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con-ocaib

Cite this: eDIL s.v. con-ocaib or dil.ie/12249

 

Forms: cotnucbad, ancondammucbaitisse, aconucbaitis, conucabtis, cotabucabarsi, conocba, conucbad, chutooccaibmis, conuicgebthar, nadruchumgab, connuargab, conuargabad, cumgabál, cumgabthe

v (*com-uss-gab-, see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 530 ). Also -uc-. Perf. formed with -ro-. lifts up, raises, exalts . With refl. inf. pron. (in later exx. somet. not expressed) rises, gets up, is lifted up: cotnoccaib in t-usci súas the water rises, LU 5519 (TBC). nech connocaib a guth, Ériu vii 170.3 . ? conas ecgaib . . . úasu, TBC-LL² 4198 (see n.). 4210 . inbuid conócbat a rrosc conócaib in folt, LU 7251 - 2 ( BDD 91 ). conocabar in firián gl. adtollitur iustus , Ml. 57d8 . conogabar indablu, Thes. ii 251.10 (St. Missal). conuargabthar hídnai arda . . . uas sciathcaraib (with stem of perf.), Alex. 9 . cotnucbad gl. iactabat, Ml. 53d8 . conocbath in carpat fris `it would tilt up', Ériu vi 134.21 . conocbad in talmain foib `used to raise the earth', Dinds. 109 = conogbhadh, Edinb. Dinds. 72 . ancondammucbaitisse gl. me . . . beatum dicebant, Ml. 39d11 . aconucbaitis gl. iactantes, 58c2 . intan conucbad in nél no bith immum aírc, 83a4 (leg. conucbada, note). conucabtis gl. efferri, 68c6 . conuaircaib in fer-sa is-in aeor (ipv. 2 s. cf. Alex. 9 supra), PH 1852 . cotabucabarsi gl. eliuamini, Ml. 46a7 . du hicumgabæ gl. ubi . . . sustuleris, BCr. 33d12 . conocba gl. subleuandi, Ml. 79c5 . asbeirsom frisnatorus arndacumcabat `he says to the doors to rise', 46a12 . cotom- rócbat uili `may they all upraise me,' Fél. Ep. 45 . conucbad gl. adtollere, Ml. 35c6 . 39a22 . ma chotócbaimmis (in rhet.), Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 10.12 = chutooccaibmis, 12.27 . conocæba gl. sublimet, Ml. 20b5 . tócbad fírinni, cot-n-uicēba, ZCP xi 80.z = cot-n-ōcéba (leg. -oc-), 91.z . cain banscal conuceba(?) cathair C., Corp. Gen. 80.14 . conuicgebthar gl. gloriabitur, Ml. 64b8 . cotnócbus issin port (of salmon), Fraech 307 . friū conuccaib ind oub `the river rose against them', Thes. ii 340.54 ( Hy. v 54 ). ind nathir . . . conocabsa[t] maic Israel gl. suspenso, Tur. 129 . connucabsat dochum nÍsu `they rose', Thes. ii 321.1 ( Hy. ii 66 ). confogabsat . . . a m-bruinde os talmain, Alex. 723 = conogbaitis, ZCP xxx 131.5 . conócbad . . . in debaid `was kept up', Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 6.y . ní tháinic i nÉrinn o conocbadh `since it was discovered', AFM ii 734.14 . . . . maic F. lasa cētcomgabtha coirthi, Rawl. 148b21 . nadruchumgab gl. iactasse, Ml. 20a7 (see GOI 340 ). connuargab gl. adtollit, 37b15 . conúargaib . . . in siair, Trip.² 140 . is é tan conuarcaib i[n] m[ur]brucht, Dinds. 45 . ni i n-ænuair conuaircaibset they arose (of waves), ibid. = contuarcaibset, Lec. 236 rb 40 . conuargabad gl. est . . . elatus, Ml. 32c1 . conúargabad . . . Pól . . . cosin tres nem, LU 1954 ( FA 2 ). leis conuargbad a ard-múr, Metr. Dinds. ii 80.10 . conurgbad tor la claind n-A., BB 388a50 . conúarcc[bh]adh a choccadh, Hugh Roe² 316.27 .

Vn. cumgabál. Part. cumgabthe.

dech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dech or dil.ie/14869
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: deg, dechu

adj indecl. deg, Wb. 23 a 3 . 31 a 6 (in both cases before the verb as a verbal particle and only slightly accented; deg- as mad-(génatar) and not due to dag, as Thurn. Hdb. 227 suggests). deich, Tig. A.D. 648 . tech with unaspirated d after the cop. as, Ml. 37 d 3 . 73 a 10 .—Old- and Mid.-Ir. sup. of maith good. In Mid.-Ir. gradually superseded by ferr, the constant v.l. of dech in late MSS. Analog. dechu, Alex. 57 (LB). deacha O'R. — dech .i. maith, Stowe Gl. 315 . ACL i 62 no. 115 . O'D. Suppl. death .i. maith, Stowe Gl. 76 (if not = deagh). deach .i. fearr. ba dheach .i. ba fearr, O'Cl. is deich .i. is fearr, H 3.18 p. 530 .—Rhymes with ech, Anecd. iii 56. 12 .—Traced to Gk. δίκαιος: dech graece deceos iustus , O'Mulc. 303 .

A In the sense of the superlative. (1) in apposition to a subst.: Eo Rossa...dech duilib díriuch dronchrand best of creatures Dinds. § 160 . (2) predicatively in principal clauses: is dech a llécud ammain mani ni aithriged it is best to Mon. Tall. 128. 5 . dech dó (viz. do ríg) fosta cen ḟeirg, Tec. Corm. 1. 2 . (3) predicatively in relative clauses. (a) aire échta is deach, Laws ii 152. 1 f.b. ib. 280. 19 . leth is deach the best half, ib. v 78. 9 . ind ḟir as dech i nÉire, FB § 19 . (b) followed by a genitive or its equivalent (di): anastech tíre ised dorat dam, Ml. 37 d 3 . ised as dech na riaglae, Ériu i 193. 1 . anas dech dagóc fer ṅHérenn, TBC-LL¹ 441 . do neoch as dech engnomma bái díb, TBC-LL¹ 1675 Y.— ise læch is dech di ócaib domain, SCC § 13 . in áge is deach don ḟine the best chief of the tribe Laws v 502. 21 . sét is deach díb, ib. 242. 11 . anas dech di ócaib Ulad, TBC-LL¹ 441 . isé is deach díbsin uile, FDG 495 . (c) with do: it is best for . cid as dech do mnáib, ZCP viii 113. 5 . cid is dech do chléirech, LB 260 b 62 . cid is dech do ríg, Tec. Corm. § 1 . ised as dech dó foss occa, Mon. Tall. 159. 6 . (d) with la: deems the best , often = is ferr la prefers: ised insin astech latsu adopair dait, Ml. 73 a 10 . laech bas dech lib do Ultaib, FB § 13 . an robo dech leo dona trí cóictaib ingen, ib. § 54 . isí cethern is dech la ríg Temra, CF 73. 25 . cia lán bá deach lais, FDG 732 YBL (v.l. budh ferr lais). (e) as dech + verb: laech as dech fil la Ultu, FB § 9 . gaiscedach as dech fil díb hé, § 14 . in cúicedach is dech búi i nHérind, TBC-LL¹ 1618 . fáith is d.¤ búi i nÉri, ACL iii 3. 13 . TBC-LL¹ 1104 Y; ib. 1297 . FDG 46 . —Superl. of mad + verb (cf. C): hiress innaní as deg rochreitset hi Críst, Wb. 31 a 6 (positive †madrochreitset). inní is dech reithes uad, Laws iii 294. 3 f.b. cliar Augustín... dech nochartais tredan, Fél. Nov. 16 (v.l. dóig, dáig). Looser is the connection with the verb in the foll. instances: anas dech dorala i Cruachain, TFerbe 384 . rí as dech tánic in ndomon, BDD § 39 . isí oiged (= aided) as deachu dothaed ríg, Alex. 57 . ib. 56 . Frequent in the phrase Fib (amail) as dech + verb just as, exactly as Celtica xiv 1 : fib as deg ropriched, Wb. 23 a 3 . eclais Dé...bíd a cert for leth feib as dech robái, Fél. 4. 10 . feibh as dech atsaitar dilsi, Ériu ii 4 n. 46 . feib as dech atchuas, LL 147 a 16 . coro ícthar friss feib as dech atberat fir Héirenn, TBC-LL¹ 1613. 1622 . feib as deach rocuṁdaighedh feathal a nÉrinn, AFM ii 1156. 12 .— tucusa cor ┐ coibchi duit amail as dech téit do mnái, TBC-LL¹ 44 . ib. 2041 . donug amail is dech, Anecd. iii 56. 12 . amal is deach rotarclumad cech fled riam, Alex. 54 .

B In the sense of the comparative and followed by oldás, indás: ní rogab Albain ríg is deach oldás Domnall Brecc FDG 455 YBL (v.l. as fearr, Stowe MSS). ní rabatar ceitherna ríg Temrach ní ba deach ina occu side, YBL 325 a 25 . This usage arose through analogy with ferr.

C Oir. dech mad + verb = dech + verb (A e supra), superlative of mad + verb (mad-bocht, mad-búi, mad-génair &c.). This idiom has been concluded from the following instances: caite téchta prímgeine...cach fermac arosloice broind a máthar iar cétmuintir cóir cona coibsenaib réir a nanmcharat dech mo lesaigther eclais, Laws iii 38. 10 (Senchus Már, main text). .i. is deg mo lesaiges in eclais... .i. as dech lesaiges eclais, ib. 38. 22 (Comm.).— Ragallach mac Úatach gaeta dé muin geleich: Muirenn deich morochich (.i. rocaín) Cathal deich modereich, Tig. A.D. 648 (Oir. Poem, disyll. deäc, neët).— is tri ḟír flatha cach tlachta dia nime dech marómnaiter, LL 293 b 18 . Cf. dechmó-fuirmhe fionnsrotha 'bestens sollst du klare Ströme verbreiten', Akten Linz 136 § 1 ( Ériu xiii 35.23 ) The Mid.-Ir. equivalent of mad- is mo- (ma-): mogénair, or mon-: mon- génair, LU 36 b 7 ; BB 479 a 29 ; ní mandernais, LL 268 b 43 . The latter occurs in the Four Masters version of the poem quoted above: M. dechmon ro cich C. dechmon derich AFM i 260. 4 . See GOI § 384 .

adj dech fri best or most distinguished in: na hollumain ┐ anis deach fri cech ndán olchena, FDG 25 .

fillid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fillid or dil.ie/22076

 

v ī (occas. pill-, esp. in lenited forms, in late MSS., see end of art. Cf. tillid).

I Trans.

(a) bends: fillid a glúni for lar kneels SR 2089 . roḟill M. a glúni cum genua flexisset Lat. Lives 98 . fillis ... a gluine, PH 1281 . rofhill a chend, 2900 . rotheraind A. for a glúinib ┐ roḟill fo thrí iat i fiadnaisi Agmemnoin, TTr.² 1921 - 2 . da fillti a rind conici a dhornchar if its point were bent back to its hilt IT iii 199 § 59 . crúithe na n-each ḟillfidhir | le dlúithe chreach Conchobhair the horses' shoes will be bent IGT, Decl. ex. 1804 (cf. tairrngi chrúa ní ḟill fa eoch, ex. 1810 ).

(b) bends over, folds: fillfidir nem, SR 8141 . na secht nime ... fillfitir, 8262 . fillis na lama, Auraic. 4474 . fillidh umam líon wind a net round me Dán Dé ix 12 .

(c) gramm. term, inflects: co noenguth nofilte amail filter ainm to be inflected as a noun is inflected Sg. 203b12 . is hé in fogur cétna filter and ib. 9 . ní fillter [sic leg.] `they are not inflected' Auraic. 788 . 3596 .

(d) turns, turns back, makes return, repulses: Fiacc ... fillis catha who turns back hosts ZCP viii 306.28 . do fhilleadar me asteach `they turned me homewards' IT 112 116.19 . an clerech do fhill C.C. dia íarraidh whom C.C. sent back to seek it BCC § 182 . With AR (FOR) : filltear ar shéideadh na mbolg arís é he is sent back to work the bellows again TSh. 6212 . go bhfilleann Dia roinn do shochar na guidhe do-ní an fíréan air féin, TSh. 4935 . cia an t-éanchogadh ... nách air féin do fillfidhe gibé do thogaibh i dtús which did not rebound on him who started it TD 18.16 . éighmhid ..., ┐ ni fhilltear neach orra = clamant ... et nemo flectitur TSh. 6433 . With ó turns away, averts: fill uaim sgiursa th'ḟeirge, Parrth. Anma 304.17 . ná fill faebhar do rechta | o nech d'uaislibh t'oirechta, GJ i 353 (Tadhg Mac Dáire). fill ... t'ḟíoch, a Rí !, A. Ó Dálaigh xxxiv 7 .

(e) With I N-, turns into, changes: do fhill Dia na sochair sin i ndoghraing ... d'A., TSh. 2432 . gurab i luaithreadh do fillfidhe é, 370 . do gheilníamh ... fill i ndubh turn thy bright hue to dark L. Cl. A. B. 145.179 .

II Intrans.

(a) bends, stoops: fillim (gl. lentor) Sg. 145a1 . ro fhillset na merceda da ndeoin fein PH 2633 . go ro ḟillsetar ┐ go ro lúpsatar ... a slega, TBC-LL¹ 3812 .

(b) turns back, returns: fillios a bhfrithing na conaire, Todd Lect. iv 74.4 . is lom-nocht tánag a broinn mo mháthar féin ┐ lom-nocht fhillfead ann súd, TSh. 2831 . fill go dúthuigh h'aithreadh, Gen. xxxi 3 . turns from, renounces : ó thellach ná fill ┐ ná dell a Dia, Leb. Cert. 110 (= BB 273a13 ). With AR (FOR), turns on, against: fillis Guaire ... for Dáire, Metr. Dinds. iv 16 . mac F. nar fill ar ḟear `who never wronged' iii 422 . Cf. do fell ar coerchu ..., Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 28.8 (where Meyer suggests that this is for : do-ell for). do ḟeall ara oidi `turned on its fosterer' Dinds. 148 (= co nimsoi, Bodl. imsoi fria haiti, LL 162b ). See 1 do-ella. In some exx. there may be confusion with fellaid, cf. fillis .i. feallais, O'Cl. Without hostile significance : gur fhill ar a athair d'iarraidh cothuighthe air, TSh. 9227 . fillis an truaghán ar ainmhianaibh an tsaoghail arís returned to 9161 . go bhfille ar sliocht Gaoidhil Ghlais mayst thou return to Studies 1921, 76 . With ó turns away, swerves, flinches ; desists: dá bhfillidh an fíréan óna fhíréantacht = si averterit se iustus a iustitia sua TSh. 9087 . bás ... Éamoinn ... nár ḟill ó íorghail, Keat. Poems 724 . tairg a lot feasda ná fill, Content. x 9 .

pill- : pillid tara nais they go back, retreat BNnÉ 165 n. 11 (= teithid ara cculuibh, text). don bhaile riamh níor phill mé I never returned TD 22.13 . ionnus nar phill on rūaig gur chuir ... tar abhan tS. íad `did not halt' Rel. Celt. ii 154.31 .

See filliud and fillte.

fírén, fírían

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fírén, fírían or dil.ie/22184

 

Forms: fírian, firián, fírían, firiáin, firiáin, fírianu, firianu, fíriana, fírion, firíon, fírióin, firiónaib, firién, firiéin, firiein, firien, firíen, fíríen, fírén, fíreóin, -éin, -én, fírén, fírian, firían, firianu, firianamam

adj o-ā In Glosses the follg. forms are found:

(a) fírian, Wb. 4d21 . firián, Ml. 89b15 . fírían, 103c8 . a s. f. firiáin, 89b13 . n p. m. firiáin, Wb. 22a24 . v p. m. fírianu, 25d11 . a p. m. inna firianu , Ml. 26d12 . n p. n. fíriana, 29c5 .

(b) fírion Wb. 8d24 . firíon, 14c29 . g s. m. fírióin, Ml. 112b20 . d p. m. firiónaib, Wb. 33a7 .

(c) firién, Ml. 105b14 . g s. m. firiéin, 116b9 . firiein, 90a11 . firien, 54a13 . firíen, 103c9 . n p. m. ind fíríen 90b5 .

Mid. Ir. usually fírén, g s. fíreóin, -éin, -én. fírén IGT, Decl. § 35 .

Just, righteous ; in Glosses gen. = Lat. iustus ; in religious texts freq. associated with noíb. As pred.: bid fírian cach oén creitfess hí Crist, Wb. 4d21 . nímptha fírion (gl. non ... iustificatus sum) 8d24 . combad firián a brithemnacht, Ml. 89b15 . a choimdiu, at firen, PH 794 . is firíen daitsiu in digal dumbir fornni thou art justified in the punishment Ml. 88a4 . nocon fhíren det-siu co rofásaigi, etc. PH 1684 . Adv.: ainige fris ... co fírian dia fírugud guarantees ... for fulfilling it justly SR 5844 . As attrib.: int ais firian (opp. to: in pecthaig) Ml. 55d11 . in mes fírían (gl. aequitas) 103c8 . in brithem firén, LU 1999 ( FA 6 ; fírbrithem LB). la Helind ḟechtnaig fireoin (of St. Helena) LB 227a32 . hi críchaib flatha fírioin, ZCP xi 81 § 18 = f.¤ fírian, LL 293b20 . fírinne in rig fhireoin Dauida, PH 4249 . rigi fírena, 4065 . briathra fíriana, 6240 . As subst.: soirad inna firían , Ml. 26d14 . fochraic na firen íar n-esérgi, LU 2649 . sochaidi ... d'fírenaib in Comded, 1948 . f.¤ Fiadat (of St. Patrick), Metr. Dinds. i 20 . Abél ... in cetfh.¤ , PH 6098 . na fíreoin .i. lucht na dérci ┐ na cendsa, 5020 . i sollamnaib na noem ┐ na fhirén, 6370 . do thaissip naomh ┐ firian, Fl. Earls 246.9 . Compar. firianu (gl. iustior) Sg. 43a1 . condid fíríanu de, Wb. 2a7 . Superl. brithem firianamam (gl. aequissimus) Ml. 94b6 . Cf. fírian focul [sic leg.] atbert Niall, Metr. Dinds. ii 38 (fír in f.¤ v.l.).

fo-gaib, fo-geib

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fo-gaib, fo-geib or dil.ie/22696
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: fagebtis, -fuar, fonduair, fagb-, fag-, gheibhther, gheibh, faghaim, faghaibh, fag, fagh, gheibhim, -fagbaim, -fágbaim, -fagaim, -faghaim, gheibhir, -faghair, -fogbái, fogaib, fogeib, dogeib, dogheibh, -fogaib, -fagaib, -faghann, fogabum, dogabmait, dogheibhmíd, -faghmaoid, fogabat, baghabhat, dogabat, dogebid, do-geibhit, do-gheibhid, -fagbat, -faghait, -faghaid, gheibhinn, -fuighinn, do-gheibheadh, -facchbad, dogheibhmis, fogeibtis, do-gheibhdis, -faghbadais, -faghdais, fogabur, fogabar, -fagbur, -fagar, fogaba, bhagaba, -fagba, -faghbha, -fagha, -fagbat, -fogbat, -fagbat, fogabaind, -fagbaind, -aghbhoinn, -faghthá, fogabad, -fagbad, -faghbhadh, -faghadh, -fagbaimis, -agbaitis, fogéb, dogébh, doghiab, -fugéb, baigiub, fogebai, fogéba, dageba, ghébha, do-ghéabhair, doghiabha, doghiabhair, -faigeba, -fuigbe, -foigbe, -i, fuidbe, faigbe, -fuigir, bhfuighir, -fuighbhir, fogéba, doghébha, do-ghéabha, do-ghéabhaidh, -foighe, -fuighe, -fuighbhe, ghébham, -foigheam, -foighbheam, fogébthaidh, fogebthai, do-ghéabhthaoi, -fuighthi, fogebat, -faigbet, -fuigbet, -faigbind, -fuiginn, -fogebtha, -ḟuigbithea, -eá, fogebad, fogebed, fogébed, dogebad, do-ghéabhadh, -fuighbheadh, -fugebmaís, -fagbaimis, -faigbimis, -foigebtais, -fugebtaís, núarsa, fuar, uair, fofuáir, fofuair, foruair, fuair, uair, fuair, -fuaramar, -ḟúaram, -fuarabhair, fofúaratár, úaratar, fuaradar, -fuaradar, foḟuarus, fuarus, fuaras, fuarus, -fuaras, -ḟuaross, fofuarais, fuarais, -fuarais, fuairsem, -fuairsed, fogaibset, fogabar, do-geibhthear, -fogabar, -fogbaither, -agabar, -aghaibhthir, -faghthar, -faghthair, -foghthor, -oghthair, -faghuir, foghair, -aghair, -fogbaiter, faghar, aghar, do-geibhthi, -fogbaithe, -fagtai, -fagthar, -foghar, -aghar, -oghair, -faghthair, fogebthar, fugebthar, do-ghéabhthar, -fuigebthar, -fuighthear, -faigbistar, fuigbestar, -foigfide, fríth, fofrith, foríth, forríth, forrith, frith, -fríth, frith, fríoth, frith, frith, rofrithe, fofrítha, -fritha

v The only instances in the O.Ir. Glosses are: sec. fut. pl. 3 (with inf.) fagebtis, Wb. 8a14 . pret. s. 1 -fuar, Ml. 57d3 . 3 (with inf.) fonduair, Sg. 144b3 . In the later lang. fo in the deut. forms is gradually replaced by do; in prot. forms fagb- is frequently reduced to fag-, forms without initial f- are not uncommon and are recognized by the mediaeval grammarians. See IGT, Verbs § 22 .

Early Mod. instances of omission of preverb are: mar gheibhther , Parrth. Anma 40.18 . gheibh, Corp. Astron. 86 .

Forms occurring after the period of the Glosses: ipv. 1 s. faghaim, TD 22a20 . 2 faghaibh, Dán Dé xii 27 . fag, ZCP vi 88.8 . fagh, Luc. Fid. 276.4 . ind. pres. 1 s. do gheibhim , Luc. Fid. 71.18 . -fagbaim, CCath. 4286 . -fágbaim, PH 2696 -fagaim, LL 175a26 . -faghaim, TD 22a10 . Luc. Fid. 326.9 . 2 do gheibhir , Luc. Fid. 325.9 . -faghair, 325y . -fogbái (torbai), Thes. ii 296.6 . 3 fogaib, Laws iv 194.20 ( SM Facs., 16a ), etc. fogeib, LU 2126 , 2138 . Mon. Tall. 72 . PH 7080 . dogeib, PH 7814 . Maund. 149 . dogheibh, Ó Héodhusa 44 . TD 29.5 . TSh. 790 . 3605 . -fogaib, LU 8632 . -fagaib PH 7992 . Ériu iv 214 § 12 . -faghann, Maund. 263 . TD 16. 1 . 22a4 . Ó Héodhusa 122 . TSh. 1212 . 3645 . 1 pl. fogabum. PH 6120 . dogabmait, 2887 . dogheibhmíd, Ó Héodhusa 111 . TSh. 48 . -faghmaoid, Ó Héodhusa 111 . 3 fogabat, LU 1852 (H = foga-baid, YBL 6a32 ). LU 4732 . baghabhat, BB 322b7 . dogabat, PH 3573 . dogebid, Maund. 263 . do-geibhit, Fl. Earls 52.5 . do-gheibhid, TSh. 511 . 3612 . -fagbat, LU 2229 . -faghait, Fl. Earls 88.20 . -faghaid, TD 16.8 . TSh. 323 . imperf. 1 s. do gheibhinn TD 14.17 . -fuighinn (-faghuinn v.l.) TD 15.12 . 3 do-gheibheadh, TSh. 640 . -facchbad, CCath. 3993 v.l. pl. 1 dogheibhmis, TD 14.17 v.l. 3 fogeibtis, SR 4632 . do-gheibhdis, Keat. ii 234 . -faghbadais, CCath. 2153 . -faghdais 2520 . subj. pres. 1 s. fogabur, PH 617 . fogabar, 403 . -fagbur, CCath. 3341 . Ann. Conn. 1244 § 5 . -fagar, TBC-LL¹ 4448 St. -fagur, Celtica xiii 19.203 . 3 fogaba (= inveniat p. 430 ) PH 5011 . bhagaba, TTebe 4543 . -fagba, SR 2551 . LU 2609 . -faghbha (-fogba v.l.), CCath. 1695 . -fagha, Maund. 263 . Ó Héodhusa 70 . TD 16. 24 . (fuighe v.l.); 24.1 . pl. 3 -fagbat, PH 4193 , -fogbat -fagbat, CCath. 1696 v.l. (-faghbhuid text). subj. past 1 s. fogabaind, CCath. 2725 . -fagbaind, TBC-LL¹ 1173 . -aghbhoinn TD 14.15 . 2 -faghthá, TD 22a9 . 3 fogabad, CCath. 1089 . -fagbad, SR 2567 . 2583 . -faghbhadh, Lism. L. 3040 . -faghadh, Maund. 262 . TSh. 8520 ( -fuighbheadh, 7094 , sec. fut. in form). 1 pl. -fagbaimis, BDD 48 Y (cf. sec. fut.). 3 -agbaitis, LL 153b13 . fut. 1 s. fogéb, PH 2430 . dogébh, Imr. Brain i 60.6 . doghiab, CF 469 . -fugéb, LL 123b25 . in baigiub , Cog. 172.9 . 2 fogebai, LU 11015 . fogéba, LU 208 . TBC-LL¹ 106 . dageba, Cog. 172.10 . do ghébha , Ó Héodhusa 8 . do-ghéabhair, Keat. ii 4513 . doghiabha, CF 118 . doghiabhair, 323 . -faigeba, LU 3912 . -fuigbe, LL 328 f 30 . -foigbe (fuigbe, -i, fuidbe, faigbe, foibe v.l.), Fél. Ep. 147 . -fuigir ZCP vi 286.25 . ní bhfuighir , TSh. 3253 . -fuighbhir, Keat. ii 4501 . 3 fogéba, LU 2029 . doghébha, Ó Héodhusa 46 . do-ghéabha, TD 20.49 . do-ghéabhaidh, TSh. 1376 . -foighe TD 27.19 . -fuighe, Ó Héodhusa 82 . -fuighbhe, TSh. 342 . pl. 1 do ghébham , Ó Héodhusa 10 ; 97 . -foigheam 14 ; 89 . TD 13.29 . -foighbheam, TD 13.29 . 2 fogébthaidh, Anecd. iii 69.20 . fogebthai, YBL 87b17 ( RC xxvi 138 ). do-ghéabhthaoi, TSh. 1950 . -fuighthi, TD 9.56i 3 fogebat, CCath. 1702 v.l. (dogebhait, text). -faigbet LU 2406 . PH 4343 . -fuigbet, 3640 . sec. fut. 1 s. -faigbind TBC-LL¹ 1728 (-fuiginn St). -fuiginn, ZCP vi 286.21 . 2 -fogebtha SR 1563 = -ḟuigbithea, LB 112a35 . (?) -foighthéa (leg. -eá) Ó Héodhusa 112 . 3 fogebad (sic leg.) SR 1131 . fogebed LU 1788 . fogébed, 1817 . dogebad, Ann. Conn. 1282 § 7 do-ghéabhadh, TSh. 3603 . -fuighbheadh, TSh. 503 . pl. 1 -fugebmaís, LU 6890 ( BDD 48 = -fagbaimis Y, -faigbimis D). 3 -foigebtais, SR 5563 . -fugebtaís, LU 2229 .

pret. and perf.

(1 ) 1 sg. fó núarsa (rel.) LU 6024 . fuar (in reply) TBC-LL¹ 1770 . 3 s. fo uair , LL 288a9 . fofuáir, SR 3091 . fofuair, Fél. Nov. 7 . foruair, LL 183b5 . for fuair , LB 132a12 . do uair , RC xxiv 202 § 19 . fuair, Ó Héodhusa 7 ; 122 . TSh. 563 . 1 pl. -fuaramar ni, YBL 110b33 = -ḟúaram ni, LL 260b16 . 2 -fuarabhair, TD 9. 56 . 3 fofúaratár, LU 10579 . fó úaratar , Trip. 2.5 . fuaradar, Ó Héodhusa 74 . -fuaradar, TSh. 1193 .

(2 ) 1 sg. foḟuarus, LL 198b24 . fuarus ib. 28 . fuaras, TD 11.14 ; 14.20 . na (= a n-) fuarus , SR 1758 . -fuaras, TD 14.10 . -ḟuaross, TBC-LL¹ 3674 . 2 fofuarais, SR 1751 . fuarais (rel.), TSh. 7111 . -fuarais, TBC-LL¹ 1770 . 1 pl. fuairsem, Ó Héodhusa 8 . 3 -fuairsed, Ó Héodhusa 3z .

(3 ) 3 pl. fogaibset LU 1792 .

Pass. pres. s. fogabar, LU 426 . PH 7168 . do-geibhthear, TD 13.8 . TSh. 2764 . -fogabar, ZCP viii 303.27 . Laws iv 194.19 ( SM Facs. 15a ); -fogbaither, ib. seems a miswriting of the pl.). -agabar, Laws iii 90.1 . -aghaibhthir, TD 22a55 . -faghthar, TSh. 2152 . -faghthair, TD 10.10 . -foghthor, 29.14 . -oghthair, 10.3 . -faghuir, 7.3 . foghair, 17.8 . -aghair, 28.38 . pl. -fogbaiter, Laws iv 194.22 ( SM Facs. 15a ). imperat. s. faghar, TD 25.16 . aghar, Dán Dé iii 8 . imperf. s. do-geibhthi, TD 14.13 . -fogbaithe, LU 9055 . -fagtai, Maund. 262 . pres. subj. s. -fagthar, LU 6155 (H). -fagaither, TBC-LL¹ 4448 . -foghar, TD 10.23 . -aghar, 17.3 . -oghair, 15.47 . -faghthair, 10.13 . fut. s. fogebthar, fugebthar, LU 10989 . do-ghéabhthar, TSh. 3423 . -fuigebthar, ZCP xi 83 § 31 . TBC-I¹ 2779 . -fuighthear, TD 9. 7 . -faigbistar, LU 8445 ( FB 30 = fuigbestar, Eg) is apparently an isolated form (`a barbarous mixture of the s and the b futures' Strachan, ZCP iii 479 ). sec. fut. s. -foigfide, Cáin Ad. 8 . pret. and perf. s. fo fríth , Hy v 79 . fofrith, LU 10722 . Fél. Feb. 25 . Ann. Conn. 1235 § 8 . foríth, LL 277b21 . forríth, 150a29 . forrith, AFM 123 . frith, LU 183 . -fríth, Hy v 29 . Ann. Conn. 1235 § 8 . frith, AU 1014 . Fl. Earls 88 . fríoth, Ó Héodhusa 122 . do frith (v.l. frith), IT iii 193.15 . rofrithe, Luc. Fid. 382.9 . pl. fofrítha, Metr. Dinds. iii 284.97 . -fritha, Anecd. ii 4.15 .

In general sense finds, gets , hence

(a) finds, meets with, discovers (in a place): feib fonduáir som la auctoru , Sg. 144b3 . fofuair ann fer, SR 3091 . dia mbé nech occá sirfégad imme ... fogéba do cech leth aci agid, LU 2029 . dobert a laimh dar a einech. fogeib teora boulga for a aghaidh, Corm. Y p. 59 . nech bad chalmu ... cosindiu nocon ḟuaross TBC-LL¹ 3674 . cia airm i faigbind in Coin Culaind?, 1728 (a bfuiginn St). ní fúaram-ni ... mnai do dingbala-so cosindiu IT i 74.11 . is annsin fuarustair ... Ruadhán fora cind BNnÉ 322 § 31 . fofrith (forrith v.l.) cenn Póil ... hi féil ind ḟir ..., Fél. Feb. 25 . snechta do nā frith samail re hed cian, Ann. Conn. 1318 § 11 . an cétna long ... fúair Hérinn `the first ship which reached Ireland.' Ériu iv 158 § 35 . ceathracha trath ... fofrith Ere ria ndílind was discovered Leb. Gab.(i) i 16 . do cech anmanda ... fogébad for talmain, Ériu ii 134 § 113 . a faigbed do lindib forsin bhith, § 114 . is edh forfuaradar ina lebraibh, RC x 186.3 . mar frithi a lebraib lindi, Metr. Dinds. iii 346 . do réir ṡeanrolla fríoth i nOxford, Keat. iii 2575 . a llotár dano ond insi sin fúaratár insi máir LU 1767 . fogaibset insi n-aili, 1792 . iar bhfácbháil na ndithrub sin dogabar crích forlethan `you come to' Marco P. 21 . coicc primroid Erenn ..., ní fritha gusanocht, Anecd. ii 4.15 . a n-oidhce geine Cuinn forrith cóicc phríomhróid go Teamhraigh, AFM 123 . mar gheibhther ag Lucas ... san seisedh caibidiol, Parrth. Anma 40.18 . gur cuireadh ...i meidh an mheasruighthe, go bhfríoth ní budh lugha ioná an chóir aige was weighed in the balance and found wanting TSh. 3635 . (cf. 3181 cited below (b)). Cath ... do na frith inntsamail a battle of which no like has been found AU 1014 . bodith ... dona frith samail riam, Ann. Conn. 1321 § 5 . With vn. phrase or dependent clause as obj.: co na fuair cair nā peccad do dénum do Ísu, PH 2718 . Fertán C. cia rochlaid in fagbaid nó in fetabair? can you find out? Metr. Dinds. iii 8 . In later lang. DOGHEIBH AMACH = discovers: no gur fritheadh an sgribhneoireacht ... amach until writing was invented Luc. Fid. 256 . ar na daoinibh gheibh neithe nuadha amach, Corp. Astron. 86 .

(b) with adj. or other compl. of pred. finds (in a certain condition): mongenar anmain fogabar co glan dia stiurad on M. sin that is found pure PH 7168 . go fagtai na fir marbh arnamairech, Maund. 262 . nach faghair sibh seasmhach that you are not found constant Content. xxii 12 . See also feb. fríoth Naoi 'na fhíréan 'na shíl-treabhaibh féin = Noe vir iustus in generationibus suis TSh. 3181 . do fríth easbhuidheach thú, Dan. v 27 (cf. 3635 cited above (a)) ní frith sinne ... commbuidech riam we have never been equally satisfied BColm. 20.19 . dogeibhit na doirrsi foriadhta ar a gcionn, Fl. Earls 52.5 . munab i leacaibh cloch fuairsiod scríobhth iad, Keat. i p. 146 . cionnus do-geibhthear ort an lucht tuillimh ... do bhíodh agat ? what is the disposition of thy hired servants towards thee ? TSh. 4230 (corresp. to: cionnus atáid duit ... ?, 4241 ).

(c) gets, gains, obtains, procures (with Ó, A of source): int áenmacc ríg ... is mō fuair ┐ tuc amach who got and gave away most ZCP viii 111.13 . in tan na fádbait a mbiad, PH 7476 . nem fuair an t-anc(h)ara ... ar a thir got heaven in exchange for ACL iii 307 § 25 . a n-as ail duid dogeba on choimdi, YBL 167a2 . fogeb trocaire treimit he obtains mercy BColm. 78.23 . is gerr co fuigir furtacht, ZCP vi 286.25 . as meisi dúil as anṡádhaile ... dogheibh a betha isin domun that lives BS § 70 . ionnus go ffaghdais a mbethaidh that they might get their sustenance BNnÉ 320 § 20 . no (= do] geibhdís betha gan feidm ndaonda léo acht ... got their livelihood without any human exertion save ... ib. doghebhaitt na hálaidh sin furtacht, 297y . braighe gill as a ffuighbithe eich ┐ airgheadha for whose ransom horses and herds would have been got AFM v 1788.26 . gach aon ... do geip mar chuiss impidhe ... gan bass fiadhnach ... d'faghail `who obtains as an act of grace ... that he shall not suffer death in public' Fl. Earls 70.27 . na hindmasa doberam-ne ... ni huain fogabum iat, PH 6120 . is í comhairle do-gheibheadh ón marbh, TSh. 640 . an teagasg rofrithe ona habsdoluibh, Luc. Fid. 382.9 . With DO of pers. (= dat. of advantage): fag-sa airm ... ┐ eideth dam !, ZCP vi 88.8 . fagh dhamh ... san sgrioptur na briathra so !, Luc. Fid. 276.4 . do-uair Niall ... rigi coidchi da cheneol, RC xxiv 202 § 19 . cearc ... fhuair clú d'fhine Fhearghosa that won fame for Studies 1921, 257 .

(d) gets, induces (some one to do something) causes (something to be done) (with Ó or FOR of pers.): faghaibh gan é d'aithfear, Dán Dé xii 27 . do ráidh an rí ré cách dul ... is ní bhfuair ó neach dul ann he got no one to go Keat. iii 2591 (= ni fuair ó neoch, Cóir Anm. 125 ). fuaradar ó Phádraig an dara heaglais ... do dhéanamh i Leith Mogha they were permitted by P. to build Keat. iii 312 . ni fuigebthar foro tuidecht they will not be prevailed on to come TBC-I¹ 2779 .

(e) freq. with abstr. or semi-abstr. obj. meets with, experiences, undergoes: fofuarais mór do duilgi, SR 1751 . cech pian fogéb ar ainm ṅDé, PH 2427 . mar do ḟuair a chalann crád, Ériu iv 112 § 5 . ar eccla co fuidedh se pían, Maund. 149 . do badh ḟearr lais co faghbhadh cath he would rather have had to fight Lism. L. 3040 . fuaratar troid thenn ... o Gheraltachaibh, AFM vi 2118. 3 . gach ní ... fá bhfuighinn guais which might be perilous to me Dán Dé ix 6 . gurab léir dhó ... nach fuighbbe sochar ná socamhal, TSh. 1133 . frith saothar dermhair ag tabairt an eich ... aníoss, Fl. Earls 88 . na daoine ... dogheibh togbháil suas bharbardha, Ó Héodhusa 76w . conna fuaratar ... aidchi ṅdunaid ... bad mó dód ... dóib never spent a worse night TBC-LL¹ 631 . an t-ech fós, nach faghaibh sbuir do cur uirri who never feels the spur Ériu iv 214.12 . f.¤ bás dies: fogeib in rí bás, Mon. Tall. § 72 . co fúigbe bás croiche, PH 2429 . mas ann do cinded damh-sa bás d'fághbhail, dogébh if it is there I am fated to die, there I shall die Imr. Brain i 60.6 . is truag dham nach eg do fhuarus, Aen. 2602 . foruair macc D. a aidid, LL 183b5 ( Arch. Hib. ii 63 ). co faghdis a n-oidedha ... le cláraibh ... ac rotuitim forra, CCath. 2010 . cen co fagbat ... a n-airlech isin cath though they be not slain in the battle 4275 . faghbhadh ... bas ┐ aidhedh libh let ... be slain by you RC xliii 34z .

With concrete obj. in fig. sense: la macc Rossa frith a lecht his death came about RC xxiii 308 . Cf. fríoth a n-árach `their deaths were brought about' GF, Ir. Monthly 1919, 169 . fríth ilach dó ... i cath birach B., LL 184b45 ( Arch. Hib. ii 83 ).

Often folld. by vn. with poss. refl. pron. (cf. similar use of Welsh cael): nuchun ḟaigbe th'imṡnádud thou shalt not be protected Ériu i 128 . Simon ... fuair a chrochad hi Parthib iii 196 § 12 . ni fhuidhitís a sásadh they would never be satisfied RC xxiv 379w . ó nach fuair a múnadh, since it has never been instructed Dán Dé xix 8 ( YBL 393b18 ). fuair a hurgnamh ... ┐ a fobairt it had been prepared ... and annealed (of a hauberk) CCath. 5215 .

(f) gets (an opportunity of doing), is able (usually with vn. obj.; cf. c, d). conna faghbhadh bheith 'na ecmais could not do without him Lism. L. 1483 . ní ḟuair grádh ná eagla t'ḟos neither love nor fear could restrain you Content. viii 9 . ni faigebhdais scor a n-ech la feraibh Midhe, min dicuirte Mocuda they would not have been allowed to unyoke their horses BNnÉ 303 § 14 . With obj. joined to vn. by DO: dús in fagbaind mo lāma do ḟuligud ... indiu to see if I might redden my hands TBC-LL¹ 1173 . arna fagbatis fini F. iat do fogail so that the tribe of F. should not be able to injure them Lec. [24]a15 ( ZCP x 165 ). mar fuaradar Dál Riada Scotia do thabhairt ar Albain `when the D. R. were permitted to call [A.] Scotia' Keat. ii 5816 . ó nach fuair féin a haigneadh do chalochlódh since he was unable to alter her intention Keat. ii 3039 . For F.¤ ÁRACH, FAILL X (FOR X), see these nouns. Cf. also: ar an gcóir fríoth folmhughadh, PBocht 19 § 9 . With advb. MAITH: atbeiredh cách nár bó maith fríth an marbhadh sin that that slaying was unjustified AFM v 1790.17 . maith fuarais mise do ghoin ... óir is mé do mharbh th'athair, Keat. ii 4508 . maith do-ghéabhdaois clann Ch. ... aonduine ortha d'oirdneadh, TD 9.44 . bith nar uo romhaith fuair in giustiss in basugadh sin re a denomh (= though the justice had no very plausible pretext for that execution), Fl. Earls 60.5 . Cf. bíodh a dheimhin aguibh do nós choguidh na hErenn gur go maith do fuarus misi rem ghabháil `that I esteemed myself to be well off in that I was taken captive' O'Gr. Cat. 57 .

(g) With expressions of time gets = spends, lives (through): dogheibhdís na daoine ré ḟada fán am soin used to live long Keat. ii 234 . ben fuair an saoghal go sona who had spent her life happily AFM v 1692.4 . In the type: Fergal fuair raithi co rath; ... nocon fuair acht oenbliadain, Rawl. 164a41 = Arch. Hib. ii 85 ( LL 185a37 ). the notion is of a period of kingship etc. and it belongs rather to (c).

(h) invents, devises: in sluag dolbtha frith ... la Fotlai BB 377a6 (= RC xv 446 ). conidh edh airecc fuairset, cuibhrighi do chur fair, BNnÉ 296 § 30 . gibé freagra fuaras daoibh, Content. ix 24 .

(i) With I N- and refl. pron. `finds in oneself,' dares, presumes (late): cionnas do gheibhim ionnam féin dul ... ? Luc. Fid. 71. 18 . ní fhuair duine ... ann féin aifrionn ... do rádh, Mac Aingil 113. 18 (= neque aliquis ... missas facere ... praesumebat Beda v 14 ). go bhfuaradar ... ionnta féin éirghe amach i n-aghaidh a dtighearna, Maguires of F. § 25 .

In: nach misi rodusfuighbhe ... duib ī, ZCP viii 547.2 (= ni mé adféta dúib, TBC-LL¹ 1764 ). nach badh eisin radus fuighbhedh duibh ī ib. ZCP viii 547.15 (= dosféta, TBC-LL¹ 1773 ), the modern redactor has replaced adféta by a form beginning with f which gives approximate sense: will find (the information) for you. The sense imparts, communicates is not supported by other examples.

imdénam

Cite this: eDIL s.v. imdénam or dil.ie/27457

 

n u, m. vn. of imm-déni.

I act of embroidering, ornamenting; embroidery, ornament; an ornamental border; ornamental work: immdénam gl. limbus, Sg. 70a15 . imdenam súla saire | abratchair duba daile `the ornament of noble eyes are his brows,' LU 3820 ( SCC § 37 ). Fig. a lucht imdénma in ḟenchuis those who elaborate historic lore, Metr. Dinds. iii 54.10 .

On garments: Eochaid Etgothach .i. is leis doronad imdenum im edaigib ar tus, BB 250a20 . imdénum óir fri siric srethchisi, BDD² 1033. inar srólda ... | for a imdenam, is glé, | cóica unga findruine, IT i 80.23 . deich céd ar ḟichit céd iorna dergóir do chumhdach a n-édoigh d'imdēnamh maisi ar chena `for other adornment,' Ériu viii 136.14 . étaige cen datha .i. cen imdenma óir is argait, LL 188c8 (cf. RC xxvi 42.6 ). ba hetach intlaise bái imbi cona imdénum do dérgór drumnech, TTr.² 494 . is logh uingi airgid di isan snathaid d'a n[d]enand a imdenam (of the embroidress), Laws v 382.12 Comm. a himdenam .i. a druinechus, Manners and Customs iii 112 n. 76 .

On leather articles: crottbolg di chrocnib doborchon impu cona n-i.¤ do phartaiṅg foa n-imdénam di ór ┐ arggat, TBFr. 101.

On sword-hilts, etc.: scian amra ... imdēnam di ór ┐ argat im a hēim, Corm. Y 883. claideb co n-eltaib dét ┐ co n-imdenam órṡnáith, TBC-LL¹ 5274. conid les fein tuinithi in chlaidib ┐ a atharchtu ┐ a imdhenom `that he himself had a prescriptive title to the sword and its trappings (?) and ornament,' IT iii 200 § 65. cenbair con n-imdenum di glaine ┐ ḟinndruine, 238.103 .

II the act of constructing, covering; shape, form, structure; covering: conrotacht ... in gríanan do imdenmaib ocus cumtaigib sainamraib, LU 8064 (FB). da gen ... cercall cruinn a nimdenam na talman I will describe ... a perfect circle to represent the earth (i.e., in the same shape as), Ir. Astr. Tr. 82.1 . ro suidhidh isin bord ísin imdenam na firmaminti ┐ na spered, D IV 2, 71va11 . agus as é so [an timdhéunamh] ar a ndéuna tú í (of the ark), Gen. vi 15. tír na ngort dtirmghléigheal dtais | ar imdhéineamh port bParthais `formed like the havens of Paradise,' TD 13 § 1. ar mhnaoi a ndeiredh an domhain | ni chuala ni chualobhair | a himdhenamh thiar no thoir, Irish Texts ii 106 § 24 . fort rodhaingen ar n-a imdēnamh lessin diūc, Fl. Earls 74.31 . imdēnomh cíera ar in taep amoigh `a coating of wax on the outside,' 50.17 . dúncladh dínnimh arna imdhénamh do chriaidh ┐ dfódaibh, AFM vi 2210.9 . ? g s. or g p. of imdénad a later form of imdénam: imdheanta, faicsiona, cuma, ` fashion ' Eg. Gl. 412. do réir a n-imdhéanta `according to their fashions,' Ez. xlii 11.

Reparation, restoration: imdenam a chríchi ┐ a fheraind do Chonchobur ... .i. sond in n-inad cach suind ..., CRR § 17 ( LL 173b31 ).

III `act of proving, proof of a charge; evidence accepted as final proof ,' (Laws Glossary); ` making good in the sense of proving ' (Plummer MS. notes): ise do toing cach nimresan bis eturru ocus a flaith .i. ise do ni imdenum cach imresna bis eturru ocus a thigherna, Laws ii 332.26 Comm. imdenum a cota im aith `to prove his share with respect to the kiln,' i 228.27 Comm. breithemnas ocus imdenam don urradh for in deoraidh `the native freeman has judgment and proof as against the foreigner,' iii 130.12 Comm. go ttugann sin cungnamh imdheanma don mhnaoi air `that this might help the woman to prove it against him' (Plummer MS. notes). MS. Mat. 581.18 . do ní na fuil i.¤ a fatha do naimde, O'D. 575 ( H 3.17, col. 443 ). imdēnam do gūachaibh (MS. duachaibh) (as a sign of evil times), ACL iii 241 § 10. is fir De da imdenam dib `the truth of God is to decide the case,' Laws v 454.24 Comm. is lais in firen imdenam na n-uile ┐ ni la neach imdenam air ` iustus iudicat oimnia ┐ ipsi nimis iudicitur' (sic), O'Curry 1617 ( 23 Q 6, p. 6b ). foirgell imdenmha, Laws iv 192.29 Comm. do reir dligidh tuarastail, no imdenma no fiadnaise, iii 98.5 Comm. Used in opposition to séna denial of a statement or charge: do sena no d'imdenam a cneide `to deny or prove his wound,' v 158.y Comm. in lucht fíra do bhí ag séna, ocus in lucht suídhighthe do bí ag imdénamh, O'D. 681 ( H 3.17, col. 499 ).

Ius

Cite this: eDIL s.v. Ius or dil.ie/29228

 

npr. m. ( Iustus ): dechain I.¤ Iostus [dia]conus , Trip.² 1178. Fél. 128 § 5.

2 os

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 os or dil.ie/34045

 

Forms: as, es, is, oté, at, ité, ós, ot, osé, osme, osme, osmese, ostú, ostu, esé, asé, asé, hóssi, osní

ind folld. by disjunctive form of pers. pron. (os mé, os tú, os é, os ní); in O.Ir. the forms as ( Wb. 8a20 ), es ( 22b6 ), is (cithisse = cid ise, 22a7 a prima manu; 26b5 , 33a7 ) also occur. With 3 pl. pron. O.Ir. uses oté ( Sg. 77a8 ), ot he ( Ml. 130a3 ); Mid.Ir. at, LL 72b44 ( TBC-LL¹ 1944 ), ité, 248a17 ; later os iat.

Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 275 conjectures in os a contraction of ocus and (a view supported by similar use of ocus); so also Thurn. ZCP xvi 265 ; Vendryes Gram. 285 an adv. containing perh. a form of the cop.; for another theory see ZCP xiv 311 fg . In O.Ir. always ŏs ( hóssi, Ml. 51c28 , is prob. a mistake); in later Mid.Ir. and Mod.Ir. ós, prob. through influence of ós= ó+cop. The meaning and would suit in most cases; the O.Ir. pl. form ot might be explained as due to confusion with the copula.

Used in Glosses (1) to identify some word (subst., adj., rel. pron.) with a noun or pers. pron. previously mentioned in the sentence (freq. glosses the pron. ipse; see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 153 § 490 ); (2) to give an additional or explanatory detail about some person or persons already mentioned in the sent. (general use in Mid. and Mod.Ir., cf. the Anglo-Irish idiom: `Are you angry with me and I telling you the truth?'). The form osé is used referring to a neuter (see SP iii 6 quoted below). With 1 s. pron.: cid dugén-sa osme (gl. quid iustus faciet, id est ego?), Ml. 30b9 . osme marb (gl. num quae vivens neglexi potero mortuus [exsolvere]?), 49c6 . osme frithortae (offensus [non arguam]), 59a5 . osme, gl. ipse, 68c16 ; cf. 92b7 (gl. securus), 118a6 (ultor), 119b4 (homo), where the gloss in all cases shows that the word refers to the speaker. dobertis cech n-olc form osmese oc taircitul cech maith doib-som, 54c30 . Used in contrast to a preceding pron. of different pers.: faelid sem . . . os me chene am faelid he is joyous . . . I too am joyous, SP ii 6 , cf. 4 ( Thes. ii 293 ). 2 s. ostú (gl. tute), Sg. 201b20 ; (tutemet), ib. 21 ; (ipse), Ml. 43a18 , cf. 47b12 , 57c10 . ostu (gl. prosecutor referring to 2 s. pron. in sent.), 92a2 ; (gl. qui 2 s.), 141b1 . 3 s. m. na gatad Dia n-airi esé á deo, Wb. 22b6 (gl. qui furabatur iam non furetur; = let not [the Devil] steal God from him, now that he is a Deo; esé refers to pron. con- tained in airi). asé in heremia uel in libro hoc, 8a20 (gl. quemadmodum scriptum est, Qui . . . glorietur; asé refers to the quotation). os háe, Ml. 69c4 (gl. amicus, connected with subj. of preceding sent.); cf. 122b14 ; 123a12 , b4 . (with neut. subst.) tech . . . ose cen udnucht n-imbi and it without a fence around it, SP iii 6 ( Thes. ii 294 ). tráth romboí and ossé aithbriste, FB 87. cuislendach ro boí ind-deisciurt L. os hé anchore, Mon. Tall. 10. coínso chorcorda lais os é amulach, BDD 75 (refers to lais). dia mbe inna enncai . . . os he cona lanamnas coir if he be blameless . . . , being in lawful wedlock, Laws iv 308.7 . bo héiccen do Mh. maighean an iomairicc do iom- ghabháil ó sé tretholl he being pierced through, Hugh Roe 226.18 (f. 60b) . 3 s. f. hóssi insin sonartae nime (gl. vel ipsa firmitas elementi), Ml. 51c28 . ba mór a mélacht lea techt cosin fer . . . os sí alacht, IT i 139.13 ( LU 10609 ). cend mucce . . . os sí oc sírégim, BDD 140. caillech dhochraidh . . . osí cael corr, CCath. 4022. 1 pl. osní credentes in Christo , Wb. 19a15 (gl. inventi sumus et ipsi [peccatores]). osní ili, Ml. 43a6 (gl. multi referring to 1 pl. pron.). is nini firiónaib, Wb. 33a7 (quae domus sumus nos), cf. 26b5 . 3 pl. (a) delb anmandae foraib ot he marbdai a living form on them and they dead, Ml. 130a3 . tri noí bera culind até fuachda, TBC-LL¹ 1944. dobert . . . dí bae déc dó . . . ité finda óiderga, LL 248a17 ( TBFr. 136 ). (b) caecoit sgiath gu mbilib oir ossiat budein d'arcut the shields themselves being of silver, ZCP iv 33.4 . soait ina ffrit[h]ing ós iat beóghonta, AFM vi 1982.9 .

In early mod. texts the particle os is often omitted before pronouns of 3d pers., sé, sí, síat being used alone: bean uassal . . . sí 'na sessomh, Fl. Earls 48.18 , cf. 26.27 . a leith ina gcatoilcip, araill ina n-eiritchibh, siad . . . coimhchengailte re aroile, 92.13 .