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do-esta

Cite this: eDIL s.v. do-esta or dil.ie/17594

 

Forms: doesta, duesta, testa, ndudesta, ndodesta, ndudæsta, nistesbi, tesarbi, -tesban, tesbanat, tesbanat, tesbad, tesaib, dod-essaib, tesbat, tesarb, tesarbae, tesarba, tesbaid, testáil, tesb-, teasband, tesbaid, doesbuidh, tesbus, teseba, tesseba, testa, testatar, teasda, testaig, rotheisteobad

(*to-ess-+subst. vb., Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 443 )

Indic. pres.

(a) 3 s. doesta, Ml. 35d20 ; duesta, 71c19 . testa, 65d6 , BCr. 18½d . Thes. ii 33.19 . a ndudesta , Wb. 1a9 , 23d17 . a ndodesta , 26d8 . a ndudæsta , 14a33 .

(b) 3 s. nistesbi, Imr. Brain § 62 . With -ro-: manid tesarbi , Wb. 28d31 .

(c) (With infl. of benaid) do-easban . . . doesbun, Laws ii 276 . -tesban, Críth G. 169 . pl. tesbanat, Wb. 11d11 . ní tesbanat , PCr. 65a2 .

Impf. 3 s. nicon tesbad , Hy. v 88 . Subj. pres. 3 s. ar na tesaib , Laws v 312 . dod-essaib, ZCP xvi 274 § 6 . 3 pl. cu tesbat , BCr. 3c . Perf. 3 s. tesarb, Wb. 17d2 . tesarbae, Ml. 34c16 . nocho tesarba , Ériu i 41.11 . Vn. tesbaid, testáil.

In Mid.Ir. the stem tesb- develops as a simple vb., pres. 3 s. a teasband , Laws v 70 . tesbaid, ib. doesbuidh, i 60 , SR 6814 . tesbus (rel.), Laws v 170 Comm. Fut. 3 s. noco teseba , LU 3510 . noco tesseba , LL 293b3 . In addition the pres. 3 s. form testa is used as pret. and perf. (esp. in sense ( has) died ) and develops a corresponding 3 pl. testatar ( Trip.² 1445 ). Cf. 2 testaigid. IGT Verbs §§ 10 , 83 .

(a) is absent, wanting, lacking , generally used in third pers. only, folld. by DE (rarely ASS or ó) of the whole from wh. someth. is lacking; by AR (FOR), ó of pers. who lacks (rarely dat. inf. pron. or DO). Gl. abesse, Ml. 34c16 , 35d20 , 65d6 . deesse, Wb. 14a33 , 23d17 , 25a30 , 26d8 ; Ml. 71c19 . aní dodesta di chomalnad cæsta Crist, Wb. 26d8 . a ndudesta di far foirbthetu, 23d17 . a nduesta (andæsta, v.l.) dia ais-som, Trip.² 1168 . doformastar deit a ndotesta dit nirt, LU 3345 ( SCC § 13 ). ataat aige ┐ mucca la Laigniu. A testa desin mairfider dúib if they are not enough, more shall be killed for you, IT i 100 . a teasband de foltaib cāich, teasbaid dia cātaid what is defective in a man's qualifications is defective in his dignity, Laws v 70 . cid bec cid mor teasbus de be the defect small or great, iii 4 Comm. ni tesda dia nert, cia rothesda dia saith his strength was not lessened, though his appetite was, BNnÉ 300 . roairim na herranda ┐ ni thesta ní dib, Lat. Lives 69 . mo ṡaoghal lēicc mar as áil le Dia, | ēnrēd de ni theisteoba, | tuilled air nocha bia, ZCP iii 302 . nad desta ní du (= de?) digail that naught of punishment is lacking, Ml. 94c10 . a testá dom íc-sa, cuin rombía uait-siu? when shall I have what is still lacking of my cure? (do = de? but perh. sense is what is wanted for my cure), TE 11 ( IT i 125 ; LU 10750 ). aní testá do chomláinius a cuirp, RC xxv 238 ( LU 2552 ). testa ní do shuim na bethadh so the end of this biography is wanting, SG 49 . manid tesarbi ní di maith assa gnímaib, Wb. 28d31 . cæca ingen do-nestao a hEmuin , Comp. CC 7 Eg. ( IT i 140 ). tom-esta bo mo mic I have lost my son's cow, RC x 222 . inab-testa-si tesbuid a hEmuin? are you missing anything (lit. any want) from E.? IT i 144 . dāil de for Niall Cailli dodanesfa (.i. Temair), ZCP xii 234 . nís-tesbi nach mlass no savour is lacking to them, Imr. Brain 62 . ní theseba do slondu[d]-su don tír-se this land shall never be without thy name, RC xvi 79 ( Dinds. 127 ). ríg Themra dia tesband tnú exempt from envy, LL 131b35 . tesbanat boill airiu members are wanting to them, Wb. 11d11 , cf. 12b5 , 14a33 . is lāneneclann tesbus aire he loses full e., Laws v 170 Comm. nicon tessēba maith airi he shall lack no good thing, ZCP xi 81 . testatar a eich airi his horses were missing, Trip.² 1445 = Lat. Lives 17 . mairg hEriu ara testá woe to Ireland that has lost him! RC xiii 444 ( LL 289a42 ). ní testa ní ar in fleid acht bō, ZCP vii 305 . ni testa ní fuirri acht soas, RC xv 456 ( Dinds. 59 ). ní thesta máin . . . for in sáir sin, Metr. Dinds. iii 288 . ité . . . in coica ingen testa foraibsi, ZCP v 502 . ní thesta forru int ṡollsi, IT i 22 . cain teasbann teim essgal . . . .i. is taithnemach doesbann dorchatu esgail[e] na daille form, ZCP iii 224 , cf. LB 241a73 . fechtus ann testa fín on aiffriund, Lat. Lives 110 . doesbuidh biadh ó gach gradh, Laws i 60 Comm. dosmuain E. nach testa do threigib righachta uadha that he lacked no qualification for royalty, Stair Erc. 967 . airet robui mac Muire hi corp . . . indar ra muintir nime | nocho tesarba úada (uadaibh, MS.) that he was not absent from them, Ériu i 41 . creidemh, dóthchas ┐ grádh . . . gibé ó tteisdeoba énchuid díob-so whosoever shall lack any of these, Ó Héodhusa 13 . uatha trá ní theasdadar | oirbheart gaisgidh ┐ glóir, Content. x 16 .

Esp. in computation where a number is indicated by subtraction from a larger one: inge acht dī óenbliadain ni thesta dom thrī fichtib I am three-score years save two, ACL iii 312 . testai trian don mīliu itam co forcenn . . . testotar secht mbliadna dot soegol-sai tar esse na halgese one-third of the thousand years . . . has still to expire, . . . seven years of your life have still to run after the wish, ZCP ix 449 . mac an Iarla A. tesda tri sechtmhuine gan a bheith i n-aois a bhliadhna was within three weeks of being a year old, AFM vi 2358 . Often in parenthetical construction, almost as adv.: do fhágaibh cuid leith-bhliadhna teasda dhi left half a year's portion of it (his history) incomplete, Keat. i 76 . nói mīs lána . . . is oen-lá tesbaid di fichit nineteen days, SR 6814 . da bliadain desbaid (teasda, v.l.) du dā fichet thirty-eight years, Cog. 140 . dotuit a railic . . . cūic bliadna tesbann di dia cét it was within five years of a hundred, ZCP ix 455 .

(b) is over, has ended, has perished: testa mo neart, ZCP vi 263 . teasda mo sheal my day is over, Caithr. CC § 42 . asin Libur Budi testo asin carcar i nArd Macha which has been lost from the prison, LU 2921 = teasda, Hy Fiach. 318 . teasda léigheand Ereann and the learning of Ireland has perished with him, AFM ii 752 . di Ultaib a bunadus cid tesrobai a threbad though his family (dwelling) had disappeared (from Ulster), YBL 179b32 (? = acht bá a n-easboi doib, RC vi 174 `though he was absent from there'). Of time: teasda fiche bliadhain bhuan ó chath Caeimh Eirne had passed since, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 164 . Esp. of persons, dies, died (testa generally used as pret. or perf.); cf. co n-erbailt (.i. testaig), ACL iii 182 . in mair Airnelach . . . nó in tesda Líban mo ben?, SG 354 . ar neach testos ┐ ar neach bis beo, 23 P 10, 13a32 . gid edh an úair testaid síad, | rioghradh anffann Atha Liacc, BNnÉ 171 . iar n-adhnacol na foirne doesta uatha día ndeaghdhaoinibh, Leb. Gab.(i) 262 . díth an daghdhuine doesda annsin, Hugh Roe 226 . deich mbliadna ar cheithre fichtibh a aois an tan thesta, AFM i 168 . inad a raibhe sí 'n-a comhnaidhe ┐ in-a tesda sí, Maund. 85 . do gob galar rig hErenn, co testa a ndūn a buime, RC xvi 144 ( Dinds. 136 ). isin seachtmad bliadain dec . . . testa Patraic, YBL 140b52 . da bliadain iar ngein Crist teasdo Cuculaind, MacCarthy 304 . mōr segaind sær-bēsach . . . testa and, BB 432a37 . is annsin testátar Castor ┐ Pulluic, TTr.² 576 . co n-er(ar)bhailt A. i nport . . . no gomadh air muir notheastad, BB 39a54 (cf. Lec. 567b20 : no cumad ar muir rotheisteobad , condit. for subj.). testeobait na hingina . . . ┐ dob ferr dūin cinn (sic, leg. sinn?) fen do thestail na iadsan do dul d'ēg, Fier. 139 . do testuidir moran dona paganachaib annsin, 215 (1 testaigid?).

(c) is required, exacted : rotesta cind imon cenn, Ériu v 246 .

Emain

Cite this: eDIL s.v. Emain or dil.ie/20014

 

Forms: Emain, hEmain, hEmuin, nEmain, Emain, Emna, Emna, Emnó

i, n.l., f.

I Navan Fort, near Armagh: nom. ceth leth ata Emain , TBC-I¹ 376 . Emuin Machæ, LL 126a16 . acc. fri hEmain anair, TBC-I¹ 429 . tanic co hEmain, IT i 216.8 . dat. a hEmuin , IT i 144.19 . i nEmain Macha 136.2 . o Emain Macha, TBC-I¹ 1829 . gen. os Emna oenuch AU 902 . borg Emna , Fél. Prol. 193 . i coiced Emnó (: bó), CRR 4 . for dóe na rrátha .i. na Emna, IT i 72.4 . for dou na hEmna, 76.2 (v.l. for tua na hEmnai, for tua ina hEmna).

II the name of an elfin fort, or region: cróib dind abaill a hEmain (.i. Emne(a) nomen regionis), Imr. Brain 3 . Eamhain mheic Lir mheic Mhidhir, 23 H 8, 59a . Freq. E. Ablach: Eamhain Abhlach, 23 H 8, 59a . is e in M. sin robai a nAraind, ┐ as fria side adberar Eamain Ablach, RC xxiv 274 § 7 . dún in Eamhno Abhlaighe (sic leg.) like Emain of the apple-trees Ériu v 56.72 . Síth Emna, Skene's Celtic Scotland iii 410 = 23 H 8, 59a . ZCP viii 194 . TD ii 215 . Cf. Emne.

1 emon

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 emon or dil.ie/20034

 

Forms: emuin, emo, emun, emain, emun, emo, emuin, emnu, eamhna, Emhna, emo, emain

n o, m., emuin ī, f. (?) (See Ériu v 160 ) n s. emo, Corm. Y 503 . emun, BB 368a35 . emain, Anecd. v 18.1 . a s. emun, LL 126a16 . d s. emo, Metr. Dinds. iv 310.9 . n p. emuin, ZCP ii 134 y . a p. emnu, Rawl. 155b37 . In Cóir Anm. 104 the second element of (trí) Finn-eamhna is apparently taken as n p. of this word, but: mac na trí Find nEmna, Rawl. 21a35 . mac na tri Find Emna [where Emna: derba] LL 125 b7 . lasna tri Finnaib Emna, Rawl. 137 b41 . Dá Thí Themhra ┐ Bé Bhionn | cré na ttrí bhFionn Emhna ann, 23 L 17, 8b indicate that the reading should be Finn Emhna of Emain.

(a) a pair (or triplet) born at one birth: emon ab ema [αἷμα]uno. emon didiu unius sanguinis...vel emon ema graece iuga manum, ar is dis doib i cuingg, Corm. Y 574 . emon iarom é-áen .i. ni oen acht is da lelab geiniter and 503 . gid dias no triur berar i n-aenfecht is eamain adberar friu, BB 254b40 . emun dno Conall...┐ Maer BB 368a35 = emo, Dinds. 32 . combert emun .i. mac ┐ ingen, LL 126a16 . BB 134a26b . conidh on Macha sin ┐ don eamon rosfuc ata Magh Macha ┐ Eamain Macha, Metr. Dinds. iv 310.9 ; 128.79 . (nach mil con-beir deiche) .i. diablad buair no emain `double offspring of kine, or twins Laws i 146.14 (possibly n p. here).

(b) a twin, one of two or three born together: ingen d'Oengus in Máer mall, | ba hemain cáem fri Conall she was Conall's twin Metr. Dinds. iii 136.26 . hit emuin in da mac-sa ┐ it hemuin in di ingin, ZCP ii 134 y . beired Fainche emnu .i. tri fer-meic , Rawl. 155b37 . co tug F. a leath-eaman do mnai Gabrain one of her twins BB 134a27b = Miscell. Celt. Soc. 58 . inemnitb (= i n-emnib ?), gl. in geminis Enchir. Aug. xx , ZCP vii 481.37 .

(c) in general a pair (of persons or things connected with each other): emon dono non unus sed duo .i. ni hoen-ni acht da ní, Corm. Y 503 . eamhain .i. dá ní, O'Cl. eamain cach raed cengailti, Dinds. 140 . Anecd. v 18.1 .

? éngrip

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? éngrip or dil.ie/20111

 

n forfess Fer Falgae .i. Fer Mano, iss isidi foilsigti do Oultaib a hEmuin Machae dia tubart (ndubart v.l.) ind heúngrip (éngrib, engraibh v.l.) in scoith milidę doib, ZCP viii 564.5 = Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 56 . Perh.: én grip swift bird , though in that case in t-én would be regular; the text is very archaic and obscure, however. See Heldensage p. 430 .

2 in

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 in or dil.ie/28195

 

Forms: im-, in, in, in, in, an, in, in, in, in, in, in, in, imb, imp, in

interrogative particle. im- before b-forms of the copula and substantive vb. (but: in biam, Wb. 15a1 . in ba maten, in ba fuin, Murphy Metrics § 19. in budh geall re oirechus ..., ML² 1420 ). Causes eclipsis of following initial except when it contains the copula. n generally doubled before vowels (but not in Wb.), especially before pronouns é, í, ed: Folld. by dependent form of vb. and neg. particle and by Class C forms of infixed pron. Later Mid. and Mod. Ir.: an.

(i) In direct questions: in coscramni `do we destroy?,' Wb. 2b20 . in digén bullu mertrige diib, 9d4 . in cumgubsa .i. non gl. num ... potero, Ml. 49c5 . in intsamlammar-ni `do we imitate,' Wb. 11b16 . in intain rombói in circumcisione, 2c5 . in anfossigid, 8d5 . in ed fodera báas domsa ..., 3c33 . in dia in doichside do `is it God? is it likely of Him?,' 4b14 . uidesne .i. in n-aci, Sg. 15b6 . in n-íírr `wilt Thou slay?,' Ml. 77a10 . inned insin furuar dait `is it that that caused it to thee?,' 44b10 . in forcmaither áes sainrethach dond ḟi[u]r midboth ...?, Críth G. 32. ind (leg. in) hí lanamnus atái béus `art thou still in the married state?,' Mon. Tall. 134.24 . inn é so Muinremor?, ScM. § 12. ceist, in n-éláfa limm?, TBFr. 162. im bui (bia, v.l.) tesorcud na nDéisi innosa?, Ériu iii 140.179 . in creti Dia fodechtsa, LU 9281. inn ébairt-sium frit-su in chóma sain, TBC-LL¹ 1772. in anad dogníthi-si?, Mer. Uil. 187. an edh is áil lib ... imbualad oidhchi do dēnam?, ML² 1501. an faicend tu Tit, TTebe 4886 . in ro berbais in saill, IT i 41.12 .

(ii) In dependent questions in is used (a) alone meaning whether , or (b) preceded by duús (do ḟius) to know if, if perchance:

(a) nebmess for nech im maid fa olcc `whether he be good or evil,' Wb. 8d26 . asrubart sum fri mmaccu Israhel imbói di oinachdaib leu, Ml. 43d1 . ro ḟíarfuigh sceula dib, an fúaratar sgéulu Midir, IT i 129.30 . co finnad inn uaitsiu ro siacht fis dó, LU 3659. dóig innar tised Cúscraid, TBC-LL¹ 823. a innisin duind ... an mberam coscur dona Tiabandaib, TTebe 1214 . aitheantar ... an é flaitheas Dé is dúthaigh dhó, TSh. 1776. ní feas do neoch an díol grádha nó fuatha é féin, 1155 .

(b) duús in comalnid arru-pridchad dúib `if perchance ye fulfil what has been preached to you,' Wb. 14d23 . doairfenus doib dús imbed comrorcon and `if perchance there might be error therein,' 18d7 . iarmoracht M. do M. dus imbad lór whether it were enough, Mon. Tall. 133.8 . dús in faigbitis nech bad toga leo dia tibertis rígi nErend, LU 3438. With loss of n: rochindset dul co Teamhraigh dūs a ccaomtais fuaslugudh Fiachra to see if they could ..., ZCP xiv 256.17 . In Mod. Ir. an ro> ar by the assimilation of n with r: do fhiafruigh dhe ar choimhéid na miasa gan osgladh, TSh. 3592.

(iii) Double interrogation expressed by in ... in , more frequently by in ... fa (or ba), in ... fa in , and later by in ... no in ... (im, imb, imp=in+3 s. pres. subj. of copula): imb i nógi imb i lánamnas `whether in celibacy or in marriage,' Wb. 10a12 . imbem i mbethu imbem i mbaás bad lessom, 25c12 . sechip hé im do día im do pheccad, 3b15 . ceist in tre prois fa in tre metur roceta ..., Hib. Min. 175. cid dogēn fri firu Arddae? imba hāilgine ... bá 'ma (=imba) garge?, ACL iii 293.z . imb i céin fa i n-accus beo-sa, Wb. 23b41 . is inderb im mascul fá femen ..., Sg. 61a9 . imba bás ba bethu `whether it will be death or life,' Wb. 23b32 . cía de as sru[i]thiu, in ríi fa thúath?, Críth G. 492. is cumtabairt cia crocann in rúon nó in cethra, Trip.² 815. in oc urnaidi Con Culaind bía ł in limsa doraga, LU 4012. dus cid dodentais fri h-Iacop .i. inn e a marbad ... no inn e a phiannad, LB 151b40 . in sith no in debaid fuil agaib? Aen. 1838. 'ca imradh an cath rocomorfad no an sid ro-sirfead, TTebe 1184 . Triple interrogation: in i comsuidigud fa hi comasndís bíit fa a ndíis `whether they are in composition or in apposition or in both of them,' Sg. 217a1 . in ... fa nacc whether ... or not: in tree áem didiu fa nacc `is it through it then indeed or not?,' Wb. 2c4 . imb anacol dom fa nac `whether it be protection to me or no,' 23a6 .

(iv) Negative interrog.: innád cualaidsi `have ye not heard?,' Wb. 5a21 . inná tecta cumachte gl. an non habet potestatem?, 4c28 . innad n-accai dost thou not see?, Ml. 17b17 . dús innad n-utmaligetar, Thes. ii 4.34 (Acr.). cest ina raibi Gaedelg resiu rotobaidhe `did not G. exist ... ?,' Auraic. 13. In Ml. the neg. interrog. is frequently expressed by in ní nad is it that ... not: inní nad ṅdixnigedar is it a thing that it is not?, Ml. 55c9 . inní nadnimcai ate immaaccai is it a thing He does not consider? Yea, He considers it, 114a15 . inní nad roilgisid `have ye not read?,' 17b18 . inné nach foghnann duit duine ele, BNnÉ 179.4 .

(v) The object pronoun (indirect object in the case of sul st. verb and copula) is infixed between in and the verb, and in the case of the copula, between in and the predicate: in da hierr `wilt Thou slay them?,' Ml. 77a16 . inab-testa-si tesbuid a hEmuin?, IT i 144.19 . inn dathgnitae would you recognise them?, 21 . inum-biasa úair coibligi lat?, BDD² 48. innut tarfás ní? has anything appeared to thee?, LU 9233. indad fil slondud bas derbu?, 5602 . indat mebhair-siu?, TBC-LL¹ 3552. in dóig inar tísed C., 815 . in-dat sochenel no dochenel?, PH 695.

2 ruba

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 ruba or dil.ie/35661

 

n [io, m] word of doubtful meaning, freq. in place-names, see Hog. Onom.; by Stokes, RC xiv 447 , identified with Scotch-Gaelic rudha `point of land', by Meyer, BColm. Gloss., rendered ` clearing ' < ro-ben- (see 1 ruba(e)). is roga raith in ruba `spur of land', Metr. Dinds. iv 334 . seiss Conchobar for rubu na rígrátha fri hEmuin immuich . . . for forodmaig na hEmna, RC xiv 412 § 23 ( LL 109a42 ). do grethlach lis in ruba, LL 44a9 (: duma). cnoi . . . a fid dā ruba, 297a37 ( SG 364.28 ). dobir . . . Colmán . . . tí da bachaill timchell an ruba `brake', BColm. 62.30 (allusion to a spot called Ruba Conaill). rube sciad ┐ droigen ┐ croíb `brake', Trip. 78.8 , glossed: oní is rumus .i. muine, H 3.18 p. 626 ( O'Curry 1372 ). ? inna caille no inna ruba, gl. virgultorum, Lib. Hymn. i 70 gl. 28 . Cf. fidruba, Metr. Dinds. iii 96.10 .

Cite this: eDIL s.v. tú or dil.ie/42137

 

Forms: síi, tú, tu, tú, túsu, tusu, tussu, tússu, tusso, tus(s)a, tusai, síi, sib, sis(s)i, sib, (s)ib-si, -se, sissi, thvsv, sib, tái, tui, sethar[si], sár, -t-, -b-, tot, tat, t, dob, dub, tob, tab, frit-, cot-, at-, add-, atd-, att-, dat, dit, dob, dub, dab, dit, nachibfel, -t-, bar, far, -at, -ut, -b, isat, isat, atabar, feartot, sóerfudut, -t, -ib, -su, -siu, indiutsiu, su, daitso, -so, -seo, détso, latso, -seo, -sa, -si, -sa, -si, -se, -si, -se, -siu, -sib, -si

pron. of 2 pers. sg.

pl. síi (later sib).

I Independent (accented) forms:

1 nom. s. tú. tu, Ml. 92a2 , 14 , 17 . In Mid. Ir. frequently and in Mod. Ir. regularly with lenited -t- when used as object of verb or with copula (except when lenition phonetically impossible, e.g. after -s- and -n-), see below. With emphasising pron.: tú su, Ml. 92a17 . túsu, PCr. 2a2 . tusu, Ml. 78b18 . PH 2926 . TTebe 677 . In O.Ir. usually tussu. tússu, SR 1788 . tusso, Sc.M² 15 . In Mid. and Mod. Ir. tus(s)a. tusai, IT i 120.22 . pl. síi, Wb. 25a3 . In Mid. and Mod. Ir. sib (ib) (orig. form with emph. pron.). With emph. pron.: O.Ir. sis(s)i. sib, Wb. 19c20 . In Mid. and Mod. Ir. (s)ib-si, -se.

(a) Immediately following 3 s. cop. in sentences containing a substantive: is sissi in tempul sin, Wb. 8d7 . is sissi ind idbart, 23c32 . is tú mo ruiri, Fél. Prol. 14 . ni thu Issau semnach na slóg, | acht is tú int-engach Iacób, SR 2875 - 6 . is tú láech na cernd, LU 8135 ( FB 10 ). iss tu ri side nErinn, RC iii 345.5 . in tu-sa rig na n-Iúdaide ? PH 3247 . masa thú ... | gilla ind fir, LU 3724 ( SCC 33 ). a Fhir diad masa thú `wenn du es bist,' TBC-LL¹ 3659 . masa thusa sin, TTebe 4723 . is tusa ben is annsa lium-sa, Stair Erc. 2284 . With omission of copula: sib cuaine in da conclann, Irish Texts ii 34 § 26.

(b) With follg. relative clause: bad sissi coneit, Wb. 6c1 . co mbad sissi do berad teist dimsa, 18a3 . it sib ata chomarpi abracham, 19c20 . is sísi nobcrete `it is ye who used to be believed,' Ml. 46a13 . ní tú duindnaig són, 59c11 . Note also the following glosses, where the construction is not completed in the Irish, but is to be understood from the Latin : cani tú féin gl. quis enim té discernit? `is it not thou thyself?' Wb. 8d27 . tacco is síi gl. nonne uos ante Dominum ... estis in aduentu eius ? 25a3 . ni tussu thóenur ci atbere gl. (Domine ... ego relictus sum solus, et quaerunt animam meam. Sed quid dicit illi divinum responsum ?) Reliqui mihi septem milia virorum, qui non curvaverunt genua ante Bachal, 5a28 . is tú gl. (auxilium nobis festinus impertiri) benignus (praeueni), Ml. 100d11 . is tussu gl. tú (, inquit, consulatus es), 106d2a . is tú gl. (horum ... omnium) memor (... consurge), 137a3 . See Thurneysen, ZCP xvi 276 , and (e) below. Cf. also: cid as mó miscais lat atchí ? ... Tussu am, IT i 81.18 . is tu doróachtamar, TBFr. 159 . cía so thú dodeochaid im dáil, LU 10768 . is sib tanic, PH 1712 . an tú bhíodh ... ? más ibh, DDána 68.2 . Copula omitted: do chomdelbaid, a mo ri, | tú doru[a]ssat do nephni, SR 2174 . tu fodera a fail de, TBC-LL¹ 3675 . tū bus ben dō, ML² 552.

(c) In interrogative sentences with cía, cóich: cia tussu díxnigedar ? `who art thou ?' Wb. 4c24 . cia thu ?, PH 654 . cia tussu ?, TBC-LL¹ 927 . cia sibh-si féin ?, ML² 1417 . coich thussu ?, LU 3328 ( SCC 12 ). TBC-LL¹ 1413 . Note also: cid bé cia thú, TTebe 4721 .

(d) In Mid. and Mod. Ir. at end of sentence where a noun or adj. follows 3 s. cop. (replacing the O.Ir. personal forms of cop.): bid marb tu-ssa, PH 298 . co n-id mog De thú, 510 . comad buidni ... sib, TTebe 2144 . ní soileagtha thú tairsibh, TD 2.18 . in budh geall ... dam-sa sib ?, ML² 1421 . is firindech ... tú fein, Stair Erc. 1822 . Cf. an dibh tusa ?, 1845 . With omission of copula: ingrentig ... tu-sa, PH 1750 . cáor do mhíanach Ádhaimh ibh, IGT Decl. ex. 1594 . meic da Niall ibh, Irish Texts ii 34 § 26 . Supplementing second pers. of cop.: is-at glana sib, PH 5263.

(e) In absolute constructions. With os (later ┐. See 2 ocus and 2 os): cid os tú, a dé `even Thou, O God' gl. ipse, Ml. 43a18 . os tu gl. prosequutor, 92a2 . os tu, a dáe gl. arbiter, 92a14 . os tú gl. tute, tutemet, Sg. 201b20 - 21 . See also under (b) above. ┐ tu hi t'ebraige, PH 81 . ┐ sib dóine, 5785 . ┐ tú fein ... ar imgabail do brathar, TTebe 4375 . ┐ tú gan chloidhem, TBC-LL¹ p. 415 n. 3 . Note also: 'sgan tú reimhe id ridire, TD 1.32 . In phr. mad tú (lit. if it be thou ) as part of the subject (you and I) of a verb in 1 pl.: dia ndernam mád tú caratrad if you and I form a friendship, LU 10918 . See KZ xlviii 51 . With poss. adj.: cid ar muinterni mattú gl. [discant] autem et nostri `even our household as well as thou,' Wb. 31d16 . Emphasising the subject of a following verb: cid sisi dano ronfitid ni `that even you also know us,' Wb. 15c28 . ┐ tussu a daltáin, cid am gena dana?, TBC-LL¹ 555 . With impv.: tusa atá it chodladh, éirigh, TSh. 1696 . With foll. prep.: sib-si din, do génntib dúib, PH 1706 . tusa didiu curfed-sa ceist fort, Stair Erc. 1307 . Various: sissi in Domino gl. ego confido in uobis in Domino, Wb. 20b3 . sissi iarum `ye afterwards,' 21c5 . tú ar toil cháigh, TD 1.55 .

(f) In comparative sentences of various types: ní cumme et tuss[u], Wb. 6b25 . ni cumme et sissi, 14a30 . ní laugi a bríig less quam tú `He cares for him not less than for thee,' 6b12 . amal tu, PH 158 . amal tussu, IT i 72.z . mar túsa, ni triath mar tú, 163.4 . caradrad fhir mar thusu, TTebe 67 7. madh treise é na thú, Stair Erc. 2317 . oireacht mar ibh, DDána 71.22 . iná ibh `lochtach,' Gloss.

(g) After acht: ní con fil nach naile ... duindainsed dam inna hulise acht tusu tóinur a dáe, Ml. 78b18 . co nach bfuilmíd re fáth ngluinn | acht misi ┐ tusa, a Chonaill, ML² 939.

(h) In Mid. and Mod. Ir. with 3 s. of active verbs replacing the O.Ir. second pers. forms: in fhacca tu-sa ? PH 2707 . da lecea tú, 2815 . in tabair sib ?, 2906 . rafider tusa, TTebe 1348 . co buigbed sibsi, 2180 . biaidh tú, TD 1.26 . do fhágaibh tú, TSh. 5630.

2 Emphatic form as voc.: a thvsv ` O thou ,' literal transl. of Lat. o mea tu, Sg. 204b6 .

3 In Mid. and Mod. Ir. as acc. after trans. vbs., replacing O.Ir. inf. pron.: conná fostba sib , LU 5871 . tanairsed in fer ... sibsi, 7483 . ro charas tusai, IT i 120.22 . guidim ... sib-se, PH 1978 . sealbhuighim sibh, Studies 1919, 440 § 14 . ní threicfe sé thú, Stair Erc. 2290 . ní aithnim thú, TSh. 6404 . cia ... do chuir air an tsaoghal thú ?, Donlevy 8.6 . do lenus ... ibh, Aisl. Tond. 96.4 . Supplementing inf. pron.: ro-t-millis tú fén ┐ ro-t-millis sin-ne uli, PH 3930 . ni hed no-bar-furgfe sib, TBC-LL¹ 2091 (leg. -si ?).

4 In Mid. and Mod. Ir. replacing O.Ir. inf. pron. with passive (impersonal) verbs: ni herfaider ... sibsi, LU 1571 . piannfaither thú, PH 296 . do-rigned tu-sa, 2659 . leigfigther tú fein as mar tai, TTebe 4028 . do fag[bhadh ?] ... tú, Stair Erc. 2433.

5 With verbal noun: togu damsa anísin túsu ind sainriud dia nertad sech cách, PCr. 2a2 . in fīr ... tusso do rainn na-mmuicce ?, Sc.M² 15 . ní co ndeine tú fén do ícc, PH 3337 . is lor lindi ... thussu d' [fh]ortacht, TTebe 1771 . is docuir lium sib fein do leigin as, Stair Erc. 1421 . is edh is ail lium tusa ... do thabhairt, 1920 . ní fiú mise, thusa ... do theacht chugam, Donlevy 256.19 .

6 gen. s.: nī nad bī tái (sic leg.), Corm. Y 532 . is and nad bí muí na taí, LU 10848 = tui `there, is neither mine nor thine,' Ériu xii 180.15 . pl. sethar[si] gl. uestram, Wb. 1b2 . hi cill indala sar (prob. leg. sár, GOI p. 279 ) `in the church of one of the twain of you,' Trip. 158.8 . ra nechtar fathar, IT i 336.13 (Eg.) = nechtar dé, 292.4 . bid liath cechtar fathar do inchinn a cheile uaibh each of you, BNnÉ 303.16 . For unaccented forms used as poss. adj. see 2 do, 1 t, 2 t, 1 for.

Of the second person singular of verbs: ó indscni thú, IGT Verbs § 1.

II Infixed forms. In O. Ir. and early Mid. Ir. used to express the acc. (also occas. dat.) with active, and (also occas. dat.), with passive verbs, see GOI § 409 , KZ xlviii 48.50 . In later Mid. Ir. the infixed form gradually falls into disuse, giving way to the independent. See Ó Catháin, ZCP xix 1 ff. , Strachan, Ériu i 153 ff.

(a) O. Ir. forms.

(i) After ro, no, do, di, fo, ar, im(m), ní: s. -t- (leniting). pl. -b- (occas. -f- before vowels).

(ii) After etar, for, frith, con: s. tot, tat, t (leniting). pl. dob, dub, tob (tof), tab. In this case the finals of frith and con are assimilated to the inf. pron. giving frit-, cot-; the preverbs ad-, aith-, ess-, in-, oss- here fall together as at- (ad-, add-, atd-, att-).

(iii) In rel. clauses and after dia n- ` if ,' ara `that,' co n- `so that,' and the interrogative in: s. dat, dit (leniting). pl. dob, dub (dib), dab.

After nach, nách (from na, ná, nád) the forms are the same as in (iii) without the preceding dental. For full collections of inf. pron. in O.Ir. Glosses see Sommer, ZCP i 177 ff.

(b) Exx. of inf. pron. in dat. sense: nítta ní indit móide `thou hast nothing for thee to boast in,' Wb. 2b12 . rotbia less lóg do daggníma, 6a11 . robbia indocbál, 13d32 . ind indocbál nobtá in futuro, 14c16 . tresindippiat fochricci, 25d8 . rot-bia són, Sc.M² 12 . rot bía-su aní sin, IT i 120.30 . níp-thá cumac dó, MU² 948 . níbat écen, 1037 . bethib sūirsi lim-sa, ZCP viii 316.5 . Cf. dot-luid `thou camest,' Sc.M² 13 (Thurn. compares co ṅdechaid a altaib dō, TBC-I¹ 2995 ). But with fil the pron. is acc.: nachibfel ` ye are not ,' Wb. 3b19 . condibfeil i corp crist `so that ye are,' 24c4 . ma nudubfeil `if ye are,' 19c20 . uair nachat filsiu since thou art not, LU 8823.

(c) Later treatment of inf. pron.: on ló rodattuistigad since the day thou wert created, SR 1780 . tria báes nach dotromarbus, 1908 . inab-testa-si tesbuid a hEmuin ?, IT i 144.19 . The usual form of the sing. in Mid. Ir. is -t-. In pl. the form bar of the poss. adj. commonly replaces the O. Ir. form: forbia log far n-imarbos, SR 1448 . no-bormairfither, IT i 75.3 . iss me ro-bur-fucc, 139.21 . ni hed no-bar-furgfe-sib, TBC-LL¹ 2090 . ro-bar-saebad-si, PH 984 . ro-farcruthaigfe, 6617 . robarbia fálti, LL 333a33 . See also Éigse ii 117 ff.

III Suffixed forms with vb.: s. -at, -ut, pl. -b. With cop. in dat. sense (treated as infixed forms by GOI § 427 ): isat dílmainsiu `it is free to Thee,' Ml. 55d21 . níb écen lóg, Wb. 16e17 . uair atabair ecen, LU 8097 (see Ériu i 160 ). Hence the later second pers. forms of copula isat, atabar, see 1 is.

With subst. vb. tathut cenn céit míle, Fél. July 24 . tāthut airle lim-sa, Sc.M² 3 (4.11) . tathut fáelte `thou art welcome,' SCC 10 . With other vbs. in acc. sense: nóithut búaid ngoire `verherrlicht dich,' ZCP xi 80.11 . feartot it serves thee, Auraic. 1619 (cf. ZCP xvii 293 ). sóerfudut, LU 6322.

IV Suffixed forms with prepp.: s. -t, pl. -ib; see under the several prepositions.

V As emphasising pron., s. -su (leniting, GOI p. 146 . See Thes. i 91 n. g ), after palatals -siu (cf. also indiutsiu, Ml. 107a15 . deit su , 129d22 . daitso, LU 10785 ). Also -so, -seo (occas. in Glosses, more frequ. in Mid. Ir.): détso, Wb. 6c7 . latso, 12d20 , 16b11 . asṁbir so ... ní sluindi so ... duit so, Sg. 208b5 . bia-so, IT i 81.19 . do menma-so, Sc.M² 3 . -seo, LU 8776 , 10745 , PH 1563 . In Mid. and Mod. Ir. -sa, -si (-se): -sa, PH 2231 . ML² 497 . -si, IT i 139.23 . PH 693 . Stair Erc. 681 . -se, PH 6564 . TSh. 284 . Note also let-sae, IT i 122.13 . i t-agaidsea, PH 8194 . pl. -si. Later also -se, LU 9205 , PH 595 , TSh. 292 . In PH somet. -siu, PH 624 , 2537 . ? -sib, TBC-LL¹ 2091 (indep. form ? Or leg. -si ?).

(a) Added to independent form of pron., see I above.

(b) To subst. prec. by poss. adj.: do degnimu su, Ml. 43b15 . do thimnae siu, 46c4 . frit adrad su, 136c11 . fort láimsiu, Fél. Prol. 273 . dot acallaimsiu, LU 3339 . d'fhearg-sa, Donlevy 256.22 . for nindassi, Wb. 7d17 . dar far cennsi, 16d8 . for nancridesi, Ml. 115b13 . da bar n-athair-si, PH 2259 . da bar maithib-si, ML² 1105.

(c) To pred. of cop. in 2 pers.: air it firiansu, Ml. 55d11 . isat dílmainsiu, 55d21 . isatt ailsiu damsa I desire thee, LU 3919 . at mallachda-su, PH 2328 . nídad ferrsi, Wb. 8c7 . adib cretmigsi, 15a8 . hore adib foirbthisi, 16a28 . adib dessimrecht si, 25d8 . With omission of cop.: fáiltisi `ye are joyous,' 24c13 .

(d) Emphasising subj. of vb. used in 2 pers.: dunecomnachtsu, Ml. 56a18 . asṁbir siu, Sg. 208b5 . i ṁbísiu, Fél. Prol. 274 . fégsu, LU 3885 . benfa-sa, ML² 511 . do-rigni[s]-si, PH 2708 . do-gebhair-si, Stair Erc. 681 . atasamlibid si, Wb. 5a13 . ní biedsi, 9b17 . décid-si, MU² 946 . anda thaisi (=in-dáthe-si), RC iii 345.5 . cia r-élnebair-si, PH 4530 . gabhaidh-si, Donlevy xiii 19.

(e) Added to verbal forms containing inf. pron. of 2 pers.: nutsoesiu, Ml. 112b6 . dundatresiu `to strip thee,' 133a14 . nachat filsiu, LU 8823 . ro-t-gaired-su, PH 1791 . is-at gliccu-sa, 4135 . nobsóirfasi dia, Wb. 11b4 . nachiberpidsi, 22d6 . robcarsi tiamthe, 23d4 . codobemthar si, Ml. 53b15 . ro-bar-saebad-si, PH 985.

(f) To prepp. with suff. pron. of 2 pers., see the several prepp.