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2 airgdech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 airgdech or dil.ie/2023

n epithet of a horse: indara hech . . . fótmar in t-ech aile . . . a.¤ , LU 6491 ( TBC-I¹ 1977 ).

1 báeth

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 báeth or dil.ie/5139
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: baíd, bóeth, baid

adj o, ā. Also baíd, baíth, bóeth.

I

(a) foolish, stupid, silly, thoughtless, reckless; of animals, wind irrational, wild, innocent, wayward: baid gl. stultus, Wb. 8d8 (a prima manu). deilb mordraige ┐ fir boith, Ml. 52. mall no baéth gl. hebes, Sg. 66a5 . baeth. .i. faoth quasi fatu[u]s , O'Mulc. 118. deich mba mboetha im gach mboethan, Fél. 88.32 . dáig at báetha cialla ban, LU 3996 ( SCC 45 ). a Fir Baíth is b.¤ do fecht, 6032 . in tond baeth bhorr (of Fer Diad), TBC-LL¹ 4185. is bōeth do neoch renus fír/ar ascnam i tīr na pīan, ZCP vii 498.4 . [b]aoth .i. olc . . . .i. is olc ní cradh Dé, O'Dav. 192. hech baeth, RC xx 174 § 39 (ACC Comm.). in breo baoth reckless , AFM ii 902.20 . Compar. is minic . . . nach baoithe an chlann ioná a n-athair, Donlevy 332.4 . Adv. do imthig roimpe co baoth barr-[ud]mall waywardly (of the wind), ML² 713.

(b) In Laws applied to one not fully responsible either through nonage or mental deficiency (opp. to 1 gáeth): fofuasna ide a c[h]uru uile mat baith `wenn sie töricht sind', Stud. in E. Ir. Law 46 § 22. fer (= fír, Fianaig. 30.29 ) mná báithe dlomthar sceo gaithe, O'Dav. 209.

(c) wanton, licentious: cacha baitsaige .i. . . . is leisin mnai mbaith in lenam donither ria, Laws v 454.8 Comm. a ndail mná baithe, IT iii 16 § 40. diammbése b.¤ if I were wanton, LU 8332 ( FB 24 ). cosc mnā bóithe do drúis, MacCongl. 73.2 (of a hopeless proceeding).

As pseudo-n. pr. cóic maccu maithe .i. Baeth ┐ Bras . . ., Dinds. 161 ( RC xvi 280.17 ).

II As subst.

(a) fool, idiot; in baid gl. idiotae, Wb. 12d35 (a prima manu). don báith no dond oscar gl. idiotae, 12d16 . imrechtatar báith baethu B. .i. ro imaigetar . . . na baethu eochu baetha B., O'Dav. 1076. ro selgatar rótu/nád soréid la báethu (of the saints), Fél. Prol. 30. ? goth gruce golfad breice/baeth críche, Auraic. 5289.

(b) In Laws one who is legally incapacitated on mental grounds: dilmuin do boethuib . . . is dilmuin . . . dona hecodnuchuibh, Laws ii 82.7 . ni cria do baeth . . ., do mnaí, do cimid, iii 58.6 . iasacht cungnuma do baethaib, v 490.3 . cor baith fri gaet, Coibnes 5 n.1 . aithghin a nedgi boith no meic, Laws i 272.x Comm. imchomét a baíth ┐ a gaíth, Ériu xx 168.77 . itir baoth ┐ gaoth, ar as a belaib baoith .i. na lēighes ┐ gaoith .i. lēighis, dlutar gach nós, O'Curry 2280 ( Eg. 88, 21a ). b.¤ (┐) gáeth term for some class of legally irresponsible person: in caeptha ┐ in finelogh, b.¤ ┐ gaeth, ┐ in fer lethchuind—ceithre hanmanna sin ar in fer lethchuind, O'Curry 982 (H. 3.18, 423a). baeth gaeth, 1392 (631b). Cf. fenelaig (.i. baith no gaith), Bürgschaft 19 § 59.

Compds. searc gach baothmhná light woman (?), DDána 89.27 . ge béo anocht ar bhaithbendaibh wild (?) peaks, BS 86.7 . nacham luaid dot' baethbriatraib wanton words (Joseph to Potiphar's wife), SR 3186. ar baoithchéill . . . ó mheisge nó ó chraos, Eochairsg. 105.33 . brón baoithchridhe ban `wayward hearts', Studies 1920, 99 § 10 . do bhaothghlóir na beatha aimseardha `empty glory' (Gloss.), TSh. 606. dá bhaothghnúis éididh ionghualaigh (of the devil), Aithd. D. 76.10 . cid día mbúpthai na báethlaegu innocent calves, LU 1752. an baothlaogh allaidh, DDána 80.29 . don bháothleim sin reckless leap, RC xxix 122 § 22 . baethlenum becc innocent child, Acall. 6283. do dhá bhaothmhama thug masla do lígh an lile tender breasts, Hackett xx 45 . iarsin baethréim rucsat Ulaid dar Herind reckless course, LL 22076. in bi[th] cona báethrennaib the world with its irrational elements, Ériu iv 106 § 60. Cf. baíd.

bréit

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bréit or dil.ie/6695

Forms: bréid, bréide

n bréid m. and f., g s., n p. bréide, IGT Decl. § 45. Earlier (?) brét.

(a) strip, band, length, piece of cloth (etc.), cloth: scarais a hech cenn a b.¤ (brét, v.l.), Thes. ii 341.1 (Hy. v) .i. fobreit bís fo bragait ind eich from the strap (?), 20 . no bid b.¤ dara suilib, LU 305 (ACC). breid ciartha `cerecloth', Lism. L. 310.19 . dorat ind ingen breit dia hetuch dó ma crecht, LU 10445. curtur . . . ar lecc breid tanuidi (= super pannum lineum aut . . . corium tenue) on a thin layer of cloth ? (for ingredients of a poultice), Rosa Angl. 294.10 . (of altar linen, table covering) b.¤ bec dia n-airiter corp Crist, LB 277b25 (`b.¤ bec . . . the corporale, the cloth in which the host is wrapped,' Hermathena xxi 11 ). ro folchait na buird do breitib núaa, Grail 4 .

(b) Of garments, partic. of a head-covering. cloth, veil, coif, scarf, etc.: copchaille .i. b.¤ bis dar cend `strip of cloth', Thes. ii 339.34 (Hy. v Comm.). caille (.i. brét dub), ACL iii 20.20 . bred an bantrebhachuis (= velaverunt, Gloss.), Smaointe B. Chr. 4543. co mbrétib lín gil imbe `(swaddling) clothes', Todd Lect. vi 48 § 69. Transfd. an bréid . . . ceosa ` pall ', Ó Bruad. iii 58.19 . sailcloth, sail: bréid sídeingi ar slios do luingi, IGT Introd. 24.5 ex. 504 .

(c) shred, fragments , in pl. esp. (torn) pieces, tatters: bret .i. fuidell fragment, Corm. Y 109 (see fuidel). adchíu fodb leiss i mbrétaib (mberttaib, TBC-I¹ 2061 ) = na bretaig (a mbreidibh, v.l.), TBC-LL¹ 2764. a n-édaigi ina mbréidib umpu . . . ┐ a cuirp ina crolindtib fola, Acall. 3160 v.l. lottar iaramh ina mbrédibh slóigh gan cennas uadhaibh daoin tighearna `in separate hosts', AFM vi 2324.13 .

(Of land): arin b.¤ bic immechtrachsa ḟeraind na hAsia, LL 32428 ( TTr. 1623 ).

Compds. With noun. na sléibhte fa bhréid-ionar bhraoinfhliuch, Hackett² xxx 75. With adj. fa m-bratachaib . . . breid-gela, MR 224.4 .

cráes

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cráes or dil.ie/12717

n o

(a) maw, mouth, gullet : c.¤ gl. gula, Ir. Gl. 92 . co ndechsad óen na rígthige inna cróes, LU 9104 ( FB 85 ). c[ros] C[ríst] tarsin craos[s]a, ZCP xii 387.4 . it chráes dachúatar dait, TBC-LL² 3710 . tatnit a cróes glomarchind, LU 8664 ( FB 49 ). an t-uball . . . / dochuaidh tar cumang mo chraois (said by Eve), Ériu iii 148 § 3 . luigi fir go nurslugad craois .i. in cainti, O'Curry 2597 ( Eg. 88, 50(51)d ). tar a cráesaib cogantacha `grinding jaws' (of boar), Fianaig. 66.6 . ba glomar a crais (craes, v.l.), TTebe 2064 . ili craosa / cuile fasa, ZCP viii 196.10 . Extended applications: tricha aigi ina chrōis (of a cauldron), Ériu ii 20 § 1 . craos an chuain the neck of the harbour, CF Eg. 299 . i crāes na hairechta into the midst of the assembly, ZCP xii 360.4 . hi crǽs curaich os tuind dulaigh in (the confines of) a boat, Anecd. i 63.2 . se hech a craesaib curach, BB 277a11 . fát chraos (of a tomb-stone), O'Rah. 68.y . Cf. a crāes in chorrbuilg, Fianaig. 50.14 .

(b) gluttony, excessive eating : minibed cróis nibíad étrad, Wb. 9d1 . ronort a cróis ┐ saint ` greed ', Imr. Brain 46 . o dhualaig in chráis, PH 4821 . seachain . . . / ar chraos . . . do dhéanamh, DDána 22.19 . cráos, fearg (in list of deadly sins), Parrth. Anma 3383 . craos na haoine (of eating meat), Ir. Gl. p. 156 .

Compds. With nouns: a craosbheol osluighthe (of monster), Maguires of F. 3 . i craescrislach in mara, CCath. 1445 . tancatar . . . amach on chroes-chró `stall', Todd Nenn. 56.9 . dar a chraes gin osluicthe, IT i 271.27 (FB Eg.). Criol mac Craoslíona, Anecd. ii 55.14 = lintaid, Rawl. B 512, 111b cited Plummer MS. notes. don crāes-lon bói i m-brága Cathail `demon . . . of gluttony', MacCongl. 103.5 . do chraoslongadh an chuirp to devour, BNnÉ 165.17 . a craosmhuscaetaibh cogúasta `yawning muskets', Hugh Roe² 228.21 . leis an ccráosól, Párl. na mB. 3215 . do-bheir craos-ruathar coitcheann fútha, TSh. 1164 . d'eagla a gcraos-shloigthe, 5690 . With adjj.: brain-eóin chraos-dearga, ML 130.18 . crécht cráosdomhuin ` gaping ', Ériu v 180.314 . tar an muir ccráosfhairsing, BS 100.6 . co carput chraeslethan chraesluath, LL 24861 . ilchoin . . . cróesmóra, LU 2418 . cona chreit chróestana chróestirim (a chariot), 6483 - 4 . cuirn chróes-tholla, Metr. Dinds. iii 18.234 . gristaig craestuib (dub) (of devil), SR 947 .

1 é, hé

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 é, hé or dil.ie/19325
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: ishé, is hé, hǽ, isé, hǽ, hé, asné, ishe, issé, isé, é, hé, é, hésom, hesom, hǽsium, ésium, esium, eisiu, esiomh, eisim, esim, éseom, eseom, eiseom, esen, ésen, eisen, eisea, eision, essium, eissiu, eissiumh, esseo, essem, essim, eissi, eissin, hisseom, heside, he side, éside, eside, éisidhe, eisidhe, eiside, esede, eisidh, esiden, esidein, eisidhein, esein, éisei, eiséin, eisidei, eiseic, ese, esside, hessidhi, eissid, eissidi, eissideic, eisseic, eissein, es(s)ide, bé, cebe, gibe, cidbe, eside, esium, (h) é, éseom, esium, eissium, é, é

pron. 3 s. m. ; fem. , q.v. (later also í) ; neut. 1 ed, q.v. For pl. see 2 é.

In Glosses with copula : ishé, Wb. 4c3 . 25b2 . Sg. 3b20 . is hé, Ml. 36a32 . is hǽ , 102b5 . isé, BCr. 18b12 . mad hǽ , Wb. 27b6 . ba hé , Ml. 24a4 . Wb. 19c4 . asné, 4d16 . Ml. 31b24 . Mark of length sometimes omitted, as : ishe Wb. 25a24 . Ml. 45b11 .

In early Mid. Ir. with copula 3 s. pr. issé, isé ; independently é, hé ; in later MSS regularly é. Before -som, etc. hésom, Wb. 7c8 . 24d5 . hesom, Ml. 53a5 . 90b13 . hǽsium, Ml. 30c5 . ésium, TBC-LL¹ 1744 . 6050 . esium, 1107 . 1189 . LL 223b14 . eisiu, Acall. 1979 . esiomh, TBC-LL¹ 3883 St. eisim, TBC-I¹ 2444 . BColm. 60.6 . esim, 104 . 12 . éseom, TBC-LL¹ 5971. eseom, LU 12a36 . 126a29 . TBC-I¹ 559 . 580 . eiseom, 1222 . 1543 . TTr.² 1451 . esen Corm. Y 276 . CCath. 2615 . ésen, TBC-LL¹ 2893. eisen O'Gr. Cat. 488 ( : seisen). eisea, Dán Dé xxv 53 ( : móirsheisear). TSh. 5134 . eision, TBC-LL¹ 3883 v.l. TD 34. l. 189 . In early Mid. Ir. freq. with -ss- : essium, PH 281. MacCongl. 55.11 . eissiu, Acall. 6017.6708 . 7890 . eissiumh Metr. Dinds. iv 282y . esseo, Trip. 394.4 . IT i 131.12 . essem, Ériu i 126.12 . ZCP ix 156 ( = TBC-I¹ 1543 ). essim ZCP iii 258 ( = LU 126a29 ). eissi, Acall. 2080.3353 . eissin, 7642 . Cf. hisseom, PH 1513 . Before -side, -séin, etc. : heside, Wb. 3c15 . Ml. 100c10 . 102a20 . he side Ml. 100b23 . éside, LL 219a34 . eside, TBC-LL¹ 2230 . PH 929 , etc. éisidhe, Lism. L. 3429 . eisidhe, 424 . eiside Laws iv 138z Comm. . TTr.² 373 . esede, TBC-LL¹ 4502. eisidh, Laws i 8.6 . esiden, YBL 62a27 . esidein, BColm. 52.18 . eisidhein, ZCP viii 551 y ( = TBC-LL¹ 1874 ). esein, PH 1963 . éisei, Acall. 1463 . eiséin, Studies 1924, 242 § 7 . eisidei, Laws i 4.25 . eiseic, iv 46.14 Comm. v 448.30 Comm. Acall. 5944 . ese, Laws iv 16.17 Comm. With -ss- : esside, LU 22a38 . ZCP viii 302.23 . Auraic. 207 . MacCongl. 3.11 . hessidhi, Lism. L. 3888 . eissid, Corm. Y 276 . eissidi, Do Chupur 56 ( IT iii 237 ). eissideic, Acall. 4833 . eisseic, 6034 . eissein, 5819 . 7982 .

In early Mid. Ir. we sometimes find es(s)ide standing for a fem. subst. : oc siair tharisi do .i. fedb craibdech eside PH 943 ; cf. Laws iv 176.24 ( 178.4 ) ; 226.7 .

The O.Ir. quantity of 1 é before the suffix is attested by the rime glēsom : hēsom, IT iii 44 § 60 . Thurneysen remarks ( Thurn. Hdb. § 447 ) that the length of the vowel in ésom may be due to the influence of 2 é which, to judge from Welsh wy, is long by nature. In late Mid.-Ir. however the vowel is regularly short before the strengthening or anaphoric suffixes. The shortening may be explained by the analogy of 3 mes(s)e, tussu s.v. .

A detailed examination of the use of the independent pron. in Old and Mid. Ir. belongs to syntax and would be out of place here ; we give however some illustrations of the typical uses for these periods. Some special uses are noticed in IX.

I Placed immediately after the copula, in the following types of sentences :

(a) bad he for n-ere (gl. portate dominum) Wb. 9d12 . is heside athir inna mmachabdae (gl. Mathathiae) Ml. 74b6 . ishé a ammus lemm that is my guess at it (gl. cum iam fere centum annorum esset) Wb. 2c27 . ba ed á n-oínbiad (gl. mannae) Ml. 97d8 . Símon Bar-ióne...is e eochair na flatha némdai, PH 1639 . tucus aichne fairsim corb'é Ísu I knew that He was Jesus 3736 . ní hé Cormac beus, TBC-I¹ 13 . In Mid. Ir. the pron. is often repeated after the subj. in sentences of this type : (a1) is é gaiscedach as dech fil díb hé, LU 101a39 = FB 14 (hé om. ZCP iv 153 ). issé mo lennán é, TBC-LL¹ 4560 . corb' e metrapolitan na primchathrach he, PH 189 . as é céd-duine tárla dó hé, Acall. 624 . fa hé céidrí Éireann do ṡíol Éibhir é, Keat. ii 1875 . When the second pron. stands for a subst. of different gender from that of the pred. we get the type : is tocrádh mór marbhnadh Dé | ní hé an brón gan adhbhur í, Dán Dé xxvi 1 . dob é ceirtleath m'anma í, Studies 1924, 428 § 9 .

(b) is hésom doradchiúir (gl. Christo Jesu) Wb. 2b9 . is heside dorárricc báas dúnni, 3c15 . is heside robu rí, Ml. 100c10 . Mac Roth...is e timchellas hErind ind oenló TBC-I¹ 1110 .

(c) is he Dia insin (Quis est iste Deus...? Deus sc. ille qui...) Ml. 83c5 . rii benn ced ara neper? Is he rí tuathi insin lasmbiat .vii. ngraid ḟene, Laws iv 328.24 . is hé rí insin loingside siabrai, LU 99a27 .

(d) ba he a ngnimsom molad Dǽ (quorum...officium) Ml. 24a4 . is sí ind inducbal lesom in molad, 126b17 . corrophed mo indeb Crist (gl. ut Christum lucrifaciam) Wb. 24a6 . is e in cetna herdach celebrad ┐ procept brethri Dé, PH 3600 . dob í m'ḟáilte mo riar, Keat. iii 1450 . issé biadh do buí ag M. uidhe cerc ┐ aran, BCC § 122 . Keat. ii 2687 .

(e) is hé rufiastar cumachtae inna diglae...in tí, etc. Ml. 111c13 . is ed as dulem daitsiu m'etarcnae, 103a9 . is é as fhoghar dá gach eon | moladh Dé, Dán Dé xiv 23 . Cf. is e thainic a n-agaid Patraic .i. Sínell, Lism. L. 248 .

(f) asné Crist in lie asrubart, Wb. 4d16 . issi so a chiall, Ml. 65a3 . is e cētlá na sechtmaine in domnach PH 3584 . int shollsi-so...is e Crist mac Dé sin, 3792 . badh í an úaisle ar n-eólaichne, Ériu ix 163 § 6 . gurbh í Éire tobar draoidheachta iarthair Eorpa, Keat. ii 963 . The pron. is regularly in concord with the follg. subst., but cf. is í ar gceann báidheine an bhean, Dán Dé ii 29 .

(g) When the pred. precedes the cop., the word following the pron. usually decides the gender of the latter : in choss is hé oís achtáil, Wb. 12a23 . Crist didiu issí in chathir, 21c5 . cf. i dteangthaibh nach í an Scoitic in languages other than Scottic Content. vi 19 . Cf. on the other hand Wb. 3b16 , 18 . PH 1639

(h) is hé Dia as eola indiumsa, Wb. 8d23 . ní hé apstal citarogab in testiminso, Ml. 38c3 . comad he Nathi bud choscrach, RC xxiv 180 . ba saeth le M. nach he Brian ba ri, 176 . ce nib ed á ainmsom bes foir, Ml. 23d17 . (In O.Ir. the pron. is not obligatory in this type ; cf. issí ind ainim as airlam...ní incorpp, Wb. 3d11 . ni far mbrónsi immafolngi fáilti domsa, 16b8 . is a indocbál fessin condieig cách, 23d5 . ni Dia dudgní..., Ml. 44d21 .) is é mo chorp ro ádnaicis[s]i, PH 3732 . is é an beo do bhí 'na chroich | doní idir eo agus éanlaith, Dán Dé vi 40 . gurbh í an Ghaedhealg fá teanga dona draoithibh, Keat. ii 964 .

(i) The copula may be omitted : he fessin as choimsid dáu, Thes. ii 294.3 . hé cotnarlaic...doib anisin, SR 3659 . é leth luidi, Metr. Dinds. ii 2 . é domrad a n-éccomhnart, BS 48.16 .

II

(a) After interrogatives : cia hé (gl. quis) Ml. 46c17 . cia hé nundixnaigthersiu, 75c9 . ce hé roscríb, Sg. 197a19 . cóich esein, PH 1963 . cidh esen itir, TBC-LL¹ 3843 St. cuich hé in t-airfidech ut ?, Acall. 7525 . cret eissein in t-abhacc ?, 7982 .

(b) After sechi, sechip, cip (cib) : sechi he (gl. si quis) Ml. 35b4 . sechi é cretes de illis Wb. 15b1 . sechi sí (gl. quaelibet) Ml. 65d2 . sechi sí dia rignaib, 65d8 . sechip hé nodapridcha whosoever he be that preaches it Wb. 14d28 . sechip hé dán tra doberthar do neuch, 13a3 . ciphé ade Ml. 26a1 . ponat ergo lunam (cipé) ubilibet computare voluerit BCr. 31c2 . ciped ní, PH 1520 . gib é dig...ni ba missi, TBC-LL¹ 1223 . cip é imress méla...fort, 46 . So far as can be judged from published material cip é (gib é) is regularly replaced in late Mid. and Early Mod. Ir. by the anomalous gi bé (gidh bé), in which bé is fully stressed and alliterates with b. This form occurs already in O.Ir. : cia bé a mmet however big it be Ml. 61b28 . cía bé (MSS. cebe, gibe, cidbe, etc.) dlug bías duib, Metr. Dinds. iii 42 . gipe ra ṡossed (cía bé roisedh v.l.), TBC-LL¹ 6076 . atú ar bhaois gidh bé nach fuil, Dán Dé ix 8 . gi bé do bhronn a dhá rosg, Studies 1921, 258 § 9 .

It may be noted here that the position of the pron. in copula (or virtually copula) sentences in Mid. and Early Mod. Ir. is not always in accordance with orthodox modern usage, e.g. Tadhg esiomh nó a aithgin he is T. or else his counterpart O'Gr. Cat. 488 (= Ir. Monthly 1921, 291 ).

III With 2 os, q.v. : os hǽ (gl. donorum amicus) Ml. 69c4 . oshé, 122b14 . oshe, 123b4 . osse cona licc fora thairr, TBC-I¹ 891 . Similarly with is (s), s, ocus (┐) : deidghin...ina cinn isse níamdo, IT i 119.27 . a inar bláith ...is é étrom, TBC-I¹ 1871 . mar éan is é gan eitil, Dán Dé vii 22 . in scáilfer...sé tailc, IT i 271.11 . andara hech dibsidi ocus se...luath-lemnech, TBC-I¹ 2557 . ocus se baccach, PH 620 . ┐ se ina shessom, 622 . áráit...si imtromm, IT i 271.36 .

IV Independently : hésom triuss, Wb. 7c8 . tría buith adi innim ┐ hǽsium i talam because He is in heaven and he on earth Ml. 30c5 ....nad cho[m] nech acht hesom fesin 53a5 . cen fis accu he buden ina Cristaige, PH 56 . ni nech aile...acht he buden ┐ Dia, 607 . nachar mhair acht é féin amháin, Keat. ii 4179 . cunnradh eile atamaoidni do dhenamh le hA., acus eisin linne, Ir. Deeds, Trans. RIA xv 87.22 . In affirmation : Ferbaeth an e dothæt... imbarach? Eiseom on, TBC-I¹ 1543 = YBL 31a17 . After indá, in(n)a, ná than ( = O.Ir. oldá(a)s, indá(a)s) : fearr neach ele iná hé féin | dá mholadh, Studies 1924, 242 . do ba sine ioná é féin, Keat. ii 1828 . After cen, eter, 1 amlaid, 1 mar, q.v.

Here also may be noticed the type : is móidi a subailchi sin ┐ is laidirede congmus duine a n-agaid a namatt é its virtues are the greater (for) that and it aids a man more powerfully against his enemies thereby Maund. 139 . do benadh an t-iarann as an crand ┐ nir misde do bhi an tseisrech ag trebad é the iron was removed and none the worse was the team plowing BCC § 76 ; in these passages the pronouns sin, é, are asyntactical. Cf. the exx. in Fasc. i 162-163.

The usages classified under V-IX belong to the Mid. Ir. period, and later. Strachan has shown that V-VII were in use before the end of the eleventh century, and well established before the end of the twelfth ; see Ériu i 176 .

The form sé which arises in this period is treated s.v.

V As subject of the copula, following the pred. In early Mid. Ir. we find numerous exx. in which side is replaced by eside, som by esium, etc. (perhaps on the pattern of is éside x, is ésom x), as : in Fiac sin dano mac eside meic E....(v.l. mac sede), Thes. ii 307.3 . Cf. the O.Ir. types : is Diasom domsa, Wb. 1a2 . ni augtor side uilc, Ml. 44d19 ; these seem parallel to : ba cosnamaid Erenn esside an inbaid sin i n-agaid Cathail, MacCongl. 3 - 5 .

In early Mid. Ir. eside, esium, etc. usually follow the pred. directly, while the copula is unexpressed : dalta esseom do P., Trip. 394.4 . bai mac etorro... .i. Mael D. mac A. esside, LU 22a38 . Necódim...sái rechta eside PH 3677 . dalta do C. beos essium, 281 . Whether this type preceded and originated the use of the simple pron. as subj. of the copula is uncertain; there are numerous early exx. of (h) é etc. where the anaphoric pron. would be out of place.

Nicodemus... .i. cara inclethi do Crist he, PH 209 . ní cubaid bás cosmail doib, uair Pól ennacc he, Petar tra...écraibdech eside, 1865 . With copula expressed: combá mac dond ríg hé, LU 22b29 . is la Coin Culaind... hé, 112a24 ( FB 89 ). ba hairchindech na n-apstal he, PH 1637 . ba hōgshlān he, 468 . ba cumang les he, 64 .

VI As obj. of trans. vb., replacing the O.Ir. infixed pron. (The transitional stage is illustrated in the tautological types: cotgair Lugaid amach hé, TBC-I¹ 1063 . connachrancatár hé, LU 59a33 . roscuirset himmach he, PH 110 ): cona ragbad in galar hé, LU 14b31 . rocharsat hé, 121b35 . rochrechtnaig eseom, 126a28 . co cualutar hé, PH 18 . acall-su fessin é, TBC-LL¹ 1652 . guid he beseech him PH 343 . In reflexive sense: do lecc C.C. ar a gluínib é, BCC 274.29 .

VII As subj. of pass. vb.: robaided hé, LU 41a23 . cf. rogabad hí, 41a33 . is annam fogabar he cen chatha RC xxiv 200 . meni frithalter innocht é, TBC-LL¹ 1352 . nach acaltar é, 1694 . rohindarbad asin cathraig he, PH 949 .

VIII Occasionally as subj. of certain intrans. verbs: mas re ré na fochraice táinic amuigh hé, Laws iv 134.13 Comm. noco bia itir hi, 42.2 Comm. ar nach tisad friss he, LL 217b34 . ní raibe a n-aicned duinde eisseic, Acall. 6034 . ni roerchoidigestar do hí (sc. in lassar), Trip. 392.9 . Cf. as subj. of trans. verb: ni torracht Herinn andsin í, RC xii 78 . In such exx. the pron. is regularly separated from the vb., cf. imridh sé éinbhearta is í, IGT, Decl. ex. 1113 ; but: ór ḟás eision, TD 34. l. 189 .

Here may be noted: ol eissidi, IT iii 237.1 . bar ésium (éseom) quoth he TBC-LL¹ 4568 . 5971 . 6050 . ar esium 1189 . bar eissium , Acall. 4615 . cf. ar si, ar sisi, IT ii2 227.34 - 5 . See ol.

IX There are a few special uses of é in a neutral sense, without regard to gender of follg. subst. (cf. 1 ed):

(a) is e cuit in `acht' and the force of the `except' here is Laws iv 42.1 Comm. is e cuit in dono ann, 136.24 Comm. badh é a chríoch...go mbrisfimni..., Ériu ix 164 § 14 . is é críoch a gcualabhair this is the gist TD 31.8 . an é a reic is damhna dhí, 22a42 . iss é sin ciall in sceil, Acall. 3326 . is é áit..., Keat. iii 5055.5199 etc.

(b) in indef. predication, as: ní hé amháin not only that TD 9.11 ; 22.5 . Ó Héodhusa 34.9 ; 54.5 . Mac Aingil 326 . an é nach faici-sí C.? do ye not see C? BCC § 100 . an é nách easbol meisi ? an é nách fuilim saor ? 1 Corinth. ix 2 .

(c) referring to a statement or fact, etc.: rucad in Dond C....úadib...conid é sin méla ┐ mertain ┐ meraigecht is mó tucad for C.C., TBC-LL¹ 2041 (conadh í sin mela is mó v.l.). a Dhé ní d'anaibhse mh'olc | é nach faghaim-se furtocht, Dán Dé vi 34 . re hinghin Anna is é adearar | Dia an t-eitne agus ibh an chnú, x 22 . as é adeirid...nach treabhonn mé...iad, Studies 1923, 81 . is é chráidheas an croidhe | mé ag áineas tar m'eólchoire, 1924, 88 . See Strachan, Ériu i 163 .

For é with neut. or fem. subst. in Mid.-Ir. see Strachan's paper on Middle Ir. Declension, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1905 .

1 ech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ech or dil.ie/19508
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: t-ech, eich, eich, eich, eith, ech, eoch, each, eich, hich, heich, eit, eochu, ech, eochu, eocho, eocha, echu, ech, echaib, eachaibh, eochaiph, ech, eich, echtaitiu, ecthaighe

n o, m. n s. in t-ech , Metr. Dinds. iii 454 . v s. a eich , TTebe 3494 . g s. ind eich , Metr. Dinds. iii 456 . eich, FB 69 etc. eith, IGT Decl. p. 115 n. 15 , 116 n. 19 . (g s. ech, Aen. 446 etc. is probably only a spelling variant). d s. eoch FB 31 . LL 47b10 . each, YBL 8a4 . n p. ind eich , ZCP viii 106.23 . ind hich , Ériu vi 134.21 . na heich , 135.49 . TBC-LL¹ 1246 . eit, Lec. 376a15 , 22 = Leb. Cert. p. 74 , 76 . eochu Lism. L. 562 . g p. ech, Ml. 16b12 . 43d1 . IT i 125.14 etc. a p. eochu, TBC-LL¹ 1244 . FB 39 . (as n p. Lism. L. 562 ). eocho, TBC-LL¹ 1134 . TBC-I¹ 700. TTebe 1382 . eocha (v.l. echu) Trip. 144.10 . ZCP viii 106.25 . TTebe 1083 etc. ech, Triads 236 . d p. echaib, TBC-LL¹ 1344 . Metr. Dinds. iii 454 . eachaibh (: beathaidh), TD 25.25 . eochaiph, BNnÉ 239 § 169 . a du. dá ech , FB 45 . ZCP viii 106.20 . See IGT, Decl. § 171 .

A horse (incl. mare or gelding) genly. of chariot or saddle-horse, dist. from capall: iomad capall, beaccan d'eachaibh, AFM iii 558.2 . The common use of the fem. pron. with ech in certain contexts implies that mares were preferred for riding or driving (but see CMCS xxiii 89 ); the masc. decl. of the word is however always retained. ainm fuasnada... ech the name of a perturbation of horses (ref. to fremitus = `neighing') Ml. 16b12 . cēt n-ech srianach, IT i 125.14 . eich uaibhreacha, TSh. 5963 . ni madriadsam ar n-echa we had better never have tamed our steeds Triads 236 . nach ech riadar isin domnach is ech tened bís hi ngabul a marcaig a n-iffirn, Ériu ii 194 . in t-ech boi fona carpat RC xii 346.24 . na dá ech filet fón charput, FB 45 . léic na eocho ar férgeilt, TBC-LL¹ 1134 . ar eoch ard on a high steed RC xx 10 § 7 = LL 47b10 . ic dul ar a ech mounting his horse Cog. 144.15 . dochuaidh ar a each ar fud sráide an longphuirt rode his horse Keat. iii 3128 . do ling...ar a each, 3227 . éirghidh ar bhar n-eachaibh, 3228 . each fae a horse under him Laws ii 154.18 Comm. LL 303a31 . má tá...gur chuiris srian | rem each... | cia an neach dar dolta ar a druim | dá socra each gan udhuim, Timth. 1917 VII iii 43 . eich dá ngníomh `exercising of steeds' TD 11.20 . eich...ag dol i gcoimhling, 11.12 . muilenn im-tai ech, O'Mulc. 816 . Interchanging with gerrán : fúacrais Ercoil comlond dó féin ┐ dá eoch forro...marbais gerran Ercoil ech Loegairi, FB 69 . indara hech ..ocus sē lugaid...in t-ech aile ocus sé casmongach TBC-I¹ 1975 . With fem. pron.: tainic each Colmáin...go M...┐ do chuir fona carpat féin í, BNnÉ 239 § 69 . is isi an t-ech oirdherc, B IV 2, 95a = O'Gr. Cat. 488 . ba suaichnich am egcosc inn eich sin .i. gabair gormglasa...is cuma conriadad si muir ┐ tir, TTebe 2282 . co tuiced int ech a n-ebairt-sium ria ┐ ro an ris ┐ dochuaid-sium fuirri 3498 . D. do mharbhadh dia eoch fein ag cor crú fuirre AFM iv 900.8 .

Attrib. gen.: tána eich , LL 295b35 = SG 361.24 .

In O'Dav. 501 the correct reading is probably: in cullach eich (as in F) the stallion , cf. the compd. ech-cullach below.

Defined by follg. adj. or gen. subst.: ech aige `a race (?)- horse' (i.e. for chariot-racing?) Laws v 406.6 . luaithe ech aighe nem medon mīs míthime .i. comluath é ┐ int ech innṡaighther isin aenach a mī medhonach int samraid, Anecd. v 25. 7 . cf. ech fri aige, dam fri har, Laws i 122.10 . e.¤ bagáiste baggage-horse: dona hechaibh bagaisde, Rel. Celt. ii 198 (Bk. of Clan R.). e.¤ anríata an unbroken horse : LL 302a22 . e.¤ bretnach a British (Welsh) horse: ór derg tuarastul in trír | ra taeb ech mbretnach mblathmín, LL 49b6 . in t-ech bretnach (sufficient ransom for a life), Laws v 438.8 Comm. (cf. 220.22 ). MacCongl. 45.16 . AU 1029 = AFM ii 818 . e.¤ buada a winning horse: is ech buada dar mag reid | fer adcosnaid flaith Dé máir, LL 284b42 . conacatar marcach for each mbuadha, RC x 62 z . Lism. L. 2090 . e.¤ crainn wooden horse : Fiacha Figente ... is ē do-rōinde an each crainn ro-n-acht iarum a nĀenach Colmān, Corp. Gen. 230 (152a10 n. a-a) ​= qui fecit equm ligneum​​​​. e.¤ crannda wooden horse : i mbroind in ech cranda, Aen. 446 . e.¤ díla a charger (?) see díl. e.¤ gerr `gelding' BColm. 88.9 ; 90.16 . e.¤ imchair a saddle-horse, riding-horse: m'each iomchuir ag triall ré tal | dob ionchuir srian dá seoladh (sic leg.) Timth. 1917, VII iii 43 . Contrasted with e.¤ díla: an t-each díola nach díol damh | 's an t-each iomchair gan iomchar (sic leg.) Tribes of Irel. 48 . e.¤ immrimme `a riding steed' Laws iv 308.22 (opp. to capul fognuma) ii 160.19 . Cf. i n-imrim do eich .i. sliastai, i 168.11 . each fae i n-aimsir imrime, ii 154.18 . e.¤ riata a broken-in or trained horse FB 31 . .l. each riata la C. fri har ┐ trebad in talman, Fél.² lxi (Mar. 5) tri heich duba daigriata, Lec. 378da 22 = Leb. Cert. 160 . Cf. riagh éineich san bfaithchi, one of the services which Lugh offers to perform at Tara, Ridgeway Essays 326 § 32 , see note. e.¤ sliasta riding-horse Laws iv 322.8 . i 168.11 . e.¤ uisci a water-horse (a goblin): ech usci robói isind loch, Triads 236 . RC xii 346 , 348 . e.¤ uiscide: eich uscide, Alex. 679 (usci BB) crocodiles (?).

COMPDS.

ech-adba? in carbad fuil i n-eachadhbadhaib na n-ech sin, ZCP viii 549.29 (= TBC-LL¹ 1815 v.l.).

¤adbul mighty in horses: i nhErind hechadbail, ZCP viii 270.12 .

¤ba: see echba.

¤bachlach horse-boy, groom (?): n p.; nícon bia acht eachbachlaich uait (a malediction), Ériu viii 157.33 .

¤bán white of steeds, having white steeds: cétrí Herenn echbáne, LL 127a39 (= MacCarthy 150 ).

¤bél horse-mouth, horse-lipped , as npr. or epithet: Echbēl mac Dedad, ScM. 7 . Echde Echbél, ZCP ix 191.1 (= Ériu ii 32 ). co Eochu Echbél, RC xxvi 8 = LL 186a13 . cland Echach Echbeóil, LL 138a37 (see Thurn., Heldensage 443 ). Dinds. 53 . Erge Echbél, ZCP viii 326.5 .

¤breth horse-judgement: i n-echbrethaib Áine, O'Dav. § 813 . ¤buide having yellow steeds: Iubdán mac Abdaein echbuide, SG i 249.25 . ¤cairptech : a crích Umaill echcairpdig, LL iii 20469 . ¤cenn: horse-headed: Eochaid Eachcend, BB 44b31 . ¤cullach stallion: im echccullach for eochu .i. i naimsir echmarta, Laws i 144.4 . ¤cummascda centaur, horse-mongrel: popul torathardha na Centauri ┐. na nEchcumusccda .i. each ┐ duine a cummascc aenpersainne inntip, CCath. 3839 (possibly na n-ech c., and not a compd.). ¤dian of swift steeds: g s m. m. Ailill echdéin, RC xx 140 . ? ¤díle ? bíastai granni dracondai cucund dofutitis | tréna a n-amainsi echdíli cíadcutís, LU 114b17 (Siaburch. om. Anecd. iii 54 - 5 ). ¤dillat horsecloth: marcach for each...eachdillat maith cumtachta foa suidhiu, RC x 62 z . eochdillat, Aen. 2112 . ¤donn having brown steeds: a secht Chind Ḟáelad echduind, LL iii 15296 . ¤flesc rod, horsewhip (cf. 1 echlasc): dobert béim dind echfleisc dó, SCC 8 . ech a cengal die echfleisc, RC xiii 7.14 . pn ¤lúath mounted on, or possessing swift steeds: as epithet: Conall Echlúath, Cóir Anm. 163 . Rawl. 145d38 . ¤mairc: see echthres s.v. ech. ¤mairt covering a mare: doluid [in cullach]...co mbói eter scuru Enna Aignig do saigid echmarta, Dinds. 107 . i n-aimsir echmarta, Laws i 144.5 Comm. ¤míne tameness of steeds: rob iarla co n-echmine possessing tame steeds (?) BB 59a6 . ¤mór great in steeds, rich in steeds: flathius Mael Sechnaill echmóir, Arch. Hib. ii 85 § 46 = LL 185a49 . ¤raite horse-road: doronad fri echraite mendoto a medon, EIF 538 § 1 . ¤réid: see eichréid. ? ¤réim (¤dréim) horse-riding (mounting horses ?): echréim (MS. echdreim) ┐ cor cloiche, Celtica viii 142.18, cf. 149 . ¤rúad having ruddy steeds: dá degmac Ebir echrúaid, LL i 299 . ¤rúathar: aimsir echruathair (one of the seasons in which roads are cleansed), Corm. Y 1082 ; as npr. m.: Echrúathar, BDD 117 . ¤semmar a plant name, horse-clover: maculta treisfolium (maculatum trifolium?) .i. in eachṡemar, RC ix 237 . echṡemmar, LB 101 m. inf. corona regia .i. an eachṡeamar 23 K 42, 415 = Academy 1896, 406b . g s. eachṡeimri, Med. MS . ¤srian bridle: coīcait n-echsrian, ZCP viii 310.22 . Laws iv 326.11 , 328.9 . ¤tháid horse-thief: ní ria a enech...ar echu echthadat he shall not sell his honour for the steeds of a horse-thief ZCP xi 86 § 43 . co luga echthádat, Tec. Corm. § 27.15 . im loingsechaibh ┐ im echtadait ┐ im macu tiri, Laws i 160.2 Comm. echtaitiu (a p.) iii 22.18 Comm. n p. echtáide (sic leg.) Laws ii 270.5 , ZCP xx 480 . ecthaighe, ii 270.5 Comm. ¤thress a horse-contest, horse-race: tucait...dá ech... i n-ech-thress curad, Metr. Dinds. iv 126 . bla each echtres ....i. slan dona hechaib in tres echda doniat eturru budein `horse-fight' Laws iii 294.15 . co ndernad óenuch ┐ echtressa leo ann, IT i 128.15 (corresp. to: ic gním óenaig ech-thressa, Metr. Dinds. iii 350 ). oegidacht Úa nDrona de | ocus ech-thress Ossairge (proverbial expressions?), Metr. Dinds. iii 22 . Dinds. 18 . echtres Ratha Line, BB 268a24 (= echrais, Leb. Cert. 22 ). Cf. echtres .i. echmairc, O'Dav. 805 .

fobréit

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fobréit or dil.ie/22389

n m. understrap: fobreit bís fo bragait ind eich, Thes. ii 341.20 (comm.on: scarais a hech cenn a bréit ... ni bu leithísel in mám, Hy v 55 ).

fochorsid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fochorsid or dil.ie/22488

Forms: focharrsaigh

adj i epithet of a horse: indara hech ... traigmar fótmar f.¤ , TBC-I¹ 1976 ( LU 6490 ) (= focharrsaid, TBC-I¹ 2558 . focharrsaigh, ZCP x 299.1 ). ech ... fótmar focursid, LL 120a41 .

Cf. fochuirse ?.

fótmar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fótmar or dil.ie/24213

adj o-ā epithet of a steed; nervous, skittish (< 2 fót) ? indara hech ... túagmar traigmar f.¤ , TBC-I¹ 1976 ( LU 6490 ); TBC-I¹ 2558 (fotmar). ech ... stuagmar f.¤ , LL 120a40 = each ... fodmur, ZCP x 299.1 .

lugaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. lugaid or dil.ie/30945

n epithet of a horse: indara hech dībside ┐ sē l.¤ lúath-lēmnech, TBC-I¹ 1975 `supple', Faraday ( LU 6489 ). TBC-I¹ 2557. Cf. torc atchíu argair gabair / fíu cor no lorc no lughaidh, IT iii 13 § 24.

ruithid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ruithid or dil.ie/35771

v (variant form of rethid q.v.) runs: ruthid hech baeth foa mbi a restive horse runs away with its rider , RC xx 174 ( ACC 39 Comm. ). pret. ruithis . . . in gabair fon sluag, Hib. Min. 70 § 1 , Rawl. B 502 = ro rith, Rawl. B 512.

scaraid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. scaraid or dil.ie/36327
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: scart, roscéaraidh, scarad, scarthain

v ā, Usually with ē-fut. in Mid.Ir. ( noscairiub, Ml. 43a23 , see GOI § 651 ). A t-pret. occurs in: ro scart , TBC-LL¹ 948 , 1382 (see under (g) infra). In Ó Bruad. also with stem scéar-: rear scéar, Ó Bruad. ii 32.4 . roscéaraidh (: fhoscéalaibh), 140.10 . re ar scéaradh, 198.23 . IGT Verbs § 28 . Vn. scarad, scarthain.

I Trans.

(a) separates, parts : bendacht for ríg na nhuile | ron scar, a c[h]naim senbuide (to a tooth), Trip.² 1625 . scérthar a leccni, benfader a fhiacla as a chind, PH 1118 (will be destroyed? Cf. (g) infra).

(b) most commonly in phr. s.¤ x fri y separates, severs x from y: noeb is núibhuaga . . . | scérdair frisin slóg i mmaig | bertair isin morchathraig, SR 443 = scerthair, MacCarthy 40.14 . ni sinn rotscar frit sluagu, SR 1735 . scéraidh soin rígh re ríghain, IGT Verbs ex. 292 . Of the separation of body and soul: anim Patraicc fria chorp | is iar sáethaib roscarad, Hy. ii 63 . bātar tra demain ┐ aingil ic imchosnum 'mon anum ō do scarsat frisin corp hé, ACL iii 226.9 .

(c) in same construction deprives of, cuts off from, relieves of: níb scara fri bar pecthu `(your faith) . . . doth not sever you from your sins', Wb. 13b19 . fear ris ro scara a cond ┐ fer ro scara frisin domun, Laws v 234.22 . ro scar fria náire is fria nert | dag-mnái Dáire deprived of her modesty, Metr. Dinds. iii 134.11 . cia rét . . . non-scérad fri grád Crist? in ron-scérai tréblait? PH 5873 . ba lor leis do biudh inní no scaradh fri accurus as much as would keep him from hunger, CCath. 1183 . conid hí ind fingal sain ro scar rīgi nÉirenn fri claind Echach D., ZCP viii 317.14 . Dia sgéarus inn ris gach n-olc, Dán Dé xxvii 27 . go sgarfadh an Fhiann leis a cheann would have cut off his head, Oss. iv 82.4 . do scar in cloidemh na deich ndeslámha fiched riu cut off, Comp. CC 113.29 . s.¤ láma fri: atiur-sa brethir . . . na scér-sa lama riu ca slaide ┐ ic a n-essargain I will be unremitting in my attacks on them, TBC-LL¹ 4450 . cona ro scar lāmha fris go ro eidirdelaigh a cenn rea chúilmēidhe, ZCP xiv 232.12 .

(d) with other prepp.: cip e . . . ingaibes na huli ulcu-sa . . . scerthar . . . o phéin na híttad, PH 5624 . scarthais Día dá cech dis daibh | forba (sic leg.) saethair na sen-náeimh withheld from each pair of them, BNnÉ 97.1 . marbhaid an t-anam do bhríogh go sgarthar leó ó Dhia é because it is taken from them by God, TSh. 1486 .

(e) with cognate accus.: nib [ṡ]ursan sccaradh sccarmait, BNnÉ 313 § 5 .

(f) spreads out, unfolds : scarais iarum a forbrat | i taig, glossed .i. scailis `spread', Hy. v 34 . a Brigit scar ós mo chind | do bratt find dom anacul, LL 308a48 ( SG 389.16 ). scar dam . . . forgemen mo charpait fóm, TBC-LL¹ 3285 . scarais .i. sgaoilis no sreathnaighis, O'Cl. iss ed ro-da-scara in scél 'this is the story that demonstrates it' Ériu xx 196 § 19 .

(g) in sense of do-scara destroys, knocks down :? scarais a hech cenn abréit (`severed'), Hy. v 55 (see note). sruth aile .i. donither isin sruth .i. scara[s] sruth destroys, Laws v 270.25 Comm. (cf. trascrus, ib.). scarais coica rígmac im thalmain díb foe, TBC-LL¹ 920 (trasgrais, v.l.). co ro scart maccu na curad . . . ar dorus a llis, 948 . Cf. mac bec . . . bar ro scart na curaid, 1382 (.i. ro trascair, St.).

II Intrans.

(a) separates, parts : in tan scermait when we shall part, Trip.² 811 . co ro scarsatar fo osadh, AU i 508.x . scarait . . . oc Beluch da Liac, LU 2936 . scérdait far n-óendili i fat, TBC-LL¹ 2796 . o chonrāngatar . . . | nī scērat is nī scarfat, RC xxxvii 348 § 73 . o scerait, ┐ o na biat imale (landlord and tenant), Laws iii 144.8 Comm . ro badh ferr linn na sccarmais, BNnÉ 313 § 5 .

(b) departs, vanishes, is dissipated : atbathsat slúaig síde Truim | ro scarsatar a morgluind no longer do they perform great deeds, LU 3569 ( SCC 29 ). ar na scarait (sic leg.) trí haige bruithi and that it be never without three boiled joints, Laws i 48.2 Comm . an lá sgéaras Dia fa dhiomdhaidh when God departs (`when God . . . separates us'), Dán Dé xii 7 . an uair ghébhas [bás] do chomarba . . . ní scéra cen anmchairdes fair he will not depart (this life), BNnÉ 14.8 . Note also: ni scel do scar gan dogra was disseminated, Irish Texts ii 58 § 13 .

Of contracts, agreements, lapses : ō ro scarsatar ar cuir 'since our agreements have lapsed', SR (Adam and Eve) 72.1725 .

(c) In phr.: s.¤ x fri y x separates, parts from y: na scarad frisin fer, Wb. 10a3 . roscarsam frib, 24d26 . ba méite limm ni scartha friumm, 29d8 . arna rascra a menme contra (= fri) deum, Thes. ii 253.7 (Stowe M.). ro scarus-[s]a rut is rot' chlaind, SR 2031 . nomad loighi na con in gach cuilen dia cuilena, no in cait, co ro scarsat riu, ┐ o scerait, is smacht unnta, Laws iii 378.26 Comm . sochaide scaras fria choemu, TBC-LL¹ 195 . ni scér-sa frib-si, 1140 . scerdait a óicc fria tairsech, Three Hom. 110.20 . sgéarad . . . rem chloinn, DDána 57.23 . bidh anos sccérfus do spiorat red chorp, BNnÉ 56 § 61 . ag Cairbre L. trá scaraid Oirghialla . . . ré clannaibh Néill branch off from (in genealogy), Keat. ii 5546 .

(d) in same construction relinquishes, gives up, is without, desists from: in tan noscairiub frisna huili deithidnea, Ml. 43a23 . in corp marbde frissa roscar-som, Wb. 3a14 . noscarinn friu gl. detrimenta, 24a4 . marudscarsid fri tola, 27a30 . ro-scarsat friae (fidem), 28a20 . roscarsat fri hiriss, 29b22 . in tain scaras fria thola, Thes. ii 247.7 (Cambr.). 18 . ro scar fri féle, SR 3216 . indid F. . . . | roscar fri míadh Cluana móir?, AU i 442.19 . scérait fri airfitiud in domain seo, LU 2402 . in tan no scairiub frim chrí when I die, ZCP vii 308.26 . dia ro scardais fria cloissin if they ceased to hear it, Ériu ii 128 § 96 . ní scarat mná re baoís, iii 148 § 3 . Dún Tulcha . . . | ní scéra re deg-seanchaid will never be without a good storyteller, iv 150.z . nir scara (ní scere, v.l.) fri hordan n-old mayst thou never lose, IT iii 16 § 41 = Bruchst. i § 16 . do sgar sé re meanmain móir | . . . | do bhí go dearóil dá deoin, Dán Dé ii 14 . roscair si friom oirchisecht (: ro-chair) she has ceased to pity me, BS 54.12 .

Note also: doscar saerbrigh re cach clainn strength has departed from every tribe, MacCarthy 426 § 6 . go scar lán rem lámhuibh-si `until fulness leaves my hands' (i.e. till my hands are empty), Ériu ix 165.z . nocha sgéra brígh an bennaicht | re síl Énna, IGT Decl. ex. 847 .

(e) with ó: ro scaradar fir Érenn ó Themraigh ┐ ó chéili, Comp. CC 114.19 .

(f) with OCUS: da scaraind gan troit is tú if you and I should part without conflict, TBC-LL¹ 3679 . gar sgar mé is mhac M., Aithd. D. 10.36 . ní sgéar ┐ Muire mhór, Dán Dé xxvii 34 . do Chinél A. . . . | dobhér uaim uille airmhe, | sgeurad sa[n] dream . . . | is bérad leam Laoghaire (a poet recounting a genealogy), Irish Texts iv 51 § 18 . cionnus scerfaimne ┐ iadsomh fri a roile, Leb. Gab.(i) 198.15 . Note also: o'n lá thuit C. . . . | níor sgarais ó shoin acht ar ár dtí thou hast never ceased to pursue us, Oss. vi 12.23 .

Part. brat scartha, Laws iv 184.12 . a anom ┐ a chorp . . . sgartha ré 'roile, Desid. 6241 . air na mbeith sgartha o bheatha Dé, Donlevy xxiv 28 .

1 traig

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 traig or dil.ie/41569
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: traigid, traig, troiged, troighthe, traigid, traigid, traighe, traigthe, troigthi, traigthe, traiged, traigh, traigthib, Troigleathan

n t, f. IGT Decl. § 191 . a s. traigid, Wb. 23c4 . LU 6693 . traig, Sg. 130b2 . LU 1843 . SR 6587 . g s. troiged, Laws iv 214.18 Comm. troighthe, Acts vii 5 . d s. traigid, O'Curry 252 ( H 3.18, 146 ). n p. traigid, Manners and Customs iii 508.6 . LU 7204 . traighe, Laws iv 112.4 . traigthe, 112.3 . troigthi, 76.12 Comm. a p. traigthe, LU 4498 . g p. traiged, LU 2787 . traigh, Anecd. iii 10.5 . d p. traigthib, Sg. 120b4 . See ZCP vi 410.

I

(a) the human foot (occas. also of animals): t.¤ a tractu, vel quasi ter-rig .i. rig terram, ar isī benas fri lār, Corm. Y 1235 . imin bolg bis fo peis fo traigh, Laws i 152.12 Comm. Saliusa teand co t.¤ from head to foot, Fél.² cxxxv 1 . cid ríagail fo-certa forsna traigthib though the feet were measured, BDD² 32 . sléchtaid in clérech for díb traigthib ind nóeb `the cleric prostrated himself before the feet of the saint,' Ériu ii 204.9 .

(b) step: troigh do-chuaidh 'n-ar gcoinneine `he stepped forward to reach us,' Aithd. D. 59.3 . an chríoch ḟionnsa ón héigin troigh `from which one must go,' TD 41.18 . dá ndeachadh sé tarsa troigh `if A odh take precedence of them,' Aithd. D. 18.21 . troigh do bharr ar a bhronnadh `a step even beyond that generosity,' Studies 1939, 98 § 6 .

(c) In phrase do-léici traigid (do, ré n-) retires, yields, gives ground (to): ni tarlicid traigid seodapostolis `yield ye not pseudo-apostolis,' Wb. 23c4 . teilc traigid dom, LU 6693 . is and sin dolléci Cu Chulaind traigid for culu re Fergus, 6695 . Cf. ni rucus t.¤ techid re n-oenfher, TBC-LL¹ 3187 . Echaid | nach dechaid traighid madma, SG 104.13 . See teiched.

II

(a) foot as measure of length. See Ériu ix 157 - 8 , ZCP xiv 358 . tri traighe a leithead, Laws iv 112.4 . sé troighthi ina hairde, no da dorn déc, 76.21 Comm. .vii. fichit traiged di thraigthib ... métt a dúne, Críth G. 567 . da dorn a traigid—sé traigthi i ndeisceim, O'Curry 252 ( H 3.18, 146 ). seacht dtroighe mo thír dhúthaigh (i.e. the grave), PBocht 21.1 . Metr.: t.¤ cethargarait, `a foot of four short syllables,' Sg. 7b13 . dofóichred t.¤ ṅécmailt and `it would introduce an unwonted foot there,' 130b2 . sillab for deib traigthib, 120b4 . traigid comamserda comfodlaide, Goid. 101.44 . ata in tráigh conid armidetu demin inna sillab `the foot is a definite counting of the syllables,' Auraic. 1411 . Cf. 771 .

(b) a division of land (?): críchadh gach coigidh ... | ota traighidh cu trom-tuaith, BB 351b9 ( Metr. Dinds. i 14.24 ). o baile go traighidh do thír, AFM i 118.1 . See 2 trogan.

Compds. ¤airshnám treading water (?): acc snámh ar ccúl ┐ acc troigharshnámh, Acall. (Leabh. ó Laimhsgr.) ii 143.26 . ic traigirsnám, Acall. 3213 . ¤éscaid nimble-footed . As subst.: eththar nach t. húaib isin tír, BDD² 435 . tanic co tricc trén t., TTr. 2019 . fa troighéasgaidh Cú an chleitín, DDána 117.32 . ¤lesc slow-footed: ná bí troighleasg, TD 2.3 . ¤lethan broad-footed: ind oinchosaig .i. in traiglethain, Goid. 71.3 . eachlach ... t. atmar, YBL 177a33 . eclach ... thaebthana t., BB 257b9 . As n. pr. Troigleathan mac Gairbh, CF 331 . ¤már large-footed, large-hooved: indara hech ... túagmar traigmar, LU 6490 . ? Tuirbi tragmar athair Gobain Saeir, BB 408b17 = athair Gobhain Tuirmi treagmhar, Ériu x 77 § 17 = trágmar, Metr. Dinds. iv 226.7 . ¤shnám treading water (?): dorindset culsnam ┐ taebsnam ┐ traigedsnám and, Acall. 7228 v.l.

trén

Cite this: eDIL s.v. trén or dil.ie/41798

Forms: trenbualad, trencheimniugad, thren-gabail, trenglacadh, tren-gresacht

adj o, ā IGT Decl. § 137.

I As adj.

(a) strong: bad treúin i niriss, Wb. 27a6 . tríuin, Ml. 46c23 . donaib feraib trenaib, 37b24 . cin cach cintaid triuin `the debt of every powerful defaulter,' Laws i 268.18 . hi féil ... | Teolis triúin trednaig, Fél. Feb. 25 . snaidsi-unn deg-ri tomtach t.¤ , Lib. Hymn. 29.6 . niurt t.¤ togairm trinoit, 133.16 . t.¤ écosc at-chíu, BDD² 825 . forngaire t.¤ SR 7562 . dus in fagbad ... | talmain trein, 2568 . teora dúi dana trethnasa trena, TBC-LL¹ 5590 . se hech bus triuín fri toghruim, BB 275b16 . antrend .i. anmin tire .i. ni tren fri clandugad n-arbha, O'Curry 124 ( H 3.18, 75 , cf. Phil. Soc. Trans. 1859 p. 196 ). adchiu-sa da tharb trena, TTebe 1617 . a chuirp Mheic Dhé is diúmhas tréan, Dán Dé xxvi 29 . bheith tréan ní haithnidh d'ollamh, Aithd. D. 33.12 . a lámh thréan dínsimhthe drong `thou strong hand in quelling hosts,' TD 19.3 . láimh dheas ríogh Teamhrach tréine, Keat. iii 582.

(b) Gramm. ainm t.¤ substantive: ainim t.¤ son, Ml. 30a9 . cen tabairt anman t.¤ fríu, ib. inna anmmann tréna, Sg. 28b18 . Cf. trén-úathad.

(c) In phrase t.¤ ar powerful over: tréan tú ar gach éinní eile, DDána 10.27 . tú as tréan ar gach ní fa nimh, A. Ó Dálaigh xx 4. Míchéal ortha is é bhus tréan, xxii 11 . Cf. ní tréan ar naoimhcheallaibh bile braonChumair `this hero ... will press light on holy churches,' Aithd. D. 4.13 .

Equative tressithir ... séolchrand prímluṅgi, TBC-LL¹ 2622 . Compar. tressa, tressiu, etc.: combad tressa de hiress apstal, Wb. 25a14 . intí bed tressa do fordiuclaim alaili, Ml. 19d5 . tresa, 6 . besid treisiu fri himfoiche, Laws ii 278.23 . ar us treise in da teangaid dec, v 510.7 . is tressiu cuma inda muir, IT i 81.15 . ba tressio tol aicniud, LU 10730 . bid tressai indás bág Foraind, SR 3892 . anmunna na ṅdémna ba tressi oldáti na tosig, PH 1195 . in n-uair ropo thressiu flaith firu, CRR 20.1 . co mbiad a fis aigi cia aguind bus threisi, Stair Erc. 1664 . an tan fá threise dhá mhíghníomhaibh ioná dá mhaith, TSh. 5725 . Later also tréine: besi treine fri eimfoiche, Laws ii 280.17 Comm. Superl. is ed ainm as tressam, Lib. Hymn. 129.15 . in cliathbernaidh cet as tresium thainic do shil Ádhaim, TTr.² 28 . tresim fedma, Auraic. 5555 . Later treise, tréine: amal ba tresi di ac dul, TTebe 2583 . in ti dobo tresi ara ollamnacht fein, Ann. Conn. 1385.15 . don naomh as treise tá ar nimh, PBocht 8.3 . fear do ba treise ar a thoil, DDána 52.11 . rí is treise ┐ is tréine, TSh. 3059.

II As adverb strongly: tren doratus do menmain | missi hi píangubaib ... | tússu i ṅgrianbrugaib I remembered bitterly, SR 1866 . With co: dobreth fín do ┐ ro mesca[d] co t.¤ ┐ ro guded im dula isin comrac, LU 6688 . mur do chriad (sic) chaim rochalcad | co tren im cach n-airfortach, SR 396 . ro-chói co t.¤ , PH 3197 . tainig techtairi co tren ┐ co tindesnach, TTebe 4360 . do bhrígh go rabhadar lucht na gcríoch-so ... go tréan ar Éirinn `held ... powerful sway over Ireland,' Keat. iii 2463.

III As subst. o, m., IGT Decl. § 61.

(a) strong man: ainm alaili thríuin, Sg. 96a4 . oirt trīunu talman he slew the strong ones of the earth, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 6 § 2 . ceithri triuin, Laws i 54.13 Comm. iter lobru ┐ tríunu, Críth G. 527 . ro brisius aurgala | for triunu na túath, LU 9350 . bad rí ┐ bad t.¤ ┐ bad tigerna dóib, TTr. 53 . eter triunu Tethrach, RC xxvi 26 § 97 .i. eter na treono Tethrach, LL 187b38 . ar treóin ┐ ar tóisig, CRR 38.22 . a ndoberó ar Dīa | do thriun nō do thrūagh, Ériu ii 172 § 4 . in luadi letrom ro bris cach tren, Cog. 160.9 . t.¤ ós mo chionn ní cubaid, O'Gr. Cat. 475.28. ro dhoirtset treóin an tuaisceirt ina ccend, AFM ii 1108.1 .

(b) (orig. n. ?) strength: taoisech Bladhma tren ar thren, LL 394.29 . tren namat mallacht mo mhiond `a hostile power is the curse of my relics,' BNnÉ 286.21 . as mor do traoitais dom trean, Ériu iv 49.24 . co n-aiseóga Día a nert ┐ a t.¤ fen do Gaedhelaib, BCC 124.36 . fada atám fa th.¤ mo bhidhbhadh, IGT Decl. ex. 1732 . tréan an bheatha ní buaine, PBocht 3.32 . gan tren a nesccaratt do leicen forra, AFM iii 364.25 . ? ní tualaing tréan dá threise ... neart ... Dé do thurnamh no power on earth, TSh. 5419 (or in meaning (a) ?).

Compds. (frequ. with merely intens. force, or for alliteration):

(a) With nouns: ¤aicned: cách cona thoga trénacnid chena, TTr. 960 . ¤arm strong weapon: in trenarm angidi ingnathach sin, Stair Erc. 1250 . ¤brugaid: is ann sin tainic Tamun t. mac Tréin, Acall. 2438 . ¤eite: lúth toile 'n-a thréin-eitibh, Aithd. D. 60.8 . ¤fher strong man, warrior: Trioscatal trenfer tigi Concobair, TBC-LL¹ 5530 . ¤fhogail violent seizure: ó thóicheastal throid-mhear ... na tréanfhoghla soin, TSh. 6643 . ¤gaeth strong wind: treisecht na trengaithi, CCath. 4617 . ¤lige oppression: trenlighu .i. foreicni, O'Curry 871 ( H 3.18, 391b ). foxal trenlighi nirt `seizure by overwhelming strength,' Laws iv 268.21 . ¤lua violent kick: ra bretha t. tarpech da choiss úad riss, TBC-LL¹ 2776 . ¤mid strong mead: im thech trenmeda, RC xiv 424.21 . ¤mod valiant work: meic Thalairc co trenmud, Gorm. Sept. 8 . ¤nia great champion: is beg in cin ata acan trenníadh ugud oirne, Stair Erc. 1477. ¤tarraing, in n. pr. Trentarraing mac Bocachta, Anecd. ii 49.15 . ¤timarcain: trentimarcain na tuath `forcible reduction,' Laws i 52.13 Comm. ¤torc mighty boar: cu téit an t. allaid ó chonuib, Acall. 1786 . ¤úathad singular of a substantive (cf. ainm trén): trenothath, Sg. 56b3 . ¤uide: rancatar uile uile | ... | na trēnuidhe dar in trāigh with a mighty rush, RC xxxvii 347 § 45.

(b) With adjj. (forming dvandva-cpds., except in the case of adjj. derived from nouns) ¤adbul: in talam trenadbul, TTebe 3077 . ¤armach strongly armed: do thogail na Tebi trenarmaigi, 2729 . ¤chalma: tic slog mor. ... t., PH 8106 . ¤dúalach strongly woven (?): cona luirigh thruim thren-dualaigh, Stair Erc. 1243 . Cf. tredúalach. ¤máillech having strong links: an tréan luithreac tréanmhailleac, CF Eg. 195 . ¤óg: Airenann tuir threnóg, Gorm. Jan. 5 . ¤oll: Serapion tuir t., Mar. 21 . ¤talchar: tucastair ... tarraing-drutad tren-talcair fair, CCath. 2958.

(c) With verbs. ¤buailid: trenbuailis a sgiath, TTebe 4529 . rotrenbuail a eocho, 2609 . vn. 'ga trenbualad , 3406 . ¤chéimnigther (rel.) strongly advances (?): is iat maíne tréncéimnighther do céimniugh ar fer tairce trian, O'D. 768 ( H 3.17, 551 ). vn. ar na trencheimniugad as in talmain aird, Laws ii 240.5 Comm. ¤chumtaigid: toccaibter ┐ trén-chumdaighter ... ionad onorach, BNnÉ 234.28 . ¤gaibid: in énlaith | rothréngaib mo nert-sa `the bird-flock that holds my strength in thrall,' Metr. Dinds. iv 212.36 . vn. da thren-gabail , MR 200.9 . ¤gellaid: dóib ra thrén-gell in sessed `to them was firmly pledged the sixth,' Metr. Dinds. iii 16.184 . ¤glacaid: cia tír nā ro thrēnglacc trell ? `what territory did he not stoutly grip awhile ?' Arch. Hib. ii 85 § 34 . vn. tre corp an tailginn do thadhall, ┐ do trenglacadh , BNnÉ 274.28 . ¤gonaid: rothrengon cach aroili, TTebe 4517 . ¤greisid: rotrengreis a each, 3999 . vn. ac tren-gresacht caich, 3159 . ¤indsaigid: rotrenindsaig tra na catha croda araili, 2820 . ¤letraid: co rrotrenletair a sirigh, 3829 . ¤marbaid: cur tren-marbh Indolb ar lar an átha, TBC-LL¹ 3856 . ¤tairrngid: ro tréntairrngedh léo an lúitheach sin `this mighty train was drawn by them,' AFM vi 1980.12 .

tresmar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. tresmar or dil.ie/41832

Forms: tresmur

adj (1 tress) battlesome: indara hech ... lúathlemnech t.¤ , LU 6490 . tresmur, ZCP x 299.1 .