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Cite this: eDIL s.v. I or

Forms: ida, ĭ, ī, e

eighth letter of the Irish alphabet, stood fifth in the vowel-group of the Ogham alphabet and was known by the name idad ` yew ,' Auraic. 5593. ida, 5523 . is o idhedh doinsgain ip[h]in, 4864 . fer didiu ... idad inna selbad ┐ ina thoghairm, 1676 . ioghadh, IGT Introd. § 9 , where it and u are described as impure vowels `ar son go ttiaguid a mbrígh chonnsuineadh'. The writer of the tracts is thinking in terms of the Latin vowels, as he instances uóbís and ihuinnéis (read iuuenis ?, Ed.). There is no evidence of the existence of consonantal i in Old Irish. Any diphthong beginning with i was regarded as a single letter in the Ogham alphabet and was called pin or ifin (iphin), Auraic. 5611 , 5524 - 5 . iphin a fidh ina reimim .i. don fir, 4862 .

The paragraph refs. below are to GOI

O.Ir. ĭ in stressed syllables may represent (a) IE ĭ: fir, GOI (§ 57) ; (b) infected IE e : mil (Gk. μέλι), —biur ( § 75 ). The syllables : ri, li, in, usually represent IE r̥ l̥ n̥: riuth, mlith, bind ( § 214 - §215 ).

O.Ir. ī in stressed syllables may represent (a) IE ī : lí (Lat. līuor), rím (Lat. rītus) ; (b) IE ē : rí (Lat. rēx), lín (Lat. plēnus) ( § 58 ).

In unstressed syllables ĭ is the regular vowel between two palatal consonants belonging to the same syllable : berid, suidigthir, timthirecht ( § 103 ).

ĭ may also occur in a stressed syllable as a glide to denote the palatal quality of a following consonant, especially when the latter ends the word : maith, clainde, guidid, láim; and in Wb. is sometimes written before a non-palatal consonant after a ē which arises out of the compensatory lengthening of e : céitbuid ( § 54 ).

Beside éu, éui (or éoi) of ds. and gs. before l r n, íu and íui sometimes occur : ceníul, ceníuil, éiuin, féiuir ( § 55 ).

The diphthong , may also be written oe, ae (`almost only when beginning a word in Wb.', Lewis and Ped. § 14 ). For its origin see GOI § 67.

The diphthong ía (to be distinguished from ïa as in grian `sand, gravel') may represent (a) arch. O.Ir. é : -tíagat (cf. -tēgot, Cambr. 38b ), fíada (cf. fēdot (gs.) Cambr. 37c ) ; (b) Lat. ē or oe: fíal `uēlum,' pían `poena' § 53 ).

In Mid. Ir. final unstressed i and e fell together in pronunciation and were often confused in orthography.

To this : i .i. íseal, O'Cl. a urisel .i. intan conosna in son in hi .i. cach baili is i níib is isel .i. a tarmartchenn do techt a ní is airi is urisel when the word ends in i ..., O'Curry 1480 - 1 (< H 3.18, p. 654 ).

4 úr

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 4 úr or

n (a) heath : ur .i. fraech, Auraic. 1194 = 4297 . ur .i. draighen, Auraic. 5522 .

n (b) the letter u or its ogham sign : tucadh uada-side forsin fidh dianad ainm ur in ogaim, ar aentaid anma aturu .i. ur cechtarde ┐ tre ur scribthair, Auraic. 5587 . úr (.u. MS) ó Úra, IGT, Introd. § 4 . úr ┐ ioghadh an dá ghuthaidhe neamhghlana, ┐ as uime adeirthear neamhghlan rú ar son go ttiaguid a mbrígh chonnsuineadh, mur tá so: uóbís no ihuinnéis (leg. iuuenis ?), § 9 . d'ailm no d'ur .i. a no u.¤ , Parrth. Anma 493.15 . a bhfuil a n-úr dhá cheinél mar sin (of nouns ending in -údh), IGT, Decl. § 103 .