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6 a

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 6 a or dil.ie/7
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: á

conjunction, nasalizing and followed by nasalizing rel. clause when, while . Orig. neut. sg. of article, see GOI § 890 . With neg. an(n)ad: anataibrem, Wb. 15d25 . annád foirpret, Sg. 48b5 . With ro: ar(r)u, ar(r)o, anru: arocelebrus, Wb. 14d31 . arrucestaigser, Ml. 2d3 . Also á (see Celtica ii 339 - 40 ).

In O.Ir. glosses usually in phrases glossing Latin participles: arocelebrus gl. ualefaciens, Wb. 14d31 . annongeiss cách gl. testificans, 30b4 . anataibrem do neuch gl. nemini dantes, 15d25 . a fortéitsi aém ref. to adiuuantibus, 14c3 . anambet ecailsi gl. non discutiendi `when they will not be to be examined', Ml. 15d7 . anas lie uilnech and Isu gl. superaedificati ipso summo angulari lapide . . ., Wb. 21c6 . arumsa loiscthe gl. adustus, Ml. 118d1 . a lléicfimme gl. relinquentes, 14d8 . arrucestaigser frisin nebride gl. cum Ebreo disputans, 2d3 . nad necmai andumenmarni gl. aestimantes, 15d5 . continuans .i. a comoicsider, Sg. 59a2 . andonaidbdem gl. ostendentes, 211a12 . an as suidigthe gl. positum, 4a11 . andocoisgedar ne comaccomol .s. gl. sequente, 15b4 . andonaithchuiredar .u. gl. redeunte `when u returns', 18b6 . ambas cete gl. cantato `when it shall have been sung', Thes. ii 17.34 . ( BCr. 32b5 ). anaslui grién foa fuined gl. occidente, 33b18 . andusleicet inna rind gl. residentibus `when the planets sink', 18b10 . Note also: conid gau dóibsem . . . anasberat nadṁbed ad plures , Sg. 40a15 . annád foirpret `when they do not increase', 48b5 .

With impf. indic. andummecitis gl. dispicientes, Ml. 34c6 . annumfindbad[a]igtisse gl. beatificantes, 39d14 . So also in Trip.: P. . . . anno cluined inna briathra sa dorothlaig . . ., Trip.² 118 . anno cníted . . . is éd ro ráde . . . = suspirans . . . ait, 405 . A Latinism, GOI § 519 (see also note p. 682, and Stokes, KZ xxix 376 ). Note also: ferais L. faelti fris . . . a n-asbert saying, LU 3430 .

In literary texts: a lluid fon loch con(f)aca[e] in muirdris, Ériu xvi 38 § 6 . mairg Ultu arro génair . . . in gormac, MU² 323 . fer dorigne sin amdar lana a .vi. bliadna, TBC-I¹ 543 . ar-roldatar (irroldatar, v.l.; leg. inróldatar, Immrama 86 § 2 ). fairggi fergaidh when they went on the angry sea, Snedg. u. Mac R 9.§ 2 . inba siu as . . . indbasi hée ┐ inuuisi ron, . . . inuaisi cú `when I was a deer', etc., ZCP ii 315.9 . a m-luidset co leth lenna `when they had got halfway across the sea', Dinds. 5 ( RC xv 294 ). a ronecam-[ni] do lesa , ACL iii 294 § 13 . a mbātar ann oc fledōl co cualatar ēigem na caillige, ZCP vii 306.5 . i n-bása isind ecclais so `when I was in this church', BNnÉ 93 § 203 . a mbuí ann, Stair Erc. 387 .

1 aile

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 aile or dil.ie/978
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: oile, eile, arch, aild, aile, aile, aill, aile, aill, aili, ailiu, ailiu, áili, aili, aili, aile, ailib, aile, aili, aile, aili, aili, a., n-aill, n-aile, éile, éle, aill, aili, ailiu, ailiu, aile, alaill, allail, alaill, alaili, alailiu, aili, alaaili, alaili, n-aile, allaili, aile, alaili, aili, alaile, holailiu, horaili, fulailiu, folaill, hualailiu, alaile, alaill, alaile, arele, lelele, alaill, aláil, araill, alaili, aláili, álaili, araili, áréli, alailiu, arailiu, alaili, aili, lialailiu, liala ailiu, aile, alailib, alaili, aréli, alaili, indala, indala, dondala, indala, indala, indala, all, AILE, ALAILE, arailiu, alailiu, alaile, (a)la, al(l)

In later lang. oile, eile other, one of two, second , pronominal used as adj. and noun. Inflected as io, iā -stem except in n a s. neut. (aill, see below). GOI §§ 486 ff. , Hamp, Études Celt. ix 477 (aill, arch. aild). Old-Irish forms. Stressed forms

(a) aile (as adj. follows noun; as subst. always with article or nach). As adj. n s m. aile, Wb. 12c46 . n. aill, 9c3 . a s m. aile, Wb. 9d31 . n. aill, 13a1 . g s. aili, Sg. 30a2 . d s. ailiu, Wb. 21a7 . ailiu, Sg. 30b4 . n p. áili, Wb. 12b1 . aili, 22d14 . a p. aili, Sg. 28a6 . g p. aile, Wb. 12b3 . d p. ailib, Wb. 12b11 . Fem. n s. aile, Wb. 10d18 . a s. aili, Sg. 189a8 . g s. aile, Sg. 188a12 . n p. aili, Sg. 22a3 . a p. aili, Sg. 191a2 .

n As subst. n s m. nach a.¤ , Wb. 20a10 . n s n. a n-aill , Wb. 4b24 . a s m. nach n-aile , Wb. 8a3 . éile, éle (influence of céile, GOI p. 308 ), 6a15 , 6c18 . a s n. na aill , Wb. 17c23 . g s. nach aili , Wb. 17b28 . d s. nach ailiu , Sg. 209b12 . a p. amal na heliu, Sg. 9b1 . ailiu gl. quos (nullos tepefacit sol), Ml. 94b20 . Fem. g s. inna aile , Thes. ii 15.42 (BCr.).

(b) With double stem ala aile, alaile, with dissimilation araile (with stress on -ail-) (as adj. precedes noun; as subst. does not take article or other proclitic, cf. Ped. Ériu xv 188 ff.).

As adj. n s n. alaill ṡain, Sg. 6b24 . allail (recte alaill, edd.) pronomen , 209b10 . g s. alaili thríuin, Sg. 96a4 . d s. alailiu chruth, Ml. 98d1 . n p. alá aili aidme, Ml. 89a9 . alaaili réta, Sg. 111b5 . a p. alaili dliged, Ml. 18c11 . g p. ala n-aile ndoine, Ml. 54a21 .

Fem. a s. allaili mbeasti, RC xi 446.1 . g s. ala aile aidme, Ml. 51c5 . d s. alaili tain gl. quando, Sg. 222b2 . n p. ala aili interiecta, Sg. 10a1 .

When used with a prep. ending in a vowel alaile sometimes drops its initial: holailiu, Ml. 80a2 . horaili, 2a6 . fulailiu (sic MS.), 102d2 . folaill, Laws iv 102.14 . But hualailiu, Ml. 40d17 . Sg. 25b12 . With la see substantival use infra.

n As subst. n s m. alaile, Wb. 6b20 . n s n. alaill, 7d11 . a s m. alaile, Wb. 5d15 . arele, 9c19 . With la: lelele, 16c24 . a s n. alaill, 4c33 . aláil, 12a10 . araill, 23b21 . g s. alaili, Wb. 4c13 . aláili, 12a34 . álaili, 13a9 . araili, Sg. 10a10 . áréli, Wb. 13a5 . d s. alailiu, Wb. 2a14 . arailiu, 21a13 . n p. alaili, Wb. 13a16 . ala aili , Sg. 215a1 . a p. with la, lialailiu, Ml. 14a4 (liaailiu, MS.). liala ailiu, Sg. 32b5 . g p. ala n-aile (gl. reliquorum), Ml. 37a21 . Sg. 201b15 . d p. alailib, Wb. 25b13 . Sg. 208b8 . Fem. a s. fri alaili , Sg. 202a4 . d s. aréli (see above), Wb. 8a7 , alaili, Sg. 189a7 . 212b3 .

In Bardic verse this form alliterates with words beginning either with r- or vowels: líonmhar dá reic re-roile, DDána 61.3 . sgol i n-ucht ar-oile ag ól, 103.25 .

(c) Unstressed forms (always adjectival preceding noun or aí, see below, and most usually with preceding article or cach). With article (both words indecl.) n s m. indala mmod, Ml. 45b11 . a s m. indala fer, Wb. 4c16 . d s. dondala lucht, Wb. 16c20 . n s f. indala chlas, Ml. 138d1 . g s f. indala rainne, Sg. 74b7 . a s n. indala lestar, Wb. 4c32 . With cach, usually cach la: cach la sel, Wb. 15d9 . cach le céin, Ml. 19c1 . Without art. somet. also all, see C I (a) below.

A. The form AILE.

I As adj. following its noun other, second: frituidecht a.¤ anísiu, Sg. 21b11 . pronomen naill, 197b17 . fogur na liter na.¤ , 4a8 . guidiu itge n-a.¤ , Fél. Ep. 413 . anní nail as much again, IT ii1 180.177 . cethri fogaetha a.¤ , SR 49 . immon michil lasin crosfigill-so immon muiri lasind crosfigell na.¤ immasech `with the next', Mon. Tall. 137.z (§ 28) . do nach raod aliu `to any other matter', 143.30 (§ 43) . isind le[i]th ailiu, Críth G. 591 (eliu, MS.). do c[h]ellaib elib, BColm. 62.20 . forsin triur aili `the other three', RC xxiv 174.10 . aisceda imda eili, Sc.M² § 4 R . Longínus in ainm ele, PH 673 . a dhuine dhiombuain eile, DDána 27.3 . céd eili d'uaislib `a hundred other nobles', IGT Decl. ex. 60 . ┐ ní eili and furthermore, Hy Maine 161.31 . beag oile as congnamh ré chois `little else', Dán Dé x 17 . aill with non-neut. noun: ro-lēcus-[s]a gaí n-aill cucut-su, Sc.M² § 13 . issin láim n-aill, MU² 543 . do thuc bulli n-aill, TBC-LL¹ 1998 . fecht n-aile (n-aill), úair a.¤ another time, on another occasion see fecht and 2 úar. Of future time, next, forthcoming: lathi n-and resint samḟuin a.¤ cind bliadna, LU 3298 ( SCC § 10 ). cosin caiscc naili `until the next Easter', Mon. Tall. 132.17 (§ 12) . nach (na) . . . a.¤ (aill) any other . . . : nábat nacha arm aili `let it not be any other arms', Wb. 11d14 . dochum nacha rainne a.¤ , Sg. 188a12 . indtan noteigdis nach leth aili, Mon. Tall. 129.18 (§ 6) . in nacha reduibh ailib, Ériu ii 106.9 . Masc. with neut. noun: huare nad fil na nert n-a.¤ , Ml. 29d5 .

n II As subst.

(a) another, the other, others etc.: cuit inna aine ┐ inna a.¤ of the one and of the other, Thes. ii 15.42 (Bcr.). amal na heliu `like the others', Sg. 9b2 . arus leth do fallaib an aill do doebdadaib `for half is due for the neglects, the other for the claimants,' Laws iv 126.21 Comm. mad a.¤ da lina beta olca folaid `one of two parties', ii 366.11 . ma a.¤ dá lína bes anfoltach, O'D. 565 ( H 3.17, 441 ). co ndearnadhsom in a.¤ chédna likewise, TFrag. 22.22 . mani tucad . . . ní din chéttadall ni bered a n-aill, Sc.M² § 1 . ní fargaib bennachtain ┐ ní thuc anaill (alali, v.l.), RC viii 52.25 . aroile . . . anaill the one . . . the other (ref. to léo), Grail 3399 .

(b) period of two days: a.¤ do mnaib . . . treisi do rig, Laws i 78.15 . nat ṡasai aena tar a.¤ `that one day should not be extended beyond two days', 120.18 . athgabail a.¤ itir uin ┐ treise rosmidir Sencha, 126.11 . cach athgabail a.¤ , 144.24 .i. for ata anad naili ┐ apad aili, 146.21 Comm. is for dail na haili, 146.12 Comm. athgabail a.¤ do ingin im comorbus a mathar, 146.y .i. ar ata anadh naili, 148.3. Comm. a.¤ déc space of twelve days (cf. a.¤ déc one twelfth , (g) infra): a.¤ do mnaib, a.¤ dec doib im roe, Laws i 78.15 .

(c) Frequ. a n-aill something else, anything else: nimbe anaild arbera bith `he has nothing else that he may eat', Mon. Tall. 146.16 (§ 50) . ind lethbairgin ┐ ind cethramtu nó anaild `the half loaf and the quarter or other quantity, 151.z (§ 63) , ní fogbat merdrecha Ulad a n-aill acht foraim én dóib, LU 3254 ( SCC § 5 ). it é do theoir ríagla / nítroib anaill bas diliu `have thou naught else dearer', Ériu i 194 § 7 . in fil anaill? ol Grigoir `is there anything else?' ZCP iii 30.21 .

(d) Hence with ocus, etc. furthermore: ┐ anaill forácbus[s]a . . ., LL 279a7 . ┐ anaill béus, iarfaig-siu and furthermore, ask . . ., TBC-LL¹ 1920 . ┐ dano a n-aill and úair ni chesend nech, LU 2654 . ┐ anaill niro tagaill . . ., Grail 2786 . Cf. similar use of araill: et araill aile dana béus, TBC-LL¹ 106 . ┐ araill and, dano, . . . ní fil rígain . . ., LU 4015 ( SCC § 46 ). araill ele bheós ro leth ainm . . ., AFM v 1858.z . ┐ araill ele nir bó siodhach . . ., vi 2052.10 .

(e) Uninflected aill . . . aill one . . . another, some . . . others (not found in O. Ir. Glosses): imrordus in rígraid / . . . / aill úas laithib lígdaib / aill fo díanaib déraib some . . . others, Fél. Prol. 23 . aill fir mair . . . / aill ingene húage `one of a mighty man . . . another of a virginal maiden', June 5 . áill fri cumaid . . . aill ele fri teichead (of persons), Alex. 309 . .lll. carpdech . . . aill bruitt budi aill bruit deirg `some in yellow mantles others in red mantles', RC xiv 412.8 . Hence adverbially partly . . . partly: aill is tóla catha crūach / aill is cōra cacha crích, ZCP xi 110 § 30 . go ruc in ingen leis aill ar áis aill ar égin, Ériu xi 46.13 . Cf. aill .i. aonfecht .. . ut est aill torla tres tochuired, O'Dav. 34 , Ériu xiii 15.11 .

(f) With nach any other: arna arroímatsom nach na.¤ `lest they should receive any one else', Wb. 14d37 . cen acaldaim nach aili, Sg. 153b7 . cen acomol naich aili do `without joining any other to it', 197b17 . nib écen na aill, Wb. 22d12 . ni gessid na aill act búaid precepte, Wb. 26a34 . ní epur na haill `I say nothing more', Sg. p. 217 marg. sup. (Thes. ii xxii). in fail na aill adcota[r] dam, Trip.² 1323 . cona bía cuit do nach ailiu i nHére, 2766 . do-bérad naill ( = na aill) would give something else, BDD² 276 . With partitive DI something else of: asbéram na aill diar ṅgnímaib, Wb. 17c23 . in fuil anaill d'ingantaib air?, Grail 2983 . Cf. aill do buadaib Duind C. andso something of the triumphs, TBC-LL¹ 1529 .

(g) In numerals (fractions). a.¤ déac one twelfth: oile dég f., IGT Decl. § 3 . oil a dég (oil dhég v.l.) lochdach, IGT Decl. § 14 . aili deac brotto `the twelfth part of a second', Thes. ii 13.29 (BCr.). erpais Patraic aili deac Erend dó the twelfth part of Ireland, Trip.² 911 . `a.¤ dhéc the twelfth part, the Brehon's fee . Anglicé allayéag,' O'Don. Suppl. ni uil aile déc dosomh ┐ atá éiric a gubreite fairsium, O'D. 536 ( H 3.17, 432 ). da tecarthar ni da folaid cruid on breithemain, no ailedec, Laws i 234.17 Comm. diablad na aile dec, 234.18 Comm. no co thormaigi fa geall co roib aile dec, v 252.20 Comm. log a breithemnuis, aile dec, 212.22 Comm. Perh. also in: ni bhía an oile dēgsi am díaigh / nach foighe Ó Bríain d'éicsi úaim, IGT Decl. ex. 216 . barr na ngēg uile re n-idnaibh / uile dég gun fidhbaidh ortt (lochtach), ex. 225 . Cf. Kl. enair for dardain ail uathaid fuirre `the second day of the moon thereon', RC xviii 176.27 (Tig.). 284.2 . For ail dec 35.9 Stokes suggests reading ail uathaid.

B. The form ALAILE etc.

I As adj.

(a) other: aliud pronomen . i. is allail (recte alaill, edd.) pronomen , Sg. 209b10 . cenn cridi ┐ alaaili réta `and other things', 111b5 . sech alaili dliged ┐ indliuchtu `apart from other sayings and meanings', Ml. 18c11 . imtech[t] Boinde . . . ┐ alanaile n-aband, AU i 308. 11 , cf. 330.4 , 374.4 . In later lang. neut. form somet. used after noun irrespective of gender: leth in moige . . . al-leth allaill, RC xi 446.52 . don taeb araill, Stair Erc. 782 . isin luing araill, Grail 2969 . isind láim anaill, TBC-LL¹ 1719 . Note also: adhaigh n-aill n-aile another night, BNnÉ 324 § 38 .

(b) Usually some, a certain (gl. quidam, aliquis): hualailiu chlausul gl. uelut in clausula, Ml. 40d17 . holailiu lon gl. quodam adipe, 80a2 . ainm alaili thríuin `name of a certain hero', Sg. 96a4 . alaill ṡain, 6b24 . hualailiu mud gl. quodammodo, 25b12 . con alailiu fogoir (leg. fogur, edd.) gl. aliquo `with some sound', 39a2 . alaili tain gl. quando, 222b1a . ac gūmāidim ala naile nairec ninganta falsely boasting of various wonderful inventions, Corm. Y 825 . cornan alaili cuislendach, `a certain piper Cornan', Mon. Tall. 131.23 (§ 10) . alaili fáith marb, Trip.² 1395 . di araile anmcharait, ACL iii 5.3 . aroile fer angid, PH 818 . doní . . . araile gaitt irisech `she commits a certain pious theft', BColm. 84.10 . i n-araile domnuch, ZCP iii 33.15 . ro indsaig araile carruic . . . ┐ ros buail, Grail 1435 . in araile locc i lLaighis `at a certain place', AFM ii 1066.3 . Cf. co aroile mainistir ecin, RC x 187.4 .

n II As subst.

(a) another, the other: ni ferr nech alailiu, Wb. 2a16 . ni áir do neuch molad alaili, 16a24 . is coitchen do cechtar de ainm alaili `the name of each is common to both', Ml. 14d12 . intí diib bes tresa orcaid alaile, Ml. 19d6 . tar cenn alanaile gl. aliorumuice, 95d9 . Sg. 201b15 . cenmathá dobrethir ┐ alaaili `except the adverb and other (parts of speech)', 71b17 . muidit secht catha ren Osseirgé for na Déise . . . asberat araile is tricha cath others say, Ériu iii 138.102 . in foirend is craibdige araile `the folk who are more believing than the rest', PH 6363 . coná baí aithgne neich sech alaile díb, TBFr. 271 . cach gabal tra issuidiu araile hisesam `every other division is sung sitting, the next standing', Mon. Tall. 140.4 (§ 31) . gach clas ro claideadh do línadh do arbaim alaill do imbim the furrows to be filled alternately with corn and butter, Laws iv 98.14 Comm. drécht diib i nAidniu, araill diib oc Dubcechair, ZCP viii 305.30 . Hence alaile . . . alaile etc. (the) one . . . the other, another: biit alaili and rofinnatar a pecte rosíu (sic) docói grád forru alaili is iarum . . ., Wb. 29a28 . alaaili diib hi remthechtas . . . alaaili dano it coitchena eter remthechtas, Sg. 215a1 . Later araill . . . de is used of all genders: comérgit Ulaid araill díb . . . araill, LU 5017 . Cf. a dá grúad . . . co ndeirgi fola laíg ┐ araill eile co solusgili sneachta, BDD² 38 . Also when first part of phrase contains ind ala (infra).

(b) With idea of mutual action each other: con rochra cách a.¤ lit. that each may love the other (= that all may love each other), Wb. 6d1 . rosbennach cách dib elathain aroile, Fél. 4.20 . Eogan . . .┐ Oed . . . do marbad aroili, Ann. Conn. 1340.12 . ar bruinnib ┐ ochtaip aroile ┐ a chēile, Fl. Earls, 80.17 . Frequ. with prepp.: combad imned for araill domsa so that it should be trouble upon trouble for me, Wb. 23b21 . Cf. in peccath for arele, 9c19 . is ball cách dialailiu, 5d4 . ar a ndig cechtar dīb sech anaile (araile v.l.) so that they can get past each other (of two chariots), Corm. Y 1082 (96.11) . ni dernai nechtar n-ai olc fri araili, TBFr. 24.3 = fria chéile, 420 . ón tráth co roili, BDD² 1251 . lán ón orsain go ar-oile / an teach . . ., DDána 85.37 . casmhail a rún dá-roile, 92.6 . an ro loitseat Goill ┐ Geraltaig imo roile (roile) isan tansa `the injuries mutually done upon each other', AFM v 1734.15 . dīss derbrāthor dieroile `two . . . brothers', Fl. Earls 124.1 . ?asrean a ceile agh fo laill do `his neighbour shall give him another calf', Laws iv 102.14 Comm.

(c) somebody, something; a certain person or thing . In sg.: araill tra cairigedarsom there is a certain thing (?) (`there are other things now which he blames'), Wb. 25b9 . So also: [con]-secha alaill indib (`he corrects another thing in them'), 26c1 . aroile do lāmhoip S. Niclās `one of the hands', Fl. Earls 80.20 . ba ingnad liasna Fomoire alaill tarfas doib isin cath a certain thing, RC xii 92 § 122 . atpert aroile fris `a certain man', Stair Erc. 1449 . Note also: ara ara bélaib isin charput sin araile forseng fánfota forbrec a charioteer in front of him . . . and he was, LU 9274 . In pl.: is sí cétbaid alanaile `this is the opinion of some', Ml. 36a1 . circunflex la grecu for alailib diib, Sg. 208b8 . With DI: araill d'feraib Midi `some of the men of M.', RC xviii 23.31 . do deachaidh fein cona mac . . . ┐ ar oile dia mhuintir innte, Leb. Gab.(i) 242.26 . d'foraithmet araill dona neithibh remraiti, 272.6 . araill d'áes na cemenn sin, CCath. 86 .

(d) As adv. (d s n.) arailiu `otherwise', Wb. 21a13 (introducing an alternative explanation); cf. alailiu chruth gl. aliter, Ml. 98d1 . alailiu, Wb. 9a23 (see Bergin, Ériu xiv 29 ; xvii 1; Pedersen, Ériu xv 188 ). alaile, Anecd. iii 59.2 . araili .i. gne eile, Laws iv 68.3 . Perh. also in TBC-I¹ 1044 , TBC-LL¹ 1833 ff. (reading ... cadān co leith. Allaile (alailiu LU) dia tonda etc.) .

C. The form (a)la, al(l).

I As adj.

(a) other, one of two, second (in this use a `compositional prefix', GOI § 394 ): all-aidchi on another night, IT ii2 194.21 . alachéill in sin, ZCP viii 313.29 . Morc .i. ala flaith na Fomoire, Leb. Gab.(i) 80.30 . béra cend ríg alathúaithi lat, BDD² 727 . fria lesa alabrugh of other territories, O'Curry 454 ( H 3.18, 242a ). rogrād fir alathīre 'great love of a man of another land', Ériu ii 15 § 2 . ? nach for ala thire tí tarrassais 'that you did not abide upon the surface of another land', PMLA lvi 940 ( LL 37013 ). li ala lécuinn Saul `by one of S.'s cheeks', Ml. 55c1 . ala n-or di i teg, a n-aill fri sīn, Corm. Y 35 (aurso). ala thred dub alaili find, Anecd. i 57 § 58 . tēora blaī būirig . . . blaī mescae . . . alablaī dúnaid la túatha téchtai tecraiter the second exemption, ZCP xi 83.1 . cath Ocha alachath `the second battle', RC xiii 54.10 . ala-chor second contract, Laws ii 274.z . mád ala feacht iar mbrethaib forru `for the second time', 66.16 . See also under compds. and 1 al. See also under allabrig.

(b) With article ind ala one of two, (the) one (. . . the other) (see also B II (a) supra): dotóeth indala fiacail airthir a chinn `one of the two teeth', Thes. ii 248.9 . arambé indala rann cen diall `that one of the two parts be undeclined', Sg. 74b6 . ind ala c. gl. praetermisit unam c (i.e. by writing hoc for hocc), 205b5 . co lluid tré scíath n-ete indala heóin one of the two birds, LU 3282 ( SCC § 7 ). doroigu ind ala fer . . . et romiscsigestar alaile, Wb. 4c16 . is léir dorigni indala lestar is dínnimu dongní alaill, 4c32-33 . ni coir dídnad dondala lucht et troscud dond lucht ailiu, 16c20 . īadais andala (indara, LU) sūil . . . asoilg alaile, TBC-I¹ 394 . benaid . . . Mac Cecht a chend dondala fir . . . ro boí in fer aile oc élúd, LU 7942 . Loch nE. dindala leith di ┐ Slíab C. dind leith ailiu, Trip.² 1957 . Later indara: indara láim dó fri ubull bragat in chon. dobeir araile fria chúl one of his hands, LU 5012 . indara fecht . . . canait ceol . . . in fecht n-aill contúaset fri ceól muintire nime, 1978 ( FA 5 ). is hé indara fer . . . ró an . . . Donnmal int aili, Trip.² 1521 .

(c) ind ala the second (cf. tánaiste): cengsat siar dind ara chur `for the second time', Metr. Dinds. iii 4.33 . isin dara cét lá deidenach don ré `on the second last day of the term', Laws iv 136.1 Comm. Hence in compd. numerals: ala rann deac `one twelfth', Thes. ii 13.29 (BCr.). issed indala nainmm déc the twelfth name, Thr. Ir. Gl. 25.9 = indara hainm, Corm. Y 750 . indala descipul lxx at the seventy-second disciple, Laws i 20.2 Comm. fir errainne co alasét sesed with sixty-two `séts' ZCP xii 361.21 . ?torad cach trethain ala cairrge, Laws v 484.2 (Comm. takes as all beyond). Cf. co treathan ala cairge no ala caire, O'Curry 20 ( H 3.18, 9a ).

(d) cach (a)la every other, every second: cach la céin . . . in céin naili sometimes . . . sometimes, Ml. 19b1, 3 . cachlacein `alternately', Mon. Tall. 146.29 (§ 52) . is i fescur cachlacēin / dlegar dīdnad dōib they are entitled to a meal on alternate days at vesper-time (of fasting regulations), ZCP xiii 29.14 . cach la sel dún for imrádud dé in sel aile for precept `at one time meditating on God, at another time preaching', Wb. 15d9 . ammarbad cach la sel iarum do a mbeogud indtale dia marbad `he continues alternately to mortify and revive them from their dying state', Mon. Tall. 147.16 (§ 52) . bó cona timthuch cech la blíadnai . . . colp[d]ach ḟirenn lee in mblíadnai n-aili every second year, Críth G. 266 . cach alablīa[dain] every second year, Corm. Y 1082 ( Anecd. iv 96.16 ). cach ara bliadain, Laws iv 140.29 Comm. druinech cechla bean / crecōir cechla fer, ZCP ix 170.17 . ate cuir treineacha la Feine cach la fear dia urgaire, alaili dia forngaire, Laws iv 54.13 . gach re n-am alternately, Dán Dé v 41 .

II n As subst. indala n-aí (invariable) one of the two: is dochu ind ala nái oldaas a n-aill, Wb. 4b24 . togu ind ala n-ái . . . damnad alaili `to choose one of the twain . . . to condem the other', 4c13 . ci atbela ind ala n-ái ni epil alaill, Sg. 30a3 . ind ala n-aí antúaid alaile andess, 67b22 . co n-accai in da mnaí . . . indala n-ai brat úaine impe alaili brat corcra, LU 3285 ( SCC § 8 ). elcuig indalanae, ruibidh alailiu, ZCP viii 105.11 . da fítt . . . inddala hí do tabirt do Día . . . araile do tomailt fadein, Mon. Tall. 161.10 (§ 80) . Later also ala (n-)aí: ar lēicse ala aí di arailiu, ZCP xv 316 § 10 . ni frith ala ai do thacru, 354 § 42 . dá [n]dorus [n]-and—comla[e] ar ala n-aí, clíath ar alailiu, Críth G. 101 . bōthar, talla dā boin fair .i. alanāi for fot alaile for tarsnae, Corm. Y 1082 ( Anecd. iv 96.17 ).

COMPDS. cosnamach fri hailecricha, Ériu viii 173.28 . i n-ailithír, Trip.² 2033 . asna hailithírib foreign countries, TTr.² 1747 (cf. ailithir). aile máthair, Sg. 152a2 (not treated as compd. by GOI § 394 . Perh. infl. by the Lat. altera mater). See also C I (a) above.

áilsed

Cite this: eDIL s.v. áilsed or dil.ie/1069

n neglect, negligence: ní rop á.¤ (: tháinsem), Fél. Ep. 522 . ní hadlicgi álsidi. a ḟasnís do ócaib Ulad, LL 11488 ( TBC-LL¹ 4768 ) = ni hadlaic ailseda. Aisnes d'ocaib Uladh, TBC St. 4012 (? read ni hadlaic a.¤ a aisnes, ed.). á.¤ (ailsi, v.l.) nadma i.e. neglect of the `naidm' 's duty to levy execution against the defaulting principal, Críth G. 305 and p. 101 ; Bürgschaft p. 60 f. tobhach gin aillsi . . . ┐ dia nderna aillsi tobhaich is tri seoit fair, O'D. 573 ( H 3.17, 442 ). trí seoit air i nailsed tobaigh, 1689 (H. 5.15, p. 30b). letrait gach an (aon, v.l.) doberait aillsedh fora leas, O'Dav. 1542 (cf. O'D. 2228 , Nero A vii 153a). cen eislis .i. cin ailsead lesa na flatha, Laws ii 268.24 Comm. cen ni [i]mgona acht ni ailse na dindruide .i. cen co derna imgoin he acht na raibh a nailsiudh imgona, iii 54.4, 56.11 Comm. cona boi dic[h]ell no ailsec[h]t (leg. ailsed) ic slógh dibh, CCath. 5543 . aillsi .i. faillige, O'Cl.

áilsedaid, áilsid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. áilsedaid, áilsid or dil.ie/1071
Last Revised: 2019

v (áilsed) neglects: do ailsedhmar (ro eislemar v.l.) in cath don [d]ula sin, Acall. 758 . dicheall cach nesles .i. is drochciall don chintach ro ailsistur a fine tar a cheand, O'D. 128 ( H 3.17, c. 107 ) = is drochciall don ti do ni ailsi lesa elo do leca in cintaidh, Laws i 286.33 Comm. ceni imgona acht ní áilsea nád inruidea 'even if he is not an armed participant in a blood-feud, that at least he does not disregard [it] and does not harm [it]', CB 40 § 59 .

airchoimted

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airchoimted or dil.ie/1736
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: airchoitmed

vn. of ar-coimtimm, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 512 . Later also airchoitmed. act of excusing, excuse: ni tellfea doib irchoimted in hora iudicii , Wb. 26a23 . inn erchoimded gl. apologiam, Tur. 82 . ní damdatar erchoimded they suffered (i.e. would take) no excuse, Trip.² 2383 . cid ara cuirther do trise ina lesa so? co tardad neach [cach] urcomded de, Laws i 236.10 . d'erchuitmed a chinad le[s]-sium = quasi excusationem habeat, PH 5165 . robói . . . oc erchoitmiud (erchoitmedmiud, MS.) na tánaic . . . ar ro boi a tromgalar, TTr.² 809 . Erchoitmed ingine Gulidi, title of a story, Hib. Min. p. 65 . ier ttabairt a choipsen go huilidhi gan urchuidmedh fon doman, Fl. Earls 154.22 . As comic n.pr.: frisrogart Aurchuitmhe (Aurchoimned v.l.) mac Sodethbir . . . co n-erbuirt sidhe ac urchuitmhe (aurcomdet, aurchuidbeth v.ll.) assa leith, Anecd. ii 68.2 . ? ag urchuitmhe (oc aurchoim, oca hurcoim v.l.) ar Themraig, 53.z. urchuidmheadh .i. diúltadh no leithsgéal, O'Cl. Cf. auráin .i. aurcomndeth, O'Curry 123 ( H 3.18, 75a ). tícht co P. do erchoitmed fris to make excuses for him to P., Trip.² 2173 . ba h-irchuitbed fri foigdech 'making excuses to a beggar', MacCongl.² 27.854 = aerchuidmeadh fri foigeach, BB 66b37 = airchisecht fri f., Triads 83 . bai . . . B. . . . ic erchoitmhedh frisna cléirchibh expostulating with, Lism. L. p. 224 n. 2 . ? aurcoimde . . . im biadh, ┐ cidh adhaltras no techt for coibdelaigh do cach aon chena is inann ┐ in teisinnracas mbreithre, O'Curry 1947 ( 23 Q 6, 50 b ). cethardha foloing imarbas . . . slatratu ┐ urcoimded, Laws iii 92.12 . ? cedfaidh cach nurcoimdedh uadha som, iv 356. 18, 21 .

3 airer

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 3 airer or dil.ie/1932

Forms: areir, a.

n Apparently o, but n s. also areir, etc. Some kind of fine apparently equal in value to one-seventh of a person's honour-price (eneclann) except in the case of kings. See Ir. Recht p. 15 . ZCP xv 247 . cia roig dire ┐ areir (leg. arer or airer, ed.) ┐ enecland? Saigid dire co .uii. cumala. Saigid areir co cumail, Ir. Recht 13 § 14 . x mba ┐ samaisce ata dó ina eneclann ┐ bo ┐ samaisce ata do ina a.¤ . . . uair sechtmad eneclainne ata do ina a.¤ , O'Curry 650 ( H 3.18, 314 ). seachtmad eneclainne a.¤ cach graid co gradh seachta ┐ cumal a.¤ seic; cumal a.¤ cach graidh o sin suas co ri cuicigh no Erenn ┐ di cumal cid do seic, 347 (192a). cisne lesa . . . tascnat treise . . . a.¤ .i. ar sechtmadh .i. la eneclann, what cases last for three days? . . . a case of a.¤ i.e. the seventh (of the `eneclann'), Laws i 230.25 , 232.27 Comm . E. . . . ro marbad ar cumuirce F. . . . ┐ righ cuicidh hé ┐ ro dligustur ocht cumala décc itir irar ┐ eneaclann ina sárughadh, 76.12 Comm. athgabail airir ni teit fuirri acht airir cob thri, co bo tri cach nai acht airir rig, dligid side secht cumala inna airir i.e. a king may distrain up to the amount of seven `cumals' for his a.¤ , ii 126.7 , Ir. Recht p. 15 n.l . brigter a.¤ erenar i cnocbeim col, Laws iii 536.16 . cia roich eneclann? Ro saich enech-gríss air i mbánbém, a.¤ i cnocbém, O'D. 903 ( H 3.17 c. 645 ). laneneclann don rig ┐ a.¤ isna híib so, O'Curry 459 ( H 3.18, 243b ). a.¤ enechruice compensation for causing `face-reddening' (insulting), ZCP xv 246 § 5 ( Laws ii 204 ). trian n-airir i tres n-aici `a third of the `a.¤' for the third fosterage', O'Dav. 137 . ni hictar dire na airiur na eneclann . . . oga.¤ i nogaltram, O'D. 1014 (H. 2.15, p. 17a). ní dligh airchindech aireir a manchu na dligh díre a ṡeoit, O'D. 990 ( H 3.17 col. 854 ). tabair da .vii. cumala dib do Conchobar i nairear, O'Curry 2089 (H. 4 22, p. 71b). a.¤ nairdbidh . . . .i. isi eiric ata don flaith ina [biadh] uasal . . . .i. eneclann, 443 ( H 3.18, 238b ). file nába fia thuaith taisilbhe, ni direnar dire na a.¤ na eneclann, Ériu xiii 17.24 .

apaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. apaid or dil.ie/3862
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: aptha

n (? ad + buith, see Greene, Celtica ii 339 ). Also aptha. act of harbouring an escaped criminal or allowing him to remain on one's land: mesir leptha ar leth, mesir aptha ar trian, Ériu xiii 41.31 `It seems that leptha and aptha denote degrees of responsibility for sheltering or otherwise aiding and abetting a tribeless man who has committed some offence, and that leptha denotes the graver and aptha the lighter responsibility', 230 ; cf. Comm. in Laws ii 178.z (on the words of the text o leaptha no aptha): cret is lepuid ar leith no is aptha ar trian do na deor[ad]uib ┐ do na murchuirthi[b], uair nocha nfuil fine aca budein? Isedh am is aptha ar trian doib, fine i nurruidh ar ataitt griun. Issedh is leptha ar leith imurro cach fine otha sin amach. mac huar . . . co n-oponar a lepaith ┐ a apuith, ZCP xiii 23.13 = O'Curry 57 (H 3.18, 20b), i.e. a son in respect of whom his father has given notice that he is not to be sheltered, Plummer MS notes (`so dass untersagt wird, ihm Lager oder Wohnung zu gewähren', Bürgschaft 11 ). ma ainfine robe ina gnais is lepa ┐ ma fine is apa; ar is apa la fine ┐ leba la hainfine. meiser lebtha ar leth, meiser aptha ar trian, O'Curry 2548 ( Eg. 88, 46(47)a ). cisne lesa dona ibh sen tascnat treise? . . . focra naptha, Laws i 230.z . .i. smacht biata do mic bithbinigh tar apadh, 234.2 Comm. Cf. O'Curry 808 ( H 3.18, 373b ): cumal focrai naptha .i. foccrai leptha la apuid. cisne tri biada na tuillead leaptha na hapta cidbe ro caithe? i.e. three kinds of refection which do not incur the fines for these two kinds of harbouring, Laws v 438.14 . apa sceo leaba faonan comlaithe coir these two kinds of harbouring are liable to similar adjustments(?), O'Curry 2531 ( Eg. 88 , 44(45)b ), where Plummer MS notes suggests reading comlaithre and translates `apa' and `leba' alike constitute conspiracy. direnar .i. nach duine direnar cin biid accradh inna apuidh no a lepaidh, 483 (H 3.18, 251). See also bánapaid, dergapaid.

athgabáil

Cite this: eDIL s.v. athgabáil or dil.ie/4770

Earlier -ál ā, f., vn. of ad-gaib.

(a) In legal sense of the process of recovery of debts, etc. by distraint. See the tracts in Laws i 64, ii 122 and the account in Laws i xlvi . Also in concr. sense of the goods so taken. For meanings with qualifying words see these. do cetir slict athgabala, heading of tract dealing with seizure, Laws i 64 . atait secht n-athgabala gabar la feine nacon toibget lesa cia ro nasaiter cia ro gaibtar . . . athgabul airach laisi mbi aithach fortha, etc., v 254.1 . atait secht sealba . . . na gaibter athgabail . . . ina teallach .i. noco dlegar athgabail . . . da techtugad, iv 6.6 , 14 Comm. gaibead imme .i. gabair a.¤ aire conderna ime `let a distress be made upon him', 128.19 Comm. apad ┐ troscadh do thabairt air, ┐ a.¤ da gabáil de iarsin (in the case of a person who cannot or will not perform the services of `fubu' and `rubu' for his land), 134.1 Comm. atait secht foruis . . . arachuille coir n-athgabala . . . otha suidiu dligi cach forus n-athgabala dia faithce fodesin i.e. there are seven illegal pounds for cattle . . . these apart anyone may detain them in their own green, v 266.19 . a.¤ ar fut distress after delay, i 208.19 Comm. contrasted with a.¤ tulla immediate distress, 24 Comm. athgabail toxail itir crichaib imdergaib, 74.x Comm. toxal .i. athgabāil ind fir fine do gabáil ō c[h]inaid in c[h]intaig, Corm. Y 788 . mad áil donti geibes in na.¤ daeine do gabail i nathgabail, O'D. 2271 ( Rawl. B 506, 23c ). más comdliged gabthar an athgabháil cid cindti na fiacha is aisic na athgabhála ┐ dilsi na fiacha the article taken in distraint, O'D. 915 (H 3.17, c. 652). apadh ┐ troscadh for in flaith ┐ aithgabail do gabhail don aithiuch fortha i.e. distress is accepted by the `aithech fortha' on behalf of the king, 908 (H 3.17, c. 648). daine di-neime[d] . . . no gabait som forru in athgabail do gabail um cinuig in rig, Laws v 254.x Comm. rucus slān fuaslaicthi di a.¤ . . . ba deithbir ar ba athgabāil gabtha fri indliged .i. nī acclaid fuatach na hathgabāla dina-daimth[er] dligid na cirtt i.e. the taking back of the article by the person distrained against, Thurn., ZCP xv 364 § 48 . rucus forus n-athgabāla i n-alachrīch I decided that it was lawful to impound beyond the territory, § 49.

(b) With similar meaning in less specialized texts: do-bádi [fingal] a greit ┐ a a.¤ pledge (`Pfand'), ZCP xi 85 § 38 . crō ō inn dano, is hēisidh[e] saighes fine ar urradhas ar ath-athgabāil (sic), Ériu i 214.27 . athgabhail .i. cró aighe, O'Cl. cía fuaitges in n-a.¤ `who seizes the pledge', Metr. Dinds. iii 212.30 and Corr. ní lamar la graifne in gáid / élud, aithne, a.¤ , 18.224 . di marc hi n-athgabāil in satisfaction, ZCP vii 305.14 .

(c) In phr. fo-ácaib a.¤ leaves, gives pledge, security (in compensation), leaves possessions: ni ḟaicfed dano a.¤ túath nó chenél lasa mairfide som the people by whom he should be slain would die destitute, RC viii 50.5 (`no folk by whom he would be slain would get reprisal', Stokes). ní ba mór itir faicebtha athgabāil `thou shalt not leave any great inheritance(?)', Ériu viii 157.y . nocon(on)faicebsa a.¤ latt intan immosceram, RC xiii 436 § 4 . So also: na ricfa a anim nem ┐ na biad a a.¤ i talmain he will leave no goods on earth, LL 354d8 . cen athgabail nime na talman ūadhibh should leave neither spiritual nor worldly inheritance (?), Cáin Ad. 31 . nambad iarfasti a chiniud la cách / ┐ nad mbíad a athgabail día chiniud co bráth that none should ask after his people and that he should leave no inheritance to his people, Trip.² 2515 .

(d) In phr. co n-a.¤ including , cen a.¤ excluding: na huile cneda . . . otha bas go banbeim go nathgabail an bais ┐ gin athgabail an banbeim, Laws iv 232.11 Comm. coruicce ard-airig .i. co nathgabail in airig aird, v 402.27 Comm. o ind in méoir co n-a.¤ maethan a n-imdha, Thr. Ir. Gl. 17.20 . in lin . . . airimther o dialt co bricht cona n-athghabhail diblinaib inclusive, Auraic. 904 . can athgabail Ṡlainge not including S., Fen. 46.1 .

(e) In general sense of plunder, booty: cloc ┐ salm do eclais geill do rígaib . . . aithgabáil do fennethaíb, LU 9787 . do thabairt braite ┐ athgabala esti, TTr.² 386 . coblach do thecht . . . ┐ a.¤ do thabairt uadib coro[b] buide leo assec E. dar éis na hathgabala to take spoil from them, LL 229a47 ( TTr. 898 ). athgabhail .i. creach, O'Cl.

(I) act of receiving again: nách éidir an baistteadh . . . d'athghabháil one cannot receive baptism a second time, Desid. 4960 .

2 bolg

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 bolg or dil.ie/6348
Last Revised: 2013

ā f.

balg (an tsrotha) f. (bolg balg an tṡréin ┐ an tṡrotha ┐ an easa ┐ an iomhuis do baininnsgne, v.l.), , IGT Decl. § 39 (91.17) . b.¤ ā, f., § 158 . Occas. m. in Class. verse, Ériu xl 181 .

(a) bubble : b.¤ uisce, Corm. 6. na (= ina) builg nó na dluim uisque, O'Dav. 259. ina mbolcaib corcardaib like crimson bubbles, Dinds. 59. da builg uaine inte i n-inber (sic leg.) Sabrainde (one of the wonders of the Island of Britain), Todd Nenn. 114.5 . LBretnach 77.1 . ó bholgaibh tonn `from the heaving billows' (Gloss.), Measgra D. 48.39 . Fig. a bh.¤ fichigh fionnṡroth dtréan (to a prince), DDána 92.45 .

(b) blister : `fearb' as ainm . . . do bhoilg can imshnim, Metr. Gl. 4.15 . arnaib bolcaib . . . .i. bolca finda són astoitis for corpaib innan doine gl. pro uesicis candentibus, Ml. 99a4 . co ro imfuilngiter na bolga for a gruaidib iar mbreith na claenbreth, Laws iv 16.6 Comm. leos .i. imdergad no leos (.i. lesa, v.l.) .i. bolga . . ., O'Dav. 1154. Cf. compds. infra. na drúith ┐ na glámma . . . go tócbaitís teora bolga bar a agid, TBC-LL¹ 3019. no ássad bolgg corcra assa etun . . . co n-aprad-som fri Conchobar: Mebais din boilgg innocht a Ch. (Bricriu), TBC-LL¹ p. 892 n.4 . b.¤ na dhíaigh ar míonb[h]un meóir (a colt), Bard. Synt. Tr. 21.y . Note also: bradán as gach bailg don iuchraidh ` roe-corn ' (Gloss.), Measgra D. 61.13 .

(c) berry; bud : bolco . . . meit chend daini, Anecd. i 69 § 168 (ICM). araill dina bolgaib pods, ZCP xxx 137.39 (Alex.). tibit fidraid .i. bolga in blatha `buds (?),' RC xxvi 32 § 152 and 33 n. 10 . cainnle na mbalg mbuan `the stalks that bear the constant pods', SG 245.41 . Various: b.¤ belc(h)e see belc(h)e. co curtar a mbolga for na srothaibh `husks' (of hazel nuts), IT iii 195 § 35. seólaidh bhar mbolcca corra / go borraibh loma Lochlann `hulls', Duan. F. i xxix 3 .

(d) boss, ball : bopulsciath . . . cona deich findbolggaib fichet findruine, LL 24892. sréin delinecha friu .i. bolga dergóir isindara liniu ┐ bolga airgit . . . isin líne aile, TFerbe 12 , 13 . go gcloich buabhaill, go mbuilg sréin, DDána 119.29 .

Compds. (belonging both to 1 bolg and 2 bolg)

(a) With nouns: tar bolgonfad . . . blāithche `swelling . . . waves', MacCongl. 85.18 = tar bocanfad, 119.37 . iar mbolc-bráen `after heavy showers', Stud. Hib. iv 74 § 77. bolgdéra móra fola, LL 13823. boilgléasa ` blisters ', Keat. iii 516 . bolg-medón `paunchy belly', Metr. Dinds. iv 140.1 . do forlionadh a bulgphocoide `pouch' (for gunpowder), Hugh Roe 172.14 . etir . . . bogha ┐ bolgṡaighid, RC xviii 182.9 (Tig.). brec[h]tar-breacad do bolg-semannaib . . . fuirri `of bulging rivets', CCath. 4723. fri gáith . . . n-errchaide im bolg-s[h]liss Márta swelling side, MacCongl. 63.9 . Nás na mboilgṡreabh mbinn, DDána 68.12 . it é . . . bolcsróin with distended nostrils (horses), BDD² 464.

(b) With adjj.: conid tarla bolgḟáen `so that he was cast prostrate', TBC-LL² 1648 . bliadain do Lorcan na long / diamair is bolclan a bharr, BB 56b33 (= bocban a band, LL 4332 ). bocnár (bolcnár, v.l.), LL 4292. cenéle dáileman: . . . bolcsrónach brocóiti, Triads 231 . belremur bolcsuilech with protruding eyes, LU 8516 ( FB 37 ). bolccṡuilech, CCath. 4736. See ferbolg, menbolg.

1 brága

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 brága or dil.ie/6482

Forms: brág(a)e, bráige, brághat, brágha, bráighi, brághaid, braiget

n earlier brág(a)e t. Also bráige. Later f. g s. na brághat , IGT Decl. § 11 (54.13) , see also forms brágha bráighi f. in IGT s.v. 2 brága. Later n s. brághaid, ZCP v 211.5 (Midn. Court).

I

(a) neck, throat, gullet: bráge gl. ceruix, Sg. 50a10 . braga .i. bir-āga. Āige ainm bir. Nō bara āig í ar menci airlig na bragad, Corm. Y 161. braighe no muinél, SG ii 473.43 . to choise hi nglas, to braghat hi slabraith, Bürgschaft 23.4 (cf. Ériu xix 71 § 35 ). Morund nícon ruc breth cin sin ima braghuit `without . . . a chain around his neck', Laws i 24.25 Comm. gaī trīat brāgit . . . ro-loitt . . . féthi do brāgat, Sc.M² 14. in chráeb . . . eter in ṁbrágit ┐ in n-agid, Fraech 202 . ba gilithir snechta oenaidchi a brági ┐ a chnes, TFerbe 44 . ór fo brāigtib, ZCP viii 302.28 . láma cáich dib dar brágait a céli, PH 1697. íar nglenamain cnáma bratan in a bragit when a salmon bone stuck in his throat, LU 4058. tachtad ar brágtib, 2426 . ron tart a b.¤ (: cána) his throat dried up, LL 21168. bat itadaigh na braichti (braigde, v.l.), CCath. 2579. geal a bhrāighdhe bán a b[h]onn, KMMisc. 362.3 . do-ratsat a lama tar braigit araile ┐ ro pocsat a cele, Grail 1094 . dod bhrághaid bháin, DDána 19.11 . an bhrágha dar bhean a glas the neck she (sc. Mary) freed from chains, 7.10 . atá do bhráighe mar thor ibhori, Cant. vii 4. dá nathair nimhe . . . timchioll a brághad, Mac Aingil 2732 .

Of animals, etc. fo brágit cech eich, Fraech 28 . im braigit na cethra, Laws i 142.13 Comm. i mbrágtib na n-ocht mbiast (of infernal monsters), LU 2156 ( FA 22 ). gabhus sí an mhuc ar bhrághaid `by the neck', Oss. vi 142.21 . ar fairsinge a bragat of its (a raven's) craw, O'Mulc. 122.

Fig. of persons: brágha chatha Choirrshléibhe `the vanguard of the troop of C.', O'Hara 1472. (of a warrior) brágha míonmhaicne Míleadh, DDána 73.36 .

Attrib. g s. huball braiget ` Adam's apple, thyroid cartilage ', Bretha 2A . Cf. ar mheall do bhrághad, Keat. Poems 1195. fri huball brāgad in chon, TBC-I¹ 524. cnocc bráget see cnocc. anagaidh . . . tuitim an tsine Ṡeaain ┐ na cat mbraghat quinsy (?), C IV 2, 30vb 17 (see Études Celt. iii 368 § 8 ). esbada brágat, see 1 esbaid.

Of other parts of the body: a cur a mbragaid an lésa neck of the bladder, O'Gr. Cat. 272.9. do chuir an cenn ele don cengal ima bhraighid `across his chest', Stair Erc. 1961. le himurcrachaib na sróna ┐ na bráighedh `of . . . the lungs— the chest' (Gloss.), Reg. San. 21 § ix . ra tescfaitis lim-sa bráigte fer for bráigte fer `trunks of men', TBC-LL² 4708 . (in rhet.) crennait brain braigte fer, 4603 . Hence by metonymy body, person; life (?). In legal contexts: a feronn ria na braighid, a braigh fa deoigh `his land (is forfeited) before his neck, his neck last', Laws iv 264.14 . Cf. a ferunn re na braighe `before his person' (of the order in which distraint is levied upon a debtor), ii 40.25 Comm. co tuctar [a lan] log a mbraigit doib dar a cenn (of selling misbegotten children), iii 540.21 Comm. tri .xx. unga do or . . . ┐ lan logh braghad in treas oeitire `full compensation for the life of', AU i 560.13 .

(b) Extended applications: gabul fo brāigit neck (of a spear), Fing. R. 1011. a dhā c[h]raīsigh . . . co m[b]unc[h]oraib óir deirg im a bhráighdib, ML² 1485. darsin mbragait `over the neck' (of a harp), Lism. L. xiv 32 . braigit na linne millrace , Todd Nenn. 200.5 . (of a sea strait) isin mbráighit cumaing bui eiter in cuan ┐ in fairrgi, CCath. 1379. as don fhocal ēns[h]iolla sin goirthear `bráighe' i.e. the monosyll. at the end of even lines in metre sédna, Graim. 3638. In nn. loc. see Hog. Onom. s. braig- , bragad , bragaid .

II In prepositional phrases. fo braigit na Samhna `at the approach of', ALC ii 134.6 . fa bhrághaid Mhathghamhna in the presence of M., PCT 642. suidhe i dTeamhraigh 'na rígh fa bhrághaid Néill supplanting N. as king, Keat. ii 6263. do thogair D. an mac do b'óige don dís teacht fá bhrághaid a dhearbhráthar, 2841 . foesamh graid flatha tar braigit fini to the prejudice of (?), Laws iv 208. 25 Comm. manab tar braghait fine `against the will of', 288.21 Comm. gerruis clann R. an tslighe tar bhrághuid clann I. `made their way in front of . . .', Rel. Celt. ii 200.28 . tucastar . . . ceithri coisceimenda dochum araile tar braigit na sleg past, Acall. 4734.

In phr. gaibid for (ar) brágait takes prisoner or captive (? lit. by the neck, cf. 2 brága): gabaid [Ísu Críst] for bragaid Sattan, PH 3925. gabais ar braigtib eat uile `took them all prisoners', RC ix 16 § 6.

Compds. With adjj. Eochaid gunnat .i. Eochaid bragfhada, SG ii 473.42 . an gruaidhghil bind brágaitghil, Ériu iv 214.8 . As subst. an bhraighidgheal `the fair-breasted lady', O'Rah. 224.23.

cáe

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cáe or dil.ie/7569

Forms: caí, coí, cue, cua, caí, coí, cuí, cua, cúadh, cæiti, cæthi

n later also caí, coí. f. g s. cue, cua, Críth G. 237 and v.l. a d s. (in early texts) caí, coí, cuí see infra. Later also cua, ZCP iii 378.13 . g s. cúadh, H 3.18, 649b34 . n p. cæiti, TTebe 1749 , a p. cæthi, 2365 (see Gloss.).

(a) Name of a social institution according to which a member of the noble grades had the right to bring a party with him on a night's coshering visit to each of his servile clients. The number of his party was in direct ratio to the number of his clients. The season of coshering visits was between New Year's Day and Shrovetide, hence phr. aimser chue frequ. glossed geimred. See Binchy, Féil. Mhic Néill 18 ff. and Críth G. p. 81 . dí loairgg direna(i)tar séot mad ráithiu chue (chua, v.l.) leth íarm(o)ithá if it be in the coshering season (i.e. winter), Críth G. 237 . fri lesa fri cui dorōnad (a road), Corm. Y 1082 . iní do berar itir da chae 'na foiridhin .i. itir callainn ┐ init, O'D. 520 ( H 3.17, 423 ). adbeba (arbeba, v.l.) cach a choí (a gcae geimridh, v.l.) .i. epelaid o chach a choe gaimraid .i. a chuaird gemrid for a doercheli .i. for a doérbiatachu each one will lose his coshering season, RC xxvi 38 § 200 and note. co tarta . . . .iiii. sect cumel dō nādnaurthet rath nā cuí, ZCP viii 316.23 . cartad raite . . . .i. i n-aimsir cua . . . .i. an aimsir cuae no aimsir coctha, Laws i 128.7 Comm. denum slige .i. i n-aimsir cua, 158.27 Comm. caithge raite . . . .i. an aimsir cua ┐ aenaigh, iv 144.24 Comm. i n-aimsir chuadh . . . .i. gemred, H 3.18, 649b34 . dámh cháe (compd.) na ngradh filleadh so sios (title of a tract), Ériu xiii 51.27 . In concrete sense of the food provided: creic aige carrnu ina tech curuice forcruid cuad, Laws v 284.y `the purchase of joints of meat for his house up to (= excluding) an excessive amount for a coshering feast i.e. he may purchase sufficient meat to enable him to entertain his lord and party when they come to his house on a coshering party but no more', Féil. Mhic Néill 21 . tinol cua (tinol cue .i. bid, v.l.), Stud. in E. Ir. Law 23.5 `collection of food for a coshering', Féil. Mhic Néill 21 . cai .i. fleadh, H 3.18, 211.18 . cuádh .i. feóil ┐ deismirecht air: muc co n-úir .i. i n-aimsir chúadh, 649b33 . ? taccad .i. tī-cāid . . . .i. ar tī chūad atā, Corm. Y 1250 . cuadh .i. coga[d], ut est ni tard biadh i (a, v.l.) cuad do, O'Dav. 578 ( tharda, Ériu xiii 81 § 281 ). Prob. also digeni ierum cai (cauin, v.l.) (.i. fritailim) in righ, ZCP iii 243.14 . In B. na f.: saoghlonn rosmacht cai (.i. fleadh) na trūagh, ZCP v 486 § 8 . līth do pauper ┐ cai (.i. fled), § 7 . seathnach ētig is tearc cūadh (.i. feoil), 484 § 6 ( cua, iii 378.13 ).

Frequ. in phrase for (ar) coí on a coshering visit : aire désa . . . deich lánamna[i] a chórus for coí (cae, cuí, v.ll.) ó challainn co hinit, Críth G. 335 . trícha lánamna[e] a chórus for coí o challainn co hinit ar is a lín bíata bís lín for coí, 400 `the number on `c.¤' is according to the number of persons paying food-rent', Féil. Mhic Néill 20 . aimsir chūa (chue v.l., Corm. Bodl. 38 ), aimsir chochtae . . . it hē achuis ar a nglanaiter .i. arnā hēilnet a cairpthiu oc dul for cāi that they may not soil their chariots going on a coshering visit (of roads), Corm. Y 1082 . dámha for cáe so síos (title of a tract), Ériu xiii 51.7 . cach aire dis dib .xvi. aire for cui dib, Irish Texts i 19 § 4 . ni uil aireamh daimhe for cae do rigaibh, O'Curry 1853 ( 23 Q 6, 51b ) `there is no limit to a king's suite on a coshering', Féil. Mhic Néill 20 note 5 . for fecht feili, for cai cuir., Auraic. 2221 . ochtur for caei, 2225 . coicer cae, cethrar gnathless, 2238 . Fig. scuchais in fer cerdda ar cāe / . . . / riasin aīgid co rath Dé died(?), Corp. Gen. 317.12 .

(b) way, path (orig. meaning?): cāi .i. conair, Corm. Y 364 . LU 568 (ACC Comm.). conar .i. cen fēr. nó coi en-fir, O'Mulc. 239 . cae .i. conair, Lec. Gl. 223 . cái .i. conair, Metr. Gl. 3.14 . cai no caoi .i. slighe no conair, O'Cl. ar na faghbaidís . . . cai na conair éludha docum in mara, CCath. 1380 . nir lensat cái na conair, Mer. Uil. 207 . 'na rói-rith gidh leonuighthe a céim 'san chaoi, Keat. Poems 119 . for (ar) c.¤ on the road, on a journey: gilidir a chness ra hael / ar óen co tiagmais ar cae may we travel together, LL 6394 ( MS. Mat. 480 ). im Báre im Raibne ro baí / tri .c. allmarach ar caí, 28694 . canmais dord ar ndul ar cae, Manners and Customs iii 378.z . ar cae uar conairi ac techt in turisa `on the course of your way', TTebe 2181 . conrecat for óenchái (enchoi, oenchói, aenchae, v.ll.) together, Fél. June 10 . ni rucfaider ind imirgi se for óenchoí, LU 5395 (TBC). cia beit fir Érenn occa décsin for oenchoí, Airne F. 173 . for óenchoí ind iatha gl. for unce n-etha, LL 24547 ( RC xxvi 28 ).

(c) way, manner, course, means : coí hi fil in tríchoit cét isin tig, ní ermadair nech díb a suidi the way the `t.c.¤' are in the house, BDD² 1375 . cen choe astuda a tét, RC xx 164 § 20 (ACC. Gloss on crot cen cheis), cf. dia mba coi astuda no dia mbo gae ḟostuda, 176 § 41 (ib. Gloss on dia mba goiste). cae da danic chuici int [s]leg, TTebe 3297 . iar cae coir, Laws i 212.20 Comm. ii 214.16 Comm. in cae is coitechta do, iv 128.20 Comm. dorala ... ar cáe (cai, v.l.) meraigthi, TTebe 4650 . a hoenbennach for cai gnáith, LL 16200 ( for coe, Rawl. 77b40 ). ní lánléir aithnim an marbh a caoi dhuine, Hackett² xviii 7 . bail no caoi chneasta do chor ar éin-ní, TSh. 5118 . tiaghair ar chaoi chairdeasa, DDána 97.16 . créd an cháoi . . . arar thriall a ccláoi in what manner? RSClára 142 § 2 . creud é an chaoi no an tordughadh air ar cóir ... do dheunadh?, Donlevy 470.3 . ro chuir ... an cluithche . . . a g-caoi nach raibh ... acht aon bheart `so played the game ... that he had but one move', Oss. iii 144.10 . an tráth nach fúaradar cáoi ar a thabhairt asdeach, Luke v 19 . mo chaoise ó dhá thaoibh nó a trí / re Muire `I can approach Mary on several counts', Aithd. D. 100.9 . ar dtoil do tháth re toil nDé / ... a chaoi (of Christ's teaching), DDána 3.1 . dena mo comurle ... ┐ rod fōire um an caí sin a fuile question, problem (?) (caingin, v.l.), Grail 3190 .

(d) Also expld. in glossaries as house : cāi .i. tech . . unde dicitur cerdcha .i. tech cerda, Corm. Y 365 . cadan . . . .i. cāe a dūn nō a inad .i. adbai, 334 . ulchai .i. cāi (.i. tech) na hōili hī .i. tech, 1284 . ? cuithe ... i. cūa ┐ tē ut dicitur cūad cōi fid .i. fid cūa co cāe fās and, 338 . c.¤ is dáe ... da ainm tighe a mbia daoine, Metr. Gl. 30 § 54 . cai no ca .i. teach.¤ Dearbhadh airsin mar a deirthear creascha ris an teagh ina raibhe Muire oidhche gheine Iosa, O'Cl. sencas .i. sen cae fis na sen, tech fis na sen . . . ┐ deismirecht [ar] an ni is cae tech:— cer[d]chai, muillend etc., Laws i 32.10 Comm. engach sa caoi a mbíd mna (B. na f.) `in a house where women are', ZCP iii 378.10 (' san ca (.i. 'sa teaghd[h]ais), v 483 § 4 ). Cf. airchae, cerdchae, crescae, 2 lusca.

? seana-bho riabhach . . . nachar muchadh a ccae na a slugaire . . . `in bog hole', ITS xxx 16.24 . See Gloss.

1 cía

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cía or dil.ie/8965
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: cía, ci, cá, gá, cá, gá, cár, cá, cía, citné, cia, ciodh, cisne, cipé, cipé

interr. and indef. pron. Given in list of interrogatives, Laws v 6.1 ff. Comm. ; for forms permitted and prohibited in classical verse see IGT Introd. § 16 . See GOI §§ 456 - 460 , Strachan, Ériu i 6 ff. , Bergin, Ériu xii 205 ff.

A As interrogative.

I General form cía (ce, ci) (`unstressed or weakly stressed,' GOI § 456 ) without indication of gender. In later lang. freq. cá, gá (cf. gia, TBC-LL¹ 56 , giá, 730 etc.). who? what ? (in direct and indirect interrogation).

(a) With dependent verb (as conj. part. or in accordance with Bergin's Law). As subject of vb.: cia beir búar o thig Temrach who takes? LL 1566 . cía rét Brega?, LU 9306 . ? cia saig do rús Herind. . .?, LL 1787 . cía taisiu?, LU 6307 . cia bátar do bésa?, Tec. Corm. 7 . ní fitir R. cía-rraba / crích `whose was', Metr. Dinds. iv 4.45 . immoscoemorcuir ceptar hé, Corm. Bodl. 34.21 . As object: ce róich `how far . . . extends', Sg. 26a11 . cia roich eneclann?, Laws iii 536.1 . cia-roig dire? Ir. Recht 13 § 14 . cia fairneac?, Ériu xi 44.3 . cia acca whom didst thou see? LU 7135 . bec a ḟis duid cia do ordo, Anecd. i 7.5 ( do(o)rdo, SCano 198 `what I croon', Gloss.). So also in cíar(r)icc (separate article). Rarely cid in this use. Nom. cid dernad?, LL 251a18 . Accus. cid dernais?, LL 251a39 .

With inf. pron. usually cich-: cichib foruireth? . . . fon-roireth imned what has been caused to you? TBFr. 399 = ZCP iv 45.28 . cichib-roerad? what has been prepared for you (i.e. how have you fared?), IT iii 237.62 = cichib roér ol Bodb. Nin foruireth nammaith olse, LL 246b24 . mnā brataiter . . . cichi brata? cichi aig? cichi goin? who abducts them? TBC-I¹ 1081 (cicen, cíche, ciche, LU). ? ciche bárogell a regg / sonend ┐ dubdonend, LL 376a4 . Exceptionally: ar feisidh ciab dergeine `who has made you', Blathm. 91 § 6 . fir gontair, mnā brattar, bai agthar . . . cistabrata, cisdagata, cisdabeir? TBC-I¹ 2989 . See ZCP xxii 29 .

With copula: innaní asbertis cipad a déne ind hesséirgi `that used to say what would be the swiftness of the resurrection', Wb. 25b27 . conid fessed cia bed flaith inna diad, Ml. 89b7 . For cía ba chan see can.

Hence in various adverbial meanings. (b) how ? cia Ulto ána acca?, LL 13439 . cumma cīa-thōetsat imbi, Sc.M² 3 (`how', Gloss.). cía festa `how should ye know?' Metr. Dinds. iii 48.12 . cia ḟacci ar sluág?, TBC-LL¹ 223 . is cuma dó c.¤ eipli, Liad. and Cuir. 20.17 `how he dies', Contribb. 363 . With deut. form: cía dorochair Cróeb Dathi?, Metr. Dinds. iii 148.1 . Note also: cīa tairicc? Tairic hi cind teora mblīadna when? ZCP viii 312.29 .

(c) where ? In later lang. cá, gá (nasalizing), with narrative tense cár. cá `lochdach', IGT Introd. § 16 . Orig. with téit: ni fetatar cia deochaid where he went, LU 3329 ( SCC 12 ). nocon ḟess cia deochatar, LL 290a27 . With deut. form of vb. cia dochuatar ass? where did they go? TFerbe 565 . In later lang.: cá ngabhaid?, Oss. iii 232.5 . Keat. Poems 1545 . cá bhfaighion tú an raidhirc so?, ZCP v 215.419 . cā ndearnais do c[h]ēadc[h]reach?, Feis Tighe Chonáin 145 . cár ghabh, 490 . cá ar fríth é?, ZCP v 215.418 . carbh ail les dul, Stair Erc. 981 . With attá: ga ffuil maithe na Féine?, Duan. F. ii 322 § 15 (see iii 151). ga bhfuil suim . . . na naitheantadh `what is the abridgment?' Donlevy 52.22 . ro fhiarfaigh I. ca rabe A., Stair Erc. 25 . do f[h]iafraigdur dī cā raibhe sí whence she was, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1666 . Note also cia racha, ITS xvii 188.1526 etc.

(d) With fíu glossing Lat. quam, how (great, etc.): cia fíu .i. mór ní gl. quam admirabile, Ml. 17b12 - 13 . gl. quam (sollicite), 23a10 . ce fiu gl. quam maxime, Sg. 114a3 . See Dict. Fasc. fíu and compare cia fiú me bheith beó etc. how can I remain alive? ITS xvii 159.963 .

(e) With follg. noun (often as antecedent of rel. clause). With masc.: ciachruth gl. quomodo, Sg. 212a1 (see 1 cruth). cia dune ind inni-sseo gl. qualem . . . hominem, Ml. 35c33 . cia mod .i. imba do gres . . . `what measure', Ml. 100d4 . Perh. also in the follg.: dús cia port indib maith óigedacht `in what place', Wb. 26b24 . cia salmscribdid conicfed són `what psalmist?', Ml. 14a6 . amal nad finnatar sidi cia loc sainriud dia regtais, 99b10 . cia randdatu bis indi, Sg. 27a12 . cía cethrar? Rí ┐ brithem etc., Críth G. 536 . cia file ar secht ccumhaluibh dlighidh what poet . . .? Ériu xiii 18.4 . cia fot atúsa isin chotlud sa how long? LU 6359 . gá fad?, TSh. 1618 . ca sén dob ferr?, Ériu iv 224.13 . ca ræt in muirn . . . ar-at-cluineam?, TTebe 1901 (see crét). ca hinad?, LB 137b51 . gá cara don uile as fhearr?, A. Ó Dálaigh xv 5 . DDána 50.12 . gá fhios nach . . . (ḟ = bf?), O'Gr. Cat. 456.10 . gá chúis fá . . ., 12 . cár bh'iongnadh?, Hard. i 204 .

(f) With fem.: cia airm `what place', Wb. 12d18 (see cairm, cáit). ceseirc gl. quam caritatem habeam, 14d15 (differently GOI 289 ). ce meit gl. quanto, 33a1 . ce mét aimmser bes indi `what times may be in it', Sg. 25b16 . ce méit a[s] sinu aís quam A. `how much older', Wb. 34a5 . See méit. cia dú gl. quo, Ml. 40c7 . cia inni soas `how He turns', 123d8 (see note). cá huair díscáeilter in doman nó cá tráth thiucfus Dia?, RC xxiv 382.32 . ca delb rogabais? Ériu iv 104.15 . cia ben is mesa do mnáib?, ZCP viii 113.11 . cá slat is slimghile bas?, O'Gr. Cat. 332.27 . ga hobar dhíbh nach doiligh?, Studies 1921, 588 § 1 . gá breath rug féin ar an bhfear? Dán Dé xxv 16 .

(g) With neut.: cia eret mbete oc m'ingraimmim-se `how long?' Ml. 33a9 . cia airet bis micomus etc., Laws ii 186.6 . cia hairet, PH 1501 . See airet, cairet. anfis ca cinel aire nos beir etc., Laws i 188.6 Comm. cia forcenn doberthar foraib, Ml. 33a9 . na fetar . . . ca galar . . ro-t-básaig, CRR 3 . cia indas conaittechtatar a n-íc, Ml. 90b16 . décaid . . . a arm cia indas rundgabsat, 55c1 (see indas, cindas). cia leath reghma?, Anecd. i 2.9 ( SCano 25 ). cia tír, ZCP viii 318.33 .

(h) cía with follg. prep. and noun or pron. rendering oblique cases of Lat. pronn. (see GOI 228 - 229 ): cia ar neoch gl. ad quid, Sg. 217a5 . Cf. cia erneo gl. quam ob rem, Ml. 101a4 . ci erniu gl. quamobrem, 47b1 . cairhe biit, Sg. 242b1 leg. ciairneo = quamobrem, n . ciarrét gl. quamobrem, Ml. 48c2 . cide gl. de quo (cia de? cid de?), Sg. 3a9 . cia du neuch gl. ad quem . . .? Ml. 16a9 . cia dunaib hi do foirmsed gl. de quibus adderet? 35a17 . cia du forcunn gl. quem ad finem, 33a9 . cia du rét gl. cui rei? 121d1 . cia isnaib hí gl. in quibus, 49c13 . cia in n-erbirt ṁbiuth gl. in quem ussum, 46b28 . cia i n-olcaib gl. in quibus malis, 23b2 . ci onaibhi, gl. quibus, 47a10 . cio ainmnid dixnigidir gl. ex quo sit nominatiuo? Sg. 207b3 . ciofut gl. usque quo, Ml. 20a17 . 93a15 . ci ho fothaib són gl. quibus (dementiae facibus accensi sunt), 16b19 . ci o retaib gl. quibus rebus, 35c35 . gl. ex quibus rebus, 44d24 . cio thomus gl. qua libra etc., 55d16 . So also probably in later lang.: cia chuige a ndírighmid ar nurnuigh, Donlevy 364.16 . ca as a tangadar, Stair Erc. 1412 . casa ticit siat, Ir. Astr. Tr. 146.1 . Hence perh. in later phr. gá d'ulc what is the harm of? (see olc, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.z ). gá d'ulc bogur an bhása?, IGT Decl. ex. 758 . gá d'ulc mé gan mothugadh?, ex. 224 . gá d'ulc óigrí eslobar?, O'Gr. Cat. 470.9 . Cf. 2 cair. See Éigse xii 136 .

(i) In phrase cíadono why (then)? (see GOI 289 See further Éigse xii 136 .): ar cia dono gl. ut quid autem, Wb. 2d10 . hóre ro-n-ortigestar dia cedono tuidecht friss `why then?' 6a4 . ce dono rigne occo `what, then, is the good of prolixity in it?' 8d15 . cepu dono adrad dǽ do thabirt do Pool?, 7d16 . ciapu dono dún indarpe geinte `why should we then expel the Gentiles?' 19a14 . ? ēludh ann for romhuir / nícon fess cia dona, ZCP x 344.13 .

(j) In various constructions with adjj. In early legal texts with superl.: cia measom do cain ts.? `what is the worst of . . . ?' Laws ii 194.1 . cia dilsiumh d'ḟiledhoibh, Ériu xiii 31.2 . cía háithemh eó? acais dlighidh, etc., 25.6 . Prob. also: cia so do rinnibh etc. 20.30 = ciaso do ninnaib, O'Dav. 1289 . In later lang. in phrase gá beag is it not enough? ga beag mur ḟáth duilghis, IGT Decl. ex. 1057 . cá beag d'fhiadhnaise? Studies 1920, 97 § 2 . gárbh fhearr céim, 98 § 6 . gá bheag dhúinn dá dhearbhadh ort is it not proof enough for you? Content. vi 25 . Freq. with compar. in rhetorical questions. Cf. ga meisde ┐ ga c[h]an ┐ ca d'ulc, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.z . gá cruaidhe ceisd what more difficult question (is there)? DDána 12.1 . ga deacra ní do neithibh?, IGT Decl. ex. 938 . car doilge [le] inghin Taidg / éc Aodha aird . . . / inā d'Echtaigh a bás bróin / Corbmaic hūi Cuinn . . . , ZCP vi 269 § 4 . ca ferr duind ar mbeandacht do chur . . . go fer in liubair sea na a fágbail aigi?, LU 2769 (colophon). gá fearr m'áis-se ná m'aindeoin how is it better to get my consent than to constrain me? Dán Dé i 5 . ga feirdi me do m[healladh]?, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.2 . cá bud fherrde, PH 7582 . gá misde don cholainn chriadh / an t-anam d'faghbháil ilphian what harm? Dán Dé xxv 41 . m'uabar gá mó mínáire?, O'Gr. Cat. 346.33 . do Mhuire gár mhó guasocht?, Dán Dé xx 47 . Note also: cá minic do chionntaidh sé `how often', Donlevy 320.28 . an lícc dimor uccat fil forsan tulaigh, cía mó atá i ttalamh dhi na uása how much more of it is in the earth than above it? BNnÉ 8.16 .

II Inflected (`more fully stressed', GOI § 456 ) cía, cisí cid, citné etc. In classical verse the forms cia and ciodh are stressed, see DDána 12.1 , 58.35 . `cía, can, cúich . . . were in direct interrogation used with the copula *esti (cf. mod. Ir. cé h-é) . . . ', O'Brien, Féil. Mhic Néill 88 .

With indep. form of verb (a) cía m.: cia beraid doib a remeperthe `who will refer to them the aforesaid?' Ml. 37a9 (perh. transition from I(a) above). Usually with rel. clause: cía rédes ruind?, BDD² 294 etc. cia dib gebus t'forba?, RC xxiv 194.1 . cía de as sru[i]thiu?, Críth G. 492 . cīa nād cūala?, ZCP xi 109 § 7 . Prob. also in follg., where there is no mark of rel.: cia con-icc ní dúun?, Wb. 4b11 . cia folínfea? 12d14 . cia dobera íc do Sión?, Ml. 34d5 . dús cia atrebea isin chathraig `to learn who will dwell in the city', 35b24 . cia de dogega `which of them I shall choose', Wb. 23b33 . dús cīa díb do-ngegad, Sc.M² 19 . caidi bad ferr la hUltu, a mmarb nō a mbeo . . . ?, TBC-I¹ 681 (cia dé, LU). do fiarfaidh A. de cia dá cloind do beith etc., ZCP xi 128.34 . quis est horum qui vicit . . . .i. cia ro blaiss bethaid?, LL 281a32 . cia aca is rogha leat?, Hard. i 274.y .

(b) cid n. (rel. frequently marked): cid aem no-dom-bera-sa cucuibsi, Wb. 1a8 . cid atobaich cen dílgud cech ancridi `what impels you . . . ?', 9c20 . nícon fitir cid asbeir, 12c22 . ro fitid cid aridfuirig a foilsigud, 26a11 . dús cid forchomnacuir indi `to learn what hath happened therein', Ml. 16c5 . cid du-gén-sa osme `what shall I do, even I?', 30b9 . ní fintar cid attrebthar and `what is possessed there', Sg. 200b13 . niconfetadar cid fodruair `they . . . knew not what had caused it', Mon. Tall. 147.13 . asbert nicon feddur cid fil do sirgabail na biaide I do not understand your continual singing of the Beati, 127.2 . cid dogén?, ZCP viii 113.9 . cid tuccais ō Guaire what hast Thou got from G.? ACL iii 2.10 . With subst. vb. in nasalising rel. clause what ails, what is the matter with? see attá. With copula: nad fes cid as maith no as olc [do] denum, Ml. 51b7 . dober Dia aithesc cid as denti no cid as imgabthi, 51b8 . cid as dech do mnáib? what is the best type of wife? ZCP viii 113.5 . Note the variation in: na cóig guthaidhe, cía dhíobh as glan no as neamhghlan, no ciodh as cáol no as leathan da bfeadhuibh oireaghdha, ┐ créd atá na ndefhoghrachuibh etc., IGT Introd. 1.10 .

With nouns in sense who is? what is?

(c) m. cía (also occasionally with other genders, and regularly with ainm, see Ériu i 9 ): cia haes esca?, SR 7964 . cía méit in gill?, Críth G. 282 . cía [a] míad sidi?, 586 . cia th'ainmsiu?, LU 10774 . cía hainm? what's your name? BDD² 264 . cía hainm dá mnaí?, 365 . cia n-anmand what are their names? TFerbe 357 . cīa cétliaigh robūi ind-Ēirinn?, ZCP viii 105.12 . cía bar lín-se is[in] indsi-se?, Ériu iv. 142.21 . nī hētur cia hainm in maic aile, ZCP viii 293.24 . cia don teora crannsa an chroch, Dán Dé iii 27 . cia an monghar mór-sa?, DDána 85.6 . cia an duine bhias beó = quis est homo? TSh. 3125 .

Forms in -so, -su etc. (cf. indic. pres. 3 s. of 2 cía. See Celtica vii 38-42 ): ciaso baili ata in crann?, SR 7931 . ciaso buaid duinne?, Bodl. Dinds. 27 . cia so gním what deed? TBC-LL¹ 958 . cíasu anmann bai for suidiu?, IT ii2 195.153 . nī fetar-sa ciasu adba etc., Fing. R. 969 . ciasa bas . . . do bean . . . in bas-crann?, Ériu iv 116 § 26 (`whose hand?'). ciasa fogealtad son? .i. miach cacha mis, Laws iv 106. 15 Comm. ím comirc doib ciasa hairm ín ro scuirsid, 106.22 Comm. ciasa run, Auraic. 5210 (císi, v.l.). ciarsat comainm celisiu what's your master's name? LL 9041 (TBC). carsat comainm?, Acall. 390 . ciarso choma no bértha dó?, LL 8937 (TBC). garsa gním sain?, 9990 (TBC).

(d) cía with pron. who is? cia tussu díxnigedar who art thou? Wb. 4c24 . cia hé nu-n-dixnaigther-siu gl. qui sis, Ml. 75c9 . ciahé gl. qui (sit), 14d14 . cia hé `who is it?' 46c17 . ce hé roscríb `who it is that has written', Sg. 197a19 . cinní sin frisnaiccai siu `whom dost thou expect?', Thes. ii 227.30 (from intí-sin, GOI § 460 ). cia so who is this? Anecd. i 8. 23 ( SCano 257 ). cía so?, Sc.M² R 10 . cīa and-so?, 11 (for inso?). cia tusu?, RC xxiv 200.9 . fochtuis Feilis scela de, ce he budein, ZCP vi 25. 18 . cīa pad cīa . . . acht . . . Condere . . . who should it be but C.? Ériu i 114 § 3 . beag a fhios agad . . . / cia misi d'fhearaibh Eireann, Studies 1924, 243 § 17 . With -so, -su: cía so thú?, LU 10768 = ciasu tu, Ériu xii 170.3 . cársa cúich thú?, Mer. Uil.² 90 . cársa cía[s]ib-si etir?, 250 .

(e) cía with follg. prep. as antecedent of rel. clause (cf. I (h) above): cia dia fiachaigedar gl. ad quem debeat, Ml. 44b3 . cia forsa tiagat? `on whom do they fall? Laws ii 178.3 . nicon-fes cīa ō-tucad, Sc.M² 3 . cia ar nach tug a thrócuire? Dán Dé xxv 46 . cor dib Painiel dian / Gabriel cia ar nach cor?, KMMisc. 254.14 . d'iomad rogha ag Día dá dhiomda / fola cía dá ttiobhra ar tós, IGT Decl. ex. 109 .

(f) cisí, ces(s)í with f. noun: cisí chomairle ǽm `what indeed is the counsel?' Ml. 34c18 . cissi slabrai in díscer sa? LU 5162 (TBC). cissi gáir seo?, 4475 . císí (sic) suillse mór sucut?, BDD² 591 . áil dūn a ḟis . . . cisī rāth so, Ériu viii 157.6 . Freq. with follg. rel. clause: cessi aimser hi rogbath `at what time it was sung', Ml. 24d10 . cisi aimsir hi for-comnactar in gnimai, 97a5 . cisí digal didenach dumberaesiu a Dǽ, 100d5 . co n-eperthae cia aiccent ┐ cisi aimser derb thechtas, Sg. 26a6 . cisi rann dogéntar di, 27a13 . cesí aram gl. ad quod genus uel numerum refertur, 197b3 . cisi chiall bís indib `what is the meaning that is in them', 217a2 . cisi muime bat tualoing what fostermother could have? Blathm. 100 § 32 . cisi mathair con bert / an geinsi? ib. (MS. cisi in, text). cisi gnuis . . . forta napsalmo?, Hib. Min. 3.76 . cise noail noclanna `by what oath shall it be settled?' Laws iv 142.3 . cisi airm hi tá L.? LU 3620 (SC. 31). rāidh frim cisé (ciséd, v.l.) dāil di ṡund dogénum, ACL iii 294 § 13 . cisi breth rucais?, Rawl. 113a2 . cissí dichuimni rod dall?, LL 21767 . fég darisse . . . cisi chonar dotháet `look again, what road is he coming', RC iii 183.33 . inderb . . . cisi uair no cisi aimsir regthair, Ériu v 120.3 . cisí hairle do beradh, Hugh Roe² 292.14 . With ellipse of rel. clause: tair limsa . . . co ndérais. Cisí dígal?, MU² 1034 . Also somet. with other genders: ciasi animnairme (ainm n-áirme) fil . . ., Hib. Min. 2.41 . ciasi ord fil forna psalmu, 6.196 . ra iarfaig . . . cissi log conattaig, LL 30975 ( TTr. 156 ). occa scrúdadh . . . cisi cruth no aithfedh, Hugh Roe² 96.15 . Note also: atbertsat cipsi magen i ferfaithe in cath, Dinds. 188 ( RC xvi 274 ).

(g) cid with n. noun. In sense what is? cid aes ṅ-esci? BCr. 32a9 . cidh dire Mac-ḟuirmidh?, Ériu xiii 25.27 . cid an ní seo?, BDD² 242 . cid damhna bar ndocesaid?, ACL iii 310 viii 3 . ciodh achd ar ghrádh no ar ghrádsa / clár págsa d'fhior ón Aodhsa?, IGT Decl. ex. 137 .

With follg. rel. clause: imrádat imráti cid maith as déntí `as to what good is to be done', Wb. 1d7 . cid ḟolad ṡluindes, Sg. 25b17 (see note). ce torad gl. quem . . . fructum habuistis? Wb. 3b29 . cid chenél gl. quod genus . . . refertar, Sg. 197b3 . Perh. also: cidechor (= cid dechor) gl. quae sit differentia, 23a2 . In difft. constr. (cf. II (c) above): ced torbe doib etarscarad . . . fria tola what does it profit them? Wb. 13c6 . ce torbe dúib-si . . . in fogur-sin, Ml. 12d5 . ced slīab inso thall?, TBC-I¹ 614 .

(h) cid with pronoun: ced ed tra `what is it then?' Wb. 3b28 . cid so?, Mon. Tall. 130.15 ; YBL 118a23 ; ZCP xiii 179.3 . cid sin?, BDD² 448 . cid ón `what is that?' RC iii 184.25 . ceadh sibh acht na seacht dtroighthe what do you amount to? DDána 53.21 .

(i) cid with DO. With follg. neg.: cid dait-siu . . . nád bod latt curadmir, etc. why shouldn't you have? LU 8139 ( FB 10 ). cid daib . . . nach mair[b]fed sib?, TTebe 1865 . cidh damhsa cen dul d'iarraidh a maithme why should I not go, etc.? RC xxvii 294 § 38 . Note also: cidh duibsi what think ye of it? (?), RC xxvi 366.13 . cidh dhúinn déanamh a bhfeasa `why need I tell of them?' Content. iv 27 .

(j) cid with DI: cid de ón what does that matter? LU 6361 . cid de-side why so? TBC-LL¹ 5580 .

(l) cid with prep. and rel. clause: cid asa fordailtea grád túa[i]the on what basis have the lay grades been laid down? Críth G. 6 . Sliab B. cid diata whence is it named? RC xv 301.5 . cídh día ndearnadh Adhamh, 23 E 26, 5.18 .

(m) In similar construction in meaning why? With AR: cid arind epur frit why do I say it to thee? Wb. 5a31 . cid ara ndluthid caratrad friu iterum?, 27a30 . cid ara todlaigther inso, Ml. 32a5 . cid ara fodaim int ais firian inna fochaidi? 55d11 . cid armad machdad etc.? Sg. 167a4 . cid arṅdid huathuislib ildaib disruthaigedar?, 198b3 . cid ar bad?, Thes. ii 227. 34 . cid ara n-eperr Críth Gablach?, Críth G. 1 . cidh ar a fhuil Cuncha ar in inadhso?, ZCP xi 40.35 . With DI: cid dia leícid cundubairt for drecht uáib?, Wb. 13b12 . cid dia n-éirena(i)tar?, Críth G. 121 . rofiarfaig . . . desim cid dia mboi fora iarrair, Grail 1522 . With IMM (later FÁ): finnaid . . . cid imma ndernad in t-id, LL 8053 (TBC). cidh ma tancais alé `why hast thou come . . . ?' Ériu iii 158 § 11 . cid 'ma n-iarthai?, TTebe 1700 . cid . . . 'mara loirgis, TFrag. 118.15 . ciodh far dhoilghe trí thairnge?, DDána 40.10 . innis dúinn ciodh fa ttánghuis, Duan. F. i 78.16 . ciodh fa ttiobhradh, IGT Decl. ex. 1311 .

(n) cid as adverb, why ? cid no mbetha . . . on what account shouldst thou be . . . ? Wb. 4c24 . cid na déccaid?, Fél. Prol. 201 . ced nach maith?, Trip.² 1968 . cid nabsin Fedelm-sa . . . cichsed, LU 8296 ( FB 22 ). Tond Chlidna cid aréracht?, Metr. Dinds. iii 214.54 . cid éige, a bean?, Celtica iv 16.154 . cidh tāi a[g] gul?, ZCP viii 559.5 . cid . . . na caithi do chuidich? Ériu v 36.19 . do chách ciodh nach aithréasda?, DDána 58.35 . cidh na ro chomaillis an gealladh doradais?, BNnÉ 295 § 22 . Cf. cid ane . . . meic na mbachlach . . . do chomram cucum what business have the sons of rustics to be contending with me? Sc.M² 12 .

(o) where ? whither ? With téit: co n-at[h]comaircter nde cid ted, RC xiii 222.5 . cid nothēigid ?, ZCP xiii 176.8 . co fesamar úait . . . cid thége whither thou goest, Ériu iv 140.5 . ní fedar festa cidh rachad, Anecd. i 77.9 . cid lotar ?, LL 12826 . cid ghébmoe ?, BDD² 245 . Exceptionally with attá: d'iar[r]aidh fhessa . . . cuith a roiphi in ingen where, TTebe 33 (leg. cáit ?).

(p) In phr. cid tra acht, see trá.

Plural forms.

(q) citné, citni (prob. from cia ata n-é ` who, what (is it) that they are?', Thurn., ZCP xx 372 , GOI § 456 ). assindet sunt tra citné cumacte diandid cóir infognam what are the powers, Wb. 6a9 . citne gl. (sí . . . quaeritur) quae (gentes), Ml. 16b13 . cit né briathra robatar `what were the words?', 61b7 . cit né robatar `what were they?', 8 . asindet ón ciné (leg. citné? edd.) fochainn . . ., 101a3 . citni rig reachta . . . / robatar 'sind amsir sin?, SR 2347 . citni trenfir dotiarmórsetsu?, LU 10261 . cit n-é uisce . . . do-ríadhad?, BDD² 456 . ni fetar citne briga / mo dul i teach cor-riga I do not know what good there is in my going into the house to kings, Ériu v 30.2 . citni cenela na fuillet, Rawl. 69a29 . indis . . . dam . . . / citne clerig notrefet, / citne oic notndeirget, Three Hom. 110.16 , 17 . citne tire in geinseadar?, Leb. Gab.(i) 234.20 = Keat. ii 741 . Without follg. noun: citné foruar what are they which He has prepared? Wb. 8b5 . citne and dī rott eblatar?, LU 10284 . citn-éisidi?, BDD² 555 . ? citne in ferand?, LL 15993 = Todd Nenn. 222.3 (ceisi urrand, v.l. 223 n.).

(r) cisne (described as an `iarmberla', Auraic. 1308 ): cis n-é amuis ata chórai?, Críth G. 578 . cisne lesa . . . tascnat . . . ?, Laws i 230.21 . cisne tri leaca robaid?, v 450.1 . cisne sgéith sguirde caithche?, Ériu xiii 17.15 . cisne trí gealla nád fuilled . . .?, 33.28 . cisne tri horba doranaiter la Féne? O'Curry 2167 ( Eg. 88, 5(6)a ). cisne a trí a nemtiger cléirech, O'D. 2209 (Nero A vii, 144b). cís ní doghair oes eiscí? IT iii 262.12 . cia on cotagair æsa escai?, 61.18 = cis non dogar eassa uiscci?, Leb. Gab.(i) 264.13 . Exceptionally with pl. ending: cisneíd side ? . . . baes ┐ aneolus ┐ eitges, ZCP xii 363.2 .

(s) cis (see ZCP xx 372 , Ériu xiv 140 ): cis tána? ZCP xx 372.19 . cis n-dithle `welches sind Entwendungen?', 17 . cis duirn díolmhuine dlighther?, Ériu xiii 23.5 = O'Dav. 584 . cis dúar dían drongaighther . . . ?, Ériu xiii 26.2 = cis [i] duar etc., O'Dav. 883 . cis daghmaine domain dingnaith? O'Curry 2460 ( Eg. 88, 37(38)c ). cis rechta na gaibter a fiadhnaisi? 2600 ( Eg. 88, 51 (52)b ).

(t) Phr. cis lir how many (are) ? See Bergin, Ériu xiv 140 ff. cislir .i. cia lear no lin na sochaidi, Laws v 4.x Comm. cis lir tairgsin cach fine `how many are the . . . ?', 463.13 . gabála báise cis lir `the ways of folly, what is their number?' Tec. Corm. 14 (24.2) (gabail, v.l.). With follg. noun and rel. clause: cis-lir fir for a nasgar how many men are there who are bound? Ériu xiii 31. 21 . cis lir lanamna docuisin la feine? Laws ii 344.1 . cislir fodhla fil forsan mbron?, Anecd. v 24.16 . With follg. rel. verb: cis lir ata chóra[i] do ríg do giull how many (things) are legal . . . ? Críth G. 505 . cis lir congellait? Laws i 230.3 . cair cis lir dos-liad . . . ?, Ériu xiii 30.33 . Rarely with pl. -t: cesc citlir topuir, O'Curry 505 ( H 3.18, 257 ). See 2 lir.

(u) c(i)ata: ciata glinni con-daigi?, MU² 65 . cata cuir con-daigi-siu?, 72 . ciata builg itir ón?, RC xiii 66 § 67 . ni fedadar ceta inada . . . no indsechtais, CCath. 776 . Note also: cialín nasluag . . . / . . . ceti arbair, SR 7907 .

B As indef. in a variety of phrases.

(a) cía with noun: cia port i mbai a mathair wherever her mother was, Vita Br. 4 . cía baili i ffod as iatt sin / oidheadha na n-ócc eistidh `whatever place they may sleep' (reading i ffaoíit with note), Leb. Gab.(i) 188.3 .

(b) cía with vb. (conj. and prot.): cia tīasam wherever we go, Thes. ii 299.30 (Hy. i). cia bronntar indi, Críth G. 234 . cia taccra(i) whoever may claim (them), 425 (see 398 n.). cía denar cia therar whatever I do, whatever I say, Ériu i 227.5 . nocha n-érlai asin chathraigh acht cía térnai do rind gai, TTr.² 158 . a n-athair rempu cia thé `where'er he went', Ériu iv 100.2 . In chev. with adverbial force: cia bé however it be, LL 382 , 15039 . cia bia, Rawl. 137a38 . cia de do teacomnacair whichever it happened to be, Blathm. 98 § 25 (see notes). Cf. ciade gl. uter, Sg. 242a1 . ? is derb ní báes cia 't bera, Metr. Dinds. i 36.95 .

(c) cía with indic. of attá: cia bai dia chalmacht . . . bái dia nertmaire however brave he was, TBC-LL¹ 773 . niconibdis bandai cormmai . . . cia bith ara tecmainged dóib `they used not to drink a drop of beer whomsoever they might happen to meet', Mon. Tall. 129.19 . ( Ériu xii 209 ). cipia frisa ferthar tnú whoever shall be an object of envy, Ériu v 211.69 ( Ériu xii 209 ). cía búi de `whatever came of it' (cheville), Metr. Dinds. iii 396.23 . cía baoi dhe .i. gibé dobhi dhe, O'Cl.

(d) cip, cib with noun: cib cenél tra diaro scribad ind epistil to whatever people, Wb. 3b20 . cip port i ndēntar, Cáin Ad. 36 . Usually with cruth however it be, at all events: cipcruth bíid páx libsi etc., Wb. 5d33 . cipcruth tra, 12d24 . ni confetor cib cruth ind aingel fa dia, Blathm. 100 § 31 . See cipindus.

(e) cecip with noun (see Contribb. s.v. cech ): cecip maighean i raegbadh wherever, AFM i 30.3 . cecib tan tiostaois, v 1552.4 . tre bithin gona, no fiabhrasa cecib diobh whichever it was, vi 2024.5 . cecib nech tairisnighes iniort an coimdheadh, 2126.1 . cecip cruth foghabhtais, Hugh Roe² 86.2 . In follg. the use is strictly speaking interrogative: ní feas cecip tucht i tudchaidh, AFM iii 286.3 .

(f) cipsi with noun: cipsi aitt i loich dosfail, Rawl. 127a44 . cepsi cruth, BB 22b13 ( for cip c.¤ , Ériu xii 208 n. ). cipsi cruth `no matter how', Hugh Roe² 290.22 . cipsi mbith dáil for congra, Hard. ii 292.y . airlim n-eicne cipsí whatever it may be, Laws iv 92.z .

(g) cissí: ro geall Sir Persaual di sin cidhsi cor ara fetfad, Grail 1979 . case chruth i mbet, TBC-LL² 348 .

(h) cía bé, cipé, cid bé etc. with noun ( Ériu xii 208 ): cia bé a mmet `however great it may be', Ml. 61b28 . cipé leth tiasam, Thes. ii 299.42 . gidhbe an smólach ní chodhlann `even the thrush does not sleep', Duan. F. i 84.30 . cipe cruth, LU 3870 ( SCC 38 ). cipé rí bes hi Caisiul, ZCP viii 315.27 . ce-b e nech and do-neth . . . , PH 478 . cipé tan bud ríg tusa for Érinn 'whenever', FDG² 11.327​ . cipé a léire baistither in duine however devoutly, Ériu i 218 § 3 . gidh bé neimhdhéine do neinn, Dán Dé xiii 8 . cidh bé dhíobh staid, TSh. 3986 .

(i) cía bé, cipé etc. with verb: ciphéade (sic leg.) asberam `whichever', Ml. 25d11 ( Ériu xii 209 ). cipé da mbad áil etc., MU² 560 . céb é uabsi comallas frimsa hé, LU 9013 ( FB 76 ). atú ar bhaois gidh bé nach fuil, Dán Dé ix 8 . gidh bé ara geall, 16 . cibé labhras, TSh. 1781 . acht gidh bé éistios riomsa, Proverbs i 33 . gidh be ar bith bheanas ría `whosoever', vi 29 . Note also: mairbt[h]eim coich bē a dīe, Corm. Y 419 .

(j) cipé as adv. at all events , etc.: cipé gl. ubilibet, BCr. 31c2 . do gessaib ríg T. . . . / . . . cocad ruind co bráth ce bé `howsoever it be', CRR 54 . fiū cōicait cumal cipē, Fianaig. 50 § 27 . is maith liom a theacht gidhbé, Oss. vi 166.12 . ciphe de, BB 398b6 .

(k) cíabed, bad, beith etc.: ciabed ammet inna fochaide however great, Ml. 39a13 . cia beith a lin na noged however numerous the guests, Vita Br. 7 . ce bad hé frisa ndénte to whomsoever ye should do it (so Ériu xii 210 ), Wb. 9c24 . ciabadh hé richt a mbeith `in whatever shape she might be', Ériu xii 154 § 18 (TE). cebedh si maigen . . . a mbeith `in whatsoever part of Ireland she might be', ibid. cé beth da lánáille, ZCP viii 208.29 (but see Ériu xii 206 ). ge do beith do méit a tindenuis, Mer. Uil.² 146 . ciabadh e, Blathm. 96 § 20 , restored as ciabad de `whichever it be'. cia beith no co bia-so fó mebail whatever happens, LMU 10 .

(l) ciped (see Ériu xii 208 ): ciped techtas nech `whatever it is that anyone has', Wb. 12d41 ( Ériu xii 210 ). gip ed no raditís, TBC-LL¹ 152 . cipead dommaire `whate'er befall me', Ériu ii 90 § 16 . gibedh o ttíosadh whencesoever they shall come, TFrag. 190.16 . ciped mac díb no gabad gasced, TBC-LL¹ 1089 . giped chuin at some time or other, 3338 . ciped laa . . . forsa m-be notlaic mór (cidped, cipe, gebe, cip, MSS.), Ériu ii 208 § 28 . cip ed de at all events, CRR 4 .

(m) cid: cidh urrunnus nodleisead in t-athair `whatever proportion . . . the father is entitled to', Laws iv 60.24 Comm. cidh dergoine daon, O'Dav. 585 = cib dergona daon, O'D. 2199 ( Ériu xii 206 ). cid dusgní whatever he do, BColm. 100.9 . Cf. cidh ead dogneth hEchtair do calma imon Troi whatever brave action . . . , BB 433b24 .

(n) cid cía: cid cía bes inti whoever be in it, BColm. 52.21 . seanfhocal súd solus a chiall / ciodh cia do chum, Ériu xvi 132 § 2 . cidh cia ro chodail and 'san aidhchi sin nochur' chodail Didho, Aen. 873 . cidh cía donī, ZCP x 51.7 . na cionnta gidh cia 'gá mbeid whosoever shall have (i.e. commit) sins, Dán Dé v 13 . ? gidh cia frí senadh atúaidh, Duan. F. ii 166 § 44 . Note further: cia bad cia dia theilcfead (sic) sop, Ériu v 34.8 . cid bé cia thú `whoever thou art', TTebe 4720 . ciped chia díb nomarbtha artús, RC iii 183.8 . gidh créd do íar Aitheirne, IGT Decl. ex. 1377 .

See 2 cía and 3 cía, 1 cóich.

clesach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. clesach or dil.ie/9441

adj o, ā (cles)

I skilled in feats; in pejorative sense, wily, guileful, crafty: in gilla c.¤ sin (of Cú Chulainn), LU 8455 ( FB 31 ). belaig úathaig ochtclesaig, 10394 (rhet.). a bil-[l]aburthach il-ch.¤ il-bras (to the sinful soul), PH 8181 . in chenn (sic) cleasach, chosaidec . . . Tesifóne `tricky', MR 168.6 . bean nach cleasach cuing, O'Hara 3433 . tré chomhar-bháidh breitheamh mbreabóideach ┐ charad gcleasach gcealg-rúnach, TSh. 5413 . dá sleaghaibh fírneimhneacha .i. dá n-aimsighthibh ilchleasacha, 2614 . Compar. dirim is áilliu no is choemiu no is ilchlessachu andás, TFerbe 72 .

II As subst. beguiler, deceiver : Forgull Monach .i. cleasuch robhói, ab eo quod est mon .i. cleas, Cóir Anm. 205 . Forgall Monach . . . / cach clessach na chanad cheilg / manach sein sin Gaedilg, LL 18013 . trí fichit rigan go recht / . . . / doghninn a lesa uile / fa mé in c.¤ cluanuide, SG 105.13 . is lámh fa chraoibh nach cromann / bheith red chumann, a chleasaigh (to the world), DDána 4.5 .

coímchloud

Cite this: eDIL s.v. coímchloud or dil.ie/10148
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: claechládh, claechlódh, claechlúdh

u and o, m. Vn. of con-imchloí. Very variable in form. claechládh claechlódh claechlúdh, IGT Verbs § 64 .

(a) act of changing, exchange; change, alternation : coimchloda gl. commotandi, Ml. 63d3 . coimchlud canone, 76d12 . cen choimchlod fuiri gl. fixam, 109d4 . in coimmchlóud son .i. cach la céin it masculina in cein n-aili it feminina, Sg. 62a4 . caomclód praindi `change . . . of diet', Mon. Tall. 152.25 . claemchlód magni, LU 5841 . claechlodh inntinne change of intention, Fier. 37 . brechtradu ┐ coemchlódu, Alex. 990 . claechlodh aisdi change of metre (within a quatrain), IGT Metr. Faults § 22 . gurab é ainm do bheir an Eaglas . . . ar an cclaochlódh-sa transubsttantiatio, Desid. 4978 . an claochlughadh do rinde D. `the changed attitude of D.', 3431 . uiscce iarna claochmodh i n-ass, BNnÉ 297 § 33 . ar na claochlúdh, AFM ii 1084.15 .

In unfavourable sense change for the worse, deterioration : atbath cen chloemchlód for dath, LL 14875 . claochlōd crotha for cenēlaib, ML² 1601 . dhulc an chlaochláidh do cinnedh (of a death), Gleanings from Irish manuscripts 19 § 34 . ionnus nach diongnadh an mhailís a thuigse do chlaochlódh = ne malitia mutaret intellectum eius, TSh. 5314 . Less freq. in favourable sense of conversion, act of reforming : mo bheatha do chlaochlo, Mac Aingil 1361 . a ttús caomhc[h]lóidh a mbethadh = Conuersion, RSClára 2a .

(b) Of exchange of objects between persons: dénum coémchlód dá gaisced, LU 6664 (TBC). ar cloechlód dorónsat, Fél. 244.37 . cæmc[h]lōd bachall dorōnsatt . . . Colmán E. ┐ Colmán mac L., BColm. 84.21 . Hence exchange, barter; act of exchanging, bartering : cundradh maille re claochmó sét, O'D. 575 ( H 3.17, 443 ). co clōemclōdaib sēd ō T. co C., Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 12 § 1 . amal carait coemcloide duit é ag denam do lesa `ein Austausch-Freund', Cóic Con. 54 § 121 . a cairde ┐ a choslointhe, Laws ii 380.14 with gloss cairde .i. claemcluma, 21 Comm. a dualgus chairdusa claechmoidhe `in right of mutual friend- ship', iii 144.12 Comm. cóemchlód fri drochḟerann `exchanging for bad land', Triads 72 . ? ocht cuirn chroma fri caemchlíd `for passing around', Leb. Cert.² 1319 (`for interchanging', Leb. Cert. 165.12 ). Hence return of goods that have been exchanged under contract; reversal of the contract: cach cunnrud do niat na meamuir i n-ecmuis na ceann, dia fuaitrighthur fo cetoir, is cloecmo dib co dechmuid `there shall be a mutual return within ten days', Laws ii 294.2 Comm. fri cura . . . .i. do claochló doib, no do innsaidh `to set them aside for them, or to enforce them', i 286.3 Comm.

(c) something different, the contrary (cf. malairt): a chlaochlo sin, Mac Aingil 1068 . ná creid a chlaochlo, 1090 .

(d) act of overthrowing : rí na gcurad do chlaochlód, SG 273.6 . ní fuil nech lenab étir a claechlod a cath, Fier. 8 . dochum na colla dho chlaochludh = for the destruction of the flesh, 1 Corinth. v 5 .

con-dlig

Cite this: eDIL s.v. con-dlig or dil.ie/12076

v (dligid): lesa sliastai sceo colpthai condlegtar i næn `the same compensation is owed for . . .', Bretha 36 . condlig a sír-chennach, Metr. Dinds. ii 42.19 . condlig a chomarba . . . / maige M. `the right belongs to the . . . heir', 21 .

dágain, dáigin

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dágain, dáigin or dil.ie/14145

n in the prepositional phrases ar d.¤ , fo d.¤ , im d.¤ , tri d.¤ , with gen. because of, for the sake of. In SR always rhyming with Ádaim.

ar dágain: ar dáigin comalladh a dligid faichi, Laws iii 252. 23 . ar dáigin bristi in aile for breaking the fence ib. i 174. 15 ; 180. 7 . nocon ara ṅdaigin fén dogníd som sin it was not for their sake he did it PH 877 . más ar daighin a gaite rug les é, Laws iii 64. 17 . ar dagin a homuin, ZCP iii 38. 10 . AFM iii 280. 10 ; v 1426. 22 . ar daighin caithmhi a [f]eoir no arbha, Rawl. 53 a 1 . Laws v 210, n. 6 . (cf. cid ar daigin scartha ris, ib.). ar d.¤ mellta for the purpose of deceiving, Rawl. 487, v . O'Don. Suppl. ar daighne (sic) lesa , ib. s.v. daighin. ar daigin féise Temrach do dénom, SG 319. 5 .

fo dágain: in cuman lat ... na fuarus dulcc fot dagain SR 1758 . foddagain, ib. 1762 . 1766 . 1770 . 1778 . fo dagin terchomraic, Ériu iv 26. 16 . is fo daigind ina mná feruimsi fáilti fritt, IT i 144. 18 . fo dhaighin feithme ┐ fogluma, MR 268. 1 . tictís...fó daigin óla, SG 89. 1 . roléicceadh fó dhaighin na comairce baoi aca, AFM v 1542. 16 .

im dágain: im dágin na ingine, LMU § 11 . is cumma a ét immon fer ┐ immon mnái...mom dágin se on my behalf RC xiii 383. 4 . Tig. 533 .

tri dágain: triat dágain, SR 1774. 1782 . a fuarusa de ulc ...is tret dáigin se fuarus, LB 112 b 50 (= MacCarthy 68. 1 ).

fo dágin conj. because, since : f. d. issed láa andsin immanárnic dosom frisin Liath Macha, FB § 31 . f. d. isé A. ragrádaig, TTr. 1015 . ib. 285 . fá dáighin doṡáilsat CCath. 1777 . —With con + subj. in order that Lec. 441 b 31 .

Cf. dáig.

dall

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dall or dil.ie/14393
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: dáll, dald, dall, dull, dall, daill, dalla, daill, dalla, dullu, dulla, dallu, dalla, dailliu, daille, dall, daille

adj o-ā, often dáll, sometimes dald ; dall (: and) LL 52 a 4 f.b . d s. m. dull, dall (dáll), f. daill. n p. m. dalla (adj.), daill (subst.). a p. dalla (adj.) ; dullu, dulla, dallu ( LB 212 a 31 ), dalla (subst.)—COMP. dailliu, mod. daille. For etymology and Gaul. cognates, see Holder 1216 , Stud. Hib. xix 42 .

I (Totally) blind. dall .i. tall a talpa , O'Mulc. 343 . dall a talpa no disell .i. cen tsuile quia est sell .i. suil, Corm. Tr. 58 . haec talpa luch dall, Ir. Gl. 249 . mac dall, IT i 39. 14 , 21 . gur bhen a rusca dé gur roibhe dall, Cóir Anm. 29 . ┐ dall clairínech éisidhe, MacCarthy 408. 8 . innistear go raibe Isáac tré arsaidhacht dall, TSh. 258. 1 . ar mbeith dall dho, ib. 22. 31 ; 255. 12 . ní feas di í féin do bheith dall, ib. 258. 8 . amlaid rogénair side ó máthair ┐ sé dall, PH 2288 (cf. 811 ). guidis...coro ṡlánaiged a mac dall bodar amlabar, ib. 1319 . voc. a hídail daill amlabair cen guth cen lámu cen cossa, ib. 1367 (cf. 1294 ). pl. uair nachdat dee...acht hídail dalla amlabra, ib. 1141 .—cless dond cless dall cless néoin FB 24 (l. 24) ; cf. dall-chless. METAPH. dalla dagairle blind to good advice Tec. Corm. 16 (l. 68) . fégad cechaen uaib nárob dall ┐ narob baccach hé iar mbésaib, PH 4666. 4671 . osa dáll a chride berid diabul leis ina eolas fén he, ib. 7755 . is dall gan radharc me soillsig meólas, Midnight court 812 . Ignorant : dobhí sé dall aineolach i dteangaidh na tíre, Keat. i 42.60 . Unprofitable : gart dall, KMMisc. 174. 18 .

II Dark, gloomy : abardall .i. abditum et dall, O'Mulc. 7 (cf. abra .i. dorcha, O'Dav. 27 ). uch in adaig dorcha dall, Add. 30. 512 , 34 b ( ACL iii 233. 7 ). ifernn...dubh dall, Lib. Flav. ii 51 a 2 . 17 . fot aidche daille dube, LL 193 b 57 . i nEgept daill, SR (Greene) 3951 . daire dall, SR 6355 . ise sin gan diamair daill : domarbh Diarmaid mac Cerbhaill, SG 72. 25 . croithis dóib dairbre ndall, IT i 108. 4 . Cf. dallcheó a thick mist: ní ro ráthaighsiot ní lá dallciach na maidne muiche, AFM vi 1936.24 . ar snaidm a cor | in dallciach do chrích Mumon, Ériu iv 226.10 . buailis an curach dá ḟleisg dhraoidheachta gur ḟág fa dhallchiach é, Each. Iol. 43.16 . METAPH. obscure, difficult to read ; dull (in sound). bíodh a ḟios ag gach aon...gurab í cíall ḟíre na taoibhe daille so don taoibh amuigh don leabhar, ALC i 6 n. deilm dub dall, LL 143 b 28 . is dall erund mani écestar dún doléir, Ériu ii 104 § 14 . is d.¤ erunn a ḟis, 124 § 65 . ib. 122 § 62 . unjustified, false (of a charge) : dall adbur noferai formsa it is a false charge you bring against me RC xiv 243. 15 . Cf. dalltaidbsiu do dóinib, LL 123 a 11 .

III o, m. and ā, f. ( Laws i 124. 22 ). A blind person. hic cecus .a. um. dall, Ir. Gl. 623 . hic cecus dall, ib. 427 . im dingbail mic...di claim di chaich di daill di anbobracht, Laws i 124. 22 ; ib. 140. 5 f.b. buidir ┐ daill durscartad co fis a ndaille ┐ a mbuidre, ib. v 156, n. 5 . dligid dalla dídin ZCP vi 261. 11 f.b. luid dald arachenn Patraic, Trip. 132. 3 . conid don dúll dorala techt sis, IT i 39. 18 . deccra daill, Metr. Dinds. iii 372. 95 ( LL 158 a 48 ). bennachais in dall clarenech co mba slána a da ṡúil, Lat. Lives 86. 3 . nírab dall ic tuus daill, ACL iii 318. 12 (cf. LB 261 a 65 ). dall a cinn daill, Lib. Flav. ii 16 a 1 . 5 f.b. nóṡlánaigedh dulla ┐ claṁa ┐ bacacha, RC xxvii 302 § 76 . an dall, gnioṁa an daill, Eg. 142 p. 170 . isé dorat a rusca don dull, PH 2287 . doralatar dóib dá dhall ar or na sliged, ib. 4409 . atconnarcsa daill ┐ baccaig...do ṡlánugud dó, ib. 2182 . daill buidir ┐ baccaig, ib. 2491 ; cf. 4399 . 4414 . 4592 . roíccais clamu ┐ dallu, ib. 1357 . roairchis Ísu dona dallaib, ib. 4416 ; cf. 2270 . 2296 . 2591 . 4413 . 4532 . 4649 . hícc clam ┐ dall, ib. 1734 . comus ṡIánaigti dall, ib. 2088 . siubhalfaidh aṁail dallaibh, TSh. 255. 14 . amal dallu nád faicet ní, LB 212 a 31 . dáll, ib. 33 .—am dáll ruccad mesi I was born blind PH 2785 , cf. duine dorugadh na dhall, Donlevy 438. 17 . mar doleighis Críost an dall, TSh. 6. 26 .

LOC. Áth Ferta in Daill, Metr. Dinds. iii 308. 63 . rotadhaill...do thigh an filidh Muiredhaigh Lesa an Doill AFM iii 178. 16 .

IV Darkness, obscurity : ni fuille forru dall ná doirche, Laws ii 272. 13 . amail dobur ndubchiach nó amail dall fedha (sic leg.) i foghamhar, CCath. 5666 . doradtsat na naeiṁ...dall ciach ettorra ┐ in slogh, RC xxvii 298. 18 . la dall ciach na camháire, Hugh Roe 62 . amal phupall bís im dall, LL 52 a 51 . Cf. mod. dubh ┐ dall na hoidhche, Dinneen .

MOD. dall, adj. and subst.: tá sé nár bhfágaint dall he is leaving us as wise as we were Seanch. 35 . ba dhall ésin ara ngaedhlainn that man was ignorant of Irish. Compar. daille (pronounced duille).

díburdud

Cite this: eDIL s.v. díburdud or dil.ie/16061
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: díubruite, diburdud, diubrudath

n gen. díubruite. Name of a type of legal compensation. Expld. by Thurn. ( Ir. Recht 15 - 16 , q.v.) as `sting-removing' (brot) and translated (on the basis of the glosses) `end-payment, final payment' (i.e. which removes the sting of an injury). diburdud, Laws i 230.25 .i. in aenmad rann fichit do neoch, no cumad e in coirpdire anfot i baili i roich a beth ar treise, no a enechgris, 232.28 Comm. d.¤ .i. dibru saitud (.i. diubru aitiudh) .i. deriud nerci indsin .i. altram for chinadus natbé drochmenma iaram, Corm. p. 15 . diburtud .i. dibrú āited .i. altrannas, Corm. Y 425 . dibruted aited ní argairi in mbroc detba (leg. debtha), O'Mulc. 348 . See also diubrudath, 339 . cisne lesa do na ibh sen tascnat treise? . . . diburdud, Laws v 230.y . masa mil cetcintach beith ro fuachtnaig ris noco biad acht a dul for diburdud do, iii 442.15 . cethramthi dire inna ue, enecland otha sen ┐ aire(i)r ┐ a diburdud, Ir. Recht 16 § 15 . cumal diubruite, O'D. 516 ( H 3.17 419 ). See dibruither. See also do-bruiti Ir. Recht 15-16 .

1 díchell

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 díchell or dil.ie/16084

Forms: dichle, dichill, díchill, díchill, dīchil, díchill

n ā, f. and o, m. (g s. dichle, Laws iv 60.21 . dichill, BNnÉ 287 ). Vn. of do-cíallathar. See IGT Verbs § 54 . Rhyming exx.: díchill (: rīchith), Thes. ii 257 . díchill (: ríchid), Hy. v 105 . dīchil (: rīchid), LL 374c38 .

In Laws Comm. associated with do-ceil and in official edition translated `concealment'. The meanings act of forgetting, passing over, neglecting; negligence, remissness would appear to suit all the examples (see Stud. in E. Ir. Law 23 ). In Laws act of passing over legatees, payees, etc. with legal claims: ni cuirethar nech ni secha fine; ar ni forngaire De dō dichell na fine no one bequeaths anything past his `fine'; for it is not the commandment of God to pass over his `fine', Ir. Recht 33 § 35 . ni tualain[g] reicce . . . acht tabairt bes techta d'oen a cenn cocur cen dichill `ohne Vernachlassigung', 35 § 38 . cach cunnrad cen dichell, Stud. in E. Ir. Law 19.7 , see pp. 23-24 . cach dichell nad bi diles, Laws iii 50 . mad ar dicheall an athar (.i. mad ar fath dichle inn athar), iv 60.11 ; cf. iii 474 . forcetal cen dichell . . . on aite for in dalta `to instruct him without reserve', ii 348 = f. gan dicleith, v 96 . ACL iii 227.43 . Laws i 268.1 .

In general neglect, negligence, remissness: doghnísiomh a faoíside gan nach ndichioll, AFM vi 2218 . fail dí chaillig i r-richid | nicosn-águr dom díchill (dichil, v.l.) who I do not fear will neglect me, Hy. v 105 . daer cach dicell (.i. a facbail amuigh cin coimed `to leave them (i.e. cattle) outside without a guard'), Laws ii 2 . dichceall cach n-eislis `every act of neglect is a fault', i 264 ( .i. is drochciall don ti doní ailsi lesa , 286.33 ). ná bíd dicell occaibh festa `have no neglect', CCath. 5484 . ní roibhe dícheall dóibh sin ac dimhicin Molaisi `they neglected nothing in the way of belittling M.' (cf. ni d.¤ daeib se ye are in no way negligent, BCC § 120 ), SG 31.6 . cin tāide, cin elcuin, cin dicill `without neglect', Laws v 136 . is inann in d.¤ sin ┐ dermad, O'Curry 282 ( H 3.18 151 ). alt cen dichill (: rīchith), Thes. ii 257(Book of Durrow) . dogníat trócaire cen dichill, FA 27 . ro damnad a forcetul cen díchill (dichell, Eg.), FB § 30 . adbert in drai cen d.¤ (dichell, dithiull, v.l.), Metr. Dinds. iii 62 . cen nach ndichil (: richid), 380 . dobertha do greimm catha gan díchill, TBC-LL¹ 5943 . regmi cen nach díchiul (dichil, dichel, v.l.) | cech ndíriuch don blíadain, Fél. Prol. 291 . rogab ic molad Dia cen dichell, PH 301 . rogab ag lānmarbadh gan dichell, ZCP vi 56.31 . no fobertais gan diceall é, CCath. 339. 5755 (díthcel). lotar tar an abhainn gan díthchioll, AFM vi 2032 . a ttionóil chucca gan dichell gan erchoittmedh, Hugh Roe 200 . d'fagbail Irruis D. gan dícheall without delay , Celt. Rev. iv 118 . g s. ní ráibhe gan díol da chuid | fer díchill dibh na dermuitt there was not a man of them neglected or forgotten without being satisfied from his store, BNnÉ 287 .

do-ascnai

Cite this: eDIL s.v. do-ascnai or dil.ie/17188

Forms: doda-ascansat, tascnai, tascnam

v (* to-ad-com-snī-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 634 ) strives towards, comes to, approaches: Ciriacus . . . trib cétaib do n-ascnai who comes to us, Fél. May 12 ; Fél. Oct. 25 . nach cor . . . ní tascnai fine ná orbu it does not prejudice (affect), Laws ii 288 ( ZCP xiv 374 ). cisne lesa dona ib sen tascnat treise? what causes of these extend to three days? i 230 . cona tasgnai ua tar mac, O'D. 2290 ( Rawl. B 506, 27a ). trí thuli | tascna dún Arda Rudi, Otia i 127 . Pret. epscoip doda-ascansat (doda-ascensat, v.l.) who visited her, Hy. v 31 (glossed: .i. roathascansatar); 53 . Intrans.: is iarsin doascain dochum a tiri, TBC-I¹ 3668 . Cf. imfóit ar dálaib díamraib tascnae tanicc, LU 5550 = tascnai, TBC-I¹ 1069 . Vn. tascnam.

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