Brecc ... brecc-ainech ro bhoí .i. aiged bhrec lais on ardbhruth 'he was mottled-faced, i.e. he had a mottled face from the intense heat (anger ? fever?)'​, Cóir Anm.² ii 26 § 87 ​​​. breccbardne (name of a metre), IT iii 43 § 54 , Murphy Metrics 64 § 59 (see p. 84). brig bladmar, bruthmar, breccbárc, SR 2642. in Bhreac-bhárc .i. lung Fhinn mheic Cumhaill, Leabh. ó Láimhsgr. xvi 1046 . breac-bhriathra . . . / glac íad `verses ?' (to a patroness), O'R. Poems 3339 and Gloss. bairghean, breac-cháca (breach cháca, MS.) beg éattrom `a loaf or little light Ceak', Eg. Gl. 8. Cf. bairghean breac ` barnbrack ' (`barm-'), Dinneen . do butainte brecdatha .i. co ndathaibh éccsamhla, Leb. Gab.(i) 30.13 . meic Blait breacduirn, Acall. 2355. dá breclamainn `speckled gauntlets', CCath. 4675. delg óir . . . / i n-óe cecha breclenni, LU 3709 ( SCC 33.27 ). co rainig . . . in breacmacraid (brecmac rig, v.l.) thiri Armenia the motley youth, RC xx 430.3 . breic-mhias an mheasraidh, TSh. 905. ós breac-mhoigh Éireann, Content. xxx 21. .x. mbrait mbreccphupaill .i. pupaill cacha datha, Ériu ii 4.17 . breacṡolas `the morning or evening twilight ', P. O'C. robrāth na breictheinedh blazing fire, ZCP viii 211.28 . fleadh bhreacthruaille beann `ornamented sides of goblets', Magauran 421 .

With adjj. brecc-aladh piebald , RC xlvi 230.25 . meic borrthoraid brec-bāin, MacCongl. 33.14 . os Banba brecbuic, MacCarthy 184.10 . panathir breccborr huge spotted panther, Rawl. 78a19 . di sciathaib . . .bána breccbudi ` yellow-spotted ', TTr. 1403. geabhuidh lamhuinn mbreacchuir mbláith, KMMisc. 170 § 12. lis ballach breicderg, Acall. 2738. Brec-derg (name of a drinking-horn), 157 . da sheir birrdha brecduba, RC xiii 5.10 . a barr bre[c]glas, Hail Brigit 20 . dá ech . . . brecglassa, LU 8591 ( FB 45 ). gusan mbrúgh mbraenach mbrecṡolus ` light-bespeckled ', Ériu iii 162 § 16. ra beind breccsholais búabaill, MU² 230.

With adjj. formed from nouns. mergeda . . . a . . . breacamlacha `variegated (and) emblematic', Marco P. 61. medon fethech brecbaindech `spotted with pustules', RC xxiv 196 § 11. la fichit brandub brecboirdnech, LL 7285. brat breicbreidech, RC xxi 398 § 33. da n-ocht ṁbliadan brecbuidnech varied and crowded years, LL 14958. o earradhaibh breac-dathacha a banntrachta, ML 38.22 . amail buinne . . . mbreachlasrach with motley flashes, CF 774. brat breclígda immi `of varied hues' (Gloss.), BDD² 1165. gus an mbuinde . . . mbreclinnteach mBuada, MR 104.8 (2 brecc ?). sluagh . . . breacmeirgeach with many-coloured standards, MR 214.y . bloiscbem brecthentech, Lec. 171 ra 26 (brēicthinntech, ZCP viii § 38).

? cumasc slaite breaclíte ┐ lethrannaigechta moire, BB 291a34 = cumasc slaiti brecht, etc., IT iii 84 § 71.

In nn. loc. in compds. see Hog. Onom.

1 cet

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cet or dil.ie/8860
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: -a

(Lat. licet (see licet), Meyer, Wortk. 102 ; Misc. Hib. 30 no. 9 ; Pokorny, ZCP xviii 159 (licitum). Otherwise Marstrander, RC xxxvi 386 ; Fél. Gloss.; Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 88 ). In later lang. treated as m. with g s. -a: d'ḟagháil an cheda chéadna, RSClára 64a . d'ḟiss a ceta, Ériu i 132.77 .

I As interj. or asseverative agreed, permission granted, yes : c.¤, c.¤, or cách. Do-géntar airiut, BDD² 215 . c.¤ ol Máedóc, LL 285b21 . c.¤ gl. fiat sicut uís, Thes. ii 240.8 (Ardm.). Prob. also in: slēchtoid intan cairigther, / intan promthar epred ced, ZCP vii 312 § 24 . With follg. clause: cech dilmain . . . / c.¤ cia dig etc., LL 19052 ( Fél. 4 ).

II v Constructions with copula.

(a) bed c.¤ ol D., `it shall be done', Mon. Tall. 130.23 . gnim nat bu c.¤ `illicit deed' (chev.), Blathm. 59 . is c.¤ `it is allowable', Mon. Tall. 144.4 . in tan bas ch.¤ `at the time appointed', Metr. Dinds. iii 132.51 . bis a nos gen gob lan-chead, MR 250.6 . In cheville: fuair īarla Crinna ba c.¤ / sé blīadna finna fichet, Arch. Hib. ii 85 § 37 .

(b) With follg. DO (2nd and 3rd pers. only). Usually in sense must, is to (context not always sufficient to indicate precise meaning): is c.¤ (ket, MSS.) duit ó día . . . (text incomplete), Thes. ii 258.5 . `supra scr.: licet tibi a deo ire in abbatiam', Zeuss 1003 . is c.¤ duitsiu . . . t'imthechta . . . do innisin you must give an account of yourself, LU 1227 . is c.¤ duib-siu a forsingud foraib, 4439 . is ced dó a bith marbh masa ced ra Dia if he is dead it is God's will, RC xxvii 296 § 62 . is c.¤ don inat-sa topur amræ co bráth and this place will have, etc., BColm. 52.13 . is cett d[ū]ib can dergad for nech in laithi-sin you must not wound, etc., 84.3 . is c.¤ dūib a thomailt, Ériu i 46.24 . ced dūib héc mene fagbaigh if you do not find him you are as good as dead, ZCP xii 246 § 16 . is cet duitsi cidat corr 'you are to be a crane', BCC² 245 § 6 . is cead di-se bheith 'n-a coirr (a curse), Keat. iii 1416 . Note also: tabradh cro[i]s Crīst dar a hucht / adradh don Rīgh darab ced who has permitted, willed (this affliction), ZCP vi 270 § 15 .

(c) With follg. LA: rop ail damsa . . . dul . . . is c.¤ lind . . . acht co tís . . . aridisi go ahead, but don't forget to come back, LL 14034 . —foemaim-sea sin . . . for C. — c.¤ lem . . . , for L. I agree, LU 8488 ( FB 34 ). c.¤ lim cenptís desruithe, Fing. R. 230 `while admitting that', note. c.¤ lim cid marb, c.¤ cid beō it is all the same to me, ZCP iii 37.16 . cia forsa ndígéltar iát ar B. . . . is c.¤ lim arse, cid for mac mo mathar on whom are they to be avenged? as far as I am concerned on me, LL 301a32 . is c.¤ linne a c[h].-som `His will is our will', BColm. 66.15 . is cead liomsa, a Dhé, mo dhul I am content to die, Dán Dé xxv 17 . rofiarfaigh E. do [Sh.] nar c.¤ le a tabairt do B. whether she would consent to be given (in marriage), ZCP vi 280.36 . With force of wishes, commands : is cett limsa in cloch so forsa fuilim . . . corob í nomimurcora, ACL iii 309.24 . atā ech isin linn-si thiar, ┐ is c.¤ lim a toidecht fom carpat harness it to my chariot, RC xii 346 § 41 . Hence in imprecation: is cead liom-sa an ríoghan go n-a hinnilt do bheith i riocht dá choirr (curse pronounced by Colum-cille), Keat. iii 1412 . as ced lemsa an charrac so dobheith mallaighthe, BNnÉ 255 § 124 .

III As noun.

(a) In general sense of permission, consent, will : fri cach c.¤ (chev.), Blathm. 197 . im gaindi a ch.¤ nō a thol, BColm. 6.z . [be]ndacht cech nóeb cona ch.¤ , Ériu viii 69.55 . M. fa calma a c.¤ , BB 50a11 . co c.¤ fri cach [n]gnīom goodwill(?), ACL iii 320 § 93 . cead ón chroidhe is dábhar gconnradh, Dán Dé x 17 . mo ched-sa fri ced an Choimdedh, BS 4.28 . do chuir an baintigherna a ced a leth Eoin, Smaointe B. Chr. 4555 = illa rogat J., Gloss.

(b) With follg. gen.: cead díomais oram ná hiarr permission to be proud, Dán Dé xix 12 . ni fhuair Mac D. ced sitha fris, Ann. Conn. 1342.11 . ced slighedh . . . trena cathraigh, Stair Erc. 1857 .

(c) With vn.: ní thiobhra an corp cead a mhúinte will not allow itself to be taught, Dán Dé xix 6 . gan chead caoi, ii 23 . Later with independent Vn. construction: ced . . . / dol permission to go, Duan. F. i 73.20 . ní cead tusa dá thomhas, Dán Dé xiv 19 . gan ced iompódh go deó agad, RC xxiii 10.15 . cett . . . clocha . . . do chnúasach, Maund. 179 . With Vn. introduced by prep.: ced Finn / fa dhol, Duan. F. i 67.19 , see iii 55 . oc gabail [c]eda o Dhia cumm degulta ris asking God's permission to separate from Him, PH 7341 . tug fa ghoin an chígh a chead, IGT Decl. ex. 1271 . Cf. tuc A. . . . a ced cuige sin, BCC 98 .

(d) With prec. prep.: can chead do thigerna in raeta without asking the owner, PH 7541 . gan chead dod lucht fhaire in spite of, DDána 14.12 . gan ced gan ceilebhradh don comhairle without asking permission of, AFM vi 2142.24 . ní hinmheasta go mbiadh comhmór na hÉireann do ríoghacht —gan chead do Dhoctuir Sanderus—gan airdfhlaith ` pace' Dr. S. (in polemic), Keat. iii 87 . gan cead do bhreugaibh Luther, Eochairsg. 11.30 . ní go gcead / do rachadh d'éag `never with my consent', Aithd. D. 39.43 . go gcead duid by your leave (satirically), Content. vi 153 . go gcead dod ghairm `with all respect to your calling', xiv 1 . go gcead don onoir saving your reverence, Luc. Fid. 4220 . a fagaind ōn rīgraidh sin / do būar, do brat, do bīudh, / dobēraind ar aendecair / d'aenfear do c.¤ do trīur, ZCP v 23 § 28 . do (di?) ch.¤ with gen. do chead Dé na ndúl 'twas the will of God, IGT Decl. ex. 945 . ní nochdubh coidhche dom chead / do chairdios gratuitously, O'Hara 1333 . `if I can help it', Content. xviii 6 . a chora id chead to ask your permission, Aithd. D. 31.17 . maith gach cás re a chur i gcead, PBocht 1.41 . cech gnīm dia tē bad la c.¤ (rule for religious), ZCP vii 310 § 3 . ó Christ c.¤ in accordance with C.'s permission, LL 374c59 . tar a c.¤ , ZCP i 104.12 .

(e) gaibid c.¤ oc: ag bhar dtiomna níor ghabh cead `asking no leave of your testament', Content. v 147 . géabhad (sic leg.) cead ag do dhá ghairm `I will pay due deference to your two titles', xiv 34 . Later takes leave of, bids farewell to: gabhait a gced `they took their leave', Fl. Earls 46.6 . rogab G. ced agan ríg, ZCP vi 81.21 . ro gabhattar ced, ┐ ceilebradh ag an Iarla, AFM vi 2082.6 . le blanndar na mbanchuire sróllmhar / . . . / geabhad cead I shall renounce, Hackett xxvi (addit.) 65 .

comḟocal

Cite this: eDIL s.v. comḟocal or dil.ie/11174

n (foccul): na ceithre comhfhocail cuibhdhi ` maxims ', MR 90.3 . as comhfhocail an Eaglas Chatolic ┐ an Eaglus Rōmhánach synonyms , Mac Aingil 6027 . Gramm. nida[t] . . . comfocail `full sounds' (of semi-vowels), Auraic. 462 . comfhocul = prepositio, 321 . = conjunctio, 301 . comḟocul gl. hec coniunctio, Ir. Gl. 873 . In IGT compound : do chomhfhocal no d'ainm úathaidh, Introd. 1.22 . na gnéithe don Ghaoidhilg nach cóir a ttús chomhfhocal, 2.18 . don fhocal déigheanach don chomhfhocal téid a cheannus ┐ a cheart [┐] a innsgne, § 136 . c.¤ canamhna `a compound whose first part has elided vowel', Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 140 . .l. . . . greim comhfhocail, nó comhfocal canamhna a ttús comhfhocuil cheirt, 17.2 . IGT Introd. §§ 97. 100 . comfocul lochtach, Metr. Faults §§ 1 , 28 , 129 . 'na shamhail do chomhfhocal (of `Scitia'), Keat. i 234.9 .

compántas

Cite this: eDIL s.v. compántas or dil.ie/11602

n (compán) companionship : hec associacio compantus, Ir. Gl. 892 . ar in ccompantas fil edrainn ar oen, TBC-LL¹ 2220 . a ccompántus ┐ a ccumann ré chéili, Mac Aingil 5698 .

cosecrad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cosecrad or dil.ie/12594

Forms: coiseargadh, coisreagadh, coissegradh, coisreagad

u, m. vn. of con-secra. Spelling variable. coiseagradh m., IGT Decl. § 11 (55.16) . coiseargadh, coisreagadh, Verbs § 56 . act of dedicating, consecrating, blessing : hec consecratio. coissegradh , Ir. Gl. 880 . dichossecrad inna-cathrach gl. renouationis domús Dauid, Ml. 48d27 . amal bid arinchoisecrad gl. tanquam pro dedicatione, Ml. 49a11 . dich.¤ tabernacuil gl. in consummatione tabernaculi, 48b11 . huandí as dix coisecrad, Sg. 138b7 (see n.). cosecrath . . . mo tigi, Vita Br. 43 . feil acosaccartha intemplo gl. eodem die sanctæ Mariæ, Thes. ii 33.30 . ráid c.¤ ṁbaslic / E., Fél. Nov. 19 . bid c.¤ dot broind aní sin, LU 4250 . co ro-fhásad noemad ┐ coiseccrad do'n duine, PH 7851 . a cosergad, Celtica ii 72.72 . a choisreagadh `to cross himself', Rule of Tallaght 91 . do-ní dubadh dom dhergadh / an cumhal do coisergadh, IGT Decl. ex. 499 . Verbs ex. 495 . ag saothrughadh . . . ┐ choisregadh chaillech, RSClára 127a . do coisearchad a airm . . . co Cairndech, BB 208a35 . Concr. coisreagad gl. creatura, Ir. Gl. 285 . do bhádar na gcoisricthibh = consecrations, Levit. viii 28 .

cosmailius

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cosmailius or dil.ie/12610

Forms: -uilius

n u, m. (cosmail). Also -uilius. See GOI 65 , 198 .

(a) likeness, similarity, resemblance : c.¤ gl. hec simulacio, Ir. Gl. 904 . cosmulius co n-écsamlus gl. quidem per hominem mors, ita et per hominem resurrectio mortuorum, Wb. 13b25 . cosmulius delbe gl. in similitudinem imaginis, 1b19 . treaccomol cosmilse foguir, Sg. 11b4 . co c.¤ crotha A. looking like A., LU 10756 ( cossmailes, TE 12 ). dúthaig dúind c.¤ (Jacob and Esau), Celtica iv 8.39 . do-ratsat a torad iar n-a c.¤ fen according to their own kind, PH 1258 . is mor . . . c.¤ na desi, TTebe 2679 . fritha gach da chosmuilius `everyone has his likeness', ZCP i 112.1 . cosmaileis an laoich sin the like, Cog. 200.6 . cosmailes sida `a semblance of peace', Ann. Conn. 1315.9 . cian ó chasmhaileas creidmhe that is far from true religion, A. Ó Dálaigh li 2 .

Freq. in phr. with prepp. orgain humaidi fo ch.¤ nadarcae gl. aerea corneaque, like a horn, Ml. 116c8 . fo ch.¤ liac, 131c9 . fo ch.¤ grec, Sg. 92a3 . 215b1 . fo ch.¤ C.C., LU 3260 ( SCC 5 ). foacosmailis nacha tegdasi, Hib. Min. 7.224 . fón c.¤ cétna in the same way, LL 37328 ( RC xiii 458.3 ). fo ch.¤ dofóirndet nomina numeri `even as the nouns of number denote (it)', Sg. 71b6 . fo ch.¤ tiagar dointinscitul gnímo, Ml. 15a2 . fo ch.¤ aringair recht gl. vicem legis implebit, 27c21 . fo ch.¤ dundrolgis don popul `even as Thou didst forgive the people', 46b29 . fo ch.¤ donemar ┐ daingnigther gl. ad instar tesauri, 51d8 . icosmuilius collno gl. in similitudinem carnis, Wb. 3d23 . a cosmailes tsacairt, Grail 2156 . i gcosmhaileas mhná S., TSh. 9362 . i gcosmhaileas do cuirthí / ris an naomh was compared, PBocht 20.17 . cuiridh . . . S.F. a gcosmhaileas risan bpatriarc N., Rial. S.F. 996 . do ch.¤ innaṅdobriathar gl. ad similitudinem, Sg. 188a18 . cosmailes innill . . . dó ┐ do chaisslēn Anuoeirp similar in arrangement . . . to, Fl. Earls 104.2 . in molt ┐ in torc ┐ cach c.¤ doib `everything like them', Laws v 444.30 Comm. cosmilius etarru hicétni persin, Sg. 163b6 . iartaidbsin achosmailsea frimmacc nimlisen gl. post pupillam, Ml. 39c22 . cosmulius indrechto fripersana et luccu `a comparison of the Law to persons and places', Wb. 20a7 . cosmilius fricechtar de, Sg. 188b5 . fo bith a chosmailiusa fris, LU 7336 .

(b) likeness, comparison, analogy, metaphor (mostly in O. Ir. glosses): cosmuilius roisc aní-siu les-som gl. videmus nunc per speculum, Wb. 12c10 . is suaichnid tra cid dia tuiced in cosmuilius cosse (viz. of the members and body of Christ), 12b12 . cosmilius ani siu gl. quis enim scit hominum quae sunt hominis, nisi spiritus hominis? `a similitude', 8b7 . intamlai ┐ chosmailsea `similes and comparisons', Ml. 51d5 . inc.¤ so sís gl. sicut, 32d6 . hochosmailsib gl. comparationibus, 51d4 . duthaidbsin in chosmailseo beus, 62a2 . c.¤ ┐ analach `similarity and analogy', Sg. 41b8 . a cosmailsib, iar fir from analogies (precedents ?), Laws i 144.21 . a testeamain, a c.¤ `analogy' (in list of sources of judgement), v 8.23 Comm. do bir in brethem c.¤ don chaingin (in gl. on 1 fásach), Corm. Y 611 .

See cosmailse.

crann

Cite this: eDIL s.v. crann or dil.ie/12753
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: cruinn, crunn

n o, n. later (LU) m. g s. cruinn (later (LU) crainn), d s. crunn (see GOI 50 ). c.¤ m., IGT Decl. § 74 .

(a) tree : crand .i. crē a fond, Corm. Y 234 . as máthir aṡotho feissin cach nóen ch.¤ , Sg. 65a6 . luib ┐ ní c.¤ gl. siler, 65a9 . inchruinn toirthig fruit-tree , Ml. 15b13 . dochrunn fessin gl. arbuta, Sg. 61b8 (leg. don . . . ?, Edd.). 61b13 , 65a7 . cranna doiscairi gl. lignorum uilium, Ml. 92d6 . etir anmmann innac.¤ ┐ anmmann atoraid innac.¤ sin, Sg. 61b3 . a (sic MS.) crand mór, Vita Br. 35 . dober donchraunn inn-ubull (Satan to Eve), SR 1272 . no benfad a crand, LU 4829 (TBC). Nath Coirpthe occá chrannaib, 5814 . tri chrand co torud, LL 32927 . ní lassamain cech n-óenchrand `a single log does not flame' (prov.), TBC-LL² 2041 . fear fongaib c.¤ mbech hi faithchi `a man who finds bees in a tree', . . . Laws iv 194.18 . na aidérad clocha ná crunnu, LU 4046 . tregort c.¤ tre c.¤ cu `stake', Ériu xxi 130.13 . crand dond ḟīnemain find, ACL iii 238 § 10 . mac in chraind a parrdus a seedling from the tree . . . , Airne F. 53 . mór do chuid do na crannaibh, PBocht 11.24 (prov.(?), Ed.). fá tharr chroinn under a tree, TSh. 9000 . ? nach fuirmhithe do chodhnach c.¤ occ cuimreach a chórusa, Ériu xiii 21.29 . See 1 fír .

With qual. gen. of particular types of tree: eccla croinn áis an áraidh, ACL iii 216.17 `quick-set tree', P. O'C. im gcrand ngabala appropriated tree, Laws i 202.2 .i. in c.¤ crosta, 206.8 Comm. tria crand in tairmtechtais (tree of knowledge of good and evil), PH 3934 . co crand an imarbois, 2393 . c.¤ na haithne, DDána 10.4 . crand in báis, PH 2392 . crann bethe, Eg. Gl. 705 . coirt croind critaig `aspen', Rosa Angl. 260.17 . crand figed, Grail 1458 . c.¤ fir `test-tree' (1 fír), Laws iv 146.27 . crand gíus gl. hec pinus, Ir. Gl. 563 . crand greni ┐ crand esca, ZCP xxx 136.z (Alex.). crand lauír gl. laurus, Ir. Gl. 564 . duilléag chroinn ola, Gen. viii 11 . dulli crand palmi, PH 872 . ? crann sálais, Keat. Poems 532 . c.¤ Sédair cedar, Psalms xcii 12 . c.¤ teile lime, Isaiah vi 13 . ris a nuile ch.¤ túise, Cant. iv 14 .

Transfd. crand gel is tīr (of ray of sun), Four Songs 12 § 13 . Of persons: ón chronn chnuais, DDána 103.29 . Cairbre an c.¤ fa tiogh dtaraidh, Ir. Syll. Poetry 69 § 13 . crainn tug cúl re cáin chléire ` blockheads ', Ó Bruad. iii 150.22 . crann bagair a ghaolta protector , Párl. na mB. 183 . crann mela sponsor, patron (lit. honey tree): Conallaigh mo chroinn mheala | Connachtaigh 's iad m'oideadha 'the Conallaigh were my patrons, the Connachtaigh my teachers', Ériu lxiv 176 § 2.19 . géag chumhra do chin ó Chonn | ag sin mo lubhghort, mo lionn | fáth mo cheana do ríomh rann | ar gcrann meala go bhfíon fionn, Éigse xi 5 . a chroinn mheala `honey-laden trees', O'Hara 4069 ​.

(b) wood (material), timber: c.¤ cruínd immuambiat ocuan denum gl. rotæ, Ml. 18b4 . c.¤ condid gl. lignum `fire-wood', Thes. ii 226.33 . c.¤ a mbís de ós usce . . . íarann a mbís i n-usci, Airne F. 165 . etir cloich ┐ crand (a building), RC xviii 39.31 (Tig.). Cf. a laithe an chrīarta / bud c.¤ leo a cinn wood, ZCP viii 208.32 .

Attrib. g s. claidiub craind wooden sword, LU 5417 (TBC). 5641 . coss chraind, LL 38614 . each croinn (of Cross), Aithd. D. 65.36 . airm crainn, Maund. 161 . caislén crainn, 162 . Note also: saoir chruinn ┐ chloch carpenters and stonemasons, Párl. na mB. 262 .

(c) staff, pole, bar, stock, plank, beam, axis; article or tool of wood: crand tochartaigh, see tochartach. cen garmna cruind `beam of loom', Metr. Dinds. iv 332.9 . c.¤ tara tech (sic leg.) (let) a piece of wood (be placed) over their coop (hens), Laws ii 118.13 Comm. a chrand cromchend crozier (of Patrick), Trip.² 341 . croind croma, SG 44.25 . mo ch.¤ bassa walking staff , Aithd. D. 1.29 . mind lestraib . . . eiric . . . isin crand handle(?), Laws iii 192.2 Comm. dairt i c.¤ n-airidi rail, Críth G. 223 . o crund co fraig, LU 7376 `wooden rail (or partition?)', BDD² Gloss . doratad c.¤ ar chleith (sic leg.) airi the house was firmly secured (i.e. by a wooden bolt?), Trip.² 604 . ni baí crand dond indsi fri aroile beam , Anecd. i 2.5 (SCano). c.¤ mbith see 2 bí. a llos a lín is a craind fishing-rod , LU 3072 ` boat ', Fél. 52.31 . dá chrand cháela (of bier), Bard. P. 53.13 . an c.¤ baoi tresen idh ` bar ', Hugh Roe² 14.17 . glaisíarna . . . / do cuireadh leo for crannoibh frames , Duan. F. i 92.1 . c.¤ crithir `unsteady plank', Dán Dé viii 6 . c.¤ mna fighi distaff , BNnÉ 191.24 . c.¤ suaite na braisce ` mixing-stick ', Lism. L. 302.18 . do ch.¤ tealaich fire-raker , Oss. ii 38.w . doiligh léimeanna c.¤ gceart (of steps of ladder), Aithd. D. 62.20 . c.¤ snais, 27.34 (`some weaver's tool(?)', note).

Of spearshaft, spear : for crund a duirnd Diarmató, LU 9690 . gai . . . gormrúadh . . . fora chrund, 7202 (BDD). la crand for scīathu banging spearshafts on shields (in driving a bull), TBC-I¹ 1357 . núall fri crunnu sleg, Metr. Dinds. iii 22.287 . síodh fan gc.¤ do chuaidh treimhit ` lance ', Dán Dé iv 9 . croinn fhoghadh spearshafts , O'R. Poems 15 . sróll taisgreanta ar c.¤ (um ch.¤ v.l.) ga chur (of battle-standard), IGT Decl. ex. 1227 .

Of Cross (calque from Lat. lignum Deutsche, Kelten und Iren 99 ): crist coc[runn achr]uche foir gl. cum lignis, Tur. 123 . conidainm dunchrunn gl. crux Christi, Wb. 8a5 . dul sa ch.¤ going on the cross, Dán Dé vi 15 .

Mast, steering oar : dorat . . . c.¤ fri tír he pushed off, Trip.² 359 . ar[r]o-tógaibseat . . . na séola for na crundu, BDD² 477 . seólad crand dar muir ` ships ', ZCP i 112.z . nuair a shuidheadh iad air a crann cèille 'mast (?)' SGS xviii 106.25 .

Of bed or part thereof: Conall . . . etir ┐ crand, LU 3299 (SC). nonbur for craund siúil, 7607 (BDD). See séol . luid do crunn ┐ do uaitni (of childbirth), Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 43.34 .

Of axis in ogam writing: is amlaid imdreangair crand . . . saltrad fora freim in croind ar tus, Auraic. 949 .

Of wooden musical instrument: cuisle .i. c.¤ ciuil, O'Curry 963 ( H 3.18, 415 ). trí duirn isin crand chiuil (of harp), Acall. 617 . téda do chroinn, Bard. P. 25. 3 . crand glesta gl. plectrum, Ir. Gl. 719 . Laws i 126.32 Comm. in c.¤ cíuil aicci . . . a thimpan, Acall. 3456 .

Note also: crand airgit post (?), LU 3700 ( SCC 33 ). sdiall ar chapur a cc.¤ ┐ a ccrannoca airgid `bars and ingots of silver', TFrag. 8.10 .

(d) wooden piece used in casting lots; lot, destiny, fate: di chorcruinn gl. de ligno sortis, Tur. 132 . tri craind do cur a n-usci .i. crand na flatha ┐ crand in ollaman ┐ crand in lít[h]igh (that belonging to the guilty party sank, etc.), IT iii 192.7 - 8 . a leith craind cuirithir, O'Curry 437 ( H 3.18, 236a ). co[r] c.¤ fors in lestrai naile (leg. n-uili) lots are to be cast between all the hives (to determine liability for a bee-sting), Laws iv 178.10 . focherdsam crandchur . . . Mo chrandsa . . . taet ass ar tús . . . is cétchrand co torud chraind dedenaig, LL 12684 - 6 `a first lot with fruit of a last lot', RC xiv 407 . forcerdar c.¤ eturru, Laws iv 172.9 . ni bia . . . na ccrand cóir in their true destiny, Cog. 98.10 . do thuit an crand for righ Midhe, BNnÉ 298.6 . Cf. is e crand t'fhir phosta . . . an gradh, mar is e c.¤ an diabhail an fuath, Smaointe B. Chr. 1888 - 90 (see n.).

Compds. With nouns: bolg as ambid crannbelan little wooden opening, Laws i 152.27 Comm. im crandbolg `leather scoop', 150.9 . delbsat crann-búar cobsaid `stout kine of wood', Metr. Dinds. ii 218.41 . crandc[h]aingel .i. crannc[h]līath andsin .i. clīath isin c[h]rann eter laocha ┐ clēirc[h]u, Corm. Y 371 , see caingel O'Cl. acc imordughudh cranncaistiall `wooden stands', Stair Erc. 142 . ní rucsat úaim acht crandchert `justice dealt by a spear', TBC-LL² 3052 . an chrannchruit, Hackett² 17.w . croicionn crannchon na coille, Duan. F. i 33.23 ` pine-martin ', iii 332 . crannchú bís ic roduine, Acall. 5573 . crandord do gnídh, Manners and Customs 376 n. (cf. c. fri scíathu supra). crann dordan .i. crónán ┐ dordán, O'Cl. cranndretel cuirn (in list of dispensers), Triads 231 . lorg na crannlachan, SG 264.12 ` teal ', Contribb. 506 . don chronnlaoch `decrepit old man', Ó Bruad. i 106.21 . ? gur éirig in grian ina crandmill cró, CCath. cited Contribb. 506 . mors . . . Conaill Chrandomnai, RC xvii 211.6 (Tig.) (leg. -domna ?). cloch-sairsi ┐ crann-sairsi carpentry, Laws v 92.z . do crannsciathuip, CCath. 4949 . ? deadlaid craisech re crand-scem (leg. -éim: thréin), Metr. Dinds. iii 358.44 . ó rinn crainn-shleighe ` spear-point ', A. Ó Dálaigh xxxii 9 . do scríobh i gcranntáibhlibh 'wooden tablets', Keat. ii 101 . With adjj.: a chraoisioch crann-adhbhal his large-shafted spear, MR xiv 31 . an bachlach crandbriathrach of dull (?) speech, BNnÉ 305 § 19 . go sleaghaibh crann-bhuidhe, CRR² 25 . ablach crannchaem having beautiful trees, Acall. 2738 v.l. doire crannrabhán (= crann + ro + bán), Magauran 436 . cath . . . crann-ruad, ML² 1182 . With vb. gur crannbrissedh a craiseacha, CF 130 .

cristall

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cristall or dil.ie/12988

Forms: cristal, cristann, ā, crisdaile, cristaille, christaill, cristaill, criosdal

n o (Lat. crystallum). Later cristal. ? cristann, Maund. 138 . Appar. as ā, f. in g s. crisdaile, H 2.17, 190 a (cited Meyer Contribb. 520 ). ? cristaille (below). d s. de chrúan ┐ christaill , TBC-LL² 3257 . cristaill, MacCongl. 124.33 . criosdal o, m., IGT Decl. § 11 (53.z.) .

Crystal (material and stone): cloch crisdail gl. hec cristallus, Ir. Gl. 552 . mor do c.¤ ┐ do criadhumha, CCath. 1519 . co sreith cristail, 4705 . fínemna di or . . . cona papib cristall (sic), Alex. 582 . a rosg comhghlas re criosdal, DDána 49.8 . dá geal-ghnúis chriostail, Dánta Gr. 30.17 . lān do gemaib carrmogail ┐ liag lōgmar . . . ┐ cristal, Corm. Y 1059 (94.11) = cristaille ( 23 N 10 ), Wind. Festschr. 19.15 . a ngloine cristail, Fl. Earls 30.8 ; cf. criosdall nó criosdaill .i. iris bhíos as ní, O'Cl. (see 1 iris). Hence taken by Contribb. 520 ) as a compd. cris + tell (recte téll) `suspender'. But O'Cl. may be an inference. See crostáil.

crosad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. crosad or dil.ie/13125

u, m. vn. of crosaid. act of signing with the cross : on crosadh ┐ on coimhsigniuccadh dorinne aran righ, BNnÉ 202.6 . Of taking crusader's cross: ar na crossadh aroen, ┐ ar ná chinnedh dhoibh dul dont sruth, ALC i 254.18 . . . . D. . . . do c.¤ , Ann. Conn. 1227.14 (see note). F. . . . do hec . . . ┐ se iarna c.¤ `having taken the Cross', 1231.7 . a lecud ass iar na crossad dhó dul co hIarusalem `having been crossed to go to J.,' ALC i 234.1 (see n.). Of protecting, making inviolate, hence forbidding: ere ferann ut do beth againd . . . can fuaidred can crosadh, gan sgaíledh ailedh, O'D. 1957 ( Eg. 90, 7(8)a ). Cf. nem-crosadh, 1959 ( 7(8)b ). See fúaitriud. c.¤ mōna is feada denial of access to(?), ACL iii 240.y . gan chengal ag eschoitcionnughadh, nā ag crosadh = Interdict, RSClára 67a . ann ár naghaidh ┐ d'ár gcrosadh, De Imit. 88.1 .

1 dair

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 dair or dil.ie/14250
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: daur, Daur, daro, dair, daro, darach, ralach, daro, dara, darach, darcha, dairrge, dairghe, dhíoṁora, dairgi, dairghe, Daurgabal, Daur-ṡaegul, dair-ḟid, dauruth, daur-gráinne, daurgráne i gráne darach, daurgráinne, dair-imme, dair-mag, dairmess, dair, daire, dara, darach, daraighe

n i & k, daur u, f., earlier neut. (?): dair nduillech, Ériu xxvi 83 § 14 . Daur, gen. daro, is the older, dair, gen. daro, darach the later inflexion ( Thurn. Hdb. 196 ). For the inflexion cf. rail, gen. ralach. In AU the genitive daro (in Cell Daro) continues to 918, after which dara and darach.

I An oak. quercus .i. daur, Sg. 38 a 9 . is clí darach Moysi, Wb. 33 a 5 . uath na darach cnú na darach, Zeuss 260 . hec quercus. dair, Ir. Gl. 554 . quercus .i. in dair, RC ix 240. 4 . gallus autoun ubhall duilli na darach, ACL i 327. 20 (= H 3.15, A 48 a ). airigh feada dair coll cuileand &c. Laws iv 146. 21 ; 148. 18 (commentary). dair. cid dombeir [i]n-airechus hi? a meas ┐ sáire, ib. 148. 26 . díre ndarach, ib. 148. 19 . gabais Fergus...dair mór...assa frémaib, ScM. 18 (in ndaraig móir, Rawl., Hib. Min. 56. 7 ). tópacht and cétbunni darach, TBC-LL¹ 563 . gráne darach, LL 311 b 18 . na daire romóra secha táncamar, ib. 264 b 42 . masa dairi feda feirn as chaill chairn, ib. 265 a 27 . sech rennaib na ndairi, ib. 265 a 20 . ferand lán do dairib dairmessa, ib. 162 b 18 . ba tuairgain darach gho do dhorn(aibh) RC x 335. 14 . fidhbadh...ibair ┐ daraig móra i suidhiu, ib. 72. 2 . maer (i.e. móir) aen inna ndarach mór in gésca, ib. 74. 3 . mes ara dairgibh donnuibh, Acall. 343 . la dairghibh ┐ omnuibh, ZCP i 390. 12 . co ndairghibh, SG 346. 39 . ina ndarachaib, 299. 29 . robenatar dairbre glasdarach CRR 37 . acc dol i ndaraig i ndreim rothuit a daraigh i tein, Anecd. ii 27. 26 . dair dermair cen rúsc cen duille, CCath. 338 . eochrann darach derṁaire, ib. 336 . amal daracho dímóra, Aen. 187 . darcha (a pl.), Bucol. 40 . dairrge, LL 308 a 15 . a dairghe (n pl.) dhíoṁora, Cog. 198. 28 . dairgi dainngne (n pl.) ZCP vi 279. 36 . dairghe (n pl.), Ériu v 60. 27 . co fuaratar cuais darach, LB 247 a 50 . a dhair dhosach dhuilledhach, B IV 1, fo. 88 a . PROV. nirbo hesarguin darach do dorn, Anecd. ii 72. 7 .

II Oak-timber, oak-wood (as material). Usually only in gen. clar ndara idir cach dí caomdai, Laws iv 304. 21 Comm. iana ┐ dromlacha ┐ dabcha darach, ib. v 94. 10 Comm. durrtaigi .i. durthech .i. dairthech .i. tech darach, ib. 102. 27 Comm. co ndernad tech ṅdarach di, LL 280 a 20 . hi tech ndarach, LU 19 a 17 . tech darach co tugi slinned, FB 55 . lán a dá glac lais do lommanaib darach, ib. 81 . ...do dénam na cathrach. Mas do daraig...mas da licc YBL 124 a 8 = Ériu ii 22. 28 . buinne darach, Ériu v 62. 3 .

III The letter d. duir is o chrann rohainmniged, BB 325 a 37 . sealbhadh duir ag dol i nion | ... | sealbhadh tinne ag dol i nduir 'the sealbhadh of d becomes n ... the sealbhadh of t becomes d', Éigse xxxvi 38 § 4 . do duir ┐ do gourt, Auraic. 4324 .

LOC. i nDruimm Daro .i. Druim Lias, Thes. ii 238. 14 . do Druim Dara bali atá indiú Druim Lias, Trip., i 144. 18 . Ess Dara, Acall. 1511 . Cell Dara, ib. 693 . co sanctaib Cille Dara, Trip. 349. 1 . epscop Cille Daro, AU i 40. 6 . abatisa Cille Daro, ib. 436. 5 . Áth na darach caime, Hog. Onom. 67 . iarla Chille Dara, TSh. 152. 7 . Dair-inis Valentia Island : Mael Anfaid na Darinse, LL vi 51768 . Daur-mag, dair-mag, dur-mag, der-mag Durrow CRR p. 127 . Holder 1241 . Onomast.

PERS. Fadb Darach hua Omna, CRR 18 , cf. Daurach. Daurgabal oak-fork LL 328 d 22 . g s. tri meic Daurgabail, ib. 328 upper marg. Daur-ṡaegul oak-age , ib. 23 .

COMPS. dair-ḟid, dauruth an oak-wood , see dair-ḟid, dauruth. daur-gráinne: daurgráne i gráne darach an acorn LL 311 b 18 . daurgráinne, Rawl. 118 a 22 . dair-imme an oaken fence Laws iv 76. 17 . dairime isin -chaill, ib. 28 . dair-mag, v. supra. dairmess acorns, oak-mast . habundantia dairmesa, AU i 236. 1 . co nimad dairṁessa, ALC i 404. 28 . gairid in trét fo dairbri dairmessa, LL 144 b 2 . ferand lán do dairib dairmessa, ib. 162 b 18 . dairmes do degmucaib, ib. 386 a 20 . mag lán dia dairmes, Lib. Flav. 27 a 2 . 44 .

MOD. dair, gen. daire, dara, darach, daraighe.

díbergach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. díbergach or dil.ie/16021

Forms: díbfergach, díbfergach

adj o, ā (díberg). Later also díbfergach.

(a) given to plunder or rapine ; as subst. (o, m.) marauder, freebooter, bandit ( IGT Decl. § 11 ): ben dian d.¤ , Metr. Dinds. iii 4 . fer debthach d.¤ , ACL iii 224 . robo dobur dibhergach, ZCP v 22 § 6 . ní comthéis fri d.¤ , Tec. Corm. § 19 . drú[th] nó d.¤ nó mac mallachta, BColm. 106 . nach tainic a nErinn d.¤ as mó romill anáss (of Strongbow), RC xviii 294 . d.¤ oirdeirc ro bói for slighid Miodhluachra, Mart. Don. 144 . bátar díbergaig . . . trian fer nErend hi flaith Conaire, BDD § 43 . frisna dibergachu, § 66 . na foglaidi ┐ na dibergaigh, RC xiv 38 . dibercaig lóingse pirates , RC ix 454 . in ri marbus na dibergaid ┐ na colachu, YBL 168a11 . ac díchur danar ┐ dibergach a hErinn, Fianaig. 86 . i n-aghaidh díbhfeargach ┐ luchta foghla do dhéanamh, Keat. ii 653 . Of persons engaged in guerilla warfare: ro eirgeattar dibearccaigh iomdha do Gearaltachaibh i n-aghaid na Sasanach, v 1494 (defined in note as an outlawed person given to plunder).

(b) vengeful, vindictive (later meaning, due to association with ferg and written díbfergach): do-ní Dia díoghaltas díbhfeargach orra, TSh. 7333 .

Note also: hec est poena magi uel uotiui si credulus id demergach (leg. id est díbergach, note), Thes. ii 38.24 .

do-armairt

Cite this: eDIL s.v. do-armairt or dil.ie/17186
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: tarmairt, tarmartad

v (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 675 ) found only in pret. (perf. ?) tarmairt, etc.

(a) intended, attempted, was about to (always with notion of non-fulfilment of that which is intended, etc.): regat-sa al-leth tarmartus I will go in the direction I intended, LL 282a25 . tarmurt-sa nemscribend epistle det-siu I had meant not to write, Alex. 825 = tarmart-sa, Anecd. v 2 . tarmmairt Forainn do marbad, SR 3260 . co tarmairt se bar marbad uli, PH 2831 . ó tarmairt in dōibel-drong (sic leg.) | cloch gach aonḟir ina ceann were each about to throw a stone at her, ZCP x 47 . pa hann tarmartatar filidh Falmaighi dol do athchor a chotaig, Anecd. ii 74 . Hence was on the point of, was like to, was nearly: co tarmairt héc cen anmain, SR 1688 . do-rermartatar ind adaig sin cen biadh they were on the point of going without food that night, IT ii1 178 (but see Loinges mac nDuíl Dermait 79 ). tarmartatar inn óig fácbáil a creche (sic leg.) la M. were like to leave their booty, Anecd. ii 62 . tarmairt .i. do mheadhaigh no dofhóbair weighed ( i.e. intended?) or attempted , O'Cl.

(b) As impersonal vb.: indésat scél ima tarmairt fianna Eirenn . . . do mharbad concerning which the fians . . . nearly lost their lives, Acall. 1335 . tarmairt . . . co mbad chuit fiach he was like to be the food of ravens, Ériu iv 94 . t. co múchtais dáine people were well nigh stifled, LL 33b51 = becc ná romúchda dóine, Ériu iv 96 . In pass. (impers. ?): co tarmartad huile a mbás | i cinaid Ammonitas, SR 6735 . co tarmartad a lécud she was on the point of being discarded (by her husband), LU 4282 = LL 145b23 = SG 84 .

do-fuissim

Cite this: eDIL s.v. do-fuissim or dil.ie/17709

Forms: dufuismiu, dofuismim, d., dofhuisim, dufuissemar, dofhuisemar, torsamad, dofuisēmha, dofussema, dofuisémthar, notusémtha, doforsat, doḟorsat, dorōsat, doruasat, dorrōsata, -torsata, tuiste, tuistiu, tuismid, doruisim

v (* to-uss-sem-, GOI p. 526 ). Indic. pres. 1 s. dufuismiu, Thes. i 497.6 ( Ardm. 177b1 ). dofuismim, Sg. 182b2 . 3 s. d.¤ , Ml. 111a13 . (rel.) dofhuisim, Sg. 61a2 . Pass. s. dufuissemar, Ml. 121b6 . (rel.) dofhuisemar, Sg. 61a2 . ? Subj. impf. 3 s. nad torsamad gl. non iam creaverat, Enchir. Aug. 79b ( ZCP vii 483 ). Fut. 2 s. dofuisēmha, Cóir Anm. 251 . 3 s. dofussema, LL 367 marg. sup. Pass. dofuisémthar, Wb. 4c7 . Condit. pass. notusémtha, Three Hom. 56.5 . Perf. 3 s. doforsat, Ml. 17b2 , 6 . doḟorsat (rel.), Sg. 31b5 . dorōsat, 31b2 . PCr. 15a2 ( Thes. ii 225 ). doruasat, SR 7871 , 7977 , etc. Pass. pl. dorrōsata, ZCP xi 94 § 32 . -torsata, Ml. 120c7 , 99a8 .

Part. tuiste. Vn. tuistiu. Cf. ise cét-tustidi Adaim Cain the first-begotten , Lec. 385a20 .

In Mid.Ir. freq. as simple vb. tuismid (cf. perf. 3 s. doruisim, Rawl. 72b5 ). See also tuismigid, tuisnigid, tuistigid. See IGT Verbs §§ 68 , 106 .

I Used for do-essim pours out, pours forth: intan dofuissemar sechtair a síl sin ┐ gainethar hón máthir. . . . is ainm do fructus , Ml. 44a11 . (Of a flagstone) dofuisim husce exudes water, Trip.² 87 . ma tuisim sil comperta tria imradud, Ériu vii 142 § 12 . neuch douisim sil compertae, § 16 (see also s.v. do-essim).

II

(a) begets, generates: is hó Isaác dofuisémthar a sil nairegde, Wb. 4c7 . d.¤ gl. germinantis, Ml. 111a13 . issed a aicned cenéuil ní doḟuisim ┐ dofhuisemar something that generates and is generated (of gender), Sg. 61a2 . Cf. ni ainm ferinnsci no baninsci acht du neoch dufuisium ┐ o tuisimar, Auraic. 565 . mor easba in talman meni tusmedh clanda, 628 . is tre fhír flathemon clanna cáine tusmiter, ZCP xi 83.4 . corothuismiset | trenfir ┐ trenchoraid, SR 2403 . (Of a cleric) ma dufusme clann, Ériu vii 142.19 . cuirp na ndaine ┐ na n-anmanna archena genit ┐ tusmitir dina sílaib deréolaib, RC xxv 252.x . cia lin do chlainn rothusmistar Adam, Rawl. 69a34 . rothusmistair [Cainen] maccu ┐ ingena, Lec. 532a26 . an tathair ór thúismeasdair, 3 C 13, 901.13 . ní rotuismedh ierdraighi . . . etorra, Fl. Earls 192.18 . With prepp.: in tan rothuisim Isaac o Sarra, BB 5a57 . dorusim maccu aili ó Chethura, Rawl. 72b6 . cor toirrcedh Iachtastain . . . gur tusmistar da mac uaithi, D IV 2, 77rb4 . rothuissim Noi tri maccu re siair fesin, Lec. 67a36 .

(b) conceives: cu rothuisim fócetoir ┐ co ruc mac, Lism. L. 4652 . aimbrit side coro thusim in mac amra .i. Samúel, LB 128a27 .

(c) bears, brings forth (offspring): andofuismet gl. parentia, Sg. 69b9 . na sothe .i. ní dofhuisim terra gl. foetus, 64a14 . dofuisēmha mac, Cóir Anm. 251 . tainicc inbhaidh na hingine . . . rothusimh in mac robhui 'na broinn, Lism. L. 2830 . isin aidchi sin rothuisim a ben ingin do, Anecd. iii 73.22 . rotusimh . . . a toirrchus for chenn na blai, CF x 35 ( LL 379a ). tofuisim a mbanscál mac cind nói mís, RC ix 454.9 . rothuisim sidhi dias cloindi do, xiii 9.6 . láir trogais (.i. tusmis) dí lurchure (.i. dá serrach), IT i 138 (berid, v.l.). arróet Iosep . . . noem Muire . . . co ro-thusim a mac prim-geni till she brought forth her first-born, PH 6917 . in Bethil Iúda . . . cathair . . . in ro-tusmed Isu Crist, 6936 . rotusmit geni torotharda imda, CCath. 891 . asé in mac thusmes [in cétben] is oigri air, Marco P. 67 . ba derbh lais nar tusmedh ┐ nach tusmighfe nech oca mbiadh cēt sūil, 125 . ni thusmidter gein innti nach scribhthar a ainm, 140 . gur thusmighset in da rigain cona cumalaib da mac dec, BB 5b28 . is inunn gradh ata agum duid ┐ don mathair romtuisme, Lib. Flav. ii 5ra39 . ní rotuismedh clann . . . dó, Fl. Earls 222.9 . a chlann ar tús sul tuismid | gnath dho dealbad áruisnid (of the pelican), O'Gr. Cat. 461.8 . Note also: dobhí . . . ben Aonghuis torrach . . . ┐ dogabhadh no gur tuismedh í until she was delivered, Rel. Celt. ii 162.20 .

III

(a) creates, fashions: amal as messe dudaforsat inna duli gl. qui conditor operum meorum sum, Ml. 94b7 . huare asmbeirsom as ṅduil dæ dodaforsat inna ídlu, 130a6 . duforsaisset gl. creavere, 110a8 (but perh. for duforásaisset, see note). cid torbae ara torsata . . . duli, 120c7 . ba bithnuagud inid torsat Dia in which God created him (i.e. Adam), Laws i 129 . he donrosat do nephní, SR 7518 . in rí doruasat cech cri, 7871 . ri . . . dorósat gréne goho, 8098 . do chomdelbaid . . . tú doru[a]ssat, 2174 . na huili anmanna . . . dodosrosat mo nóebrí, 1110 . flaith . . . dorúasat bith, Imr. Brain § 27 . ónd ríg do rea rúasat who has created the spaces, § 48 (see Ériu viii 99 ). ba dia dheilbh ┐ a chosmailius doforsat, Ériu ii 132 § 105 . do atluchud dond Ríg dorúasat túarai who created food, iii 102 § 31 . in Fiada find . . . | domrosat fo baithis, Trip.² 1632 . fri fer dososat (leg. dorosat) hec omnia .i. Dia, Laws i 22.21 . ma rothusmis na huli do nefní tria bréthir, PH 4796 . ro-hícc Dia in ni nar thusmestar ar tús .i. na súile, 2295 . is aendia donrosat dia réir, Alex. 880 . rotusim Dia in duni fo imaigin foden, Lec. 528b14 . rotuisim Dia bleidmili mora muridi, 528ay 0 . is tusca rotusmed tu fen oltas Adam, MacCarthy 50.15 .

(b) founds, establishes: Romuil dorosat ciuitatem , PCr. 15a2 ( Thes. ii 225 ). Cicrops dorósat in cathraig, Sg. 31b2 . andoforsat condens , BCr. 40d1 ( Thes. ii 28 ). im chumachtu ór thuismestar aicned na n-dúl (= virtus qua condidit . . .), FA § 1 (LB). on chetna oenuch Olimp co rotusmed Roim, Rawl. 73b23 . ratusmed Róm ar indróe, LL 144a6 . contuilem i n-uamaib amail dorosait Dia dún, Alex. 886 (dosratait, v.l., cf. Anecd. v 4.4 ). lenmait isnaib rechtaib donrosat Dia has established for us, 899 .

(c) produces, engenders (fig.), causes: robu dufuissemar gl. aut æditur (= ēditur), Ml. 121b6 . cid dofuisim guth .i. cred tuismis no coimedus in guth? what generates word? O'Dav. 988 . lesmac .i. lis-mac .i. arindi dofuissim [lis] don fiur nō don mnái because he is a begetter of strife, Corm. Y 798 .

Intrans. arises (fig.): ar cach cenel labhartha dotuisim ar beolu duine, Auraic. 1952 (dohuisimar, v.l.). Cf. rothusim o Cham na cnead | deich primcenela fichet, Lec. 75a14 .

fáthacda

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fáthacda or dil.ie/21358

Forms: faithechda

adj io-iā oracular, prophetic: possessing knowledge, accomplished, expert: in scriptúir fáthacdai `of the prophets' PH 4054 . il-lébraib in rechta fáthacda, 5731 . Iarunngléo Fáthach .i. bád fathemail ... ┐ bád fathagdai in fer sin, Cóir Anm. 95 . in rig ina roibe spirut fathacdai (of David) LB 221a60 . rogab in fers fhathacda: ne tradas, Domine, Trip. 450.5 = faithechda ` prophetic ' Lat. Lives 51 . gabhu[i]s F. in fersa fathachda Hec requies mea Lism. L. 2656 . in taircetal fathachta, Cog. 922 . ro chuaidh im-munighin a feasa fáthachda (of a sooth-sayer), CCath. 1004 ( ¤accda v.l.). filidh fathacdha, Anecd. ii 50.6 . co foclaib fáthacdaib (sic leg.), ACL iii 218.6 .

fo-lámathar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fo-lámathar or dil.ie/23073

Forms: fomlámas

v (-láimethar ? Cf. ro laimethar)

I Attempts, is about to: folamadar [Patraic] congbail i nArd P. fris-tudchaid do as D., Trip. 208.4 ( folamatair, 2433 ). folamastar fedlegud hi toeb C. ... ┐ ni relged dó, 200.21 ( folámastar, 2356 ). folamustar P. congbail oc Áth M., 78.11 ( .i. ro sandtaigestar, ACL iii 20 ). fólóimetár a béim they essay to smite him LU 7678 ( BDD 126 ; foloimetar, foloimmetar, folaimtis v.l.). ata lim ... nech folimathar for mbrethugud who will undertake to judge you LU 9004 ( FB 75 ). eircid ... cussin fer felimathar for n-etrain, LU 8473 ( FB 33 ; rot lemather, Eg. Perhaps the LU forms are corruptions of -lilmatar, cf. Strachan's note on Ml. 69b3 , ZCP iii 482 ). cid fotlaimthersu ? ni ansa: i mmag n-aesa, RC xxvi 24z ( Rawl. 109a41 ). cid folaimthersu ?...hi sl[iab] na ngrad, Rawl. 109b8 = RC xxvi 26 (fotlaimther so) whither art thou striving (?). ni ḟolamair Conall tichtu dia thomailt ar immed na n-ecrut did not venture Rawl. 126b21 . In: ni forlamair ... feis la hE. ar omon Con Culaind, ZCP iii 252y the verbal form seems artificial, the corresponding passage RC xi 448 has nis lamair ind rí.

Cf. ara falmaider ardchricha Cuind thou shalt assail (?) Rawl. 125b13 .

II Comes near to, is in danger of: Cf. folamadair P. co ngabad cathair P. was fain to (?), or was near (?) Trip. 112.8 (1270) . con folmaissiur derchoiniu[d] I was near despairing Ml. 50d8 . folamustair uile-thotaim it nearly collapsed Trip. 148z (1736) . conusfalmastair héc de, Alex. 164 (= comba tanase bais doib, BB 490a3 ). Here probably: co folmastar cach díb aidid a chéle they came near to killing one another (?) LU 8263 ( FB 20 ). co folmaiset ind fir comergi debtha dorísi, LU 8419 ( FB 29 ). Cf. folaimtis a guin, BDD 19 H (ṅguin cet.).

In: fomlámas bádud fo thri (gl. ter naufragium feci) Wb. 17d4 . (`drowning threatened me' Thes.; `drowning impended over me' GOI § 708 ). the verb is perhaps pret. 1 s. with refl. pron. Cf. RC xxvi 24 cited above under I. But Thurn. l.c. takes it as pret. pass.: `s has spread beyond its original limits'.

Cf. 1 folmaisse.

fri

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fri or dil.ie/24329
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: frimm, rimm, frim, frím, frium, frimsa, friumsa, frit, fritt, friutt, fritsu, rut, rutt, fris, friss, frissom, f., frie, friae, frise, frie, frinn, rinn, rind, friunn, riund, frind, frinni, raindi, frinnai, frib, frithib, fribsi, friu, friú, friu, friü, frithiu, friithu, friusom, riom, rum, riot, rut, ris, ria, rinn, ruinn, ribh, ruibh, riú, r, frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar, fria, frim, frim, frim, ram, frit, frit, frit, rit, rat, rot, friar, friar, fribar, fribar, fria, fria, fria, re-na, rena, fria, fris(s)a, frisi-, risi-, fris-, ris-, frismbiat, fris-mbruchta, fris, fris, fris, risa, frisin-, frisnid, risnad, ris, fria, frisa, re n-, fria-, re, ra-n-adh, re, re, ré, freisin, FRI

prep. with acc. For etymology see Thurneysen, GOI § 839 , Fraser ZCP viii 37 , J. E. C. Williams, Celtica iii 126 . In later spelling prefixes h- to following initial stressed vowel; does not leníte following consonant (cf. frinna aill, Sg. 45a16 . fri nnach ..., Ml. 75a9 , fri nnech 23c20 ; but fri nech further on in same gloss and regularly elsewhere); the initial s- of the article following fri is preserved. In Middle Irish gradually replaced by the forms RI, RE (already in Ml: oc eregim re Abisolon, 44b4 , cf. fre, 90c27 ); RA (common in some LL texts, see CRR 54 , TBC-LL¹ 499 , 602 , 740 , etc.); rarely RO ( SR 1990 ZCP xiii 204 15 ); FRIA, RIA, RE also common. Hence in Early Mod. Ir. there is occasionally confusion with , RÍA `before', see Bergin's note Stor. Keat. p. xix , and section IX (e) below. Apart from this the latter prep. sometimes replaces FRI after fáilid, fáilte and kindred words (as in Mod. Ir.). On the parallelism of some of the pronominal forms of FRI with those of LA see GOI l.c. (with Translator's n. 178 ). Though FRI still appears in some later texts, especially those of the archaising type, it had become obsolete in the classical language. Its later form (RI, RE) remains down to the end of the Early Mod. period and is recognized by the grammarians as distinct from LE (LA), see IGT, Introd. § 75 , 24 P 8, 194 ( IGT VI , Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ). In the modern spoken lang. it is replaced partly by LE, partly by CHUN (O.-Ir. dochum). For a contrary development cf. Engl. `with,' originally `against,' which has absorbed the functions of A.S. mid `(together) with.'

In development of meaning generally FRI shows a remarkable parallelism with Engl. ` with '; it also agrees with ` against ' in several senses.

Forms: With suff. pron.

sg. 1 frimm St. Paul Codex Thes. ii 298.17 . rimm, IT i 123.24 . frim, SR 1422 , 2049 . LU 5228 . LL 110b26 . frím Ml. 38c19 . frium, Ml. 71b9 . frimsa, Wb. 26d17 . Ml. 33a18 . friumsa, Ml. 127a2a .

2 frit, Wb. 5a31 . 10a29 ; Ml. 103d14 . SR 1425 . fritt LL 93a10 . 249b1 . friutt, PCr. 62b2 (= ḟrit, Sg. 151a3 ). fritsu Ml. 91d8 . 112b8 . rut, SR 2031 IT i 123.15 . rutt, LL 110b27 .

3 m., n. fris, Wb. 14c37 . 15a1 . 22c15 . ACL iii 304 [: [Mael] mis]. (: eisleis). SR 6109. 6317 . ([mēt] anfis) LL 33b21 . friss, Wb. 2c24 . 3c6 . 6a4 . 8a12 . 14d22 ; Ml. 91a21 . frissom Wb. 5d39 .

f.¤ frie, Sg. 72b1 . Ml. 40c15 . 67d15 . friae, 130c9 . Wb. 28a20 . cf. frise, Ml. 74c21 , which Ascoli corrected to frie ( Thes. i 722b ).

pl. 1 frinn, Wb. 4b12 . 17b10 . 19d22 . rinn, Ml. 54a3 . SR 1821 . rind, SR 1905 (: herḟi[o]nd). friunn, Ml. 38d20 . riund TBC-LL¹ 1874 . frind, LL 177b39 . frinni, Wb. 17b32 . 17c5 ; Ml. 32c15 . 93a13 . 106c12 . raindi, BColm. 68.9 . frinnai Ml. 91c9 . 114a8 .

2 frib, Wb. 17b16 . 22d9 . 24d26 . cf. frithib, Ériu iv 162.13 . fribsi, Wb. 14c42 . 17b14 .

3 friu, Wb. 4a10 . 4c37 . 24a4 ; Ml. 54c23 , 72b22 , 110c9 . LL 35a21 (: fiú) friú, Wb. 17b9 . Ml. 74a2 , diss. friu, Hy. V. 54 , cf. friü: at-chiü, ACL iii 294 § 10 ; frithiu, Blathm. 94 § 17 ; friithu, LU 4671 (see further GOI 515 ). friusom, Wb. 20c25 ; Ml. 17c5 , 54c18 ; 26 .

For forms found in later texts see citations below.

In the Early Mod. Grammatical Tracts the forms given are: riom, rum; riot, rut; ris; ria; rinn, ruinn; ribh, ruibh; riú, r, 24 P 8 194 ( Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ).

With following poss. pron.: frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar, fria, e.g. frim ort. Wb. 29d2 . frim peccad, 28a14 . frim foraithmet, Ml. 23d9 ; ram anmain, TBC-LL¹ 3692 (rem St.). frit adrad su, Ml. 136c11 . frit c[h]ele, 70d2 ; frit laim, SR 5854 . rit láim, TBC-LL¹ 3055 . rat láma, 3052 . rot chlaind, SR 2031 . friar corp, Wb. 15c22 . friar fochric, 33a9 ; fribar n-ícc, Wb. 24b3 . fribar pecthu, 13b19 ; fria mbriathra, Wb. 31b30 . In Mid. Ir. the form `fria' is often used for the simple prep., hence occas. fria a = prep. + 3 s. pron. In Early Mod. Ir. 3 s. and pl. form re-na sometimes appears: rena ardnaem, BCC § 12 (see III c below). fria n-a, Fl. Earls 214.4 . Cf. the n- prefixed to poss. after le, ó, tre in Mod. Irish.

With rel. pron.: O. Ir. fris(s)a n ...; Mid. Ir. also frisi-, risi-, fris-, ris-: frismbiat, Sg. 202b3 . fris-mbruchta, Fél. June 21 . fris n-agar, E. 406 . fris-reith, Prolegomena 302 . fris-tarddam, Thes. ii 293.19 . risa n-abar, Acall. 53 , etc. With cop. frisin-, frisnid, risnad ail, LB 257b9 . ris na duthracht 256a44 . fria ndechraiged (= frisa nd.) Sg. 28a14 may be a mistake. In later MSS. the form re n- becomes common: fria-cosmailend, PH 7674 . re ndubairt, 7464 . ra-n-adh KMMisc. 156. 124 . re n-abar, Acall. 1241 , etc. re rāiter, Ériu viii 139.4 . ré raibhe, Keat. ii 4467 , etc.

Composition.

(a) In vn. and prototonic verbal forms, before a vowel, frith-; before a cons. fre-, e.g. frecre, fretech; with syncope of a follg. vowel, fres-, e.g. frescsiu, fresndid, fresndís, fresngabal. In Glosses fri is often used in compos. with a vb. to represent Lat. ob-. Later frith- is used before cons. with or without lenition of following cons.: see frithgnam, frithsét, etc.

(b) In deuterotonic verbal forms fris-; before an infixed pron. in rel. construction frith- or friss-: fritum-chomart-sa (= frith-dum-) Wb. 33a12 ; but friss-idn-oirctis, Ml. 39a20 (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 147 and cf. Strachan's OIPG⁴ ed. Bergin, p. 27 n. 2 ).

SYNOPSIS OF MEANINGS.

N.B.—The classification is perforce somewhat arbitrary as, perhaps in the majority of instances, the meaning could derive from the original sense in I. Cf. J. E. C. Williams Celtica iii 122 ff .

I Of local relations

(a) towards, facing, turned to ;

(b) against (touching; cf. d); alongside, down along, by ;

(c) against (implying violent or hostile action);

(d) next to, at, in contact with (cf. b).

II To express association, along with, beside (both of local and mental relations).

III To express figurative direction

(a) aim, purpose (cf. VI), frequently of function, specific purpose;

(b) after adj. in sense of Lat. gerund or with ad or supine in -u;

(c) to express direction of feelings, behaviour towards (cf. I a);

(d) of prayer, etc. to ;

(e) of opposition to, hostile feeling, attitude towards ;

(f) to express protection, guard, watch against, also limitation, boundary;

(g) in elliptical sentences with these meanings.

IV

(a) after adjs., nouns or verbs expressing resemblance, equality or comparison;

(b) to express difference, distinction from .

V

(a) with respect to, with regard to ;

(b) on account of:

(c) on behalf of ;

(d) according to, in agreement with (cf. II).

VI To denote occasion

(a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. verb or equivalent;

(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on which something takes place.

VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion of .

VIII

(a) to denote agent;

(b) to denote instrument through, by means of .

IX In expressions of time

(a) in O.-Ir. in locatival sense;

(b) to denote period during which something continues or takes place;

(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place;

(d) of point of time;

(e) used for RIA ` before .'

X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs.

A classified list of the instances in Wb is given by Fraser ZCP viii 37 ff .

I Of local relations

(a) towards, facing, turned to: do rosc frisna nemdaib = looking heavenward SR 1604 . a n-aiged fri Dia facing God LU 2048 ( FA 12 . Cf. III c). a lām chlē fri muir the sea on their left SR 4074 (see lám). do cumlaiset for fairgi ┐ dochorsatar aurlunn fri tir, Corm. Bodl. s.v. prull . bai D. 'sa druim fri fraig D. had his back to the door SR 6053 . is amlaid bai in gilla ┐ a druim fria thigerna, TBC-I¹ 2327 (see druim(m)). Ethne ... fria chossa E. (standing) at his feet (i.e. at the foot of the bed) LU 3300 ( SCC 10 ). Carpre ... 's a hucht ra hág, LL 32b49 (see ucht). a druim re dimsachaib, a des fri deiblenaib, ZCP viii 204 § 26 . an let[h] bis rinne don rē the side of the moon turned towards us ITS xiv 90.19 . fri bun cruche at the foot of the gallows Mon. Tall. § 1 . síl nÁdhuimh ... re sáluibh a senathar at the heels of (i.e. following) Ériu iv 118 § 33 . níor chubaidh tigearna ... d'ḟágbáil re caladh on the beach [i.e. when about to land; perh. fig. cf. beirid i gcaladh brings to safety, see 1 calad] viii 139.23 . dā traig .x. ... a [sic leg.] fot fri dún its length towards the stockade (of the internal slope of an earthen rampart) Laws iv 336.23 . dā dúncladh ... ré dá taebh na clasach along both sides of the fosse CCath. 1747 . ní thurcaibh crand ... cét míle fria taebhaibh within a hundred miles from (lit. towards) its sides Marco P. 11 [cf. the temporal use IX (c)]. See also phrases s.v. agad, ais, enech, gnúis, sáil, taeb, ucht.

This use is regular in Old-Ir. in stating relative position: fri Grecia aniar ... fri Etáil anáir west of Greece ... east of Italy Wb. 6d17 . fri Alpai ndesiu (gl. cisalpina) Sg. 217b8 . frie anall ... frie desiu (gl. ultra ... citra) 71b1 , 2 . fri Ath F.D. desiu, TBC-I¹ 2183 . frie anechtair outside it Ml. 40c15 . fri Pardus amuich outside Paradise SR 111 . ra chuala sa fri hEmain andess I heard it (as I was) to the south of Emain LU 5056 . altoir fri dorus antuaid, SR 4261 [cf. la taeb ind rigthaige aniar, LL 3810 (30a) ]. a mmag fris anair the plain in front of him LL 122a33 . co ndechaid [in gai] triana chend ┐ co ro marb nónbur ris aníar behind him 121a21 . frit aniar, LU 4134 . is e a chorp in taitneamach rit anall the shining one opposite thee RC xxiv 60 . Also fig. : foscichret i crandchor ... fáicebthair Lugaid fris anechtair they will cast lots for it... L. will be left out of the chance RC xiii 444x ( LL 289b8 ). See also s.v. lám (fri l.).

It is doubtful whether: i mbae neach fri hopair immuig BB 362a21 (= Dinds. 20 ) is an instance of this construction; the literal meaning here is was anyone at a work outside ? The Rennes `amuig' is perhaps merely a late spelling.

After verb or vn.: tan turcbad E. a di láim fri Coimdid nime, SR 5085 . suidig do da laim fri ... clasp thy hands (in prayer) to ... 1606 . rosecroth a chend frisin slúag brandished his (severed) head at the host LU 5269 . crothad in chind frisin slóg, 5280 . donnochtat a mbruinni fris bared their bosoms to him 5199 . rochoraig fri tenid he arranged [them] before the fire RC xiii 6.21 . roscóraig gnúis fri gnúis (see gnúis) LU 2046 ( FA 12 ).

Cf. tuídhleach ind óir frisin ngréin the glistening of the gold against the sun BDD 1 . crand airgit ris tatin grían LU 3700 ( SCC 33 ).

(b) against (touching), alongside, down along by: doesetar ┐ a nglūne fri talmain, TBC-I¹ 3164 . éc fri hadart death against a pillow i.e. a natural death Lib. Hymn. i 62.72 (see adart). fri etnu dam ... bátár fedmand la firu Herend = [till then] the loads had been harnessed to the foreheads of the oxen LU 10816 (= Ériu xii 178 ). tennait a n-ette fria curpu press their wings against their sides LU 2281 ( FA 33 ). cf. doimmaircet ind eoin a n-ette friu ┐ a cossa can scibud ette ná cosse co tairic in precept the birds fold their wings, etc. LU 1361 . dosnimthasa i llai a broit fri a bruinde `gathered her to his bosom in the fleece of his cloak' Ériu xii 154y . co tard a druim frisin liic leaned his back against the stone LU 3284 ( SCC 8 ). dossleced fria thoeb he let them (i.e. his arms) fall to his sides SR 5091 = no thimoirced a lama fria thoeb, LB 124b29 (cf. LU 1361 above).

In local sense of attached to or pending from: úathroic ... cona cimais do banór fria having a fringe LU 6421 . beilge óir friu golden bits on them TBFr. § 3 . srian ... fria graig, LU 3649 . Cf. srian do thabairt fria thoil to bridle his passion PH 4990 (see srían). Cf. la I (a).

Here perhaps: i ngialnai fri fraigid in hostage-ship at the wall LU 7015 ; 7295 ( BDD 66 ; 94 ). (of the brazen serpent, Numbers xxi 9 :) turgabar fri crann ... uasin [t]slúag fri sirsellad let it be hung on a pole to be gazed at SR 4163 .

Cf. an carracc ard ar cuiretar ... an Tigerna da teilgen ría sís to cast him down from it Maund. 106 . tuitim sioss re beinn an ailt, Fl. Earls 86z .

(c) against (implying violence or hostility; cf. III e): rop saiget húan fri demnai, Hy i 20 . friu conuccaib ind oub, Hy v 54 . conéracht Glaiss Ch. friu the stream C. rose against them (= to bar the way) LU 5362 . Cf. conocbath in carpat fris ... ┐ concligtis ind h[e]ich fris the chariot would tilt up before him and the horses would spring at him Ériu vi 134.21 . bēim a cinn fri cloich, Ml. 139c3 . beim cind fri hall, LL 225b38 (see benaid). esarcain cind fri hallib, 176b33 . aiges (feras) in tond frisin mbruach, Anecd. i 12.19 (21) . cf. FB 44 , see fri. See also phrases with cúl, druim(m), lám).

(d) next to, at: folt dond fri toind a chind, folt croderg iar n-airmedon, LU 2564 . dond fri toind cind, 6542 . lene de sról ... i custul fri gelcnes ... dó, 6296 . léne ... sita fria gelchnes, 1810 . cona luirigh ... ria cnes ... ┐ lethan sciath fria gualaind, Stair Erc. 1243 . In this use frequent with ais, cnes, taeb.

II To express association, along with, beside (of local or mental relations, cf. V d): ní bí friu hi comasndeis it is not with them in apposition Sg. 212a5 . in tan mbís nihelas do .u. fri .g. when u is silent beside g, 6b11 . nobiad fri femen `it would be [used] with the feminine' 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them' 215a5 (cf. biit remsuidigthi ... cen briathra leo ib. 6). See also s.v. comṡuidigud. is tabarthi `bonum est' fri cechtar in da fersa so, Ml. 112d1 . cen tabairt anman trén fríu, 30a9 (see do-beir). ni bai crand dond indsi fri aroile (i.e. the walls were shattered) Anecd. i 2.5 . ar choibnius frisna comaccomla sa, Sg. 203a10 . in oentid fri Crist, Wb. 15a12 . ni ba suair[c] comlepaid no comaentu frissi, TBC-LL¹ 2079 (fris St) In: ni reid bith fris im longud no im ligi, LU 5957 , the meaning may be different; see atá (fri). toeb fri toeb ata in ri is Eocho F. side by side LU 2839 (see taeb). comaitecht re hairdrigh, ZCP viii 116.5 . méraid ra cách a chumne TBC-LL¹ 740 (here perhaps: meraid hua chlaind fri claind Ml. 100b4 ). is frit mo chairde `with Thee is my compact' Fél. Ep. 534 . (see cairde). iar corai fri I. after making a pact with I. SR 5946 . Cf. córe fri Dia, Wb. 2d16 . is core doib fribsi (gl. salutate invicem) 18b19 . bad chore dúib friu, 7b4 ; - 14 (`lit. let it be peace to you towards them' Thes., but the original meaning of córe points to `with' as the sense of the prep. here). Cf. also: biid pax libsi fri cách (gl. cum omnibus hominibus pacem habentes) 5d33 .

Here probably: isi no beired teora pōc fria cach copān ... dō, TBC-I¹ 2218 . Cf. further: hi cocetul fri Eman in unison with Hib. Min. 4.12 . do dlommad E. is A. ... fri gorta, SR 1419 . ara toimlid fri sid sain | toirthi Parduis, 1085 . taed as fri sidh ┐ fri subha `let him go ... in peace and happiness' AFM 979 .

In this sense with verbs of joining, connecting, also occasionally with verbs of motion and in nominal phrases, such as imma llé fri, immaróen fri, see s.v. , óen (cf. Ériu xiv 142 n . ) also cos, taeb.

In: crithnaigset ... immar bocsimin fri sruth the meaning of the prep. is doubtful. curtar a fuigill re sruth ┐ re fairgi `be the remnant cast out to be carried off by the sea-tide' O'Gr. Cat. 182w . Cf. perhaps: Drochet Atha do dhul re sruth `D. was carried away by the flood' ALC i 260.7 , though these may be exx. of the confusion of re (FRI) with le (LA). curcas fri sruth, FB 44 ; `against a stream' Strachan ZCP iii 419 . Cf. Ériu i 194.4 . See 1 téit and la I (d).

Passing into sense in addition to: tris fer friu (gl. te tertium) Sg. 2a5 . cethri chet bliadan ... a noe sechtmogat fri sein, Rawl. 68b31 ( ZCP iii 18 ). Cf. is fri ni dona salmaib dognid a figild, Mon. Tall. § 5 . fris sin moreover, besides , Leb. Gab.(i) i 88.1 . Hugh Roe 114.1 (f. 30b) . Cf. mod. freisin. For a special sense of with see Mon. Tall. cited under V (d).

III To express fig. direction (cf. V a);

(a) aim, purpose, freq. of function, specific purpose: cen nech dim chlaind frim foraithmet to preserve my memory Ml. 23d9 . ce notechtad ilgotha fri inchosc in mrechtraid sin `that it should possess many sounds to express that variety' Sg. 197a11 . ní fris arícht fri slond persine it was not for that it was invented, to signify person ib. (cf. cid arna airecht pronomen ... dia ṡlund, 198b3 ). in bríg frissa ndéntar a saithar sin the value for which that labour is performed Wb. 11a9 . am loor fri cach reit (gl. ego ... dedici, in quibus sum, sufficiens esse) 24b16 . altoir ... | fri loscud n-edpart an altar for burning [ = on which to burn] offerings SR 4162 . dá magh ... do ṡlaidhi ... co rabad do grés fri geilt do ceithrib ┐ fri trebad do daīnib, Ériu xii 150.6 . primepscop ... accu fri huirdned a n-oessa graid, fri coisecrad a n-eclas ┐ fri hanmchairdes do ḟlaithib, etc. Ériu i 218.2 . sechtmoga fer fria cobair to aid them SR 4196 . drong ngilla ... fri timthirecht, 6280 . ra ergitar ... dalemain fri dail, LL 173a27 ( CRR 13 ). mōr salm | fri hindarba plāg-tedmann, BColm. 70.8 . slóged hi crích ... fri indnaide slogid tairse a hosting into a country to delay a hosting (coming) across it Críth G. 511 . fergniae fri forngaire ndoirseo, 591 . In this sense perhaps in: fót fri haltóir, see 1 fót (d). pars de feoil fri foimtin terci as a precaution against scarcity Mon. Tall. § 12 . Here perhaps: dognith Saul intleda ... fri Duaid used to lay snares against D. Ml. 30a3 . techt do Roim ... fri foglaim n-ecnai, Trip.² 241 . roairis re sloind senchasa he remained to relate Ériu iv 152.6 [or remained relating ? See VI (a)]. cid frisi farcbad int id for what end the withe was left LU 4752 (= cid imma ndernad int id, TBC-LL¹ 597 ). cid frisindrolais in cloich why hast thou thrown the stone ? LU 5092 . o tancamair friss `since we have come for it' ( = for that purpose) Fél. 72.24 (cf. inní imo tainic ib. 30 ). co ndernur inní fris tánac LU 4347 . Cf. doluid Saul fri tāirsin David i fus, SR 5959 . lurech imme ... fri cathugud, SR 5757 . treb Leue ... immon eclais fria immarchur, 4883 . docúaidh B. frissan umaloitt sin gusin muilenn `on that service' BNnÉ 26 § 19 . téit féin re toisc ┐ re túrus a crichaib na hEspáine on business CCath. 1806 , cf. do chuaidh gach aon rea dtoisgibh ┐ rea dturasaibh féin, ML 26x (= le tosgaib fein, ML² 347 ). The follg. perhaps are elliptical: the idea represented is anticipating, forestalling: dogniad pars de feoil fre terci do t[h]ecmong = as a provision against the occurrence of scarcity Mon. Tall. § 12 . do na .u. gaiscedaib dec no bitís ... hi tegluch C. fri maidm n-airm no fri gabáil ngasced do neoch LU 5046 . Cf. Fél. Nov. 14 cited VI b.

(b) after adjs. in sense of Lat. gerund with ad or supine in -u: leiscc .i. fri fognam, Wb. 31b23 . conid mesc fria rim so that it is confusing to count it LU 4794 . ba gnim ṅdangen fri himluad, SR 7229 . ingnad fria innisin, LU 2074 ( FA 15 ). adhbal rea n-innisi prodigious to recount ZCP viii 204 § 26 . cenco beth ... and acht C. ba lór fri immarbaig, LL 107a19 ( Ériu iv 28 ). lia iná rúainne ... re n-áireamh, IGT, Decl. ex. 1201 . Cf. atait ... re a ttaispenadh go follus are plainly to be seen Fl. Earls 50.12 . In this use modern Irish has le (LA).

(c) to express direction of feelings; behaviour towards, after nouns or adjs., both of persons and things (cf. I a and V a): conroib deserc leu fri cách, Wb. 26d22 . fáilte fri noíbu, 7b2 (see fáilte). ar formut fribsi, 12c29 (see format and formtech). ropat ḟáilti frimsa, Fél. Dec. 18 (see fáilid). hissel fri hard, sleman fri garb, ZCP iii 447z . anmne fri fochaidi, 449.15 (see ainmne). mailli fri cloc slowness at (answering) the bell ib. 21 . dána fri tōla tromsluaig daring in face of an army SR 5778 . uair ná dernsam huimli fri forngaire, 1854 . ar gart friu for generosity to them ZCP viii 313.12 . créd nach frim atā a maithe ? why is not their bounty bestowed on me ? ACL iii 296 § 38 . ní ar maith friu it is not for their good Wb. 4b37 . ar ulc friu, Ml. 72b22 . tar aesi n-uilc huai[m] se friusom, 74a2 (see also s.v. maith, olc). bad chert do cluchi frim play fair with me LU 5228 . ar ngabáil bāide ... dō rena ardnaem having conceived affection for his high saint BCC § 12 . lére duit frí ríg ngréne ┐ réde fri doíni, Ériu i 193 . is buide linn frib (gl. rogamus vos) Wb. 25a39 (see 2 buide). is maith robai Dia rind, SR 1905 . ní maith ro mbátar frim they have not treated me well LU 4891 . Cf. is maith ro ngabus fritt, TBFr. § 11 . bad faitig frisin foirin sin (gl. observate eos) Wb. 24a23 (see faitech). bid cennuis a gnuis risin lucht ra-nadh (= frisndid) rathmar to whom he is gracious KMMisc. 156.124 . in maith frit menma ind airdríg whether the king is well-disposed to thee SR 6114 . ba fearr di frib menma bar mathar, RC xxiv 56 ( YBL 206a47 ). Cf. is beite duit menma fris `thou must take heed of him' Ériu xii 176.16 . Similarly in expressions like: do-gní maith (trócaire, etc.) fri (see do-gní). nech no comaildfed fir fer frimb uime RC xiii 29.6 .

(d) of prayer, etc. to: irnigde fri Dia, Wb. 4d18 . cf. abstanait fri Dia, PH 4988 . ro throiscset ... fri Dia im a ḟurtacht, 7258 (see troiscid). im aīne fri Dia cora faillsigthi dō ... fasting towards God, that ... might be revealed to him Ériu v 120.12 . Similarly: frit, a rí ..., mo dēr | conom thī ... Mīchēl, SR 2091 . co ndēraib frisin coimdid, PH 6292 . (cf. use with ad-teich). cossoít a thuaithe fri Dia, Wb. 5a23 (see cosaít). Here, perhaps, should come such expressions as the following: ar Christ frit, aithirigh pēin dam, Cáin Ad. 13 . ar do chubus riut, a ingen, crét tuc ort ?, Acall. 6012 . ar bar cubus rib..., crét..., 5476 . ar fir do chubais riut..., 5824 . cf. 4544 . ar t'ḟírinne riutsa, nā furáil, CCath. 1659 .

(e) of hostile feeling, attitude, conduct towards: fri aicned contrary to nature Wb. 2c25 . ba fri aicned ... in talam ... do indluch, Ml. 129d8 . frisin n-uall (gl. adversum inflationem mentis) 68c1 . trifar pecthu fri Dia through your sins against God 115b8 . Common after verbs of opposing, hindering, fighting: hóre nád comeicnigther nech fri toil no one is constrained against [his] will Wb. 28b1 . tuidecht fri toil Dé resistance to God's will 4c23 (see do-tét). cf. o dorala ... | frim thala mac I. | duit ... | niba céle SR 6014 , where opposition seems implied despite the similar phrase cited below under V (d). soud a gnuso fri nech frisa mbi ferc do (gl. ne auertas [faciem tuam] a me Ml. 47d8 (`to turn his countenance from one against whom he cherishes anger' Thes., but surely `fri nech' here must also mean either against ... or towards ... ? See soïd). fergach fris Fíadu, SR 6837 . iar ndebaid do fri Duid, 6994 . na cathaig frim do not contend with me 2877 . ni sirsan do Ch. a n-imned i tá a óenur fri firu Herend not happy for C is the trouble in which he is, alone against the men of E. LU 5995 . Cf. do thoitim fria Cu | ba dirsan sad that thou shouldst fall by [ = fighting against] C. (?) TBC-I¹ 2715 (see also III g). Mairg fris ticfa a ḟerg ... Mairg ticfa re cert, Fen. 200 (see do-icc). ar bruc fris `in displeasure at him' Mon. Tall. § 58 . namthi garga fri sluagh nA., ACL iii 297 § 55 . atat frim hi cotarsnai, SR 1520 . Cf. ni bia th'anim fri fugall | ind ríg hí laithiú brótho, Ériu i 196 § 13a . With adj.: cotarsne fri Dia, Wb. 26a18 . is torcda ┐ is díchéill notaí frim, LU 10831 (= Ériu xii 172 ). is bairnech mo menma frit, LU 10832 (= ib.). is tromda atai rim, RC vi 183.13 . olc roba rim, Ériu v 208.8 (see III c). Here perhaps: tromde ... ro buí frisim ind chaillech oc atach Dé, Mon. Tall. § 7 (= do bhí sí roliosda ar Dh., Rule of Tallaght § 41 ). But cf. VII below.

(f) To express protection, guard, defence, watch against: gabthe dūnad les fris, Ml. 55c1 . inna cathrach conrotacht la Duaid fri Ebustu, 48d27 . múr trén ... fri dóini, fri demnai, Fél. Ep. 152 . tocuiriur etrum ... inna huli nert so fri cech nert n-amnas in ..., Hy vii 49 . cor gabad Sinann friu the Shannon was held (defended) against them RC xviii 10.28 . gébtaít ar tír frind, LU 4634 (see gaibid). iadad Caisil frim eochu the closing of C. to my horses Anecd. iii 63.4 . cóir duit arechus ri siút, TBC-LL¹ 1280 (aire do tabairt fri ... St; see 1 aire). Dia lem fri cech snīomh, Ériu iv 236 . Crist credal fri demnaib, ACL iii 221.12 . dín ... re holcaib, ZCP viii 202.18 . Of limitation, boundary: nā bí crích la nech fri peccad that no one sets a limit to sin Ériu i 218.9 . Cf. samaiges crích fri aidchi, Hy ii 55 , corresp. to contra noctem terminum pones, Ardm. 8a1 . See also s.v. inillius.

(g) In elliptical sentt.: leic ... in fognam, ol se; ni lamaim, ol sī, frisin rigain = I dare not disobey the Queen RC xxiv 192 (but perh. FRI here = because of; see V b ). ro an ... ina aenar ru remained alone to oppose them ZCP vi 56.31 . rofetursa a n-as maith dúib fris I know a good way for you to deal with him LU 5934 . tarmairt mo Dia dil frisin tuaid ... a cor fo leittreib lethglenn = my dear God had well nigh (in His resentment) against them cast them down ... SR 4718 . Cf. lām fri idal to renounce idolatry SR 4845 (see lám).

IV

(a) after adjs. and nouns denoting resemblance or equality (esp. those compounded with com-) and vbs. of resembling or comparing: cosmil fri cethir (gl. animalis) Wb. 8b14 . cutrummus fri Dia, 17c8 . i cutrummus fribsi 17b14 . ɔodernain hi cutrummus frim cheliu `to do like my fellows' PCr. 2a2 . (pariter) fri, Sg. 77a2 . i tomus fri nech Wb. 17b11 . intamail ... fri nech, Ml. 22c1 . cen a chondelg fri nech, Sg. 42a6 . cosmaili tuisil `sui' fri tuisliu `ego' ┐ `tu', 200a12 . (similiter) fri, 203a5 . cf. (eandem significationem habens) .i. fri `cum', 218a1 . diatā oenḟolaid ... frissin Athair, PH 177 . ba cudruma re core mōr é, RC xviii 183 . ni caithedh acht coibeis fri gach manach he used to eat only as much as any other monk BNnÉ 300 § 3 . nir chumma nech ris im chath, Metr. Dinds. iv 344 . ru boí i comré ri Cormac, LL 3796 (30a) . i comhrē ris coeval with him Moling 4 . rogheanair i n-aenuair fria was born at the same time as she BB 406bz (= Dinds. 111 ). Cf. IX (b).

Replacing O. Ir. construction with equative: comdhub fri hec , Thr. Ir. Gl. 36 (prull) = duibidir éc, Corm. Y 1059 . Bodl. comard fri fid, Ériu iv 138.26 . meidithir fria hasal as big as an ass Marco P. 10 . corbo chomfota frisin sroin LU 6472 .

See also verbs and adjs. of comparison, e.g. 1 do-ella, samlaithir, in-samlathar; cosmail, 2 cutrummae, etc.

(b) to express difference, distinction from : frissaní immeraidtis (gl. longe aliud) Ml. 61c12 . sain fri .c. `different to c' Sg. 6b7 . do dechor fri praenomna aili, 28a13 . huare nád deligedar fri praenomen , 28a15 . do dechrugud persine fri alaili, 202a4 . is allail pronomen aní sin fri `sui' (gl. `is' aliud pronomen...) 209b10 . (differentia) fri, 213b15 , gl. contra 214b4 . Cf. nipo choím less frinn He was not dear to Him compared to us (?) Wb. 4b12 [Fraser l.c. suggests this rendering, ZCP viii 41 n . `in our case (?),' Thes.].

See s.v. 1 dechor, dechraigidir, deiligidir and other words of similar meaning.

V

(a) with respect to, with regard to (cf. III c) : is sain fri cath sain fri scor different for battle, different for unyoking (of trumpet-call) Wb. 12c46 . idain fri cach réit faithful as to 31c13 . cen chinaid n-uaim fri nech, Ml. 54d16 (see cin). nach é Dia is ciontach riú is to blame for them TSh. 10499 . as eola fri aidgne ind Athar, Wb. 19d9 . it maithi a arilti frib `He deserves well of you' (`literally good are his merits as to you' Thes.) Wb. 16c11 . airle Dé fri Herind, LL 49b13 ( Hail Brigit § 2 ). .iiii. seóit a dire ... is fechem is fiadnaisi friu `four seds are his `dire'-fine ... he is a suitor and witness for them' (i.e. he is liable to that extent) Laws iv 308.2 ( Críth G. 138 ). is amlaid in t-athair frisin mac ngor; ... nimtha in t-athair frisin mac n-ingor thus the father acts with regard to the dutiful son; ... not so with regard to the undutiful one Laws iii 56. 22 ; z 0 . ba fria as-breth: cruth cách co hÉtaín 'of her was it said, 'every woman is fair till compared with Étaín'' BDD 43-44 , Celtica xv 57 . 'fer hi lorcc so,' ol in fer deginuch fri Nero 'a man is following us,' said the last man with regard to Nera RC x 216.48 . conidh ed isberdís cách fris, Cóir Anm. ii § 150 .

Cf. further: crādiis Ultu fri Cethirnd guin Fécc the slaying of F. imbittered the U. against C., ZCP viii 305.32 . ferdha a cathuibh iat, ar is friu ronnaltadh oc imairecc fria geinnti, Marco P. 189 . ro alt ... ind ingen co digrais fri légend ┐ gaís, LL 279a47 ( SG 413 ). Possibly the last two exx. belong rather to III (a), also : is me is cintach fris ni he is cintach frim, BB 479b14 (see cintach). See also : a lleth fri, s.v. leth.

(b) on account of (cf. VI b) : ro lega in snechta ... fri meit brotha in miled, LU 5858 . ba lond F. friside (-suidi), RC xxvi 12 § ix . saeth mār fri luga dige great distress from [?] lack of drink Fianaig. 12 § 20 . cid mís no bheinn gun ríg thess | ro-fess ná bíad mo scís fris, ACL iii 304.20 . ní ḟaicim-si ... ni rís budh choir t'obadh for which it were right to refuse thee Ériu iii 154.5 . atchess ... na haīble tened ... uasachind re fiuchud na ferge, LU 6466 . ba mertnech Moisi fri hilchaingni ... fri orddugugd cāich fo mām, SR 4542 . batar toirsech fri Moisi, 3886 (in these two exx. fri = oc of prose LB 122a etc.). féimdid sim imt[h]echt fri scíss he cannot go on from weariness BColm. 94.16 . ni ro chotail C. fri himṡním, LB 274a55 . ni faict[h]e ise fri feidm a léiginn she used not be seen because of her duty of study ACL iii 308 VI 13 . Cf. la III a.

(c) on behalf of: aitchitt an C. ris comad he noberad, etc. they beseech the Lord for him that it might be he BColm. 98.15 . dogníther airnaigthi frisin ríg co nambed fot saegail do, MacCongl. 59.23 . ica cantain fria Cianoig chanting (a prayer) for C. ZCP vii 308.7 . Cf. also : ata mo briathar ┐ mo comairghi fria ar Tuatha D., Ériu xii 152.9 . o doratsat briathair fris, CCath. 1236 . in tī bes rí is fris beimmi, ZCP viii 316.3 . See do-beir, gell, and ráith.

(d) according to ; in agreement with, with pers. somet. = in obedience to: ni ni nach breith nā bi fri canoin cumtastar [sic leg.] no judgement is valid that is not framed according to the canon Corm. Y 1224 . cf. manib fri fasach fuirmider, Ériu xii 199.23 . fri mes airechta adrimter, Laws iv 298.25 ( Críth G. 22 ). fri saltair nogebad ... a salmu by the psalter (i.e. with the psalter before him), Mon. Tall. § 39 , cf. ni lugae mbis ind menme hisin cheill dia gabail ind tsailm de memur indas cid fri saltair ib.). fosernd clothri Connacht ... fri senchus ... fri buaid ┐ breatha in conformity with (the claims of) pedigree, with prowess and legal decision ZCP viii 108.10 = Ériu v 234 . bid som iarum fria toil (= they will be able to do as they like) Mon. Tall. § 35 (= go mbid ... aca ara ttoil fein, Rule of Tallaght § 35 ). fri tala ind rig ... domrala I am about the king's business SR 6187 (Rex praecepit mihi 1 Reg. xxi 2 ). cia ro delb fria thuil a ndath who coloured them to please himself (?) SR 7675 . For FRI TOIL in a different sense, see III (e). Cf. nitattorbi fri toil Dé (gl. non omnia expediunt 1 Corinth. x 22 ) `against God's will' Thes., Wb. 11b 17a . Also : ind tí dogní ní do maith fria menmain fadesin ... ar ind bo neoch gabti he who does a good thing in accordance with his own inclination ... should openly proclaim it Mon. Tall. § 21 (= chuirios ní maith ... do dheunamh uaidhe fein, Rule of Tallaght 71 ).

VI

(a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. vb. or equivalent = to be at, engaged in or about to engage in (some occupation, process ; cf. III a) : in tinscanfam .i. in biam fris (gl. incipimus ... commendare ?) Wb. 15a1 . ní uisse do mug Dae buith fri debuid to be at strife 30b26 . cf. ní bethe fria acre, 9c20 . ni piam fri aithirgi, 30b17 . ni biat som fria togais adi (= non fallacia ad quoscumque loquuntur) Ml. 31a17 . cechtar nathar fria saindān `each ... at his special art' Thes. ii 293.14 . feib donrala fri comrad, SR 1214 . indí ... bíte fri tnúith `those that are given to lust' Mon. Tall. § 11 . nebbuith fri éthech not to be lying Ériu ii 64 § 6 . céin bete fri soíthar while they shall be at work Fél. Ep. 298 . in tan natbi fri frestal na n-anmand when he is not attending to LB 110b43 (cf. SR 1199 ). ní mo chean ... tarrla re freastal ... na fairrgi sin, CF 42 . amail do beith se re goibhnecht ríam as if he had always been at smith's work BCC § 92 . na saoithe do bhí re seanchus, Keat. i 74 . cuirim suas don ghrádh, | ní fiú é bheith ris, Dánta Gr. xiv 3 . Cf. boí a ben fri idna in travail LU 105.86 (see 1 idu). Similarly without subst. vb. : nachitochthad fria choscc `let him not wear thee out in admonishing him' Wb. 31d11 . conus tarttsat fria ttoghairm chuca an lucht they set about calling the people Hugh Roe § 8 . Cf. airfitech re tetaib, ACL iii 223.23 (= Keat. ii 5358 ). dias fri cerdacht, SR 190 (perh. III a). dá mbeinn re héagnach `had I purposed to revile' Content. v 7 (cf. le hóradh bhriat[h]ar da mbeinn, Ó Héodhusa 4 ). In class. lang. `re' is used with vn. to express futurity : an chathair atá ré teacht ( = civitatem futuram) TSh. 2751 . i n-oirchill na n-olc bhíos ré tuirling orra, 532 .

(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on or from which something takes place (some of the exx. could be explained as extensions of other uses (cf. V b ; IX a) ; often the construction is elliptical) : gaibed cach a greimm ... | fria brethir in primsacairt, SR 4400 . ba huisse soillse fri éitsecht na noeb at the death Hy ii 60 . Cf. co mbidis i nd-aenmaigin fria n-ég, Corm. Y 1233 (fri héc LB. ria n-ec LL 179b ). fri gein Críst ... tindscan lechsa léri, Fél. Nov. 14 (cf. III a). ro eirgis fri breithir Isu, PH 2780 . ret[h]it daim ... ri dorddan na damgaire, Ériu vii 2 § 1 . phreab as G. risan gair, Ériu i 18.33 . ac cantain cheóil ... fris coteltais Síl Adaim, LL 3305 ( Ériu xiv 156 ).

VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion of (cf. similar use of Lat. apud, and see la) : ni cumdabairt fri Cirine is tre metur Jerome does not doubt Hib. Min. 6.187 . nad maith fri C. ciasperthar ..., 7.235 . frithir frisin mac i n-ebras riss, Ériu vii 225 ( LL 209a16 ). ba bind fri cach na canaind, LU 1301 (`sweet to all was what I said' Imr. Brain ii 298 . But this may be ex. of : canaid fri). bid inmain fria cách a ainm loved of all PH 4299 . ba hingnad mor frisin popul sin, 2959 . ba mo a grad fri Gargán oldait a uli cethra G. loved him more than all his cattle 7178 . Cf. Mon. Tall. § 7 cited under III (e) where the meaning seems different. gurbh annsa ré hEóin Críost ioná ré Peadar Christ was dearer to John than to Peter TSh. 10327 .

VIII

(a) to denote agent (a late use, mostly in texts in artificial style). ar na bennughadh fri sanctuss Silvester consecrated by Fl. Earls 196.19 . laech ... frisimbia mo thiglecht (= who will cause my death) Metr. Dinds. iv 360 (but perh. this is ellipt. and belongs to III (e) ; cf. TBC2 cited there). romarbtha na maithe ... frisna crechairib LB 154a63 . in lucht frisa tucad in digal .i. Uespiam ┐ Titus ib. 16 . Constantiana ... .i. eclas rocúmdaiged fri Constantin 157b48 . Of parenthood : trī meic Medba fri Fergus, Corp. Gen. 279.33 . sē meic do Mīlidh fri Scota ┐ dā mac frisin nEspānaig 'Míl had six sons of Scota, and two sons of the Spanish woman', ITS xliv 64 § 424 . do chomthusmed clainni fri hA. to have children by A., Alex. 512 .

(b) to denote instrument, through, by means of, by dint of (cf. similar uses of Engl. `with') : sénais Brigit fria bachaill with her crozier Hy v 58 T = lia F. fria noebainm ... séntae cech slóg subach by [or at ?] his holy name every happy host was sained Fél. Prol. 99 . ícaid [Tipra C.] gallrae ... fri troscud aici, BColm. 52.15 . argain fri daigid (destroying by fire LL 107a21 ( Ériu iv 28 ), cf. multi nobiles ceciderunt ... fri daigidh ro horta uile, AU 900 (see RIA Dict. s.v. daig). go nach deachaidh neach re siúbhal ... as no one escaped by flight ML 88.31 . re dán nglas ... dán breaghdha do bhréagnachadh with a simple poem to refute an elaborate one Content. vii 13 . ro ēirigh fri nert seoin ┐ solaid, Moling § 4 (possibly = with here cf. dol ar fairrge ... ré cóir na gaoithe = with a favourable wind ML 36z = le ML² 466 . cuir me ... chum seoil ... re cóir ghloin, Measgra D. 48.16 ).

IX In expressions of time :—

(a) in O. Ir. in locatival sense in phrase : fri dē by day, in the day-time Ml. 121d8 . Wb. 6a30 . fri dei, 9a5 , 24d14 , 26b17 . Cf. in gabail fri dei ... in gabail cech ráithi a catch (of fish) daily (?) Trip. 250.14 (2950) . fri díe, Mon. Tall. § 55 . fri haidchi by night Trip. 208.25 (2452) . gl. contra noctem Lat. Lives 18 . re lá, Ériu iii 148 § 3 . arna imbreth ... i n-aidchi cía nosgonad fri dé, LU 5609 .

(b) usually to denote period during which something continues or takes place : 'na fuair frisna secht ṁbliadnaib SR 3394 . fri a n-aimsir in their time Laws iv 210.28 . niro chotail C. frisin ré sin, LU 6337 . fria ré hi fut a saegail for their lifetime SR 5932 . bai cocad mor etarro fri re ciana RC xxiv 186 . batar ... fri re secht la amlaid sin, ACL iii 225.1 . conosrala for sechrán fri re bliadna co lleith, LU 1279 . bá-sa i Tul T. fri ré inna dílenn, Ériu iv 144y . maith graig dorat damh rem lá in my day ACL iii 304.23 . D. ba talchar fria ré in his day Metr. Dinds. ii 40 . dorumaltsa ... m'aimsir fri hamsir Nemid, LU 1276 . nir siubhuil in conuir-so re bliadhain aenridiri for a year past ZCP vi 104 z.

(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place : ni ba marb-sa fri sin I shall not die before that ZCP i 105.4 (co sin v.l.). Cf. also the locative use in Marco P. 11 cited I (a). tanic ... uidi na .xii. mís fri .xii. laa made the twelve months' journey in twelve days LB 139a31 . icuis fri teorai nomaidhe within thrice nine days RC xii 66x . nos ithend ... friha brathad sula in the twinkling of an eye LU 1895 ( RC x 56 ; fri b. v.l.) do imredar ... re trí lá, ┐ ní ruc G. énchluichi rissin, Acall. 1348 .

(d) of point of time ; in some cases approaching VI (b) above. fri dead n-aissi, SR 2829 . in tan nadbi fri húair i fos | frithalmi when he is not here at the hour of attending ... 1199 (cf. LB 110b43 cited under VI (a) above). cech dūil ... rosdelb fri oenuair, SR 7864 (similarly 7234 , 7386 ). grend Muman ... grend Connacht ... ra hóen-úair at the same time Ériu i 130.36 ( LL 46b ). buaidh ... damh fri deiredh mo ṡaoghail, ACL iii 231.1 . ra dered flatha Domnaill, LL 185a48 ( Arch. Hib. ii 85 ) = Rawl. 154a52 . Rí dorat na deich plāga | forthu fri huair combāga, SR 3942 . ? cid fri geld bāis nobeth `though he were at the point of death.' Mon. Tall. § 48 (see gell). re húair nfaicsiona at the time of looking RC xxix 128.13 . fri huair tacrai do ghníma, Ériu ii 228.7 .

(e) in follg. exx. perhaps used for ria before: na buidne ... robatar fria Crist...rofhogain don Choimdid fria tuidecht soscela (= turbae quae praecedebant ... ante evangelium) PH 4573 . dorad som a cuibidil fria mbass made his confession before death RC xviii 53.19 . Cf. co ro muid fri maccu Israel, LB 122b47 = re, YBL 293b40 (corresp. to mebaid remib SR 4765 ).

(f) In later lang., 3 s. ris occurs as adv. bare, exposed, uncovered : mar do leig ris a n-aoinfheacht 'how it left [her] uncovered at once' Duan. F. ii 332 § 9 , Éigse ix 228 . do theilg Ercuill a bhrat de ┐ ro leig a lorg ┐ in croicenn leomainn ro buí re cnes ris, ITS xxxviii 997 (Stair Ercuil) . chonarcadar a ccroicinn go coirtighthi buídhe ris, Smaointe B. Chr. 150 . ó bhí mo chroiceann-sa nochtuighthe síos reis, 160 . cia d’innis doit-se a bheith nochtuighthe síos reis (leis, v.l.), 161 . See also la VI (d), léicid.

X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs (and nouns of cognate meaning with them), e.g., those of speaking, addressing, boasting, complaining, asking, thanking ; meeting, touching, striking, rubbing, grinding ; listening ; waiting, expecting ; entrusting ; co-operating, associating, helping ; visiting ; resembling, comparing, differing ; parting, severing (from) ; doing (something to), acting (towards), giving, distributing, apportioning ; requiting, paying, selling ; refusing, rejecting, denying ; hindering, restricting, opposing, combating, etc. See especially : ad-cosnai, ad-gair, ad-teich, ad-tluichethar (attlugud), aigid, 1 anaid, ar-báigi, as-beir, benaid, beirid, 1 caithid, canaid, 1 cingid, comalnaithir, 1 con-clich, con-delca, con-gní, con-ricc, con-sní, con-túaisi, crenaid, dálaid, dlomaid, do-beir, do-gní, do-icc, do-rogaib, do-slí (tuillem buide fri), do-sluindi (diúltad), do-tét, dúnaid, 2 erbaid, fáiltigid(ir), feraid, fo-gella (2 fuiglid), fo-rig, fris-oirg, fris-tairissethar, fris-taít, gaibid (fris-gaib), gellaid, íadaid, 1 íccaid, imm-beir, imm-fogni, imm-fresna, in-samlathar, in-túaisi (éistid), labraithir (labraid), laigid, 1 ligid, lingid, 1 luigid, meilid (con-meil), naiscid, ráidid (ol, ar), rannaid, renaid, saethraigidir, scaraid (and compds.), soïd (do-soí), 1 téit, tongaid.

lagat

Cite this: eDIL s.v. lagat or dil.ie/29345

Forms: laiget, loiget, lagait, laighiuit

n nt, n. (so GOI p. 167 ) also laiget, loiget. Abstr. of bec. IGT Abstr. Nouns § 23. d s. lagait, Sg. 26a11 . Later undeclined, except for g s. laighiuit, Laws ii 36.23 Comm . smallness, scantiness, fewness .

Used absolutely: delb mesarda iter mét ┐ laiget fair, PH 1968 . ceróich hi meit ┐ lagait aní as oratio `how far . . . extends in greatness and in smallness', Sg. 26a11 . cia roich dialt a meut ┐ a laighet? . . . ro souich a laighet co haonfiodh, Auraic. 4529 . ima meit no imma laighed(h), 411 . loighed hec parvitudo, Ir. Gl. 923.

With follg. gen.: rorathaig . . . laigeat a frithgnama, Corm. Y 825 . mess díriuch . . . iar mét ┐ laiget a cinad, Ériu ii 194 § 7. co llaget a ndelba, 130 § 102 . loighead na codach comhronna fil agad d'Éirinn, viii 135.2 . o laighet a huisce, BCC 344.31 (322) . laghad a aoise, Duan. F. ii 392 § 77 . do loighead a chostais, TSh. 3082 . a luíghead mar éiric from its smallness as a fine, Atlantis iv 186.29 .

With AR: ar l.¤ inna saigte the arrow was so small, Ml. 80b7 . ar laiget a saethair, LL 285b34 . ar laghatt coccúis gach aoin, BNnÉ 271.11 . ar laghad mo thuarastail, BS 51.

With proleptic pron. and follg. rel. clause a l.¤ so few, so little : a laget pritchas deircc, Trip. 394.21 . ar a l.¤ do naemhaibh Erend tucc Aenghas ina félere, Gorm. 4.7 . a laghad no fulngaitis, TTr.² 1496 . ara laighed neich ro seisead do tir on account of the smallness of the quantity which could belong to the land, Laws ii 370.y Comm . a laighed ro ghaph o Cenel Eogain thigernus how few of C.E., TFrag. 18.14 . a laighed do lámadh Conull, Irish Texts ii 45 § 2 . a laghad mhaireas díb aniu, Geneal. Tracts 26.11 . ar son a loighid innurbtur na himurcacha . . . on corp the small extent to which, Rosa Angl. 328.14 . tréna loighead do dhaoinibh . . . fhágbhaid, TSh. 5846. Cf. is fō lim-sa mu laiget (l.¤ v.l.) / do t[h]almain tairnes cach cland, ZCP vii 297.

In generalising phrases meaning however much or little, whatever the amount, etc.: do-aisbena . . . met laiget bis etir fot ┐ indngnam however big or small it be, Laws v 360.20 . cia pa meit, cia pa laiget, 388.19 . Cf. 240.23 , 340.z . cip é méit no laget i mbé in t-adbar sin, LU 2595 ( RC xxv 242.8 ). gibe do méd no do laghat ata agaibh, BNnÉ 230.6 . cibé méid laiged, TFrag. 72.20 . dá l.¤ after negative, etc. however small : nach dearna an rí / . . . gaol dá laghad, Aithd. D. 89.3 . gan biadh nā deoch dā loighead, Parrth. Anma 3046 . ni bhfuil ar ccomas duinn aonloirghniomh da laghad ar bith, Luc. Fid. 3647 . o gach uile adhbhar da loighead, 23 K 42, 31.18 . Other idioms: ar a laighead, at least, DDána 78.23 . Clár Luighne acht a loighead duit `at the very least', O'Hara 1961 . lór a loighiod dá ghruaidh ghloin `little enough', 435 .

láitire

Cite this: eDIL s.v. láitire or dil.ie/29501

n [, f.] (láitir) strength: laidiri ┐ ilmuine Mic Dé, Laws i 22.22 Comm . hec fortitudo laidiri, Ir. Gl. 920 . tréna neartmhaire ┐ trena láidiri, Mac Aingil 2211 .

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