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1 ailid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ailid or dil.ie/1016
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: oilid, -ail, ailes, ailit, -alad, ailde, -alar, -aile, rod-alad, no-n-almais, -ebla, -eabla, -eblae, -ai, -ebela, -eblaba, ebeltar, ailebthair, ailf-, -ebelad, -ebalta, ebelta, ron-ailt-siu, romm-alt sa, alta, rodotaltammar, rosn-altadar, alta, alte, altae, ebail, eblatar, eblad, altai, altram, ailemain, oilemuin

v also oilid. Indic. pres. 3 s. -ail, Wb. 5b28 . rel. ailes, Laws ii 184.15 . 3 pl. ailit, Laws v 198.8 Comm. -alad, Marco P. 183 rel. ailde, 202.2 . Pass. sg. -alar, ZCP xiv 347.z . Subj. pres. 3 s. -aile, Laws ii 178.2 . Subj. impf. 3 s. rel. rod-alad, Blathm. 100 § 32 . 1 pl. no-n-almais, Ml. 104d0 . Fut. stem -ebla ( GOI § 649 ; see further Hull, ZCP xxix 173-4). 3 s. -eabla, Laws v 200.20 and n.4 . -eblae, -ai, IT i 141.18 . -ebela, LU 10627 . -eblaba, ZCP v 503.19 . Pass. sg. ebeltar ( ébéltair, LU 5026 ), TBC-I¹ 537 . Later ailebthair, IT i 71.6 . Also ailf-, exx. below. Condit. 3 s. -ebelad, LU 10614 . Pass. sg. -ebalta, BB 397a16 = ebelta, Dinds. 142 ( RC xvi 154 ). Pret. and perf. 2 s. ron-ailt-siu, Blathm. 722 . 3 s. romm-alt sa, Ml. 45c3 . alta-si dano na dá mac 'she reared the two sons', Sex Aet. 87 § 51 (pass. for active). 1 pl. rodotaltammar, ZCP viii 313.4 . 3 pl. rosn-altadar, BDD² 106 . Pass. sg. alta, TBC-I¹ 366 . alte, ZCP viii 311.17 . rel. altae, LU 10602 . With infl. of fut. stem 3 s. rom ebail , LU 10285 . 3 pl. rott eblatar , LU 10284 . Pass. sg. rom eblad , 10278 . Later with s-pret., exx. infra. Cf. roaltsat, O'Curry 127 ( H 3.18, 76 ).

Part. ailte (q.v.), O'Curry 57 ( H 3.18, 20 -1). Pl. altai, Ml. 121c10 .

Vn. altram, later ailemain, oilemuin. IGT Verbs § 73 .

Nourishes, rears, fosters: sund rom altsa . . . atrebom sund, LU 4400 . rom ebail Sencha sobérlaid conidam trén, 10285 . is messe nod n-ailfea, 10627 . ro mbaist ┐ ro n-ail ┐ ro forcan, 256 . ? cia dé delbas faebru. a ndind ailsiu (.i. a ndind itú). cáinté im gaí cainte gaithe, LL 1569 = cia dia dealbus faebra andiond. indiond ailes cainte, Leb. Gab.(i) 266.4 . ní halar o marbcru, Laws i 140.30 Comm. don re ronailestar, ii 186.4 Comm. ma ro ail co aes diailtri . . . manar oil, iii 504.11 Comm. nosnaltatar for feolaib maccoem mbec they fed her on . . ., Ériu iii 138.2 . dlomais . . . a muime fri F. ┐ adbert nad ebalta lee he for lacht, BB 397a17 (= Dinds. 142 ). berthair lim-sa ind ingen . . . ┐ ailebthair (ailibthar, ailfithir v.l.) dom réir fein, IT i 71.6 (L. mac nU.). a incaib caich nodeail, BCrólige 7 . is dilus uaithe di eagluis notnail, Laws iii 70.24 Comm. is mé ro-ailisiu, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 43.25 . ro lesaiges ┐ ro-s-ailius intí N. co lathí a bais, PH 1529 . Gailéoin roalsat Labraid for a loinges, Dinds. 9 (RC xv 299). is mairg ailter cen riagail, ACL iii 215 § 3 . a foghluim óirdhirc a n-oiltí Francuigh, Mac Aingil 6292 . mad ingena nos-berat non-alad fri druine ┐ gresa, Marco P. 183 . an chíoch ar ar oil an ógh / oidhre Dé, Dán Dé xvii 29 . 'na iomdhaidh rod-aileasdar, i 9 . ní ro oil in t-áirdrí in esláinte sin did not nurse (i.e. pay attention to) that illness, Caithr. Thoirdh. 58.10 . Note also: in e a macc oilfaigther na huile si filium eius nutrierunt multi, Trip.² p. 61 n. 1120-23 . Of rearing animals: is hé ro-alt muicc Meic Dathó, Sc.M² 23 . ebeltar cuilēn din chūain cétna leamsa duit, TBC-I¹ 537 . aidhid frisi-n-alar (of a calf), ZCP xiv 347.z . cuilen con ro h-ailed lais, MR 8.2 .

aimréid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aimréid or dil.ie/1136

Forms: amraid

adj i (réid). Earliest form amraid (: Labraid , Ält. Ir. Dicht. 41 § 34 , : slabreid, Thes. ii 304.2 , : samlaid, ZCP vii 268 § 2 ). Later influenced by réid. See GOI p. 104 .

I

(a) rough, uneven, entangled (of ground etc.): etir réid ┐ amreid gl. per tractus terrae, Ml. 140a2 . fo . . . choilltibh ndosach ndlúithaimhréidh, AFM vi 1912.6 . co rub aimreidh do a aitreb, Aen. 912 . iter da sliab . . . aimreidi, TTebe 898 . inis clochach aimréidh, CCath. 1339 . an tshlighe anshocair, aggarbh, aimhréidh, Desid. 3311 . ród aimhréidh, Dán Dé vi 3 .

(b) contentious, quarrelsome, troublesome: A., aurgail ūais amraid, Ält. Ir. Dicht. 41 § 34 . gan aighnes a.¤ , O'Gr. Cat. 547.17 . tancodar aimreidh dá tighibh `they went home unreconciled', ALC ii 254.4 . guais don dís adeirim féin / go mbeid is Íosa aimhréidh, DDána 22.5 . nír 'bo roinn abbadh aimhréidh, Anecd. ii 35 § 15 . Enrí aimhreidh mac Neill `Henry Awrey, in English the Contentious', AFM iv 722.10 and note. a.¤ re at odds with: má bhím . . . aimhréidh / red ghruaidh . . ., TD 3.49 . As adv. as iomdha ar neich go haimhréidh `many of our horses are unbroken', Ériu v 190.480 .

II As subst.

(a) rough, uneven, entangled place: rop rēid remunn cech namreid, Thes. ii 304.2 (Hy. i). bidh réidh riëm cech n-aimhréidh (leg. amraid, Ed.), ZCP vii 268 § 2 . athechtai íath n-etarmaige eter mothru ┐ amréthi, LU 8632 ( FB § 47 ). nochan fhaghbaid d'anbuain / nach adhraid don aimhréidh, DDána 98.5 . i ccumgaibh . . . ┐ i naimhrédhaibh gacha conaire, TFrag. 36.6 . ni hurusa síol Eibhir / d'ionnsoighidh mo a n-aimhreidibh, ML 26.11 .

(b) contentiousness, disturbance: do chuir an Fhódla i n-aimhréidh `has disturbed', Magauran 2783 . suil bheas aimhréidh eatarra `lest there be disagreement between them', TD 24.3 .

airúath

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airúath or dil.ie/2461

Forms: erud, urud

n (1 úath) also appar. erud, urud (see Lochlann ii 213 )

(a) dreadfulness, terribleness, power of inspiring dread (regarded as an attribute of a hero): fer rosasad a ǽs . . . ┐ a erúath, LU 4844 ( TBC-I¹ 354 ). ní acim di gráin na héruath . . . latt . . ., I cannot see that you are sufficiently terrible or awful . . ., 5656 (ib. 1179 ). tinól Dauid . . ./fri herud na hairmiten, SR 5914 (`fear' Gloss.). cáiniu di ḟlaithib . . . eter urud (uragadh, urfuath, v.l.) ┐ gráin ┐ báig, TBC-LL¹ 5172 . fer án athlamh co ngrain ┐ eruath, TBC St. 4215 . cathmílidh co n-úath co n-erud, TTr.² 1070 . ri ba mo grain ┐ urud, Ann. Conn. 1224.2 . immumdiched a urúath, nambiathad a aruit, LL 14230 . ? dillechta in slóg sorchaidhe / gan a coimsid costadaig / imdíched a n-iruatha ( i n-iruat[h]a, TBC St. 4694 ), TBC-LL¹ 5690 . conā tardad gráin nā hirḟūath leis ina dochum, acht amail nothīsadh do dhāil nō aenach, ACL iii 5.8 (of actual weapons ?). is ond Labraid ille fil gráin ┐ gératacht ┐ ómun ┐ aurḟúath for Laignib, LL 21046 . la auromun / auruath niath nertcride, ZCP viii 306.11 .

(b) terror, dread: imgaibtir athai . . . rém ḟuath ┐ rem erud, LU 10276 . a ecla ┐ a urúad (uruath v.l. St.) dread of him, TBC-LL¹ 3303 . ná tairmescca erḟuath na égcomnairt sib, TFrag. 44.z . atrubairt . . . nacar eicen uath na herud don cathraig no need to dread the city, LL 408b44 ( TTr. 2263 ) = úath ná herod, TTr.² 1731 . re huruad meic inn Ardrig for fear of, Ann. Conn. 1225.17 .

As n.pr. Find, Eruath, is Fatemain, LU 10550 . Uath Urud is Aislinge, 10552 = Hiruth, ZCP viii 217 § 10 .

augra

Cite this: eDIL s.v. augra or dil.ie/4988

Forms: ogra, ugra, augrai, hugra

n (-ae). Later ogra, ugra. Orig. gender and infl. doubtful. n s. ind a.¤ , O'Mulc. 67 . g s. ind augrai , BDD² 236 , na hugra , Aen. 1718 .

(a) strife, contention, quarrel: is loch cechonrualat augre n-aitherach, ZCP viii 308.23 . ná derntar isin domnach ceist ná caingen . . . ná augrai, Ériu ii 200 § 17 . ní ahurrais a.¤ do dá moghud, BDD² 181 . ri Erenn co fresabra .i. co nudhra fris opposition, O'Curry 1260 (H 3.18, 509). fogní duthain cech ugra / mar eó suthain sen-Mugna, Metr. Dinds. iii 144.15 . ughra gacha h-arechta, Cog. 96.26 .

In proverbs, etc.: trí seithir ferge: écnach, a.¤, doithnges, Triads 213 . atcota aichne a.¤ , Anecd. iii 11.13 . rúnaid cách co ugra, Tec. Corm. § 31.16 . nibat cond ugrai, LL 345a48 . tossach augrai athchosan, b18 ( Anecd. iii 16.2 ). Women are said to be: ecundla airechta, airrechtga ugrai, Tec. Corm. § 16.20 . tuillmecha augrai, 51 .

(b) battle, fight, conflict: fochen Labraid Luáth lam ar claideb a.¤ , LU 3397 ( SCC 18 ). Síl Conaill Glaiss / meic Éich ba ercdaid ogra, LL 16143 . Aodh net nat imcaibh oghru, AFM i 408.3 . co nach berdis a bhrogha d'ughra na d'foireicen uad, MR 148.11 . ughra .i. deabhaidh no cathughadh, O'Cl.

In phrases with other words: da cleith ugra (of two heroes), Cog. 56.24 . ba h-athchungid ugra insaigid fair asking for trouble, LL 225b8 ( TTr. 609 ). cuinchid ugra, BB 419b9 . do chuingidh ughra ┐ deabhtha, AFM vi 2214.11 . is cur lam for ugra sain (of a warrior), TBC-LL¹ 5276 . iomaireacc nucchra, AFM ii 962.2 . nirbo hobadh a.¤ . . . in ceim sin, CCath. 4900 . do bherat saigin n-ughra for aroile gan nach ndánatus deabhtha `skirmishes', AFM vi 2212.6 .

bár

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bár or dil.ie/5375

n o, m. (B. na f.) freq. in glossaries, wise man, sage; leader, overseer: b.¤ (bar) glossed .i. suí, Corm. Y 202 (sai). O'Curry 1399 (H. 3.18, 633). Lec. Gl. 160. O'Cl. Metr. Gl. 24 § 15. ZCP v 485 § 2. LB 101.59 . bair .i. suid, Auraic. 5425 . Glossed .i. mair (muir), O'Curry 1398 (H. 3.18, 633). Corm. Y 201. Goid. 77.141 (Dúil Laithne). Heremoin . . . / . . . bruthmar bar (:mār), Rawl. 116b9 = bethir nār, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 29 § 32. in bār ar bruinneib Breg ṁbrāthach, RC xxxvi 262 § 2 ( Rawl. 85b4 ) = in b.¤ , LL 6449. mo bar buadach, 385cy 0 . bar Bretan, 21469 . in bar brigas buaid, BB 380b19 . ? b.¤ beatha co mbreitheamhnas (of Patrick), Leb. Cert.² 22. mise Benén . . . / b.¤ buada, 396 . fuath do bharcuibh caise dfeis, / imtearc sin o bheith na bh.¤ `hatred of books, love of feasting, that is far from being a sage', ZCP iii 378.9 . is e an Scip sin barr Affraici dar eis Poimp, CCath. 4872.

Compd. bārnia lond Labraid `fürstliche Kämpe', Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 7 § 2 ( barnia lonn, LL 377b16 ). Cf. bréo dána b. níad, Dinds. 42.

? bobla

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? bobla or dil.ie/6213

n ite iarum na dulí fen (sic). Nices epraid nieices neprid. nimglan b.¤ no labraid , BB 304a50 ( IT iii 54 § 99 , lobla, v.l.).

búire

Cite this: eDIL s.v. búire or dil.ie/7409

n (cf. búirithir, etc.) expld. as rage, fury: bare .i. būre, Corm. Y 155 ( Corm. 8 ). ní bara fri búre daitsiu ón, LU 10833 = Ériu xii 178 § 9 (with gl. búra .i. ferg) `thou shalt not get wrath in return for thy rage' (TE). Transfd. of warriors: A. būire / bruidne derg, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 13 § 2 ( Corp. Gen. 21.9 . O'Mulc. 606 , cf. LL 311b57 ). bure Ion Labraid , 7 § 2 v.l. (bārnia, text, see Corp. Gen. 18.6 ). fechair būire `eine wilde Wut' (notes), i 29 § 23 .

claideb

Cite this: eDIL s.v. claideb or dil.ie/9324
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: -ib, -bi, claidib, cloidib, claidbi, claidhmhe, cloidmi, -me, cloidhemh, cloideb, claidem, cloideam

n o, m. but n pl. -ib and -bi. See Ériu xxii 192 . Exx. claidib, Ml. 77a1 . LU 8185 . MU² 592 . cloidib, BDD² 748 . claidbi, MU² 610 . claidhmhe, Ériu xiii 35.6 . cloidmi, -me, BB 271a47 . TTebe 1473 , PH 8111 . cloidhemh m., IGT Decl. § 53 . Also cloideb, claidem. (slashing) sword : cloideam gl. gladius, Ir. Gl. 461 . in c.¤ sin (ref. to gladium spiritus), Wb. 22d20 . faibur .i. c.¤ gl. machera, Ml. 75b11 . a nnunda-comart a ch.¤ `when Hiss word slew them', 36d9 . donfair co claidiub thened, Thes. ii 348.6 ( Hy. v 91 ). fuil fir tarcai a c.¤ for nech `who draws his sword', Laws v 362.y . las tarda fo glas claidhebh, Blathm. 80 (fo glaschlaidiub, ed.). de gail claidib Góli, Fél. Ep. 484 . coro [ṡ]ecsat a lláma imma claidbiu, Trip.² 1239 . a arm laích . . . .i. a c.¤ , LU 8875 ( FB 67 ). dogní claidiub craind isind fid, 5417 (TBC). c.¤ russi roindes crú, 3826 ( SCC 37 ). cobur fola fora claediub, 8338 ( FB 24 , rhet.). feib ra-chualatar cocetul claidib C[h]onaill, CRR 46.2 . domraiched craum c.¤ choilles toind, LL 12210 (TBC). fer find . . . ic fáebarchless ch.¤ úastu, MU² 541 . roberr māil fair cosin chloduib `cropped his hair with his sword', Ériu ii 22 § 3 . gurbo fuighell gae ┐ claidim d'Eōgan hé (of Conn who had been grievously wounded by Éogan), ML² 1921 . Michael . . . ┐ a cloidem derg tenntige i n-a láim, PH 7281 . is o chloidem atbéla ┐ is cloidem cúis a n-oideda, 3119 . co mbenad déiss (sic leg.) a chloidib fria muinél na déisi, Mer. Uil. 244 . do thréig camána ar chloidhmhibh, DDána 105.3 . ro gabh orlaimh cloidhim an Rígh chuga (of a new Lord Deputy entering upon his office), Hugh Roe² 146.23 . Cf. AFM vi 2020.2 . a chloidheamh nochtuighthe aige ag iarraidh síothchána ar Dhia (i.e. in threatening fashion), Párl. na mB. 821 . In epithet: Labraid Lúath / lam ar c.¤ , LU 3383 ( SCC 17 ). Referred to by n.pr.: mo chen Caladbolg c.¤ Leite, LL 12217 (TBC). nochtais [Cu Chulaind] in Cruadín Catutchend .i. a ch.¤ , 12720 . Used in swearing or binding to a contract: dothoṅgusa tar mo scíath ┐ tar mo ch.¤ , TBFr. 184 . nenaisg mac ḟior Fíothla im chloidheamh go mbriocht baoí ina laimh, Ériu xiii 34.17 . dosrat fo chlaidiub diglá, SR 4148 .

do-beir fo gin claidib puts to the sword, slays : téit fo gin claidib dies by the sword : dosbér fo gin claidib, Trip.² 1922 . rar-berthar uile fa gin gae ┐ chlaidib, TBC-LL¹ 2973 . Cf. also: doratsat fo gein cloidem ┐ gae a daine, Anecd. iii 68.1 . Cf. Éire do chur fa ghion gai ┐ claidhimh, Keat. i 128.7 . dochotar fo gin claideib, SR 5068 . conna térna ass acht a ndechuid do rind gai ┐ do gin chlaidib i.e. all died by the sword, IT i 76.10 ( LMU 15 ). co na dechadar acht a ndeachaid to rind gai ┐ do gin claidibh, Anecd. i 2.4 . See SCano 20 n.

Other figurative applications: in da míol . . . ┐ imus-tuairgdis co ticdis a claidib teniud asa mbeluib connici neolu nimi, IT iii 237.77 (perh. in sense of beam or ray of flame). claidebh na laimi in slindean shoulder-blade, Auraic. 1426 . lé cloidheamh an chraois, TSh. 2465 . gur chuir Dia cloidheamh an inneachaidh 'na thruaill taisgeadha, 5408 . go sgarthar a fhuil ┐ a fheoil-sin ó chéile re cloidheamh na mbriathar, Donlevy 422.9 . is claideb for sinistar (lux) a kenning or prov.(?), O'Mulc. 761 .

(b) tusk : re glondbeimnig a claideam no a clomair (of a boar), TTebe 872 .

For meaning beam see s.vv. cor(r)thar, garman, 1 táth.

Compds. droṅg claidebbemnech, LL 343a28 . fri cath croda claidebderg, SR 4982 . tūs cach catha cloideamgairg, ZCP viii 231 § 25 . curaid chroda claidebglais, Ériu viii 70.86 . ríoghradh chalma cloidheamhghlas, Aithd. D. 16.40 . co nniurt curad claidebruad, SR 5734 . iar ṅgless le claidemscin 'after arranging [the book] with a swordlike knife' Ériu xxvi 116-17 . rind Orioin claideabhthaircetaigh `swordgirt Orion', CCath. 1037 .

comairle

Cite this: eDIL s.v. comairle or dil.ie/10657

Forms: -echa, -eda

, f. Later n p. -echa, -eda. vn. of con-airlethar. c.¤ , IGT Verbs § 83 .

(a) advice, counsel, admonition; consolation; decision, resolution, plan; conspiracy; handling, management (cf. 1 airle): comṡólás no c.¤ gl. consolacio, Ir. Gl. 884 (cf. comairliugud). is sí inso mo ch.¤ gl. Spiritu ambulate, Wb. 20b14 . ni sech comairli Dæ gl. per uoluntatem Dei, 29d1 . for comairli `counsels', 18c6 . is hed as chomairlle limm gl. consilium . . . do, 16c12 . dognitis óintaid c.¤ do dénum huilc frium-sa gl. in unum coierunt corpus, Ml. 132c4 . ar brici chomarle `for versatility of counsel', Sg. 38a7 . consolendi (.i. comarle no remcissen .i. boni sibi no alteri ), ZCP vii 481.14 (Enchir. Aug.). is and sin tanic i[n] comairli occai techt do praiceupt do M. decision, plan, Trip.² 357 . in ch.¤ at-biri-siu, Sc.M² § 3.22 . ni renar nach ainim . . . cen c[h]ocur, cen c[h]. `ohne Beratung', Stud. in E. Ir. Law 24 § 6 ( Laws ii 360.18 ). foracaib comarle lasin mnaí im réir na curad, LU 9041 ( FB 79 ). mad meise con-ísed mo ch.¤ if I could make my advice prevail, BDD² 709 . foréimdes c.¤ forru co ndergena fiadmíla díb it was impossible to handle them (of cattle), LL 22030 . c.¤ braith treacherous advice, TBC-LL¹ 2750 . c.¤ dún advise us, CRR 5 . baí c.¤ eter in n-ingin ┐ Labraid . . . Is ed c.¤ do-rónsat . . . plot, Fing. R. 366 , 367 . focressá c.¤ léo counsel was taken by them, CCath. 130 . a lucht cómhairle counsellors, ML 66.1 = a c[h]omairlig . . ., ML² 965 . is ann sin rucastair Conn céim coim-nertmhar gan c.¤ dá chairiugad spontaneous, 1179 . oen ch.¤ do denum toile Dé = unum consilium in voluntate Dei, PH 5437 . eidir dhá chomhairle, DDána 70.1 . le comhairle na ndiscrēti = by counsaile of the discreet, RSClára 25a . comhairleacha an tsoisgéil, Donlevy 146.12 . na ceithre comhairleacha tug mh'athair dhamh, Keat. ii 5309 (see Éigse iii 67 f. ). Of persons counsellor, adviser : mad c.¤ duit do ben, ZCP vii 298.19 . mar aderuit uar comairli ribh, Fier. 82 . cenn c.¤ adviser, counsellor, see col. 121.74 ff.

Uses with prepp. a comarli with intent, designedly , LU 5804 (TBC). a c.¤ Chonchobair on the suggestion of, IT i 75.14 ( LMU 14 ). a comairleib eclaisi, Laws i 208.2 . an chomhairle as ar luigh leis, DDána 6.11 (`her consent to wed Him', Ir. Monthly 1930, 405 ). co mbad . . . d'a c.¤ donethea é `by their counsel', CRR 14 . for comuirle mna, LL 405b36 . fuicfed-sa ar a comairli / coig coicedhaig na hEreand `to his ruling', BCC 137 (138.14) . o ch.¤ inclethi in Choimded through the secret counsel of God, PH 68 . nō gur giallsat d'aon-c[h]. uile d'Eōgan with one accord, ML² 828 .

Uses with verbs: do tabairt ch.¤ do Abisolon, Ml. 23b12 . aen fer nama tuc a comairlle ina agaid `gave his counsel', RC xii 334.7 . do bheirdís . . . iomad comhairleadh air, Mac Aingil 1016 . nach c.¤ . . . dognither la fortacht Dæ, Ml. 51b28 (comaile, MS.). do-rónsat comarli fri sacartaib . . . co tinoltis a n-oen inad took counsel, PH 2954 . do-ní gach cliar comhairle / tocht ar cuan `resolved to go to sea', Magauran 2849 . bíaid olc de ol C. cen co déntar comarlí fris, LU 8094 ( FB 6 ). doroindi Ioib . . . conni ┐ comairli risna haireachtaib, TTebe 576 . mo ch.¤ do dénum `that my counsel should be followed', Wb. 10b25 . co nderna comairli a menman budén, Mer. Uil.² 123 . geib mo ch.¤ take my advice, MacCarthy 50.16 . is hi c.¤ . . . fofrith and . . . the plan hit upon was . . ., PH 263 . na hiressachu do chur a comarli cusin coimdid to have the faithful seek the Lord's advice, 5283 . dá gcuireadh im chomhairle `were [he] to ask my advice . . .', Aithd. D. 32.19 . comhairle do chur orat `advice [to] be given you', Content. ix 11 .

As quasi-vn. act of consulting (about): iarna ch.¤ frie-seon after she had been consulted, IT i 75.1 ( LMU 13 ). cairdi trī lā . . . re comarle, ML² 300 . tancatar a descipuil do chomarli fri hÍsu, PH 5069 . ? etha ód co (? leg. do) comarli imbi cu abbaid Rómæ, Trip.² 2827 .

(b) sagacity, prudence : gním ruirech lais ┐ comarli senchad, LU 7358 (BDD). buaid c.¤ (one of Cú Chulainn's attributes), TBC-LL¹ 663 . is Cathbad drúi . . . ar chéill ┐ ar ch.¤ , CRR 27 . cid maith do ch.¤ ┐ do indtlecht . . ., MacCarthy 52.27 . ecna, intliuct, comarle, / nert, fis, gaire gúr, / omon Fíadat (the gifts of the Holy Spirit) . . ., ZCP v 499 § 4 . o'tchuala H. anní sin asbert narbo comuirle that it was not advisable, LL 405b33 . nirba c.¤ lasin senod did not advise it, Anecd. iii 71.23 .

(c) council, consultative body : sain fri cath . . . no comairli `council', Wb. 12c46 . hi comairli na pecdvch `into the council of sinners', Hib. Min. 14.469 . ro bhaoi aige comhairle a n-ionadh oile `he was holding a council', TFrag. 122.19 . do denam shenaid ┐ c.¤ `to hold a synod and council', PH 6 . Comarlle Generalta 'sa Roim, AU ii 262.5 . tria airle an Justis . . . ┐ na Comhairle, Hugh Roe² 6.7 . S. Aibhisttín ┐ na comhairleadho, Desid. 3747 . a ccomharluíghe ┐ a ccómhthionóil, Párl. na mB. 302 .

Various: nach Laeg . . . rúamnastar c.¤ ar comaltais, TBC-LL¹ 4011 . darōnsat aingil . . . / ceōla comarle don Chomdid, ZCP viii 114 § 8 . madh comhmall ar gcomhuirle, Aithd. D. 40.18 (`feelings'). nach léig cóir go comhairle `lets not justice be taken into account', 67.11 . do-chúaidh a ccomhuirle dhíbh / oruighle sídh ḟúair gá ḟéin, IGT Decl. ex. 1367 .

Compd. With adj. ¤-mer: dronga go gcéill chomhairleimhir, DDána 89.4 (`of quick decisive spirit', Ir. Monthly 1920, 315 ).

comla

Cite this: eDIL s.v. comla or dil.ie/11379
Last Revised: 2013

n (-ae) d. f. (cf. con-luí). IGT Decl. § 7 .

Valve of door, window, etc.; lid; covering: c.¤ .i. com-lūt[h] .i. coma lūas tūas ┐ tīs, Corm. Y 236 . haec valua c.¤ , Ir. Gl. 125 . comhla .i. comlá thís ┐ túas, Ériu xiii 67 § 75 . comhla = a gate, portcullis, grate , Eg. Gl. 140 . tech miodhchuarta . . . dronchaol a ch.¤ , Ériu xiii 40.16 . im comhlaidh a thighe, 14.22 = imcomlainn, O'Dav. 376 . cosmail comlaid ōir / ūë Luirc Labraid , Ält. Ir. Dicht. 41 § 30 . di brisiud a chomlad (-ai, v.l.), Críth G. 214 . im ocht mbullu ara-fognat muilenn … comla concerning the eight parts that serve a mill … the sluicegate Studies on Early Ireland 14 . derc hi cinn na cobla `at the end of the door', Cáin Ad. 2 . c.¤ for cach senisteir, SR 188 . di senistir déc and co comlathaib glainidib fríu, LU 8733 ( FB 55 ). tech . . . eter fraig ┐ lár ┐ chomlada, Fing. R. 418 . córaigis comlaid cen chol / forin tiprait `lid', Metr. Dinds. iv 66.y . noco ndech c.¤ fri haieór (of an impossible eventuality), ZCP viii 111.15 . c.¤ umaide, LB 152b2 . comhladha gloinidhe, Ériu iii 156.20 . do sithlaighthi iatt tresin comloith n-io[i]rn amail ciaro tré línanairte, Aisl. Tond. 97.7 . mé ar cúlaibh a comhladh (of heaven), DDána 37.30 . cor eich ní chaigle go comhlaidh `thou dost . . . drive . . . Thy steed up to Hell's gates', Aithd. D. 77.27 . a raibhe ó slabhradh na comhladh asteach (of castle), AFM v 1638.14 . caithfe an dorus dá chomhlaidh do bheith air = two sides, RSClára 27b .

Extended applications: rogab iarum att in ingen . . . ┐ rodún a comlaid conustacht a hanail `her door' (uvula ?), Dinds. 21 = comlaich, LL 27722 . comhla dearc súlchorr Sadhbha eye-lid , DDána 99. 32 . ar comlaid na slige the door giving on to the road. Cymmr. xiv 104.11 . mo cumachta a comlaid mo chlaidim, TTebe 1309 v.l. (comlai[n]d, text). a ch.¤ sciath na Héirenn (to a shield). ACL ii 146.26 . Duan. F. i 34.11 . Fig. comhla an bháidh `the door of love', Aithd. D. 71.10 . lé comhlaidh chean, TSh. 1651 . eochair an cheóil ó sa ch.¤ (of a harp), Manners and Customs iii 258 n. Freq. protection, shelter : Petur . . . / . . . / mo ch.¤ nach camm. KMMisc. 256.14 . c.¤ cōicthi thūaiscirt hĒrenn, TBC-I¹ 3338 . do sgiath réidh, comhla na gcríoch, Magauran 2071 . a chuilinn . . . / a c[h]omhla re gáoith shelter against, BS 66.6 . comhla re fearuibh fiach, O'R. Poems 683 . Note also: comhla re rún ríogh Teamhra / síol Eadhra ar cúl na comhla, O'Hara 3961 - 2 (see n.). Of warriors: c.¤ ergaile, LU 4842 (TBC). ina c[h]omlaidh chothai[g]the curad (of warrior) `protecting door-valve', Fianaig. 86.9 . in c.¤ catha, Cog. 188.6 . Cf. a c.¤ catha . . . .i. a scieth, CCath. 4721 . in Chomla Chatha Cheltchair, LL 12514 ( Ériu iv 28 ). As n. pr.: trí meic Ersand ┐ Chomlod, BDD 1345 .

dochtúir

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dochtúir or dil.ie/17397

Forms: doctúir, doctúir

n earlier doctúir i, m. (Lat. or Romance loan-word) learned man, teacher, professor; physician, doctor (in med. texts): doctúir gl. doctor, Ir. Gl. 1082 . d.¤ , Laud 610, 23a1 . ro ba doctúir ar aoí ffoghlama, AFM v 1856 . S. Thomás an doctúir ainglidhe the Angelic Doctor, TSh. 2988 . in tí Pól .i. doctúir na gcinedhach the teacher of the Gentiles, Fl. Earls 210.2 . do réir shompla an chéaddoctura dobhí ar an oileán (of Colum Cille), Keat. iii 1337 . a Isa, a dh.¤ na Soisgeulaidhedh teacher of the Evangelists, Parrth. Anma 286.9 . is o d.¤ maith fuair Serapim an denamh so, 23 F 19, 19 rb 51 . na doctúraig `the learned', PH 7414 . uile doctūiridhe ┐ fisice na cathrach, Fl. Earls 144.12 . aderaid na dochtuire, 23 P 10, 32a2 . na docture, 21a62 . is don tart sin labraid na dochtuireadha, 159a13 . co pálás na n-easpug ┐ na ndochtúire, H 2.17, 101a . asn[a] raitibh na ndochturedh, 23 P 10, 44a42 . idir dhoctúiribh eagnaidhe na heagailse, TSh. 5005 . contrardhacht an da d.¤ (i.e. Avicenna and Isaac), 23 P 10, 46a62 . Note also: dá dhochtar dhéag (: fholcadh), DDána 34.14 .

In title: adubairt d.¤ Disches, 23 P 10, 13b10 .

fert(h)igsid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fert(h)igsid or dil.ie/21769

n m. = ferthigis : Labraid fodessin ba ferdaigsig in n-aidchi sin, Rawl. 131a53 ( ZCP iii 7.20 v.l.).

fri

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fri or dil.ie/24329
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: frimm, rimm, frim, frím, frium, frimsa, friumsa, frit, fritt, friutt, fritsu, rut, rutt, fris, friss, frissom, f., frie, friae, frise, frie, frinn, rinn, rind, friunn, riund, frind, frinni, raindi, frinnai, frib, frithib, fribsi, friu, friú, friu, friü, frithiu, friithu, friusom, riom, rum, riot, rut, ris, ria, rinn, ruinn, ribh, ruibh, riú, r, frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar, fria, frim, frim, frim, ram, frit, frit, frit, rit, rat, rot, friar, friar, fribar, fribar, fria, fria, fria, re-na, rena, fria, fris(s)a, frisi-, risi-, fris-, ris-, frismbiat, fris-mbruchta, fris, fris, fris, risa, frisin-, frisnid, risnad, ris, fria, frisa, re n-, fria-, re, ra-n-adh, re, re, ré, freisin, FRI

prep. with acc. For etymology see Thurneysen, GOI § 839 , Fraser ZCP viii 37 , J. E. C. Williams, Celtica iii 126 . In later spelling prefixes h- to following initial stressed vowel; does not leníte following consonant (cf. frinna aill, Sg. 45a16 . fri nnach ..., Ml. 75a9 , fri nnech 23c20 ; but fri nech further on in same gloss and regularly elsewhere); the initial s- of the article following fri is preserved. In Middle Irish gradually replaced by the forms RI, RE (already in Ml: oc eregim re Abisolon, 44b4 , cf. fre, 90c27 ); RA (common in some LL texts, see CRR 54 , TBC-LL¹ 499 , 602 , 740 , etc.); rarely RO ( SR 1990 ZCP xiii 204 15 ); FRIA, RIA, RE also common. Hence in Early Mod. Ir. there is occasionally confusion with , RÍA `before', see Bergin's note Stor. Keat. p. xix , and section IX (e) below. Apart from this the latter prep. sometimes replaces FRI after fáilid, fáilte and kindred words (as in Mod. Ir.). On the parallelism of some of the pronominal forms of FRI with those of LA see GOI l.c. (with Translator's n. 178 ). Though FRI still appears in some later texts, especially those of the archaising type, it had become obsolete in the classical language. Its later form (RI, RE) remains down to the end of the Early Mod. period and is recognized by the grammarians as distinct from LE (LA), see IGT, Introd. § 75 , 24 P 8, 194 ( IGT VI , Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ). In the modern spoken lang. it is replaced partly by LE, partly by CHUN (O.-Ir. dochum). For a contrary development cf. Engl. `with,' originally `against,' which has absorbed the functions of A.S. mid `(together) with.'

In development of meaning generally FRI shows a remarkable parallelism with Engl. ` with '; it also agrees with ` against ' in several senses.

Forms: With suff. pron.

sg. 1 frimm St. Paul Codex Thes. ii 298.17 . rimm, IT i 123.24 . frim, SR 1422 , 2049 . LU 5228 . LL 110b26 . frím Ml. 38c19 . frium, Ml. 71b9 . frimsa, Wb. 26d17 . Ml. 33a18 . friumsa, Ml. 127a2a .

2 frit, Wb. 5a31 . 10a29 ; Ml. 103d14 . SR 1425 . fritt LL 93a10 . 249b1 . friutt, PCr. 62b2 (= ḟrit, Sg. 151a3 ). fritsu Ml. 91d8 . 112b8 . rut, SR 2031 IT i 123.15 . rutt, LL 110b27 .

3 m., n. fris, Wb. 14c37 . 15a1 . 22c15 . ACL iii 304 [: [Mael] mis]. (: eisleis). SR 6109. 6317 . ([mēt] anfis) LL 33b21 . friss, Wb. 2c24 . 3c6 . 6a4 . 8a12 . 14d22 ; Ml. 91a21 . frissom Wb. 5d39 .

f.¤ frie, Sg. 72b1 . Ml. 40c15 . 67d15 . friae, 130c9 . Wb. 28a20 . cf. frise, Ml. 74c21 , which Ascoli corrected to frie ( Thes. i 722b ).

pl. 1 frinn, Wb. 4b12 . 17b10 . 19d22 . rinn, Ml. 54a3 . SR 1821 . rind, SR 1905 (: herḟi[o]nd). friunn, Ml. 38d20 . riund TBC-LL¹ 1874 . frind, LL 177b39 . frinni, Wb. 17b32 . 17c5 ; Ml. 32c15 . 93a13 . 106c12 . raindi, BColm. 68.9 . frinnai Ml. 91c9 . 114a8 .

2 frib, Wb. 17b16 . 22d9 . 24d26 . cf. frithib, Ériu iv 162.13 . fribsi, Wb. 14c42 . 17b14 .

3 friu, Wb. 4a10 . 4c37 . 24a4 ; Ml. 54c23 , 72b22 , 110c9 . LL 35a21 (: fiú) friú, Wb. 17b9 . Ml. 74a2 , diss. friu, Hy. V. 54 , cf. friü: at-chiü, ACL iii 294 § 10 ; frithiu, Blathm. 94 § 17 ; friithu, LU 4671 (see further GOI 515 ). friusom, Wb. 20c25 ; Ml. 17c5 , 54c18 ; 26 .

For forms found in later texts see citations below.

In the Early Mod. Grammatical Tracts the forms given are: riom, rum; riot, rut; ris; ria; rinn, ruinn; ribh, ruibh; riú, r, 24 P 8 194 ( Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ).

With following poss. pron.: frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar, fria, e.g. frim ort. Wb. 29d2 . frim peccad, 28a14 . frim foraithmet, Ml. 23d9 ; ram anmain, TBC-LL¹ 3692 (rem St.). frit adrad su, Ml. 136c11 . frit c[h]ele, 70d2 ; frit laim, SR 5854 . rit láim, TBC-LL¹ 3055 . rat láma, 3052 . rot chlaind, SR 2031 . friar corp, Wb. 15c22 . friar fochric, 33a9 ; fribar n-ícc, Wb. 24b3 . fribar pecthu, 13b19 ; fria mbriathra, Wb. 31b30 . In Mid. Ir. the form `fria' is often used for the simple prep., hence occas. fria a = prep. + 3 s. pron. In Early Mod. Ir. 3 s. and pl. form re-na sometimes appears: rena ardnaem, BCC § 12 (see III c below). fria n-a, Fl. Earls 214.4 . Cf. the n- prefixed to poss. after le, ó, tre in Mod. Irish.

With rel. pron.: O. Ir. fris(s)a n ...; Mid. Ir. also frisi-, risi-, fris-, ris-: frismbiat, Sg. 202b3 . fris-mbruchta, Fél. June 21 . fris n-agar, E. 406 . fris-reith, Prolegomena 302 . fris-tarddam, Thes. ii 293.19 . risa n-abar, Acall. 53 , etc. With cop. frisin-, frisnid, risnad ail, LB 257b9 . ris na duthracht 256a44 . fria ndechraiged (= frisa nd.) Sg. 28a14 may be a mistake. In later MSS. the form re n- becomes common: fria-cosmailend, PH 7674 . re ndubairt, 7464 . ra-n-adh KMMisc. 156. 124 . re n-abar, Acall. 1241 , etc. re rāiter, Ériu viii 139.4 . ré raibhe, Keat. ii 4467 , etc.

Composition.

(a) In vn. and prototonic verbal forms, before a vowel, frith-; before a cons. fre-, e.g. frecre, fretech; with syncope of a follg. vowel, fres-, e.g. frescsiu, fresndid, fresndís, fresngabal. In Glosses fri is often used in compos. with a vb. to represent Lat. ob-. Later frith- is used before cons. with or without lenition of following cons.: see frithgnam, frithsét, etc.

(b) In deuterotonic verbal forms fris-; before an infixed pron. in rel. construction frith- or friss-: fritum-chomart-sa (= frith-dum-) Wb. 33a12 ; but friss-idn-oirctis, Ml. 39a20 (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 147 and cf. Strachan's OIPG⁴ ed. Bergin, p. 27 n. 2 ).

SYNOPSIS OF MEANINGS.

N.B.—The classification is perforce somewhat arbitrary as, perhaps in the majority of instances, the meaning could derive from the original sense in I. Cf. J. E. C. Williams Celtica iii 122 ff .

I Of local relations

(a) towards, facing, turned to ;

(b) against (touching; cf. d); alongside, down along, by ;

(c) against (implying violent or hostile action);

(d) next to, at, in contact with (cf. b).

II To express association, along with, beside (both of local and mental relations).

III To express figurative direction

(a) aim, purpose (cf. VI), frequently of function, specific purpose;

(b) after adj. in sense of Lat. gerund or with ad or supine in -u;

(c) to express direction of feelings, behaviour towards (cf. I a);

(d) of prayer, etc. to ;

(e) of opposition to, hostile feeling, attitude towards ;

(f) to express protection, guard, watch against, also limitation, boundary;

(g) in elliptical sentences with these meanings.

IV

(a) after adjs., nouns or verbs expressing resemblance, equality or comparison;

(b) to express difference, distinction from .

V

(a) with respect to, with regard to ;

(b) on account of:

(c) on behalf of ;

(d) according to, in agreement with (cf. II).

VI To denote occasion

(a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. verb or equivalent;

(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on which something takes place.

VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion of .

VIII

(a) to denote agent;

(b) to denote instrument through, by means of .

IX In expressions of time

(a) in O.-Ir. in locatival sense;

(b) to denote period during which something continues or takes place;

(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place;

(d) of point of time;

(e) used for RIA ` before .'

X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs.

A classified list of the instances in Wb is given by Fraser ZCP viii 37 ff .

I Of local relations

(a) towards, facing, turned to: do rosc frisna nemdaib = looking heavenward SR 1604 . a n-aiged fri Dia facing God LU 2048 ( FA 12 . Cf. III c). a lām chlē fri muir the sea on their left SR 4074 (see lám). do cumlaiset for fairgi ┐ dochorsatar aurlunn fri tir, Corm. Bodl. s.v. prull . bai D. 'sa druim fri fraig D. had his back to the door SR 6053 . is amlaid bai in gilla ┐ a druim fria thigerna, TBC-I¹ 2327 (see druim(m)). Ethne ... fria chossa E. (standing) at his feet (i.e. at the foot of the bed) LU 3300 ( SCC 10 ). Carpre ... 's a hucht ra hág, LL 32b49 (see ucht). a druim re dimsachaib, a des fri deiblenaib, ZCP viii 204 § 26 . an let[h] bis rinne don rē the side of the moon turned towards us ITS xiv 90.19 . fri bun cruche at the foot of the gallows Mon. Tall. § 1 . síl nÁdhuimh ... re sáluibh a senathar at the heels of (i.e. following) Ériu iv 118 § 33 . níor chubaidh tigearna ... d'ḟágbáil re caladh on the beach [i.e. when about to land; perh. fig. cf. beirid i gcaladh brings to safety, see 1 calad] viii 139.23 . dā traig .x. ... a [sic leg.] fot fri dún its length towards the stockade (of the internal slope of an earthen rampart) Laws iv 336.23 . dā dúncladh ... ré dá taebh na clasach along both sides of the fosse CCath. 1747 . ní thurcaibh crand ... cét míle fria taebhaibh within a hundred miles from (lit. towards) its sides Marco P. 11 [cf. the temporal use IX (c)]. See also phrases s.v. agad, ais, enech, gnúis, sáil, taeb, ucht.

This use is regular in Old-Ir. in stating relative position: fri Grecia aniar ... fri Etáil anáir west of Greece ... east of Italy Wb. 6d17 . fri Alpai ndesiu (gl. cisalpina) Sg. 217b8 . frie anall ... frie desiu (gl. ultra ... citra) 71b1 , 2 . fri Ath F.D. desiu, TBC-I¹ 2183 . frie anechtair outside it Ml. 40c15 . fri Pardus amuich outside Paradise SR 111 . ra chuala sa fri hEmain andess I heard it (as I was) to the south of Emain LU 5056 . altoir fri dorus antuaid, SR 4261 [cf. la taeb ind rigthaige aniar, LL 3810 (30a) ]. a mmag fris anair the plain in front of him LL 122a33 . co ndechaid [in gai] triana chend ┐ co ro marb nónbur ris aníar behind him 121a21 . frit aniar, LU 4134 . is e a chorp in taitneamach rit anall the shining one opposite thee RC xxiv 60 . Also fig. : foscichret i crandchor ... fáicebthair Lugaid fris anechtair they will cast lots for it... L. will be left out of the chance RC xiii 444x ( LL 289b8 ). See also s.v. lám (fri l.).

It is doubtful whether: i mbae neach fri hopair immuig BB 362a21 (= Dinds. 20 ) is an instance of this construction; the literal meaning here is was anyone at a work outside ? The Rennes `amuig' is perhaps merely a late spelling.

After verb or vn.: tan turcbad E. a di láim fri Coimdid nime, SR 5085 . suidig do da laim fri ... clasp thy hands (in prayer) to ... 1606 . rosecroth a chend frisin slúag brandished his (severed) head at the host LU 5269 . crothad in chind frisin slóg, 5280 . donnochtat a mbruinni fris bared their bosoms to him 5199 . rochoraig fri tenid he arranged [them] before the fire RC xiii 6.21 . roscóraig gnúis fri gnúis (see gnúis) LU 2046 ( FA 12 ).

Cf. tuídhleach ind óir frisin ngréin the glistening of the gold against the sun BDD 1 . crand airgit ris tatin grían LU 3700 ( SCC 33 ).

(b) against (touching), alongside, down along by: doesetar ┐ a nglūne fri talmain, TBC-I¹ 3164 . éc fri hadart death against a pillow i.e. a natural death Lib. Hymn. i 62.72 (see adart). fri etnu dam ... bátár fedmand la firu Herend = [till then] the loads had been harnessed to the foreheads of the oxen LU 10816 (= Ériu xii 178 ). tennait a n-ette fria curpu press their wings against their sides LU 2281 ( FA 33 ). cf. doimmaircet ind eoin a n-ette friu ┐ a cossa can scibud ette ná cosse co tairic in precept the birds fold their wings, etc. LU 1361 . dosnimthasa i llai a broit fri a bruinde `gathered her to his bosom in the fleece of his cloak' Ériu xii 154y . co tard a druim frisin liic leaned his back against the stone LU 3284 ( SCC 8 ). dossleced fria thoeb he let them (i.e. his arms) fall to his sides SR 5091 = no thimoirced a lama fria thoeb, LB 124b29 (cf. LU 1361 above).

In local sense of attached to or pending from: úathroic ... cona cimais do banór fria having a fringe LU 6421 . beilge óir friu golden bits on them TBFr. § 3 . srian ... fria graig, LU 3649 . Cf. srian do thabairt fria thoil to bridle his passion PH 4990 (see srían). Cf. la I (a).

Here perhaps: i ngialnai fri fraigid in hostage-ship at the wall LU 7015 ; 7295 ( BDD 66 ; 94 ). (of the brazen serpent, Numbers xxi 9 :) turgabar fri crann ... uasin [t]slúag fri sirsellad let it be hung on a pole to be gazed at SR 4163 .

Cf. an carracc ard ar cuiretar ... an Tigerna da teilgen ría sís to cast him down from it Maund. 106 . tuitim sioss re beinn an ailt, Fl. Earls 86z .

(c) against (implying violence or hostility; cf. III e): rop saiget húan fri demnai, Hy i 20 . friu conuccaib ind oub, Hy v 54 . conéracht Glaiss Ch. friu the stream C. rose against them (= to bar the way) LU 5362 . Cf. conocbath in carpat fris ... ┐ concligtis ind h[e]ich fris the chariot would tilt up before him and the horses would spring at him Ériu vi 134.21 . bēim a cinn fri cloich, Ml. 139c3 . beim cind fri hall, LL 225b38 (see benaid). esarcain cind fri hallib, 176b33 . aiges (feras) in tond frisin mbruach, Anecd. i 12.19 (21) . cf. FB 44 , see fri. See also phrases with cúl, druim(m), lám).

(d) next to, at: folt dond fri toind a chind, folt croderg iar n-airmedon, LU 2564 . dond fri toind cind, 6542 . lene de sról ... i custul fri gelcnes ... dó, 6296 . léne ... sita fria gelchnes, 1810 . cona luirigh ... ria cnes ... ┐ lethan sciath fria gualaind, Stair Erc. 1243 . In this use frequent with ais, cnes, taeb.

II To express association, along with, beside (of local or mental relations, cf. V d): ní bí friu hi comasndeis it is not with them in apposition Sg. 212a5 . in tan mbís nihelas do .u. fri .g. when u is silent beside g, 6b11 . nobiad fri femen `it would be [used] with the feminine' 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them' 215a5 (cf. biit remsuidigthi ... cen briathra leo ib. 6). See also s.v. comṡuidigud. is tabarthi `bonum est' fri cechtar in da fersa so, Ml. 112d1 . cen tabairt anman trén fríu, 30a9 (see do-beir). ni bai crand dond indsi fri aroile (i.e. the walls were shattered) Anecd. i 2.5 . ar choibnius frisna comaccomla sa, Sg. 203a10 . in oentid fri Crist, Wb. 15a12 . ni ba suair[c] comlepaid no comaentu frissi, TBC-LL¹ 2079 (fris St) In: ni reid bith fris im longud no im ligi, LU 5957 , the meaning may be different; see atá (fri). toeb fri toeb ata in ri is Eocho F. side by side LU 2839 (see taeb). comaitecht re hairdrigh, ZCP viii 116.5 . méraid ra cách a chumne TBC-LL¹ 740 (here perhaps: meraid hua chlaind fri claind Ml. 100b4 ). is frit mo chairde `with Thee is my compact' Fél. Ep. 534 . (see cairde). iar corai fri I. after making a pact with I. SR 5946 . Cf. córe fri Dia, Wb. 2d16 . is core doib fribsi (gl. salutate invicem) 18b19 . bad chore dúib friu, 7b4 ; - 14 (`lit. let it be peace to you towards them' Thes., but the original meaning of córe points to `with' as the sense of the prep. here). Cf. also: biid pax libsi fri cách (gl. cum omnibus hominibus pacem habentes) 5d33 .

Here probably: isi no beired teora pōc fria cach copān ... dō, TBC-I¹ 2218 . Cf. further: hi cocetul fri Eman in unison with Hib. Min. 4.12 . do dlommad E. is A. ... fri gorta, SR 1419 . ara toimlid fri sid sain | toirthi Parduis, 1085 . taed as fri sidh ┐ fri subha `let him go ... in peace and happiness' AFM 979 .

In this sense with verbs of joining, connecting, also occasionally with verbs of motion and in nominal phrases, such as imma llé fri, immaróen fri, see s.v. , óen (cf. Ériu xiv 142 n . ) also cos, taeb.

In: crithnaigset ... immar bocsimin fri sruth the meaning of the prep. is doubtful. curtar a fuigill re sruth ┐ re fairgi `be the remnant cast out to be carried off by the sea-tide' O'Gr. Cat. 182w . Cf. perhaps: Drochet Atha do dhul re sruth `D. was carried away by the flood' ALC i 260.7 , though these may be exx. of the confusion of re (FRI) with le (LA). curcas fri sruth, FB 44 ; `against a stream' Strachan ZCP iii 419 . Cf. Ériu i 194.4 . See 1 téit and la I (d).

Passing into sense in addition to: tris fer friu (gl. te tertium) Sg. 2a5 . cethri chet bliadan ... a noe sechtmogat fri sein, Rawl. 68b31 ( ZCP iii 18 ). Cf. is fri ni dona salmaib dognid a figild, Mon. Tall. § 5 . fris sin moreover, besides , Leb. Gab.(i) i 88.1 . Hugh Roe 114.1 (f. 30b) . Cf. mod. freisin. For a special sense of with see Mon. Tall. cited under V (d).

III To express fig. direction (cf. V a);

(a) aim, purpose, freq. of function, specific purpose: cen nech dim chlaind frim foraithmet to preserve my memory Ml. 23d9 . ce notechtad ilgotha fri inchosc in mrechtraid sin `that it should possess many sounds to express that variety' Sg. 197a11 . ní fris arícht fri slond persine it was not for that it was invented, to signify person ib. (cf. cid arna airecht pronomen ... dia ṡlund, 198b3 ). in bríg frissa ndéntar a saithar sin the value for which that labour is performed Wb. 11a9 . am loor fri cach reit (gl. ego ... dedici, in quibus sum, sufficiens esse) 24b16 . altoir ... | fri loscud n-edpart an altar for burning [ = on which to burn] offerings SR 4162 . dá magh ... do ṡlaidhi ... co rabad do grés fri geilt do ceithrib ┐ fri trebad do daīnib, Ériu xii 150.6 . primepscop ... accu fri huirdned a n-oessa graid, fri coisecrad a n-eclas ┐ fri hanmchairdes do ḟlaithib, etc. Ériu i 218.2 . sechtmoga fer fria cobair to aid them SR 4196 . drong ngilla ... fri timthirecht, 6280 . ra ergitar ... dalemain fri dail, LL 173a27 ( CRR 13 ). mōr salm | fri hindarba plāg-tedmann, BColm. 70.8 . slóged hi crích ... fri indnaide slogid tairse a hosting into a country to delay a hosting (coming) across it Críth G. 511 . fergniae fri forngaire ndoirseo, 591 . In this sense perhaps in: fót fri haltóir, see 1 fót (d). pars de feoil fri foimtin terci as a precaution against scarcity Mon. Tall. § 12 . Here perhaps: dognith Saul intleda ... fri Duaid used to lay snares against D. Ml. 30a3 . techt do Roim ... fri foglaim n-ecnai, Trip.² 241 . roairis re sloind senchasa he remained to relate Ériu iv 152.6 [or remained relating ? See VI (a)]. cid frisi farcbad int id for what end the withe was left LU 4752 (= cid imma ndernad int id, TBC-LL¹ 597 ). cid frisindrolais in cloich why hast thou thrown the stone ? LU 5092 . o tancamair friss `since we have come for it' ( = for that purpose) Fél. 72.24 (cf. inní imo tainic ib. 30 ). co ndernur inní fris tánac LU 4347 . Cf. doluid Saul fri tāirsin David i fus, SR 5959 . lurech imme ... fri cathugud, SR 5757 . treb Leue ... immon eclais fria immarchur, 4883 . docúaidh B. frissan umaloitt sin gusin muilenn `on that service' BNnÉ 26 § 19 . téit féin re toisc ┐ re túrus a crichaib na hEspáine on business CCath. 1806 , cf. do chuaidh gach aon rea dtoisgibh ┐ rea dturasaibh féin, ML 26x (= le tosgaib fein, ML² 347 ). The follg. perhaps are elliptical: the idea represented is anticipating, forestalling: dogniad pars de feoil fre terci do t[h]ecmong = as a provision against the occurrence of scarcity Mon. Tall. § 12 . do na .u. gaiscedaib dec no bitís ... hi tegluch C. fri maidm n-airm no fri gabáil ngasced do neoch LU 5046 . Cf. Fél. Nov. 14 cited VI b.

(b) after adjs. in sense of Lat. gerund with ad or supine in -u: leiscc .i. fri fognam, Wb. 31b23 . conid mesc fria rim so that it is confusing to count it LU 4794 . ba gnim ṅdangen fri himluad, SR 7229 . ingnad fria innisin, LU 2074 ( FA 15 ). adhbal rea n-innisi prodigious to recount ZCP viii 204 § 26 . cenco beth ... and acht C. ba lór fri immarbaig, LL 107a19 ( Ériu iv 28 ). lia iná rúainne ... re n-áireamh, IGT, Decl. ex. 1201 . Cf. atait ... re a ttaispenadh go follus are plainly to be seen Fl. Earls 50.12 . In this use modern Irish has le (LA).

(c) to express direction of feelings; behaviour towards, after nouns or adjs., both of persons and things (cf. I a and V a): conroib deserc leu fri cách, Wb. 26d22 . fáilte fri noíbu, 7b2 (see fáilte). ar formut fribsi, 12c29 (see format and formtech). ropat ḟáilti frimsa, Fél. Dec. 18 (see fáilid). hissel fri hard, sleman fri garb, ZCP iii 447z . anmne fri fochaidi, 449.15 (see ainmne). mailli fri cloc slowness at (answering) the bell ib. 21 . dána fri tōla tromsluaig daring in face of an army SR 5778 . uair ná dernsam huimli fri forngaire, 1854 . ar gart friu for generosity to them ZCP viii 313.12 . créd nach frim atā a maithe ? why is not their bounty bestowed on me ? ACL iii 296 § 38 . ní ar maith friu it is not for their good Wb. 4b37 . ar ulc friu, Ml. 72b22 . tar aesi n-uilc huai[m] se friusom, 74a2 (see also s.v. maith, olc). bad chert do cluchi frim play fair with me LU 5228 . ar ngabáil bāide ... dō rena ardnaem having conceived affection for his high saint BCC § 12 . lére duit frí ríg ngréne ┐ réde fri doíni, Ériu i 193 . is buide linn frib (gl. rogamus vos) Wb. 25a39 (see 2 buide). is maith robai Dia rind, SR 1905 . ní maith ro mbátar frim they have not treated me well LU 4891 . Cf. is maith ro ngabus fritt, TBFr. § 11 . bad faitig frisin foirin sin (gl. observate eos) Wb. 24a23 (see faitech). bid cennuis a gnuis risin lucht ra-nadh (= frisndid) rathmar to whom he is gracious KMMisc. 156.124 . in maith frit menma ind airdríg whether the king is well-disposed to thee SR 6114 . ba fearr di frib menma bar mathar, RC xxiv 56 ( YBL 206a47 ). Cf. is beite duit menma fris `thou must take heed of him' Ériu xii 176.16 . Similarly in expressions like: do-gní maith (trócaire, etc.) fri (see do-gní). nech no comaildfed fir fer frimb uime RC xiii 29.6 .

(d) of prayer, etc. to: irnigde fri Dia, Wb. 4d18 . cf. abstanait fri Dia, PH 4988 . ro throiscset ... fri Dia im a ḟurtacht, 7258 (see troiscid). im aīne fri Dia cora faillsigthi dō ... fasting towards God, that ... might be revealed to him Ériu v 120.12 . Similarly: frit, a rí ..., mo dēr | conom thī ... Mīchēl, SR 2091 . co ndēraib frisin coimdid, PH 6292 . (cf. use with ad-teich). cossoít a thuaithe fri Dia, Wb. 5a23 (see cosaít). Here, perhaps, should come such expressions as the following: ar Christ frit, aithirigh pēin dam, Cáin Ad. 13 . ar do chubus riut, a ingen, crét tuc ort ?, Acall. 6012 . ar bar cubus rib..., crét..., 5476 . ar fir do chubais riut..., 5824 . cf. 4544 . ar t'ḟírinne riutsa, nā furáil, CCath. 1659 .

(e) of hostile feeling, attitude, conduct towards: fri aicned contrary to nature Wb. 2c25 . ba fri aicned ... in talam ... do indluch, Ml. 129d8 . frisin n-uall (gl. adversum inflationem mentis) 68c1 . trifar pecthu fri Dia through your sins against God 115b8 . Common after verbs of opposing, hindering, fighting: hóre nád comeicnigther nech fri toil no one is constrained against [his] will Wb. 28b1 . tuidecht fri toil Dé resistance to God's will 4c23 (see do-tét). cf. o dorala ... | frim thala mac I. | duit ... | niba céle SR 6014 , where opposition seems implied despite the similar phrase cited below under V (d). soud a gnuso fri nech frisa mbi ferc do (gl. ne auertas [faciem tuam] a me Ml. 47d8 (`to turn his countenance from one against whom he cherishes anger' Thes., but surely `fri nech' here must also mean either against ... or towards ... ? See soïd). fergach fris Fíadu, SR 6837 . iar ndebaid do fri Duid, 6994 . na cathaig frim do not contend with me 2877 . ni sirsan do Ch. a n-imned i tá a óenur fri firu Herend not happy for C is the trouble in which he is, alone against the men of E. LU 5995 . Cf. do thoitim fria Cu | ba dirsan sad that thou shouldst fall by [ = fighting against] C. (?) TBC-I¹ 2715 (see also III g). Mairg fris ticfa a ḟerg ... Mairg ticfa re cert, Fen. 200 (see do-icc). ar bruc fris `in displeasure at him' Mon. Tall. § 58 . namthi garga fri sluagh nA., ACL iii 297 § 55 . atat frim hi cotarsnai, SR 1520 . Cf. ni bia th'anim fri fugall | ind ríg hí laithiú brótho, Ériu i 196 § 13a . With adj.: cotarsne fri Dia, Wb. 26a18 . is torcda ┐ is díchéill notaí frim, LU 10831 (= Ériu xii 172 ). is bairnech mo menma frit, LU 10832 (= ib.). is tromda atai rim, RC vi 183.13 . olc roba rim, Ériu v 208.8 (see III c). Here perhaps: tromde ... ro buí frisim ind chaillech oc atach Dé, Mon. Tall. § 7 (= do bhí sí roliosda ar Dh., Rule of Tallaght § 41 ). But cf. VII below.

(f) To express protection, guard, defence, watch against: gabthe dūnad les fris, Ml. 55c1 . inna cathrach conrotacht la Duaid fri Ebustu, 48d27 . múr trén ... fri dóini, fri demnai, Fél. Ep. 152 . tocuiriur etrum ... inna huli nert so fri cech nert n-amnas in ..., Hy vii 49 . cor gabad Sinann friu the Shannon was held (defended) against them RC xviii 10.28 . gébtaít ar tír frind, LU 4634 (see gaibid). iadad Caisil frim eochu the closing of C. to my horses Anecd. iii 63.4 . cóir duit arechus ri siút, TBC-LL¹ 1280 (aire do tabairt fri ... St; see 1 aire). Dia lem fri cech snīomh, Ériu iv 236 . Crist credal fri demnaib, ACL iii 221.12 . dín ... re holcaib, ZCP viii 202.18 . Of limitation, boundary: nā bí crích la nech fri peccad that no one sets a limit to sin Ériu i 218.9 . Cf. samaiges crích fri aidchi, Hy ii 55 , corresp. to contra noctem terminum pones, Ardm. 8a1 . See also s.v. inillius.

(g) In elliptical sentt.: leic ... in fognam, ol se; ni lamaim, ol sī, frisin rigain = I dare not disobey the Queen RC xxiv 192 (but perh. FRI here = because of; see V b ). ro an ... ina aenar ru remained alone to oppose them ZCP vi 56.31 . rofetursa a n-as maith dúib fris I know a good way for you to deal with him LU 5934 . tarmairt mo Dia dil frisin tuaid ... a cor fo leittreib lethglenn = my dear God had well nigh (in His resentment) against them cast them down ... SR 4718 . Cf. lām fri idal to renounce idolatry SR 4845 (see lám).

IV

(a) after adjs. and nouns denoting resemblance or equality (esp. those compounded with com-) and vbs. of resembling or comparing: cosmil fri cethir (gl. animalis) Wb. 8b14 . cutrummus fri Dia, 17c8 . i cutrummus fribsi 17b14 . ɔodernain hi cutrummus frim cheliu `to do like my fellows' PCr. 2a2 . (pariter) fri, Sg. 77a2 . i tomus fri nech Wb. 17b11 . intamail ... fri nech, Ml. 22c1 . cen a chondelg fri nech, Sg. 42a6 . cosmaili tuisil `sui' fri tuisliu `ego' ┐ `tu', 200a12 . (similiter) fri, 203a5 . cf. (eandem significationem habens) .i. fri `cum', 218a1 . diatā oenḟolaid ... frissin Athair, PH 177 . ba cudruma re core mōr é, RC xviii 183 . ni caithedh acht coibeis fri gach manach he used to eat only as much as any other monk BNnÉ 300 § 3 . nir chumma nech ris im chath, Metr. Dinds. iv 344 . ru boí i comré ri Cormac, LL 3796 (30a) . i comhrē ris coeval with him Moling 4 . rogheanair i n-aenuair fria was born at the same time as she BB 406bz (= Dinds. 111 ). Cf. IX (b).

Replacing O. Ir. construction with equative: comdhub fri hec, Thr. Ir. Gl. 36 (prull) = duibidir éc, Corm. Y 1059 . Bodl. comard fri fid, Ériu iv 138.26 . meidithir fria hasal as big as an ass Marco P. 10 . corbo chomfota frisin sroin LU 6472 .

See also verbs and adjs. of comparison, e.g. 1 do-ella, samlaithir, in-samlathar; cosmail, 2 cutrummae, etc.

(b) to express difference, distinction from : frissaní immeraidtis (gl. longe aliud) Ml. 61c12 . sain fri .c. `different to c' Sg. 6b7 . do dechor fri praenomna aili, 28a13 . huare nád deligedar fri praenomen , 28a15 . do dechrugud persine fri alaili, 202a4 . is allail pronomen aní sin fri `sui' (gl. `is' aliud pronomen...) 209b10 . (differentia) fri, 213b15 , gl. contra 214b4 . Cf. nipo choím less frinn He was not dear to Him compared to us (?) Wb. 4b12 [Fraser l.c. suggests this rendering, ZCP viii 41 n . `in our case (?),' Thes.].

See s.v. 1 dechor, dechraigidir, deiligidir and other words of similar meaning.

V

(a) with respect to, with regard to (cf. III c) : is sain fri cath sain fri scor different for battle, different for unyoking (of trumpet-call) Wb. 12c46 . idain fri cach réit faithful as to 31c13 . cen chinaid n-uaim fri nech, Ml. 54d16 (see cin). nach é Dia is ciontach riú is to blame for them TSh. 10499 . as eola fri aidgne ind Athar, Wb. 19d9 . it maithi a arilti frib `He deserves well of you' (`literally good are his merits as to you' Thes.) Wb. 16c11 . airle Dé fri Herind, LL 49b13 ( Hail Brigit § 2 ). .iiii. seóit a dire ... is fechem is fiadnaisi friu `four seds are his `dire'-fine ... he is a suitor and witness for them' (i.e. he is liable to that extent) Laws iv 308.2 ( Críth G. 138 ). is amlaid in t-athair frisin mac ngor; ... nimtha in t-athair frisin mac n-ingor thus the father acts with regard to the dutiful son; ... not so with regard to the undutiful one Laws iii 56. 22 ; z 0 . ba fria as-breth: cruth cách co hÉtaín 'of her was it said, 'every woman is fair till compared with Étaín'' BDD 43-44 , Celtica xv 57 . 'fer hi lorcc so,' ol in fer deginuch fri Nero 'a man is following us,' said the last man with regard to Nera RC x 216.48 . conidh ed isberdís cách fris, Cóir Anm. ii § 150 .

Cf. further: crādiis Ultu fri Cethirnd guin Fécc the slaying of F. imbittered the U. against C., ZCP viii 305.32 . ferdha a cathuibh iat, ar is friu ronnaltadh oc imairecc fria geinnti, Marco P. 189 . ro alt ... ind ingen co digrais fri légend ┐ gaís, LL 279a47 ( SG 413 ). Possibly the last two exx. belong rather to III (a), also : is me is cintach fris ni he is cintach frim, BB 479b14 (see cintach). See also : a lleth fri, s.v. leth.

(b) on account of (cf. VI b) : ro lega in snechta ... fri meit brotha in miled, LU 5858 . ba lond F. friside (-suidi), RC xxvi 12 § ix . saeth mār fri luga dige great distress from [?] lack of drink Fianaig. 12 § 20 . cid mís no bheinn gun ríg thess | ro-fess ná bíad mo scís fris, ACL iii 304.20 . ní ḟaicim-si ... ni rís budh choir t'obadh for which it were right to refuse thee Ériu iii 154.5 . atchess ... na haīble tened ... uasachind re fiuchud na ferge, LU 6466 . ba mertnech Moisi fri hilchaingni ... fri orddugugd cāich fo mām, SR 4542 . batar toirsech fri Moisi, 3886 (in these two exx. fri = oc of prose LB 122a etc.). féimdid sim imt[h]echt fri scíss he cannot go on from weariness BColm. 94.16 . ni ro chotail C. fri himṡním, LB 274a55 . ni faict[h]e ise fri feidm a léiginn she used not be seen because of her duty of study ACL iii 308 VI 13 . Cf. la III a.

(c) on behalf of: aitchitt an C. ris comad he noberad, etc. they beseech the Lord for him that it might be he BColm. 98.15 . dogníther airnaigthi frisin ríg co nambed fot saegail do, MacCongl. 59.23 . ica cantain fria Cianoig chanting (a prayer) for C. ZCP vii 308.7 . Cf. also : ata mo briathar ┐ mo comairghi fria ar Tuatha D., Ériu xii 152.9 . o doratsat briathair fris, CCath. 1236 . in tī bes rí is fris beimmi, ZCP viii 316.3 . See do-beir, gell, and ráith.

(d) according to ; in agreement with, with pers. somet. = in obedience to: ni ni nach breith nā bi fri canoin cumtastar [sic leg.] no judgement is valid that is not framed according to the canon Corm. Y 1224 . cf. manib fri fasach fuirmider, Ériu xii 199.23 . fri mes airechta adrimter, Laws iv 298.25 ( Críth G. 22 ). fri saltair nogebad ... a salmu by the psalter (i.e. with the psalter before him), Mon. Tall. § 39 , cf. ni lugae mbis ind menme hisin cheill dia gabail ind tsailm de memur indas cid fri saltair ib.). fosernd clothri Connacht ... fri senchus ... fri buaid ┐ breatha in conformity with (the claims of) pedigree, with prowess and legal decision ZCP viii 108.10 = Ériu v 234 . bid som iarum fria toil (= they will be able to do as they like) Mon. Tall. § 35 (= go mbid ... aca ara ttoil fein, Rule of Tallaght § 35 ). fri tala ind rig ... domrala I am about the king's business SR 6187 (Rex praecepit mihi 1 Reg. xxi 2 ). cia ro delb fria thuil a ndath who coloured them to please himself (?) SR 7675 . For FRI TOIL in a different sense, see III (e). Cf. nitattorbi fri toil Dé (gl. non omnia expediunt 1 Corinth. x 22 ) `against God's will' Thes., Wb. 11b 17a . Also : ind tí dogní ní do maith fria menmain fadesin ... ar ind bo neoch gabti he who does a good thing in accordance with his own inclination ... should openly proclaim it Mon. Tall. § 21 (= chuirios ní maith ... do dheunamh uaidhe fein, Rule of Tallaght 71 ).

VI

(a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. vb. or equivalent = to be at, engaged in or about to engage in (some occupation, process ; cf. III a) : in tinscanfam .i. in biam fris (gl. incipimus ... commendare ?) Wb. 15a1 . ní uisse do mug Dae buith fri debuid to be at strife 30b26 . cf. ní bethe fria acre, 9c20 . ni piam fri aithirgi, 30b17 . ni biat som fria togais adi (= non fallacia ad quoscumque loquuntur) Ml. 31a17 . cechtar nathar fria saindān `each ... at his special art' Thes. ii 293.14 . feib donrala fri comrad, SR 1214 . indí ... bíte fri tnúith `those that are given to lust' Mon. Tall. § 11 . nebbuith fri éthech not to be lying Ériu ii 64 § 6 . céin bete fri soíthar while they shall be at work Fél. Ep. 298 . in tan natbi fri frestal na n-anmand when he is not attending to LB 110b43 (cf. SR 1199 ). ní mo chean ... tarrla re freastal ... na fairrgi sin, CF 42 . amail do beith se re goibhnecht ríam as if he had always been at smith's work BCC § 92 . na saoithe do bhí re seanchus, Keat. i 74 . cuirim suas don ghrádh, | ní fiú é bheith ris, Dánta Gr. xiv 3 . Cf. boí a ben fri idna in travail LU 105.86 (see 1 idu). Similarly without subst. vb. : nachitochthad fria choscc `let him not wear thee out in admonishing him' Wb. 31d11 . conus tarttsat fria ttoghairm chuca an lucht they set about calling the people Hugh Roe § 8 . Cf. airfitech re tetaib, ACL iii 223.23 (= Keat. ii 5358 ). dias fri cerdacht, SR 190 (perh. III a). dá mbeinn re héagnach `had I purposed to revile' Content. v 7 (cf. le hóradh bhriat[h]ar da mbeinn, Ó Héodhusa 4 ). In class. lang. `re' is used with vn. to express futurity : an chathair atá ré teacht ( = civitatem futuram) TSh. 2751 . i n-oirchill na n-olc bhíos ré tuirling orra, 532 .

(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on or from which something takes place (some of the exx. could be explained as extensions of other uses (cf. V b ; IX a) ; often the construction is elliptical) : gaibed cach a greimm ... | fria brethir in primsacairt, SR 4400 . ba huisse soillse fri éitsecht na noeb at the death Hy ii 60 . Cf. co mbidis i nd-aenmaigin fria n-ég, Corm. Y 1233 (fri héc LB. ria n-ec LL 179b ). fri gein Críst ... tindscan lechsa léri, Fél. Nov. 14 (cf. III a). ro eirgis fri breithir Isu, PH 2780 . ret[h]it daim ... ri dorddan na damgaire, Ériu vii 2 § 1 . phreab as G. risan gair, Ériu i 18.33 . ac cantain cheóil ... fris coteltais Síl Adaim, LL 3305 ( Ériu xiv 156 ).

VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion of (cf. similar use of Lat. apud, and see la) : ni cumdabairt fri Cirine is tre metur Jerome does not doubt Hib. Min. 6.187 . nad maith fri C. ciasperthar ..., 7.235 . frithir frisin mac i n-ebras riss, Ériu vii 225 ( LL 209a16 ). ba bind fri cach na canaind, LU 1301 (`sweet to all was what I said' Imr. Brain ii 298 . But this may be ex. of : canaid fri). bid inmain fria cách a ainm loved of all PH 4299 . ba hingnad mor frisin popul sin, 2959 . ba mo a grad fri Gargán oldait a uli cethra G. loved him more than all his cattle 7178 . Cf. Mon. Tall. § 7 cited under III (e) where the meaning seems different. gurbh annsa ré hEóin Críost ioná ré Peadar Christ was dearer to John than to Peter TSh. 10327 .

VIII

(a) to denote agent (a late use, mostly in texts in artificial style). ar na bennughadh fri sanctuss Silvester consecrated by Fl. Earls 196.19 . laech ... frisimbia mo thiglecht (= who will cause my death) Metr. Dinds. iv 360 (but perh. this is ellipt. and belongs to III (e) ; cf. TBC2 cited there). romarbtha na maithe ... frisna crechairib LB 154a63 . in lucht frisa tucad in digal .i. Uespiam ┐ Titus ib. 16 . Constantiana ... .i. eclas rocúmdaiged fri Constantin 157b48 . Of parenthood : trī meic Medba fri Fergus, Corp. Gen. 279.33 . sē meic do Mīlidh fri Scota ┐ dā mac frisin nEspānaig 'Míl had six sons of Scota, and two sons of the Spanish woman', ITS xliv 64 § 424 . do chomthusmed clainni fri hA. to have children by A., Alex. 512 .

(b) to denote instrument, through, by means of, by dint of (cf. similar uses of Engl. `with') : sénais Brigit fria bachaill with her crozier Hy v 58 T = lia F. fria noebainm ... séntae cech slóg subach by [or at ?] his holy name every happy host was sained Fél. Prol. 99 . ícaid [Tipra C.] gallrae ... fri troscud aici, BColm. 52.15 . argain fri daigid (destroying by fire LL 107a21 ( Ériu iv 28 ), cf. multi nobiles ceciderunt ... fri daigidh ro horta uile, AU 900 (see RIA Dict. s.v. daig). go nach deachaidh neach re siúbhal ... as no one escaped by flight ML 88.31 . re dán nglas ... dán breaghdha do bhréagnachadh with a simple poem to refute an elaborate one Content. vii 13 . ro ēirigh fri nert seoin ┐ solaid, Moling § 4 (possibly = with here cf. dol ar fairrge ... ré cóir na gaoithe = with a favourable wind ML 36z = le ML² 466 . cuir me ... chum seoil ... re cóir ghloin, Measgra D. 48.16 ).

IX In expressions of time :—

(a) in O. Ir. in locatival sense in phrase : fri dē by day, in the day-time Ml. 121d8 . Wb. 6a30 . fri dei, 9a5 , 24d14 , 26b17 . Cf. in gabail fri dei ... in gabail cech ráithi a catch (of fish) daily (?) Trip. 250.14 (2950) . fri díe, Mon. Tall. § 55 . fri haidchi by night Trip. 208.25 (2452) . gl. contra noctem Lat. Lives 18 . re lá, Ériu iii 148 § 3 . arna imbreth ... i n-aidchi cía nosgonad fri dé, LU 5609 .

(b) usually to denote period during which something continues or takes place : 'na fuair frisna secht ṁbliadnaib SR 3394 . fri a n-aimsir in their time Laws iv 210.28 . niro chotail C. frisin ré sin, LU 6337 . fria ré hi fut a saegail for their lifetime SR 5932 . bai cocad mor etarro fri re ciana RC xxiv 186 . batar ... fri re secht la amlaid sin, ACL iii 225.1 . conosrala for sechrán fri re bliadna co lleith, LU 1279 . bá-sa i Tul T. fri ré inna dílenn, Ériu iv 144y . maith graig dorat damh rem lá in my day ACL iii 304.23 . D. ba talchar fria ré in his day Metr. Dinds. ii 40 . dorumaltsa ... m'aimsir fri hamsir Nemid, LU 1276 . nir siubhuil in conuir-so re bliadhain aenridiri for a year past ZCP vi 104 z.

(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place : ni ba marb-sa fri sin I shall not die before that ZCP i 105.4 (co sin v.l.). Cf. also the locative use in Marco P. 11 cited I (a). tanic ... uidi na .xii. mís fri .xii. laa made the twelve months' journey in twelve days LB 139a31 . icuis fri teorai nomaidhe within thrice nine days RC xii 66x . nos ithend ... friha brathad sula in the twinkling of an eye LU 1895 ( RC x 56 ; fri b. v.l.) do imredar ... re trí lá, ┐ ní ruc G. énchluichi rissin, Acall. 1348 .

(d) of point of time ; in some cases approaching VI (b) above. fri dead n-aissi, SR 2829 . in tan nadbi fri húair i fos | frithalmi when he is not here at the hour of attending ... 1199 (cf. LB 110b43 cited under VI (a) above). cech dūil ... rosdelb fri oenuair, SR 7864 (similarly 7234 , 7386 ). grend Muman ... grend Connacht ... ra hóen-úair at the same time Ériu i 130.36 ( LL 46b ). buaidh ... damh fri deiredh mo ṡaoghail, ACL iii 231.1 . ra dered flatha Domnaill, LL 185a48 ( Arch. Hib. ii 85 ) = Rawl. 154a52 . Rí dorat na deich plāga | forthu fri huair combāga, SR 3942 . ? cid fri geld bāis nobeth `though he were at the point of death.' Mon. Tall. § 48 (see gell). re húair nfaicsiona at the time of looking RC xxix 128.13 . fri huair tacrai do ghníma, Ériu ii 228.7 .

(e) in follg. exx. perhaps used for ria before: na buidne ... robatar fria Crist...rofhogain don Choimdid fria tuidecht soscela (= turbae quae praecedebant ... ante evangelium) PH 4573 . dorad som a cuibidil fria mbass made his confession before death RC xviii 53.19 . Cf. co ro muid fri maccu Israel, LB 122b47 = re, YBL 293b40 (corresp. to mebaid remib SR 4765 ).

(f) In later lang., 3 s. ris occurs as adv. bare, exposed, uncovered : mar do leig ris a n-aoinfheacht 'how it left [her] uncovered at once' Duan. F. ii 332 § 9 , Éigse ix 228 . do theilg Ercuill a bhrat de ┐ ro leig a lorg ┐ in croicenn leomainn ro buí re cnes ris, ITS xxxviii 997 (Stair Ercuil) . chonarcadar a ccroicinn go coirtighthi buídhe ris, Smaointe B. Chr. 150 . ó bhí mo chroiceann-sa nochtuighthe síos reis, 160 . cia d’innis doit-se a bheith nochtuighthe síos reis (leis, v.l.), 161 . See also la VI (d), léicid.

X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs (and nouns of cognate meaning with them), e.g., those of speaking, addressing, boasting, complaining, asking, thanking ; meeting, touching, striking, rubbing, grinding ; listening ; waiting, expecting ; entrusting ; co-operating, associating, helping ; visiting ; resembling, comparing, differing ; parting, severing (from) ; doing (something to), acting (towards), giving, distributing, apportioning ; requiting, paying, selling ; refusing, rejecting, denying ; hindering, restricting, opposing, combating, etc. See especially : ad-cosnai, ad-gair, ad-teich, ad-tluichethar (attlugud), aigid, 1 anaid, ar-báigi, as-beir, benaid, beirid, 1 caithid, canaid, 1 cingid, comalnaithir, 1 con-clich, con-delca, con-gní, con-ricc, con-sní, con-túaisi, crenaid, dálaid, dlomaid, do-beir, do-gní, do-icc, do-rogaib, do-slí (tuillem buide fri), do-sluindi (diúltad), do-tét, dúnaid, 2 erbaid, fáiltigid(ir), feraid, fo-gella (2 fuiglid), fo-rig, fris-oirg, fris-tairissethar, fris-taít, gaibid (fris-gaib), gellaid, íadaid, 1 íccaid, imm-beir, imm-fogni, imm-fresna, in-samlathar, in-túaisi (éistid), labraithir ( labraid ), laigid, 1 ligid, lingid, 1 luigid, meilid (con-meil), naiscid, ráidid (ol, ar), rannaid, renaid, saethraigidir, scaraid (and compds.), soïd (do-soí), 1 téit, tongaid.

Gailioin

Cite this: eDIL s.v. Gailioin or dil.ie/25150

pn (Gaileoin, Gailiain), pl. o-stem. The name of a pre-Goidelic tribe of N. Leinster . The g s. occurs: gell Galeoin `a Galeon's pledge,' O'Dav. 1027. ? .x. seoit suim ina gabail gaileoin, ib. 1436 . cosnam Gaileoin gignis fích, LL 380b45 . For theory of their origin, see Pokorny, ZCP xi 174 - 179 . For extent of their territory, see Mac Neill, Early Irish Population Groups, § 96 . See also Hog. Onom. ; O'Rahilly, EIHM 92f . Laigin ... tri anmann doib .i. [Fir] Domnann, Gaileoin, Laighin, ┐ Gaileoin roalsat Labraid ... hi tirib Gall, Dinds. 9 ( RC xv 299 ). it Galeoin ... robatar ac cobraid A ... for tāin Bū Cūailnge, O'Mulc. 779 . Galeoin immorro aicme do Gallaib, ib. uiri armorum .i. Fir Gaileoin, Todd Nenn. 44 . batur tri primcinela i nEri, Feini ocus Ulaidh ocus Gaileoin, Laws i 70.3 Comm. atraacht in Galéoin ┐ in Mumnig, TBC-LL¹ 4577 . do láthaib gaile Galian (: gíall), 519 . in trícha sin fer Galian (: grian), 527 . tricha cét Galión, TBC-I¹ 164 . manip íat in Galían Lagen, CRR § 11 ; § 23 . tromlach cuicid Galían, RC xiii 50.3 . dona Galianaibh, TBC-LL¹ p. 883 n. 1 . do Gailianaib Labradha Loingsig, RC xv 306 ( Dinds. 15 ). docechnatar ... for Galeonu, RC xv 300 ( Dinds. 9 ). For evidence of length of the first syllable, see Pokorny, ZCP xv 196 ; O'Rahilly, EIHM 459.

1 Gall

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 Gall or dil.ie/25308
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: Gollu, Golla, gaillu, gullu, gulla, Gulla

pn o, m. a p. Gollu, Golla, AU 1026 . gaillu, LL 184a12 . gullu, Cog. 110 n. 2 ; gulla, Lism. L. 202 . v p. Gulla, IGT Decl. ex. 681.

(a) Oldest meaning a Gaul : Gaill .i. Frainc. Gaill dano ainm do ... ṡaerc[h]landaib Franc .i. tribus Gallie , Corm. Y 683 . Labraid for a loinges hi tirib Gall, RC xv 299 ( Dinds. § 9 ). dolluid Forgall Manach ... amail bítís techta ríg Gall, RC xi 438.25 (Tochm. Em.). marggad mór na nGall ngrécach, Metr. Dinds. iii 24.307 . epscop fīna ... .i. escra tomais fīna la ceandaighaib Gall ┐ Franc, Corm. Y 539 . Ériu iii 140.173 . a tuirc óir a tírib Gall, LL 49b40 = Hail Brigit § 11 . In pl. used as a place-name : i ndesciurt Etale ... sed verius ... i[n] Gallaib itá, Thes. ii 311.32 .

(b) a Scandinavian invader (finn-gaill being the Northmen , dub-gaill the Danes ) : Niall Glundubh ... co torchair i cath Atha-cliath la Gallaibh, MacCarthy 404.22 . co Galliathaib na nGall .i. co Ámlaib ... rig Lochlainne, CRR § 7 . Roiniudh for Gallu Locha cuan, AU 942 ; 1026 . Brian ... ardrī Gall ocus Gāedel, ZCP viii 120.1 . ar slanaib ... Turcaill righ Gall, BCC § 435 ; § 373 . Ard Macha do orgain ... la Gallaibh, ┐ ní ro hoirgedh la heachtarchenela riamh go sin, AFM i 444.9 . ? dord gaill iar nderach a bárc, ib. 272.8 . Dánfhocail 271 .

(c) an Anglo-Norman, an Irishman of Norman descent, an Englishman : Díarmait Gall, IGT Decl. ex. 641 . a Gulla Fáil, ex. 681 . langfiter ... .i. glas na nGall, Corm. p. 26 . (Cf. langp[h]eitir .i. anglis insein, Corm. Y 812. ) slóiccheadh lá hUilliam ... de Lathi ... ┐ lá gallaibh Midhe, AFM iii 268.13 . gabháltas Gall the Norman Invasion, Keat. ii 4840 . Fine gaoidel senghoill féin `the old English themselves,' O'Gr. Cat. 467.11 . sduagha do gheibhthe re Goll (of a castle) arches that used to be found with the foreigner (i.e. built in Norman style ?), DDána 119.16 . Applied to the Geraldines, Ériu ix 164 § 12.

(d) a foreigner : fer doberait gaill amach, Laws v 244.18 gl. o luibib gall, 84.6 Comm. cin a gall ┐ a deoraidh, O'Curry 290 ( H 3.18, 159 ). scrisfaid siad goill ┐ allmaruidh a hErind, BCC § 127.

(e) Hebridean : a Ghallmhaoir ó thuinn go tuinn | fleasga donna an díaigh an Ghoill, Rannsachadh na Gàidhlig i 13 (NLS 72.2.2 fo. 16) . fiarfaighthior ’nar fearann dúthaigh | dénamh na loingi, a fhlaith Gall, Bard. P. 172 § 15 . Compds. ¤assa a Gaulish sandal : a p. gallasu (gl. gallicas= caligas, Vulg.), Thes. i 497 ( Ardm. 178b2 ). ¤at foreign helmet , IT iii 100 § 171 . ¤bádach partial to foreigners (?) : comairleda ... guthmilse gallbadhacha in ghlaniarla `prompted by inherent leaning to the English,' Caithr. Thoirdh. 26.37 . ¤baile a foreign stead : ZCP ii 339.34 . gallbailti gan galldacht, Studies 1920, 416.z . IGT Decl. ex. 1915 . ¤bélre foreign speech, later English speech: sluag guillbelrai, Fen. 222.10 . can latin, acht gall-berla, ZCP xviii 12 , note. milc ... focul gallberla, O'Dav. 1215 . gen cor smuain guth Gaillberla, Irish Texts ii 14 § 27 . ¤biail a foreign (i.e. Scandinavian) axe : O'Dav. 532 . .iiii. sgribaill .x. is fiu in gaillbiail .i. in crostuadh lethan, O'Curry 241 b ( H 3.18, 136 ). slicht gall-bela, O'Curry 810 ( H 3.18, 374a ). See Manners and Customs iii 29 . ? ¤blach, IT iii 99 § 163 . ¤brat foreign booty : ? nímo gradh gallbraide, ib. 95.1 . ¤bróc foreign shoe : Guaire na ngallbrocc, ib. 101 § 179 . ¤cerd name given to the Scandinavian sport of tossing children on spears, V. SS. Hib. i 164 § xxxiv (v.l. gialcherd); cf. p. xxii n. 4 . ¤cliar: an ghaillchliar the Reformed clergy , Mac Aingil 4297 ¤cloch ` foreign castles ,' Studies 1920, 416.2 . ¤cochal a Norse hood , KMMisc. 364.9 . ¤cú: Gallchū immorru in forainm ┐ is de atā dia ro marb in mīlig tucad do breith einig fear Muman coro marb cona fhiaclaib amal gallchoin iaruschain (iaroschain, v.l.) a airm uili, Corp. Gen. 377 n. k-k (BB, Lec.) .​​​ As npr m.: Gallchū, Rawl. 151b40 . ¤cúirt foreign palace , Studies 1924, 242.2 . ¤dírna a foreign dírna (i.e. weight), O'Dav. 679 . ¤écosc Gaulish garb: doluid Forcoll M. ... isna Gaillecuscaib, ZCP iii 246 § 57 . ¤écoscda of foreign appearance: cloidemh mor gaillecasgda, TBC-LL¹ 5478 (St.). ¤espoc a foreign bishop: ag an ngaillespuc, ALC i 242.28 . ¤focal: dot dhíon ar ghallfhocal ghall the pledged word of the English (i.e. Punica fides), O'Gr. Cat. 485.8 . ¤fothannán the herb bearsbreech or bearsfoot , RC ix 227.21 . O'Gr. Cat. 184.30 . ¤fuil foreign blood: easbaid Goill ó gleo an Mullaig | ód roinn sa gleo ar an Gallfhuil, Irish Texts ii 60 § 24 . ¤ga a foreign javelin, an English spear , IGT Decl. ex. 967 . AU ii 212.22 . ¤gabul: ? gréas gach gall-ghabhla (from description of a building), DDána 119.33 . ¤glas a foreign lock , Laws i 142.12 Comm. ¤góidel one of mixed race, i.e. Viking and Irish blood . For an account of the Gall-Goidil see RC xxxix 176 - 177 (Sommerfelt); TFrag. 138 n. ; Bidrag, p. 4 seq.; Watson, Celtic placenames of Scotl., 172 seq. In the Annals the word is used of inhabitants of Ireland only between 855 and 858 (Sommerfelt, loc. cit.). In TFrag. 138 (an. 857) the name is applied to the Irish who had adopted Viking ways and relapsed into paganism. Cf. also ib. 232. cocadh mor etir Gennti ┐ Maelsechnaill co n-Gallghoidelaibh leis, AU i 364.x ; ib. 366.8 . loingius na nGall-nGaoidheal (sic) .i. Scuit iad ┐ daltai do Normannoibh iad, TFrag. 128.8 . AFM i 490.8 (an. 856). gic-goc Gallgaidhel, Anecd. ii 72.6 . inghean ríogh Gallghaedheal, Keat. ii 5540 . Used of inhabitants of western Scotland: téit iarum Donnan in Gallgaidelu ┐ geibid aitreb ann (where apparently the island of Eigg is meant), Fél. 116.13 . Bláán .i. Balaan (sic) epscop Cinn Garad hi nGallgaidelaib (Bute), ib. 184.28 . As a place-name connoting Galloway: Suibne mac Cinaedha, ri Gallgaidhel, AU i 568.z (an. 1034) ; ii 234.1 (an. 1200); ii 290.17 (an. 1234). Toirberd mac Gall Ghoeidhil, ALC i 242.25 (an. 1210) = mac righ gallgaoidhel, AFM iii 164.13 . Samaisc ┐ Artúr ┐ Ínber tri meic rig Gallgaeidel anall, AS 4560 . Bressal mac Eirge, mac ríg Gallgaeidel anall, ┐ taissech teglaig rig Eirenn he, ib. 7951 . Watson seeks to explain the form Galloway, Celtic placenames of Scotl. 174 . ¤gruaim: ó ghall-ghruaim a nglóir, A. Ó Dálaigh xxi 5 . ¤gruitne Norse curds: do gallurad gallgruitni, Hib. Min. § 66.32 . ¤iall a foreign thong: pl. gaillialla (.i. oígeich .i. lomhna connaigh), Ériu ii 4.14 . ¤iasc a pike , Iar. Conn. 11 note y . ¤íath foreign territory , CRR 10.y ; 20.10 . ? ¤lorg: do gelugud galluirge 'a foreign club' EIS 138 § 16 . See also uirge. ¤manach, Anecd. iii 9.20 . ¤merge a foreign standard; rie bar ngaillmeirgib grīanṡrōill, Bruchst. no. 25 . ¤mías a quoit (?): in gaillmias (gl. discus), Ir. Gl. 478 . ¤mil a foreign soldier: pl. gaillmilid ... na Gaillia, CCath. 5369 . ¤óclach orig. a Scottish soldier or mercenary, in service of an Irish chief; a `gallowglass' or heavy-armed foot-soldier opposed to the light-armed kerns (see Hayes-McCoy, Scots Mercenary Forces in Ireland, pp. 15-76 ). The word is common in the Annals of the 13th-15th centuries: tre cumachtain cinidh a mathar idon Clainni Domnaill ┐ Gallóglach n-imda aile, AU ii 372.17 . galloglacha uaisli, 426.9 . ocus a ngallógláchaibh ina n-éidedh timchioll chuirp an airdrígh, MS. Mat. 540.36 . AFM iii 450.11 . ib. 588.1 . ¤óclachus: leadership of gallowglasses: fear ... ba mó ainm la gallócclachus, AFM iv 1140.12 . ¤óg an English soldier, Content. xi § 14 . ¤ogam Viking Ogham , Auraic. 6157 (called also Ogam Lochlannach, 6155 ). ¤ráith a foreign rath or fort , see O'Gr. Cat. 502.22 . ¤sail a foreign (non-indigenous ?) willow: i nglotuinn géag ngall-ṡaileach, DDána 85.45 . ¤salann, foreign salt , glac gallsalaind, IT iii 93 § 139 . ¤sax English foreigner: eiritigidh Gallsax, Hy Fiach. 172.6 . ? ¤semind, IT iii 93 § 139 (BB). ¤sét a foreign treasure: pl. na gall-seoit tar muir tocairter, Laws v 220.22 gl. (etym. gl. on gaillite tacair). ¤sgiam: a ghiolla gusan ngaillsgéimh `O youth of foreign beauty', Studies 1924, 241.1 . ¤sciath: Tuathal Mælgarb na ngall-sciath, LL 130b12 . ¤sochraite foreign auxiliaries , Cog. 168.7 . ¤tech foreign palace , Studies 1924, 241.y . ¤Tór: Tór the Viking, Caithr. CC 138.z . ¤trumpa a trumpet, a clarion: itir orgán ┐ gitart ┐ galltrumpa, ZCP vi 52.8 . Matthew vi 2 . ? ¤urad: do gallurad gallgruitni, Hib. Min. 66.32 .

gasta

Cite this: eDIL s.v. gasta or dil.ie/25448

adj (gas) io,iā (prob. orig. meaning was youthful ) sprightly, alert, dexterous, skilful, quickwitted : gasta, glic inntleachtach, Eg. Gl. 358 . issí in glan genmnaid gelgasta, SCC² 713 ( LU 3908 ). Gasta Labraid Life līg, ZCP xi 110 § 22 . ingen rogasta, Metr. Dinds. iii 286.5 . SG 354.32 . óclach gasta gruadhalainn, TBC-LL¹ 5546 St. fer ... gasta, BColm. 22.18 . óclach ghasda glégharg, Acall. 1272 . a cheithern rogasta, CRR 19 . an fhlaith ghasta ghenamhail, L. Cl. A. B. 20.20 . Ōed Rōn rogasta roghel, Anecd. iii 47.17 . la Conall ngasta nGuthbind, Arch. Hib. ii 92 § 2 . gamanraidh glan gasda gerata, Cog. 178.4 . geratai glan-gasta Goedel, ib. 160.13 . dun gamandraid glain, gasta, ib. 166.3 . ó dhuine ghasta neartmhar `expert,' Jeremiah l 9 . noch sheinnios go gasda ar chláirsigh `a cunning player on a harp,' 1 Sam. xvi 16 . cibé choimhéadas é féin go gasta geanmnaidh, TSh. 8159 . Of animals : gabair ... gasta, TTebe 2279 . go n-eachaibh gasda ... fúthaibh, Atlantis iv 138 (OCL). Of things : grianan gasta glanedrochta `an ingenious bower,' Ériu iii 168.22 . méd a claidim gasta guirm, MR 196.18 . longphort lán-ghasda `a well-ordered encampment,' ML 74.12 . laoidheanga ... fíorghasda, 44.25 . tuc ... a laim leabargasta amach, AS 5941 . a lama gasda gelmeracha, ZCP x 305.17 . a mbert gasta goirmédidh, Irish Texts ii 29.31 . gasta a nglór, Dánta Gr. 4.5 .

Compar. as superl. a gillai is gastu atchonna[r]c, TFerbe 450 .

gératacht

Cite this: eDIL s.v. gératacht or dil.ie/25723

Forms: gérraideacht

n (gérata) ā, f. valour, prowess : is ond Labraid fil gráin ┐ gératacht ┐ ómun ... for Laignib, LL 159a17 ( SG ii 455.32 ). do ghail ┐ do ghaiscceadh ┐ do ghérraitteacht Gaoidhel, AFM vi 2178.16 . gérraideacht, 2288.15 . g s.: ar aoí ngeirraitteachta, v 1856.z .

gríb

Cite this: eDIL s.v. gríb or dil.ie/26639

n (Lat. gryphus) ā, f.

I a gerfalcon; a griffin: ba luathither ... grib dia ned no séig do ail, Thr. Ir. Gl. 36.y (s.v. prúll). nathir cach ben, grīb cach ingen, ZCP viii 196 § 15 . net grībe, Corm. Y 968 . gáir gér gríbi, SR 921 . grip ingnech fot súil, Moling § 35 ( RC xxvii 280 ). an tén adhuathmar ... .i. griobh ingnech, BNnÉ 76 § 142 . do chomraic risan ngribh, ib. gribha garba, goibghera, Lism. L. 3651 . batar ocht ngribha ingnecha for .xl. lais arna seolad for seilg na n-anmunn n-aerdha, ZCP i 378.22 . imud camhall ┐ gribh ... isna crichaib sin, ib. 268.26 . grif a grife .i. quadrupess pennata , O'Mulc. 659 . gríobh ghreannach ghob-lom ghearánach, TSh. 6623 . is lámh nocht i nead gríbhe, TD 18.34 .

II a claw, a talon (?): ? ar sinedh a gribhe di [sc. don gríb] dochum na mbrathar `as the griffin was stretching out its claw,' BNnÉ 76 § 142.

III Fig. a fierce warrior, a hero, a chieftain: robith Fergal ... | grib glond galann, RC xxiv 64 § 24 . a Domnaill ... a gríb in gascid gabthig, TFerbe 637 . gríbh finn Imgán, Ériu iv 216 § 14 . grīb thuir thricc thressaig, Bruchst. § 123 . grīb indrid īath n-anēoil (of Labraid Longsech), Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 10 § 4 . berim chomharc uaim don ghríb, ITS v 16.14 . Muscraige ... fond na gríbe gu gnāthach, ZCP viii 226 § 10 . a ghríb Gháiridhi, O'Gr. Cat. 367.16. d'éis m'iuil ar ghéiriúl na gríbhe after my intimate acquaintance with the hero, Hackett xxix 31.

Compds. ¤aithech griffin-like giant: gríobh-aitheach goimheamhail, TSh. 1159 . ¤chath a fierce fight: i ngríobhchath gleóchomhraic, Hackett xxi 33 . ¤dál assembly of heroes (?): atraig cāch isin gribdāil, MacCongl. 117.15 . ¤gal a warrior-fight: coṅgríbgail cherta, SR 7195 . ¤ingen (a) the claw of a griffin: (as a reward to a poet) ro hir dom.x. ngrib ingne (gl. .i. cuinnid ingi ngribhe), Ériu ii 4.3 . (b) a griffin (?): mar dha ghribhingne mheara mhoirghniomhacha, GJ iv 18a.40 (Stair É. Uí Chl.).

guidid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. guidid or dil.ie/26788
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: gu(i)did, -guid, guides, guithir, guiter, -geiss, -gé, n-ges, gessir, -gessar, gigse, -gigius, giges, gigestar, gáid, gáde, gessa, guidestar, guided, gessi, guidim, guidmini, nobguidet, gute, guid, gudeth, nges, nongesmais, araroigsitis, gádhuis

v prays, begs , see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 550.

Pres. ind. sg. 3 gu(i)did, -guid ; rel. guides ; pass. guithir (sic), rel. guiter. pres. sub. sg. 2 -geiss, 3 -gé ; rel. n-ges ; pass. gessir ; -gessar. pl. 2 gestisi, Mon. Tall. 158 § 75 , ZCP xxv 257-59 . fut. sg. 1 gigse, -gigius ; rel. 3 giges ; rel. pass. gigestar. pret. sg. 3 gáid ; rel. gáde ; pass. gessa ; Mid. Ir. pret. sg. 3 (depon.) ro guidestar ; perf. pass. ro guided . part. necess. gessi. vn. guide , f., q.v. supra.

Pres. ind. sg. 1 asfenimm .i. guidimm, Wb. 22a20 . guidim (gl. testificor), ib. 30d3 . Día nodguidiu fri cach tress `God, I beseech Him for every struggle,' Hy. v 17 . 3 is airi insin gudidsom hi tosuch intsailm, Ml. 88b15 . ni guid digail du thabairt foraib, ib. 42a4 . rel. ised guides amal sodin, 32d5 . guithir dāl ō Conc[h]obar, TBC-I¹ 3415 . is hed ón guiter and, Wb. 30d5 . pl. 1 guidmini, ib. 25d21 . ni ar nert in domuin guidmit, 15d18 . guidmit do Patraicc, Hy. iii 6 . cid ani nadguidemni `even what we do not pray for,' Wb. 21d10 . 3 nobguidet, 7b21 . rel. gute they who beseech (gloss on suplicantium), Ml. 134d8 .

Imper. sg. 2 guid, Bethu Brigte 10 § 30 . 3 gudeth Dia n-erum, Bethu Brigte 8 § 25 . pl. 2 gudid dia dileir, Ml. 68a15 . subj. pres. sg. 1 rolomur nundatges `I dare to entreat thee,' Ml. 21b5 . 3 arangé dilgud, Ml. 51a16 ; [incipit] supplicare gl. nges, ib. 39b3 . pass. ni etar cia gessir, Wb. 17d27 . rel. [oportet] ... orari (gl. ṅgesar), Ml. 51a17 . pl. 1 ni gessamni níi bes chotarsne diar nícc we should not pray for anything ..., Wb. 11a24 . rel. mat réte frecndirci gesme, ib. 4a27 . 2 ni gessid na aill act buáid precepte, 26a34 . 3 (perf.) conroigset dia nairiuibsi `so that they may beseech God for you,' 16c23 . subj. imperf. pl. 1 nongesmais, Ml. 21b1 . 3 conngestais huili taidchor as in doiri, ib. 131d13 . perf. araroigsitis (aroigsitis, MS) a tailciud asin doiri, 131d14 . fut. sg. 1 gigse-sa .i. mo soirad ar cech guasacht, Ml. 47d4 - 5 . gigsa in coimdiu cáid, Ériu i 68.26 . na ní nogigius ebarthi Dia `what I shall pray for, God will grant,' Ml. 46b12 . 3 (rel.) cech óin gessid .i. giges Dia, ib. 53c3 . 2 gigestesi dia, Wb. 14c2 a. second fut. sg. 3 ised rigigsed amal sodin, Ml. 32d5 . pret. sg. 1 amal rotgád-sa im anad i nEphis, Wb. 27d19 . 3 asrubart som rongaid dia ┐ rondcualae, Ml. 53b26 . gádhuis (MS gadhuis), CMT² 34 § 40 . rel. in clám gáde ailgis dí, Hy. v 49 . in macc amnas rodasgāid | Brigtae, ib. 35 . depon. ro guidhestar, Laws i 252.12 Comm. pl. 1 massu diing anrogadammar, Wb. 15c22 . 3 gādatar tíssed in nōeb, Hy. ii 17 . amal rondgadatar iii pueri, Ml. 131d14 . pass. sing. gesa (gessa, LU) do Fergus ... teacht ara chend, TBC-LL¹ 2144 . part. necess. is ed a eret is gessi Dia, Ml. 107d8 . gessi la lín martrae | Mael odrán mór mochtae, Fél. Dec. 2.

I prays to, entreats (with direct object of person addressed): nobguidimse (= adiuro vos), Wb. 25c29 . amal ṅguidess athir a macc, Wb. 24d19 . guidid dia eruibsi dogress, 27d7 . a Íssu not-guidiu, Fél. Prol. 265 . uasalathraig guidme `patriarchs whom we beseech,' Fél. Ep. 243 . dobera in t-athair nemdai maith di-a maccaib no-s-guidet, PH 5787 . gudem Críst `let us pray to Christ,' Ériu i 195.5 . guidid-siu co ferrda in coimdid, PH 2538 . áil dam ... bothnait dīamair i ngeisind (guighfinn v.l.) Dīa, KMMisc. 210.20 . cach aen guidhfes Colmān, BColm. 94.14 . nott aitchim ... gur guidhe in Coimde form, BNnÉ 91 § 196 . guidh hathair féin ata a bhfolach, Matthew vi 6 . guidhim go hárd thú, ZCP v 226.829 . vn. na naoimh do ghuidheadh, Luc. Fid. 306.2 . solicits (in evil sense): in rotguid-siu in clerech ?, RC viii 154.11 . cia as ionnraca dona mnáibh? … an mhéid nach guidhthior díoph, Celtica xviii 114 § 24 .

II guidid ní asks for something (with direct object of the thing desired) : ished inso noguidimm, Wb. 21a8 . mat réte frecndirci gesme ... intain guidmeni inducbáil diarcorp, ib. 4a27 . mad coair a ṅgestae `if what they pray be fitting,' Fél. Ep. 432 . in guide ron-gádsa, ib. 421 . rogaid Adam hitgi thren, SR 1629 . rogáid a theora guide ann, Ériu ii 202 § 20.

III With the object of the thing desired, the foll. constructions are found :

(a) guidid ní ar (for) neuch : guitter cardi chlaidib úand for Coinculaind, TBC-I¹ 1362 . guitter ónt slóg forru bith na tost, ib. 1426 . co ro-guider ar na haiib ro-chretset, PH 1415.

(b) guidid ní de neuch : nathir ... gaid dím a tichtu i Pardos, SR 1322 . rogaid díb ben maic Mágach | cairde co arnabárach, Metr. Dinds. iii 446.81 .

(c) g.¤ ní do neuch (where in later exx. do may be for de) : guidmini dúib, Wb. 26b8 . is airi gesu doib an daul (= dál) `that is why they were asked for the respite,' RC xii 72 § 41 . ro gáid Labraid dó anad dind imguin, LU 3791 ( SCC 36 ). is and gesa do Fergus ... teacht ara chend, TBC-I¹ 2144 . nach itge gigestar do Día ... ernfider, Ériu ii 196 § 12 . co mbad hed no gessed don Chommdid, Fél. Ep. 217.

(d) g.¤ ní for neuch, see (a). guidsius im anad forru she asked them for a delay, Laws i 250.19 .

(e) g.¤ ní ó neuch : roguidset aittrebthaide in tíre furtacht o Mártain, Lat. Lives 99.4 .

IV With the object of the person addressed, the foll. constructions are found :

(a) With prep. imm (fá ba), especially when the thing desired is expressed by a vn. : amal rot-gadsa im anad i nEphis, Wb. 27d19 . annongeiss cách imma chomalnad, Wb. 30b4 . gāid Cūrāi innī Amargine im lēgud ina tāna dar Tailtin, TBC-I¹ 2964 . roguided im dula isin comruc, ib. 2146 . cor guidistair ceathror comalta Cellaig um marbad Chellaich, Dinds. § 133 ( RC xvi 140.2 ). guid ... im dilgud dot' immarbos, SR 1607 . ro-guidius he im a throcaire do thecht form, PH 2786 . rogadamar in Coimdidh im fortacht duinn, Anecd. i 41.10 . ro-guid in coimdid bá indechad fors-in errig, PH 791 . do ghuidheadar rí Frangc fá chongnamh sluagh do thabhairt dó, Keat. ii 2568.

(b With the conjunction co : gāid dō dino co tairled in sligid dorīsi, TBC-I¹ 587 . not-guidimm co ro-airchise dimm, PH 1300 . guidh in Rí[g] réill ... | co tī d'aitreb do t[h]ighi, ZCP vi 264 § 2 . guidet in Coimdid co tarda fortacht dóib, Ériu ii 210 § 33 . ro-guidestar Piláit co n-ésted fris, PH 2775 . ro-guidset co tissed Michel, ib. 6293 . doghuidh a hathair Naemh Brigte co ndigsed co righ Laigen, Lat. Lives 81.6 .

(c) With a verb in the subjunctive : gādatar tīssed in nōeb, Thes. ii 313.1 . gudem Críst ara nérnam, Ériu i 195 § 10 .

V With ar (for), la (ri), dar cend, of the person for whom one prays :

(a) guidid dia eruibsi dogress, Wb. 27d7 . co ro-guider ar na haiib ro-chretset, PH 1415 . guidid-se form-sa co ro-léci dam dul i cennadaig aile, PH 2050 . nott aitchim ... gur guidhe in Coimde form, BNnÉ 91 § 196.

(b) gigestesi dia linn ara fulsam ar fochidi `ye will entreat God for us ...,' Wb. 14c2a . guid lind in ri firbrethach, Ériu i 122.9 . guidh lemsa do primgeine | dom saorad a mbrath, ib. 17 . corguiditis leo cen chlith | na huili grada, SR 1645 . aitchem in n-uli dúili ... co n-guidet in Coimdid lind, MacCarthy 64.15 . nách áon guides Dia lind guidemne Día lasuidiu if anyone prays to God for us, we pray to God for them, Mon. Tall. 158.25 . gestisi Dia lindi `Do ye pray God for us,' ib. 158.22 . guidhim Día riot, Ériu lxiii 58 § 38 .

(c) tar cend : guidiu itge ṅaile tarcenn fer in betha, Fél. Ep. 413 . guidfet-sa in coimde tar bar ceann, PH 2075 . acht mine guided Moysi mac Amra dar bar cend, 2831 .

-i

Cite this: eDIL s.v. -i or dil.ie/26893
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: -i

suff. pron. s. m. and n. Somet. used instead of inf. pron. to express acc. relation after 3 s. abs. act. indic. and occasionally, ipv. Occurs less frequently with indic. pres. pl. 3. According to Strachan, ZCP ii 484 ff ., the formation belongs mainly to the period 800-950. See Celtica xii 75-107 .

1 firianichthi (=firianigid-i) a hiress `his faith justifies him', Wb. 2b28 . berthi (leg. bérthi, Ed.) leiss co cenn `He will bear it with Him to the end', 23a19 . air ní pridches-som hua briathraib comallaidi `he fulfils it', Ml. 94b1 . conoscaig in gae ┐ saidsi ... hi talmain, 55c1 . ? ni n-aithgeuin ┐ leicsi huad, 52 . foidsi Sechnall ó ru-an .iii. aithgi lais S. sent it, Thes. ii 242.13 (Ardm.; but see s.v. fadéin II (c) and Ériu xxxiii 169 ). berrsi Pátricc ┐ baitzisi `P. tonsured him and baptised him', 241.14 (do.). arpeti cech díne `every group sings it', Fél. Ep. 79. suigthe sīs i fudomhoin it sucks him down, Corm. Y 323.7 . ... a delg asa brut ┐ clandti inda gruaid, Mon. Tall. 150.27 . hicsai Brig a firinde a firbreathaib `Brigh ... cured him', Laws iv 16.1 . carthai Findabair ... ara irscélaib, TBFr. 10. tic ... Li Ban dia saigid Loíg ┐ geibthi ar gúalaind, LU 3351. bentai frisin corthe inna farrad, 5013 = benta, TBC-I¹ 524. ut uidit Patricius illum sloicsi in talam sís, Trip.² 1504. beirthe (=beirit-i) iarum Amairghin ┐ Findchāemh, ZCP v 504.7 . Used instead of -s- referring to a fem. noun : feraib (leg. feraid, Ed.) Labraid fáelti fríu ┐ fersi in bantrocht uli, LU 3778. geibthi Lóeg íarom cloich, 3278 .

Somet. has reflexive sense: oenichthi-som híc frisna hireschu `He unites Himself híc to the faithful', Wb. 32d8 . ní i ssíansib spiritáldib móiti `not in spiritual senses does he boast him', 27a29 . gabsi cadessin abbaith `he took himself (as) abbot', Thes. ii 242.21 (Ardm.). sīnithi iarum co memdadar in dā liicc robādar imbi he stretches himself, TBC-I¹ 442.

2 Commonly used pleonastically, anticipating

(a) a follg. subst. or pron. : foilsigthi in spirut andsom a rrath ... `the Spirit manifests in him the grace ...', Wb. 12a7 . gebthi Loegaire iarom in roth ┐ nos cuir i n-arda, LU 8844. cāinti inn dūnad uile intī Frāech, TBC-I¹ 758. airigthi Ailill ┐ Medb annīsin, 228 .

(b) a follg. phrase : arbertai congabad dú hitá Céll Glass they propose ..., Trip.² 1901.

3 Used with some vbs. of motion and a few othe vbs. to express a sort of cognate acc. : dia luid Duaid for longais re Saul luide iarum dia thosun `he went afterwards to pursue him', Ml. 55c1 . ní ind fessin eirbthi `it is not in himself that he trusts', 51b12 . luidi síar co Cruachain, IT ii2 216.3 . ní na[d]-tét do menma-so, tēti menma neich aili, ScM. § 3.13 . teiti ind ingen leis let the girl go with him, LU 5870. foraithmenatharsom la sodain a foramcliss ┐ lingthi i n-ardi, 9105 . maiti imbisom in dabaich hīsin, TBC-I¹ 723. budigthe fri hEtáin co mór a ndorigni, IT i 128.30 . dlútai in cath di alailiu `one company closes with the other', MU² 1005. mutti (=maidid-i) íarom in cath for Érnu, 1023 . cingthe secha `he passes by him', ZCP iii 212 § 24 .

4 Like inf. pron. has dat. sense when used with subst. vb. : bóithi ind fáelte chétna `he had the same welcome', Imr. Brain i 53.13 .

When -i was added to a 3 pl. form, the -t of the ending was sometimes repeated, e.g. bertit alaili combad spirut nóib robói in profetís `some take it', Wb. 13a16 . gebtit iudei i n-apid `will receive him as lord', 26a8 . scérdait far n-óendili i fat, TBC-LL¹ 2796.

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