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1 acht

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 acht or dil.ie/200
Last Revised: 2019

(freq. act in O. Ir. glosses). See GOI § 908 . Later ach.

I As prep. with accus. (see Ériu xvii 79 , ZCP xxv 237 , Ériu lx 137-42 )

(a) save, except (lit. outside, Thurn.): cách act tiamthe `every one save Timothy', Wb. 23d5 . bacc de echaib a.¤ serrchu, Laws ii 118.9 . a.¤ cuit naige fine, iv 194.26 . roslechtsat do Patric a.¤ cóicḟir all except five bowed to P., Trip.² 1652 . fiche a.¤ sé bliadna i.e. 14 years, LL 15069 . ar di-legad síl Dubthaig Daīl ... acht claind Moathaire 'for [all] the descendants of Dubthach the Beetle were destroyed ... except for the kindred of Mothaire', Aided Echach 96 §4 (g) (h) . di-legath síl Dubthig Dōeltengath and act cethra conchuiriu, Aided Echach 94 § 1​ . achd ré n-aithrighe d'fhagháil save that there was time for repentance, DDána 64.9 .

(b) More freq. after neg. vb. as in: act aní ropridchussa dúib (nothing) save gl. nihil . . . sapietis, Wb. 20b4 . nand asse díchenglad cor mbél . . . inge (acht, MS) nóe curu it is not proper to dissolve contracts . . . except for nine contracts . . . Ériu xvii 66 §§ 4 , 5 .

(c) Hence in sense of Engl. only, merely , etc. (cf. Fr. ne . . . que): ar ni arilsem-ni act dígail for we have deserved only punishment, Wb. 20d14 . ni bí nach dethiden foir act fognam do día his only care is to serve God, 10b9 . ni gessid . . . act búaid precepte, 26a34 . nicon chloor act for caínscél, 23b41 . connaccon bet a.¤ degnimai less so that he may have only good works, Ml. 129a9 . ní rádat som a.¤ bréic ┐ togaís they speak only lies and deceit, 31a18 . in tan nád techtat a.¤ oin aimsir `when they have only one time', Sg. 5a10 . nī fūar a ssēt a.¤ Maire `I have found not her like save Mary', Thes. ii 349.4 (Hy. v). a.¤ fo thri nico rotroisci M. `that M. never fasted but thrice', Mon. Tall. 157.5 (§ 72) muna bed a.¤ don dornsann ní himtecar la suidaib, Laws iv 158.5 . nach ístais biad . . . a.¤ biad Conchobair, IT i 75.15 . conna-ruc a.¤ oīnchois ūaim, Sc.M² 12 . ni boi arm la Hiruath . ... a.¤ bocṡlaitt moir, PH 850 (a.¤ bocslat mor, v.l., ZCP xiv 147.7 ). na déantar lámh dhearg a.¤let none but her be outlawed(?) Dán Dé ix 9 . nach fuil a.¤ talam ┐ luaith san cholainn daonna nothing but earth and ashes, TSh. 432 . gan a.¤ mac tíre 'na sesamh rena brollach only a wolf standing at her breast (instead of her own calf), BNnÉ 164 § 34 . Note also: dearna a láimhe a.¤ a lámh oile / clár do b'áilne snoidhe sain, DDána 32.22 , where a neg. is implied (see notes).

(d) With emphasising nammá, amáin: a.¤ comparit neutair nammá gl. non inuenitur nisi neutri generis, Sg. 41a8 . act seircc ndée tantum (= nammá) gl. non quaerit quae sua sunt, Wb. 12c2 . a.¤ nammá renders Lat. nisi forte, 9d21 , 12c32 . a.¤ éolas nammá, TBFr. 392 . ní thérna díb a.¤ oenchóicer namá, BDD² 1494 . teach . . . cen dorus . . . a.¤ seinistir ┐ forleas namá a house without any door but a window and skylight only, 81 . a.¤ dá angel amáin ní bátar and, LL 291a3 . ní bhí a.¤ an moladh amháin / ní don domhan a.¤ díoláimh `save praise alone', TD 31.8 . a.¤ trōcaire Dé amhāin, Fl. Earls 134.20 .

(e) So also with follg. mad (cf. acht má as conjunction infra): a.¤ mad a claind `unless it be her (own) children' (gl. docere autem mulieri non permitto), Wb. 28b13 . ni ruc . . . claind . . . a.¤ mad óeningin, IT i 130.14 . nád aithgainethar . . . a.¤ mad indred n-indligthech, Críth G. 564 . noco ria nech dib ar éc . . . a.¤ mad Essu ┐ Caleb, SR 4732 . a.¤ mad aenfer, Anecd. i 63 § 115 . indis dam firindi, riam nucha n-ebartais a.¤ mad guth ceart, Fen. 156.21 . ni bhíodh neach aga ghoire a.¤ madh na hoighe allaid `save only the deer', ZCP i 64 § 57 .

(f) Hence in adv. phrase a.¤ (mad) becc lit. except (but only) a little, hence almost: combo marb a.¤ bec until he was almost dead, LU 3290 ( SCC 8 ). a mboi de ór . . . oca a.¤ becc almost all the gold they had, PH 999 . fāsughudh C. . . . a.¤ becc `almost total devastation', RC xvii 384.23 (Tig.). corloiscit cella fer Midhi a.¤ mad becc, 389.7 .

II As conjunction

(a) In sense save only that, except that (folld. by nasalising rel. clause in O.Ir., see GOI § 503 ) (freq. with nammá): ro legsat canóin amal rundalégsam-ni a.¤ ronda-sáibset-som tantum `they have read the Scripture text as we have read it save only that they have perverted it', Ml. 24d24 . accobor la mmenmuin maid do imradud act nandléicci concupiscentia carnalis , Wb. 3d13 . Borg Emna ro tetha / a.¤ mairte a clocha `save that its stones remain', Fél. Prol. 194 . is bēlra dligthech concanat, a.¤ nat aithgnet cluasa dōine, Ériu ii 118 § 54 . a.¤ nach deachaidh tar muir Manann, riámh ní rosgabh rí ba fearr, Keat. ii 5755 . So also in the following (where rel. not marked): haue a.¤ ro noebad / do Dunlang `a grandson, save that he has been hallowed, of D.', Fél. April 11 . manid caindleóracht in tige as ail duit do chosnamh a.¤ namá bid mó bas loscud don tig oldás bas suillse don tegluch except that the house is more likely to catch fire than its inmates to get light, LU 9197 ( FB 92 ). conrotacht . . . a tech . . . fo chosmailius na Cráebrúadi . . . a.¤ nammá ro derscaigestar a tech so . . . do thigib inna hamsiri, 8046 ( FB 1 ). coro ṡollsigset in catraig na dluma derga . . . a.¤ ni loisctís nech nama without however burning anyone, LB 152b41 .

(b) With má, mani, cé (see Vendryes, Ériu xvi 21f. ). With má except if, unless: act ma chotchela gl. numquid Israhel non cognouit, Wb. 5a9 . act massu made in chretem rochretsid gl. nisi frustra credidistis, 13a34 . act mad melltach lassin fer `unless it be agreeable to the husband', 9d17 . act mad óentu dúib occa gl. ex consensu, 9d22 . tír Cannain . . . / nista . . . / a.¤ ma rannait . . . / for meic iar for n-adnacul unless your sons divide it SR 4735 . ní dligther fothud a thige do neoch . . . a.¤ ma ḟrisnasar a ḟlaith, Críth G. 79 . nocho chumcaid-si imchaisin Críst a.¤ ma blasti bás ar thús, Trip.² 1147 . ní talla a léni de a.¤ mad fria huaim `he may not take off his shirt except it be to stitch it', Ériu vii 140 . Note also: a.¤ má dothísad Arddrí secht nime dó ní reg-sa, Trip.² 1354 .

(c) With mani except if . . . not. So in some early exx., but later = a.¤ má or mani: a.¤ manidchomalnid a rropridchad dúib gl. nisi forte reprobi estis (you show that God is in you except you fulfil not what has been preached to you, Wb. 18b7 . ni ba messi dogena a.¤ manimléicther ind it is not I who will do it unless I am not allowed in i.e. provided I am not forbidden to enter, RC xxv 26.9 . noco mberthar uaimse ait na halma ass (leg. a.¤ Vendryes, loc. cit.) manip aúrderg limsa, LU 5029 (TBC) unless I do not consider them visible i.e. worthy of being seen (Vendryes). a.¤ minab edrud ┐ grian, `provided it be not between thee and the sun', Ériu viii 122.28 . In follg. exx. = a.¤ má, a.¤ mani: ni segar baithis acht menip dóig bes marb in gein unless the child seems likely to die, Ériu ii 208 § 32 . fotdáilfind i n-ilpartib . . . a.¤ manibad F. were it not for F. LU 5673 (TBC). ?is mesi . . . dliges a caurathmir a.¤ mani brister anfír form unless I am treated unfairly, LU 8986 ( FB 74 ). ni raga ass . . . a.¤ manit ainge ben unless a woman protect you, 3352 ( SCC 14 ). ní maith duit imthecht t'oenur a.¤ mani[d] dáil fir no thēig, Fing. R. 91 . acht mana maidi in talam found unless the ground breaks under us, TBC-I¹ 3577 = mono thaeth (muna maidhi, muna maoighthfe v.ll.), TBC-LL¹ 5975 . ni ra cotail C. risin re sin, a.¤ mani chotlad fithisin ṁbic . . . C. did not sleep during that time except for a little while, 2473 = a.¤ mad mani chotlad, LU 6338 . nach fer gentor a.¤ mona bentar a cend de unless his head is cut off, RC xii 88 § 99 . a.¤ mana bera lat in topur so `unless you take away this well', Lism. L. 4669 . a.¤ muna faghbam ní dar cobair orra sin ní bia duine a mbethaid unless we can find something to protect us from them there will not be a person alive, Acall. 6174 . ní dénann urchóitt do neach acht mona derna nech urcóit di, Maund. 33 . nad ḟetar-sa . . . act manip íat in Galían, CRR 11 . a.¤ munab í M. th' iarraidh, Eachtra Uill. 4300 .

(d) With cia even though, even if: act ci nip lour `even though it be not sufficient', Wb. 11d15 . nach facamur riamh roimhi, / a.¤ gér cian ar comnoide though long has been our sojourn, Ériu iv 114.32 . tu easbal dob annsa leis /. . ./ a.¤ ger ionmhuin gach easbal, Dán Dé i 9 . ba menmarc leis co mberadh buaidh a.¤ ge bhadar ced fan fer `he wished to defeat them even though they were a hundred to one', Stair Erc. 1471 . acht gidh mór do maith doronuis co ró-so, ZCP vi 67.8 . for imegla a bhāssaigthe a.¤ ge ro baoi i n-a Pāpa, Fl. Earls 206.20 . a.¤ gér laoch mear even though he was a swift warrior, LBranach 7210 . Samson, a.¤ gér chalma a neart, Éigse iv 188.71 .

(e) In conditional sense if only, provided that (folld. in O. Ir. by perfective subj. except where an impossible condition is implied, see GOI § 904 ): bíth and beos acht ropo i tuil dée `let him still abide therein provided it be in God's will', Wb. 10a25 . act ní arbarat biuth inna túari provided they eat not the foods, 10c1 . bid maith mo menmese act rocloor for cáinscéilsi `my mind will be glad provided I hear good news of you', 23d2 . atá comeisseírge act rocretem oipred dæ, 27a15 . ni imned lim act rop Crist pridches, 23b24 . buí cara damsa isin tírsea . . . a.¤ rofeasmais conair dá thig if only we knew the way to his house, BDD² 262 . a.¤ rop coir ní gellas, Críth G. 505 . a.¤ ropom airdric-se (ropa airdercsa LU), maith lim cen co bend buan acht oenlaa, TBC-I¹ 571 . ata lasna tuati beith lór dóib do ascnam nime acht doratat ní dona hanmchairtib (sic leg.) `the lay folk deem it enough to win a place in heaven if only they have given something to their confessors', Mon. Tall. 141.16 (§ 35) . doémat na trī sailm-sea . . . acht rogabthar gach dīa, ZCP iii 30.23 . With non-perfective vb.: a.¤ ni bed úall and `if only there were no pride in it', Wb. 10b27 . nico mórbrig laisim and a.¤ ní cometestar dond accobar `he counts it no great matter provided there be no yielding to desire', Mon. Tall. 152.7 (§ 63) . a.¤ com-messind-se mo maccu nī diṅgentais do chride chrád if only I were able to control my sons, Fing. R. 498 . Note also: noco nindligthech do gin co tuca abad acht techtugad do breith `provided that he has brought the means of taking possession', Laws iv 4.15 .

(f) Similarly with follg. co n-: ríge láech nErend . . . dait . . . a.¤ co nderna mo chomarlisea provided thou do, LU 8114 ( FB 8 ). a.¤ cor damthar fír fer dam ol sé atbér, 9213 (94) . a.¤ co rabat glinni mo diṅgbála ria provided there are sureties to satisfy me, MU² 64 . a.¤ co nde[r]nat maith / flaith uaidib co bráth, Trip.² 1798 . cretfemit do Christ a.¤ co ro-fhindamm a nert, PH 345 . nis-fil do plāig . . . for bith nachus-bera sin for cūlu, a.¤ corup léir guidter Dia occai, RC xii 430 § 21 . With non-perfective vb.: asbert . . . nod lemad a mbrethugud a.¤ co ndaimtis nammá fora breith, LU 9012 ( FB 76 ). dá fessed a.¤ combad fer ulcach nod ngonad no mairfedsom he ind (mixed constr.) 6110 (TBC). cuma a dteasda uan dom aois / gan suan feasda a.¤ go bhféadmaois, Dán Dé xvii 5 . a cōir féine a.¤ go bhfagha / ni dóigh Éire i n-aontamha, TD 24.1 . Hence as soon as: act arroilgither ind epistilse dúibsi berthir úaib Laudocensibus gl. et cum lecta fuerit apud vos aepistola [haec] facite ut et in L. aeclesia legatur, Wb. 27d13 . aiggelat sa hé a.¤ co roisc int oirned as soon as the ordination is ended, RC xlii 134 § 9 . acht co ndernair hoc rechtair romhat dochum an prainntighe, RC xxvi 374.1 . With non-perfective vb.: ragat a.¤ co fiasur in n-airm atá I will go as soon as I know where he is, LU 3373 ( SCC 17 ). bérthar cainnli duit acht co tumthar, Lism. L. 1996 .

(g) In adversative sense but: énirt a cocubussom . . . act nosnerta in sonirt, Wb. 10c3 . coir irnigde tra inso act ní chumcamni, 4a27 . robatar leosom eter desciplu . . . act dorigénsat in descipuil dechor etarru, 7d10 . cenél Maicc Ercae as tressam . . . a.¤ nochon follamnaiget amal ardrígu, Trip.² 1064 . lánsíth i nHérinn . . . a.¤ buí imneissi chatha iter dá Chorpre, BDD² 230 .

(h) Often introducing a positive clause oppd. to a preceding neg. one or vice versa: ni imdibe dualche . . . act is imdibe colno, Wb. 21b11 . conibé eter in peccato act co beid in pænitentia , 9b2 . ní bo ar seirc móidme act conrobad torbe dúibsi triit, 17a13 . ní dron act is diuit et is glé, 17b4 . ni ar Abracham . . . a.¤ is diar foirbthetuni, 2d2 . ni delb ad-rorsat act is cosmulius delbe, 1b19 . ba torad saithir dúun . . . act ní bad nertad na mbraithre, 10c21 . is hé láech is áildem . . . a.¤ níba s[h]uthain, TBFr. 5 . ni hainfis a.¤ día necar doniam indnos it is not in ignorance, but to set them forth that we proceed in this way, Mon. Tall. 154.27 (§ 66) . co rrabe . . . cen dig cen biad, a.¤ 'co immorchor ón taíb co araile, Sc.M² 3 . In sense at all events, however: mór di ḟertaib . . . doróne . . . acht aisnédfimne úaiti do ilib díb, Trip.² 110 . nī himda persa . . . is fessach crēd . . . in bāss geipit, acht nī thernoighit tar aiss amach go bráth, Fl. Earls 70.31 . Note also: munup do saighe selbha a.¤ for ecin `unless he seizes land by force only', Laws iv 26.16 Comm. nídnanaid a crothad nach a flescad a.¤ a nidi `it is no protection to shake or beat it, but only to wash it', Mon. Tall. 155.2 (67) . ná dearbh as a.¤ go hairech, Content. vi 27 .

(i) On cases where the prec. neg. sentence contains a word meaning only: ni hed a méit nonchretidsi act fodaimid fochidi airi `not only do ye believe it but ye endure sufferings therefor', Wb. 23c7 . nípat hé . . . nammá beite isind inducbáil sin a.¤ bieit cit geinti, 4c40 . nirbo chuit eperte tantum act robatar cid ferte dia imthrenugud, 24c5 . ni namá na duile aicside do chumscugud . . . a.¤ ro-chumscaigit gráda nime, PH 152 .

(j) In the idiom a.¤ ní . . . ní not only not . . . but not (cf. sech): a.¤ ní ructaisseom airesom ní rucadsom foraibsom not only could they not get away from him but he could not catch up with them, BDD² 300 and note. a.¤ nis leicim nis étaim, TBC-LL¹ 2334 (= sech LU). a.¤ ni trebad ni coimge, Metr. Dinds. iv 332.36 . a.¤ ni gonab-sa ni gonfa-sa mo moindter-sa, Ériu v 32.23 . a.¤ ní mó a cách ní lugu `not only is it not increasing but it is not less', Otia ii 81.2 . In positive constr.: acht ba dimdach ba debthach, SR 5688 . atbert in drui: a.¤ saerfaithir do mathair doberthar duit na bú as well as freeing your mother the cows will be given to you, IT i 40.x . Note also: a.¤ ní buaid a denam imbáruch is mó is dimbúaid a denam innocht, TBC-LL¹ 1866 .

(k) With cia: cindas rainnfither in mucc . . . cīa indas . . . a.¤ a-rann ar chomramaib in what other way, Sc.M² § 6 . cid, ol si, acht maillechut-sa tú co sír, PH 8262 . Introducing a phrase: cid fil ann didiu (sic leg.) a.¤ amal itcualae, PH 834 . cid fil ann immorro acht ni dechaidh aonnech ina ndocum, Stair Erc. 449 . Note also: aní ná roich lám, cid a.¤, / is écen dam a dúthracht, LU 3935 (`yet' SCC § 44 ).

(l) As quasi-conjunction in idioms with cen (gan): gan é a.¤ i naois ōiglenaib `seeing he was but of young child's age', O'Gr. Cat. 381.13 . gan lios . . . a.¤ lán do dhoire dharach, TD 28.7 . gan duine a.¤ ag dol ar séad, Dán Dé ix 34 . gan duine . . . do dol faoi . . . acht le custam do dhīol `that no one should go under it without paying custom', Fl. Earls 90.4 . brugh. loch. Lugh inand ghabhaid a.¤ gan illradh ag Lugh, IGT Decl. p. 81 § 29 . Note also: ní fuil mac Gaoidhil ná Goill / a.¤ lán dá éanghrádh uile, TD 17.57 . ní bhí leó a urdail a.¤ d'ór /. . ./ cinn a bhfagha suaine a sleagh / nó truaille tana dtroigheadh `they have not so much as the heads of their javelins . . . but is gold', 9.29 .

In introductory phrases: a.¤ chena is alaind cech nderg, LU 3914 ( SCC 43 ). gabhuis Columcille in salm . . . acht cena ni rolegh-som acht aibghiter namá cosin, Lism. L. 823 . a.¤ nammá atáa mí nád n-imthet rí a.¤ cethrur however there is a month when a king goes about accompanied by four only, Críth G. 535 . acht atá ní chena, bar F., is fiach fola ┐ feola dó-som é, TBC-LL¹ 2989 . See also cena. cid (trá) a.¤, cid fil and (trá) a.¤ etc., see trá II(b). a.¤ (mad) énní however, nevertheless, at all events: achtmadh enní, do marbhadh ceithre fir décc [dibh], AFM v 1328.4 . acht aenni, do bitis debtha dermara eturro, Ann. Conn. 1315.4 . acht aen ni . . . bemitt ar aenconair, 1315.8 .

III As subst. ise cuit in achta ann this is the function of the word `acht' in that passage, O'D. 745 (H 3.17 col. 541) (possibly to be referred to 2 acht).

acnapthe

Cite this: eDIL s.v. acnapthe or dil.ie/225

adj usual, habitual(?): math forcenda a thoil ainnas nacnapthe (= ó indas acnapthe) as bliadain `ut moris est', Ériu vii 146 § 35 . nech dogni etrath o belaib .iiii. anni in cetfecht ma gnathach acnapthe .uii. annis `si fit consuetudo et usus', 144 § 22 . Cf. accnabad?

ainfíal

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ainfíal or dil.ie/1340

adj (1 fíal) late form of anbal

(a) shameless: slige anbfial anailcech an tsaogail, Aisl. Tond. 105 § 1 . nech bus diumsach, fīrfercach . . . anfial, slatra, ZCP vii 311 § 12 . a angbaid anfhéil imresnaig (to Satan), PH 3930 . rurach cach n-ainfial, ACL iii 229.103 (cf. anbal cech rudrach, Tec. Corm. § 15.12 ). is ainfial dhuit bainecht do dhenamh, RC xxix 132 § 45 . rommain . . . ar in galar nanfial nolc, KZ xxix 374.z (Chalcidius 68b). Compar. ced ed no maidedsom a cless dorigniusa fíadu nipu anféliu dó it would have become him better (see Stories from the Táin, Glossary), LU 5743 = anḟēiliu, TBC-I¹ 1271 . As subst. shame, scandal: loi[s]cther . . . co na roib in ainbhfial (an ḟingal v.l.) foraind (of an incestuous birth), Anecd. i 19.3 = conná raib a n-anfíal is tír, LU 4407 .

(b) ungenerous, mean: ithamail anfhīal occurach ` niggardly ', MacCongl. 87.7 . comhartha a síl is sé riamh / ní díbh é dámadh ainfhial `ungenerous', Magauran 3799 . téid do mhnaoi ainbhféil is féil `she surpasses them all, the generous and the ungenerous', Aithd. D. 1.5 . Compar. nirbo anfélisium ond uairsin, LL 13564 = nirbo hanfeli indas gach duine, ZCP xii 399.6 . As subst. nársad diultadach um biad / nárab cumthach duit ainfhíal, Acall. 602 .

ainindustae

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ainindustae or dil.ie/1408
Last Revised: 2013

adj (see CMCS xix 31 n. 27 ): gillae ecuisc anindustae (amal dastai (Bodl.); anindustai (Harl.), v.l.) ill-conditioned ( indas )(?), Corm. Y 1059 ( Anecd. iv 91.9 ). Cf. aninnestaigh .i. drochédaigh, no drochécosc, ut est prull: do gluais gilla aninnestaigh leó, Ériu xiii 62 § 13 .

aithle

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aithle or dil.ie/2724

Forms: aithliu, atlu, a., aithliu

n [io, n. Cf. d s. aithliu, Mon. Tall. 161.4 , atlu, Laws iv 346.7 ] Vn. of ad-len, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 565 . consequence; remainder, vestige, track: ar niba maith a áidlea (leg. a.¤ , edd.) dúib a n-étsecte `for not good will be the consequence to you of listening to them', Wb. 18c11 . im chath Chind chruaid n-a.¤ `of stern consequences', Arch. Hib. ii 54 iii § 6 . a Rí richid reidig dam / . . . / a.¤ na cesta ṅdúr ṅdub the solution of the hard questions, LL 17729 . aithenne .i. aith-tene nō a.¤ thened remnant, remainder, Corm. Y 76 . foilmen .i. nomen do aithli bruit, 590 . a.¤ .i. seanbhrat, O'Cl. (see Hermathena xxiv 57 ). a.¤ .i. ath-ḟolae .i. is mesae cid indās fola, Corm. Y 45 . ciarbo airmeirb lend aithli / aithforgaib maic M. `the leaving of the weapon' (of men slain in combat), Fianaig. 12 § 16 . ro chuindichset in dias do bi thall a.¤ a ronna `i.e. the other two claimed the reversion of his share' (Plummer MS. notes), O'D. 2288 ( Rawl. B 506, f. 26d ). olc a.¤ do sochaide, Laws iv 266.8 `an evil heritage to many', Plummer MS. notes. hathle an eich rugscat namaitt `the enemies took the track of the (other) horse', BColm. 90.11 . ? na beth i n-athbe isse air / richt a les athle ard rig, LL 376a32 .

Common in prep.and adv. phrases, where presumably orig. d s. aithliu. D s.(?) as prep. with gen. after; in consequence of, as a result of: ithle (d'a.¤ v.l.) inn echta doringnius, TBC-LL¹ 3983 . athli ar n-orcni ┐ athli ar taichi . . . do loscud in consequence of our ruin and the burning of our houses, KZ xxxi 254.x . ragait a.¤ a mmesa dochom péné, LU 2369 . Aed A. a.¤ Fergail / isse ro gab for Temraich, Rawl. 163a7 . itt é ata nessom d'Uib Néill athli Condacht next after C., ZCP viii 317.5 . hi tír Grec a.¤ ind ilair / luid Semion, LL 761 . With co: co ha.¤ na treisi `till after three days', Laws ii 380.16 Comm. gl. co iar nde treise, 13 .

With prec. prep. With A(S): aidchi cenlai a aithliu na cetaoine `the eve of Maunday Thursday after the Wednesday', Mon. Tall. 161.4 (§ 80) . a ha.¤ a gabala, Laws ii 352.22 Comm. a haithli sechtmogat bliadan do forba after completing seventy years, ZCP viii 111.29 . a haithli na crech mor-sin do denam do, Ann. Conn. 1262.6 . as m'a.¤ `after me', BCC 284.19 . Note also: luidh a athaithli in cata sin, BB 489b43 = luid A. a.¤ in choscair sin, Alex. 152 . athaithli marbtha Cír, BB 7a45 (cf. a ha.¤ infra). With I N-: lá éigin 'n-a a.¤-so, after this, Dán Dé v 25 . 'n-a a.¤ sin, Aithd. D. 38.30 . With D' (= DI or DO): d(o) a.¤ thogla thuir Conuing (heptasyll. line), Todd Nenn. 274.2 . d'a.¤ oidedha m'oide . . . do chur, ZCP xiv 241.9 . d'a.¤ a imshníma, LB 129b34 . chóig céd bliaghan d'aithli Chríostt, Desid. 4108 . mar altain d'a.¤ a hoirnimh `as sharp as a razor after whetting', Dán Dé xxv 22 . gach learg dhlúthta d'a.¤ a hord (of the wall of a building), DDána 119.34 . Adv. phrase asa a.¤ with 3 s. n. poss. afterwards: ar nípam comchirtisea do neoch asa aithli, LU 4248 . assa a.¤ then, TBC-LL¹ 138 . In later lang. asa ha.¤ (with h- from the prep. phr. a ha.¤ ?): ro imthigh fein asa haithli, Stair Erc. 81 . asa haithli, ZCP viii 111.22 . as a ha.¤ `afterwards', Fl. Earls 8.21 (cf. athaithli supra). See aithilte, also under athlad

anad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. anad or dil.ie/3265

n u, m. vn. of 1 anaid. IGT Verbs § 80 . See GOI § 849 .

(a) act of staying, stopping, remaining: do a.¤ dar téssi `to remain in thy stead', Wb. 31d13 . isin n-a.¤ gl. in otium, Ml. 35c9 . ferr lium indás a.¤ / scarad frisin ṅdomun, Fél. Ep. 367 . dogegaind a.¤ sunn for bicc ḟeraind, Trip.² 1273 . ar in séd ara-tám ne, is annso ata a anadh resting place, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 44.6 . bur n-anadh ag Áth Senaicch / galur gnath do Gaidhelaib your death at Áth S., Irish Texts ii 11.9 . go h-ionadh a h-anta to the place of its residence, ML 48.23 . seóid cáigh ní héidir dh'fanadh `man's wealth cannot last', Ériu ix 166.30 . a.¤ co waiting till: a.¤ co roisc bēim an cluig to wait till the bell has stopped ringing, ZCP vii 310 § 5 . a.¤ I N-: im a.¤ in Ephis, Wb. 27d19 . a na.¤ isin doiri `that they should remain in the Captivity', Ml. 131d11 . doarngert [int-aingel] bitha.¤ isin chill sin, RC xxiv 56 § 17 . a.¤ FRI act of waiting for: mad mac cunntabartach . . . is a.¤ fris no co tuca fine-guth ┐ fine-cruth ┐ fine-bes, Laws v 454.16 Comm. (or in sense (d)?). anadh ris an eiccen sin do ghenam, Cog. 214.22 . nir fhulaing doib a.¤ ris, TTebe 4866 . is emilt linde . . . a.¤ fri gach ní labras in duan, Fen. 46.18 . ? cen anid fris gl. suspendat, Ml. 27b16 (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 455 ). a.¤ AR act of agreeing to: a.¤ ar sám-chomadaibh sídha, MR 194.19 . a.¤ OC: ro geallsad anadh ac Mac Murchadha ┐ ac a tsíl go bráth to submit to(?), Expugn. Hib. § 8 .

(b) act of withstanding, resisting: ag aithne anta dá n-ógaib `exhorting their men to stand to it' (in the coming fight), Caithr. Thoirdh. 102.37 . ar n-aomad anta do na huaislib `the gentlemen being resolved to stand their ground', 114.2 . ic urail inn anta, CCath. 5965 . Hence of a military attribute: fer ro badh dearscaightech iocht ┐ eineach . . . anadh ┐ oirisiomh `steadiness', AFM vi 2350.2 . fear roba fearr troid, ┐ tachar . . . ionnsaighidh ┐ anadh, iii 468.6 .

(c) act of stopping, ceasing; stop, cessation . Freq. in phrase cen a.¤ : Aingil Dé . . . aridfetis cen a.¤ `without ceasing', Thes. ii 320.6 (Hy. ii). ropo dóig lind cen a.¤ / noco bíad ar n-imscarad we always thought, LU 3969 ( SCC 45 ). secht sailm . . . a ngabāil sin gan anadh, ZCP xiii 10.1 . .x. c. torc uaithib gan a.¤ immediately(?), BB 269b22 . a.¤ DE desisting from, refraining from: a.¤ dind imguin, LU 3791 ( SCC 36 ). a.¤ d'innlāgad colla, ACL iii 311 ix 3 . a.¤ dom rith robāisi, 312 § 9 . a.¤ do molad Crist `(my advice is) to cease worshipping Christ', PH 2418 . a.¤ OC: tria a.¤ aice `through the week stopping at it' (Sunday), PH 3586 . act of desisting from: boeth da cach duine ar doman / a.¤ ica ádmoladh to cease to praise Him(?), LB 227 marg. sup. cen a.¤ oc aine, 151a39 . a.¤ ó refraining from, remaining away from: a.¤ o pecdaib, PH 3455 . geis dó anmhuin ó ḟaghail `desisting from foray', TD 19.9 . anadh ō Ifearnn, DDána 22.8 . A pause in metre: caide dethbir itir duain ┐ tririg . . . duan .i. da anadh inte, IT iii 105 § 209 .

(d) In Laws of the respite or period of stay during which a distrained article (see athgabáil) remained in the hands of the defendant (debtor), who in turn gave a `gell' as guarantee of later satisfaction of the claim. This seems to have been the procedure in the `athgabál iar fut' (distress with time). In the `athgabál tulla' (immediate distress) the article distrained was immediately transferred to the custody of the claimant instead of being left for its `anad' with the defendant (Plummer MS notes). See O'Don. Suppl., Laws i 208 . a.¤ cach athgabala iar fut isedh dithim cach athgabala taulla cen a.¤ itir, Laws i 210.28 .i. in re iarsambi in athgabail ar fut ar a.¤ i laim cintaig cin fogeltadh cin bleth cin lobadh do dul ina cenn, is e re iarsa teit fogeltadh ┐ bleth i cend na hathgabala tulla cen anadh itir . . . .i. bid anadh for cach athgabail bis iar fut oc cintach; is ditim . . . fo cetoir i cend na hathgabála tulla, 212.20 Comm. a.¤ cintaidh as edh dithim inbleoghain i.e. if the defaulter obtains a.¤ the relative immediately gives a `gell', O'D. 574 (H 3.17, c. 443). nocho néicin fasc na athghabhala ar ut do breith, óir a láimh in bidbuidh bís sí fri ré nanta, 616 (H 3.17, c. 459). The rules for a.¤ differed in cáin and urradus: nochon fuilit ree nanta re athgabala cána amuil ata re athgabala urradhuis, 621 (H 3.17, c. 461(2)-3).

anúasana

Cite this: eDIL s.v. anúasana or dil.ie/3841

adv (anúas + ane): `cía indas' ol B. anúas ane (amne v.l.) asind imdai, Sc.M² § 6 . Referring to preceding passage in book, etc.: finit dona gabálaib anuasana, LL 1802 . do labras do righdhacht Maghnais Cánuis a.¤ `above', Maund. 226 . cech ní ro-raidsium anuasana, PH 7614 .

6 as

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 6 as or dil.ie/50044
Last Revised: 2019

x see indas II (c).

barae

Cite this: eDIL s.v. barae or dil.ie/5381

Forms: barann, barainn, -ainne

n n, f. Also barann, barainn (g s. -ainne). anger, hostility (with subj. and obj. gen.); vehemence, excitement, exaltation: bare .i. búre, Corm. Y 155. Cf. bara fri búre, LU 10833 (prov. anger in return for anger). barann .i. biubhanas ut est beógudh barann, ┐ adfét brigh barann, O'Dav. 267. barann .i. ecraiti, ut est. atfeth brigh barann, O'Curry 2046 (H. 4.22, 61b). `barann' gach béimneart, Metr. Gl. 13 § 22. barann .i. béim, O'Cl. bara .i. fearg, ibid. im (sic leg.) barain gl. in ira mea, Wb. 33a13 . diar ṅéis arnáp b.¤ , Fél. Ep. 419. cía b.¤ ro boí día sruith fríu whatever anger, Trip.² 1521. hin fil ní hi crádind do Día, nó in fail a baraind frim?, 2763 . lin a barann ṁbúan, SR 7934. nīcon mela in fersa a baraind for Ultu nī bus moo, TBC-I¹ 3596. mas co mbaraind dotæt cucunn, IT i 279 n.21 (Eg.) = co féirg, LU 8698 ( FB 52 ). bráo mara / bara bledmaill, LU 8682 ( FB 52 , rhet.). atcota brīgh barann / atcota barann bidbaid, Anecd. iii 11.23 , 24 . cech long rasmbia a bara / ni ragha cen badhad, ii 41 § 11 . fer do baraind bruthaigte, TBC-I¹ 1817 (rhet.). cid mor a bara fort . . . nit aghamar though you are very angry at it, IT ii1 181.199. indas na luinde ┐ na barainde . . . tucsat leo isin chath, LL 403a25 ( TTr.² 927 ). barand immais `fury of inspiration', RC xxvi 24 § 81. bruth ┐ barand, TBC-LL¹ 1932. imir do bharainn fair, BNnÉ 300 § 4 . 's na teinntibh i mbia a mbara the anger inflicted on them (?), PBocht 12.51 . dimbirt a ainchridhe ┐ a bharainde, Hugh Roe² 42.19 . cūach Dīarmada do Breg barainn as a cause of the enmity of Brega (?), Corm. Y 950.

Attrib. g s. angry, hostile: bret[h]a barann, AFM ii 594.19 (an. 917 ). bag barand, LL 23560. lonnbruth barand, TBC-I¹ 3237. mac barrainde (: arrainne), IGT Decl. ex. 564.

Compds. With nouns: co mbarannbāigh, Otia ii 83.1 . re barann-beicedhaigh na n-os, CCath. 4351. Bairnech barannbél, Metr. Dinds. iii 444.52 . nād bad fornn nimbræ do borann (no a suprascript over o) -borrfad (sic leg.) barainn, TBC-I¹ 3561. tri barannghlaedha badhbha, Acall. 908.

With adj.: baighbriathar baronnborb an Goibernora, Hugh Roe² 224.19 .

1 cécht

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cécht or dil.ie/8432

n reconstructed as u-stem, Vendr., Études Celt. ii 132 . m., IGT Decl. § 95 .

(a) part of a plough, prob. plough- beam (transl. ploughshare unsupported by exx.): hi cecht gl. in burim, Sg. 127b1 . ingecht gl. burim, PCr. 51b2 . airem . . . / rotrom lais incecht (: técht), IT iii 83 § 68 . camm a cammpiclo .i. ō cecht arathair, O'Mulc. 205 . c.¤ na n-arathar, TTr.² 1488 . sía indás uarch.¤ arathair `ploughshare', Metr. Dinds. iv 138.80 . seisrech go gcecht ┐ go niarann narathair, BNnÉ 186 § 23 .

(b) Hence plough : ceachd `a plow', Eg. Gl. 184 . cuing ┐ cechta (pl. ?), Laws v 484.14 Comm. c.¤ ag (a, v.l.) lenmuin do leirg thúair, IGT Decl. ex. 511 . idh lúptha um cengal céchta, ex. 959 .

Compds. fa fhionnmhagh gcéichtmhín gC., DDána 92.10 . a bhláth céachtMhoighe C., 92.39 . a inis chéichtshlim Chriomhthainn. Measgra D. 50.48 .

1 cía

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cía or dil.ie/8965
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: cía, ci, cá, gá, cá, gá, cár, cá, cía, citné, cia, ciodh, cisne, cipé, cipé

interr. and indef. pron. Given in list of interrogatives, Laws v 6.1 ff. Comm. ; for forms permitted and prohibited in classical verse see IGT Introd. § 16 . See GOI §§ 456 - 460 , Strachan, Ériu i 6 ff. , Bergin, Ériu xii 205 ff.

A As interrogative.

I General form cía (ce, ci) (`unstressed or weakly stressed,' GOI § 456 ) without indication of gender. In later lang. freq. cá, gá (cf. gia, TBC-LL¹ 56 , giá, 730 etc.). who? what ? (in direct and indirect interrogation).

(a) With dependent verb (as conj. part. or in accordance with Bergin's Law). As subject of vb.: cia beir búar o thig Temrach who takes? LL 1566 . cía rét Brega?, LU 9306 . ? cia saig do rús Herind. . .?, LL 1787 . cía taisiu?, LU 6307 . cia bátar do bésa?, Tec. Corm. 7 . ní fitir R. cía-rraba / crích `whose was', Metr. Dinds. iv 4.45 . immoscoemorcuir ceptar hé, Corm. Bodl. 34.21 . As object: ce róich `how far . . . extends', Sg. 26a11 . cia roich eneclann?, Laws iii 536.1 . cia-roig dire? Ir. Recht 13 § 14 . cia fairneac?, Ériu xi 44.3 . cia acca whom didst thou see? LU 7135 . bec a ḟis duid cia do ordo, Anecd. i 7.5 ( do(o)rdo, SCano 198 `what I croon', Gloss.). So also in cíar(r)icc (separate article). Rarely cid in this use. Nom. cid dernad?, LL 251a18 . Accus. cid dernais?, LL 251a39 .

With inf. pron. usually cich-: cichib foruireth? . . . fon-roireth imned what has been caused to you? TBFr. 399 = ZCP iv 45.28 . cichib-roerad? what has been prepared for you (i.e. how have you fared?), IT iii 237.62 = cichib roér ol Bodb. Nin foruireth nammaith olse, LL 246b24 . mnā brataiter . . . cichi brata? cichi aig? cichi goin? who abducts them? TBC-I¹ 1081 (cicen, cíche, ciche, LU). ? ciche bárogell a regg / sonend ┐ dubdonend, LL 376a4 . Exceptionally: ar feisidh ciab dergeine `who has made you', Blathm. 91 § 6 . fir gontair, mnā brattar, bai agthar . . . cistabrata, cisdagata, cisdabeir? TBC-I¹ 2989 . See ZCP xxii 29 .

With copula: innaní asbertis cipad a déne ind hesséirgi `that used to say what would be the swiftness of the resurrection', Wb. 25b27 . conid fessed cia bed flaith inna diad, Ml. 89b7 . For cía ba chan see can.

Hence in various adverbial meanings. (b) how ? cia Ulto ána acca?, LL 13439 . cumma cīa-thōetsat imbi, Sc.M² 3 (`how', Gloss.). cía festa `how should ye know?' Metr. Dinds. iii 48.12 . cia ḟacci ar sluág?, TBC-LL¹ 223 . is cuma dó c.¤ eipli, Liad. and Cuir. 20.17 `how he dies', Contribb. 363 . With deut. form: cía dorochair Cróeb Dathi?, Metr. Dinds. iii 148.1 . Note also: cīa tairicc? Tairic hi cind teora mblīadna when? ZCP viii 312.29 .

(c) where ? In later lang. cá, gá (nasalizing), with narrative tense cár. cá `lochdach', IGT Introd. § 16 . Orig. with téit: ni fetatar cia deochaid where he went, LU 3329 ( SCC 12 ). nocon ḟess cia deochatar, LL 290a27 . With deut. form of vb. cia dochuatar ass? where did they go? TFerbe 565 . In later lang.: cá ngabhaid?, Oss. iii 232.5 . Keat. Poems 1545 . cá bhfaighion tú an raidhirc so?, ZCP v 215.419 . cā ndearnais do c[h]ēadc[h]reach?, Feis Tighe Chonáin 145 . cár ghabh, 490 . cá ar fríth é?, ZCP v 215.418 . carbh ail les dul, Stair Erc. 981 . With attá: ga ffuil maithe na Féine?, Duan. F. ii 322 § 15 (see iii 151). ga bhfuil suim . . . na naitheantadh `what is the abridgment?' Donlevy 52.22 . ro fhiarfaigh I. ca rabe A., Stair Erc. 25 . do f[h]iafraigdur dī cā raibhe sí whence she was, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1666 . Note also cia racha, ITS xvii 188.1526 etc.

(d) With fíu glossing Lat. quam, how (great, etc.): cia fíu .i. mór ní gl. quam admirabile, Ml. 17b12 - 13 . gl. quam (sollicite), 23a10 . ce fiu gl. quam maxime, Sg. 114a3 . See Dict. Fasc. fíu and compare cia fiú me bheith beó etc. how can I remain alive? ITS xvii 159.963 .

(e) With follg. noun (often as antecedent of rel. clause). With masc.: ciachruth gl. quomodo, Sg. 212a1 (see 1 cruth). cia dune ind inni-sseo gl. qualem . . . hominem, Ml. 35c33 . cia mod .i. imba do gres . . . `what measure', Ml. 100d4 . Perh. also in the follg.: dús cia port indib maith óigedacht `in what place', Wb. 26b24 . cia salmscribdid conicfed són `what psalmist?', Ml. 14a6 . amal nad finnatar sidi cia loc sainriud dia regtais, 99b10 . cia randdatu bis indi, Sg. 27a12 . cía cethrar? Rí ┐ brithem etc., Críth G. 536 . cia file ar secht ccumhaluibh dlighidh what poet . . .? Ériu xiii 18.4 . cia fot atúsa isin chotlud sa how long? LU 6359 . gá fad?, TSh. 1618 . ca sén dob ferr?, Ériu iv 224.13 . ca ræt in muirn . . . ar-at-cluineam?, TTebe 1901 (see crét). ca hinad?, LB 137b51 . gá cara don uile as fhearr?, A. Ó Dálaigh xv 5 . DDána 50.12 . gá fhios nach . . . (ḟ = bf?), O'Gr. Cat. 456.10 . gá chúis fá . . ., 12 . cár bh'iongnadh?, Hard. i 204 .

(f) With fem.: cia airm `what place', Wb. 12d18 (see cairm, cáit). ceseirc gl. quam caritatem habeam, 14d15 (differently GOI 289 ). ce meit gl. quanto, 33a1 . ce mét aimmser bes indi `what times may be in it', Sg. 25b16 . ce méit a[s] sinu aís quam A. `how much older', Wb. 34a5 . See méit. cia dú gl. quo, Ml. 40c7 . cia inni soas `how He turns', 123d8 (see note). cá huair díscáeilter in doman nó cá tráth thiucfus Dia?, RC xxiv 382.32 . ca delb rogabais? Ériu iv 104.15 . cia ben is mesa do mnáib?, ZCP viii 113.11 . cá slat is slimghile bas?, O'Gr. Cat. 332.27 . ga hobar dhíbh nach doiligh?, Studies 1921, 588 § 1 . gá breath rug féin ar an bhfear? Dán Dé xxv 16 .

(g) With neut.: cia eret mbete oc m'ingraimmim-se `how long?' Ml. 33a9 . cia airet bis micomus etc., Laws ii 186.6 . cia hairet, PH 1501 . See airet, cairet. anfis ca cinel aire nos beir etc., Laws i 188.6 Comm. cia forcenn doberthar foraib, Ml. 33a9 . na fetar . . . ca galar . . ro-t-básaig, CRR 3 . cia indas conaittechtatar a n-íc, Ml. 90b16 . décaid . . . a arm cia indas rundgabsat, 55c1 (see indas , cindas). cia leath reghma?, Anecd. i 2.9 ( SCano 25 ). cia tír, ZCP viii 318.33 .

(h) cía with follg. prep. and noun or pron. rendering oblique cases of Lat. pronn. (see GOI 228 - 229 ): cia ar neoch gl. ad quid, Sg. 217a5 . Cf. cia erneo gl. quam ob rem, Ml. 101a4 . ci erniu gl. quamobrem, 47b1 . cairhe biit, Sg. 242b1 leg. ciairneo = quamobrem, n . ciarrét gl. quamobrem, Ml. 48c2 . cide gl. de quo (cia de? cid de?), Sg. 3a9 . cia du neuch gl. ad quem . . .? Ml. 16a9 . cia dunaib hi do foirmsed gl. de quibus adderet? 35a17 . cia du forcunn gl. quem ad finem, 33a9 . cia du rét gl. cui rei? 121d1 . cia isnaib hí gl. in quibus, 49c13 . cia in n-erbirt ṁbiuth gl. in quem ussum, 46b28 . cia i n-olcaib gl. in quibus malis, 23b2 . ci onaibhi, gl. quibus, 47a10 . cio ainmnid dixnigidir gl. ex quo sit nominatiuo? Sg. 207b3 . ciofut gl. usque quo, Ml. 20a17 . 93a15 . ci ho fothaib són gl. quibus (dementiae facibus accensi sunt), 16b19 . ci o retaib gl. quibus rebus, 35c35 . gl. ex quibus rebus, 44d24 . cio thomus gl. qua libra etc., 55d16 . So also probably in later lang.: cia chuige a ndírighmid ar nurnuigh, Donlevy 364.16 . ca as a tangadar, Stair Erc. 1412 . casa ticit siat, Ir. Astr. Tr. 146.1 . Hence perh. in later phr. gá d'ulc what is the harm of? (see olc, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.z ). gá d'ulc bogur an bhása?, IGT Decl. ex. 758 . gá d'ulc mé gan mothugadh?, ex. 224 . gá d'ulc óigrí eslobar?, O'Gr. Cat. 470.9 . Cf. 2 cair. See Éigse xii 136 .

(i) In phrase cíadono why (then)? (see GOI 289 See further Éigse xii 136 .): ar cia dono gl. ut quid autem, Wb. 2d10 . hóre ro-n-ortigestar dia cedono tuidecht friss `why then?' 6a4 . ce dono rigne occo `what, then, is the good of prolixity in it?' 8d15 . cepu dono adrad dǽ do thabirt do Pool?, 7d16 . ciapu dono dún indarpe geinte `why should we then expel the Gentiles?' 19a14 . ? ēludh ann for romhuir / nícon fess cia dona, ZCP x 344.13 .

(j) In various constructions with adjj. In early legal texts with superl.: cia measom do cain ts.? `what is the worst of . . . ?' Laws ii 194.1 . cia dilsiumh d'ḟiledhoibh, Ériu xiii 31.2 . cía háithemh eó? acais dlighidh, etc., 25.6 . Prob. also: cia so do rinnibh etc. 20.30 = ciaso do ninnaib, O'Dav. 1289 . In later lang. in phrase gá beag is it not enough? ga beag mur ḟáth duilghis, IGT Decl. ex. 1057 . cá beag d'fhiadhnaise? Studies 1920, 97 § 2 . gárbh fhearr céim, 98 § 6 . gá bheag dhúinn dá dhearbhadh ort is it not proof enough for you? Content. vi 25 . Freq. with compar. in rhetorical questions. Cf. ga meisde ┐ ga c[h]an ┐ ca d'ulc, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.z . gá cruaidhe ceisd what more difficult question (is there)? DDána 12.1 . ga deacra ní do neithibh?, IGT Decl. ex. 938 . car doilge [le] inghin Taidg / éc Aodha aird . . . / inā d'Echtaigh a bás bróin / Corbmaic hūi Cuinn . . . , ZCP vi 269 § 4 . ca ferr duind ar mbeandacht do chur . . . go fer in liubair sea na a fágbail aigi?, LU 2769 (colophon). gá fearr m'áis-se ná m'aindeoin how is it better to get my consent than to constrain me? Dán Dé i 5 . ga feirdi me do m[healladh]?, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.2 . cá bud fherrde, PH 7582 . gá misde don cholainn chriadh / an t-anam d'faghbháil ilphian what harm? Dán Dé xxv 41 . m'uabar gá mó mínáire?, O'Gr. Cat. 346.33 . do Mhuire gár mhó guasocht?, Dán Dé xx 47 . Note also: cá minic do chionntaidh sé `how often', Donlevy 320.28 . an lícc dimor uccat fil forsan tulaigh, cía mó atá i ttalamh dhi na uása how much more of it is in the earth than above it? BNnÉ 8.16 .

II Inflected (`more fully stressed', GOI § 456 ) cía, cisí cid, citné etc. In classical verse the forms cia and ciodh are stressed, see DDána 12.1 , 58.35 . `cía, can, cúich . . . were in direct interrogation used with the copula *esti (cf. mod. Ir. cé h-é) . . . ', O'Brien, Féil. Mhic Néill 88 .

With indep. form of verb (a) cía m.: cia beraid doib a remeperthe `who will refer to them the aforesaid?' Ml. 37a9 (perh. transition from I(a) above). Usually with rel. clause: cía rédes ruind?, BDD² 294 etc. cia dib gebus t'forba?, RC xxiv 194.1 . cía de as sru[i]thiu?, Críth G. 492 . cīa nād cūala?, ZCP xi 109 § 7 . Prob. also in follg., where there is no mark of rel.: cia con-icc ní dúun?, Wb. 4b11 . cia folínfea? 12d14 . cia dobera íc do Sión?, Ml. 34d5 . dús cia atrebea isin chathraig `to learn who will dwell in the city', 35b24 . cia de dogega `which of them I shall choose', Wb. 23b33 . dús cīa díb do-ngegad, Sc.M² 19 . caidi bad ferr la hUltu, a mmarb nō a mbeo . . . ?, TBC-I¹ 681 (cia dé, LU). do fiarfaidh A. de cia dá cloind do beith etc., ZCP xi 128.34 . quis est horum qui vicit . . . .i. cia ro blaiss bethaid?, LL 281a32 . cia aca is rogha leat?, Hard. i 274.y .

(b) cid n. (rel. frequently marked): cid aem no-dom-bera-sa cucuibsi, Wb. 1a8 . cid atobaich cen dílgud cech ancridi `what impels you . . . ?', 9c20 . nícon fitir cid asbeir, 12c22 . ro fitid cid aridfuirig a foilsigud, 26a11 . dús cid forchomnacuir indi `to learn what hath happened therein', Ml. 16c5 . cid du-gén-sa osme `what shall I do, even I?', 30b9 . ní fintar cid attrebthar and `what is possessed there', Sg. 200b13 . niconfetadar cid fodruair `they . . . knew not what had caused it', Mon. Tall. 147.13 . asbert nicon feddur cid fil do sirgabail na biaide I do not understand your continual singing of the Beati, 127.2 . cid dogén?, ZCP viii 113.9 . cid tuccais ō Guaire what hast Thou got from G.? ACL iii 2.10 . With subst. vb. in nasalising rel. clause what ails, what is the matter with? see attá. With copula: nad fes cid as maith no as olc [do] denum, Ml. 51b7 . dober Dia aithesc cid as denti no cid as imgabthi, 51b8 . cid as dech do mnáib? what is the best type of wife? ZCP viii 113.5 . Note the variation in: na cóig guthaidhe, cía dhíobh as glan no as neamhghlan, no ciodh as cáol no as leathan da bfeadhuibh oireaghdha, ┐ créd atá na ndefhoghrachuibh etc., IGT Introd. 1.10 .

With nouns in sense who is? what is?

(c) m. cía (also occasionally with other genders, and regularly with ainm, see Ériu i 9 ): cia haes esca?, SR 7964 . cía méit in gill?, Críth G. 282 . cía [a] míad sidi?, 586 . cia th'ainmsiu?, LU 10774 . cía hainm? what's your name? BDD² 264 . cía hainm dá mnaí?, 365 . cia n-anmand what are their names? TFerbe 357 . cīa cétliaigh robūi ind-Ēirinn?, ZCP viii 105.12 . cía bar lín-se is[in] indsi-se?, Ériu iv. 142.21 . nī hētur cia hainm in maic aile, ZCP viii 293.24 . cia don teora crannsa an chroch, Dán Dé iii 27 . cia an monghar mór-sa?, DDána 85.6 . cia an duine bhias beó = quis est homo? TSh. 3125 .

Forms in -so, -su etc. (cf. indic. pres. 3 s. of 2 cía. See Celtica vii 38-42 ): ciaso baili ata in crann?, SR 7931 . ciaso buaid duinne?, Bodl. Dinds. 27 . cia so gním what deed? TBC-LL¹ 958 . cíasu anmann bai for suidiu?, IT ii2 195.153 . nī fetar-sa ciasu adba etc., Fing. R. 969 . ciasa bas . . . do bean . . . in bas-crann?, Ériu iv 116 § 26 (`whose hand?'). ciasa fogealtad son? .i. miach cacha mis, Laws iv 106. 15 Comm. ím comirc doib ciasa hairm ín ro scuirsid, 106.22 Comm. ciasa run, Auraic. 5210 (císi, v.l.). ciarsat comainm celisiu what's your master's name? LL 9041 (TBC). carsat comainm?, Acall. 390 . ciarso choma no bértha dó?, LL 8937 (TBC). garsa gním sain?, 9990 (TBC).

(d) cía with pron. who is? cia tussu díxnigedar who art thou? Wb. 4c24 . cia hé nu-n-dixnaigther-siu gl. qui sis, Ml. 75c9 . ciahé gl. qui (sit), 14d14 . cia hé `who is it?' 46c17 . ce hé roscríb `who it is that has written', Sg. 197a19 . cinní sin frisnaiccai siu `whom dost thou expect?', Thes. ii 227.30 (from intí-sin, GOI § 460 ). cia so who is this? Anecd. i 8. 23 ( SCano 257 ). cía so?, Sc.M² R 10 . cīa and-so?, 11 (for inso?). cia tusu?, RC xxiv 200.9 . fochtuis Feilis scela de, ce he budein, ZCP vi 25. 18 . cīa pad cīa . . . acht . . . Condere . . . who should it be but C.? Ériu i 114 § 3 . beag a fhios agad . . . / cia misi d'fhearaibh Eireann, Studies 1924, 243 § 17 . With -so, -su: cía so thú?, LU 10768 = ciasu tu, Ériu xii 170.3 . cársa cúich thú?, Mer. Uil.² 90 . cársa cía[s]ib-si etir?, 250 .

(e) cía with follg. prep. as antecedent of rel. clause (cf. I (h) above): cia dia fiachaigedar gl. ad quem debeat, Ml. 44b3 . cia forsa tiagat? `on whom do they fall? Laws ii 178.3 . nicon-fes cīa ō-tucad, Sc.M² 3 . cia ar nach tug a thrócuire? Dán Dé xxv 46 . cor dib Painiel dian / Gabriel cia ar nach cor?, KMMisc. 254.14 . d'iomad rogha ag Día dá dhiomda / fola cía dá ttiobhra ar tós, IGT Decl. ex. 109 .

(f) cisí, ces(s)í with f. noun: cisí chomairle ǽm `what indeed is the counsel?' Ml. 34c18 . cissi slabrai in díscer sa? LU 5162 (TBC). cissi gáir seo?, 4475 . císí (sic) suillse mór sucut?, BDD² 591 . áil dūn a ḟis . . . cisī rāth so, Ériu viii 157.6 . Freq. with follg. rel. clause: cessi aimser hi rogbath `at what time it was sung', Ml. 24d10 . cisi aimsir hi for-comnactar in gnimai, 97a5 . cisí digal didenach dumberaesiu a Dǽ, 100d5 . co n-eperthae cia aiccent ┐ cisi aimser derb thechtas, Sg. 26a6 . cisi rann dogéntar di, 27a13 . cesí aram gl. ad quod genus uel numerum refertur, 197b3 . cisi chiall bís indib `what is the meaning that is in them', 217a2 . cisi muime bat tualoing what fostermother could have? Blathm. 100 § 32 . cisi mathair con bert / an geinsi? ib. (MS. cisi in, text). cisi gnuis . . . forta napsalmo?, Hib. Min. 3.76 . cise noail noclanna `by what oath shall it be settled?' Laws iv 142.3 . cisi airm hi tá L.? LU 3620 (SC. 31). rāidh frim cisé (ciséd, v.l.) dāil di ṡund dogénum, ACL iii 294 § 13 . cisi breth rucais?, Rawl. 113a2 . cissí dichuimni rod dall?, LL 21767 . fég darisse . . . cisi chonar dotháet `look again, what road is he coming', RC iii 183.33 . inderb . . . cisi uair no cisi aimsir regthair, Ériu v 120.3 . cisí hairle do beradh, Hugh Roe² 292.14 . With ellipse of rel. clause: tair limsa . . . co ndérais. Cisí dígal?, MU² 1034 . Also somet. with other genders: ciasi animnairme (ainm n-áirme) fil . . ., Hib. Min. 2.41 . ciasi ord fil forna psalmu, 6.196 . ra iarfaig . . . cissi log conattaig, LL 30975 ( TTr. 156 ). occa scrúdadh . . . cisi cruth no aithfedh, Hugh Roe² 96.15 . Note also: atbertsat cipsi magen i ferfaithe in cath, Dinds. 188 ( RC xvi 274 ).

(g) cid with n. noun. In sense what is? cid aes ṅ-esci? BCr. 32a9 . cidh dire Mac-ḟuirmidh?, Ériu xiii 25.27 . cid an ní seo?, BDD² 242 . cid damhna bar ndocesaid?, ACL iii 310 viii 3 . ciodh achd ar ghrádh no ar ghrádsa / clár págsa d'fhior ón Aodhsa?, IGT Decl. ex. 137 .

With follg. rel. clause: imrádat imráti cid maith as déntí `as to what good is to be done', Wb. 1d7 . cid ḟolad ṡluindes, Sg. 25b17 (see note). ce torad gl. quem . . . fructum habuistis? Wb. 3b29 . cid chenél gl. quod genus . . . refertar, Sg. 197b3 . Perh. also: cidechor (= cid dechor) gl. quae sit differentia, 23a2 . In difft. constr. (cf. II (c) above): ced torbe doib etarscarad . . . fria tola what does it profit them? Wb. 13c6 . ce torbe dúib-si . . . in fogur-sin, Ml. 12d5 . ced slīab inso thall?, TBC-I¹ 614 .

(h) cid with pronoun: ced ed tra `what is it then?' Wb. 3b28 . cid so?, Mon. Tall. 130.15 ; YBL 118a23 ; ZCP xiii 179.3 . cid sin?, BDD² 448 . cid ón `what is that?' RC iii 184.25 . ceadh sibh acht na seacht dtroighthe what do you amount to? DDána 53.21 .

(i) cid with DO. With follg. neg.: cid dait-siu . . . nád bod latt curadmir, etc. why shouldn't you have? LU 8139 ( FB 10 ). cid daib . . . nach mair[b]fed sib?, TTebe 1865 . cidh damhsa cen dul d'iarraidh a maithme why should I not go, etc.? RC xxvii 294 § 38 . Note also: cidh duibsi what think ye of it? (?), RC xxvi 366.13 . cidh dhúinn déanamh a bhfeasa `why need I tell of them?' Content. iv 27 .

(j) cid with DI: cid de ón what does that matter? LU 6361 . cid de-side why so? TBC-LL¹ 5580 .

(l) cid with prep. and rel. clause: cid asa fordailtea grád túa[i]the on what basis have the lay grades been laid down? Críth G. 6 . Sliab B. cid diata whence is it named? RC xv 301.5 . cídh día ndearnadh Adhamh, 23 E 26, 5.18 .

(m) In similar construction in meaning why? With AR: cid arind epur frit why do I say it to thee? Wb. 5a31 . cid ara ndluthid caratrad friu iterum?, 27a30 . cid ara todlaigther inso, Ml. 32a5 . cid ara fodaim int ais firian inna fochaidi? 55d11 . cid armad machdad etc.? Sg. 167a4 . cid arṅdid huathuislib ildaib disruthaigedar?, 198b3 . cid ar bad?, Thes. ii 227. 34 . cid ara n-eperr Críth Gablach?, Críth G. 1 . cidh ar a fhuil Cuncha ar in inadhso?, ZCP xi 40.35 . With DI: cid dia leícid cundubairt for drecht uáib?, Wb. 13b12 . cid dia n-éirena(i)tar?, Críth G. 121 . rofiarfaig . . . desim cid dia mboi fora iarrair, Grail 1522 . With IMM (later FÁ): finnaid . . . cid imma ndernad in t-id, LL 8053 (TBC). cidh ma tancais alé `why hast thou come . . . ?' Ériu iii 158 § 11 . cid 'ma n-iarthai?, TTebe 1700 . cid . . . 'mara loirgis, TFrag. 118.15 . ciodh far dhoilghe trí thairnge?, DDána 40.10 . innis dúinn ciodh fa ttánghuis, Duan. F. i 78.16 . ciodh fa ttiobhradh, IGT Decl. ex. 1311 .

(n) cid as adverb, why ? cid no mbetha . . . on what account shouldst thou be . . . ? Wb. 4c24 . cid na déccaid?, Fél. Prol. 201 . ced nach maith?, Trip.² 1968 . cid nabsin Fedelm-sa . . . cichsed, LU 8296 ( FB 22 ). Tond Chlidna cid aréracht?, Metr. Dinds. iii 214.54 . cid éige, a bean?, Celtica iv 16.154 . cidh tāi a[g] gul?, ZCP viii 559.5 . cid . . . na caithi do chuidich? Ériu v 36.19 . do chách ciodh nach aithréasda?, DDána 58.35 . cidh na ro chomaillis an gealladh doradais?, BNnÉ 295 § 22 . Cf. cid ane . . . meic na mbachlach . . . do chomram cucum what business have the sons of rustics to be contending with me? Sc.M² 12 .

(o) where ? whither ? With téit: co n-at[h]comaircter nde cid ted, RC xiii 222.5 . cid nothēigid ?, ZCP xiii 176.8 . co fesamar úait . . . cid thége whither thou goest, Ériu iv 140.5 . ní fedar festa cidh rachad, Anecd. i 77.9 . cid lotar ?, LL 12826 . cid ghébmoe ?, BDD² 245 . Exceptionally with attá: d'iar[r]aidh fhessa . . . cuith a roiphi in ingen where, TTebe 33 (leg. cáit ?).

(p) In phr. cid tra acht, see trá.

Plural forms.

(q) citné, citni (prob. from cia ata n-é ` who, what (is it) that they are?', Thurn., ZCP xx 372 , GOI § 456 ). assindet sunt tra citné cumacte diandid cóir infognam what are the powers, Wb. 6a9 . citne gl. (sí . . . quaeritur) quae (gentes), Ml. 16b13 . cit né briathra robatar `what were the words?', 61b7 . cit né robatar `what were they?', 8 . asindet ón ciné (leg. citné? edd.) fochainn . . ., 101a3 . citni rig reachta . . . / robatar 'sind amsir sin?, SR 2347 . citni trenfir dotiarmórsetsu?, LU 10261 . cit n-é uisce . . . do-ríadhad?, BDD² 456 . ni fetar citne briga / mo dul i teach cor-riga I do not know what good there is in my going into the house to kings, Ériu v 30.2 . citni cenela na fuillet, Rawl. 69a29 . indis . . . dam . . . / citne clerig notrefet, / citne oic notndeirget, Three Hom. 110.16 , 17 . citne tire in geinseadar?, Leb. Gab.(i) 234.20 = Keat. ii 741 . Without follg. noun: citné foruar what are they which He has prepared? Wb. 8b5 . citne and dī rott eblatar?, LU 10284 . citn-éisidi?, BDD² 555 . ? citne in ferand?, LL 15993 = Todd Nenn. 222.3 (ceisi urrand, v.l. 223 n.).

(r) cisne (described as an `iarmberla', Auraic. 1308 ): cis n-é amuis ata chórai?, Críth G. 578 . cisne lesa . . . tascnat . . . ?, Laws i 230.21 . cisne tri leaca robaid?, v 450.1 . cisne sgéith sguirde caithche?, Ériu xiii 17.15 . cisne trí gealla nád fuilled . . .?, 33.28 . cisne tri horba doranaiter la Féne? O'Curry 2167 ( Eg. 88, 5(6)a ). cisne a trí a nemtiger cléirech, O'D. 2209 (Nero A vii, 144b). cís ní doghair oes eiscí? IT iii 262.12 . cia on cotagair æsa escai?, 61.18 = cis non dogar eassa uiscci?, Leb. Gab.(i) 264.13 . Exceptionally with pl. ending: cisneíd side ? . . . baes ┐ aneolus ┐ eitges, ZCP xii 363.2 .

(s) cis (see ZCP xx 372 , Ériu xiv 140 ): cis tána? ZCP xx 372.19 . cis n-dithle `welches sind Entwendungen?', 17 . cis duirn díolmhuine dlighther?, Ériu xiii 23.5 = O'Dav. 584 . cis dúar dían drongaighther . . . ?, Ériu xiii 26.2 = cis [i] duar etc., O'Dav. 883 . cis daghmaine domain dingnaith? O'Curry 2460 ( Eg. 88, 37(38)c ). cis rechta na gaibter a fiadhnaisi? 2600 ( Eg. 88, 51 (52)b ).

(t) Phr. cis lir how many (are) ? See Bergin, Ériu xiv 140 ff. cislir .i. cia lear no lin na sochaidi, Laws v 4.x Comm. cis lir tairgsin cach fine `how many are the . . . ?', 463.13 . gabála báise cis lir `the ways of folly, what is their number?' Tec. Corm. 14 (24.2) (gabail, v.l.). With follg. noun and rel. clause: cis-lir fir for a nasgar how many men are there who are bound? Ériu xiii 31. 21 . cis lir lanamna docuisin la feine? Laws ii 344.1 . cislir fodhla fil forsan mbron?, Anecd. v 24.16 . With follg. rel. verb: cis lir ata chóra[i] do ríg do giull how many (things) are legal . . . ? Críth G. 505 . cis lir congellait? Laws i 230.3 . cair cis lir dos-liad . . . ?, Ériu xiii 30.33 . Rarely with pl. -t: cesc citlir topuir, O'Curry 505 ( H 3.18, 257 ). See 2 lir.

(u) c(i)ata: ciata glinni con-daigi?, MU² 65 . cata cuir con-daigi-siu?, 72 . ciata builg itir ón?, RC xiii 66 § 67 . ni fedadar ceta inada . . . no indsechtais, CCath. 776 . Note also: cialín nasluag . . . / . . . ceti arbair, SR 7907 .

B As indef. in a variety of phrases.

(a) cía with noun: cia port i mbai a mathair wherever her mother was, Vita Br. 4 . cía baili i ffod as iatt sin / oidheadha na n-ócc eistidh `whatever place they may sleep' (reading i ffaoíit with note), Leb. Gab.(i) 188.3 .

(b) cía with vb. (conj. and prot.): cia tīasam wherever we go, Thes. ii 299.30 (Hy. i). cia bronntar indi, Críth G. 234 . cia taccra(i) whoever may claim (them), 425 (see 398 n.). cía denar cia therar whatever I do, whatever I say, Ériu i 227.5 . nocha n-érlai asin chathraigh acht cía térnai do rind gai, TTr.² 158 . a n-athair rempu cia thé `where'er he went', Ériu iv 100.2 . In chev. with adverbial force: cia bé however it be, LL 382 , 15039 . cia bia, Rawl. 137a38 . cia de do teacomnacair whichever it happened to be, Blathm. 98 § 25 (see notes). Cf. ciade gl. uter, Sg. 242a1 . ? is derb ní báes cia 't bera, Metr. Dinds. i 36.95 .

(c) cía with indic. of attá: cia bai dia chalmacht . . . bái dia nertmaire however brave he was, TBC-LL¹ 773 . niconibdis bandai cormmai . . . cia bith ara tecmainged dóib `they used not to drink a drop of beer whomsoever they might happen to meet', Mon. Tall. 129.19 . ( Ériu xii 209 ). cipia frisa ferthar tnú whoever shall be an object of envy, Ériu v 211.69 ( Ériu xii 209 ). cía búi de `whatever came of it' (cheville), Metr. Dinds. iii 396.23 . cía baoi dhe .i. gibé dobhi dhe, O'Cl.

(d) cip, cib with noun: cib cenél tra diaro scribad ind epistil to whatever people, Wb. 3b20 . cip port i ndēntar, Cáin Ad. 36 . Usually with cruth however it be, at all events: cipcruth bíid páx libsi etc., Wb. 5d33 . cipcruth tra, 12d24 . ni confetor cib cruth ind aingel fa dia, Blathm. 100 § 31 . See cipindus.

(e) cecip with noun (see Contribb. s.v. cech ): cecip maighean i raegbadh wherever, AFM i 30.3 . cecib tan tiostaois, v 1552.4 . tre bithin gona, no fiabhrasa cecib diobh whichever it was, vi 2024.5 . cecib nech tairisnighes iniort an coimdheadh, 2126.1 . cecip cruth foghabhtais, Hugh Roe² 86.2 . In follg. the use is strictly speaking interrogative: ní feas cecip tucht i tudchaidh, AFM iii 286.3 .

(f) cipsi with noun: cipsi aitt i loich dosfail, Rawl. 127a44 . cepsi cruth, BB 22b13 ( for cip c.¤ , Ériu xii 208 n. ). cipsi cruth `no matter how', Hugh Roe² 290.22 . cipsi mbith dáil for congra, Hard. ii 292.y . airlim n-eicne cipsí whatever it may be, Laws iv 92.z .

(g) cissí: ro geall Sir Persaual di sin cidhsi cor ara fetfad, Grail 1979 . case chruth i mbet, TBC-LL² 348 .

(h) cía bé, cipé, cid bé etc. with noun ( Ériu xii 208 ): cia bé a mmet `however great it may be', Ml. 61b28 . cipé leth tiasam, Thes. ii 299.42 . gidhbe an smólach ní chodhlann `even the thrush does not sleep', Duan. F. i 84.30 . cipe cruth, LU 3870 ( SCC 38 ). cipé rí bes hi Caisiul, ZCP viii 315.27 . ce-b e nech and do-neth . . . , PH 478 . cipé tan bud ríg tusa for Érinn 'whenever', FDG² 11.327​ . cipé a léire baistither in duine however devoutly, Ériu i 218 § 3 . gidh bé neimhdhéine do neinn, Dán Dé xiii 8 . cidh bé dhíobh staid, TSh. 3986 .

(i) cía bé, cipé etc. with verb: ciphéade (sic leg.) asberam `whichever', Ml. 25d11 ( Ériu xii 209 ). cipé da mbad áil etc., MU² 560 . céb é uabsi comallas frimsa hé, LU 9013 ( FB 76 ). atú ar bhaois gidh bé nach fuil, Dán Dé ix 8 . gidh bé ara geall, 16 . cibé labhras, TSh. 1781 . acht gidh bé éistios riomsa, Proverbs i 33 . gidh be ar bith bheanas ría `whosoever', vi 29 . Note also: mairbt[h]eim coich bē a dīe, Corm. Y 419 .

(j) cipé as adv. at all events , etc.: cipé gl. ubilibet, BCr. 31c2 . do gessaib ríg T. . . . / . . . cocad ruind co bráth ce bé `howsoever it be', CRR 54 . fiū cōicait cumal cipē, Fianaig. 50 § 27 . is maith liom a theacht gidhbé, Oss. vi 166.12 . ciphe de, BB 398b6 .

(k) cíabed, bad, beith etc.: ciabed ammet inna fochaide however great, Ml. 39a13 . cia beith a lin na noged however numerous the guests, Vita Br. 7 . ce bad hé frisa ndénte to whomsoever ye should do it (so Ériu xii 210 ), Wb. 9c24 . ciabadh hé richt a mbeith `in whatever shape she might be', Ériu xii 154 § 18 (TE). cebedh si maigen . . . a mbeith `in whatsoever part of Ireland she might be', ibid. cé beth da lánáille, ZCP viii 208.29 (but see Ériu xii 206 ). ge do beith do méit a tindenuis, Mer. Uil.² 146 . ciabadh e, Blathm. 96 § 20 , restored as ciabad de `whichever it be'. cia beith no co bia-so fó mebail whatever happens, LMU 10 .

(l) ciped (see Ériu xii 208 ): ciped techtas nech `whatever it is that anyone has', Wb. 12d41 ( Ériu xii 210 ). gip ed no raditís, TBC-LL¹ 152 . cipead dommaire `whate'er befall me', Ériu ii 90 § 16 . gibedh o ttíosadh whencesoever they shall come, TFrag. 190.16 . ciped mac díb no gabad gasced, TBC-LL¹ 1089 . giped chuin at some time or other, 3338 . ciped laa . . . forsa m-be notlaic mór (cidped, cipe, gebe, cip, MSS.), Ériu ii 208 § 28 . cip ed de at all events, CRR 4 .

(m) cid: cidh urrunnus nodleisead in t-athair `whatever proportion . . . the father is entitled to', Laws iv 60.24 Comm. cidh dergoine daon, O'Dav. 585 = cib dergona daon, O'D. 2199 ( Ériu xii 206 ). cid dusgní whatever he do, BColm. 100.9 . Cf. cidh ead dogneth hEchtair do calma imon Troi whatever brave action . . . , BB 433b24 .

(n) cid cía: cid cía bes inti whoever be in it, BColm. 52.21 . seanfhocal súd solus a chiall / ciodh cia do chum, Ériu xvi 132 § 2 . cidh cia ro chodail and 'san aidhchi sin nochur' chodail Didho, Aen. 873 . cidh cía donī, ZCP x 51.7 . na cionnta gidh cia 'gá mbeid whosoever shall have (i.e. commit) sins, Dán Dé v 13 . ? gidh cia frí senadh atúaidh, Duan. F. ii 166 § 44 . Note further: cia bad cia dia theilcfead (sic) sop, Ériu v 34.8 . cid bé cia thú `whoever thou art', TTebe 4720 . ciped chia díb nomarbtha artús, RC iii 183.8 . gidh créd do íar Aitheirne, IGT Decl. ex. 1377 .

See 2 cía and 3 cía, 1 cóich.

cin

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cin or dil.ie/9104

Forms: cinnta, cionaidh, c., c., ceana, cion

n t, m., GOI p. 206 . For n p. cinnta, Ml. 62d5 see ib. 205 . n s. also cionaidh, Ériu xiii 30.18 . a s. gan a cen, ZCP x 49.1 . d s. lán do chen, Rel. Celt. ii 206.z . c.¤ f. (dental infl.), IGT Decl. § 4 adding acht na ceananna; comair na gcenann is noted ceart do chanamain, ex. 247 while co centaibh is prohibited, ex. 246 . c.¤ m. (g s., n p., ceana), § 71 . Latter inflection v. freq. in later language. ? g p. cion, Content. xiv 18 (unrhymed).

I Guilt, fault, crime : ni nach c.¤ aile `it is not any other fault', Wb. 19d26 . brithemnacht forsin c.¤ -sa, 9b10 . ní fil ci[nta] doib fri Saul gl. culpae . . . conscii, Ml. 30b2 . na bad eola inar cintaib, gl. conpati infirmitatibus, Wb. 33b21 . is ái in c.¤ `his is the crime', Sg. 203a18 . it móra mo chinaid `great are my crimes', Fél. Ep. 387 . i cóictidi doluigdís cinaith la hóes rechtgae, Hib. Min. 26.x . cen fīach fair ina chintaib, Corm. Y 472 . bec in c.¤ tria chaingne chon, Sc.M² 21b . din chutrumma chinad noslenand, LU 2094 ( FA 16 ). ní ba c.¤ ṁbreithe in chlaidib beithir dí her crime in bringing the sword, TBFr. 248 (where c.¤ a s. ?, cf. v.l. p. 20). nībbōi c.¤ nombeith dóib, TBC-I¹ 2907 . olc in cosc cinad romchrín (Eve speaks) punishment for sin, Ériu iii 148 § 2 (`the wicked advice'). fiarfaighidh damh créad mo chion the charge against me, Magauran 856 . toil na gciontadh love of sin, Dán Dé xviii 10 . cealg ar gcionadh, DDána 12.4 . bean chúitigheas ar gceana (of Mary), 7.32 . maor measta ar gcean (Archangel Michael), PBocht 2.39 . sein-eol an cheana `the old way of sin', Dán Dé xxi 16 . marbh ó bhar gceanaibh ┐ ó bhar bpeacaidhibh mortui delictis et peccatis, TSh. 1192 .

Attrib. gen.: m'fhear cionadh enemy , DDána 101.52 . im intinn cheana sinful mind, Aithd. D. 92.21 . ní ro-theacht Ísu nach ṅgaile chinad do pecud any stain of the guilt of sin, PH 4826 . dáil cheana occasion of sin, DDána 10.34 . With follg. gen.: co . . . foltaib fíraib . . . cintaib laíme `for crimes of hand', Tec. Corm. 2.24 . silliud súla, cintaib bél, 26 . cin laime, cin coise, c.¤ tengad, c.¤ bel, c.¤ sula, Laws i 238.10 . cin leagha, IGT Decl. ex. 1138 . Prov. gach ciontaigh a chion, Celtica i 103.507 . In cheville: cid lór do chion, BS 68.7 .

Of specific sins, crimes: cion na drúise, Dán Dé xxxi 34 . cin na hecni sin of violence, PH 7537 . cion an fhormaid, Dán Dé xxxi 39 . cion an fhuatha, 38 . cion na sainte, 37 . cen duine do marbhadh ina cintaib comraiti `intentional crimes', Laws i 14.8 Comm. cionta comhraite .i. cionta as a riocht, O'Cl. Of sexual sin: c.¤ do epscop Mél fria fiair, Trip.² 980 . connach fedar-sa c.¤ ó ḟir eli ó ro imig sin (Penelope), Mer. Uil.2 238. go ngébhadh Oigh toircheas gan chion fir, Carswell 114.19 . Med.: foillsigid . . . cionta na nae vitia hepatis, 23 K 42, 125.13 .

II In phrases. Preceded by prep.: ferr duit nech aile ar na cintaibh at fault, ZCP vi 272 § 10 . cen chinta friu-som gl. gratis inimicitias eius patior, Ml. 142b5 . cen cinta `without offence', 74a1 . cen chinaid n-uaim fri nech gl. sine causa, 54d16 . lucht céssais cen chinaid `crimeless folk', Fél. Jan. 17 . in fíren do crochadh cen cinaid, PH 2933 . N . . . . [do marbad] . . . cin chuis cin cinaid, Ann. Conn. 1306.11 . do-rocair . . . / do laimh Cethirn go cciontaibh in return(?), TBC St. 3740 . Ruad mac Baduirn ba d'Ultaib / nuall cach glanuill co cintaib, LL 2589 . co cinaidh, Leb. Cert. 206.9 . di chinaid, prep. phrase with gen.: tuccus doibhsion da chionaid / ionad i ccoraidh mo tempuill in return, BNnÉ 175.3 . ? Cf. do chinaib cuna / guin fiachglanta, YBL 179b12 = BB 259b1 . i cin(aid), i cintaib with gen. or Vn. phrase in revenge, atonement for: cim[b]ith i cinaid .u.ir `a captive for every five persons concerned' (of penalty for breach of a king's protection), Ériu xvi 37 § 3 . i ccinaid a m[e]ic `in atonement for the liability of his son', ibid. a cinta oirccne `on account of injury done', Mon. Tall. 155.29 . a mmbarbad ar Fíanna Fáil / i cinaid marbtha Dubáin, LL 29354 . hi cinta ind fergoirt do milliud, LU 8526 ( FB 38 ). 'n-a chion féin `through its own fault', Magauran 3724 . Similarly tré chin(aid), chinta: tré ch.¤ drochmna, IT i 75.6 ( LMU 13 ). ronlaad a Parthus tria china[i]d imarbois (said by Adam to Eve), MacCarthy 60.23 . tré chenaib in popuil, Caithr. Thoirdh. 4.15 . With follg. prep.: cen chinaid for mnāi / do réir dligid Dé `do not hold a woman liable', KMMisc. 272.1 . ní mó . . . a c.¤ frib . . . indás na tucsaid úadib, LU 8980 ( FB 73 ). ni fetur-sa c.¤ dam frit `I know of no wrong I have done thee', Grail 2109 . ní fhoil cion riomsa ag R. R. has nothing to complain of against me, Aithd. D. 48.16 .

Other phrases: do-gní cin(aid) fri offends against: na cinta aili do niat na daíne risin ferann, Laws iv 140.19 Comm. re ghnuis nderg go ndentar c.¤ `till some charge is brought against his blushing face'(?), Magauran 2997 . With cuirid: dá mbeinn dod chur i gciontaibh if I were to accuse you, DDána 88.22 . cionnta go gcuire ar do ghaoltaibh, Aithd. D. 26.16 . ? Cf. nī mō leis (= le Dīa) blāth droigin duibh / ┐ cāch do chur 'na ch.¤ / . . . inā duille da chor d'fidh taking everybody into account(?), ZCP vi 269 § 13 .

As quasi-vn.: ēside o[c] cinaith frit-sa, ACL iii 295 § 21 `that itself is what's sinning against you,' Jn. Celt. Stud. ii 104 .

III

(a) In legal contexts offence, crime, etc. for which the doer is answerable at law, hence with meaning liability, guilt, incurred penalty, etc.: focerdar c.¤ co fergac `liability is attached to the angry man', BDC 25 . imdích dliged a chéle cintaib cuir (of duties of `flaith'), Críth G. 339 `in regard to liabilities arising from contract?' (Notes). .vii. claid . . . na[d] dírenatar cinaid `whose liabilities are not atoned for', Ériu xvii 70 § 13 . óthá suidiu hícad cách cinaid a c[h]laid `the liability of his ditch', 72 § 14 . a ḟrepaid ó ḟi[u]r chinad guilty party, Críth G. 60 . c.¤ comḟocuis responsibility for a relative or legal connection: c.¤ cach comfoguis for araile `liability of each kinsman upon the other' (as with éiric), Laws i 262.16 . imtha fri cion comfocuis `it is likewise with liability of kindred', Stud. in E. Ir. Law p. 145 , glossed is amlaid sin atait re hic cinta comfocuis, amail comruinnit in dibad is amlaid comruinnid (ícaid, v.l.) in cinaid. cion comhgais, cáin nó díol do bhuain amach i n-éiric nó i n-eineaclainn an loit . . . doghní neach . . . d'á charaid nó d'á chineadh, Keat. i 68.47 . is mo sidhe do ch.¤ `thy liability . . . is greater than (the value of) this (sword)', IT iii 201 § 75 . Cf. berid-si lib ina c.¤ fén iat (said to tax collectors) `in their own discharge', Todd Lect. vi 44 § 64 .

(b) Hence in sense of payment due, levy, exaction : ? fri commus a cheana ┐ a smachta ┐ a fiadhaig (`rule'), IT iii 199.8 . ? oenach Cuile co cintaib appropriation, LL 25093 . ni beiride acht cethramthain di ch.¤ na somane, di orbu na saetur (of the iarḟine), Laws iv 284.6 . cion do chuir i nDruim Lethan / do rioghaibh mar gnathachadh (of a proposal to billet soldiers on the community of D.L.), BNnÉ 288.33 . can luad cairti 'n-a cenaib `without mention of a charter for their tributes', Hy Fiach. 212.y . ceathruime cidh ima ḟuil / c.¤ leathbaile na lenmain why has a quarter the dues of a half-village? IGT Decl. ex. 194 . gníomh d'fhearann saor ar gach ein-c[h]ion `free from every impost', Misc. Arch. Soc. 190.8 . do bhuain chean `to get dues', O'Hara 2598 . Cf. kinduff alias black rent, Fiants Eliz. 5997 quoted Measgra D. Gloss. p. 243 .

(c) booty, plunder, and hence by implication victory, triumph, success: buáil-si um cheanuibh gach críche `take the spoil of every country', Ériu ix 8.88 . gáir na stoc i n-am na gcean, Measgra D. 57.22 . cena mora ┐ crecha aidbli, Ann. Conn. 1365.5 . urusa dhuit déanaimh cean `to win triumphs,' TD 1.45 . mall ar gcéimne leis an gcion we travelled slow with the `creach', Aithd. D. 6.44 . le neart-ghoil céimeann nó cean `triumphs', Content. xxx 21 . ag cuimhne a gcean `recalling their exploits', O'Hara 4406 .

(d) share, due portion : do chion (sic leg.) d'fágháil do'n éiric, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 364.17 . gan chion i gcogar Dé dhamh `part', Dán Dé xxvi 14 . breith na clainne is cean [do] mhartra is a kind of martyrdom, DDána 32.17 . ? dá shochar do gheibhthear as an Aifrionn . . . cion impidhe ┐ leóirghníomh, Eochairsg. 51.6 . Hence in pl. fortune, weal : daoine ar tí chean a chéile `set against each other's weal', Dán Dé vii 17 . dh'ionnramh chean ó gCéin `to serve (as defence for) their interests', O'Hara 2393 . díon ar gcean `to secure our fortunes', Aithd. D. 84.37 .

In chevilles: ard an cion, DDána 17.23 . mór an cion, O'Hara 3241 .

As quasi-conj.: cion a raibhe do shólás . . . dá bhfuaradar . . . go raibhe sé do dhólás orra . . . the greater the pleasure . . . . the greater the misery . . . , TSh. 3730 . cion a bhfuil d'fhad-dáil . . . atá sé do chaoile tanto . . . quanto, 5405 .

(e) love, affection (for development of meaning cf. cuit, 1 pairt): Críosd dom chion san bhrátha-ló `may Christ love me', Celtica iv 169.272 . maircc as gar da chill go ccion `dear', BNnÉ 286.31 . tarbh tána ar nar ceileadh cion `well-beloved' (of warrior), O'Hara 3469 . ró ceana `great affection', 2993 . onóir ┐ míoonóir (sic), cion ┐ neimhchion, do thabhairt d'én nduine abháin, Desid. 2367 .

(f) esteem, respect : menicniugad cena do denam (of a `céile' rising up before his `flaith'), O'Curry 621 ( H 3.18, 300 ). gan a cen ar naomh nō ar dhān, ZCP x 49.1 . a chion do réir a ríaghla, Bard. Synt. Tr. 3.22 . mic Uisnigh dhár chóir c.¤ , IT ii2 115.25 . is beg in c.¤ ata acan tren[n]íadh ugud oirne `respect . . . for us', Stair Erc. 1477 . méad an cheana do bhíodh ag cách ar an inchinn `how highly everyone prized', Keat. ii 3085 . ní fhuil cion innte ar fhéiltibh (of Ireland), Measgra D. 55.17 . With defining gen.: cion áonanma as .c. orra they are to be treated as one noun, Bard. Synt. Tr. 203.11 . ní bhíodh cion fírinne ortha `were not regarded as genuine', Keat. ii 3878 .

In phrases. cuirid i c.¤: m'anam thuas dá chur i gcion being honoured, DDána 12.8 . do cheird féin ní chuire i gcion `you do no credit to your art', Content. xxiv 8 . túis dod ghuidhe cuir i gcion `urge thy most zealous petition', A. Ó Dálaigh xxxv 1 . féile an leinbh gá chora i gcion `making it manifest', Ériu ix 166 § 32 . roinn ar ar chuireadar cion the division which they fixed, Content. xi 7 . téid i c.¤: ní théid a rún cliachdha a gcion does not go into effect, LBranach 3543 . fo ch.¤ respected: gearr an seal thugsad fa chion, Content. v 106 . do ghlac an rígh an macaomh go honórach ┐ do bhí fá cion aige, Eochairsg. 114.13 .

In phr. c.¤ fátha (printed as compd.) occasion (of sin, etc.): ar ngabáil chionfátha dhon pheacadh, Romans vii 8 . do chum nach tiubhruinn cionfátha don druing lé na mían cionfátha dhfaghail, 2 Cor. xi 12 . Cf. cennḟáth and Dinneen s.v. fáth .

Compds. do chleith mo cheanfhaghla, Aithd. D. 55.3 . le Dia [gidh] cin-iomdha ar gcás, A. Ó Dálaigh xxxiv 10 .

cindas

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cindas or dil.ie/9113

pron (1 cía + indas , see Ériu i 7 ).

(a) With gen. of an indefinite noun and follg. rel. clause (actual or implied) what kind of? c.¤ persine attotchomnicc gl. tú quis és? Wb. 6b13 . c.¤ fer dia ndenid-si deu, 8c11 . cinnas cennaig sin? (folld. by answer giving details), LU 9014 ( FB 76 ). cinnas fir? . . . Fer mór . . . , TBC-LL¹ 2451 . cindus cléirig iat-som na trí Colmána?, BColm. 54.25 . Later occas. with nom.: cindus deifir ata etc., Ériu v 120.9 . cionnus cluain an clúain si? BNnÉ 32.18 .

(b) Forming copula-clause with gen. of definite noun: c.¤ in choirp i n-eséirset gl. quali autem corpore ueniunt? Wb. 13c20 . c.¤ a bésse, 28b32 . cinnas ind lossa? what is the appearance of the herb? Trip.² 2350 . c.¤ for cobarthasi?, Anecd. i 11.8 ( SCano 336 ).

(c) With pers. forms of prep. LA: ibar coicthi cinnas lat what dost thou think of I.? ZCP viii 218.9 . cionnus lat . . . / mac an tsaoir do rádha ris what do you think of the fact that? DDána 26.6 . cionnus libh dá mbeath dom brath / neach istigh ar mo theaghlach what would you think if? Dán Dé i 12 .

(d) With follg. rel. clause how? in what way? ciaindas rundgabsat, Ml. 55c1 . c.¤ ṁbias iarna cétbuid sem `how then will it be according to their opinion?' Sg. 40a15 . cionnus bhias éscce do chur um righ?, Ériu xiii 50.9 . iarmfacht S. do M. cindus nombiad etir an déde sin how he would be between these two things(?), Mon. Tall. 144.18 . c.¤ rainnfither in mucc? Sc.M² 6 . cesnaigthir . . . cinnas doraga how (in what form) he will come, LU 2360 . cionnas as éidir léo how is it possible for them? Ó Héodhusa 38.w . See Hermathena xcix 53 (1964) . Without verb: c.¤ on . ni anse ón how does that come about? Sg. 18a6 . As greeting or salutation well : cinnas sin a Lóig? LU 3662 ( SCC 33 ). cinnas, a m'anam a Iriel?, CRR 28 . cionnus sin, a Ṡuibhne?, BS 18.11 .

(e) Rarely as indef.: cindus beiti cena / bat fāssa a rát[h]a however they may be now, their raths will be desolate, ZCP viii 110.10 .

cipindus

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cipindus or dil.ie/9179

Forms: c.

(1 cía + indas )

(a) Conj. however, in whatever way, howsoever : cinnas sin a Ingceóil . . . Cip indas (cipindas, Facs.) for Ingcél . . . how is that . . . however it be, LU 7065 ( BDD² 655 ). scaradh friutsa quibindes a cumairnecmar `however(?) we have met', RC xii 60.27 . cibinnis ra bhaoi sí of whatever kind it was, TFrag. 72.9 . cepinnus ro bói reme an tsúil mesa robói asa hathle whatever the eye was like before it was worse afterwards, RC xxvii 280 § 36 . cipindus fonuaslaicther ar eicin in whatever way it may be set aside(?), Laws i 50.26 Comm.

(b) Adv. iar na ttaiselbhadh cipinnus somehow or other, AFM vi 2126.16 . However, at all events, at any rate : cip innus, LU 5288 (cipinnus, Facs.). c.¤ , BB 291b28 . ba cara cipinnus do F . . . L., ZCP xi 62.13 .

3 co

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 3 co or dil.ie/9788
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: co, co, co n-, cu, có, go, gar, ɔrici, coni, con(n)á, connar, co-ndum-fel, conom, condidtuctis, conidtuccid, conid, condin-roirea, Condubtanicc, condibfeil, con-da-r-íccad, conda-tuárgabusa

conjunction (a use of 1 co, GOI 554 ). There are two forms, co, leniting, with abs. and deut. forms of follg. vb. ( co chutrummaigidir, Ml. 25c12 ; co du-fess, 44a9 ); and co n-, conj. part. See GOI 145 , 299 , 312 . Also cu, Ml. 89d16 , 139a14 , có, 142a1 . In later lang. go (gur), gar, Mac Aingil 4671 etc. See Blathm. 26 note . co n- freq. abbreviated ɔ in earlier lang. even where nasalizing n would not normally appear, e.g. ɔrici, Wb. 33b18 , ɔticfad, TBC-LL¹ 963 . Somet. even with con in full: con ropu, Ml. 67c9 . Cf. ɔṅdárbastar, Sg. 211a10 . See GOI 554 , TBC-LL¹ p. 1099 . Neg. of co is coni ( coní, Sg. 209b13 ), of co n- con(n)á etc. ( GOI 539 ). connar bo, TBC-LL¹ 2548 . go nach beath, DDána 74.68 . With inf. pron. ( GOI 258 ). 1 s. co-ndum-fel, Wb. 3c38 . condomarrgabad sa, 17d14 . conom thicisea except me, LU 8368 ( FB 24 ). 3 s. m. n. condidtuctis, Wb. 21c21 . conidtuccid, 11 . conid chuale, Ml. 20a2 . 1 p. condin-roirea, Wb. 29b16 . 2 p. Condubtanicc, Wb. 5c10 . condibfeil, 24c4 . 3 s. f. and 3 p. con-da-r-íccad, 4d19 . conda-tuárgabusa, 26d10 . an frim céin córda sille, LU 3907 ( SCC 37 ). conda tucsa, Fraech 278 . For forms with copula see 1 is (I 307.61, 310.9 , 39 , 311.44 , 312.45, 313.4, 16, 21, 49, 65, 314.22, 33, 315.11, 23, 65 , 317.76, 318.58, 319.12, 63, 75, 320.48, 83 321.3 etc.).

On usage see GOI 342 , 554 ff. (possible difference in meaning between co and co n-; co rare outside O. Ir. glosses, see Translator's Note no. 197).

1 With indic. so that, and (consecutive): co gl. quo (. . . fatetur), Ml. 130c22 . con fri fuili foichliter, Bretha 25 . con[n]á heisedar, Críth G. 176 . ɔricub-sa cucuib `so that I shall come unto you', Wb. 32a27 . ɔarrceoratar a n-arma doib gl. ut doficerat eis quod in nos torquere possint, Ml. 26d6 . is co durogabsat, 108a6 . tremi-berar . . . conid ainm dun chrunn, Wb. 8a5 . ɔaich rann so that it is not, Sg. 212a6 . ar a coitcinne na cladh sa gu nach urasa cín dagra for a tigernaib, Laws iv 222.1 Comm. ɔruptar fadirci ind usci Ml. 40d16 . connar bo leír, TBC-LL¹ 2548 . With vb. of motion forming prep. phrase: téit co téit isa teach he goes into the house, BDD² 280 . ránic C. co mbuí hi faichchi na Bruidne came to, 507 . táncatar . . . co mbátar i ndorus etc., Sc.M² 5 . With as-beir introducing direct speech: mná . . . do gabāil chepóce . . . co n-ērbrat saying, Sc.M² 20 . atgládastar . . . B. co n-epert, LU 8235 ( FB 18 ). con-erbairt = dicens, Lat. Lives 1.4 . Freq. with copula and personal form of prep.: conid airi so that that is why, Sg. 189b2 . conid and atá otharlige a chind and that is where, RC iii 182.5 . conid and atbert c.¤ , 178.27 . conid de atá . . . whence is, 181.36 (cf. conid iarsin, y). conid de ro ainmniged . . . , Fraech 107 . Similarly: conid innisin . . . sin so that that is the story, TBC-LL¹ 1388 . co n-id di-a deoin dochoid, PH 2374 . As mere sentence-connective: robo trom tra la Moingḟind an ni sin, co n-ebairt fria macaib . . . , RC xxiv 194.25 . luid . . . co mbensom, LU 4907 (historic pres. rare in this use, GOI 331 ). luidseom . . . co tubart a láim tairrsiu, BDD² 141 . lasin donic ingabuir chuci corragaib mīr assathóib and took, RC iii 184.31 . dotaet . . . C. do tsiriud in dithruibh cetna, co riacht in tobur and he reached the spring, vi 175.28 . ro selaig C. . . . co tarat . . . co ragaib . . . co toracht, LU 8460 - 1 ( FB 31 ). Cf. loech foltfind lebar co mbeanad folt braine a da imda whose hair reached, etc., RC xxiv 184.6 . For stereotyped co cloth ní introducing rhetorics ( LU 5449 etc.) see Celtica vii 79 ff. See also viii 155-60 and Ulidia i 251-53 . See further Celtica ix 117 (as co) 118 (ar co), 133 (mod. mar is fearr go dtiocfaidh leat, etc.).

2 In special consecutive use in `which the subject of the clause is taken out of its logical position, and placed (under the government of the principal verb, though often almost absolutely) before the introductory conjunction and copula' ( PH p. 594 ). See further O'Brien Celtica ii 348 , C. O'Rahilly viii 162 . is rad dée immumforling conda apstal gl. gratia Dei sum id quod sum `God's grace has caused me to be an apostle,' Wb. 13b6 . is di chéin immunrordad condan maicc togu gl. qui praedestinauit nos in adoptionem filiorum, 20d10 . dobrograd condibfeil icorp crist gl. electionem uestram, you have been called to be members of C.'s body, 24c4 . In the follg. exx. rather with explicative force: o du raidhmisiot . . . / iosa com bu thorisi that J. was etc., Blathm. 55 . domuinet sochaide, na hapstail co n-id as cech berla ro-labairset, PH 5485 . is demin cuirp na hesergi co mbat foille, 6746 . atnaigh . . . aichne fair, conar bé A., TE 12 Eg. Similarly perh.: mainba æcne lib act conda anecne gl. ne quis me putet insipientem esse, alioquin velud insipientem accipite me, Wb. 17c10 . [no] ghnathaigeth U. aingel co torraimed indí Pátraic, Trip.² 215 .

3 In quantitative contexts (to the extent) that, (so much so) that: in sí a meit friscomartatar co ndo[d]sitis huili a fide have they offended to the point of falling a fide? Wb. 5b11 . attá diṡeirc la laitnori innangrec co seichetar cid a comroircniu the Latinists are so fond of the Greeks that they imitate even their errors, Sg. 1a2 . ba hé a méit co cathaigtis co corptha na demna frisna doínib, LU 4036 ( SCC 49 ). boí tra dia fot na lamae co rroacht tar na teóra fuithairbe the arm was so long that it reached, 9069 ( FB 82 ). ba he med na dochraidi co mba hecin di . . . , RC xxiv 190.7 .

4 until (with `the indicative or subjunctive according to the character of the sentence as a whole', GOI 555 and cf. 330 ). With pres. ni ib fínn combi mescc gl. non uinolentum, Wb. 28b24 . co mbí, Críth G. 83 . co ndichet till he goes, 28 . co roglea dó until he has finished, Mon. Tall. 133.16 . ní rach . . . / don Charraig . . . / taireise go rabh a-rís / damh, Aithd. D. 32.16 . Freq. with verbs of coming to, reaching in prep. phrases, see do-icc, ro-icc (cf. orta co rís in corthe, LU 3334 ), 100.36 . With pret. and perf.: con-dub-tanicc misericordia Dei , Wb. 5c10 . conda-tuárgabusa, 26d10 . co bba till it was, BDD² 12 (for co mba? corbo, D). co nderglē till I made up my mind, Sc.M² 4 . asbertatar . . . co comarsatis in dá adnacul . . . ní comroicfed . . . , Airne F. 148 . In later lang. also with fut.: gearr go mbia, DDána 26.8 . See cotá.

5 As connective marking subordination after verbs of saying and in various other contexts that (with subj., later also condit. and indic.): a n-asberid a Iudeu coni cloitis geinti tairchital Crist, 5a8 . as n-é tairrchet . . . combad adramail in macc conróbad écoscc a cheneóil fair, 6d6 . nád chumaing aranísar and coní enggnatar gníma, Sg. 209b13 . ? is écen ɔṅdárbastar, 211a10 . coní ecmi nád n-airchissa act is co arcessea (it happens) that he does spare, Wb. 5b35 . atbertsat . . . co leicfitis, LU 9023 ( FB 77 ). forairngert-sa . . . co ragad méla . . . fort, TBC-LL¹ 647 . dá mbeath go dtuillinn, Aithd. D. 95.13 . do fhóbair go ndearnainn dearmad, 38.16 . tuig . . . go raibhe . . . , TSh. 22 . go dtarla . . . gur mhionuigh ┐ gur bhris, 59 . ó ataoi dall . . . 's gar mían leat etc., Mac Aingil 4671 . gar cōir dhuit etc. (title), 1033 . toingim-se . . . co ná fil, Ériu iv 98.10 . ní mōr go mbui ar comus dōip `they were scarcely able', Fl. Earls 88.12 . As connective particle in ar eagla go, do bhríogh go etc., see TSh. tre go bhfuighedis, Luc. Fid. 3269 .

6 In O. Ir. with subj. glossing Lat. ut, ne (final): coni gl. (timens) ne, Ml. 22d12 . gl. uti, Sg. 213a5 . ɔrop imdu de duún gl. ut abundet, Wb. 3a12 . co beit amal innahí nad tectat sétchi gl. ut sint, 10b5 . co remifoil gl. ut . . . anticipiet, Ml. 23a8 . co asagnoither gl. ut intelligatur, Sg. 180b2 . commimis less huili gl. ut et mortuorum et uiuorum dominetur, Wb. 6b21 . co ngnemmis gnímu colno gl. ut . . . uiuamus, 4a9 . co fu-crothad .i. co chon-scarad gl. ut . . . cassaret, Ml. 23b14 . có gl. quo (maior . . . prauitas appareret), 29a5 . co gl. quo . . . possint, 74c10 .

7 With subj. so that, in order that. Pres. condib dídnad domsa, Wb. 1b1 . con festar cách gl. scientia, 12c38 . cona roib etarcéin, 26a14 . corbu du reir nach aili labraimme gl. nostro iuri in loquendo, non alieno seruimus imperio, Ml. 31b16 . ni nád ndenam-ni acht is co dugnem, 23c6 . conna dechsam i n-adradu idal, 62d1 . coni taibrea feuchrai fírmessa foraib, 109c14 . mad he herchoiliud cétne persine in sin .i. conibbé dese and, Sg. 199b4 . ɔnábé and, 166a3 . co ti N. do bar n-eadrain `so that N. may come to separate you', RC xxiv 194.26 . tíagsa co n-ardu tenid I'll go and light a fire, BDD² 286 . cid is áil duib . . . co ndernur what do you want me to do ? PH 4414 . congain liom go leanar help me to follow, DDána 2.7 . Impf. co no pridchinn a indocbáil, Wb. 28a7 . combad aurlam cách dia bathis, 8a4 . ɔrobad cech brathair post alium , 34a4 . conaib fir, Ml. 31d9 . confresced in popul á íc, 136d1 . co mbin cosmail fri encu, 91b7 . cinged issin sliab co tabrad fiad `to fetch a deer', Arch. Hib. ii 70 § 5 . oc imchosnum, comtis hé cétnarístais, Airne F. 135 . atbert in ríg, go ructha that he should be brought, PH 1329 . a bhreath don bhoct do-bhire / go nach beath ort oirbhire, DDána 74.68 .

8 With impf. subj. of copula and subst. vb. introducing a tentative or alternative explanation: combad notire rodscribad cosse gl. salutatio mea manu Pauli, up to this point it is no doubt the work of a scribe (an epistle), Wb. 27d16 . co mbad si amser sin rongabthe in salm apparently it was then . . . , Ml. 24d7 . combad ho ṡuidiu iarum pepigi gl. antiqui `pago' . . . dicebant pro `paciscor', and that, presumably, is the origin of, Sg. 181a3 . combed secunda gl. de aliquo habet locutionem, 200a1 . ɔnabeth foraithmet dǽ hi suidiu gl. id non dixit absolute etc., Ml. 22d26 . no, go na beith acht trian and dogres `or, according to others, there is never more than one-third', Laws iv 196. 12 Comm. no guna tuctha acht einní dib do gach thir, 162 note (Comm.). no comad a cáer . . . no ásad, Airne F. 55 .

9 In wishes (see Murphy Lyrics p. 255 ): conarbera dam . . . fri M. `say to M. for me', Mon. Tall. 150.7 . gurab tu ar comairge, Ériu i 122.24 . co rop é in læch . . . may he be the warrior . . . , TBC-LL¹ 1151 . go roibh linn . . . / . . . banaltra thrí dtighearna, DDána 9.1 tocht id leith gur mheala mé, 25a.25 . Perh. also: conná' musnágat may they not fear each other, LU 9091 ( FB 84 ).

10 With prec. conj. forming compound conjunctions. See 1 acht (A 21.59), 1 ara (A 372.12, 24 etc.), cen (114.78), 2 cía (170.85), cían (180.39), dáig (D 19.44), dochum (D 229.60 ), indas (I 218.42). For use with prec. neg. adv. see nícon (N 45.79, 46.4, 11).

11 After positive, compar. or super. adj. used adverbally: mar is lúaithe co tairnig, Maund. 38 § 57 . marus ferr co fetfaitis, RC xix 26 § 19 . luaithiu con-rānic Maelodrān, Fing. R. 1023 . cid lúath condránic in gilla, LL ii 8791 .

12 After ocus (generally introducing different subject): dotháet Findabair assind uisciu. & facbaid in claideb i llaim Fraech. ┐ co mben a chend den míl, LL v 33282 . dobert Cu Chulaind side da ṡaigid ┐ co topacht a chend de, iv 23220 . delbaid a richt cacha fírcharat etir ḟir ┐ mnai fos, ┐ co léiceann cach a rún ria, Acall. 5680 .

2 coimsech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 coimsech or dil.ie/10283

adj (commus) strong, powerful; able, capable (not always easily dist. from 1 c.): ar dhaighin serce coimsighe, Ériu xiii 45.34 . niclithchoimmsech, SR 8359 `affording no shelter', Contribb. 454 . co C. comsech, Metr. Dinds. iii 16.196 . laech . . . c.¤ cumachtach, ZCP x 299.5 . tug beim cuimsidh, MR 278.26 . With follg. gen.: nída ch.¤ mu ṡoíre I cannot attain to noble rank (?), Trip.² 2976 . M. ba c.¤ cáich, LL 17376 (see note) ( RC xlvii 314.22 ). nirbo comsich cummaiscc no cathaigti na sluaig-sin re 'roile were unable to join battle, Ann. Conn. 1315.4 . gonach duine fadessin is c.¤ a hirlabra eter acht Dia, Celtica iv 38.549 .

With FOR (AR): damtís comsig for iltuathaib if they had power over, LL 31297 (TTr.). mac C. ar cet ba c.¤ , BB 53b12 . G. ba c.¤ cuir / for D. had the advantage of the contract over D.(?), Metr. Dinds. iii 410.5 . coimseach iad ar na huilibh, DDána 113.14 . as iat ba coimsigh ar a canta fris ┐ uadh, Marco P. 94 . Note further: ingnais Ērenn / diamsa cuimsech where I was powerful, ZCP vii 309.24 . imá cend nar c(a)oimseach sluagh `against whom no army prevailed', AFM ii 898.6 .

Adv. go comsech, Ériu iv 53.5 . Compar. ní coimtig dune bes coimsechu indas inti adgladar, Études Celt. ii 292.5 . As subst. comsig Conaire `the captains of C.', Metr. Dinds. iii 116.84 . maithi ┐ mōr-c[h]oimsig, ML² 708 .

com(ḟ)ocus

Cite this: eDIL s.v. com(ḟ)ocus or dil.ie/11179

Forms: -(ḟ)acus, comgus, comaicsi, inchomocus

(1 ocus). Also -(ḟ)acus. comgus, Keat.

adj I o, ā near, proximate; neighbouring; equidistant . Predic.: as comacus du bas, Ml. 40b9 . as comacus a mbás, 64a2 . comocus afogur díblínaib (of u and digamma), Sg. 6a3 . rondgab coimdiu comacus les `that he has a Lord near'. Ml. 30b11 . atcumacsi ┐ atcumsctha . . . na catha, Cog. 196.29 . Attrib.: hicómdail nalenab comocus `neighbouring children', Fél.² xcix 30 . comaicsi gl. uicinaeque (nationes), Ml. 26b11 . a foithrib na crich comfhogus, TTebe 4537 . na cenela comḟaigsi related, BB 416b12 . do bochtaib na cell comḟocus bai doib `the neighbouring churches', RC xxiv 64 § 26 . na gcinedhach gcomhfocus gusin teagh sin, Fl. Earls 114.26 . cidh nesa don indlighthech í ná don dlighthech, no cidh comfocus dóibh equidistant from them, O'D. 509 ( H 3.17, 413 ). Compar. as chomaicsiu gl. uiciniore, Ml. 145b2 . combad chomaicsiu side dodia gl. in vicinia Dei, 21d1 . comfhocsi . . . do thalmain indas do esca, PH 6988 . Superl. don chin dian ar comacsi in dibad, Laws iv 286.15 Comm. Adv. inchomocus gl. iuxta, Sg. 197a7 . `near by', 188a19 . gluaisid airdrinnaidh na speiri . . . co comfada ┐ go comhfogus da ceili equidistantly, Ir. Astr. Tr. 132.7 .

II As subst.

(a) proximity; relationship : ba crombaing caem a comḟagus ` relationship ', BB 50a38 . rannait iar comocus in proportion to their nearness of relationship, O'D. 548 ( H 3.17, 436 ). iar comfogais colla nearness of blood-relationship, O'Curry 2234 ( Eg. 88, 17(18)a ). fine teachta iar comfocus coibfine, ZCP xiv 372.13 ( Laws ii 282.z ). im comfogus Crist gossipred, Laws v 364.11 Comm. Attrib. g s. fo lin cenn comocuis `according to the number of kindred heads', Laws iv 284.4 . dibad cach cind comacuis, 284.2 . do cert comfocais `by right of relationship', 44.8 . coibhdelach comfocais don cintach near of kin to the debtor, O'D. 584 ( H 3.17, 446 ). a fine comogais `next of kin', Laws iv 128.5 . dá cháirdibh comhguis, Keat. Poems 133 .

(b) In concrete sense relative(s), stock; neighbour(s): im-fuich cach curu(d) a comfocuis contracts entered into by kinsmen, ZCP xiv 371.1 Hūi M. cona comḟocoss, Corp. Gen. 58.15 . bar mbrāithri ┐ bhar comhḟoiccsi `neighbours', RC xxv 392.17 . nocharad in comhfhocus amail hé féin, Lism. L. 4876 . is ionann comhgas nó comhfhogus ┐ gaol, Keat. i 68.45 .

In phr. i c.¤ (do) near (to): diar tigh fil i comoccus dun, Vita Br. 37 . i comfocus dona apstalaib, LU 1991 ( FA 6 ). i comḟocus ┐ i comḟocraib dóib, TBC-LL¹ 2434 . With gen.: i comfhacus a chesta, PH 1676 . a comhfhogus C[h]., ML² 356 .

cominnus

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cominnus or dil.ie/11368

n ( indas ): is inann condealg ┐ comortus nó c.¤ nó comaontu, O'Dav. 517 .

con-midethar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. con-midethar or dil.ie/12212
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: conamadair, conamadhair, cunamadir, connammodair, conammidir, -commadair, conaimidur, conaimmes, conaimes, conamess(a, conammas, conamus, conæmdetar, conaimdetar, coimse, commus

v (* com-mid-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 578 ). The forms found are consistent with those given under midithir, ad-m., ar-m., etc., but perf. particle is -ad- perf. 1 s. conammedar, Wb. 26b21 . 3 s. conamadair, O'D. 667 ( H 3.17, 488b ). conamadhair, Ériu xiii 14.4 . cunamadir, xvi 182 § 31 . connammodair, SR 6761 . conammidir, LL 4995 . -commadair, Auraic. 5112 . 5116 . ? conaimidur, O'D. 537 ( H 3.17, 432 ). Pass. conaimmes (sic leg.), Laws iii 44.13 . conaimes, i 150.14 . conamess(a, Bretha 11 . conammas, Ériu vii 142.1 . conamus, Laws i 40.19 . 3 pl. conæmdetar, ZCP iii 24.29 (Trip. xviii). conaimthitar (conaimidetur, v.l.), IT iii 187.14 . ? conaimdetar, O'Curry 779 ( H 3.18, 365 ). ní comdither nech a daim .i. ni commeitedhar, 1988 ( H 4.22 24) , Ériu xl 30 .

(a) is competent, able; rules, governs, controls : conmidethar gl. principatur, Ml. 121c18 . ishe dano cotammidethar ref. to dominari, 17b2 . at etha . . . / ot mac conat midhetar `who has them in his power', Blathm. 138 . is é dorosat . . . ┐ cotamidethar . . . na huile (of God), ZCP iv 242.5 . is tre ḟír flathemon con-tūatha móra midetar are ruled, xi 81 § 10a . nad coimmestar som gl. nequierit, Ml. 127a19 . ní faigbistar fer and conmestar / a aes who could equal, LU 8445 ( FB 30 ) = conmessed, TBC-LL² 729 . ce conmeisen . . . / daoine betha, Blathm. 146 . acht com-meissind-se mo maccu, Fing. R. 498 . ma conmeasaind, Anecd. i 13. 1 ( SCano 405 ). mac . . . / conmessedh atreidisiu `who could do', Blathm. 5 . cu cuimsed Dia . . . forsoirad gl. quoniam Deus uos liberabit, Ml. 33b21 . nibae dib cotacoimsed anyone who could vie with them, SR 5387 . bes cotmidfider cach a bé dim airddi perhaps my height will be kept under control (moderated?), LU 9198 ( FB 92 ).

(b) adjudges, estimates, appoints : conidmidethar som . . . ammod `he regulates her portion', Mon. Tall. 149.14 . forsin mesair conmidetar an anmcharat (sic) `prescribes', Ériu vii 150.8 . cona coimdether, O'Curry 57 ( H 3.18, 20b ). cotmidem uli . . . is let a cauradmír, LU 8986 ( FB 74 ). it sain maim conmidither, Ériu xvi 183 § 36 (leg. it sain-maíni con-mitter? Ed.). conmidhither do chách . . . a ndire, xiii 39.x . ar comititer alta uad fri haltaib in duine `are equal to', Auraic. 1956 . ní cuimmse limm dano . . . mu mét. —Commaitte, ol P. adjust (it), Trip.² 1770 . committi són amal bas maith latt arrange, LU 5228 ( TBC-I¹ 750 ). ? nach coimdedh beas mo logh etc. `no one can seize', Laws ii 14.19 . cene conmesarsa olseseom `as long as I shall give rules', Mon. Tall. 129.30 . conmeser a ngnima, Laws iii 336.5 `thou shalt measure', Gloss. conmessar `thou shalt assess', Bretha 28 . cid fotæ an ree conmestar doib `the period prescribed for them' (of sins), Ériu xix 58 § 5 . fut ngair conmessad ocind audpairt, Corm. Y 756 = cotmeissed `he may judge himself', Corm. Bodl. 8.11 . indas inna aithrige conmiastar ar nérlam `our patron shall determine', Ériu i 195.6 . sí con-míduir bantellach `it was she who estimated female entry' (of Brig), Celtica vi 228 ( Laws iv 16.1 ). issed conmidir Máolruaoin do Máoldithruib `what M. prescribed to M.', Mon. Tall. 141.24 . arra . . . conmididir C.C., RC xv 491.y . conmidir a tindscra .i. miach óir `she fixed her bride-price', Fianaig. 6.17 . mobi . . . ┐ colum cilli conam(b)idir a n-arra-so, Ériu xix 64 § 24 , cf. hite arra conarmidedar in noib, RC xv 488.29 . ba fir do Sin cona midir (sic) nat . . . `when he adjudged', Laws i 120.18 . conaimes doib demhniughadh, Ériu xiii 17.16 .

Part. coimse. Vn. commus.

See coimsigid.

cundraiged

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cundraiged or dil.ie/13931

Forms: cundradaiged

v impf. subj. 3 s. (cundrad): indas no c.¤ gl. quam mercari, Ml. 39a6 . Leg. cundradaiged?

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