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1 is

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 is or
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: nídam, nída, atar, atin, ammi, bem, be, combin, is, am, im, isam, isim, sam, isam, am, isam, nidha, nis, indat, n-iat, cenita, coich, citné, cisné, cis, manid, minad, minid, munid, minap, munab, béso, bésu, gon, gion, indid, inid, inad, ina, 'nar, díand, díanid, díanad, dían, díanda, dían(d)at, dána, dán, darab, bad, ba, ba, badat, ba, -bo, -p, -b, cid, -rop, -rup, -rub, ropond, ce, cía, cit, cía, ce, bed, bad, pad, bud, ba-da-, bádam, ma, matis, diambtís, bé, biam, bum, bid, bith, beith, bed, bud, -pa, -ba, nípa-dn-aidrech, -ba, -pa, -bo, -po, -bu, -pu, -b, -bad, -bud, bit, be(i)t, bat, biat, bidat, -rsam, -rbam, -bi, ropsa, rupsa, ropsat, robsat, ropat, robat, ropot, ropdat, -rbsat, -rsat, -rsa, -rbat, nārsat, ba, bu, bo, be, fa, fá, fo, bad, bud, ba-id-n-, fa, fá, -pu, -bu, -po, -bo, -p, nip, nipu, -rbu, -rpu, -rpo, -rbo, rba, -rob, -rb, -ra, -r, -rsa(t), -rso, -rsa, -rsad, rsam, -rsat, -rbtar, -rptar, -rtar, -rbat, -rpsat, -rsat, -psat, -bsat, -psatar, gomsad

v copula (see Strachan, Substantive Verb in O.Ir. Glosses ( Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899 ); Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish; Dillon, Nominal Predicates in Irish ( ZCP xvi , xvii ) ; GOI § 814 ff. ; Ó Nolan Studies in Mod. Ir.).


The copula is alway unstressed and proclitic. The normal order of words is vb.+pred.+subj., e.g. is cele dae in fer hisin, Ml. 30c3 . is bésad inna flatho doem et dofich (i.e. to protect and to avenge is a princely custom), Wb. 9d2 . Prec. by asyntactic nom.: fáilte cáich bad fáilte dúib-si, Wb. 5d24 . mad i n-aeclis tra in choss is hé óis achtáil `if then it be in the church, the foot is the practical folk,' 12a23 . Frequ. in verse: Illand mac Scanlain is marb, Anecd. i 12.24 . andar la fer bis a cein | Inber Cindbera is reid, 15.1 . a comrádh bind nocho brég, 35 § 81. An inversion of the usual order (see Ó Máille, op. cit. p. 74) occurs in: nī bu ṡanctBrigit ṡúanach (v.l. sanctbrigit suanach) `Saint B. was not drowsy,' Hy. v 21 (see GOI p. 476 and n. 168 ). is tria chin mban | bit fernai fer dlochtai, LU 8430 (FB, rhetoric). Common in rel. sentences in Fél.: mórṡlúag A. | dia mbu Demon dubach `from whom the Devil was sorrowful,' Fél. April 2 . súi diand Ériu inmall, Sept. 10. manach | asa díthrub dubach `whose hermitage is gloomy,' Prol. 98 (but: S. | ata soilsi slechtae, Sept. 7. Carissim ... | asa rúamdae relic, Ap. 16 ). Where the predicate is a compound phrase the subject is introduced into the middle of it (Strachan, op. cit. p. 49.30), e.g. is irlam ind anim do thuil Dée, Wb. 5c18 . nirbu samlaid són doibsom, Ml. 90c27 . nibo mór a mbríg linn, Wb. 18d10 .

In O.Ir. when the subject of the copula was a personal pronoun it was, as in other verbs, implicit in the verbal form: am irlam, Wb. 13c8 . at fechem dom, 32a21 . combed adultera `so that she should be a.', 3c9 . nirbu choimdiu `he had not been a lord,' 33a5 . bad carthi `let him be loved,' Sg. 148a2 . nítat ainmnidi `they are not nominatives,' 189a10 . amal bemmis bibdaid, Ml. 114d4 . It was frequently strengthened by a pronominal particle suffixed to the pred. not necessarily to express emphasis, nor to distinguish between persons: niba dimicthe-se libsi `I should not be despised by you,' Wb. 21d3 (but: nida apstal apstil `I am not an apostle's apostle,' 18c1 ). massu rath-som, 5a30 . ciasu i colinn am béo-sa, 19a20 . it firian-su, Ml. 55d11 . ammi cland-ni doib-som, 101d9 . ropsa huallach-sa, 49b12 (cf. GOI § 811 ). nimda scál-sa ┐ nimda aurdrach, ZCP xiii 373.11 .

The logical pred. of the copula may be (a) an adjective ; (b) a prepositional phrase; (c) an adverb; (d) a pronoun ; (e) the substantival demonstrative í; (f) the subject of a relative verb; (g) a clause introduced by as n- `that it is' ; (h) a substantive.

At all periods of the language the predicates (a), (b), (c) and (d) immediately followed the copula.

(a) In O.Ir. the general rule was that the predicative adj. agreed with the subj. of the copula in gender and number (see Dillon, op. cit., for development from O.Ir., of which he cites as type: it moírb in boill sin, Wb. 11d11 , to Mod. Ir.: is mór iatt, is saidhbir na tírtha so, Maund. § 138 , §227 ).

(b) amal as o spirut, Wb. 15b7 . ciaba beo bid do precept anme Crist, 23b29 . is occ maid atáa, 6a18 . condib tria n-uile mbethaid ón, Tur. 71. is fria binn aníar atá t'esérge, Thes. ii 242.3 (Ardm.). is airi asbersom ..., Ml. 126c10 . cid tre étged rop othar, Críth G. 61. nochon ara omun cena, TBC-I¹ 2364. gonadh uime sin adeir I.¤ ..., TSh. 4816.

(c) níp and nob irpaid, Wb. 8b2 . hóre is amne atáa, 12d7 . is samlith is comadas dúun ..., Thes. ii 246.3 (Cam.).

(d) mad hé á luum, Wb. 4a14 . bad hé for n-ere `let Him be your burden,' 9d12 . rupu sí a rreilic, 33a22 . is tú is diliu limsa diib, IT iii 83 § 69. ionnus gomadh é féin bud ughdar réna bheathaidh, TSh. 3406.

When the logical predicate of the copula was either (e) the substantival demonstrative í or (f) the antecedent of a relative verb, or (g) a clause introduced by as n- `that it is' a pronoun was introduced immediately after the copula to act as grammatical predicate while the logical predicate stood in apposition to this pronoun.

(e) matu hé ata horpamin indí rochomalnisset recht, Wb. 2c14 . bit hé magistir dongegat indhí asindisset a tola féisne dóib, 30d8 . it hé in toirthi amal sodin inna hí adfiadatar hi testimnib file isint salm anuas, Ml. 46c14 .

(f) is hé didiu in tecttaire maith condaig indocbáil dia thigerni the good envoy is he who seeks his lord's glory, Wb. 8d20 . it hé inimici lessom qui fraudant et qui iniuriam faciunt , 9c25 . it hé gními epscuip asmbeir sís the works of a bishop are the things he mentions below, 28b20 . is he in firfindbathach no in firion atcobra na huile beatusa the truly blessed ... is he who desires all the blessings, Hib. Min. 429.

(g) is ed asberat ind heretic as laigiu deacht maicc indaas deacht athar, Ml. 17c7 . ni ed a met as n-etarcnad dun `not only that it is known to us,' 138a12 . is ed asberat as ndu deacht ... rogabad in salm so, 24d29 . is ed adfet a legend as ndath glas roboi forsind sléib fo chosmailius saphirr, Ml. 84d4 .

(h) With indef. noun as pred.: condib dídnad domsa foirbthetu hirisse dúibsi, Wb. 1b1 . combad notire rod-scribad cosse, 27d16 . mástat carait ... mastat námait, LU 9090 - 1 . níor ghníomh meirbh, DDána 91 § 24.

With def. noun as pred.: in O.Ir. and early Mid. Ir. a definite substantive can immediately follow the copula. Even in O.Ir. however a pronoun is frequently introduced immediately after the copula as grammatical predicate, the logical predicate standing in apposition (cf. (e), (f) and (g) above). This is the normal construction in the later language: ni a doenacht fesine ru-da-n-ordan `not his own Manhood has dignified Him,' Wb. 33c5 . ni in cholinn donatháira acht is a n-accobor, 3d3 . is athir-som innaní techte foirbthetith `he is the father of them that possess perfection,' 2c11 . mad Ānlūan no-beth is'taig, ScM. § 16.8 . is Duid a oenar rochachain inna psalmu, Hib. Min. 134.

With pronoun: bit hé na precepta cétni no pridchob doib, Wb. 17b20 . is hed a trede sin foloing, 29d17 . is hé in peccad rogéni a n-uile comaccobor, 3c25 .

After the introduction of the pronoun, the normal order of the sentence seems to be that in which the predicate follows the pronoun but this order does not appear to be fixed and the predicate may be put at the end either for emphasis or for the better balance of the sentence, e.g. a predicate which is the antecedent of a relative verb is most usually placed after the subject. Predicate and subject can only be distinguished by means of the context and the distinction, it would seem, is by no means as clear-cut in Irish as in other languages.

Predicate immediately following pronoun: ní ceilsom tra as n-é Crist in lie, Wb. 4d16 . issí ind ainim as airlam do chomalnad recto Dé ní in corpp, 3d11 . measaim gurab é an bás, an marcach úd, TSh. 37.

Subject following pronoun: mate nama anfolaid in cele falla frithgnama `if neglect of service was the only disqualification of the tenant,' Laws ii 324.6 . ar is he besad felsub etarcert di dúlib et saigid forru et nebchretem a n-adiadar di crist, Wb. 27a10 . it he caeli la suide ind apstail soscelae, Ml. 42b7 . is ed mind n-aingel Crist mac Dé, LU 944. measaim ... gurab í an chathair úd Ierusalem an domhan, TSh. 708.

In O.Ir. where the subject of the copula was a pronoun of the 1st or 2nd person, it required no other expression with an indef. pred. than that supplied by the 1st or 2nd person of the copula: at macc ríg, Trip.² 970. itib ingena ríg talman, 1138 . am dún díthogail, IT iii 53.26 .

Cf. Mid. Ir.: is descipul ... tu-su, PH 2768. conid mog De thú, 510 . is gadaige thu, 7781 . is clann én athar ┐ én máthar sind, 7501 .

With def. pred. the usage in O.Ir. is not certain (? at lūam in gaiscid grind (but: v.l. at tualaing gaiscid grind), Bruchst. 12 § 20 ). In the saga literature the normal expression is: Setanta ... atomchomnaicse, LU 4892. Rí Alban atomchomnaicse, RC xiii 446 § 31.

Cf. Mid. Ir.: is me Oengus céle Dé, SR 8009. ni thu Issau semnach na slóg | acht is tú int engach Iacób, 2876 . is mesi Ísu mac Dé, PH 3732. misse Marcellinus, comorba Petair, 612 (but cf. Tuan mac Cairill mesi, LU 1219 ).

At all periods of the language the expression of the copula in the 3rd persons was not obligatory at the head of a principal sentence: alind á óiph in forcitil, nemnech immurgu a inne, Wb. 7c1 . faelid-sem ... | os me chene am faelid, Thes. ii 293 § 6 ( SP II ). cride hē, | ... | ōcān ē, Bruchst. 69 § 160. ili insi Mod | ... | liä dāma Domnaill, 9 § 12 . Aed Ailig, inmain lim hé, ACL iii 304 § 1. Andreas ard a ordan, Fél. Feb. 6. glē la cāch immorro ba for teithed luid C. remiseom, TBC-I¹ 1260. móra a molta, Gorm. March 5. Fer Loga mo lennān-sa, ScM. § 20.12 . gnáth tromthóir dhoirbh 'na dheaghaidh, DDána 85 § 30. ionann sin ré a rádh ..., TSh. 2826.


In periphrasis (see Strachan, op. cit. p. 49): nitat huili robtar uilcc filii Israhel `all f. I. have not been evil,' Wb. 11a23 . is do immarchor chóre dotíagat ind fir so, 5a5 .

Elliptical: demes .i. mess dēde and, ūair it dá scín lais there are two blades ..., Corm. Y 438. is dos didiu isin blīadain tānaisi in fochlac .i. it ceitheora duillne fair, 423 . nī ba comairle aile acht a c[h]rochad, MacCongl. 19.4 .

Manibad were it not for , etc. with follg. accus.: mainbad éicin, Wb. 4a20 . manipad taschidetaid ind metir, Ml. 136c2 . manibad trocairi ndáe, 111b28 . manipad do chrúass, Trip.² 1370. menbad bíth einig F., TBC-LL¹ 1855. Later replaced by subst. vb.: meni beth in clessín ingantach, 2063 . ropsar marba ... | meni beth Find, RC vii 302.183 .

To express an obligation: praind do tomailt la marb hi tig ... is a hurcul `to eat a meal with a dead man in the house is forbidden,' Mon. Tall. 153.4 . ma dorat(d)a forcraid ngill is lóg a enech ... do aisiuc, Críth G. 288. ma ro-achtaigh comain airithi ina setaib, is a beth do, ┐ masa comain do rer dligid roachtaigh, is a beth air `soll es ihm werden ... soll er es bekommen,' Cóic Con. RE § 13.106 .

On sentences of the type ceso femmuin mbolgaig mbung, see Bergin, Ériu xii 197 ff .

Confusion between copula and subst. vb.: gérbho soicenelach hé iar ccolainn ro bai soichenelcha iar menmain, RC xxv 390 § 3 (? or read ro ba). dogniind ... airchisecht dib, mar no-béind athair doib `as though I had been their father,' PH 6107. Frequ. in ACC: boe (bui, bái, boi, v.ll.) sab suithe cech dind .i. ro bo sab daingen no soad cech ndimus, RC xx 168 § 26. boe saegul sneid .i. suail nó bec nó garit a saegul, § 24. boe seim sáth, § 25. boe dind oc libur leigdocht, § 27.


(a) from O. Ir. glosses and texts in Thes. Pal. (for further exx. from O. Ir. glosses see Strachan, loc. cit.). (b) from other texts.

In Mid. Ir. the forms of the copula in the 1st and 2nd sg. and in all persons of the pl. fell to a great extent into disuse, their place being taken by the 3rd sg., of the tense required with a pron., corresponding in form to the O.Ir. infixed pron. or to the poss. pron. of the person and number to be expressed, infixed between it and the following predicate. Occasionally the inf. pron. was added to forms other than sg. 3, e.g. nídam for nída (s. 1), atar, atin (pl. 3+ inf. pron. pl. 1) for ammi, bem for be (fut. s. 1). These forms while at first used impersonally as already occurred in O. Ir., e.g. issum ēcen, Wb. 10d24 , isat dílmain-siu, Ml. 55d21 , diandam thísed mucc ḟonaithe robad-am béo, Stories from Táin 5.16 , later came to be felt as simply the copula, as is shown when plural forms are folld. by pl. adjj., e.g. nibar troig, SR 3641 , gurdar síthaig, Hib. Min. 82.23 , acht co mbadar maithe díblínaib, TBC-LL¹ 35 ; and by such instances as: gidar comaltai, ib. 3680 . ropdhar fir chomdeirgide, ib. 3535 . As it is not always possible to discover whether a particular writer regarded this combination of copula + inf. pron. as such or as copula only, all such examples have been grouped together, so that, for instance, all the forms under subj. past s. 1 below should be taken not necessarily as being, to the mind of the writer, that particular form but rather as being his way of expressing what would in O. Ir. be expressed by combin, etc.

Examples of the 1st and 2nd persons are found both in Classical verse and in Early Mod. Ir. prose but the more commonly occurring forms are those of the 3rd sg., number and person being expressed by independent pronouns: is ort iarraim gidh óg thú, DDána 67 § 3. is fearr mé iná thú, IGT Introd. 22 § 90. t'fhearg, a rí, ... | re searg dí bu fhearr inn-ne, DDána 10 § 22. ag an druing ... rénar milis briathra borba, TSh. 1568. do bhríogh nach cumhachtach sinn féin ris aní se, 30 . is beannuighthe sibhse, 5669 . do bhríogh gurbh fheasach thú gurbh amadán mé, 9638 .

Indic. pres.

A. Absolute

s. 1

(a) am: am tualang dano a hétarcerta, Wb. 12d22 . is airi am cimbid-se, 27c22 .

(b) am, im, isam, isim, sam: am senóir ┐ am lobur, Trip.² 2045. am caemsa ... am maccam, TBC-I¹ 583 - 4 . amm eolach, TBC-LL¹ 1750. uair am aithrech, SR 7824. (cf. isam aithrech, 7789 ). im fáilid, Ériu v 224.73 . as me Ulltán ... im fili, im faidh, BNnÉ 257 § 214. From early in Mid. Ir. period the form isam (<is s. 3+ inf. pron. s. 1) occurs, side by side with am. In follg. exx. it must already have been understood as s. 1: uair isam bensa curad caín, LU 8440 (FB). issam ingen ríg, TBFr. 163 = im, ZCP iv 38.11 . asam senoir, CCath. 5495. issim meabrach, Acall. 3115. orsam (=ór isam) heolach, SR 1786. sam crochta gan cionadh réil, Ó Bruad. ii 132.11 .

s. 2

(a) at, it: at fechem dom, Wb. 32a21 . air it firian-su, Ml. 55d11 .

(b) at, it, ot, isat, asat: at meirb, Fél. July 19 . at ferr do lāech indó-sa, ScM. § 16.8 . fobīth ad ōegi, TBC-I¹ 507 (YBL) = dáig ot áegi, LU 4996. it gilla co ngicil, TBC-I¹ 2667. id file, Content. iv 2. isat lac, Bruchst. 30 § 67. isatt áil-siu dam-sa, SCC 739 . isit aneōlach, MacCongl. 122.9 . isat duni dána, TBC-LL¹ 3057. asat tretholl-sa, TBC-I¹ 3632.

s. 3

(a) is, rel. as`: is samlith is comadas dúun, Thes. ii 246.3 (Camb.). is hé céetne fer ceta-ru-chreti, Wb. 7b11 . is ferr ainm do denom de, Sg. 26b5 . is cele dae in fer hisin, Ml. 30c3 . Freq. written iss before vowels: iss uisse, Wb. 22c21 . iss i rráe choir immumruidbed, 23d30 . iss ed inso nád chumaing, Sg. 209b13 . Freq. written together with a follg. initial s, one s falling out: isuáichnid, Wb. 23d30 . isamlaid, Thes. ii 11.40 (Bcr.). rel. brothchán as chóir duib, Wb. 33c15 . as choimtig, Sg. 54b8 .

(b) is(s), as, us, es, rel. as`, is` (it is not clear when lenition ceased to be used after the cop. used relatively. It is less often marked than not in TBC, see Ériu xiv 90 , 93 , 94 ): is túath oirdnither ríi[g], Críth G. 493. is toirthech int inber, Trip.² 370. is gabtha na eich ┐ iss innilti in carpat, MU² 49. is cosmhail Samson ┐ an bás, TSh. 763. iss a miad neich dogniat mancuine, BCrólige § 50. iss messe rorecsabair, SR 3636. i[s] slān in fear, Laws iii 156.5 . isaer ém domrimgartsa, LU 10307. as iat na fir[a] fola no saraigthe, Cóic Con. H § 59. in ti do beir ... as e do ron, Laws iv 32.19 . as do hIddomdaib do, PH 6946. In TSh. `both abs. and rel. are written as in MSS.,' TSh. Introd. xx n. 3 . es dilmain, Anecd. iii 23.5 . es coitcend, ib. 2 . essed dobeir ..., 26.24 . es bec trá ná comráncatar inn a mméur ocus a coss, CMT² 58 § 132 . es de boí inn nem-sin fuirri(r), CMT² 60 § 133 . ar us aire isperar ..., Laws i 264.7 . ar us merle cach n-indligiudh, ii 70.25 . Somet. the vowel of IS is dropped: ┐ síad bhīos ag coimhēad, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1341. rel. as chóir, Mon. Tall. 146.27 . as chórus, Críth G. 223. a n-us tol lat-su, MacCongl. 33.9 . ? With class C inf. pron.: forband ... as-dom moo airli, Echtrae Chonnlai 121 § 6 . After constructions which take rel. n- the predicate of the copula is eclipsed (where the first word of the predicate is unstressed the usage varies): do thaidbsiu as n-iress nóibas, Wb. 19b14 . as ndia side gl. doceo, 13a18 . as n-é tairrchet, 6d6 . as ndirruidigthe a n-animm-sin, Sg. 56b10 . as ndí Assaraib ... rogabad in salm-sa, Ml. 35a10 . asberat as ndu deacht ... rogabad, 24d29 (but cf. adciam ... as ar chenél cruche adrímther ..., Thes. ii 246.25 (Camb.)). amail is n-adētchide in flesc, Corm. Y 606.8 . In Mid. Ir. rel. n- dropped out: uair ... as inann nadúir don duine ┐ ..., PH 7433. amail as diaisneisi in Coimdi, Ériu ii 144 § 159. in tan is indligthech iat, Cóic Con. H § 14. amail as crom craobh fo chnoibh, BS 54.15 . Very early the non-rel. form IS is used for rel. and vice versa, see above: cía dit maccaib is diliu latt ?, Trip.² 1774. mer is laugu, Corm. Y 809. is ed is chonar fugill ann ..., Cóic Con. RE § 24. intí is cosmail do Dia, PH 6266. ní íar chána is ḟairbrígh d'ḟir, IGT Decl. ex. 980.

pl. 1

(a) ammi, ammin, immi: ammi techtiri árt-phersine, Wb. 24d9 . ammi irlaim ... do dul martre, 4b21 . amminn imdibatai-ni ┐ ammin dilachtai, Ml. 83c3 . airmi (leg. airimmi, Ed.) ardu-ni, 23d23 .

(b) ammin, ar, dar, atar, isar, atin: is olc ar mblāth amin gorti, TBC-I¹ 1614. amin mairb, BDD² 330. ar troig ... dot' impartain we are wretched, SR 1482. ar n-idain fiad testaib Dé, 3583 . fortgellam Dia ... dar slana on chinaid-se, 3612 . cid einech rígh rontidnaic | atar dimdaig ..., Hib. Min. p. 82.x . isar scítha énirti, CCath. 2562. `atin budig de' ar an oicc, Anecd. i 5.18 (cf. batin aithrig, Ériu i 68 § 3 ).

pl. 2

(a) adib, idib, adi: adib cland Abrache, Wb. 19c20 . adib oís muntire, 21c4 . adi mmaicc, 9a13 . hóre adi ellachti, 21c17 . ar idib maithi, 16b9 .

(b) itib, at(a)bar, atfor: ár itib ingena ríg, Trip.² 1138. itib lía andú, BDD² 412 (= dáig abtar (leg. atbar) lia andúsa, LU 6870 ). ┐ itib degdoene, LL 281b28 . atabair ecen, LU 8097 (FB). is dásacht a ndognithi-si ┐ atbar dásachtaig fen, LB 212a10 . atabar glana-si, PH 5262. 5264 . apraid fris at for n-aithrig do debaid fris, Cymmr. xiv 118.11 ( Rawl. 132b29 ).

pl. 3

(a) it, at (once only in non-rel. sense), rel. ata`, at, et: it carit domsa, Wb. 5c7 . it dássactig, 12d36 . it coitchena, Sg. 10a1 . air at cuidi tirmaidi sidi, Ml. 123d3 . rel. in mairb ata thestis, Wb. 30a11 . it sib ata chomarpi, 19c20 . do retaib ata chosmaili fri fír, Ml. 51b8 . it hesidi at inbésa, 45d1 . it hé sidi et inbéso, 27a9 . confitetar són ata ndoini, 91c18 .

(b) it, at, isat, isid, rel. ata`, at: at remra na loeg ┐ it buidig na hoegid, Hy. v 25 Comm. it é inso trá gníma bóairech, Críth G. 183. it móra, Trip.² 1291. isat úathe dó ilib, 3096 . it cadlai dí ingein A., Fél. Dec. 9. at bidbaid, IT iii 502 § 10. isat bána, 514 § 7. hit imṡláin, SR 194. at mora, 3625 . id mesa indád demno, Anecd. iii 27.4 . at aena `these are of one day,' Laws i 156.y . at móra glonna Medbi, TBC-I¹ 1668. it cāema, 583 . cf. is mōra na comada' ... `isad mōra,' 2233 - 4 . i n-ifern isid bronaigh, Anecd. iii 55.29 (Síaburcharpat) = at brónaig, LU 9462. at cotarsnai, PH 711. isat lána, 5870 . rel. it é ata érlama, Trip.² 1539. amuis ata chórai, Críth G. 578. dí gérait at glainiu, Fél. May 7. saire ada lugu, Laws v 102.6 . laích ata dech, BDD² 757. adad dech, 1159 . seoit ... ad adhailge daib, Anecd. ii 53.3 . áos ata etromae cinaith `whose sins are lighter,' Mon. Tall. 158.7 . dāine ata maige imarīadam `on whose plains we would drive about,' Otia i 122 § 4.

B. Conjunct.

I Neg.

s. 1

(a) níta`, nída`: nita chumme-se friu-som, Wb. 20c25 . nida apstal apstil, 18c1 . sech níta aidlicen, Ml. 70b7 .

(b) nída`, nídam, nídom, nímda, ním, níam, níom, níum: nída choimsech mu ṡoíre, Trip.² 2976. nida (nidu, v.l.) dīr dermait it is not fitting for me to forget, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 16 § 1. nidha bheo-sa, TBC-LL¹ 6080 (fut. sense). nīdam macc, TBC-I¹ 645 (= nimda, LU 5129 ). nīdom sāitheach, TBC-I¹ 507 (= nimda, LU 4996 ). nīm láech cen lāmach, TBC-I¹ 2260. nidam dermatach, LU 10286. nidam snímach, SR 2382. nim dana, 2069 . nimda scál-sa ┐ nimda aurdrach, ZCP xiii 373.11 . nidom athair do duiniu, viii 561 § 2 . ni dam ben-sa fós do, Caithr. CC § 93. nida Christadi, Irish Texts i 2 § 4 . nidom chuchtach, BS 30.1 . níom tualaing suan, TSh. 2144. ní um claoidhte re a gcionnluas (ní um chl., v.l.), Ó Bruad. ii 138.6 .

s. 2

(a) No occurrence.

(b) nída, nídad, nídat, nít: nida tūalaing mo ergairi, Ériu i 116 § 6. nidad dichumaing, Anecd. i 11.13 . nít marbdae for tercphit, Fél. Sept. 8. nīt mess methchrainn, Bruchst. 17 § 33. nít firlaech-su, TBC-LL¹ 1343. nidat doss ós duss, 3460 . nidat mac-sa, FDG 718.

s. 3

(a) ní (geminates the follg. consonant, e.g. is rad dáe ... ni mmarilliud `(it is) not my merit,' Wb. 21c20 ): ní cuman lim, Wb. 8a3 . ní cuit broto acht is dugrés, Ml. 32c10 .

(b) ní (a form nís occurs once in ACC and may possibly be archaic: hua Airt nís Neill co nert `not with N.'s strength is he,' RC xx 406 § 128 ): ní rí Caisil co rón-ordnea, Trip.² 2302. ní tiamdae tim-som, Fél. Prol. 259. ni cosmail smachta cacha raithe, Laws iv 78.4 . ní segda, LU 1655. ni fír, PH 2715. ní críonna an tí nach tuigeann, DDána 35 § 2. ní hiongnadh an meas soin do bheith ..., TSh. 243. The follg. exx. from TBC show lenition after ní but they may be scribal errors: ní ḟlaith Ulad nod chosna, 2788 . ní ḟurusa, 3050 . In Mod. Ir. ní prefixes h to a fully-stressed word but not to a proclitic: ní ag cnúasach bó am theagh atá, Éigse iii 168 § 9 (and see note). With inf. pron.: nímdil cid dīthrub Temair (glossed: ní hinmain lem T. cid fas), Hy. ii 44. ním-nert acht mac Dé I have no strength but ..., LL 133b8 . nin-fissid frisbered omnu huain `not to us is the Knower who used to avert fears from us,' RC xx 164 § 16 (ACC). nin forcetlaid, ib. § 18.

pl. 1

(a) nítam`, nítan`, nídan`: nitam toirsich (sic leg., Ed.) gl. non angustiamur, Wb. 15b21 (a prima manu). nidan chumachtig for n-irisse, 14c41 . nidan chosmili, 14d37 . ar nitan reprobi-ni, 18b9 .

(b) nidar: nidar n-idain, SR 3626. nidar glain, 1609 .

pl. 2

(a) nítad, nídad (see OIPG p. 66 n. ): nitad lib fésin `ye are not your own', Wb. 9d11 . nidad óegid, 21b14 . 14a8 . ar nídad ferr-si, 8c7 .

(b) nibar, nifor: nibar troig, SR 3641. ni for gliccu ... inda oen na n-ánmanna, 1235 . is tróg niforn-intliuchtach (? leg. -aig), 1238 .

pl. 3

(a) nítat, nítaat, nídat, nít, nis: nitat cosnama domundi, Wb. 7d12 . ar nitaat cosmuli, 9b17 . nídat chummai, Ml. 115b3 . nit derachti, 128d1 .

(b) nídat calaid, Fél. Jan. 17. nít mórdai fria ngudi, March 1. nītad tabartha, TBC-I¹ 2856. nídat námait, LU 8264. nidat glain, SR 7996. nidad tlaithi, 1571 . nidat carpait, MU² 374. nit righ os ro-chathaib, LL 386a18 . nīdat cuibde, MacCongl. 7.16 . In ZCP xx 371 f. , Thurneysen gives the follg. exx. of a 3 pl. form, nis, occurring in Law texts: acht nis cosmailsi comarba[i] `aber Erben sind nicht von Gleichheit,' Laws iii 42.25 . atait tri comurba la Feine, nis comsaer a cuir, 46.18 . nis dilsi acht a tri, ZCP xiii 21.17 . nis cuir bel dilsi, xii 365.1 . nis maithi dam log n-aisi, logh sinsire, log fognama, ib. 8 .

II With dependent negatives:

(a) nád who (or which) is not, that (it) is not (see s.v. 1 nád, 2 nád, 3 nád and Strachan, loc. cit. l. 1007 ff.).

(b) nant, nan that (it) is not (see s.v. nan and Subst. Vb. l. 1011 ff .).

(c) nách that (it) is not (see s.v. 3 nach, 4 nach and Subst. Vb. l. 1018 ff. ). For nícon, noco, nochon, etc., see s.v. nícon.

III With interrog. particle in-:

s. 1

(a) inda: inda apstal `am I an apostle ?,' Wb. 10c20 .

(b) ? anom (=indom) adbar gascedaig, Ériu xiv 89.2175 (= TBC-LL¹ 1186 ).

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) indat: indat creitmech, Trip.² 917. indat ómnach ?, Lat. Lives 90.0 . indot eolac[h], CCath. 2883. indat sochenel, PH 695.

s. 3 For both (a) and (b) the interrog. particle alone is used, i.e. in (later an) :

(a) in cuntubart lib inso, Wb. 3c3 . in ed fodera báas domsa, 3c33 .

(b) inn a síthib in do déib dúib ?, Trip.² 1114. co fessur ... in he [Is]sau no inne Iacob, SR 2884. an beó do thigerna ?, BDD² 1519.

pl. 3

(a) indat: indat mbriathra ? `is it the words ?,' Ml. 44b9 (cf. sechitat n-é (sic MS.), V below).

(b) indat: nocon fetarsa indat ilgnae do-chuirither in folt fair fo indat trí fuilt failet fair, BDD² 1125 - 6 . indat facsi don purt are they near ...?, LU 1873 (ICM). indat pettai sút no indat éoin chena, TBC-LL¹ 1328. Later the interrog. particle without pl. suffix is used also for pl.: co findara in n-iat tanic, PH 440.

IV With neg. interrog.

s. 2 (a) cenita: cenita chumgabtha-siu `art Thou not exalted ?' Ml. 84c3 .

s. 3

(a) cani, cini: cani doich, Wb. 5b35 . cani messe immoforling cretim dúibsi, 10c18 . cani mebuir lib, 20a5 . cini glé lib ..., 12d4 . cini inonn, 18a16 . caní románda .ó., Sg. 49b23 .

(b) cani: Ōengus do guin ... cani ōin do decraib Dē ?, Bruchst. 50 § 110 .

These forms were early replaced by nách q.v. s.v. 5 nach (nách).

Interrogative sentences containing cía, cid who, what (is). etc.

(i) The copula is not expressed after cía but that it is implied is clear from the follg. rel.: cinuid mic n-altrumu, cia forsa tiagat ?, Laws ii 178.3 . cia roblaiss bethaid ┐ na faicfe éc (qui vivit ┐ non videbit mortem), LL 281a32 . cia tir ass as[s]am lat do thabairt dúinne, ZCP viii 318.33 . gá cara don uile as fhearr, A. Ó Dálaigh xv 5. cia in fear sin ?, Anecd. ii 9.22 . cía can duib ?, Trip.² 1113. In gen.: coich úainn hí ? to which of us will it belong ?, 811 . íarfaigset dó ... cúich he, LU 1838. With verbal ending added: cóichet na heich se ?, 8522 (FB).

(ii) cid (see Thurneysen, GOI § 466 ): cid as dénti frisin, Wb. 12d41 . cid as maith, 12d12 . ní tucthar cid frissa-sennar, 12c46 . cid is conair ... is sed is conair ..., Cóic Con. H § 138. cid ara n- why ? : cid ara ndéntar pecthach díim, Wb. 2a10 . cid ara cuinchi-siu sein ?, Thes. ii 307.12 ( Hy. ii Introd. ). cid ara n-eipenar ?, Laws ii 194.2 . cid ara cuirther do trise ina lesa so ?, i 236.9 . cid how ? cid na déccaid uili how do not ye all see, Fél. Prol. 201. cid ēcōru mo beithse and anās ..., TBC-I¹ 2224.

pl. 3 citné (`gekürzt aus ci ata n-é ,' Thurn., ZCP xx 372 ): assindet sunt tra citné cumacte diandid cóir in fognam `what are the powers unto which the service is proper,' Wb. 6a9 . citné briathra robatar `what were the words ?,' Ml. 61b7 . citné robatar `what were they,' ib. 8 . citne a nanmand na soerbard (caidet, v.l.), IT iii 5.8 . ceitni trī seōit fūair C. ?, ZCP xiii 5 § 19. citni rig ... robatar' sind amsir sin ?, SR 2347. The corresponding form in the Laws is cisné: cisne lesa do na ibh sen tascnat treise `what cases of these extend to three days ?,' Laws i 230.21 . cisne tri biada na tuillead leaptha na hapta, v 438.14 . cisne trí ana soitcedach `what are the three wealths ...,' Triads 239. Sometimes cis immediately precedes the noun : cis formmenn écndaircc doslíat dílsi ?, ZCP xii 366.25 . cis ndíthle do trebaib na tuillet dire ?, 26 . cis forcsen fola la Fēne ?, BCrólige § 65. cis lir how many: cis lir congellait for tresi, Laws i 230.3 . cis lir lanamna docuisin la feine ?, ii 344.1 . cis lir chuir dochuisin ?, iii 4.5 . cis lir fodlai filet forsin mbairdne ?, IT iii 6.13 . cf. cit lir fodlai ..., ib. 20 .

V With various conjunctions.

(i) cía, cé, ci although, that.

s. 1

(a) No instance.

(b) ciam, cidam : ciam toebnocht, SR 1540. cid am laech-sa, TBC-LL¹ 1677. misi gedam foidhidech, ZCP xii 393 § 10. gidh im c[h]rochbán-sa, BS 138.y . giodh am midhiongmhala, Parrth. Anma 333.18 .

s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) cíasa, cidat : cíasa lobur, no rega, Trip.² 1282. cidat fír-Dhia ... ro-gabais colaind ndoenda, PH 163.

s. 3

(a) césu, céso, cíasu, cíaso, cíasa : cesu threde in tummud, Wb. 21d13 . ciaso ḟolud ... sluindes, Sg. 211b7 .

(b) césu, céso, cíasa, cid, gid : césu réid ar lebrán, Fél. Ep. 133. ciasa (ceso, v.l.) femmain [m]bolgaigh [m]bung (see Ériu xii 197 ), Corm. Y 1059.64 . ciasa díthrub, Metr. Dinds. iv 42.2 . ciodh olc an bás nádúrtha, TSh. 987. gidh ionann atá ..., 2900 .

pl. 1

(a) No instance.

(b) cíammin, gidar : cíammin bí, BDD² 329. gidar comaltai, TBC-LL¹ 3680

pl. 2

(a) cenuded', cenotad' : cenuded issidi (=ḟissidi) `although ye are knowing,' Thes. i 713.25 (Tur. Cod.). cenotad maic-si raith, Wb. 33b8 . cenutad suíre, 4a10 .

pl. 3

(a) cetu', ceto' : cetu chummascthai, Sg. 62a2 . ceto écintecha, 203b10 .

(b) ciato', cetu', ciat, cidat : ciato chomṡruithi, Críth G. 493. cetu cummai a feba, Bruchst. 39 § 94. cíat ísliu fíad dáinib ... bit áird, Fél. Prol. 153. cidhat (cit, v.l.) ili fuile, Corm. Y 975.39 . srotha in dithruib ... ciat serba slassa, SR 4071. cidat mora, 446 . cidad mōra, TBC-I¹ 2235. ceat olca, ZCP vii 269 § 17. Ériu ii 122 § 63.

cía + neg. s. 3

(a) cinid, cenid : cinidlúith (=cinid dlúith) lib, Wb. 12b9 . cinith mút, Sg. 5b4 . cenid ed, Ml. 85b11 .

(b) cenid, cini : cenid mé in murgelt, LU 3022 (H). cini di sīl Chuind dóu, ZCP xiii 375.10 .

(ii) má (ma) s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) masat (masae, v.l.) : masat mac Dé, PH 4708. masad acuraig, CCellaig 449 . masat eólach, ZCP xiii 3 § 5. másat (masae, v.l.) geilt, BS 100.13 .

s. 3

(a) masu', maso', masa' (see Thurneysen, KZ xlviii 60f .) : masu chundubart, Wb. 4d28 . masa choimdiu, Ml. 108c16 .

(b) masu', masa', mas' : see s.v. 3 má (ma). Add : masu ar oítid, Trip.² 1483. mása thol, 584 . a Ḟir diad masa thú, TBC-LL¹ 3659. massa anfisac, Laws iv 36.25 Comm. mas da fis, 22 Comm. mas é Dubthach, TBC-LL¹ 2780. masad (massa, v.l.) ḟír, Mór M. 266.15 . mása thoil leat, TSh. 8093. más é is críoch, 1366 .

pl. 3

(a) matu : matu hé ata horpamin, Wb. 2c14 .

(b) masat, mástat : masat elti, MU² 399. mástat carait ... mastat námait, LU 9091 (FB).

ma + neg. s. 3

(a) manid : manid fír, Wb. 13b14 . 17b32 . Ml. 21a11 .

(b) manid, minad, minid, munid, minap, munab : manid caindleóracht, LU 9196 (FB). minad hé, BDD² 1287. minid hé, 917 . mani daig, 593 . munab follus, TSh. 5164. See s.v. 3 má (ma) and TSh. Introd. xxi n. 3 . The form béso, bésu is used as a subjunctive (for its origin see Thurn., KZ xlviii 60.f .) : bésu dagduine cini estar túari `he may be a good man,' Wb. 6b23 , 24 . massu ed béso mó a fius dúibsi, 19b11 .

(iii) co n- so that.

s. 1

(a) conda : is rad dée immum-forling conda apstal, Wb. 13b6 . conda marb, 19a17 . 17c10 .

(b) conda, conam, conadam, conidam : domāncatar-sa uile | conda eōlach a n-achne, Otia i 127 § 29. conam torsech co haithbe, 128 § 33. rom ebail Sencha ... conidam trén, LU 10285. 10304 . conad am lista liumm fadén ┐ nach am inmain frisnach āen, MacCongl. 95.4 .

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) condat adbartnaigthi-siu, PH 1795.

s. 3

(a) condid, conid : condid flaith do in coimdiu, Wb. 9d2 . tremiberar ... conid ainm dun chrunn, 8a5 . condid di thetacht in spírto ... profetauit , Thes. i 496.26 (Ardm.). conid e epscop insin cita-ruoirtned, ii 241.15 (ib.). conid femen, Sg. 123b2 . condid étrummu, Ml. 90a11 . connid ed, 91a19 .

(b) condid, conid, conad, cunad, etc.: condid ann, AU i 434.22 (A.D. 916) . Hib. Min. 25. conid eiter a lamaib ..., Mon. Tall. 153.12 . conid edh, AU i 538.6 (A.D. 1015) . conid soillsi, Corm. Y 426. LU 10931. 10306 . PH 2245. 720 . conad dēach ainm gach sillaibe, Corm. Y 500. PH 1371. 6132 . Laws iv 18.2 Comm. cunad fír, MU² 284. cunid soillsithir, 554 . condad leis Aidhne, Ériu i 46.32 . conodh i, Ériu iii 141.206 . conud e, RC vi 184.19 . gonid lór, ACL iii 306 § 1 . gonadh aire sin ..., Ó Héodhusa 51.1. TSh. 1824. 5960 . conid was replaced by gurab (gur), gura originally a subjunctive form : corop Tuigi im Thamon and sain, LL ii 9911 . gorop de atá Cruachna Áe, ii 12397 . innister curab pecthaig ..., RC xxiv 378.17 . gurab droch-duine ..., PH 7682. corub iat, 445 corab í so, 7334 . gurb i luaithreadh ..., TSh. 300. gur bréagach a bhreathnughadh, 395 . gurab é an bás, 37 . gurab tearc, 94 . er co ra mian leisin nádúir maith do dénum, PH 7394. gur tú mo Chruthaightheoir, Donlevy 406.5 . gur ionmholta, 132.10 . do-fedar gura tú C., ZCP viii 546.26 . Cf. also : casmail lem gom (=co mba) e in mac beg, 538.15 .

pl. 1

(a) condan : hóre ronsóirni ... condan fírianichthi, Wb. 2d14 . immunrordad condan maicc togu non naturae , 20d10 .

(b) No instances.

pl. 3

(a) condat : condat anman som, Sg. 188b3 . condat reli inna aicsin hisin, Ml. 51d15 .

(b) condat, condot, cundat : condat e tri decmainge in domain a d[t]indtud, Laws v 426.3 . condat cora, SR 296. SCC 320 . PH 736. cundat marthanaig, MU² 310. gondat Ulaid, TBC-LL¹ 704.

(iv) With cen co (not found in Glosses) :

(b) s. 1 gon com (gen gob, v.l.) maith-se oc immarbáig, TBC-LL¹ 3219.

s. 3 gion go glan mo sgáth, DDána 24 § 30. gion gur caomh a dhreach, 91 § 6.

(v) With no :

s. 1

(a) nonda', nunda' : amal nonda thorisse `as I am trustworthy,' Wb. 10a28 . a nunda thinnachtae-se, Ml. 126d12 .

s. 2

(a) nonda', nunda' : lassaní nonda brithem `when Thou art judge,' Ml. 92a15 . a nnunda chocuibsid-siu, 58b6 . 38c27 .

pl. 1

(a) nundem, nundan : oire nundem membur uili du Dea, Thes. ii 246.5 (Camb.). á nnundan deeth ní, Ml. 120b3 .

pl. 2

(a) nondad : amal nondad maicc cóima, Wb. 27b16 .

(b) These forms did not survive O. Ir.

(vi) After the co-ordinating conjunctions sech and noch the absolute form is used. See under 2 sech and 1 noch. sechi whoever, whatever probably contains cop. s. 3 : sechi é cretes `whosoever believes,' Wb. 15b1 . sechi hed bás són `whatsoever death ...,' 13c1 . sechi dú nu-t-soe-siu, Ml. 112b6 .

pl. 3 sechitat hé ` whoever they are ,' 49a19 . sechitat hé (né, MS.) ` whatsoever ,' Thes. ii 25.38 (Bcr.). (Cf. indat mbriathra, III above).

VI With various prepositions in relative clauses.

(i) i n- (in many exx. has the force of a conjunction, see Ériu i 12 ) :

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) inda : cid at-chí dúnd, inda fisid `since thou art ...,' BDD² 545.

s. 3

(a) indid, innid : cia airm indid immaircide do epert amén, Wb. 12d18 . ind labrada innid eula nech, Ml. 42c4 . indid mailliu a tuile `by which the flood is slower,' Thes. ii 14.35 (Bcr.). 20.41 (ib.).

(b) indid, inid, inad, ina: indid Niall ... ro malart since it is N. ..., AU i 438.26 (A.D. 918). indid Alend is dún fás, Hail Brigit § 14. inid mo athair ... ortabairsi, BDD² 737. Bruchst. 47 § 105.3 . inad gilla óc ... tarfás dúnn, BDD² 161. PH 5029. do Maig Mell inid rí Boadag, LU 10004. aít init sruithiu dliged oldas naidm, ZCP xiii 23.1 . inad ina fairsingi in cathuir, Maund. § 75. eccla ifirn ... 'na minic fóidh guil, ACL iii 216.17 . Forms originally perf. and subj. came to be used as pres. indic. : sé céimeanna 'nar cosmhail ré chéile iad, TSh. 1231. ní fhuil ainm oile ... ionarb (ionab, v.l.) éigean sinne do shlánughadh, 2088 . neg. traigle i nach ūathad uidre, Bruchst. § 88. teagh is nach uathadh urra, DDána 119 § 23.

pl. 3

(a) indat : indat iudei itirroscar[sat] fri hiris n-abarche since they are Jews, Wb. 5b34 . cid ind aimser indat sláin ennaic som, Ml. 76a6 .

(b) in am indat slána, TBC-LL¹ 952. inat ṡlana, 1386 .

(ii) día n- :

s. 1

(a) No instances.

(b) díanda, díanam : Chríst dianda chéle `whose servant I am,' Fél. Ep. 307. an rí díanam gilla, ZCP v 497 § 12.

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) díandat : cia díandat céliusiu ?, TBC-I¹ 1382.

s. 3

(a) díant, díandid, dían : intí diant ainm discessio, Wb. 26a5 . in rét diant torbach ..., Ml. 121d1 . dian-did nomen hiber, Sg. 100b1 . in son diandid tintud ..., Ml. 37a10 . dian duthoig Liphe, Thes. ii 295 § 4 ( SP v ). neg. di nach follus (=dunach, Edd.), Thes. ii 8.35 (Acr.).

(b) díand, díanid, díanad, dían, díanda, dían(d)at, dána, dán, etc.: dianid opair oen laithi, AU i 342.22 (A.D. 839) . Corm. Y 825.2 . fer dianid comainm Labán, SR 2944. diand sanctlethan slondad, Fél. June 12 . April 22 . indī dianda coimmēid, Corm. Y 269. 892 . dianad ainm clí, 275 . PH 5180. 5494 . mí diandat (diando, MS., dianid, v.l.) ainm Marsiius, Corm. Y 892. cid dianat maith ind uair si ?, Hib. Min. p. 50.6 . Cū dīan comainm Culand, TBC-I¹ 2263. dianaid rī, 560 . dian serb cach sruith, ZCP vi 267 § 2. cia dana céile thusa ?, viii 545.2 . Ériu ii 229.19 . drem dīb dan eōl, ZCP viii 216 § 78. Laws iv 60.12 . ACL iii 237 § 15. na nathrach neimhe danadh ainm tyrus , TSh. 8973. Pres. subj. and perf. forms used as pres. indic. : darab ceann sgríbe an chríoch dhéidheanach, TSh. 725. cia d'ar ceart, Donlevy 106.7 . neg. airchindech do nach diur adhultrus, Laws i 58.22 Comm. do neoch do nar bo chotlud, TBC-LL¹ 2962. cia dánach feasach ... ?, TSh. 6401.

pl. 3

(a) neg. : donnatdet adblama inna esiu (leg. inna hísiu, Edd.) `to whom these things are not ready,' Thes. i 713.23 (Tur. Cod.).

(b) díanat, díandat : amail rondeiligthe sinethae dianat anmanna dela, Corm. Y 431. Metr. Dinds. iii 312.116 . bó ... díandat slána a secht mbliadna, LU 8122.

(iii) ara n- :

(a) arndid : cid arndid ísliu aesce quam sol , Thes. ii 22.41 (Bcr.). in di accuis ... arndid coitchen ..., Sg. 200a13 .

(b) ara n- : is ed sin ara n-amra `arcu fuin' `for which a.f. is admirable,' ZCP vii 312 § 26.

(iv) ó n- :

(a) óndid, ónid : in sians ondid accobor limsa ícc cáich, Wb. 12d23 . honid techtae molad Dáe, Ml. 51c2 .

(b) ón, óna, ónab : díles Néill ón cunnail cell, Ériu iv 92 § 1. toirt[h]igi in lā | ōnab lēir feadha, ACL iii 235 § 21. gním óna mó ar dtachrádh, IGT Decl. ex. 412.

(v) frissa n- :

(a) frisin : dochum cétnidetad frisin cosmil `to which it is like,' Sg. 188a13 .

(b) frisnid, ren, rena, renab, renar : inmain samail frisnid cosmail a n-adchīusa, TBC-I¹ 2875. nech risnid [andsa], LU 4004. drem ren dothroide ar ndeabhaidh, IGT Decl. ex. 1167. is dona neithibh renab usa truailled do gabail cuigi, in baindi, Rosa Angl. 112.8 . dream ... réna deacair, TSh. 4665. ag an druing ... rénar milis, 1568 . 711 .

pl. 3

(a) No instance.

(b) frisndat : inna ferta sa ... cía beith nech risndat móra araide isat úathe dó ilib, Trip.² 3096.

(vi) lasa n- :

(a) lasin : intí lasin format, Ml. 129b3 . lasin n-accubur, 53c16 .

(b) lasnad, lenab : intí lasnád ecul `who fears,' PH 2411. lasnad ail, 1421 . cibé lénab mór a n-abraim, Keat. i 76.44 .

(vii) oca n- :

(a) No instance.

(b) ri ind lochta hicnad suithi a n-ord, RC xx 174 § 38 (ACC). co flaith Dúrlais, 'cán mór mé, Hy Fiach. 284.5 . sdéd gan dóigh urraim na n-eillteadh, IGT Decl. ex. 1177 = gán, 662 .

(viii) fa n- (O. Ir. imm) :

(a) No instance.

(b) fán, fána : a cCionn Coradh fan léir magh, ZCP viii 225 § 42. fáth fána doilghe ... an bás, TSh. 1132.

(ix) asa n- :

(a) No instance.

(b) asarb : briathra asarb iontuigthe ..., TSh. 5664.

(x) forsa n-, fora n- :

(a) No instance.

(b) forab : o sheircc in domain-sea forab airchindech diabul, PH 7118.

Cons. Pres.

s. 3


(a) No instance.

(b) bid : bid coitchenn dliges cach ngrád ... i córus othrusa, Críth G. 50. bés bid cethrar nó chóicer bíte hi comarbus bóairech, 146 .


(a) -bi, -pi : nipi cían a masse in choirp, Wb. 28c25 . 12c12 . air nibi eulach, Ml. 42c9 . 128d3 . níbí cian, 91d2 . combi remib rethith iarum, Wb. 13b13 . indhí lasmbi accobur, 30c23 . imbí hinun folud whether the substance is the same, Sg. 188a6 .

(b) -bi, -pi : nī bī clōen in t-ere, Corm. Y 447.16 . ni bi briugu nad bi cedach, Laws v 76.10 . i ngait nádbi aí `which is not his,' Críth G. 218. ben las(a)mbi cuma cip cia las fia, BCrólige § 44. is bec a ain iphthi compí sāitheach, ZCP vi 257.y . i tig as mbi eggna suillsi, BDD² 175. dīa mbī dīn Cūan Caill, Four Songs 20 § 4 . pl. 1 (a) ? isin chruth-sin bimmi nóib-ni 'it is thus that we become holy' Wb. 3 d 27 , ZCP xxxii 120 .

pl. 3

(a) No instance.

(b) bit : imscarad dotluigigter flaith fri aigillni na bit anfolaid in ceili gaibter ann `a separation which the chief requests from the tenant not on account of any disqualification of the tenant,' Laws ii 316.z .


s. 2


(a) ba' : ba chuimnech dilguda duinni, Ml. 46b29 .

(b) ba, bat : ba faitech ar nā ba fīachach, Anecd. iii 13.10 = bat fattech, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 14 § 3.1 . bát umal ... bat cumnech, LU 3490 - 1 . bat cúimnech, PH 1208.


(a) -ba', pa' : naba thoirsech, Wb. 29d19 . napa chondarcell, 31c22 .

(b) -ba, -bad, -b(a)dat, -rbat, -rab, -rsat : nā ba lonn frim, TBC-I¹ 1210. nad bad lond-so, TBC-LL¹ 1045. na badat, 1106 . nabdat dolam, SR 1253. narbat (marab, narab, v.ll.) timtheirc tais, KMMisc. 262 § 9. nárbhat dian, Acall. 587. nárbat bronach-su, FDG 397.

s. 3


(a) bad', bed', pad' : bad chore dúib friu `have peace towards them,' Wb. 27d11 . bed chuimnech, 33d5 . pad glicc far n-intliucht, 5c21 .

(b) bad, ba : arān Mochue ... ba hé dobertar dúin, Mon. Tall. 128.25 . bad and sein not adnastar, Trip.² 2991. bat (bá, v.l.) tusu bas ara, 2580 . bad (bud, bidh, bu, v.ll.) sonairt ar n-airle, Fél. Prol. 261. bad uallach, ScM. § 4.11 . ba (bá, LU) maith blāth in claideb, TBC-I¹ 934. bá[d] sí riar Aengusa, Ériu xii 146.2 (Tochm. Ét.). nech atcobra bithbethaid ... bat umhal, ZCP vii 312 § 23. With inf. pron. s. 2 : badat cuman remember, Rawl. 72b39 .


(a) -bad' : nábad chotarsne fri bar n-ícc a nno-gessid, Wb. 24b3 . nabad do réir far colno beithe, 6b4 .

(b) -bad, -bud, -pa : ná bad ead do-gneth, BDD² 411. nábad olc do menma, LU 3271. na pa machtad amh libsi, Mon. Tall. 157.20 . nā bud sgēlach, ZCP vii 311 § 9.

pl. 1

(a) ban', baán' : ban chossmaili friar tuissech, Wb. 33b20 . 29b17 . baán tairismich do irnigdi, 5d22 .

(b) No instance.

pl. 2


(a) bad', bed' : bad chensi fri cách, Wb. 24b1 . bad treúin i n-iriss, 27a6 . bed adthramli .i. gaibid comarbus for n-athar, 9a14 .

(b) No instance.


(a) -bad' : nabad anfoirbthi-si, Wb. 12d26 .

(b) ? nadib leisc, SR 7843. narbar dúrcridig, 4842 .

pl. 3


(a) bat' : bat chosmuli frinni `let them be like unto us,' Wb. 17c5 .

(b) bat, bad : bat menci do dalai, Ériu viii 173.8 . bad sgrībt[h]a a sgēla, ZCP viii 110 § 10.


(a) -bat : bad armatura dei bess lib nábat nacha arm aili, Wb. 22d14 .

(b) No instance.


s. 3

(a) No instance.

(b) bíth : nicon ibdis bandai cormmai i tír Cualand, cia bith ara tecmainged dóib `whoever it used to be that they used to meet,' Mon. Tall. 129.19 (tr. Bergin, Ériu xii 209 , q.v.).

pl. 3 (see Bergin, Ériu xii 225 f. ).


(a) No instance.

(b) batis : a trian rocharsa[t] Coin Culainn batís [d]aill ... batis clóin ... batis guit, RC viii 60.15 ( LL 117a7 - 10 ). ? batis gnatha ar buadhuiph band, Anecd. ii 70.8 .


(a) No instance.

(b) -btis : imrethitis a da thraigid ┐ a n-adbrond comtís luathidir ruathar funemda, Ériu iv 30.2 . comtis scítha, Snedg. u. Mac R § 27. dabertis T.D.D. lubi ... for aibnib ... comtís brecca ... na srotha díb, TBC-LL¹ 4213. comdis fliuch iad do deraib, TTebe 3711 . comtis, 2884 . nībtis omain neich `they used not to fear any man,' ZCP iii 38.25 (tr. Ériu xii 225 ).

Subj. Pres.

s. 1

(a) -ba : ciaba deróil la nech, Wb. 18a7 . 23b29 . niba dimicthe-se libsi `I should not be despised by you,' 21d3 . mainba aecne lib, 17c10 .

(b) -ba, -pa, ropom (ropa, v.l.), -rbom, -rbam, -rba, -bam ; with ma, madam : ni reg-sa assin chruachán-sa co mba marb, Trip.² 1294. nipá pene na régi, Mon. Tall. 131.17 . riasiu ba marb-sa, ZCP i 105.25 . acht ropom (ropa, LU) airdricsa, TBC-I¹ 571. im-caemros[s]a do gaethaib corbom gaeth fo-deisin, BDD² 167. díamsa saithech bíd when once I am satisfied, LU 8469 (FB). nírba cintach `may I not be guilty,' Ériu vi 116 § 3. dīa mba bēo-sa, KMMisc. 208.y . corbam cruithnecht it' it[h]lainn, Ériu iii 31 § 24. narbam crimnach, SR 3202. nīrbam utmall anbsaid, a meic mo Dé, ZCP vi 260 § 10. madham buidech-sae, CCath. 4210. madam beō-sa do-gēba luach a taisgedha ... minbam beō imorra ..., ML² 1495.

s. 2

(a) -ba' : armba cháinchomraccach-so, Wb. 30b23 . cia ba loingthech, 6c9 . ciafa firián, Ml. 36a32 . comba soilse-siu, Wb. 22c3 . Ml. 54b19 .

(b) bat, -ba, -pa, -bat, -pat, -rba(t), -rbot, -(b)sa(t) : with cía, cidat ; with ma, madat : ni ba dicheoil, SR 2197. nipa frithenech, LU 3495. ní pa, Ériu i 198 § 16a . nibát athboingid ar narbat aithrech, LU 3502. nibat comromach ar nábat miscnech, 3503 . nirbat díscir ... nibbát ecal ... nipát tairne ..., 3467 - 9 . ba hēmich corbad sercach, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 14 § 3.3 . bat umal corbot ūasal, ib. § 3.7 . nírba chreccach, Ériu i 200 § 22. nirba truag, SR 3295. doroimle corbat cétach, ..., LU 8796 (FB). atraí coropat mor, 3533 . céin bat béo, 3919 . nirbat ancretmech ... acht corbat cretmech, PH 6776. diamba breiteam arafeser ... `if thou be a judge, thou shouldst know,' BCrólige § 66. diambat rolabar, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 18 § 7.16 . ZCP vii 298.17 . diamsa coemainech, IT i 70.2 . diamsat fissid, iii 488.352 . BS 86.25 . nírsat bidbha oirechta, Acall. 597. 598 . toich duit cidat rī, toich duit cidat druī (to a child), PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 546 § 3 ( LL 147a ). cidat lond im gním garta, IT iii 508 § 1. madat fīrēn flaith `if you be a just prince,' KMMisc. 262 § 15. madhid trēn, ML² 1437.

s. 3

I Forms without ro-.

(i) Abs. The form ba appears to be used only as jussive subj. :

(a) ? bá tualang cách forcital alaili `let each be fit ...,' Wb. 6d13 ; ba samlid dúib `be ye thus,' 19d29 , but in both instances the editors would read bad for ba.

(b) do Chríst ba mór do gaire, Ériu i 200 § 22. ba i n-ómun ba i n-incridiu | gudem Críst let it be in fear ..., 195 § 10 (but ? cf. 1 fa).

Conj. (ii)

(a)bé (see Bergin, Ériu xii 208 ff .) : cia bé a mmēt adae `however great it may be,' Ml. 61b28 . cip hé ade asberam, 25d11 .

(b) cip hé gellus dít, Trip.² 1626. cibbe noda saraigfed, 789 . cipe a isle, ciape a huaisle, Laws v 386.15 . secht tellaige ... nad erenaiter cidbe indola, 206.2 . cidbe fine dib dibus, Cóic Con. H § 69. cebé baile no beth, LU 365. cipé tí, TBC-LL¹ 1768. cipia frisa ferthar tnú, Ériu v 211.69 . gidh bé haird iona dtuitfidh, TSh. 3985.

(iii) -bo occurs in the Glosses seeming sometimes to be the jussive subj. (neg.) and once after in whether , but these exx. may perhaps be pret. (but see (iv) below) :

(a) ní bo comitesti (rectius chomitesti, Ed.) dó `he should not be indulged,' Wb. 1c12 . nibo intain no mbeid ar súil tantum `it must not be when ye are before (His) eye,' 27c9 . rofitir side imbo ho chridiu fa nacc, 27c11 .

(b) No instance.


-p, -b :

(a) níp tarisse lat `trust him not,' Wb. 30d24 . nip sain a n-asberat et immarádat, 28c1 . nip crú cruach, Thes. ii 250.11 (Stowe M.). arnáp hé som ..., Wb. 6c7 . ar nab laigiu, Sg. 179b1 . imb anacol dom fa nac, Wb. 23a6 . immaid (=imb m.) fa olcc, 8d26 . im fochróib bá chían, Sg. 151b2 . sechip hé ... `whosoever it be,' Wb. 3b15 . sechib grád i mbether and, 10a18 . cip cruth bíid páx libsi fri cách `howsoever it be,' 5d33 . cib cenél tra dia ro scribad ind epistil so, 3b20 . mainip in chrud-so, 10a5 . manip hinunn etargnae, Sg. 188a12 . Ml. 14d10 . cenib fír, 24d22 . cenip ho étrummugud inna n-olc, 59a23 . cinip hond sémigdetu, 59a23 .

(b) -p, -b, -pe, -be, later -ba, -bo ; with día, díam : acht nip inbleoguin, Laws ii 98.17 . bés níp aill do dáinib, Fél. Ep. 417. níp anchobrai, LU 9663. bes nipe nessu éc do suidiu oldás daitsiu, 9210 . mad ben urnadma na be cetmunnter, Laws ii 380.25 . ar n[a] himirbera neach na be hai, v 476.z . diam dlaí di chi[u]nn adairt, Críth G. 229. BCrólige § 38. diam chuibse cataid `to whom veneration is due,' Laws i 10.24 . mairg ... diam cara Colco, Anecd. i 7.11 . cach fuil druith dinnap inna ramot techtai torai, BCrólige § 64. cid nabsin (? = nab sí in) Fedelm-sa ... cichsed, LU 8296. nabbsin, 8318 . air nā ba (v.l. arnab) sothuissledhach, Corm. Y 434. arnapa dimicnithi, Trip.² 2048. sechib dán di[i]b, Críth G. 323. sicip hé dígbas ..., Trip.² 751. secip blas bá mellach, LU 1787. PH 1428. mad iar stair cip indus, Trip.² 33. BDD² 655. cip magen inda tecmai `in whatever place,' BCrólige § 40. cidh be manach doda-goad ┐ cib can a cinel whencesoever, Anecd. i 44.8 . cecip ní foillsighfithir daitt ` whatever ,' Aisl. Tond. 96.9 is fīach dia blīadnai dō īar sin d(h)inap (sic leg.) turbuith deithbire dothnairp dia nephthairiuc 'it becomes for him a debt [payable only] in a year’s time unless a legitimate excuse excuses him for his non-appearance' Bürgschaft 17 § 53 , Ériu xx 230 . dinnap ina ramot techtai torai 'unless it has accrued in a lawful way (?) ' Ériu xii 52 § 64 , xx 230 . manip do Chonchobor, ScM. § 3.16 . PH 2080. manib tualaing, Anecd. iii 23.12 . maniba t'ainmnet ..., Trip.² 859. manab ac oen flaith beit, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. munab neasa, 44.4 . DDána 76 § 24. munob cunntabartac[h], BCrólige § 14 n. 1 . munup, Laws iv 26.13 . menip, SR 3597. Cóic Con. RE § 23. minub, BCrólige § 23. FDG 389. minap, TBC-I¹ 795. PH 1542. minab, 6035 . munbo cairnech in craidhe, ZCP vi 268.12 . munba, ib. 11 . IGT Decl. ex. 352. cinip mór do bríg, Trip.² 1888. LU 1435 (MU).

The form arimp in the Glosses always has a final sense except the doubtful ex. in Ml. 130b8 (see below). The ex. from Críth Gabl. is also final, the others all express an indirect command or wish (cf. airndip, see (v) below) :

(a) arimp áigthidiu-de `that it may be the more dreaded,' Wb. 23d23 . 32a2 . 15c4 . arimp díthnad ... dúibsi foditiu fochide dúnni, 14b17 . arim tairismech, 25a9 . ised as maith la dia airimp (? leg. airndip) isin gess ... `this God would have ...,' Ml. 130b8 .

(b) arim túalang gabála[e] ríg, Críth G. 187. cach ōen comaldathar in cāin si ... arim sírsaegul ... ┐ arop airmitnech fēith, Cáin Ad. § 30. abbair fri Feradach, arim remḟissid arad sencharpait `er solle ein vorauswissender Lenker des alten Wagens sein,' ZCP xi 83 § 27. nach oirecht ... árim (corob, v.l.) cáin domnaig cétadéntar ann, Ériu ii 210 § 33. The usual way of expressing a wish or exhortation is rop (see section II below), but cf.: adair ... do Dia ┐ co mbá dó a aenur fhogna, PH 4724. searc Íosa ... go mba hé th'arm DDána 20 § 7. goma, 93 § 37 . in cū ruad ... coma taīseach cāemc[h]uaine, CCellaig 463 . With cen co : cen cop foccus a gcairdiss, Anecd. ii 62.2 . MacCongl. 39.27 . PH 3100. cin cob aire doronsat, 3237 .


(a) -dip, -dib : condip slán á anim, Wb. 9b9 . condib cumme, 24a22 . is tacair arndip samlid it is meet that it be thus, 22c11 . airndip maith a forcell `that the testimony may be good,' 25d21 . airndib ecmailt, Tur. 71 (airndip may have either final or consecutive sense, see note on arimp in (iv) above). duús indip fochunn ícce do, Wb. 26b27 . dús cia port indib maith, 24 .

(vi) With ma (má),

(a) mad : mad cumme imned á cheli et a imned fessin, Wb. 20c6 . 12a23 . 4a14 . mad cétnide a n-animm, Sg. 197a2 . 3b19 . mad du rúin `according to the mystic meaning,' Tur. 103.

(b) mad, mád : mad a dligiud ḟénechso (Corr., Ed.) is menbu, Críth G. 11. mad nóeb arid-léga, Fél. Ep. 178. Corm. Y 1233. mad na mna `if it belong to the woman,' Laws ii 402.1 . mádh táesca dhuit iná dham, Anecd. i 32 § 54. mád, LU 9216. madh peacthach é, TSh. 4315.


With cía although, that ,

(a) cith, cid : deithbeir do ceith aneola, Wb. 33c16 . cith etarṡuidigthe, Sg. 68b4 . Mon. Tall. 159.2 . cid accobrach, Wb. 4c34 . cid doib doarrchet `though they were prophesied unto,' 5a16 (here the sense appears to be indic., see GOI § 793 ). cid comsuidigthe, Sg. 201a10 . Ml. 2d12 .

(b) cid, gid: cid ē marad tarm ēisi, Corm. Y 180. cid diabal fod foirge, Laws iv 18.19 . cid sain na conairi (pl. subject). Cóic Con. H. § 43. gid rogāeth nī rogand, TBC-I¹ 2596.

cid ed nevertheless: (b) cid ed nī rochotail, TBC-I¹ 2512. gidh eadh ní híad as andsa, KMMisc. 352 § 6.

cid ... cid, cid ... nó whether (it be) ... or ...:

(a) ma gorith locc cith ine chuis nú ine láim, Thes. ii 245.36 (Camb.). cid maid cid olcc la nech, Wb. 30d6 . cach réit cid precept cid labrad, 13a29 . Sg. 2a7 . Ml. 26a8 . cid ho deacht maicc nó ho deacht athar arafoima doinacht maicc aní arroet, 17c3 .

(b) cid cóem cid díchóem, Críth G. 225. Corm. Y 1167. SCC 679 .

cid cia whoever it be: am chind cid cia raib, KMMisc. 254 § 4.

cid though it be has also the sense even , in which sense its verbal content must early have been forgotten so that it may be folld. by plural noun or pronoun, and by a dependent vb. in indic. instead of subj.:

(a) cithisse `it is even he,' Wb. 22a7 (a prima manu). corrici cith besti béoa, Thes. i 4.31 . ceith cenmathá in tegdais n-ucut `even besides,' Wb. 33a4 . cid ind fochith follongam `even the suffering which we endure,' 14b15 . ceth Máolruoin, Mon. Tall. 135.24 . co seichetar cid a comroircniu, Sg. 1a2 .

(b) coire ... no suigfedh cid Erind, Corm. Y 323.8 . ní dénaiter cid clocha fotraicthi díb, Trip.² 873. ni cuma dono cid cach mis disuidiu, Laws iv 88.19 . ní thibrind i tindscra cid Meidbi insin, TBFr. 185. cid mecnu, LU 10560.

II Forms with ro-.


(a) rop, rob, ropo' (the form rob occurs only before b and m): rop corae doib fri dia `peace be with them ...,' Wb. 20d1 . rop scīath dún diar n-imdegail, Hy. i 20. rop fír, ib. 39 . nicon fil bas sciith lim act rop ar crist, Wb. 18a2 . acht robronach (=rob bronach, Ed.), Ml. 86d12 . act ropo cho n-etarceirt, Wb. 13a26 . act ropo cho torbu, 27 .

(b) rop, rob, ropo': rop múr ar cech merblén' Babill, Fél. Jan. 24. rob hí ascaid connaga, Ériu iv 106 § 59. rob dimbríogh gach tonn dá ttuil | gach imshníomh sonn rob soruidh, Studies 1921, 76 § 25 . DDána 122 § 21. acht rop la forcomet, Mon. Tall. 161.27 . Trip.² 2941. acht rob tol dait-so, ZCP viii 312.8 . riasíu ropo chúairddulchach, Críth G. 68.

The form robo, robu and with inf. pron. rodbo, rodbu occurs in the sense either, or (cf. Fr. soit ... soit). The editors of Thes. Pal. (i 433 n. ) say it `seems to be regular in the first of two or more alternatives.' It is so used in the great majority of cases but in Wb. 14c24 and Ml. 58b11 (see below) it precedes the second alternative. Pedersen ( KZ xxxv 404 f . q.v.) suggests an original meaning `was es sei' and the loss of the demonstrative pronoun a n- or aní before robo. Thurneysen ( GOI § 886 ) believes it to have been a potential ro- subj. It is found somet. where in the Lat. uel .. uel .., or Lat. aut .. aut ... occur:

(a) rodbo dia adroni ... ł. is hé-som adroni ... either God has committed ..., Wb. 29d29 . 16d7 . fo chenéle lugi [i]ssiu rodbo chosmi[liu]s `as a kind of oath ... or a similitude,' 14c24 . robo intí forchain gl. siue qui docet, 5d10 . robo folad diles ł. doacaldmach, Sg. 197a1 . 200b6 . robu óenlitrib gl. uel singulis literis, 28a12 . robu cho adersetar gl. uel emendentur ... (uel ...), Ml. 30d11 . robu a caratrad gl. (uel necessitudo) uel (familiaritas), 58b11 (but Eds. suggest on p. 721b : `as robu regularly refers to the former of two alternatives, gloss 11 may gl. uel necessitudo'). robu a nnu mothaigtis gl. aut stupentes, 44c6 . 109c3 . 121b6 .

(b) rodbu forcetail ł. scribend ł. uaimm n-etaig, LB 11b13 . innahí rohaisneid dó N. .. rodbo o littrib no a himaccalmaibh, ZCP ii 321.y .

(ii) -rop, -rup, -rub:

(a) corrup mithich gabáil ferainn do, Wb. 19d3 . corrop hed mo indeb Crist, 24a6 . corop he to menmme, Thes. ii 255.14 (Stowe M.). Wb. 7d10 . Sg. 40b7 . corub mebuil leu, Ml. 138c8 . See also Subst. Vb. l. 1389 ff.

(b) -rup, -rub, -rob, -rop, -rab, -rap, -rip, -rp: corup messu de dún, Trip.² 2592. TBC-I¹ 1577. PH 5319. corob gel in mag, Trip.² 555. TBC-I¹ 2455. corrom mé (=corrob mé) nosn-orr, BDD² 721. corab meisi, Trip.² 1360. Laws iv 62.18 Comm. Anecd. i 17.17 . curub cutruma cuit cach fir dib, Cóic Con. H § 102. co rāssa in cū hīsin ┐ corip ingnīma, TBC-I¹ 539 = corop, LU 5028. acht corp dall, SR 2900. āgusta dō gurab trū, Corm. Y 1238. ní rop áilsed `let there not be neglect,' Fél. Ep. 522. nī rob do soinmige ┐ nī rob do fechtnaidi dō, TBC-I¹ 640 = nipo ... ┐ nirop, LU 5125. arnarap galar doib, Mon. Tall. 147.23 . arnā rob olc, Corm. Y 425. fégad cech aen uaib ... ná rob dáll ... hé, PH 4666. Sometimes the final b or p dropped out, at first before initial b or f: arnara fochand báis dóib, Mon. Tall. 146.29 . 152.11 . curu bēl ainmnech urnaigthech, ACL iii 234 § 9. luiget ... co ro bréc, PH 2685. co ro huain doib, 4997 .


(a) bes`, bas`: níi bes chotarsne diar n-ícc, Wb. 11a24 . bes chossecarthae, Ml. 63a6 . bes miniu, Thes. ii 254.14 (Stowe M.). céin bas mbéo, Wb. 10b23 . a mbas cete, Thes. ii 17.34 (Bcr.).

(b) bes`, bas`, bus`: nech bes ardu, Críth G. 115. lin bes coir, BCrólige § 48. ni bes epiltiu, Mon. Tall. 152. 31 . dírimm bas choímiu ná bess áiniu, TBFr. 47. ontí bass formbthi, Mon. Tall. 141.19 . dís bas ḟerr, BDD² 1222. ríasiu bus lá, MU² 322. neich bus chomgrād dó, Ériu i 219 § 7. i llaim neich bessa set `of the person whose property it is,' Laws v 376.4 . do cach besa ai whose it is, ii 398.z . iv 28.5 . i 264.18 . A pron. may be infixed between rel., and its pred.: doeim dano in clī innī besidn-īsle, doemar som ōnnī besadn-ūaisliu, Corm. Y 275. set inna muin cachae besid fiu, Laws v 384.z . 382.8 . ech beissid fiu, 406.9 . cenn caich ... i fine besid sruithe, besid n-uaisliu, ZCP xiv 369 § 31. ailid .iii. seotu bes da fiu, Laws v 408.7 .

pl. 1


(a) No instance.

(b) ropond: ropond bēo for deis mic Dē may we be alive, ZCP viii 106 § 9 (ropo-nd = 3 s.+inf. pron. pl. 1).


(a) -ban`: co comalnammar a pridchimme et comman (=co m-ban) dessimrecht do chach, Wb. 31c11 . a numman aircheltai, Ml. 27b10 .

(b) -ban, -rdar, -(r)bar; with cía, gidar: is am comman tairisiu `'tis time that we should be ...,' Fianaig. 26.14 . an biucán gurdar síthaig, Hib. Min. 82.23 . gidar comaltai, TBC-LL¹ 3680. co mbar commaithe, 35 . tiagam ass con (f)acamar na milchonu ...┐ corbar (go mbat, v.l.) scithu oco, TBFr. App. § 16.

pl. 2


(a) bede: conicfid-si bede preceptori uili `ye will all be able to be teachers,' Wb. 13a10 .


(a) -bad: combad accomalti-si limsa, 23a26 . arnábad toirsig dim chuimriug-sa, 27c34 . arna bad huilcc, 5d38 . dia mbad mathi, 16a13 . ma[nba]d irlaithi, 27c11 . ? To this: annambaid (anambaid, MS.) buidig `when ye are not content,' Ml. 115b10 .

(b) nibur n-ecnaigid, SR 4871. nibfor cétludaig, 4872 .

pl. 3

I Forms without ro-.

No absolute forms occur without ro-.



(a) -bet`, -pat`, -bat`: mainbet mathi, Wb. 11c5 . nó innabet o nach ainmm-diu etir `or whether they are not from any nominal form at all,' Sg. 56b1 . arnapat toirsich, Wb. 26d21 . combat irlamu-de ind ancreitmich do chretim, 12d29 . armbat eolig, 31d15 . armbat chosmaili, Ml. 130a12 . a mbat n-erchoissi, 73c9 . cinbat huili, Wb. 4d6 .

(b) -bet, -bat: im damu nad be tairchesa (leg. bet airchesa), Laws i 184.14 . iv 54.10 . mat cuibdi ... manbet cuibdi, i 244.3 . adubairt ... conod brathair iat cen go bed, Celt. Rev. x 36.18 . acht conbat beoda, TBC-LL¹ 39. combat sithamla, PH 4015. 6746 . manibat óga a frithḟolaid, Ériu i 219 § 9. menbat allmaraig, MU² 517. diamat glain, SR 1461. cenibat fiu, Laws ii 316.20 .

(ii) With ma,

(a) mat: mat hé na briathra-sa forcane, Wb. 28c21 . mat anmann adiechta emnatar and, Sg. 189b4 .

(b) mat, madat, mádit: mat comaithi a folaid, no mat comolca, Laws ii 362.25 - 6 . mat e ... anfolaid in cele falla frithgnama, ZCP xiv 387 § 53. madat comlūatha, ZCP viii 217 § 2. mádit (sic leg.) creidmech, KMMisc. 146.4 .

(iii) With ce, cía although ,

(a) cit: cit imdi far forcitlidi, Wb. 9a12 . 4d4 . 12a13 . cit comsuidigthi, Sg. 207b11 . 190b1 . et muscreitfet cit hésidi `even they,' Wb. 5c2 .

(b) cit, cidat, ciambat: cit lir, Mon. Tall. 156.26 . Fél. Prol. 245. cith (leg. cit) lir cétuib, ZCP viii 195 § 7. cidat (cid, v.l.) créchtnaig, BDD² 1347. KMMisc. 268 § 41. ciambat ilardai, SR 4833.

(iv) With cía, ce who, what ,

(a) No instance.

(b) cit: indid damsa cit n-armand | hi fil chend erred Ul[ad] tell me what are the places ..., LU 11056.

II Forms with ro-.


(a) ropat`: ropat choin altai ... adcear, Thes. ii 293.7 ( SP i ). acht ropat ṡaini tertpersin, Sg. 199a1 .

(b) ropat`, robat`, robet, ropsat: ropat lir a tellaig, Trip.² 2571. ropat óin dom ṡnádud `may they be one,' Fél. Jan. 21. robat mo cuirn coidin midc, Otia i 126 § 24. robet ar seilb an ōenfir, BColm. 54.10 . ropsat idain dīan-báis ám, KMMisc. 210.3 .


(a) No instance.

(b) -rbat, ? -rsat: ciarbat mara a treba, Hy. ii 60 Comm. curbat úagṡlá[i]n, BColm. 54.11 . nirbat ile a liberna, LU 1035. girbat linmara, TBC-LL¹ 4196. garbat discailtig, 544 . apair ó brethir namá corbat bairgin na clochasa, PH 4918. ciarbot maithi, KMMisc. 266 § 32. ? gorsat lir a mmairb andas a mbí, TBC-LL¹ 6015.


(a) beta`, bete`, bata`: beta téit `when they are wanton,' Wb. 29a1 . beda fiscina baptizerium, Thes. ii 226.29 (Pcr.). donaib hí beta cheti, Ml. 126c4 . ni cumcat bete gentilia, Sg. 33a16 . a mbata n-aersigthi, Ml. 127a4 .

(b) beta, bete, bida: mad aile da lina beta olca [a] folaid, Laws ii 366.11 . itir na ceithre comaichaib beda neasa do, iv 116.2 . tech sruithi bet (leg. betc) fuirbthium, Mon. Tall. 136.23 . tri haidche bede cora, Laws v 438.24 . cusna belltenaib bida nesom, ii 390.20 . trian de don ḟir bed a (leg. beda a) beich `whose bees they are,' iv 116.1 Comm. Cf. do fir bede heich, 106.1 Comm.

Subj. Past

s. 1

(a) -bin, -benn: commin inricc dó `so that I may be worthy thereunto,' Wb. 24a11 . combin cosmail, Ml. 91b7 . arnamtomnad námmin duine, Wb. 17d23 . nombin dermatach, Ml. 20a4 . toimtin armbenn duine, 130d4 .

(b) -badim, -badam: abraind nā badim (? sic leg.) slānsa ... ropad rēill mo tholcsa and, TBC-I¹ 3532. bad cháined dom ḟir co mbadim ferr-sa, TBC-LL¹ 34. damadam (sic leg.) rig (dia mbam airdrí, v.l.) for Erinn if I were , FDG 519.

s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) -badat: da mbad in lāsin, nī epertha co mbadad (leg. mbadat) ferr do lōech annā Cū., TBC-I¹ 2503. is é in claideb dobéraind ... menbadat (sic leg.) aide, RC xiv 426.25 ( LL 111b4 ).

s. 3

I Forms without ro-.

(i) Abs.

(a) bed`, bad`: arna tomnathar bed foammamichthe deacht don dóinacht `that (the) Godhead is subject,' Wb. 13c2 . dommuinfide bed n-ísel intí dia, Ml. 40c17 (in these two exx. we have the type of sentence in which bid occurs in Wb. 25c12 , see (iii) below). din dínit bed ṡástai, Sg. 39b11 . ni arindí bed leth ngotho nobed indib, 5a4 . dóig linn bed n-acuit, 30a8 . bed chuintechti, Ml. 92a17 . ni robe nech bad huaisliu, Wb. 33d10 . aimser ba (leg. bad, Edd.) chomadas dó, 21a1 . cia bed a mmēt inna fochaide `whatever the greatness of the tribulations might be,' Ml. 39a13 (see Bergin, Ériu xii 208 ff .).

(b) bed`, bad`, pad, bud: ba dóig leó bed a sídaib dí, BDD² 42. nech bed chomalaind dó, LU 1667 (ICM). nad baí baili bád cuidbiu dó, Trip.² 429. lāech bad chāime, TBC-I¹ 3242. BDD² 79. mad mē bad chend ..., Ériu iii 140.183 . cīa ragas ...? Cīa pad cīa ... acht Condere `who should it be cut C.', i 114 § 3 . muc bud grátu, Corm. Y 118. ní bud ṡíre, BDD² 138. ciped mac díb no gabad gasced, TBC-LL¹ 1089. With inf. pron. s. 3: tegdais adchondarc indiu | ni fa[il] ba-da-crichidiu (? leg. bad-da-), Thes. ii 292 § 1 (Ml. Poems). marbān badid n-ingnathar, Bruchst. 45 § 102. coich bia beo badid [n-]amradair, RC xx 260 § 65 = badib amradair, LU 873. badid-rédithir ... badid-némithir, RC xxiv 56 § 17. s. 1: nī faigebasu curaid ... bádam fiusa, LU 3913.

(ii) Conj.

(a) -bed`, -bad` (mainbed (minbad, manibad) is regularly folld. by acc.): mainbed maith latsu, Wb. 32a11 . combed chiall ainsedo ildai and, Ml. 67d24 . ni bed uilliu, 54b30 . is cumme nibad móidem `it is the same as though it were not boasting,' Wb. 2b14 . amal nibad fiu, Ml. 63d2 . mainbad éicin, Wb. 4a20 . Hy. v 32. manibbad hinunn, Sg. 17b8 . manibad trocairi ndáe, Ml. 111b28 . manipad taschidetaid, 136c2 . arnábad rómár, Wb. 11c7 . conapad firdía mac, Ml. 21c12 . diambad mathi, Wb. 16a13 . combad choitchen, Sg. 72a1 . Ml. 21d1 . combath chomlan rith lunae , Thes. ii 33.27 (Bv.). na epred a menme armbad ferr són, Wb. 10a16 . arimbad and furruimtis a praintech, Thes. ii 242.4 (Ardm.).

(b) -bed`, -bad`, -pad, -bud, -bod: ised bud cóir laisim combed de laim anmcharat ..., Mon. Tall. 146.25 . Trip.² 2246. ní ... tresambed elned do, Mon. Tall. 164.7 . manipad lor, 128.15 . manipad do chrúass, Trip.² 1370. minbad in mbáin mbic, MacCongl. 107.7 . cid daitsiu nábad lat in curathmír, LU 8112. diambad Chú, 3752 . dámadh linn, TSh. 5962. combad chennach, LU 4296. bá cubaid cíapad tussu bad dall, Trip.² 1516. dūs imbad lór, Mon. Tall. 133.8 . mun budh le druimm cáein Cesrach, Anecd. i 32 § 60. minbud thu, ii 4.11 . ar na bud ed, PH 3074. ? go nach budh rí ar Israel tú `ne sis rex,' TSh. 8330. cid daitsiu ... nád bod latt curadmir Emna, LU 8140. cía lasmboth scīth ┐ lasmboth laind techt int slōgaid, TBC-I¹ 154.


(a) bid (this form, which Thurn. ( GOI § 806 ) suggests may be an unstressed form of vn. buith, occurs regularly after amal, oldaas, is cumme, in doich, in comparative and equative clauses and in a few other instances. This would suit an ex. like Thes. ii 294 § 3 below but does not explain phrases where bid follow amal, is cumme, etc. It survives into Mid. Ir. but is somet. replaced by bed or bad, and in a few cases spreads to other types of sentence (amal bid is regularly folld. by acc. cf. mainbad, above): amal bid dia as though he were God, Wb. 26a7 . amal bid claind noclantis, Ml. 63b9 . amail bith ball di crist, Thes. ii 255.14 (Stowe M.). amal fid na derscaigthiu, Ml. 37b22 . amal bid inn accaldim deithidnig (leg. nd.), 35c27 . is cumme doib bid idalte domeltis, Wb. 10c3 . in doich bid saindóire dúnni, 10d1 . is nessa do inni lemm oldaas bid ar n-áinsem, 4b17 . ní lugu ... indáas bid praeceptóir asidindissed, Ml. 42b18 . arna tomnitisom bid do irgairiu cotulta, Wb. 25c12 (see above under (i) where this type of sentence occurs with bed in Wb. 13c2 and Ml. 40c17 ). ni meite bid machdad forgare forru, Sg. 161b12 . ba coru tra bid adnuntiabit nobeth híc , Ml. 45b14 . soilsidir bid hi lugburt, Thes. ii 294 § 3 ( SP iii ).

(b) amal bid oc caíned ... [no beth], Trip.² 87. amal bid do thecht secha, IT i 72.14 . amail bid a haongiun, Corm. Y 1059.37 . amal bid fótrond ..., LU 9099 (FB). ba doich lind bid din lucht forācaibset som, ZCP viii 313.25 . ba hé mo líthsa bid é do-chorad and, BDD² 494. asberat alaili bid di lucht na luinge ..., ZCP viii 313.23 . In a type of sentence where it did not occur in O. Ir.: flaith athuigh na bid flaith a athair whose father was not a chief, Laws ii 200.21 . nā tānic rīam nā īarum bīd (leg. bid) errdarcu, MacCongl. 45.28 . ar cend neich bid (budh, v.l.) éolchu ┐ bid síne andás, Ériu iv 126.15 . ingen bid chaime tochim, RC xxiv 198.24 . In the follg. exx. O. Ir. would show bid: amal bud he Crist, PH 129. mar bud, 4098 . amal bad a domun aile thíssad, TBFr. 278. is cumme lem bed (bid, v.l. App.) i taulchubu fhína no beth mo chend, TBFr. 47. in dōig bad ē Conchobur, TBC-I¹ 2758. (cf. also: ba doig bed n-ingcert, Ml. 61b15 ). dōig leam bad i ndiamraib ... nobeith, TBC-I¹ 884.

(iv) With ma (má),

(a) mad: mad mo ríar-sa dognethe and, Wb. 9d25 . mad forcenn libuir, Ml. 2d1 .

(b) mad, mád: mad meise con-ísed mo chomairle, BDD² 708. mád ina ṡláinti ind fir fil sund robad chomairche ar Ultaib ulib, LU 3303.

(v) With cía, ce although ,

(a) cid: ni pu imdu do in mann cid trén oc tecmallad `though he were,' Wb. 16c25 .

(b) cid: cid fín bárc do-téised treut, BDD² 740.

II Forms with ro-. ro- is rare with past subj. The instances are:

(a) act robad tairismech linni, Wb. 18d11 . ní ar maith friu ... act is corpad mithig lessom inducbál dia nóibaib, 4c37 .

(b) ? ingé (read perhaps itge, Ed.) ropad limsa ol sésim adpand do seinm tr. `I would crave a boon, said he, to play a tune,' Mon. Tall. 131.28 . acht corbad maithi a gnima, Ériu v 124.76 . amal ro bad pheccad leo as though they considered it a sin, PH 3232.

pl. 1


(a) bimmis, bemmis : amal bimmis octarche `as if we were dregs,' Wb. 9a7 . amal bemmis bibdaid, Ml. 114d4 .

(b) amal bemís marb, PH 2967.


(a) -bimmis : amal ni bimmis cutrummi frib, Wb. 17b16 . Ml. 63b1 . commimmis ecil hi fochidib, Wb. 29b16 . commimis less huili, 6b21 .

(b) -badar : acht co mbadar maithe díblínaib, TBC-LL¹ 35.

pl. 2 No instance.

pl. 3


(a) bitis, betis: nírbu mou leu bríg a tobai indate bitis cranna doiscairi dufubaitis `than though they had been cutting down common trees,' Ml. 92d6 . donaib déedib betis chloithib, 131d11 . amal betis degmaini, 90a14 .

(b) bitis, betis, batis : amal bitis chóic ṡutralla, Trip.² 1448. ba bindithir ... ┐ betis téta mennchrot, BDD² 189. TBFr. 27. amal betís margretai, PH 2445. dicunt betis secht maic, ZCP viii 314.34 (Laud Gen.). asberat araile batis trī brāthir, ib. 331.14 (ib.). doruimenatar bádis fir ṡīthe, Trip.² 1112.


(a) -btis, -ptis : comtis indbaid i n-iris, Wb. 10d33 . conabdis apstil, 5b15 . comtis ainmmnidi, Sg. 7b2 . coniptis erlama, Ml. 100c24 . maniptis mu charait, Ml. 73d1 . Sg. 120a1 . ni aisndet duaid airmdis hé iusti indí ..., Ml. 54a12 . airmtis ní etir, 79b11 . amtis forbristi ind ríg, 85d9 .

(b) -btis, -ptis : comtis secht maic, Trip.² 901. PH 7013. comdis sidhaighthi, ZCP xiii 254.12 . comtís comarda síat, TBC-LL¹ 5015. ba cóir ceniptis árdda do chongbala-su, Trip.² 1564. naptis messaiti, Ériu iv 24 § 10. diambtís rátha iat, MU² 376. diambtís craind, 434 . ciabtis cosmaile, SR 2892. ciapdis ganna, Anecd. ii 69.8 . ciamdis dimolta, i 21.5 . With amal betis under (a) above, cf. marbtís máirb as though they were dead, LU 9761. immarbdais meic do, 4097 .

With ma

(a) matis : matis huili conabdis apstil tantum `if it were all (the Jews) and not the apostles only,' Wb. 5b15 . matis mu namait, Ml. 73b1 .

(b) matis is replaced in Mid. Ir. by diambtís q.v., supra.


s. 1


(a) be : be sóir mo brethre `I shall be free as regards my word,' Wb. 4c18 . bé (biam, bum, v.ll.) sóir cech inbaid, Hy. iv 8.

(b) bea, bem, bam, bíam, bidam : bem (bea, v.l.) torbach[u]-sa duit-si oldās ..., Corm. Y 1059.30 = bam tarbach sa deit, Anecd. iv p. xiv.y . in hed bam beo, SR 3187. Ériu iv 142.z . bam tarb tnúith isna tressaib, IT iii 510 § 4. Anecd. i 12.7 . bam anoraigti-sea oc Dia, PH 2428. biam tigerna os cech drung, SR 855. bíam cúsa ... dot imdegail, LU 5027. bidam chusa, TBC-LL¹ 1049 (v.l., Eg.). bidam bithchuimnech, RC xvi 46 ( Dinds. 95 ). CCath. 3348. bídham tigerna fer an domain, 4046 .

Conj. (a) No instance.

(b) -pam : ni pam slán-sa ... conid n-accur, IT i 72.1 . nípam comchirtisea do neoch, LU 4248.

s. 2


(a) No instance.

(b) ba, basa, bat, biat, bidat : ba baeth, SR 5955. ba bruiden ban ndérach, Metr. Dinds. iii 96.19 . bása bec bíaid úair | basa már iar tain, LU 9854. bat neirt ar do lochnamtib, LU 10423. bat (ba, v.l.) fornocht, Metr. Dinds. iii 96.4 . bat (ba, bad, v.ll.) dín ar gád, ib. 9 . bát nimidech, LU 9633. biat rīsiu co derb, PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 546 § 8 . § 15 . biat forscailtech, ib. § 17 ( LL 147a ). bidat úallach, ZCP vii 298.17 . LB 151a48 . bidhit neimedach, BNnÉ 93 § 204. toīsechu bia marb oldās bia meirb, PRIA iii 546 § 8 ( LL 147a9 ) (this is really the form of the subst. vb. but seems to be intended as copula, cf. biat, above).


(a) Strachan ( Subst. Vb. l. 1316 ) gives : co mba soilse-siu, Wb. 22c3 (gl. inluminabit tibi Christus) but translates `so that thou mayest be,' Thes. i p. 639 which is probably correct.

(b) -ba, -bat : adbert fria drai ... ni bam rai (? leg. niba-m-drai) badechtsa mene dingba ..., BB 407a1 . da lecea tú Ísu ass, ni bat cara do Cessair, PH 2815.

s. 3


(a) bid, bith : bid héet lib-si geinti do bith in hiris, Wb. 5a13 . bid cumma et riam, 18a13 . bith sechmadachte, Sg. 147b3 . bith flaithem intí Solam for saint, Ml. 90a9 .

(b) bid, bith, beith, bed, bud : bid nath n-airec fordarc, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 16.6 . bidsom fria toil `it (heaven) will be at their pleasure,' Mon. Tall. 141.17 . bid misi, Trip.² 1963. Laws i 6.z . bid calma, TBC-I¹ 2469. bid hē lā a phennati, MacCongl. 29.6 . PH 4032. ata lasna tuati beith lór dóib do ascnam nime acht doratat ní dona hanmchairtib, Mon. Tall. 141.15 . rochrúfemne ... ind pennit bes chóir fortsu. Bed cet ol D., 130.23 . With inf. pron. s. 2 : bidat eigen dola, Aisl. Tond. 101.x . ammarach bud maith do threóir, Anecd. i 39 § 114. ib. 17.18 . RC xxiv 194.7 . budh hē bērus an bāiri, ZCP xiii 17.27 . budh iomdha ann fós arracht ag eagcaoine, TSh. 4068.


(a) -pa, -ba : nípa cosmuil frisin titacht tóisig, Wb. 25d13 . níba cuit adíll, 14a8 . níbbá i n-anus regaid int diruidigud, Sg. 36b1 . in corp i mba flaith in coimdiu, Wb. 9d3 . With inf. pron. s. 3 : nípa-dn-aidrech, 5c9 .

(b) -ba, -pa, -bo, -po, -bu, -pu, -b, -bad, -bud : níba ed bias de, Trip.² 453. BDD² 58. niba fír, ScM. § 11.2 . nipa mor do brig lais, Mon. Tall. 142.4 . admat na ba tíamdae, Fél. Prol. 294. nīpa mise, TBC-I¹ 2141. níbá fír sin, LU 8199. ár | día[m]bá lán Mag F., 3368 . With inf. pron. s. 2 : níbat écen nach n-aill, MU² 1037 (LU). ? nib amles, LU 3325 (tr. `it will be no harm,' SCC 117 ). toingimsa ... corob misi cētfer roficfa (b inserted later, Ed.), TBC-I¹ 2243. mani thuaslaicea isind chaisc nipo assa doib iarum, Mon. Tall. 132.17 . nipo fócrach, Ériu vii 219 § 2. nībo dirsan dait, TBC-I¹ 1048. nipu sén maith itir ... ni fu líth don fleid, FDG 121. nī bu inmuin, Bruchst. 60 § 134. níbu shirsan, TBFr. 370 (= nipi siursan, App. § 26 ). nī bad (ba, v.l.) fāilid, Bruchst. 40 § 95. bat righ uili iat gin co budh comṡaeglach, Anecd. ii 1.15 .


(a) bes`, bas` : in hed bes chobuir dó, Wb. 20c10 . bes lintae, Ml. 44d7 . hore bas fír quod dicam, Wb. 17d20 .

(b) bas`, bus` : Marcán ... bas dech do Uíb Garrchon, Trip.² 2191. félire bas (bus, v.l.) certu, Fél. Ep. 148. ro-fessar ... bas n-olc, LU 7566 (BDD). ni-sn-idnus sund nī bus siriu, TBC-I¹ 3104. inní bus comairle [lat-sa is sí bas chomairle] linne, Anecd. i 41.3 - 4 . cīan bus chumain, ZCP viii 119 § 4. an feadh bhus cumhain leó iad, TSh. 1256.

pl. 1

(a) bimmi ?, bemmi, bammi : isin chruth-sin bimmi nóib-ni, Wb. 3d27 (but see ZCP xxxii 120-21 ). 12c9 . bemmi caelestis, 13d15 . isamlid bami coeheredes , 4a17 .

(b) batin: batin aithrig is tír thall `we shall rue it,' Ériu i 68 § 3 (this is from a poem, occurring in H 3. 18 and LL, which Meyer ascribes to 9th cent. Perhaps one should take it as : ba don-aithrig it will be a matter of regret to us, but cf. atin budig de we are content, Anecd. i 5.18 = YBL 129b23 ).

pl. 2 ? folaich in mac, bar bibdaith bāis ind dia fessara Mac Con, ZCP viii 311.5 , CMMucr. 69 .

pl. 3


(a) bit : bit hé na precepta cétni no pridchob doib, Wb. 17b20 . bit comṡuidichthi, Sg. 4b1 . bit comlin fri fér, Ml. 90b8 .

(b) bit, be(i)t, bat, biat, bidat : bit coirmmgnáithi do chomarpai, Trip.² 1565. bit fūaitne fīanna lib Luigne, Corm. Y 1018.46 . bit lia mairb ... andate a mbí, LU 7187 (BDD). bit lir bomand ega ... for lethchind, 7233 (ib.). beit fir móra ar macáin bic | daim ríata laíg ar mbó, LU 9587 - 9 . bed glana chenai, Mon. Tall. 130.1 . bet imnaraig, Anecd. ii 55.4 . bat mairb fir, IT iii 470.105 . bat lana, TBC-LL¹ 1055. ? in dóig bát dom éligudsa ón ? that they will be a cause of accusation to me (?), LU 3277 (obscure, perhaps bat is s. 2). biat mathi do chland, PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 546 § 9 ( LL 147a10 ). bidat gai géra, ib. 550 § 31. bidat marthanaig, LU 1998. bidat mo na huilc innas ..., CCath. 988.


(a) -pat, -bat, -bet : nipat ferr, Wb. 12d28 . nibat litre, Sg. 6b23 . níbat briathra, Ml. 68c10 . a mbat n-airbirthi buith, 94d1 . anambet ecailsi, 15d7 .

(b) -pat, -bat, -pdat, -bad : nipat ili anmand eissi, Trip.² 934. ní bat buana, TBC-LL¹ 1692. nipdat duthaine, SR 8355. airm inbat budig do bēoil, MacCongl. 77.4 . im bad tíre ┐ feranna, Anecd. i 42.1 . ní bad sgíotha dot sgéulaibh | na Burcaigh, Studies 1919, 439 § 10 .


(a) beta` : beta hícthi, Wb. 3d29 . beta messi, Ml. 70a9 .

Sec. Fut.

s. 1


(a) No instance.

(b) badam : cid andib badam slansa mad ail duitsiu, Ériu xii 166.13 (Tochm. Ét.).

Conj. -badam : [ba] meti nibadam beo d' ingnais rig M. `I were not likely to live,' Ériu x 190.16 ( LL 276a41 ).

s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) ropadat, badat : díambad curadmir do chosnam i nEmain duit, ropadatren (for ropadat trén, Edd.) for ōcaib Emna, LU 6720. ar badat slanchommairgi-siu bar Ultaib, TBC-LL¹ 1165.

s. 3

I Forms with ro-.


(a) ropad`, robad` ; ar ropad maith limsa labrad ilbelre dúibsi, Wb. 12c29 . Sg. 90b2 . robad bethu dom dían chomalninn, Wb. 3c28 . roppad diil tanaisi, Sg. 111b2 . dorairngred dano rombad oirdnide a chland, Wb. 2c12 .

(b) robad`, ropad`, rubad`; robud` : robad chongbail ... dó, Trip.² 1731. robad chomairche ar Ultaib ulib, LU 3303. asbert fria rubad torrach húad, 10601 . robud sía, ACL iii 304.16 . ropad chora, PH 2593. robad was later replaced by dobad : dobadh cōir, Feis Tighe Chonáin 130. dobudh aisg ar m'fhine tar m'ēisi sin, ML² 1413. dobudh mór an éagcóir, TSh. 4845. 2718 , which in turn gave way to the modal pret.

Conj. No conjunct ro- forms occur.

II Forms without ro-.

Abs. These are rare in the Glosses and do not occur in independent sentences, but become more usual later.

(a) bed` : conidfessed cia bed flaith inna diad, Ml. 89b7 . bed messe gl. ratum fore, 105b14 .

(b) bed`, bad`, bud` (bud seems not always to have been folld. by lenition, see ex. below from TSh.) : asbert fri Cassan bed n-ann a eiseirgi, Trip.² 828. ní bad toisigiu dún something that would be ..., Trip.² 117. Corm. Y 473. cia bad chōir do thabairt, TBC-I¹ 2203. BDD² 126. cia de bud ferr la hUltu ..., TBC-I¹ 692. ní bud fiú sain, Anecd. i 28 § 28. budh urlamh, Studies 1921, 75 § 15 . an bél dúnta as eadh budh ḟearr, IGT Decl. ex. 1285. budh dual, TSh. 1584. In independent sentences, where O. Ir. would show robad : bád maith limsa, LU 3354. faicthear 'n-a dhorus a dheilbh | 's badh solus aitreabh Ifeirn Hell would be radiant, DDána 60 § 37.


(a) The forms without ro- supply the conjunct of both bed and robad. -bad`, -pad` : na bad eola inar cintaib, Wb. 33b21 . asbertis cipad a déne ind hesséirgi, 25b27 . níbad ṡamlaid, Sg. 4b4 .

(b) -bad`, -bud` (in the latest exx. there seems not to have been lenition) : imrāidset ... nīpad andsu, TBC-I¹ 1330. ni bad chained, TBC-LL¹ 34. na bud chalmu, 2063 . adubart-sa ... comadh fearr, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1132. ní bud liacha, BDD² 493. fá bud chasmail, PH 7544. nī bud cobair, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1919, 93 § 36 . do bhríogh gomadh cosmhail, TSh. 4766.

pl. 1 and 2 No instances.

pl. 3

I Forms with ro-.


(a) robtis, roptis : epert ... robtis maithi for mbésa-si, Wb. 16b19 . roptis imdai piana donaib anmanaib, Ml. 15c8 .

(b) robtis, roptis : roptis fola ocus cro | mo der do marb Imblecho, AU i 138.15 . asbert roptis gallraig, Trip.² 2786. roptis ferra, Anecd. ii 53.14 . robtis (roptís, LU) do renga, TBC-I¹ 1182.

Conj. No instance.

II Forms without ro- :


(a) No instance.

(b) be(i)tis, beidis : robad do chland-su betis comarpai ind, Trip.² 1710. beitis lir leamsa cendae fer ..., TBC-I¹ 3543. bad dōig lim beidis hē fir Themra, 3371 .

Conj. -btis, -ptis, -bdís : asbert P. nabtis toirthig, Trip.² 2455. connaptís bí, LU 9519. nibdís aingil diada, PH 1787.


s. 1

I Forms without ro-.


(a) basa : basa iudide ó écosc `I was a Jew in appearance,' Wb. 10d34 .

(b) ba(sa), bam(sa), basam : ba-sa cāem, Corm. Y 883.53 . ba-sa cu-sa tairdbi buiden, Anecd. iii 53.13 and 15 (Sia- burcharpat) = basa chausa ..., LU 9328. ba-sa cathach, Tec. Corm. § 8.8 . basa chúsa, LU 9326 , 9328 . bása chomrar, 9335 . bassa collid giallasa, 9318 . bam-sa cu-sa, Anecd. iii 53.10 . fam rí (bainrith, v.l.) ar énlaith Érenn, i 36 § 87 . ba-sa maoth fri maithi, ba-sam imnedach frimm tair, iii 53.20 . basam (bam-sa, bam-siu, v.ll.) dalta tair[i]si, ii 71.7 .


(a) -psa : nipsa iudide ó béssaib, Wb. 10d35 . 17c2 . hore am apstal ... cainipsa sóir ce dognén cach ngním, 10c16 .

(b) -psa, -bsa, -ba, ? -bam, -msa, -sam : nipsa chúsa gabála lis, LU 9325 = nipsa cu-sa ..., Anecd. iii 53.10 . nipsa cell cin chlocc, ii 60.4 . nipsa (nirsam, nipsam, v.ll.) condirclech, Ériu ix 45 § 2. ciapsa reithenech, ib. (geinsam, ciamsam, robsam, rosam, gersam, gerbam, gerbhum, v.ll.) ciapsa duine ciapsa bled, LU 3003 = ciarsam ... ciarsam ..., Fél. 52.37 . domgní mūichnech ingnais Ērenn | diamsa cuimsech for which I (myself) was accountable (?), ZCP vii 309.24 . i mbsa dechenborach ... i mbsa fichtech, Tec. Corm. § 8.6 - 7 . imsa nāidi robsa nā[i]r, Ériu ii 16 § 5. nimsa cu-sa imlo[m]tha fuidhel, Anecd. iii 53.13 and 15 = nipsa cháusa ..., LU 9327. ? cach crích ar bam cend `where I was head,' PRIA III (3rd ser.) 550 § 35 ( LL 147a ). pecdach mé ósam macám, IGT Decl. ex. 376.

II Forms with ro-.


(a) rupsa, ropsa, robsa, rob : rupsa frithortae-se, Wb. 33a12 . doménarsa ropsa beo, 3c27 . Ml. 49b12 . durumenar romsa dia ┐ rom bith-béu, 49b13 .

(b) ropsa, robsa, ropsam, robsam, robsum, robam, ropom : an airet ropsa béo, Trip.² 1434. ropsa altra dia aithair, Anecd. ii 71.4 . imsa nāidi robsa nā[i]r, Ériu ii 16 § 5. robsa ceile si do Ch., ZCP viii 545.7 . ropsam aithrech isin ngním-sin, PH 701. robsam fíadnaisech fodeirc, Ériu iv 153.4 . robsum flaith, BS 126.6 . Metr. Dinds. iii 310.85 . robam céle comadas, LU 3972. ropom tuire tend, PRIA III (3rd ser.) 550 § 35 ( LL 147a ). robam rí ar ó ngelChuind, IGT Decl. ex. 537.


(a) -rbsa, -robsa, -rupsa, -rubsa : nirbsa dagduine i tossuch, Wb. 18c14 . anarbsa fuillectae-se, Ml. 127c17 . corupsa lán diib, 104d3 . annarobsa bithe, 45d6 . arromsa cumscaigthe, 46b9 . arrumsa immainse-se, 62c9 .

(b) -rsam (-rbsam) (the sense is very frequently pres. indic. a survival of the original perfect sense), -rbam : is mise Fintan fili, | nirsam écne óen-lindi, Metr. Dinds. i 4.42 . níorsum duine do éra, ML² 1959. nirsum drochlaech, ZCP viii 548.18 . níor sum (níor soim, níor shámh, ní rabhus, v.ll.) taithleach na n-each riamh, Ériu i 100.23 . gērsam snímhach Fiadat find, Ériu ii 95 § 4. gearsom glic nīr chrainn um ní, KMMisc. 350 § 7. corbam tualaingse, Anecd. i 10.17 . ciarbam treórach, nírbam timm, Metr. Dinds. iii 312.131 . Aisl. Tond. 96.4 . gerbham sáeirfher séimh, BS 28.10 . Brethnaigh níor bham caroid-si, Duan. F. i 87.y . or bham nóidiu since I was, LL 282a12 .

s. 2

I Forms without ro-.


(a) No instance.

(b) ba, bat, basat : cia bátar do gníma intan basat (v.l.) gilla, Tec. Corm. § 8.2 . bat dín ar gád 's ar guba | bat fál is bat fidruba, Metr. Dinds. iii 96.9 - 10 (bad, ba, v.ll.). a chlaidib Cherbaill ... bát menic ac cur chatha, RC xx 9 §1 ( LL 47a50 ).


(a) No instance.

(b) -bi: cot-ráncamar ó bim (órbat v.l.), BDD² 1173 (Ed's. note : `read ó bi mac (D), where bi seems pret. s. 2').

II Forms with ro-.


(a) robsa, rubsa : huare romsa ugaire doib `because Thou wast a shepherd unto them,' Ml. 96d1 . arrumsa dite-siu, 103a4 .

(b) ropsa, rupsa, ropsat, robsat, ropat, robat, ropot: an tan rupsa Etain Echraidhe ... ba misi do cetmui[n]ter, Ériu xii 170.6 (Tochm. Ét.) (= ropsa, LU 10771 ). intan ropsa (ropsat, basat, v.ll.) gilla, Tec. Corm. § 8.2 . ropsat slan o chianaib dia fesmais `thou shouldst have been healed,' Ériu xii 166.12 (Tochm. Ét.) (= ropdat slán, LU 10746 (sec. fut.)). uair ropsat cara, PH 3099. LL 343d53 . intan robsat Cernach-sa, ZCP i 104.36 . ropsat fraechda, RC xx 12 § 16. ropot álaind ó chíanaib, IT iii 514 § 6. is derb ropat degairle, 482.280 . robat cara do cech cléir, 482.277 .


(a) No instance.

(b) -rbsat, -rsat, -rsa, -rbat : ro-t-rathaig narbsat fírgaeth that you were not, SR 1318. nirbsat meirb, RC xx 12 § 16. nirsat neóit, TBC-LL¹ 43. lēir dam ... | nārsat cara do Chellach, CCellaig 447 (where the sense is pres. indic.). gérsa maeth-macámh ... i tús lai o chianaib thu, ZCP viii 529.12 . cot-ráncamar órbat (v.l., see n.) mac, BDD² 1173.

s. 3

I Forms without ro-.


(a) ba, bu (once in Tur.) (gemination occurs after ba, see below) : ba frithorgon dó frithorgon cháich, Thes. ii 246.18 (Camb.). ba calar do galar caich, ib. 16 (do.). ba uissiu són quam inflatio , Wb. 9b1 (modal). 29d8 . ba hed ón ba chóir, Wb. 10b9 . aní ba choitchen, 50a3 . a mba cloithe `when he was overcome,' Ml. 32b2 . a mba ndiuscartae, 19c15 . ar ba P. dubert baithis du Chrimthunn, Thes. ii 242.9 (Ardm.). ba em carat `it were, indeed, the part of a friend,' Thes. i 3.4 . ar ba mmadach, Ml. 135a9 . ba mmo, 86d6 . (cf. ba mmebul lee, TBFr. 136 ). air bu ainm leusom maledictus do c[ec]h óin ..., Tur. 136.

(b) ba, bu, bo, be (once), pa, fa, fá, fo, bad, bud : ba slán iarom, Trip.² 1517. bá cubaid, 1516 (modal). ba lith mor la Colum cille, Mon. Tall. 156.7 . ba di Bretnaib di, Trip.² 707. rofitir in ben ba o Lomnae rofes, Corm. Y 1018.26 . Fél. Nov. 5. ba ferr a comaitecht ... oldaas a tuitim, IT i 75.6 (modal). ba mese ba sacart oc baistiud ind anma-sin fora athair, ScM. § 12.9 . nip sī sin adaig ba sāmam (rectius sh-) dōib, TBC-I¹ 211. BDD² 423. co torchratar bond fri bond ... ba sí tiget ind áirbaig such was the denseness of, TBC-I¹ 1996. cach nech ba siniu ┐ ba so, PH 104. in ti ba (?=ba a) tir `the person whose land it was,' Laws iv 4.29 Comm. With inf. pron. s. 3 : ba-id-n-imomain-side he was greatly afraid, TBC-I¹ 786. With suffixed -ch (= Lat. -que) (see Thurn., ZCP xiii 299f .) : do-luid tar feart a cedteallaig bach for fine forcomal `und es war eine gewaltsame Besitzergreifung gegen die Sippe,' Laws iv 16.22 (tr. Thurn., loc. cit.). bach ri Temrach, 178.13 . 16.22 . nī ticc dīa ēissi bu duilgi āer, MacCongl. 9.5 . ar bo fortachtaid dó día mboí i moxaini, Trip.² 254. bo ferr, BDD² 1320. a mbo ṡeiscc dind ḟolud, TBC-I¹ 1127. is aice bo doigh a mbith, no is e bo doich da fagbail, Laws iv 36.8 Comm. be sé sin trian macraidi Ulad, LU 5907. ol pa immaircede leis Loch nEchach, Trip.² 1956. pa menci, K. and H. § 1. pa hamru delp Fothith, ZCP xx 401.3 . The earlier instances of fa are mostly rel., but later it becomes freq. in non-rel. use. fá is the regular form in TSh. : is mé fa hairdbrethim binn, Anecd. i 28 § 30. 36 § 91 . curob é fa ri Connacht, v 21.25 . im orgain fa togaidhi do Ingcél i nHérinn, BDD² 423. as í fa banchele dó .i. Eithne ... fa díl ... leis hí, Ériu iii 150 § 1. beathadhach fá cosmhail ré mathghamhain, TSh. 1025. 3264 . (Cf. fa gairit limm beth ar Bóinn, Anecd. i 26.15 . Ériu iv 116 § 24. fa hadhbail re innisin an toran[n], Feis Tighe Chonáin 1841. IGT Decl. ex. 861. fá héigean, TSh. 2489. 5559 . 3715 ). ised sin fo lucht dō, Ériu ii 20 § 1. ri fo ferr sith, Ann. Conn. 1224 § 2. issed bad doig la C., Mon. Tall. 161.22 . ? bat (? bad) ead indas ind troiscti sin, 155.35 . bád chumma rom altsat Ulaid uli, LU 10305. do bríogh gurab é Eóin budh teó grádh, TSh. 10328. do bhríogh gurab é Ádhamh budh ceann fine, 9 .


(a) -pu`, -bu`, -po`, -bo`, ? -p` (elision of vowel before initial vowel) : nípu accobor leiss, Wb. 14a22 . nípu séit samil, Thes. i 495.26 (Ardm.). Hy. v 7. nipu nach dernainn-se áem, Wb. 8a5 . Thes. i 495.4 (Ardm.). cepu ed adroilliset, Wb. 4c35 . ar nibu thacair, 33b13 . nibu techtae (`rectius: thechtae, but cf. 34c17 , 53d6 ,' Ed.), 100b22 . níbu machdath, Sg. 65a1 . conepertis ón nadmbu choir, Ml. 136b4 . in loc diambu thabarthi ermitiu feid, 22a4 . nipo chóim, Wb. 4b12 . nípo úaib act ba o apsatalib, 13a20 . napo chenéel, 5a14 . nibo cen fochidi, 24c19 . ? nip (`leg. nipu ? or is it subjunctive ?,' Ed.) ar irlami far cúrsagtha, 26b23 . 5b3 .

(b) -pu`, -bu`, -po`, -bo`, -p`, -b`, -ba`, -fa`, -bad (as lenition was somet. marked we may assume it was regular) : rofitir P. nípu chian, Trip.² 2866. LU 4974. Fél. Sept. 27. nīpu samlaid, TBC-I¹ 1280. napu díb lamaib, LL 123b2 . asrubart M. nibu moo, Mon. Tall. 133.10 . ni bu cād, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 40 § 17. ni bu chul serci, IT i 77.2 . nī bu ṡanct-Brigit ṡúanach, Hy. v 21 ō bu becān, Ériu viii 164.7 . cíid iarom P. combu [ḟ]liuch a agad, Trip.² 1305. nabu cert, SR 3673. nīpo rom, TBC-I¹ 1728. dalēici sōn C., cobo (LU combo) thairis docher, 1737 . ni bo chomailt, AU i 110.8 . Fél. Prol. 114. BDD² 549. abaind letain nádbo domain, LU 1747 (ICM). combo chomsolus lá ┐ adaig, 8056 . iarfaigis dó cia diambo cheli, 8535 (FB). nī fo cīan, TBC-I¹ 485. nipsī sin adaig ba sāmam dōib, TBC-I¹ 211. nip seoit fo-fhiallach, Anecd. ii 57.z . ba fae leo nip n-ēn comadus ina n-ēill, Corm. Y 1059.18 . nīb sī t'opar comadhas, TBC-I¹ 785. nib sam, Anecd. i 13.14 . roluited ind scīn co nāb ālaind īarnamarach, Corm. Y 883.32 . níba s[h]uthain, TBFr. 5. comba samalta ┐ snāth ōir, TBC-I¹ 2027. comba comsolus lá ┐ adaig, LU 10125. co mba fliuch, BDD² 885. FDG 615. comba taí tastadach for Ultaib, MU² 119. PH 1082 (there is no instance here of lenition marked after comba). taitned fria in grían co bba forderg, BDD² 12. diamba Cholum coemdalta, LU 752. ni fa si do conair, YBL 174b14 . co nebairt co mbad mac don rig he, FDG 724.

II Forms with ro-.


(a) rupu`, rubu`, ropu`, robu`, ropo`, robo` : rupu sí a rroilic, Wb. 33a22 . aní rupu thascide, Thes. ii 225.17 (Pcr.). rubu fer-som muintere, Wb. 33a5 . Essu rubu thoisech hi suidiu, Ml. 63b5 . ropu thol les a dénom, Ml. 71b2 . hore rombu thoissech, Wb. 33a20 . ar robbu digaim, Sg. 17a5 . robu foirbthe, Tur. 33. ropo thróg laiss, Wb. 21b5 . ropo thol, 14b3 . ropo chobair dond Érinn | tíchtu Patraicc, Hy. ii 15. amal rombo chuimse, Wb. 22a2 .

(b) ropu`, robu`, ropo`, robo`, rupa`, ropa`, roba`, rop`, rob`, rap`, ro bud ; do replacing ro : do bo`, do ba`, do bu`, dob`, do bud ; dorob (where the final vowel has dropped out the copula is nearly always folld. by a vowel or ḟ) : rob e a n-immed conna ... `such was their multitude that' ..., Thes. ii 298.9 ( Hy. i Introd. ). sádid echlaisc and ropu dos iarom, Trip.² 1851. TBFr. 11. ind ingen robu ṡiniu, Trip.² 1116. ropo cridiscél, Mon. Tall. 136.23 . ropo thír cāich, Hail Brigit § 2. ropo suthain, LU 1077. PH 1673. robo maith, Corm. Y 31. nirbo chucumsa ... robo chóir dál, LU 8750. ar rup[a] la Coirpre Crích Conaill, Trip.² 1724. ropa anaichnid, PH 5287. Mon. Tall. 136.20 . (asbert) ... romba si sainserc samdine hé, Mon. Tall. 150.14 . an romba (arrombúi, v.l.) dech do thimthagail, Corm. Y 1059.12 . is ar a deirc ... ro-ba buidech Dia do Abél, PH 5882. rop nem thened tír Hua Néill, BDD² 240 (= ropo, LU 6743 ). rop é fochond ná dilend, LU 129. rofidir ... rop si Etain, Ériu xii 154.2 . rob aille leo, Corm. Y 503. ScM. § 240. PH 1590. túaith rob ferr icht, Metr. Dinds. iii 310.88 . PH 68. uar rombi (ro-m-bī) ind fit cetne, Mon. Tall. 147.14 . rap aithrech, Ériu vii 229 § 75. dobo mana crimb chnáma, Anecd. i 31 § 50. dobo cléguin, Ériu iv 112 § 2. doba díchur flaithesa dō, ML² 1422. doba ferr linn, KMMisc. 320.4 . doba dhainmidh dhó a ndermad, IGT Decl. ex. 1180. dob áil, PH 7584. dob fhíor, Feis Tighe Chonáin 72. fa chloinn Uisnigh dob ḟearr clú, KMMisc. 356 § 4. dob fhearr liom go n-eagnuighidís (utinam saperent), TSh. 6857. 4957 (both modal). do búdh tusa cnoc na cclíar, KMMisc. 346 I § 2 . do budh [de] chloind Cuillinn ..., Feis Tighe Chonáin 1161. adharc ... dobudh faide ionā an adharc oile, TSh. 22. dorob ingnad in cuairt crecht, Ériu v 246.228 .


(a) -r(o)bu`, -r(u)bu`, -rbo` (the exx. in which the vowel of ro is not syncopated are all from Ml.) : nírbu faás foruigéni, Wb. 13b7 . nírbu chuman leu, Ml. 124b5 . hóre nárbu bae, Wb. 5b12 . Ml. 60a12 . donarobu gnath techt for culu, 129d3 . corbu écen, Wb. 32c17 . Ml. 31b16 . corrobu bec, 131b12 . conrubu chrín, 99a2 . indí ... lasinrubu chumtabart, 102d4 . 131d11. nírbo sar leu ar cocéilsine, Wb. 19a1 . nirbo chuit eperte, 24c5 .

(b) -rbu`, -rpu`, -rpo`, -rbo`, rba`, -rob`, -rb`, -ra, -r`, -rsa(t), -rso : nírpu sía léu oldaas oenuair, Trip.² 2054. nirbu chían, LU 1756 (ICM). corbu réill, Trip.² 2136. ciarbu tholgdae, Fél. 125. fer fial ... diarmbu (sic) lan Temair, AU i 394. 13 (A.D. 878) . nírpo o chridiu, Trip.² 1562. nír bo thoirneach ..., BDD² 191. LU 915. corbo chonair letartha, TBC-I¹ 1887. gérbo tri haicmedha íatt, Anecd. v 20.25 . nírba maith, LU 315. nirba choir, Anecd. i 20.14 . PH 3078. adeirdis corba mac, Corm. Y 896.8 . gurbha (gur fa, v.l.) héigean dó, TSh. 2484. órba cindti forba a bethad dó, BColm. 96.4 . nī rob urāil, Bruchst. 37 § 87. nirb oróil, MacCongl. 111.7 . nírbh é, IGT Decl. ex. 1274. níorbh fheasach, TSh. 2973. nocorb áil, Trip.² 397. aided narb inmain, ScM. § 24d . ainm ... ionarb éigean sinne do shlánughadh, TSh. 2088. níra míad leo dul assin chrích co mbetís aidchi longphuirt inti, MU² 843. nīr mīad ... leis ind ūaburdelb ... tārfas dōib, TBC-I¹ 2020. nīr cōir, ACL iii 221.24 (modal). nir thim a ḟer, Ériu v 244.211 . Feis Tighe Chonáin 1203. níor ghrása na bronntanas na grása ... dá mbeith ..., Donlevy 214.y (modal). níor chían, TSh. 2479. cinnas nachar chomtig, LU 10316 (modal). créad is iontuigthe as sin, acht gur dhearbh leó ..., TSh. 653. cíar adbol a ndrong, LU 9395. ger mhór in ail, Anecd. i 29 § 36. teagh ar ar lia fear faire, PBocht 12 § 26. drong ... rér mhaith deighmheas do bheith ag an bpobal orra, TSh. 8926 (? modal). ón tráth fár dhearbh leis é féin d'éag, TSh. 2800. draig ... ór doilghe dul, Ériu ix 6.51 (modal). ónar thana lucht loingsi `by whom sea-roving crews are thinned,' Duan. F. i 81.9 . The ending -rsa, -rsad may have arisen on the analogy of the 1st and 2nd sg. -rsam, -rsat (qq.v. above) : derb leo nírsa meath don mac, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 44 § 2. nirsa monar maca[i]n maith | dingbail in laich, 44 § 1. ailtir in mac ... gursa hoglach mor, 43.13 . carsa dúal don aithech-mhadudh ... tocht ... d'imrisin risin árchoin ?, ZCP viii 553.29 . ciarso thucait ro-dos-foglúais, LL 133b16 . TBC-LL¹ 1935. ciarsa dam `though it were a bull,' CRR § 5. brugaid ... darsat (? leg. darsa) comainm C., ZCP vii 307.17 , but cf. oglach darsad comainm E., viii 549.10 . Cf. pl. : carsad comhadha sin ?, 544.22 .

pl. 1

I No forms without ro- occur.

II Forms with ro-.


(a) robummar : robumar cuindrichthi gl. erecti sumus, Ml. 43d6 . huare robummar bibdid-ni dait-siu, 62b5 .

(b) ropsar, ropar, robdar, robatar: ropsar marba meni beth Find, RC vii 302.183 . ropar cocle cridi. ropar caemthe caille. ropar fir chomdeirgide, LL 10510 (MS ropdar with d expunged) = TBC-LL² 3071-73 ; robdar TBC(C) 2127-29 , RC xi 29 § 54 ; robatar, TBC St. 2903 ; robadar, RC xi 29 § 54 .


(a) -rbommar : nírbommar utmuill ... nírbommar tromdi gl. non inquieti fuimus, Wb. 26b14 .

(b) -rsar : cid sinni nirsar malla, RC vii 294.81 .

pl. 2 No instances.

pl. 3

I Forms without ro-.


(a) batir, batar : iarsindí batir inricci du báas huili, Wb. 5c14 . batir athissi ... dait-siu, Ml. 90d17 . air batar carait, 31a3 . 23c16 . Hy. ii 6.

(b) batir, batar, bat : batir banbrugaid sōn ┐ batar maithi, Corm. Y 1018.14 . batir faelti, LU 10585. batir hé iarom bátár im Ch., 8161 . BDD² 398. bátir (batar, batir, v.ll.) Érenn ardae, Fél. June 25 . LU 1699 (ICM). bátir īalla bātar inde, MacCongl. 89.26 . forsin fer batair bech whose bees they were, Laws iv 178.15 . batar sinde rīadatar it was we, Corm. Y 698.37 . SR 4072. BDD² 19. batar imtholtanaig, LU 3244. bátár hé sin a imtechtai, 11030 . bāttar dóini carsam-ne, Otia i 122 § 3. § 4 . bat comluatha dana fri conaib, IT i 72.11 . bat failid uili de sin, RC xliii 24 § 22.


(a) -btar, -ptar : nitat pecthi ... indechtso cebtar hé riam, Wb. 4a8 . ciaptar mora a pecthai-som, Ml. 98c5 . a namtar tuidchissi, Sg. 6a13 . amtar mbati `when they were drowned,' Ml. 84d5 .

(b) -btar, -ptar, -btor, -tar, -but : céptar bailci bressa, Fél. Prol. 74. ciabtar glain, SR 2421. cíaptar áilli, Fél. Prol. 133. níptar ecnaig, ib. Nov. 9. níbtar dermaill, Corm. Y 398 . nibdar dimdaig, SR 3550. BCC 66.8 . imtar láin ..., | imtar ilerda, SR (Greene) 4659 . amdar suidigthi ... forsin teinith, Trip.² 131. comtar mairb, SR 5111. LU 8373. PH 5479. comdar slána, Trip.² 157. immuscomarcair cibtar hē asked who they were, Corm. Y 1059.58 . gu mbut ōga a n-ocobair till their desires were fulfilled, ACL iii 3.12 .

II Forms with ro-.


(a) robtar, roptar, robatar (Ml. only), robdar : nitat huili robtar tuicsi, Wb. 11a21 . hore romtar óis teglig, 7b13 . robtar beca, Ml. 90c25 . déde hí roptar bibdaid som, 124c2 . inna hí ruptar ardda, Thes. ii 11.42 (Bcr.). is follus romatar bibdaid som, Ml. 125b9 . 78b12 . rocretset ... romdar tosge maith doib nanní ..., 96b5 .

(b) robtar, roptar, raptar, robdar, robdur, ? ropat : ar robtar cosmaili, Trip.² 1297. Corm. Y 690.4 . robtar auctair in dana sin, Trip.² 328. LU 9602. SR 3449. robdar druid co mōreōlus, TBC-I¹ 835. Anecd. i 46.12 . ar ropdar mebhra laiss iat, ii 43.3 . arinni robdur ceithri uidhi, Laws i 262.4 . ropat móra do berta (? or leg. ropsat), IT iii 484.281 . ropsat comchuibde ar ceta, Ériu i 72 § 4. RC vii 294.82 . MR 214.16 . FDG 557. rapsat irlama, MU² 149. TBC-LL¹ 3243. Ériu i 72 § 4. robsat athlumha, BS 18.26 . robsad buana, ML² 2084. ZCP viii 539.17 . ? To this : na sluaig remi rosatr[i]uin (? leg. ropsat triuin), SR 3983.


(a) -rubtar, -ruptar, -roptar : isuaignid ni rubtar gáitha for comairli, Wb. 18c6 . conruptar fadirci ind usci, Ml. 40d16 (MS. ɔ possibly for co L in which case ruptar could be abs., Ériu lvi 40 n. 56 ). ceruptar enartu, 49a17 . arrumtar doirthi, 34d10 . déde hí roptar bibdaid som, 124c2 .

(b) -rbtar, -rptar, -rtar, -rbat, -rpsat, -rsat, -psat, -bsat, -psatar : nírbtar humail fris, Trip.² 1976. Corm. Y 179. nírptar fáilti, BDD² 337. nirdar subaig, TBC-LL¹ 3242. ciarbat ile, PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 548 § 23 ( LL 147a ). garbat discailtig, TBC-LL¹ 544. gurbat daitinigh, RC xliii 75 § 75. Leb. Gab.(i) 118.1 . corbhat foithe, RC xliii 84 § 85. nirbat sathig (nirbot, nirbad, nirbo, v.ll.), Metr. Dinds. iii 78.24 . nirpsat [m'] airm[-si] can ulaig, Ériu i 72 § 2. nirsat tualaing a dhinghmhail, v 158.210 . nirsat methol a n-athól they were not a band in the second drinking ?, BCC 290.28 . a mbrughaidh nírsat bronuigh, Ériu iv 116 § 24. gursad luatha, RC xiv 28.12 . cersat mor, PH 250. da ghadaige ... darsat comanmann Dismus ┐ Iesmus, 2852 . cārsat comadha sin, ML² 1387. carsad, ZCP viii 544.22 . ciapsat guir fri crabud nglé, SR 8007. nibsad adbul a ḟir bain, Anecd. i 13.15 . batar gnima erred lat-sa, nipsatar gnima con, Anecd. iii 53.8 . In : gomsad daerbhesacha macneda Uladh. ZCP viii 546.7 . the form is pres. pl. 3 but the sense calls for sec. fut. pl. 3. Cf. 545.21 .

On buith as vn. of copula see GOI § 817. Cf. mo bith lomnocht, SR 1336. maso ḟír ... | for mbith iarmui do Abram, 3498 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. laíd or
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: laí, laoi, laíde, laogha

n f. Later laí, laoi. g s. laíde, also perh. laogha, Ériu xiii 27.7 . poem, lay, metrical composition .

(a) Orig. a particular type of poem, which like anair, anamain, emain and nath, was not of the `bairdne' or syllabic type. See Murphy Metrics 3. 12 . Mentioned as proper to the `dos': in dos . . . laid a aisde, Laws v 62.17 Comm . bó i logh laoidhe cona toimsibh techta, muna ttoimhsither in aircheadol ni fḟil logh lais, Ériu xiii 27.4 . cia halt aircetail . . . .i. i[n] nath, inn anair, inn anamain, in laidh, in sethrad, in sainemain, Auraic. 829 (1578) . Reckoned as subdivision of anamain: nath ┐ anair, l.¤, ┐ emain. Itt e sein tra cetrí re na hanamna, IT iii 59 § 114 . Entitles poet to legal concession: in laid ma tathar aga molad re ré trir geibidh greim rudartha, O'Curry 1059 ( H 3.18, 7a ) = laig in filidh . . . gebid grem tuinide do, O'D. 1581 ( H 5.15, 7a ). fri hailche .i. do laídh no do odhum, O'Curry 1891 ( 23 P 3, 22b ). Later of specific metres: laidh frecnairc, IT iii 102 § 185 . l.¤ lúascach, Murphy Murphy Metrics no. 77 ( IT iii 87 § 100 . 88 § 102 ). laidh luibheancosach, IT iii 94 § 144 . laidh treabhraidh, 95 § 146 .

(b) In tales etc. freq. said to be recited or composed by hero, warrior, etc., (perh. with religio-legal implications): cachain S. dho drecht a choimhgne ┐ laoidh, Ériu xiii 26.23 . canaidsi l.¤ n-aili, LU 3409 ( SCC 18 ). ro chan l.¤ : Erig a gérait Ulad, LU 3591 ( SCC 30 ). ro bāi ic dūscud a thighernai ┐ dorigni in lāid, TBC-I¹ 2521 . dorigni in lāid mbicc and ac gresacht an arad, TBC-I¹ 2447 . do gab fora adhmoladh ┐ itbert in laidh, TBC St. 1323 . adbeart an laoí ann, TBC-LL¹ 3623 n . no canustar in laidh m-bicc ┐ rus freccair Ailill, TE 9 Eg. ( IT i 123 ). Cf. laed .i. laiter no luaitir .i. `it is sent or it is hastened', Auraic. 1581.

(c) poem, lay, song in general: lúaidfidir láedib limmsa, Thes. ii 295.6 . ( Hy. v ). laidi ┐ roscada, YBL 126b41 . luam laidi fo chaini cruth leader of song (of David), SR 6057 . laeid dó cach duine dlegair (of famous lake), LL 20243 ( láid, Metr. Dinds. iii 260.12 ). drechta .i. duana no laidhe ┐ roscada, O'Dav. 589 . binni laoidib a labrad `sweeter than songs' Ériu ii 16.5 . rosepaind ceōl mbind ┐ rogob lāid le, ZCP v 500.11 . tucc Flann mac Lonain laid ngloin / d'Ecnechan oigri Daloig, Irish Texts ii 1 § 3 . duais mo laoidheadh, PBocht 8.37 . a gcoimhlíon liom do laoidhibh (of three poems to cool chief's anger as the ardour of Cú Chulainn was cooled by the three vats of water), DDána 88.20 . Of song of bird: fomchain lóid loin, Thes. ii 290.7 . See 1 portach.

(d) poem as medium for legal, historical, religious and didactic lore: ord fil ar loídib, Fél. Prol. 314 . cona loídib lérib, 334 . tacrait lind lāidi, Fianaig. 48 § 19 . loc don laidse (of Senchas Már), Laws i 2.1 Comm . persa na laidhe, 4.13 Comm . See fursundud. cométar ocainn 'malle / a mebrugud na laíde, Metr. Dinds. iii 42.42 . Aball Alinni arda / ibar Baile . . . / cia do bertar illaide (: daíne), LL 18181 ( cia asberar a láide, Dinds. 17 ). laoithe fuara suadh dhá séis-ghabháil, Hackett xix 15 .

(e) In later language of pagan and christian lore: cá bhfuighe i laoidhe nó i litir, Aithd. D. 32.11 . a laoidhibh ┐ litreibh, O'R. Poems 1050 . le a bhfuair sionn leabhar is laoidh `for which we got evidence of book and lay' (Gloss.), 716 . neach don druingsi . . . / an bhfuair tú i laoi nó i litir, L. Cl. A. B. 269.26 . do mhéaduigh neimheadh gach naoimh / . . . glór laoidheadh ┐ leabhar, DDána 100.14 . a shlán fútha, ainm no sloinneadh, laoidh no litir, aon athar . . . do thabhairt anuas, Eochairsg. 21.39 . Cf. co mbed a laigibh a lebhraib / ag daenib ar selbaib suadh, BB 52b24 . In cheville: laid lorda, SR 4279.

Compd. i laí-gleandaib leabar `on the poetical pages of books', MR 270.6 . laídshenchas Laigen 'the traditional lore of Leinster in verse' Seanchas 299 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. lám or
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: laám, láme, láam, láim, láma, láime, nondalámgaba

n ā, f. n s. ind laám , Wb. 12a23 (see GOI 20 - 1 ). g s. láme, Sg. 68a1 , 68b13 . g p. láam, Wb. 9a6 . n s. later also láim, and g s. láma, láime. IGT Decl. § 192.


(a) hand: gnúis et láma et cossa, Wb. 12b4 . is sochrudiu láam oldōsa ol coss, 12a21 . precept dosom fri dei et saithar ho lámaib in nocte gl. operantes manibus nostris, 9a5 . ine láim nú ine méraib, Thes. ii 245.37 . ind l.¤ gl. manu, Ml. 36b1 . lam, 131b4 . torad a láam is hed dodtoisged `it is (the) fruit of his hands that used to support him', Wb. 9a6 . orddu lámae gl. pollex, Sg. 68b13 . dunecomnacht Dia inní saúl inna lama som delivered S. into his hands, Ml. 55c1 . ro bendach Pátraic asa dib lámaib in Machai, Trip.² 2799 . conid eiter a lamaib rothathamir cú rui (leg. Cú Roí) `in their hands that C. expired', Mon. Tall. 65 . idna láme (one of the `streams of poetry'), LL 3900 ( IT iii 58.2 ). bud bhinn lam ┐ bel a fine instrumentalist and vocalist, AU iii 340.7 . claidhemh gacha lamha, Cog. 252.9 . ro-gab . . . lān a lām do c[h]ochall an c[h]lērig, BColm. 36.10 . líon mo lámha `the full of my hands', Dán Dé xxx 7 .

With adj. or attrib. gen.: l.¤ bennachtan as opposed to l.¤ soscéli right hand v. left hand (see Stokes, Ériu iii 11 - 12 ): in ferand ar do láim soscéla ic dola sís . . . no ar do laim bennachtan anís, Ériu iii 11.14 - 15 . See soiscélae. l.¤ choitchinn: airgitur langilli na bo iar fir i llaim coitchinn ra aichne `in gemeinsame (neutrale) Hand', Cóic Con. 17.2 . lámh chlé (lámh chlí prohibited form), IGT Decl. § 139 . ros-mugaig, ros-mill, ro tracht / trí coecat barc co laim clí, Fél. 200.28 . na findad do l.¤ chlíí an a n-dingne do l.¤ dess, PH 5950 . lámh deas right hand, IGT Decl. § 137 . bennuch, a Dhe, . . . / cot laim dheis mo cuili-se, Lism. L. 1287 . fíréin láma deise Dé, PBocht 26.34 . l.¤ doí see lámdoé s.v. 1 doé; l.¤ (in) scéith left hand or arm; see 2 scíath and cf. ar laim congmala a sgeith, Ériu xi 189.30 .

In l.¤ des, l.¤ chlé of directions; in a variety of uses: a lleth o laim deiss dexteram ejus partem, Sg. 17b2 . for láim deis aníartúaid . . . for laim chlí anairtuáid, BCr. 19c2 , 3 . éla fort láim ṅdeiss `decline ab eis in dexteram partem', Lat. Lives 80.15 . Fir Domnand co trí rígaib / lam des fri hErinn n-íraig `up the west coast', MacCarthy 148 § 3 ( LL 14718 ). impoit . . . for a láim chlí they turn to the left, AU ii 120.7 . ro ghabsat iaramh laimh cli fris an loch `with their left to the lake', AFM vi 1940.18 . do chuaidh . . . hisin . . . long . . . lamh dhes frí hérinn soirttuaidh, 1966.z . dia lāim deis on his right, ZCP viii 108.3 . Note also: is í so slighe ina ttáinig . . . .i. láimh sgéith re Ráith Ḟionnchaoimhe, Ériu viii 135.24 .

In a number of idioms with vb. gabaid: gabaid láim x seizes, abducts x: nis gebh do laim . . . ar med do nóimhe, BNnÉ 304.17 . gabais laim ingine Foraid . . . ┐ fordoscarastar, Rawl. 131b24 (Cf. Ériu iii 135.4 ). dodechaid in chaillech do béim chluic . . . gabais Ailill a láim, ┐ dos tascar, ┐ dogéni a coblige seized, RC ix 452.14 . See gabál. Cf. ní má ar gabáil ar lámha / úaind, ZCP viii 219.36 . M. . . . do gabail . . . l.¤ Huí L. . . . asint ṡuide apad `expelled', Ann. Inisf. 1052.5 . gabaid láim x dochum leads x to: gabais a chomalta a laim dochum mara led, Anecd. iii 59.9 . gabthe mo laim mattin dochum mara, 1 . With follg. prep. AS expels: ni ragh sa adiu . . . go ro gaba ri no espoc mo laim as, BNnÉ 302.4 . gebatt sa . . . do lamha sa asin suidhi righ ittaoi, 305.13 . conid ari rogabad al-lam a Pardus `on this account they were driven out of Paradise', Ériu vii 164.7 .

(b) arm : cumgabail inna lam i crosfigill is sí briathar l.¤ insin, Ml. 138a2 . tócaib do dí láim i n-airdi frisin Coimdid, MacCarthy 64.10 = suidig do da laim cech thrath / fri ruirig nime, SR 1605 . doe láme gl. lacertus, Sg. 68a1 . a di láim tri derca ṡedluch allenith immach, TE 4 ( IT i 119 ). gur ben in lamh des aga gualaind de, ZCP vi 36.18 . lámh on gualuinn a fad, ALC i 184.20 . láma caolrigthecha, Caithr. Thoirdh. 104.27 . Of clothes, sleeve : lēinte lainneardha lāimhgheala lín 'brilliant, white-sleeved linen tunics', BDC 226.57​ .

(c) Of the hand used in measuring length: on fir do ní in tomus o laimh, Laws ii 232.22 Comm . ocht nduirn a fot, do toimsib laime techta fil fri mesu ┐ toimsiu, Laws ii 246.8 . tinne tri mer a mbun laime, Laws ii 250.2 . See 2 tinne. is í sin is áis do'n ésga do réir láime (of calculating the moon's age by disposing the verses of the Golden Number upon the finger-joints), O'Gr. Cat. 300.14. Of the whole arm as measure: fád láimhe laoich do chrann, Keat. ii 5200.

(d) Attrib. g s. cennach láime: fuair . . . na seacht Laoighise dó féin . . . mar cheannach láimhe i ndíol an cheannais do rinne `handsel', Keat. ii 4812 . cin láime distinguished from cin coise, tengad, etc.: cin laime de guin, no gait, no mi-imirt, Laws i 238.11 . cís láime: ní cíos láime atá acutsa orra acht rígféinnidecht ┐ maer choiméta atá acut innte tribute of the hand i.e. won by force(?), SG 338.22 , 337.17 . triatha uaisle dho i mbuannacht do bhíodar / a chíos láimhe mar ránaig ar ríoghraidh, Hackett² 30.290 . See dígbál. fer láime: fer láma ríg Themra thair / Illand ergna mac Erclaim `henchman', Metr. Dinds. iv 88.13 . Legal perpetrator, distinguished from sellach spectator : mas lethbrostu ┐ ro fes in cu do rigne in fogail is amuil fer laime tigerna in con do rigne in fogail the master of the dog which did the injury is taken to be the perpetrator (of liability for dog injured in a dog-fight), Laws iii 194.y Comm . noco fo lan fir laime icus sellach a lan, 100.z Comm . See sellach. Also áes láime guilty persons: is iat is aes laime ann lucht in combaiti (`hand-party'), Laws iii 252.13 Comm . flesc láime see 1 flesc. liacca lamh, CCath. 5657 (see 1 lía). rogad láime, see rogad.

Extended meanings: gesce ┐ lama imda branches (of tree), RC x 74.3 v.l. gur teig lamh na lainne dā lethtaoibh handle, ZCP xiv 233.1 .

II In various abstr. and fig. applications.

(a) prowess, valour, accomplishment: ar eagla a laime ┐ a dighultu[i]s, ZCP vi 273.9 . ni caithimsa sin noco fagar do laim iat (do nert laime, v.l.), RC xix 34.2 . do chuaidh A. a llos a láma as by his own valour, ALC i 302.23 . Cf. CCath. 68 . ba fearr lamh na luighe `one better in deed or word', Duan. F. ii 176 § 5. clú láimhe, Hugh Roe² 104.5 . fer . . . go lán ainm láimhe ┐ tighe aoidhed, AFM v 1628.18 . fear . . . ro ba maith lamh ┐ oineach brave and generous, 1692.10 . teist ┐ tuarasccbháil láimhe ┐ einigh, 1684.18 . Sir Gyi ┐ sir Heront rob ferr lam ar gach taebh acu, ZCP vi 45.29 . ní fuil . . . ridiri is ferr lamh, 52.2 . ni frith fear mo laimhe riam `a man to match with me', Duan. F. i 63 § 33 . l.¤ láitir might: techt do fein ar los a lame laitiri as, Ann. Conn. 1373.5 .

(b) control, power : is he nert Dé ┐ l.¤ Dé, LB 138b46 . san tír dar ghoire do ghrádh / lámh ag rígh oile mon-uar another king rules, DDána 45.6 . as é dob fearr eineach is ágh / ní deachaidh lamh ós a cionn `never was he overpowered', Duan. F. ii 218 § 8 . adubhairt riu gan an rigacht do chur as a laimh, BCC 246.34 .

In phrase l.¤ i n-úachtar upper hand, conquering arm : rapo doss díten ┐ rapo buinne bratha ┐ rapo l.¤ i n-uachtur leo Conall, CRR 44.1 . go dtug Dia an lámh i n-uachtar ag Scotaibh is ag Pictibh orra, Keat. ii 6144 . In legal phr. lám gabálae forcible seizure : do-beir in fer ada-gair comrac forsin mil sin co tét i lláim gabálae 'the man who brings a claim against them causes a confrontation over that honey so that it (the honey) passes by forcible seizure', Bechbretha 186 (e) .

(c) Legal active part in crime : icad fer tairce trian . . . a dualgus a tairci; ┐ cutruma re aenfer don dá trian aile a dualgas a láime the inciter pays a third due because of his incitement . . . because of his share in the deed (of fine for killing by soldiers), Laws iii 114.x Comm . asren cāch a chinta ar a láim `for his own hand', Cáin Ad. 43 . im fiach a laime, ┐ im fiach a tairci, Laws iii 116.1 Comm . See tárcud. ? síoll Eoghain ní hosadh ghealloid / ní ghébdís duit díol i láimh, L. Cl. A. B. 223.106 . In phr. l.¤ derg murder, murderer (cf. We. llawrudd) (in latter sense more commonly fer láime deirge): cumal aithgina fo fer laime dergi laes na gona and, Laws i 244.2 Comm . bid fir lāma dergi ina suidedaib apad, BColm. 62.19 . ba comeirque laime derce nach bruidhen an asylum for a murderer, RC xxi 314.6 . bud í in phláig dibse is a bedg / in l.¤ derg dimbert oram murder, SG 55.37 . ná déantar lámh dhearg acht dí / ar ghrá na dtrí ndealg a Dhé `that my body alone be treated as a foe', Dán Dé ix 9 . atú mar láimh ndeirg ag Dia, ii 30 .

(d) In metonomy, pars pro tota . Of warrior: dob iomdha lamh áthasach do Dhom[n]allachibh ┐ Ghordonchib do bhi san lathair sin, Rel. Celt. ii 192.13 . ni roibi . . . aenlamh fa crodha coscur a cathaibh, ZCP vi 43.33 . lámh ar nár cheisd an cheisd chrúaidh, L. Cl. A. B. 265.9 . marbthar lais Conn O Concobhair in aen lámh mharcaigh as lugha rob olc i cConnachtaibh, AFM vi 2040.11 . With descriptive gen. of generous person: in l.¤ tidnaicthi (of Cú Chulainn), LL 7962. da láim thidnaicthi ratha (Cú Chulainn and Fer Diad), 10729 . lámh chothaighthe deibhléin Dé she who supported God's orphan, DDána 32.24 . Of help: don bocht a tibred laim, PH 6145 . a lámh nach lámh tar threise `o arm unsurpassed in strength(?)', PBocht 23.49 .

(e) In phrases ref. to plighting of troth, wedlock, etc.: dobhi ar fes laimhe ┐ leaptha ag an inghin an oidhche sin, RC xxix 134.18 . roḟai ar laimh ┐ ar leabaid le, RC xliii 24 § 22 . See foaid. sáith ríogh ar leabaidh 's ar láimh / gach inghean ard álainn óg, Dánta Gr. 5.31 . tug mná cneasta i bhfeis leabtha ┐ láimhe married, Hackett² 53.106 . Cf. mé th'éadach láimhe is leaptha (said by cloak to its owner), 32.33 . nascis . . . for láim ind fúatha sin `bound that (boon) on the Spectre's hand', Moling 20 .

(f) In proverbial expressions: ba lam i net nathrach . . . insaigid fair `a hand into an adder's nest', LL 225b7 ( TTr. 608 ). ba luam a net natrach . . . cor fri sluag na Fomoire, RC xii 96.17 . lámh an eirr easguinne unsafe grip, IGT Decl. ex. 587 . l.¤ déoraid (status of) a person whose protection and rights had been forfeited ( ZCP xxxiii 87 ): bid l.¤ déoraid dó, LU 5137 ( TBC-I¹ 654 ); 'he is as good as dead' ZCP xxxiii 87 . See deorad. l.¤ latrainn ba l.¤ latraind i n-árbaig la Hercoil isin chath sain, LL 226a15 ( TTr. 651 ). conid de sin ata `lam clé Ulltain in agaid in uilc', Fél. 200.19 . cach lāimi a lāindīrgi, ACL iii 226.21 (see ZCP xviii 48 ). mairg do loitfeadh láimh eadruinn `it were pity for any to hurt his hand (intervening) between us', Studies 1921 589 § 6 . Legal maxim: ni fognai lam laim, Laws i 228.16 .

III In phrases with follg. prep. (in most cases also with prec. vb.).

(a) DI: dothongusa . . . conna get-sa láma dib, conastarddur uile fo thalmain that I shall not release you, TBC-LL¹ 943 . nír' scar lámha díbh cor' ḟalaigh díden na coilltedh íat fair, CCath. 195. See scaraid. ní thall in gáeth láma de / co foraim bága in bile `the wind withdrew not its hand until it brought down the Tree's pride' (of Bile Tortan), Metr. Dinds. iv 244.51 .

(b) FO: do-beir láim fo undertakes : ni-s-tibrea liaig doenna laim fo-m leiges-sa, PH 424 . in ni fo dard láimh, CCath. 1795. lámh do tabhairt fán marbh ndíocháirdeach (sic leg.) bhíos i bpurgadóir, dá ḟóirithin as, TSh. 4752 . tabhair mar thugais roimhe / lámh fúm `deal with me', Dán Dé vi 33 . l.¤ fo act of undertaking : ba l.¤ fámórobairsin, TBC St. 3830 . lām fo crābud deduirn dūr, ACL iii 306 § 4 . lámh fá othar mádh áil leo / is beo ar n-a chrochadh dháibh [Dia] `if men wish to touch his wounds', but perh. rather if men wish to attack the wounded, Dán Dé xxvi 34 . Prov. of impossible undertakings: as trágadh lacha as a lār / lámh fa bhádhadh ratha an rígh, IGT Decl. ex. 1036 . is lámh fa chraoibh nach cromann / bheith réd chumann, DDána 4.5 . ríomh réadlann nó gainimh ghil / . . . lámh fa ríomh a sochar sin, Content. xxviii 24. Cf. tabraidh mo lamh fa comhall sin, ar Corbmac. ┐ donaisc orra amlaid sin swear by my hand, Irish Texts iii 8.25 .

(c) FOR: l.¤ for áirithe an undertaking certain of success : níor bó lámh for airidhe a n-ionnsaighidh muna luigheadh líon lam . . . forra, AFM v 1826.8 . ni bad lam ar airgthi doibsium sin mana deonaiged in toichthi, Fen. 138.20 . foceird láma for: foceirtt lamae fair she laid hands upon him, Mon. Tall. 66. Cf. ro láiset láma do they arrested him, PH 3101. Of ordination: cuirfid . . . a lámha arna Lebhítibh, Numbers viii 10. Cf. ni comairleiced . . . dó cor lamha aire (.i. dul do sacarbaic) cin foghlaim `put hand upon him' (i.e. on Christ in the Eucharist), Trip. xlix 11 . atgeall in filidh lāmh for a dān to attempt, ZCP vii 305.6 . do-beir láim for (ar) proposes, attempts : do beartsatt . . . laimh for imdhecht, AFM vi 1900.10 . gabaid láim (láma) for: si dobeir phoíc la cech n-oendig dó, isí geibes láim for a chuit arranges, TBC-LL¹ 2180 . Gaileoin . . . .i. an trian nó ghebadh lamha for an dá trian oile fo ghail fon airredh (leg. airrigh) excelled, Leb. Gab.(i) 118.16 . Of course of action undertakes: do ghabh lam for an Easpain d'fágbhail, ML 44.2 . do gab E. lámh for imtheacht d'fágbhail na h-innsi, ML 36.9 . Of persons enjoins upon, the action enjoined usually being denoted by imm: rogab A. lama (lam, v.l.) ar Perelass im ergi dochum in cluichi sin ordered P., TTebe 2474 . in tan gaba lam forainn, BB 418a51 gabais lāma for in úathad slúaigh robúi ina ḟarrad im calma do dēnom, Fianaig. 86.23 . rogabhagh lamh ar an oglach im dul dochum na teneadh, Ériu iii 156.31 . Also petitions : ragabsad T. uili . . . lama air um thuilleadh fhís do denam doib `entreated that a further vision should be made', TTebe 4156 . ní rigise a les lam do gabail forainn there is no need to ask us (to protect you), Celt. Rev. iii 314.6 . Note also: ragab láim ar a araid (itbert re a giolla, v.l.) ara ngabad a eochu, TBC-LL¹ 3252 . ní ḟedabair an lá no an uair i ngebthar lamh foraibh `a hand will be laid upon you', RC xxv 388.17 . imm-beir láim for practises violence on, see imm-beir. Med. operates on: ro himred lámu . . . for Eogan co mbí ina chinnte bás d'fhaghbáil do, SG 50.25 . Note also: a thaoibh-se ar a dtá mo lámh on which I rely(?), Dán Dé xxv 43 .

(d) FRI: l.¤ fri act of avoiding, renouncing : lam fri idal ṅglethech ṅgal (command against idolatry), SR 4845 . lāim fri lochta, ZCP vi 264 § 9 . lam fri cath fri cēilide, Ériu ii 56.9 . lámh fri turbhaidhe domhnain cé, AFM ii 618.18 . As prep. beside : tainic laim re fiannbhoith mac mBrocain, ZCP xi 40.11 . ealba fhiadh is eadh at conncas / cealga Laoghaire láimh ria, PBocht 10.16 . rohadnaicedh laim re haltóir (sic leg.) Chiarain, RC xviii 182.4 . tarr láimh riom, Gen. xxvii 21 . muna raibh do dhearbhrathair láimh riot, Deuteronomy xxii 2. Also of motion along by (see also under I (a) above): lodar . . . laim re muir siar co rangadar Teach nDuinn, Anecd. i 18.5 . doberat a lam fri h-Etail `skirted', Aen. 138 . tar Dūn ac Loduin . . . / lāim re gach loch go Loch Rīach, ZCP viii 222 § 3 . a lam re fairrge co hAth Cliath, RC xviii 51.26 = laimh fri faircce co rocht co hAth Cliath, AFM ii 1028.x . Note also: tug Muire láimh ris an leas / an uile sháidh do shaidhbhreas `besides salvation', A. Ó Dálaigh l 39. Also compared with: láimh re hAodh ó fhior eile / mion gach taom dá thaidhbhsighe, L. Cl. A. B. 64.159 . ionnus nach fuil i n-uile ṡeanchus . . . láimh re seanchus na hÉireann, Keat. i 44.22 . do-beir láim fri refuses, rejects : na tabair laim frim (Potiphar's wife to Joseph), SR 3182. Of renunciation of world, sin, etc: dia mba maccleirech fa mām / tapuir lām fri holc, ACL iii 319 § 87 . na hulca imgabamít, is e in ecnai erailes ornn laim do thabhairt friu, PH 6867 . do rad láimh ris an saoghal, TFrag. 204.2 . fo-ácaib fri láim excepts: facbaim Concobur fri láim . . . dáig a rige, LU 9217 ( FB 94 ). dochta do neoc[h] dáles dāil / fācbas (?) dáil n-éco fri lāimh, Fianaig. 10 § 3 . Note also: fa-rácbaisemne fri láim deitsiu . . . nád ṅ-íurmais orguin we stipulated, BDD² 659 . scaraid láma fri desists from: roghabh acc timchelladh in chaithmhīledh co nāro-scar lāmha fris go ro eiderdelaigh a cenn rea chúilmēidhe, ZCP xiv 232.12 . ni rosccarsat lamha fris go ragbhatar an caistiall ar eigin, Hugh Roe² 100.16 . Cf. dochuaid re láim he went security, O'Curry 2157 ( Eg. 88, 4a ).

(e) I: do budh dána dul le bréig / do chur lámh 'n-á (leg. 'n-a) leithéid `to resort to guile in attempting such a thing(?)', Dán Dé xxi 21 . cuiris lámh i Mochuda ┐ tug go heasaontach as an mainistir amach é seized, Keat. iii 1948 . dobeir láim i láim neich becomes someone's vassal: ní thug a lámh a láimh riogh occlach dob'fhearr treisi gniomh, ITS v 176.20 . ri Uladh na n-iath solus / . . . dobhera se a lamh ad laimh / gidh be len b'ál gan t'anair, Irish Texts ii 98 § 14. Hence accepts the protection of someone : tuc al-laim il-laim Ḟind, Acall. 5972. Also shakes hands : nach tarmchillend Heriu óclách do neoch do-beir a láim i llaim tigerna nach aichnid damsa, CRR 16.x . tuc a lam in a laim in la sin, Cog. 132.13 . go dtugsad uile a lámha iona láimh, ML 54.31 .

(f) ÍAR: l.¤ íar cúl reserve force : gan lámh ar gcúl uile againn / Muire dhún go n-agaill é `none of us having any support', Dán Dé xix 18 . With cúlu: cusna buidnib medonc[h]aib . . . ┐ cusin laim ar culu, CCath. 5771 . cinnas as áil duit techt i ndáil Medba . . . atágur l.¤ ar cúl aci, LU 6154 ( TBC-I¹ 1669 ).

(g) IMM: gaibid láim imm manipulates : do ghabhadar na fóirne . . . lámha um na leabhar-líontaibh, ML 46.24 .

(h) LA: do-beir láim la helps: is olc in lam tucadar na dee . . . linn, Fier. 106 . móide do-bhéara láimh linn the more wilt thou help me, Dán Dé xi 9 . ag tabhairt láimhe liom féin / a-tá meise, xxii 17 . ní fhuil duine agam do-bhéaradh lámh liom, TSh. 4735 . fo-ceird láim la with same meaning: nach áil cur lámha lat `they will not help thee' (of Mary and mankind), Dán Dé xix 25 . dlighidh cur a láimhe linn, L. Cl. A. B. 251.52 . nior chuir an samhradh lámh linn, Rel. Celt. ii 232.35 . Cf. lámh muna chuire re a gcosg, PBocht 15.5 . l.¤ la help, assistance to: lámh linn ar do bhreith ní bhia `to save me will not be in thy power', PBocht 13.38 . do ghuidh é (sic leg.) fa lamh leis chum síobhail ró mhóir do bhí na éigean air do dhéanamh, ZCP ii 558.22 . as maith an tráth láimhe linn / is cách ré'r ndáin[n]e ag doichill, Ériu v 52.15 .

(i) TAR: fochertar lama tairis they seized him, LU 5941 ( TBC-I¹ 1475 ). do-beir láim tar takes possession of usually by force: co tarad láim dar Corco Loígi, Anecd. i 13.21 . co tarat laim dar hIffern (of Christ harrowing hell), SR 7772 . tuc-som laim tarsan tir ┐ do lomarced leis . . . hi, Ann. Conn. 1249.2 . dochoid A. . . . do índriudh innd idhoiltige ┐ doberait laim tairis, LL 402b31 ( TTr.² 505 ). tugad l.¤ tar na luathcrechaib soir go slioschlár sluag Mhaonmaige they were carried off. Caithr. Thoirdh. 53.39 . do rat lá[i]m dar a longphort, Arch. Hib. ii 72 § 31 . tuc sisi lamh tar an mbiorar báoi for an sruth, BS 82.22 . Note also with pl. láma: tabraiter láma tairis let him be seized, LU 5937 ( TBC-I¹ 1471 ). do-beir láim tar a agaid. Of person waking from sleep: itraacht C. . . . asa chotlud ┐ dobert l.¤ dar a agid, TBC-LL¹ 2495 . do-icc tar láma violates, disobeys : ticcedh thrá Suibhne tar lamha an chleirigh, BS 175.20 .

IV In phrases with preceding prep. (and freq. vb.):

(a) DI: ceb é tan no ghebhudh dia lámh fair `whensoever he should receive the eucharist from him', Lism. L. 2886 . rogab comaind ┐ sacarbaic do laim Tassaig espoic, IT i 22.2 . Of reception of viaticum: téit Comhgall docum nimhe . . . do laimh Ailbhe, Lism. L. 2883 . co nabail dia laimh (i.e. Mochuda) iar mbreith buadha o dhemhan ┐ ó dhomhan (i.e. he died after receiving viaticum from M.), BNnÉ 295.9 . sáeraid di lámaib liberates from : amail soersai Abram / de lamaib na Caldae, Fél. Ep. 456 . rosoirad in chathir di lamaib assar, Ml. 61d2 . See saeraid.

(b) DO: gaibid do (orig. di ?) láim undertakes : ro erb M. fris frestal na hatha. Ro gab-sum sin do laim undertook, Fél. Pref. 12.10 . ro ghabh do láim . . . athaghidh [in muilind], Lism. L. 1969 . rogab Cuipidh do laim o Uenir inni sin, Aen. 387 . do gab . . . Domnall . . . do laim é, Cog. 174.18 . gabhmaitne do laim iatsom `we shall take them in hands', Caithr. CC 63 . do gab du laim cin toidecht i n-agaid mac Ruaidri aris, Ann. Conn. 1225.17 . gabh do láimh i ló na héigne / . . . bheith ós ar gcionn mar chrann díona, PBocht 10.49 . sibh-se . . . gabas do láim an t-eolas who profess learning, Content. xviii 10. Note also: do ghabhadar do láimh dhó nách roichfeadh . . . tochradh a dtigearna tairsibh `they pledged themselves to him', ML 116.8 . rogab H. do láim ón tṡiair sein, LL 226b40 `accepted that charge', TTr. 707 . téit (do-icc) do láim goes to communion : oc techt do laim at the Communion, Thes. ii 254.14 (Stowe Missal). in tan na tiagar do láim dia domnaig, tiagar dia dhardaín ina dhegaid, Rule of Tallaght 15 . fecht n-aill do B. ic techt do Laim in epscuip quadam die accessit B. ut Eucharistiam sumeret de manu episcopi, Lat. Lives 84.15 . gab do lāim / cen tabairt ngotha ar fer ngráid / . . . lēic don churp bīs ina lāim, ACL iii 222.18 . ni dlegar escómlad cen dol do lāim (`without being shriven'), MacCongl. 23.9 . as mitidh a n-anmain De techt do laim `it is time . . . to go to communion', RC xxvi 374.11 = do thāed do lāim `for you to take food(?)', Ériu i 44.24 . ic techt do láim in epscuip (`confess'), Three Hom. 80.21 . téit . . . Gillas . . . do churp Crist annsin do laimh Brenainn, BNnÉ 84.14 . sacairt ic dol do laim celebrating mass, Grail 1326 .

(c) FO. In various uses with téit: téid an bhuidhen fó láimh `submitted', ALC ii 350.12 . otcondai[r]c . . . na hairberta móra sin do thecht fo laim lé Césair being undertaken, CCath. 2389 . gur bhó heiccen do . . . dul fa lámhaibh legh (of surgical operation), AFM vi 2232.21 . See síned. téit fo láim n-epscoip receives confirmation : ní thic comlāine in spirta nóim mane tē fó láim n-epscoip īar mbathus, Ériu i 218.24 . confirmatio, no dul fa laimh easpuig, Luc. Fid. 3688 . Cf. Siluestar ap na cathrach / eirg fo [a] laim ar is rathmar, Fél. 46.29 (where however penance may be intended).

fo láim in the power of, at the discretion of: baí sé seachtmuine ina othairlighe fo lamhaibh legh, AFM vi 2116.2 . tug Dia fád láimh féin lesúghadh do thabhairt uait nó gan a thabhairt, Mac Aingil 3521 . fuair bás fánar lámhaibh, TSh. 5591. Hence subordinate to: guibernōir ar leith fo lāimh in ierla uassa, Fl. Earls 96.14 . Of swearing : gebatsa a luige fó láim Chiaráin by C., LL 274a16 ( SG 416.5 ). lúghu fo láim rig Caisil `by the hand of', Leb. Cert. 70.3 .

(d) FOR. for láim x beside x: asber fris suide for láim Findabrach, TBC-I¹ 1532 ( LU 6001 ). robéosa fort láimsiu, Fél. Prol. 273 . fer buí for láim Airt, ZCP viii 310.7 . Cf. alaile for laim n-ainsedo `another agreeing with(?) the accustive', Ml. 23c21 . Hence of possession, control: nach raibh ar láimh ní fa nimh in his possession, A. Ó Dálaigh 1(50) 10 . do bhí ar a láimh é d'fheithimh it was in His power to watch it, PBocht 21.33 . a bailte móra ar a láimh, Rel. Celt. ii 182.14 . do-beir for láim places at the disposal of: dos bert for láim Eogain, IT i 81.20 . tug a' Gen. na caisléin an boili ┐ na braighde ar lāimh a' Ninntius, Cín Lae Ó Meall. 46.13 . an tan tug ar láimh na heaguilsi eochracha cengail ┐ sgaoilte cháich, Mac Aingil 179 . Note also: beir an dall ar láimh libh `take the blind man by the hand with thee', A. Ó Dálaigh vi 9. Of imprisonment: do cunnbhad ar laimh é gur fháguibh a dheic bhliaghna fichead d'aois, Rel. Celt. ii 162.21 . do bhi an ri san nam sin ar laimh aga naimhdibh .i. Parlameint Shagsan, 202.31 . Cf. dan-indnacht ar láim `by the hand', Blathm. 90 § 3.

(e) FRI. fri láim on behalf of, deputizing for: is e Niall . . . ro gab rigi nErenn . . . acht cheana is é Brian ba tuairgnid catha fri[a] laim side `in his stead', RC xxiv 180.7 . tigerna airthir Connacht fri lāimh a athar acting for his father, AFM ii 836. 10 . With difft. meaning: nochar gabhadh re lāimh T. T. was unassailable, ZCP viii 225.2 . nech padh calmai fri laim imbertai cloidib when it came to swordplay, RC xii 72.22 .

(f) I: gaib id lāim mo fāesam airtho undertake, TBC-I¹ 409. i láim captive, subservient (to): i láimh atú i ttalmhain, Dán Dé xii 7 . minic mē a láim acc dreasaibh, KMMisc. 352 § 7. do marbad U. isin lam-sin `captivity', Ann. Conn. 1270.7 . mé mar bhráighid bhíos i láimh, Dán Dé iii 32 . Aedh . . . do bí illiamh (leg. illáimh) sa chaislén, AU ii 466.18 . grádh mná 'ga bhfuilim i láimh, Dánta Gr. 8.5 . is fiacha i láimh / na féich ar a bhfuil admháil as good as paid, L. Cl. A. B. 162.13 . do thuaslucud chimmeda bai illāim oc ríg qui erat in vinculis apud regem, Lat. Lives 80.11 . Also in pl.: ro gabad annsin Marcus Crasus, ┐ tucad il-lámhaibh é docum airechta na Partecdha, CCath. 136. Also with gen.: cá láimh ataí, a rioghain? I láimh Anadail mic Rí Conchend . . . ar sí, ITS v 54.8 . tugas grádh éagmhaise d'Eoin . . . / 'na láimh tharla an rí [dá] réir `he can make the Lord obey him', PBocht 27.1 . caide . . . an bean i rroibe mo mac sa laim (na laim, v.l.), TTebe 2125 . tuc i lláim Michil . . . in imerci sin, Ériu iv 118 § 36 . With same meaning: a leith a lámh bítt na mná so [do]gres `are always obedient to her', Maund. 135.

In extended sense: ón bhan-óigh do bheith im láimh / budh dáigh breith ar anóir [uainn] my winning regard is likely, the Virgin being on my side, Dán Dé xxiii 39 . do bhí sise im láimh gach laoi she has always been by my side, 40 . beid go luinneach im láimh thall `shall be active for me' (of saints), xxv 69 .

(g) IMM: atbert int aingel friu ni de min do chummisc doib ar an im . . . arna toitsitis an aes penda immallama die on their hands, Mon. Tall. 73.

(h) SECH: léim sech láim false leap(?) LL 307a12 ( SG 386.23 ). nichat léicfider sech láim (of a sword) thou wilt not be laid aside, RC xx 12 § 21 . ná léicetsom sech láimh neglect, LL 301a48 ( SG 373.y ). ? conralta dibh sech laim, Anecd. ii 63.10 .

(i) TAR: tar láim. In oaths by: dar láimh do chinn ┐ do choise, Gadelica i 44.302 . dar láimh Moling, Ó Bruad. i 54 § 5 . tar láma(ib) in spite of: ro chongaibh an Breifne gan baoghlucchadh tar lamhaibh a chomharsan, AFM v 1804.15 . Legal: i slanuibh dochuaidh an duine . . . ┐ tar a lama tecar . . . tiachtain tara lamuibh, O'Curry 393 ( H 3.18, 220a ). tiachtan fo'n cundrad tar do láma `in violation of thy security', Laws v 508.16 Comm . is e dogab Eirinn dar lamaib Chormuic uí Chuinn (ni th[ar] a lamhaib dogab uair fa gilla og Cormac an tan sin), CGSH § 142 n. k-k​ .

V Adv. phrases. a láim i láim from hand to hand : á tinnacul a llaim hillaim, Ml. 96d6 . l.¤ (láim) ar láim equally balanced : dá mbeith an ní láimh ar láimh / idir Eoghan is Conn cáidh, Content. xviii 35. Also: comhraicis Iollann ar a' traigh / Maghnus lamh ar laimh `hand to hand', Duan. F. ii 326 § 31 . d'óenláim together, unanimously : d'oen láim, LL 296b30 . érgit slúaig Ulad innáig / ┐ a n-ardrí d'oenláim, 299a1 ( SG 368.1 ). nach maithfidhe le Dia dháibh / go ria a n-aithrighe d'énláimh, O'Gr. Cat. 467.4 . fo láim secretly: co ndechaid fein as fo laim, Ann. Conn. 1278.6 . maidhm for Maghnus dana ┐ é fén do dul [as] fo laim `secretly effected his escape', AFM iii 452.17 . gabais reime fó láim for lergaib in tsléibe `privily', SG 381.2 ( RC xiii 92.20 ). l.¤ fri láim side by side : in cailli selga noghabhdais dosreathdais 'na uirtimcill lamh fria laim, Marco P. 89. Note also: lecit sírthi fo cricha na Camandi ┐ in lamh ag aroile dhibh `keeping near one another', Marco P. 10 . (ó) láim do (co) láim one and all : do chuala a chloinn láimh do láimh, DDána 46.10 . leis na haingle ó láimh go láimh, 38.20 . tucsam lughi lámh do láimh / fian meic Cumuill einechnair, Acall. 1443 . l.¤ tar láim: do chuirsead fós lámh tar láimh clú a bh-feadhma ar fud an domhain `upon all hands', Miscell. Celt. Soc. 374.17 .

cacha láma (láime) on either side : secht cumala gacha laime go tri nonbura, Laws iv 234.9 . annam lend aithled cecha lama itiaid-siu, LL 286b15 . Gall faoi ┐ Gall gacha láimhe dhó, Ériu i 87.14 . gadaidhe gach láimhe leis, Dán Dé xx 24 . breac beó gacha lámha leis / dála an dá eó nír indeis, IGT Decl. ex. 2135. Cf. in literal sense: do bheredh cend gacha láma would take a head in either hand, Caithr. Thoirdh. 75.30 .

In nn. pr.: Lām-fri-hēc, Mug láma, see Corp. Gen. Lámh Ghábhaid, Cóir Anm. 280 . L.¤ Luath, Acall. 7476. Cf. Lám áed `hand Aed' (as nickname), Trip. 200.7 .

COMPDS. With nouns: ¤aire, see separate article. ¤anart napkin : teagh budh lonnraighe lámhanart, Studies 1924, 244 § 22 . ¤arm, used of small weapon which a warrior took to bed with him for use in emergency: lámh-arm gach laoich ar a leabaidh, ML 76.10 . ¤brat: lambrat gl. mantile, Sg. 172a3 . gl. gausape, 128a1 , 3 . ¤bréit towel : nipsa lambreid lamhglanta, Anecd. ii 60.7 . ¤bró handquern: ni meath log-einech ar ithlaind ┐ lambroin, Laws v 88.11 Comm . ¤chartad ` masturbation ' O'Dav. 1474 . in sesmac pectac imorro le lamhcartad dogeibh a toil, BCrólige 29 . ¤chlaideb: cen arm occaib . . . acht lamcloidmi becca bidis ina lamaib, BB 439b2 . ¤chloc: iseal a treoir in tan is lamclog (gl. aistreóir), Laws v 22.8. Comm . ¤chloch: gebid lamhcloich do lár thalman dar bo lán a glac, TBC-LL¹ 1181 . ¤chomart clapping of hands in grief, lamentation : darindidar lam-chomairt mor ┐ nual-guba dearmair, YBL 147b8 . lámchomairt . . . ┐ basghari do mathrechaib, LB 141a3 . lamcomairt .i. basgaire, O'Dav. 1193 . oenach ina lamcomarthae in quo ignis ┐ tonitru similitudine die judicii. ind lamhcomart hi feil Michel dianepred in tene di nim, AU i 240.1 - 2 (A.D. 771) = AFM i 370.15 . in chantaicc Solomon ┐ ind Lámchomairt libuir Ieremiae Book of Lamentations, Hib. Min. 26 § 186. ¤chongnam: gan lāmh-chongnamh ar doman, Fl. Earls 72.15 . ¤chor: lámhchara .i. lamhchora .i. cur láimhe ar ní, O'Cl. (cf. BB 419a25 below). corugud (sic leg.) cach cuaille iar n-uachtar, ┐ lamcur doib co nach urfaema in (sic leg.) talam `they are pushed down by the hand', Laws iv 112.11 . dorinne lamhchur air laying on of hands, Keat. iii 1603 . ¤chorrán: rolá . . . lāmhcorrán iarnaidhi [uada] d'fastudh na luinge `grappling-irons' CCath. 2083 . ¤chrann. Of part of a harp: olc a l. olc a corr, Measgra D. 7.121 . ¤chruit: a lámh-chruit do leiséaghuinn, Gleanings from Irish manuscripts 115 § 12 . ¤déraigthe (cf. 1 dérgud). In phr. ar feis leptha ┐ láimdéraighthe in cohabitation : do berdais a ndaermná (sic leg.) ar feis lepta ┐ láimhdhéraidhthi daib, ZCP viii 545.21 = TBC-LL¹ 1738 - 40 . is and sin ro ḟaietar (sic leg.) in lánamain sin ar feis leaptha ┐ láimhdheraighthi, Acall. 821. Cf. 7842 . ¤día household god, idol : tuc lea lámdeo á athar (of Rachel), SR 3016 . beir leat t'athair Anachis ┐ do mac ┐ do bean ┐ do laimdea, Aen. 578 . tabhraidh láimhdhia chugaibh, ┐ adhraidh dhó, Keat. i 142.43 . ¤dóe (dóit): lámdoti na laechraidi, LL 235a22 ( TTr. 1345 ). ¤écht: an t-iarla ó Lúcan . . . / triath is iomdha láimhéachta, Ó Bruad. iii 144.z . ¤fheidm manual effort : tar lám-fheadhmannaib na laoch, ML 46.26 . ¤ḟile: Feidhlime Ruadh . . . / gá togha is dírighe do luadh gach láimhfhile poet with a patron(?), Hackett² 43.4 . ¤ḟrestal: láimhfhreastal sámhghasda saoitheadh, Hackett² 28.234 . ¤ḟritheolad: do láimh-fritheoladh Choncubhair `to deal with C.,' CRR² 82.x . ¤gaí: gur tholl an lamh-gai an luireach, MR 286.1 . ¤gésca twig : lamgesca mora, RC x 74.3 . ¤glanad: lambreit lamghlanta, Anecd. ii 60.17 . ¤glés wringing of hands : mor lámchomart ┐ láimglés . . . fógensat cumala, Alex. 389 . ro crochtha oca he isin laimgles doroindi, YBL 172b18 = SG 74.4 . ¤lecc: imbertside na lamlecca foraib, LU 4966 ( TBC-I¹ 479 ). ¤nert: re cumas láimhneirt, Oss. iii 264.14 . ¤maide: na soighde, ┐ na lámhmhaideadha, Ezekiel xxxix 9. ¤raite by-road, secondary road : madh for laimraitib beacaib, is i nde randait, CIH v 1549.37 . lamraiti .i. iter di sligid 'by-road, i.e. between two highways' EIF 538 . See also ¤rót(a) below. ¤ rinda: lamrinda nó luathrinda .i. ligatura inter diversas picturas gl. plectas ( 1 Kings vii 29 ), Thes. i 1.30 . See lúathrinde. ¤rót(a) (? properly ¤raite, perh. confused with 1 rót, rota) by-road: lamróta .i. iter da ṡligid, Thr. Ir. Gl. 38 = lāmrotae, Corm. Y 1082 = lomrottea, laimroitea, Corm. Bodl. 36.38 . lamhrod .i. ród láimh le ród eile, O'Cl. mad for rot mor . . . mad for laim raitib becaib, O'Curry 2004 ( H 4.22, 31 ). ¤scaíled manumission: mic mhuinntire, ar nach déantar lámhsgaoileadh, TSh. 5121 . ¤scíath small shield : tú ar láimh-sgiath lá an ghuasochta, A. Ó Dálaigh xix 4. trí chéud láimhsciath, 1 Kings x 17 . ¤scor: gursad . . . lúthmhar ar lámsgor `till our hand teams are . . . spirited', CRR² 62.12 . ¤smacht: na mic nach bí sgaoilte ó lámh-smacht a n-aithreach, TSh. 5122 . ¤thapadh: tuc in t-iarla lamtapadh laechda . . . fora cloidim, ZCP vi 274.32 . As name of Conall Cernach's shield: Lamthapad Conaill Chernaig, LL 12508. ¤thargair .i. oirchi beg no mesan `i.e. a small hound or lapdog', O'Dav. 1153. Cf. lamtairrṅgir, O'D. 2226 ( Nero A vii, 152b ). ¤thoca. As comic n. pr. Lonidh mac Lamthoca, Anecd. ii 55.x , perh. for ¤thoccad. ¤thomus lit. hand-measurement : tugador dhá fhorghomh . . . do na leabhar-armaibh lámh-thómais with their weapons at arm's length(?), ML 136.7 . ¤thorad handiwork, what is produced by weaving, sewing, etc. as opposed to frithgnam: abras . . . .i. lamt[h]orud inailte, Corm. Y 90 . ben lamtoruid `a woman of profitable handicraft', BCrólige 31 . leath do mnai a etach no lamtorad snithiu handiwork consisting of spun material (of what is due to a woman when separating from husband), Laws ii 372.15 . See Thurn., ZCP xv 340 - 1 . See also sníthe. As comicn. pr.: Lenn ingen Lamthora (Lamthoraid v.l.), Anecd. ii 56.2 . ¤thúag: lámtuag gl. hoc manuale, Ir. Gl. 857 . ¤thort. Fig. of warrior: lamtort n-irgala uae beolaig Bressail, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 22 § 2 . meic Labradha lamhtort n-irghalach, LL 393a54 .

With adjj. (many of the follg. are applied to individuals as sobriquets). ¤daith nimble-handed . Of Cú Chulainn: an lāmdhait[h], Fianaig. 42.y . ¤derg: Lugaid lámderg, MacCarthy 176 § 6 . RC xx 136.20 . Frequ. of Leinster and Leinstermen: ri coicid lámdeirg Lagen, CRR 26.7 . DDána 100.26 . ¤des: Loarn laimdheas, Todd Nenn. cv.z . As n. pr. = Manus Dextera, Reeves Ad. 136.z . ¤dóitech. As comic n. pr.: Lámdóiteach mac Lethircind `Wristy-hand', MacCongl. 77.22 . ¤échtach: Mac Lugach [lámechtach], Acall. 227 . re Lúghaidh lámhéachtaicc Lágha, Flower Cat. 401.z . ¤ḟíal: ó C[h]orc . . . lāimhf[h]īal, Ériu ix 177.4 . ¤ḟind: Lugóir . . . lámfind, LL 2428. As n. pr. Láimhḟionn is Lámhghlas, Keat. ii 523 . ¤ḟota: is hé . . . leithinchind lamfota, TBC-LL¹ 5400. In Lug(aid) Lámḟota: airemh Logha Lamhfoda for na Fomhoraibh, TBC St. 570. As nickname: Osbrit lamfota, BDD 116 . ¤gel: Lughach laimgheal, Duan. F. ii 72 § 22. Fiachaidh láimh-gheal, ML 86.24 . ¤garb: Mani L., RC xiv 426.10 = xxiv 276.16 . ¤gerrtha: laochraidh láimh-ghearrtha, TSh. 6610 . ¤glan: a degmic lāmglain Lūachāin, BColm. 50.17 . ¤glas: Láimhḟionn is Lámhghlass, Keat. ii 523 . ¤grod: go lámh-ghrod dian, Oss. iv 132.22 . ¤idan: d'Aengus Laimhiodhan, Anecd. ii 37 § 2 . ¤licthe: nadh bi lamlicthi (of a food-rent), O'Curry 880 ( H 3.18, 393b ). ¤nertmar: go m-biadh sé láimhneartmhar go leor, Oss. iii 268.19 . ¤rúad: Lugaid Lamruad, RC xx 136.24 . ¤thapaid: ina laem loinrech lasamain lamthapaid, Ann. Conn. 1256.6 . go leidhmheach lámhtapaidh, AFM vi 2072.15 . ¤thenn: fear láimh-theann, Oss. iv 110.2 . ad lamchara laímhtheanna . . . bar trenmilídh, BB 419a25 .

With vb. gaibid in artificial formation: nondalámgaba gl. mancipare, Ml. 43a2 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. latrann or

Forms: latrann, ladrann

n o, m. (Lat. latro). Earlier probably latru (-a) with g s. latrann, cf. Ladra in tres fer . . . is uad ainmnigther Ard Ladrann, Thurn. Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 23.23 . luam Ladrann, Leb. Cert.² 166.9 . Also (if not difft. wd.) latar: latar .i. laoch, O'Dav. 830 . ladar .i. trodach no ladar .i. laoch, 1148 . in latur . . . .i. Diabol, Ériu ii 140 § 149 . latur, ACL iii 317 § 59 v.l.

Robber, thief : a latrannu ┐ a c[h]onu cacca, MacCongl. 23.36 . ro-crochsat imalle fris da latrand, PH 3325 . gatsait latraind dá thorc díib, Lism. L. 319.12 . espoc mīchrāibtech co fīr / . . . 'na ladrann ag creachad ceall, ZCP x 338 § 2 . Dismus ┐ Geomus gand / anmand Grécda na latrand, Ériu iii 198 § 25. cned lem an lūathglacadh / ladrainn 'ga lāmhugudh (of Christ), ZCP viii 205.30 . Ceallach . . . do mharbhadh la latrondaib, AFM i 366.1 . clanna ladrann lán do mhoirn, Studies 1919, 74 § 12 . go dtarladar ladrainn nó lucht foghla ris, TSh. 1450. leadarthach na ladrann gan tlás re tóir indefatigable in pursuing and smiting robbers (of a chieftain), Hackett² xlviii 21 . na ro craidhi an ladrann me, a Dhe (of the devil), ZCP i 135.1 . ladronn .i. meirlech no bithbheanach, O'Cl. uaim l.¤ den of thieves: uaim thagut ┐ latrand, Lism. L. 359.16 . = ūam latrand ┐ tádat, Ériu i 219.z . uaim latrand, PH 4397. baile eisidhe baí ina uaimh lattronn, ┐ ina mhuine meirle . . . , AFM vi 2106.21 . In somewhat similar sense, long ladrann (i.e. the body), TSh. 2921. Cf. ni ín long latrand ín long so ┐ ni huaim taidead, BB 22a23 (addressed to Ladra: with play on name). As descript. g s.: co m-builli latraind, IT iii 246.89 ( LL 247a17 ). co léidmire leómain ┐ co lainne ladrainn, Fianaig. 60.14 . lám latrainn see lám.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. lerg or

Forms: lerga

n ā, f. IGT Decl. § 39 (91.11) . Also lerga f., § 4 (with dental infl.), and n, f. sloping expanse, stretch (of ground, etc.).

(a) hillside : l.¤ .i. cach n-eislind, O'Mulc. 793 . a almai . . . / im Charmill do cach oenleirg, SR 6298 . cen lubai lergg, . . . / cen selgc slebi, 7019 . is me dorigni in seilgc séig / forsin chétna leirg don tsléib, 2870 . i lleirc eter lectaibh cūan, Fianaig. 12 § 23 . lecht Luaine seo forsin leirg, RC xxiv 282 § 25 . uisce lerga līgmaise, Ériu ii 56 § 8 . for lergaib in tṡléibe, RC xiii 92 § 117 . ó rolín topor tuile / lergga lána Líathmuine `the brimming levels', Metr. Dinds. iv 68.142 . ós leirg in maige, 124.16 . druim ndrech-ṡlemon na ndathbord, / cuing leth-remor 'na leth-leirg, ii 46.10 . na ḟuaitged . . . / . . . in seisrig iar lō din leirg, Fing. R. 645 . ēta duit cēd ferb re h-as / ar in leirg, ML² 1998 . la forum n-ēn ic gach lercc, ZCP viii 120.18 . for lergaibh lebra lainreidhe in maigi, CCath. 4921 . lassar rígthigi di leirgg, CRR 28. Cf. 29 . roth fri learga (prov. of a difficult undertaking), CRR² 34. Of the slope of a hill lighted by last rays of the sun: fescur is faide tar leirg, Acall. 2867. Cf. sgur leirge dá luisne, DDána 88.18 . íar línad l.¤ ┐ ghlenn an tsaegail, RC xxviii 312 § 8 . eiter mhagh is mhóin is leirg, BS 128.17 . lerga ciabdhorcha a coilltedh, O'Gr. Cat. 459.6. dá fheirg re a fhine / ar an leirg bhus lia duine (at the Judgment), DDána 24.8 . go rug léim ar leirg Ifrinn, PBocht 3.19 . cécht ag (a, v.l.) lenmuin do leirg thúair, IGT Decl. ex. 511 . ina lergaibh loma gan ioth gan fheór, AFM v 1678.x . Fig. of the world: an leargso, a fhlaith na cruinne, / ler rann tú síol síorruidhe, Aithd. D. 50.31 . agá ttograim i nacchaidh na leargan airde, AFM v 1672.5 .

(b) battle-field: Labraid lúam na lerge, IT iii 40 § 35 ( Bruchst. i 5 § 2 ). lamair lergga was intrepid in battle, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 18 § 1 . beti fáenscéith hi lergaib, LU 6613 . silis lergga, . . . / dercfid rói, Imr. Brain 55 . do láim Indich, lúaded leirg `who traversed the battle-field', Metr. Dinds. iii 84.2 . Cf. i 6.22 . tucus scíath ba Dáire deirg / assin leirg, iii 122.30 . maidhm san leirg ar Lochlannchaibh, DDána 85.25 . ar son ghairthe gráin leargan, 101.6 .

(c) Various applications. Shore of sea or lake, river-bank: cota lir lerggae īath nĒremōin, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 10 § 3 ( .i. co himel mara, 11.13 ). ás (= ós) leirg Locha Lind Formait, TBC-LL¹ 4115 . learga Loich Éirne, BS 92.14 . air leargaidh (?-aibh) Locha Séarchaidh, AU iii 598.8 . ar léirg chúain, Rel. Celt. ii 286.26 . croinn ḟinnleargan an Ḟorghais, TD 3.3 .

(d) In the sense of surface, level in various applications. Of the sea: do baide muir . . . fo lergaib lana, Laws iv 378.17 Comm . In a description of a building: gach learg dhlúthta, DDána 119.34 . gan leathtrom learg, 18 . Of parts of the body: ? scíath as (= ós) leirg láin, TBC-LL¹ 4049 (`über dem vollen Rücken') a théig libair fo leirg a droma, MacCongl. 25.16 (cf. stúag-lerg s.v. stúag). a sgíath ar leirg a droma, Celt. Rev. iv 18.2 . learg thais a thaoibh míndealbhaigh `the soft slope of his smooth comely side', Studies 1921, 418 § 8 . cíche . . . / ós leirg áluinn, TD 40.6 . learga . . . a gruadh ngeal, 1.4 . clár finnleargan do ghruadh ngeal, Aithd. D. 41.18 . clár findlergadh a aighthi, IGT Decl. ex. 235 . sgoltadh learg mbán a dá bhonn (of the crucified Lord), Aithd. D. 78.24 . Of a shield: for leirg droma in sceith, CCath. 4730.

(e) In adv. phrases. (i) ar leirg under colour of, for the ostensible purpose of, by way of: do chuaidh ar eachtra ar leirg oilithre is aithrighe, Keat. iii 4594 . ar leirg síothchána (= quasi sub pacis intuitu), 2901 . an cheud drong . . . do bhíodh ar leirg (lorg, v.l.) uaisle ┐ ceannais féadhna, i 214.22 (`in the rank of nobility').

(ii) leirg do leirg: in loch so in Loch daim deirg / fris tangamar leirg do leirg from slope to slope(?), Acall. 2922. annamh le coill Droma Deirg / faoídh cluig innti leirg do leirg, Duan. F. ii 178 § 5.

? Lochlainn as l.¤ a sechnad / da bfaghta fer finnchechnad `there is a way to have done with L.: that is, could there be found a man to outdo him', Caithr. Thoirdh. 60.13 .

(f) In nn. loc. see Hog. Onom. and pl. icon Ḟert i lLerggaib, LL 9566 (cf. LU 6277 ). on Lergain, ALC ii 434.3 .


(i) With nouns. ¤brúach: griobh do leargbhruach Luimnigh, 23 G 24, 338.6 . ¤eisce (see eisce): leirgeisce .i. eisce do cur uime for leirg, O'Curry 456 ( H 3.18, 243a ). ¤gort: clúimh na learggort naoidhe, DDána 106.21 . ¤ lúam pilot of the battle-field : Conchend . . . / lerg-luam Lugdach, Metr. Dinds. ii 80.7 ( LL 21496 ).

(ii) With adjj. ¤glas: do Chlár leargglas Laoghaire, DDána 121.26 . ¤lór: en do dergor for cach crois / os chind lerglor nach anfois, SR 366 . ōs Laignechaib Liphi lerglōir, RC xxxvi 262 § 4 ( Rawl. 85b7 ; lergmóir, LL).


Cite this: eDIL s.v. letraid or

Forms: leitér

v fut. stem leitér-, -eor-,

(a) cuts (off), severs, fells, breaches: urfoichledh in cach ferus na fuili na roletradh na feithe `that he sever not', BCrólige 58 n.1 . letrais Diuran donn lic laindrech / . . . / coic leathunga cut off, Anecd. i 67 § 153. ledraig finda fo usce, ledrad finda for cind, ┐ ni tescadh tuind, Aen. 1934 . doleic M. . . . a shoighit co ro ledair in snaithi . . . ┐ ni ro letair int en, ┐ dochuaid int en . . . for foluamain, 1131 . thug Lughaidh béim do Chonall no gur gerrastar ┐ gur leadarthar a chengail, Comp. CC 132.1 . letras fraech, forcocnus figh, silas sliabh, BLism. 175 va 5 . cor' letrastair in láimh clí ó bun na gualann de, CCath. 2064 . cor' letair . . . / in n-étach bai im Saul, SR 6379 (= praecidit, 1 Sam. xxiv 5 ). nach [biadh] sgéal 'mun fháinne air / méar a láimhe gur leadair, DDána 102.27 . eirniter fo airdeibi gacha feadha is comaith cenél ris, ┐ ni leatartar uile (of fines for mutilation of trees), Laws iv 170.13 Comm . mas iat fedha in ferainn do letradh and, O'Curry 1736 ( 23 Q 6, 29b ). cid fodera go fuiled tri screball do loct na fearand ro leadradh sund `which have been breached' (of compensation to occupiers of land over which water has been conveyed), Ériu xvii 74.2 (Coibnes Uisci Th. Comm.). meath na dúthaig dontí ledrus / úr ibhair na naom, SG 24. 35 .

(b) wounds, lacerates, mangles, hacks, rends : dāig is dar cenn lūaigi / leitērthar co lūath, TBC-I¹ 2591 (= locherthair, TBC-LL¹ 3356 ). 's corot letar claideb crúaid, / 's coro ṡil bróen fola dar grúaid, TFerbe 474 . mallacht ar láim ro letair, 700 . ra lettair Lóch mo da lon, TBC-LL¹ 2365 . lerg-luam Lugdach, letrad cailc who hacked shields, Metr. Dinds. ii 80.7 . Lochēne lonn letrad chath, ZCP viii 118 § 29 . sceinnit píasta ┐ bladhmhíla cucu-san co leadraid íad, RC xxiv 378.14 . Húa Fergail da bualadh do chloidhim, cor' ledair co mor `mangled', xviii 169.21 (Tig.). mor ngealchorp . . . ros ledraigset láigne, Alex. 137 . co letrad feóil ┐ lethar on chnáim immach, PH 7212 . leó co ngae gonas no letras (gl. Galeon), O'Dav. 1146 . mo lāmh nochar leadair duine, Aithd. D. 70.3 . ro loiscceadh Coill Comair leis, ┐ ro ledradh `hewn down', Cog. 116.y .

(c) strikes, smites(?): airigsi and . . . sruth ard amnas / ledrais aire crand a gai glais, Anecd. i 58 § 64.

1 lí

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 lí or
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: li, li, líi, lii, líi, li, liga, líthe, lighthe, dhali, liga, liga, lig, ligaib, líg, líd

n orig. perh. g, but freq. indecl. in s. and du.; l.¤ f., IGT Decl. § 98 , 99 ; cf. li n-aimbi, Auraic. 5540 , li ambi, 1170 . n s. líi, Wb. 12b 5 . Thes. ii 250.11 . lii, RC xvii 148.18 (Tig). li, Auraic. 1170. a s. líi, Corm. Y 37. li, Ériu ii 15 § 2. g s. l.¤ , SR 6883. liga, Laws i 150.10 . líthe (lighthe MS.), O'R. Poems 3358. d s. l.¤ , Wb. 15a21 . LU 9501. g du. dhali, CF 1002. n p. liga, Corm. Y 799. a p. liga, Imr. Brain 40 . Airne F. 209 . g p. lig, Hail Brigit 2 . d p. ligaib, SR 439. n s. líg of glossaries is probably not an old n. but has been abstracted from compds. or oblique cases; n s. líd of Trip. ii 552.6 is perh. for l.¤

Beauty, lustre, glory

(a) in general meaning: ar l.¤ gl. propter gloriam, Wb. 15a21 . ho l.¤ gl. decore, Ml. 37b9 . líi grene `the sun's brightness', Thes. ii 250.11 . líí .i. taithnem, O'Dav. 1197 . lig .i. maisi, Lec. Gl. 66 . co na l.¤ .i. cona taithnemh, H 2.15A, 72 (O'Don. Suppl.). a brat lig, Hail Brigit 20 . bid cach sluag . . . / lánaib do ligaib fofeib / do sidaib, do sonmigeib, SR 439 . niro fhuilngsetar na suili pecdhachu sella frisna liga noiba 'his sinful eyes could not endure gazing upon the holy colours', TBith.² 171 § 60 . in delb rola a mathair .i. Uenir, o li serce ina ghnuis `with love's splendour', Aen. 350 . indiu is forderg a lii (of a place), RC xvii 148.18 (Tig.). atá sunna sét co l.¤ / fotán tiri tairngirí `a shining treasure', Metr. Dinds. iv 166.53 . nó co mbad Fea an ainm ┐ li oni ba laind le ina faca, Dinds. 12 (Mag Lifi). l.¤ crotha `beauty of form', Auraic. 5662 . a comlond lig lumnech lenn, ZCP xi 109 § 13 . do chongain líga a lann lib (: sída) (`whetting'), Caithr. Thoirdh. 38.33 . l.¤ an toighe `splendour', TD 11.24 . do-bhéaruise . . . / l.¤ an smóil ar geiltighibh Gall `the hue of embers', 27.147 . lúirech lonn ar l.¤ n-airgid, L. Cl. A. B. 98.142 . l.¤ an óir ar a húrmháille, 144 .

For phrase l.¤ súla attractive sight (lit. `brightness of the sun', O'Rahilly EIHM 58 n.4 ) see súil. Note also: dobudh fo li liomsa sin that would please me (?), ZCP x 281. 15 (= ? fó l.¤ good splendour (?), but see fó líth s.v. 1 fó). l.¤ .i. lainn no toil, O'Dav. 1157. For ligaib, SR 7874 see lígda.

(b) Of persons beauty, (beautiful) complexion, splendour, appearance: ré taoibh amban, caomh a l.¤ , TBC-LL¹ 6118 . nocha maith ata do li, Anecd. i 21.4 . garb a ll.¤ , MU² 431 . rograd fir alathire / romsiacht . . . / rucc mo li, ni lor do dath, Ériu ii 15 § 2 . Fionn . . . go l.¤ ccroth `of ruddy complexion', Duan. F. ii 16 § 5 . meic Néill Fhrasaigh, . . . / do leasoigh l.¤ na ndaoineadh, L. Cl. A. B. 276.108 . gidh dubh anocht mo l.¤ , Duan. F. ii 64.20 . l.¤ gruaidheadh ndonn, L. Cl. A. B. 216.48 . braoi . . . ar l.¤ na subh, TD 40.15 . Of flushing of face of person satirized: ní fhuil l.¤ mh'imdheargtha ort, Aithd. D. 34.16 .

(c) With co and FO in adj. phr. brilliant, beautiful (often mere cheville): fúaim co ll.¤ , LU 3755 . atchonnarc láechu co ll.¤ , 3761 ( SCC 34 ). ar tri do rannsat an sluagh / . . . trian im Laignib con a li `a third of brilliant Leinstermen', Celt. Rev. iv 214.30 . gan mo spéis a cceól go l.¤ `I am heedless of rich melody', Duan. F. ii 18 § 10 . triar fer ar caeccait fo l.¤ (.i. ar a mbaoi degghne) `well-complexioned', Leb. Gab.(i) 16.8 ( BB 22a51 ). is cian scarsu fri eochu / fri carpat foa l.¤ , LU 9501. boi fó a l.¤ ┐ fó bláth cach datha (leg. fo áilli?), 10792 ( fó a ile, Ériu xii 174 § 1 ). detgein némanda fo l.¤ , IT i 80.15 .

(d) In contexts denoting change of colour or complexion in death colour, pallor : is cosmail fri líi bais ar baini, or na bi ni do dergge and quasi exsangis mortus , Corm. Y 37 . millfet l.¤ th'aigthe . . . `I will mar the colour of thy face' (i.e. `I will kill thee', note), Metr. Dinds. iii 62.99 . ní thardda l.¤ tassi form `may it not put the colour of a corpse on me', Thes. ii 352.18 . l.¤ n-aimbí .i. li mairb `hue of the lifeless' name of willow-tree (sail) or letter s in the Briatharogham of Morann m. Máin, Auraic. 5540 . claochloidhfidh do laochuibh l.¤ , ITS v 122. y . adbath gan locht a l.¤ dhe, L. Cl. A. B. 20.33 .

In n. pr. L.¤ Ban `Beauty of Women', wife of Labraid Lúathlám ar Claideb, LU 3354 ( SCC 14 ) etc.

In chevilles: leri líí, SR 7019 . cen lunni l.¤ , SR 6883 . l.¤ gan locht, O'R. Poems 3131.

In n. loc. see Hog. Onom.

Compds. Earlier composition-form líg-, later lí-.

(a) With nouns: ? ¤both: ordugud inna ligboth `ordering of the radiant mansions', TBith.² 121 § 16. di cheolaib ┐ ligbothaib ind nim 'of music and bright dwellings in heaven', TBith.² 201 § 84 cf. 125 § 19, 223 § 102 . ¤búaid resplendent triumph: cona uilib fochraiccib ┐ ligbuadaib, LB 74c23 . na raibhi ordugudh na libuaidh 'there was no order nor radiant virtue', TBith.² 120 § 16 . go ceolaibh ┐ libuadhaibh 'with songs and radiant virtues', TBith.² 124 § 19 . ¤dath beauteous colour : glaisiu cach ligdath, Ériu ii 110.3 . atá . . . adhbur eile ann do bláthaibh ┐ do lídhathaib, RC xxiv 370.25 . ¤derc bright eye : córrmhogail lóghmhara (leg. loghmhar a?) lídhearc, Hackett xxxix 250 . ¤drong: ba lúam cech líg-druing, Metr. Dinds. ii 26.7 . ¤ḟlaith: il-lígḟlatha lestur `in the vessel of the beautiful realm', Fél. Ep. 22 . ¤gile: taise a learg sa líghile, Ir. Syll. Poetry 71 § 4 . ¤luib fair herb; fig. of person: braon don ríoghfhuil . . ./ . . . ar líoluibh lubhghorta, L. Cl. A. B. 147.32 . ¤mag: documnet inna ligmuigi `that traverse the bright plains', Ériu ii 128.8 . ¤néll bright cloud, bright sheen : lí-néll, L. Cl. A. B. 185.148 . ¤scrisad destruction of splendour : mo lá léin leadartha leagaithe is líscriosta (líghsgriosta v.l.), Hackett xx 6 . ¤ṡruth fair stream : dha ghéis líoghshrotha leac bhfionn, O'R. Poems 2803 . ¤thorad bright produce : in mbile cona ligthoirthib, Ériu ii 120.30 . ¤thorba bright fruit : ni frith fri ligthorba /acht in ficomna, SR 1361.

(b) With adjj.: ¤bratánach bright-mantled: for ligbratanach Line (applied to Cú Chulainn), RC xiv 398 § 1. Cf. a lígbrataig Life, LU 8145 ( FB 11 ). ¤doilbthe of magical brilliance: fionnráith . . . líodhoilfe (lioghfhoirfe, v.l.), LBranach 471 . ¤daithte: le héudaighibh sáimhe ┐ líodhaithe mollibus vestimentis et coloratis, Rial. S.F. 1391 . ¤gel of bright colour : o Ghaillimh na líog lí-gheal, O'Rah. 22.6 . a eachtra fan fhiort lígeal `his sojourn neath the white tomb', PBocht 21.8 . ¤glan of unspotted beauty: a dhreach líoghlan, L. Cl. A. B. 191.38 . ¤mas brightly beautiful : uisce lerga ligmaise (`many-coloured'), Ériu ii 56 § 8 . ¤oll of great beauty : aonach lebar ligoll, ZCP xiii 8.12 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. lúadam or

x see luam .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. lúaim or

x see luam .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. luam or
Last Revised: 2013

n n, m. (luí + agent suffix -am Celtica xxi 231 ). Disyll., Fél. Dec. 3 , cf. lúadam, LU 3800 ( SCC 37 ). Monosyll., SR 6057. pilot, steersman : mad hé á luum (i.e. Spiritus Dei), Wb. 4a14 . sain écosc noe vel alii dicunt .i. l.¤ gl. celox, Sg. 69a24 . araid ┐ luamain, Laws v 108.21 . mid do . . . luamnaib, YBL 419b33 ( Petrie's Tara 203.14 ). l.¤ is deach bai i nEiriu .i. eter Erinn ┐ Albain, BB 254a5 . l.¤ Ladhrand, Leb. Cert. 202.7 `Ladru the steersman', Leb. Cert.² 167 . Ladru lúam , Ériu iv 160.7 . l.¤ na táiden (Moling), SG 383.15 . ? ar cid alless issa llūam nottlūathar air, ZCP viii 104.2 . luamh .i. luamhaire, no loingseoir, O'Cl.

Extended applications: lām .i. lúam in c[h]uirp, Corm. Y 806 . L. lūam na lergge pilot of the battlefield, Bruchst. i 5 § 2. l.¤ laidi leader of song (David), SR 6057 . Molling l.¤ na fírinne, SG 367.10 . lúam gaiscid géir `pilot of the sharp weapon', Metr. Dinds. iii 156.1 . Of an abbot: Macc-óige . . . l.¤ Liss móir, Fél. Dec. 3 , whence l.¤ .i. ab, O'Dav. 1171. Cf. fa bhonnaibh an easpuig nō i leabaidh an luaimh (with gl. luaimh .i. abadh), Ó Bruad. iii 170.x . d'imig do luamh is do riail (to a ruined church), Measgra D. 59.61 (= luaim, Hard. ii 240.9 ).

Compds. ¤chles: la Féin Luagne na lluam-chless `of the pre-eminent deeds', MacCarthy 202.z . ¤geilt: lúamgheilt, BS 102.4 . (luaith-, v.l.). ¤lann: for lāechraid Lagen na lūamland `of active blades', Arch. Hib. ii 60 § 26 = L. Cl. A. B. 19.2 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. lúamaire or
Last Revised: 2013

n io, m. = luam (see Celtica xxi 232 ): T. ainm in luamaire, LL 219a36 ( TTr. 162 ). luamaire luṅga Duind, LL 1630 . luamairi . . . milgitan, Petrie's Tara 207.7 . luamaire na luingi, TTebe 2044 . M. . . . .lúamhaire is dech robhí . . . a n-iarthar domain, Cóir Anm. 156 . Cruimhther Loga a luamaire (of Patrick), AFM i 140.3 . luthmar in luamhaire / ar lamach long, IGT Metr. Faults § 49 . gur bhó samhail . . . do luing gan luamhaire (of a hopeless case), AFM v 1792.6 . saoruidh sí luing gan luamhair (: buadhaibh), Aithd. D. 88.12 (see notes). luamh .i. luamhaire, no loingseoir, O'Cl.

Extended uses: isin glind co craebaighi / cerba grind in luamaire hero(?), Acall. 4879 . lúamairi . . . donn áirc na hegailsi, ZCP xii 374.7 = luamaire lanfertamail dond arc inna hecailse eitir tonnaib ant soedail, RC xlvi 240.19 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. luamda or

n ( luam ): L. l.¤ ` abbatial ', Gorm. June 1 . L. l.¤ ` piloting ', Oct. 2.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. lúamnacht or

Forms: luamnacht

n ( luam ): luamnacht ` pilotage ' (in dán-ogam), Auraic. 5798 . is tre luaimneacht croidhe . . . nach móthuighmíd duairceas . . . ár n-anama, De Imit. 37 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. luchtmar or

o, ā (lucht). Adj. of very frequ. occurrence with long and other words meaning ship, and in this context taken by edd. to mean laden, well-manned, capacious, etc. (usually alliterating): Noe . . . / 'na hethur l.¤ , SR 2722 . a lliburni luchtmura `roomy', CCath. 3367 . long l.¤ lánḟairsing, 168 . rob luam loingsi luchtmhaire `well-laden', Leb. Cert.² 154.6 . in long luchtmur, lanmor `full of men', ZCP vi 51.24 . longa luchtmura `filled with men', 284.17 . tarfas doib long l.¤ `roomy', Grail 2801 . ad luing luchtmairsi, IGT Decl. ex. 193. id luing luchtmhuir sa lán, L. Cl. A. B. 233.56 . cúig longa luatha luchtmhara, Mart. Don. xxxv 5.

Also with other nouns in vaguely eulogistic sense : cuchtarthigi lethna luchtmara well-stocked(?), MU² 203. febas a lurech lainderda luchtmara, 52.10 (`capacious, ample', Gloss.). tonn luchtmhar longbháidhteach, CRR² 31 . mionn luchtmhar cloiche cuirre `well-laden crown', Seanchas Ardmhacha ii 151.25 (of roof(?) of Armagh Cathedral). 'na linntibh luchtmhara, TSh. 2076 (`abundant', Glossary). fionnbhrugh l.¤ , O'Gr. Cat. 474.13 . gurabh luchtmhar ar n-uaigh, Atlantis iv 152.18 . Of persons: da laech lonna letarracha luchtmara `magnificent', Cog. 56.23 (numerously attended?). righ . . . luchtmur . . . longmur, Flower Cat. 355.23 . luchtmhar díngthe dá bhur bpeacadha filled to the brim, Trompa na bhF. 267 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. luïd or

Forms: lúth, lúad

v Orig. deponent, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 571 . Early replaced by 1 lúaidid, q.v. Moves . (trans. and intrans.) in a variety of applications; of birds flies . Mostly in archaic passages, not all of which are clear. Indic. pres. 3 s. firḟlaith cētamus, lūithir side fri cach fō, ZCP xi 97 § 59 (luther, luith er, luiter, v.l.). ? ancid sreba ar oircelaib mis glūaisit co luathar, viii 104.4 . ar cid alless issa llūam nottlūathar air, 2 . nach rí nad lui othrus druith .i. na lúiann no na forcongrann . . . no na tobhaigh `every king that does not direct(?) the sick-maintenance of a fool', O'Dav. 1182 (luidh, v.l.). Rel. urla .i. cīab, ar is for ūr lūes hī, Corm. Y 1291 . lám .i. luam iarsinní luas imon corp uli, Corm. p. 26. 3 pl. iarsin moslúat immach / Uar ┐ Aindind `fare forth', Metr. Dinds. iv 234.41 (inulsat(?), níusluat, nuslaigid, v.ll.). luait breachta a n-agaidh na ndul (láait v.l.), TBC-LL¹ 5484 . co luáit cithnella tenedh cum dúnaidh (laidhit v.l.), 5485 . Rel. laích luind lúatar claidbiu balcbéimnechu fri bibdadu `who wield' ( BDD 130 ), LU 7735 = lúath ar c., BDD² 1269 (cf. SCC 17 cited s.v. 1 lúath compds.). Impf. 1 s. ba siratech imtholtanach dano no luind dar Erind (speaker in form of a hawk) I would fly, LU 1325. 3 pl. denngor diäd ōsind insi / ar mēit tessa / inna n-anmanda, contuitis / luitis lessa, ZCP xi 152 § 48 ( Anecd. i 56 ). Subj. pres. 1 s. danam luur itir dana, nom tholfat . . . benna na n-aigi `wenn ich mich überhaupt rege ferner', TBC-LL¹ 1342. 3 s. (pass. ?) ar nī bī būadach ┐ nī bī fīachach maine luither, ZCP viii 103.25 . ? 2 pl. do rig ailig ni lúaid ni lúaid les / saigid fodess fodess dairib doss, LL 7534. Impf. 3 pl. ciambad ṡlúaig noslúitis `though hosts came to hunt them' (of cattle), Metr. Dinds. iv 70.31 . Fut. 3 s. luifith iltuatha he will move many peoples, ZCP xi 91 § 3 (laifidh, laidfeidh, laithfe, v.ll.). ? cia leth cobra (co bráth v.l.) īar cōaird cros / cossalua mo c[h]oblach cres?, ZCP x 46 § 10 (coslafea mo bachlach, cosluidfea mo coblach, v.ll.). Pret. and perf. 2 s. cor oró laimh luis .i. in cor do luadhis ót laim leic di a taithmech .i. leicc uait é cen a taithmech, O'Curry 2409 ( Eg. 88, 32 (33)a ). 3 s. luathium luis Goll a láma `Goll moved his hands most quickly', RC xiv 408 § 18 . luidhis co luath gach leath ar uair / ac[h]er impudh (of an animal moving in its skin), Anecd. i 55 § 42 (luis, v.l.). ? laithe cach lūain / lui cath cnedach fri Fergus `lieferte', Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 40.23 . In Met. Dinds. with mos-: o moslái dia tairdbe tra, / dar sál fairge `when he hastened to cut loose the ship', Metr. Dinds. ii 28.21 (mosluid (orig. moluaid), musluidh, doluidh, moluaidh, v.ll. ). moslúi sīar inna ṡide / in drúi dían `westward came rushing', 68.33 (musluid, v.l.). moslúi in t-usce úar imgel `the cold white water followed', iii 30.70 (luid, foslui, doluid, roslái, v.ll.). Note also: dí mnái Loga, roslúi ás `fruitfulness came to them', 48.7 (noslui, roslái, v.ll.). dorat B. . . . a sírgrád do Ch. . . . / diasloí for slicht a charpait `when she followed his chariot's track', iv 180.4 (musloei, muslaei, roslai, v.ll.) (-sloí allit. with slicht?). ? cia ruslui Ailbe am gradh n-glan, IT i 109.5 to which Thurn., Sc.M² 22 , prefers the reading cīas lū (: cú) referring the form to lú small thing). 3 pl. lúiset olc / buailset bassa, brúiset corp `they stirred evil', Metr. Dinds. iv 20.29 (luisit, laised, luidhset, etc. v.ll.). Cf. luisiot olc .i. do lamhsad, no do áontaighsiot olc, O'Cl. roluasetar a tri diib i nDessmumain moved, went, Anecd. iii 59.22 ( GOI p. 420 ). luisedar na hēnlaithi / sūas ar in sīdh flew up on to the `s.', ZCP v 22 § 13.

Vn. lúth, lúad.

mírbail, mírbal

Cite this: eDIL s.v. mírbail, mírbal or
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: -e, -i, mírbal, mirbuileda, mīrbal, mirbuiled, mírbhuil, -bhuill, mírbal, -ball, mírbhuili, mírbuile, mirbuli, míorbhail

n m. and f. (Lat. mirabil-is) Not in Glosses. Mid.Ir. n p. -e, -i; a s. in mírbal , Betha Adamnáin 56.155 . a p. mirbuileda, PH 2251. g pl. na mīrbal , Fl. Earls 66.14 . g p. mirbuiled, 2693 . With masc. pron.: ni mirbuil e (sic leg.), 2908 . mírbhuil, -bhuill (f.), IGT Dec. § 13 (p. 66.4) . mírbal, -ball, § 12.13 . mírbhuili (-builli incorrect), § 3.21 . d s. mírbuile, ex. 200 .

In earliest lit. used as pred. of cop. or adj. marvellous, wonderful: ba mírbuil a thoíden marvellous was his troop, Fél. Aug. 13. maccán mírbail, June 15 (: fírbail). luam Liss móir mírbuil `pilot of marvellous Lismore', Dec. 3. tegdas Dé . . . cona mílib mírbailib (of the Tabernacle), SR 4208 = tegdais . . . i ndéndais firta ┐ mirbuli dírime m̅c̅ Dé do chantain, LB 120b11 ; perh. subst.

Later subst. a miracle, a wonder , gen. in relig. sense. Gl. miraculum, Ir. Gl. 695. ót-chonncatar Saxain in mírbal, Betha Adamnáin 56.155 . ferta ┐ mirboile ingantacha do denam, PH 159. do chúimniugad na mormirbuli sin, 5402 . dogniter fertu ┐ mirmaili trethi-si, LU 3132. do bīthin oirrderca na mīrbal, Fl. Earls 66.14 . na míorbhaile do imir Dia ar Pharao, Keat. ii 261. go ndeárnadh Dia na míorbhaileadha so, Eochairsg. 66.6 . míorbhuilighe móra, 2.19 . foillsighid do mhíorbhuile go bhfuil h'ainm a bhfogus, Psalms lxxv 1. In wider sense: is mor in mirbuil i sin | inni do[g]niat na leomain, Ériu iii 145 § 25. dá maram is mírbhail dam, O'Gr. Cat. 453. 14 . As adv.: aontacht is maordhacht go míorbhail in wondrous degree , Keat. Poems 170.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. taebréim or

n (= taeb + réim)

(a) In Auraic. alliteration (of two or three words in a line only?), opposed to réim do fid for fid and lánréim, cf. Auraic. 806 ff. : in taebreim no in reim do fid for fidh, 923 . taobreim, ut est: A Floind, a luam an gaisgid grind, 3745 . diles do taebreim ceatharcubaid filideachta bairdne, 785 . Cf. taebreim prosta .i. me fadein, 795 .

(b) In IGT genitive case: díothadh ... méd na díotha do tháoibhréim aice, IGT Introd. 14.26 . an tuillréim (dative) as é chaoltur do dhénamh taoibhréime, 18.29 . lann, clann ... gach ainm díbh ag dul a n-óir ar a thuillréim ┐ ar a thaíbhréim uathaidh (e.g. clann cloinn-e), Decl. § 40 . dá thaíbréim lethna ag gach ainm díbh re cois an táoibhréma, § 42 .