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aiccidit

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aiccidit or dil.ie/762
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: aicíd

n [i, f.] (Lat. accidentia, see GOI § 918 ). Later aicíd (with voiceless -c- and unlenited -d.)

(a) accident (gramm.): ní a.¤ sibi calléic, non accidens sibi. . . , Sg. 71b10, 11 . ní fail nach na.¤ taibsed sainred litre , 6b25 . ataat andsom acciditi coitchenna `there are there common accidents', 71b9 . inna aicciditi gl. accidentia, 190b2 .

(b) accident, quality (philosophical, etc.): bídh . . . ag gach créatúir . . . nádúir ┐ subsdaint . . . ┐ aicíd . . . as é as subsdaint . . . don duine bheith 'na ainmhidhe résúnta . . . aicíde dhó bheith gerr nó fada, láidir no lag, Mac Aingil 2826 . aicíde, nádúir ┐ nuimhir na bpeacadh, 2833 . tri gnée aicídeadh nó circunsdainteadh, 2837 . aicíde an fhíona mar atā blas, boladh, dath. etc., Parrth. Anma 3012 . aicidedha arain ┐ fiona, faoi a bhfuil go firinneach corp ┐ fuil ar ttighearna, Luc. Fid. 249.7 . ona haicidibh ud an arain ┐ an fhiona, 254.6 . mar as contrardha in taicid ┐ in tsustaint da celi, Ir. Astr. Tr. 66.26 . do réir inaid ┐ aicídi ┐ cúise, O'Gr. Cat. 185.15 . aicidi na hanma mar ata fearg ┐ fuasnaid, 23 P 10³, 2b9 . o na h-aicidib noch bis a coimidecht in fiabrusa incidental ailments, RC xlix 4 § 2 .

(c) accident, attack of illness ; disease: is olc ind accidit `the disease is grievous', MacCongl. 95.14 . bas, tinneas ┐ aicideadha oile, Luc. Fid. 233.4 . an tan thuitios duine go prab a n-aicíd thindis, Mac Aingil 2556 . ar an aicíd uathfásaicc . . .i. an bholgach Fhranngcach, Párl. na mB. 1285 . taraingios mímheasardhacht bíg mórán aicídíghe ┐ éagcruais ortha, 1197 . drochaicid, Ériu x 153 . lucht na haicīde sin `people afflicted with that disease', Fl. Earls 132.z . Extended use affliction, distress: mo lán-chreach ghéar a haicíd (of Ireland), O'Rah. 14.1 .

2 áige

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 áige or dil.ie/917

Forms: ága(e)

n also ága(e) io, m. Perh. same word as 1 á. post, prop, pillar: braga .i. bir-āga. āige ainm bir, Corm. Y 161 . aighe .i. sail no gabhal, O'Cl. dún . . . dorus umaide fair ┐ ágai umaidi and, LU 1793 . bertais . . . inna hágu umaidi, 1799 . cach aga cach airenach (of the Tech Midchuarda), LL 3704 . Extended uses. Of a person: cach óen nad beir genelach cosna cethrib agaib arddaib seo .i. co Niall la Hu Nēill, co hEochaid Mugmedoin etc., Rawl. 140b28 . imme, maith in taighe, / suides flaith cech tiri (of the king of Tara), Ériu v 232.16 . ba háge immairic cach fer dib seo pillar of battle, LU 1602 ( IT ii2 214.52 ). ?dal armairc gan all n-āighi / as tairgsin āirmhe ar nionaibh, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1919 v 93 § 33 . inmain áighe sútt `beloved chief', BColm. 36.16 . Frequ. in Fél. of saints: Pól apstol, ard áge, Fél. Prol. 119 (.i. calma, Fél.2, where Stokes suggests reading colma. Hence aighe .i. calma, O'Dav. 69 , O'Cl. citing Fél.). Benedict balc áge (: Árne), March 21 (.i. tuir, ib.). Pátraic prímdae áge, Nov. 2. comdíre do rig ┐ epscop ┐ agu rechta litre ┐ suid filed an authority in literary matters, ZCP xvi 175 § 4 . age rechta dilgetha .i. int og-ae aca mbi dirgidetu dilgeda, in fer leiginn .i. sai chanoine, Ériu xii 12.2 . a.¤ fine head of the family: cor focerdcar (leg. -tar) seach aga fine ada cora do beith oga, Laws iv 60.12 . co tuca cach a cond .i. a aige fine, i 80.29 Comm. leth coibche cach ingine dia haighe fine, iii 314.9 Comm. a.¤ réire judge: aighe rere .i. brethem, O'Dav. 19 . aighe réire ag breith fírbhreath (glossed aighe .i. sail no gabhal; réire .i. aosda .i. sail sheanoirde re breitheamhnas), Hard. ii 294.8 . Of a high place: fil dam aichne áige . . . benn B., Metr. Dinds. iv 70.1 . rodharcbla . . . isi cric domídigear rosc ┐ adsuighaidter criche frisin, ma rofeisear in da aighe derba bidé iman raind sin `this is the district estimated by the eye, boundaries are defined by these if the two certain heads which are to this division be known' (i.e. the eye fixes the boundary if two points of it remain i.e. by running a straight line between these points), Laws iv 144.5 Comm. is ed tainic a n-aige ┐ a n-ardde ant srotha co rochuired uadha na cairci commora, TTebe 3623 (Ed. takes as 1 aige). aighe .i. cnoc, O'Cl.

ar-léga

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ar-léga or dil.ie/4177
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: airlégaid, airlégend, arlega, airléch

v (* air-lég-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 561 ) reads out or aloud, recites . In O. Ir. glossing Lat. lego and compds. Later as simple vb. airlégaid. Vn. airlégend. arlega gl. recitat, Sg. 211b13 . intan arallegthar a briathar, Wb. 9b3 ; 18a24 . aralégatar gl. legendo, Sg. 213a9 . airléch gl. pellige, 24a14 . con arlégid si gl. ut . . . legatis, Wb. 27d14 . co[n]arlégthar gl. ut legatur, 25c30 . act arroilgither ind epistilse dúibsi . . . et doberthar ind æpistil . . . conárlægthar duibsi gl. et cum lecta fuerit . . . ut . . . legatur, 27d13 . condaarleg gl. uerba portauit, Ml. 43b14 . arléga P. in n-epistil, Trip.² 2689 . mad noeb aridléga `if he who recites it is holy', Fél. Ep. 178 . cuindig in epistil in domnaig . . . ┐ arusléga do dóinib domain, Ériu ii 204 § 22 . araléga (arléga, airleaga v.ll.) nascríba `thou shalt recite it', iii 108 § 56 . aralegasu fiadosom ind riaguil `thou shouldst read the Rule aloud in his presence', Mon. Tall. 160.12 (§ 78) . ardléga fer díb in n-ogum, LU 4807 (TBC) = ardolēga, TBC-I¹ 315 (cf. 1 ard compds.). airlegais in mac bec in n-ainm, LL 8622 ( TBC-LL¹ 1232 ). is asa medon airlegthar int ainm, Auraic. 5828 . erlegthar in epistil fo'n uli domun, PH 1174 . sliocht a chneadh an uair fhéaghthair / páis Dé is aisde airléaghthar, DDána 54.3 ; is understood, Sages, Saints and Storytellers 170 . no herleghta aca som hí gach día, BNnÉ 63 § 89 . o ro h-airléugaitt na litre , AFM vi 2334.12 .

Of sacrament, orders: ro erlég in mbathais administered baptism, Trip.² 94 . is é ró herleg gráda fair-seom ordained him, 302 . ro erlegh gradh righ for Aedh consecrated, AU i 500.16 . airleghfaidh an Coimde fein gradh nespuicc fort, BNnÉ 17.23 .

as-beir

Cite this: eDIL s.v. as-beir or dil.ie/4383
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: adeir, adubart, adebart, adébart, adobart, adóbart, -dubart, -ebert, -ebart, -ébart, -debart, -débart, -óbart, -dobart, -dóbart, adubart, adobart, adóbart, adébart, asbiur, -epiur, -epur, asbirsiu, asṁbirsiu, asbir, -apir, -epir, asbeir, asṁber, assidbeir, adbeir, atbeir, -epir, -epeir, -eiper, -eper, asberam, -eprem, asberid, asndonberat, asberar, asberr, asmberr, asber, -eperr, -aiperr, asbertar, -epertar, asrobair, asrobar, atrobair, asberinse, asberinn, asbered, asberad, atbeirmis, asbertis, asbeirtis, asberthe, asṅdanbertheni, epred, eprid, asber, -eper, asbere, asbera(su), asbera, atbera, asmberamni, asberaid, asberat, -epret, asberthar, -epert[h]ar, -erbora, -ǽrbara, -erbara, -érbarid, -érbarat, -ērbrat, asrobarthar, -érbarthar, asberin, asberinn, asbertha, -epertha, asberad, atberad, -epred, -epreid, -aipred, asbermis, -epertais, asberthe, asberthae, -eperthe, -erbartha, -erparta, asindrobrad, -ærbarad, -erbarad, asndarobartis, asbǽr, asbéer, asbér, -épéer, -epér, -eper, asbéra, asbéram, asbérat, asbérthar, asbertar, -erbǽra, -eperth, asbert, asmbert, -epert, asindbertatar, -epertatár, asbreth, asruburt, asidruburt, asidrubart, -ǽrburt, -erbort, asrubart, autrubert, asrubartmar, asrubartmmar, adrubartmar, arrubartait, asrubartatar, asinrubartat, -ærb[art]atar, asrobrad, asrobrath, -erbrad, -érbrath, -érbrad, atbiur, adbirsa, atberim, atiur, natiur-sa, tiur-sa, attear, atderim-sea, aderim, adearaim, adirim, -apur, -abbair, -apraim, -abraim, -dirim, at-beire, atberi, at-biri, natbere, ateri, adere, aderi, adir, -abbrai, -abra, atbeir, itbeir, atber, atbir, adbeir, adeir, ader, -abair, -abrann, atberam-ni, adearam, adireim-ne, adermait, idermaidne, adeirmíd, adearmuid, adirmid, -abramait, atberid, atberthe, atberthai-si, atberthi, itirid-si, -aparthi, -aparthai, -abraid, -aburth, atberat, adberuid, atberait, aderait, aderaid, adeirit, adeirid, -abraid, atberar, atberair, aderar, aderair, iderar, dearair, adirthir, adirthear, adeirthear, deirthear, -eperar, -ebarar, -apar, -abar, -aburar, -abairthear, -abarthar, atbered, adbered, atdeired, a-deireadh, conaprad, adeirdis, atberthea, adberta, atberte, aderthai, n-aburti, apursiu, apair, abbair, abair, aprad, abradh, apraid, abraid, aprit, abraid, abarthar, atber, -apror, -abra-sa, therar, ciadera, -eibre, -aprai, -apra, -abra, -erba, adbera, -epre, -eperta-som, -apra, -epram, -apraid, -abairthe, -abrat, -aprat, -ebarthar, -abartar, -abruinn, at-bertha, aderthe, -ebertha, -erbarta, erbartha, atberad, -ebrad, -aprad, -abradh, atbermais, aderdáis, -abbraitis, -hapraitis, -abartháoi, -erbrad, at-bēr, atér, adér, adéar, -eibér, -aibéar, atbēra, atbéra-su, adbera, -adéruir, atbera, adēra, adéara, adérus, -epri, -ebre, -aibéra, -aibeóraidh, adéaraim-ne, déaram, -aibéaram, atberat, adēraitt, -aibeórait, atdérthar, -habeórtar, adearainn, -eibrinn, atbertha, -ebertha, -aibeorta, ádertha, atbered, adberad, atberad, adéaradh, -ebéredh, -ébradh, -eibreadh, -aibeoradh, adéarmais, adiartáis, adérdáis, adéarthaoi, adéartha, -aibértaide, -aibeorthaoi, atbert, adbert, itbert, atbert sib, atbertatar, atbertar, atrubart, adrubairt, atrubairt, adrubairt, atrubartmar, atrubrumar, adrubramar, atrubrabar, atrubartatar, atrubratár, atrubartar, adrubrad, atrubrad, atubart, adubhart, adubairt, atubairt, gitubairt, dubairt, itubairt, adubert, dubairt, adubairt, duibhert, adeibairt, -dubhairt, -dobort, -dóbart, -debhairt, -debert, -débairt, -débuirt, adubramar, adubrumar, adubramair, dubrumur, -dubhramar, -dubhramair, -dobramair, -dobhramair, adubratar, dubrudar, -dubhradar, adubhradh, dubradh, -dubradh, -debhradh, -déabhradh, -óbart, -éabhart, -eabert, -ebert, -ebairt, -ébairt, -éabhairt, -ebradar, -ebrad, -ebrath, -ébrad, condérbairt, -derbertatar, asroepred, atbertus, adubartus, atbertais, adubartais, adobhartois, -ebartais, -dhébartais, atbertsat, asbertsit, atbertsatar, -epertsat, -ebertsat, -ebirtsit, adubortas, -ebras, -erbertus, atrubairtais, -erbortaiss, atrubhairtset, epert, abairt, abarta

v (* ess-ber-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 466 ). IGT Verbs § 6 . In the prot. -epir there is some fluctuation between e- and a-, see GOI p. 54 , 508 and forms infra.

In Mid. Ir. a form atbeir (prot. -epir, -ap(a)ir) replaces as-beir, see GOI p. 268 . Later this becomes a(t)deir (prot. -apair) and is the usual form in late Mid. and Mod. Ir. Occasionally adeir (sometimes deir) is given the endings of a simple verb, see infra. The early conjugation (ā-subj., ē-fut., t-pret.) continues with Mid. Ir. personal endings. In the pret. new stem-formations appear: adubart (< adrubart); adebart, adébart (? conflation of adubart and -epert); adobart, adóbart. In depend. position -dubart; -ebert, -ebart, -ébart, -debart, -débart; -óbart, -dobart, -dóbart. In classical verse (IGT loc. cit.) adubart, adobart alliterate with d; adóbart, adébart with a vowel and with d.

Early forms. Indic. pres. 1 s. asbiur, Wb. 8a9 . -epiur, Wb. 4b26 . -epur, 5a31 . 2 s. asbirsiu, Wb. 12d17 . asṁbirsiu, Sg. 208b5 . asbir, 66b10 . -apir, ibid. -epir, TBC-LL¹ 1763 . 3 s. asbeir, Wb. 5a1 . asṁber, 10b13 . With rel. inf. pron. assidbeir, 20a10 . With neut. inf. pron. adbeir, 5a11 . atbeir, 10d5 . -epir, ibid. -epeir, 17d11 . -eiper, 33b7 . -eper, Ml. 69a21 . 1 pl. asberam, Ml. 14a19 . Sg. 55b1 . -eprem, Sg. 208a7 . 2 pl. asberid, Wb. 5a31 . 3 pl. with rel. inf. pron. asndonberat, Wb. 2a12 . Pass. sg. asberar, Wb. 3c21 . asberr, 21c7 . asmberr, 33a18 . asber, Ml. 110d16 , 114a2 . -eperr, Sg. 73a11 . -aiperr, Ml. 14d13 . Pass. pl. asbertar, Wb. 28a20 ; Ml. 123c8 . -epertar, Sg. 3b6 . With inf. ro: 3 s. asrobair, Sg. 198a18 . ? asrobar, Ml. 17b23 . With inf. neut. pron. atrobair, Sg. 190b4 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. asberinse, Ml. 54c26 ; asberinn, 91b10 . 3 s. asbered, Wb. 15a18 ; Ml. 54c18 , 23 , 55c17 ; asberad, 53d6 . 1 pl. With neut. inf. pron. atbeirmis, Wb. 26b19 . 3 pl. asbertis, Wb. 25b27 . asbeirtis, 4c23 , Ml. 106d3 . Pass. sg. asberthe, Thes. i 492.25 . With inf. pron. 1 pl. asṅdanbertheni, Ml. 114a7 .

Ipv. 3 s. epred, Wb. 10a16 . 2 pl. eprid, TBFr. 396 . TBC-I¹ 1570 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. asber, Wb. 16a24 . -eper, 32a20 . 2 s. asbere, Wb. 12d13 . asbera(su), Sg. 209d30 . 3 s. asbera, Wb. 22b23 . With inf. neut. pron. atbera, 12a4 . 1 pl. asmberamni, Wb. 2a13 . 2 pl. asberaid, Wb. 7d10 . 3 pl. asberat, Wb. 1d1 . -epret, Wb. 7d8 . Pass. sg. asberthar, Wb. 10a12 . -epert[h]ar, Wb. 5a5 . With inf. ro 1 s. -erbora, LU 6659 (TBC). 2 s. -ǽrbara, Sg. 209b30 . -erbara, LL 286a1 . 2 pl. -érbarid, Wb. 13c13 ; 15d6 . 3 pl. -érbarat, Wb. 27c8 . -ērbrat, Sc.M² 1R . Pass. sg. asrobarthar, Thes. ii 17.34 . -érbarthar, Wb. 10d13 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. asberin, Wb. 14c23 ; asberinn, 17b1 . 2 s. asbertha, Sg. 217b15 . -epertha, TBC-LL¹ 2161 . 3 s. asberad, Wb. 13a13 , 19 ; Ml. 59a7 , 67a8 , 95b7 . With inf. pron. 3 s. n. atberad, Ml. 62c2 . -epred, 28b11 , 69a21 . -epreid, 70a6 . -aipred, 33c17 . 1 pl. asbermis, Wb. 18a18 . 3 pl. -epertais, Ml. 28d8 . Pass. sg. asberthe, Wb. 15d20 . asberthae, Ml. 77a6 . -eperthe, Wb. 19a5 ; 23d25 . With inf. ro 2 s. -erbartha (-erbarta v.l.), Alex. 829 . -erparta, BB 498a4 . 3 s. with rel. inf. pron. asindrobrad, Ml. 50b8 . -ærbarad, Ml. 31b20 , 24 . -erbarad, SR 5642 . 3 pl. asndarobartis, Ml. 31b22 .

Fut. 1 s. asbǽr, Ml. 91b10 . asbéer, Wb. 32a22 . asbér, TBFr. 168 . -épéer, Wb. 32a20 . -epér, SR 1309 . -eper, PH 2382 . 3 s. asbéra, Wb. 12d6 . 1 pl. asbéram, Wb. 17c23 . 3 pl. asbérat, Wb. 12d12 . Pass. sg. asbérthar, TBFr. 177 . Pass. pl. asbertar, Sg. 73b8 . With inf. ro 3 s. -erbǽra, ZCP vii 484.25 (Enchir. Aug.).

Condit. pass. sg. -eperth, Ml. 127d14 .

Pret. 3 s. asbert, Ml. 16c10 , Thes. ii 241.12 ; 242.3 , 6 . asmbert, Ml. 58c6 , 124d9 . -epert, Thes. ii 242.15 (Ardm.). 3 pl. with rel. inf. pron. asindbertatar, Ml. 124d9 . -epertatár, LU 8079 ( FB 5 ). Pass. sg. asbreth, Ériu iii 137.52 .

Perf. 1 s. asruburt, Sg. 91a3 , Ml. 50d7 . With rel. inf. pron. asidruburt, Sg. 58b1 , 75b2 . asidrubart, Ml. 3a15 , 66c1 . -ǽrburt, 44b19 . 2 s. -erbort. Ériu xii 166 § 5 (TE). 3 s. asrubart, Wb. 4d16 , autrubert, Thes. ii 246.14 (Cambr.). -érbart, Wb. 13c12 . 1 pl. asrubartmar, Wb. 8d26 . asrubartmmar, Sg. 55b5 . adrubartmar, 197b16 . 2 pl. arrubartait (sic), RC iii 345.16 . 3 pl. asrubartatar, Wb. 18d1 . With rel. inf. pron. asinrubartat, Ml. 131d12 . -ærb[art]atar, 29a4 . Pass. sg. asrobrad, Wb. 3c31 , 5a4 , 10d8 , 12d26 , 33b16 . asrobrath, Ériu ii 104 § 15 . -erbrad, Wb. 32c8 , -érbrath, Sg. 220a10 . -érbrad, Ériu iii 137.52 . -éabrad, Celtica xiii 13.248 .

Later forms. Indic. pres. 1 s. atbiur, TBC-LL¹ 610 . adbirsa, Mon. Tall. 154.23 . atberim, SR 1873 . atiur, TBC-LL¹ 2990 etc., natiur-sa, 4269 . tiur-sa, 2975 . attear, 3180 . atderim-sea, 4403 . aderim, PH 2760 . adearaim, DDána 113.29 . adirim (: eisinill), IGT Verbs ex. 84 . -apur, Mon. Tall. 140.24 . -abbair, Ériu ii 92 § 6 . -apraim, PH 2188 . -abraim, TSh. 2694 . -dirim, Content. xxix 10 . 2 s. at-beire, SR 1268 . atberi, Trip.² 584 . at-biri, Sc.M² 3 . natbere, TBC-LL¹ 1679 . ateri, MU 420 . adere, PH 2712 . aderi, 2705 . adir (: fir), IGT Verbs ex. 83 . -abbrai, Ériu iv 98.7 . -abra, DDána 37.17 . 3 s. atbeir, SR 4169 . itbeir, Trip.² 64 . atber, TBC-LL¹ 430 . atbir, 1222 . adbeir, ZCP viii 109.10 . adeir, PH 2714 . ader, 2688 . -abair, TSh. 127 . -abrann (: cablom), IGT Verbs ex. 87 . 1 pl. atberam-ni, TBC-LL¹ 5017 . adearam, DDána 42.30 . adireim-ne, 70.1 . adermait, PH 2685 . idermaidne, YBL 142b19 . adeirmíd, TSh. 5863 . adearmuid (: dhuid), Dán Dé xv 22 . adirmid (: sirmid), IGT Verbs ex. 76 . -abramait, PH 2666 . 2 pl. atberid, PH 297 . atberthe, TBC-LL¹ 861 . atberthai-si, 1959 . atberthi, PH 5268 . itirid-si, TBC-LL¹ 1636 . -aparthi, PH 5268 . -aparthai, 2362 . -abraid, -aburth, CCath. 601 . 3 pl. atberat, Trip.² 1175 . TBC-LL¹ 2659 . adberuid, Laws i 34.4 Comm. atberait, PH 6985 . aderait, 2676 . aderaid, CCath. 1700 . adeirit, Ériu xv 14 § 1 . adeirid, TSh. 751 . -abraid, 2514 . Pass. sg. atberar, BDD² 582 . TBC-LL¹ 843 etc. atberair, PH 2870 . aderar, 7396 . aderair, 7345 . iderar, CCath. 722 . dearair, DDána 48.10 . adirthir (: sligthiph), IGT Verbs ex. 93 . adirthear, DDána 78.12 adeirthear, TSh. 2515 . deirthear, 5652 . -eperar, Laws ii 254.6 . -ebarar, ACL iii 247.5 . -apar, MU² 265 . TBC-LL¹ 1148 . -abar, DDána 23.18 . -aburar, Maund. 8 . -abairthear, Ó Héodhusa 50.16 . -abarthar, TSh. 1924 .

Indic. impf. 3 s. atbered, TBFr. 223 . adbered, Ériu i 46.10 . atdeired, TBC-LL¹ 2854 . a-deireadh, DDána 52.17 . conaprad, Ériu iv 32.4 . 3 pl. adeirdis, Maund. 16 . Pass. sg. atberthea, TBC-LL¹ 1453 . adberta, Ériu ii 176.5 . atberte, CCath. 4446 . aderthai, Irish Texts i 22 § 5 . frisi n-aburti , Ann. Conn. 1310.3 .

Ipv. 2 s. apursiu, Mon. Tall. 150.22 . apair, TBFr. 323 . abbair, SR 1213 etc. abair, PH 351 . 3 s. aprad, PH 1768 . abradh, Ériu xv 14 § 5 . 2 pl. apraid, TBFr. 144 . abraid, Ériu iv 140.18 . aprit si, Mon. Tall. 131.31 . 3 pl. abraid, RSClára 7b . Pass. sg. abarthar, RSClára 4a .

Subj. pres. 1 s. atber, Ériu v 30.4 . -apror, LU 6662 (TBC). -abrur, LB 141a28 . -abra-sa (abru-sa v.l.), CCath. 3340 . cia therar , Ériu i 227.5 . 2 s. ciadera, Metr. Dinds. iv 356.58 . -eibre, Laws iv 108.1 . -aprai, Fing. R. 381 . -apra (-aprae v.l.), CCath. 4209 . -abra, PH 431 . -erba, 3155 . 3 s. adbera, Laws i 120.27 Comm. -epre, Ériu iii 106 § 41b . ? -eperta-som, TBC-LL¹ 2153 . -apra, IT i 128.26 . 1 pl. -epram, PH 6887 . 2 pl. -apraid, LU 4009 ( SCC 45 ). -abairthe, TTr.² 337 . 3 pl. -abrat, Sc.M² R 20 . -aprat, PH 7891 . Pass. sg. -ebarthar (- erbarthar MS), Ériu iv 24.3 . -abartar, RSClára 103a .

Subj. impf. 1 s. -abruinn, KMMisc. 354.17 . 2 s. at-bertha, Sc.M² 3 . TBC-LL¹ 1730 . aderthe, ZCP vii 301 § 7 . -ebertha, TBC-LL¹ 1730 . -erbarta, Anecd. v 2.10 = erbartha, Alex. 829 . 3 s. atberad, LU 2511 . -ebrad, IT i 175.16 . -aprad, Fing. R. 30 . -abradh, TSh. 2509 . 1 pl. atbermais, Trip.² 63 . 3 pl. aderdáis, Fianaig. 70.27 . -abbraitis, TBC-LL¹ 3592 . -hapraitis, 3291 . Pass. sg. -abartháoi, RSClára 77b . With inf. ro 3 s. -erbrad, IT i 175.31 .

Fut. 1 s. at-bēr, Fing. R. 971 . atér, LL 298b40 . adér, BNnÉ 252 § 207 . adéar, DDána 67.7 . -eibér, FDG² 57 . -aibéar (: caigéal), Content. xxiv 10 . 2 s. atbēra, SR 8133 . atbéra-su, Trip.² 1141 . adbera, Laws i 302.26 Comm. -adéruir, Laud 610, fo. 18d (cited from Plummer MS notes). 3 s. atbera, PH 2038 . adēra, ZCP viii 212.23 . adéara, DDána 29.24 . rel. adérus, RSClára 152a . -epri, LU 2513 . -ebre, IGT Verbs ex. 82 (subj. ?). -aibéra, ZCP viii 212.30 . -aibeóraidh, TSh. 534 . 1 pl. adéaraim-ne, DDána 67.35 . déaram, ML 120.15 . -aibéaram, DDána 95.18 . 3 pl. atberat, TBC-LL¹ 1613 . adēraitt, RSClára 22a . -aibeórait, 14a . Pass. sg. atdérthar, RC xx 12 § 21 . -habeórtar, Maund. 268 .

Condit. 1 s. adearainn, DDána 59.26 . -eibrinn (: deighgreim), IGT Verbs ex. 91 . 2 s. atbertha, TBC-LL¹ 1730 . -ebertha, 1730 . -aibeorta, TBC-LL¹ p. 221 n.4 . ádertha, ibid. 3 s. atbered, SR 5903 . adberad, CCath. 754 . atberad, 755 . adéaradh, DDána 94.13 . -ebéredh, BNnÉ 323 § 33 . -ébradh (: érlam), IGT Verbs ex. 86 . -eibreadh (: fleadh), ex. 81 . -aibeoradh, Keat. i 62.17 . 1 pl. adéarmais, DDána 99.43 . 3 pl. adiartáis, TBC-LL¹ 4018 . adérdáis, ZCP viii 223.20 . Pass. sg. adéarthaoi, DDána 21.22 . adéartha, 11.33 . -aibértaide, Maund. 55 . -aibeorthaoi, Keat. i 234.16 .

Pret. and perf.

(a) 3 s. atbert, Trip.² 168 . TBC-LL¹ 962 etc. adbert, Mon. Tall. 136.18 . itbert, CCath. 412 . 2 pl. atbert sib, PH 1384 . 3 pl. atbertatar, TBC-LL¹ 456 etc. atbertar, TTr.² 560 .

(b) 1 s. atrubart, PH 1548 . 3 s. adrubairt, Anecd. i 11.13 ( -a(i)rt, SCano 309 ). atrubairt, SR 1325 . adrubairt, Trip.² 554 . 1 pl. atrubartmar, CCath. 2865 . atrubrumar, PH 554 . adrubramar, 3460 . 2 pl. atrubrabar, PH 2774 . 3 pl. atrubartatar, LL 401b42 . atrubratár, TBC-LL¹ 2076 . atrubartar, TTr. 422 . Pass. sg. adrubrad. Trip.² 1392 . atrubrad, PH 107 .

(c) 1 s. atubart, TBC-LL¹ 4110 . adubhart, DDána 39.14 . 3 s. adubairt, TBC-LL¹ 1494 . atubairt, 956 . gitubairt, 3764 (ce dubairt , v.l.). itubairt, RC xlvi 227.19 . adubert, ZCP xiii 182.26 . dubairt, PH 7464 . adubairt, IGT Verbs ex. 80 . duibhert, Rel. Celt. ii 190.33 . adeibairt (idubairtt v.l.), Ériu ii 184.16 . -dubhairt, TSh. 3198 . -dobort (: comolc), IGT Verbs ex. 88 . -dóbart (: cródhacht), ex. 89 . -debhairt, CCath. 421 . -debert, RC xiv 46 § 54 . -débairt, TTr.² 245 . -débuirt (: énuilc), IGT Verbs ex. 75 . 1 pl. adubramar (atrubhamar v.l.), CCath. 2641 . adubrumar, Laws i 92.9 Comm. adubramair, 42.21 Comm. dubrumur, 142.27 Comm. -dubhramar, TSh. 1158 . -dubhramair, 99 . -dobramair (: gormlannaig), IGT Verbs ex. 79 . -dobhramair, DDána 101.25 . 3 pl. adubratar, PH 2679 . dubrudar, RC xlix 5 § 2 . -dubhradar, TSh. 3210 . Pass. sg. adubhradh, DDána 21.7 . má dubradh , IGT Verbs ex. 80 . -dubradh (: chunnradh), ex. 90 . -debhradh, Lism. L. 3310 . -déabhradh (: téarnamh), DDána 108.3 .

(d) 1 s. -óbart, IGT Verbs ex. 85 . -éabhart, Content. viii 4 . 3 s. -eabert, Ériu ii 186.13 . -ebert, CCath. 4061 . -ebairt, TBC-LL¹ 137 . -ébairt (: mérailt), IGT Verbs ex. 74 . -éabhairt, DDána 97.24 . 3 pl. -ebradar, Ériu ii 180.10 , Pass. sg. -ebrad, Fing. R. 1030 . -ebrath, ZCP viii 313.30 . -ébrad, IT i 132.19 .

(e) 3 s. condérbairt, TTr.² 1764 . 3 pl. -derbertatar, BS 50.30 . Pass. sg. asroepred, Mon. Tall. 159.4 .

Pret. and perf. with s-pret. endings. 1 s. atbertus, PH 1517 . adubartus, 1785 . 2 s. atbertais, TBC-LL¹ 1414 . adubartais, PH 3332 . adobhartois, Desid. 799 . -ebartais, Fen. 300. x . -dhébartais, ZCP viii 552.14 . 3 pl. atbertsat, LU 9223 ( FB § 77 ). asbertsit, Alex. 690 . atbertsatar, PH 2743 . -epertsat, PH 750 . -ebertsat, 2305 . -ebirtsit, TBC-LL¹ p. 649 n.7 . Pass. sg. adubortas (: bfoltchas), IGT Verbs ex. 78 . -ebras, Ériu vii 225.6 .

Also 1 s. -erbertus, PH 4958 . 2 s. atrubairtais, PH 5046 . -erbortaiss, Ériu xii 166.30 (TE). 3 pl. atrubhairtset, Leb. Gab.(i) 244.9 .

Vn. epert. abairt, IGT Verbs § 6 .

Part. of necess. abarta, Anecd. ii 20 § 4 .

Says, speaks (folld. by direct obj., verbal clause or vn. clause): dogníthe a n-asbered Moysi, Wb. 15a18 . arna epret is ara miscuis in cúrsachad, 7d8 . ní arindí asndarobartis . . . inna briathra hisin, Ml. 31b22 . atbeir C. . . . inní so, Trip.² 10 . in ferand . . . a n-apar a mbith, 43 . ní abbair acht fírinne `I say only the truth', Ériu ii 92.15 . intan promthar epred ced, ZCP vii 312 § 24 . asrubairt ni regad co rrucad mo chendsa, TBC-I¹ 1219 . adbert co ndingnead, Ériu ii 180.9 . brat an druadh adir an leabhar / 'na smual ón tigh theineadh, Dán Dé xii 23 . dā n-abruinn gurab dubh an fíach, / adēardis Laighnigh gur geal, KMMisc. 354.17 . ná habair 's ní aibéar-sa / m'ainm, Dánta Gr. 95.13 . adeirid uile, crochtar é, TSh. 3196 . an madradh adeir sé do bheith i n-ifreann, 1030 . an dream adeirmíd do mharthain quos vivere dicimus, 5863 . In phrase a.¤ bréithir (bríathar) gives one's word: asbir mo bríathar . . . beith ré dosom ría n-ecaib ┐ ní dognéa . . . `by my word', Mon. Tall. 141.6 . natiur-sa brethir manu thísat . . . is missi conairgeba bás, TBC-LL¹ 4269 . asbiur mo bréithir . . . narb' ail damh nech d'anacal, RC xxvii 268 § 16 . In sense of orders, commands: asbert Colmán a scor reme C. ordered it to cease, BColm. 58.22 . má adubhairt cairt a roinn ribh / an tírse `if some charter orders you to divide this country', Aithd. D. 30.32 . céard gach fhir do dhíol adeir he orders the craft of every man to be rewarded, DDána 91.45 . adeirim ris an saoghal cromadh, TSh. 190 . sings, chants Celtica xxi 62 : co n-ebert an laoidh, BS 17.487 .

With prepp. With FRI says to, calls: amal asindbertatar som fris, Ml. 124d9 . is sain indí asidrubart ┐ indí frisa n-érbrath, Sg. 220a10 . asbert D. fri Pátricc, Thes. ii 241.12 . eprid frie for toisc, TBFr. 396 . Rí frisin-erbairt in slúag, SR 7689 . Conall C. atubrad rium-sa do gabáil ann `I was told that C. would settle there', Ériu xvi 67.93 . ní apur frit ol M. ní fodgní lind `I do not tell thee (to do so) says M., such is not our practice', Mon. Tall. 140.24 . notaitchim ar Dia . . . co n-erba rind . . ., PH 3155 . adbirsa fritsa cuicc bliadna dec pendi `I pronounce upon thee fifteen years of penance', Mon. Tall. 154.23 . apraid ríu . . . anat dina cuínib co fodailter dóib, TBFr. 144 . coimhlíonaid . . . mar a dubhradh riú `as it hath byn commanded them', RSClára 114b . is airi asbiur frit stultam, Wb. 8a9 . as uime adeirthear neamhghlan rú this is why they are said to be impure, IGT Introd. 5.12 . Druim C. risa n-apar Áni Clíach which is called, MU² 294 . as ris aderthai Mac Duinnshleibhe, L. Chl. S. 17 . mac do Fíachaig Mullet[h]an risinnabar Fer da Líach, ZCP viii 303.29 . an ced earnail dib re nabar morbus uniuersalis, RC xlix 3.4 .

With DO gives as a name to, applies to, calls: conna epreid ainm dia ndoib, Ml. 70a6 . ání as deus is du folud nephchumscaigthiu asberr, 110d16 . conepertar doib ylementa , Sg. 3b6 . ní eperr acht hilar dóib `only the plural is used of them', 73a11 . cid ara n-eperr fer midboth don[d] ḟi[u]r so ? Críth G. 30 . is hé in suide itberar doib, Trip.² 40 .

With DI calls: is de atberthe in siriti de ara met no delbad i n-ilrechtaib, LU 9008 ( FB 75 ). is airi adberta Furbaide de, Ériu ii 176.5 . cia tugaid ara n-ebarar berla tobaide din Gaedilg ?, Auraic. 2.10 . Says of: issed asberedsom desuidiu `this is what he used to say of this', Mon. Tall. 142.18 . is don ingen siu atrubrath cruth cach co hEtain, IT i 120.12 . conadh aire atberar in foranmach de .i. Nuada Find Feimin, ZCP xiii 197.15 . cé dearaid cách éag re hadhart / d'onchoin R. . . ., Magauran 1172 .

With ó names from: iar marbhadh . . . Charolusa . . . ó n-abarthar cloidheamh Charolusa from whom the sword of C. is named, Ériu i 80 § 8 . cia ó ndubhradh ainm gacha litre , IGT Introd. § 1.4 . Féine ó Fhéinius atbearta, Keat. ii 319 . Aed mac . . . Fergail on abar h. Fergail, Ann. Conn. 1232.2 .

beithe-luis(-nin)

Cite this: eDIL s.v. beithe-luis(-nin) or dil.ie/5598

Forms: beithe luis

n Ogam alphabet (denoted by the opening letters b, l, (n), lit. birch-quicken (-ash). In IGT beithe luis is usu. to be translated Gaelic alphabet. See Meroney, loc. cit. supra 19 . beithi-luis-nion ainm aipgitri an ogaim, Auraic. 2806. aranic Aimergin . . . an bethi-luis-nin (in mbeithi-luis, 252 ) an ogaim, 2573 . atat dano di ernail forsin beithi-luis-nin in oghaim .i. feadha ┐ taebomnai, 392 . nion connsuine as lía modha san bheithe l., IGT Introd. 5.3 . aicme na bfoirfheadh do réir shuidhighthi an bheithe luis, ib. 33 . Distinguished from the ogham iomagallmha ( = current spelling ?): atáid cóig aicme chúigir san bh. l. ┐ gér lór trí litre .xx. san ogham iomagallmha, 3.22 .

biait

Cite this: eDIL s.v. biait or dil.ie/5826

n f. (Lat. beati)

(a) Of the 8 beatitudes , Matthew v 3 - 10 : ropridchai . . . .uiii. biate euangelii doib, Thes. ii 330.10 (Hy. v Comm.). doraiga cach ai dib a b.¤ `each of them chose her beatitude', 11 . ro pritcha Ísu na biaiti aile iar n-urd cusin ochtmad mb.¤ .i. co b.¤ in ingrema, PH 1619 - 20 . ocht mbiati (mbiete, 117.1) int soscēla, MacCongl. 51.7 . intí chomalnas na bieitiso, Ériu xxiii 14.131 .

(b) Of Psalms cxviii (Beati immaculati etc.) used as a ritual form of prayer and intercession; see Lism. L. p. 406 , V. SS. Hib. clxxix n.2 . beatus uir resin beat ┐ in biat ┐ exultabo te deus meus `before the Beati (Ps. 118) and the Beati and Exaltabo ...', Hib. Min. 6.193 . (metr. disyll.) cet slechtain do fri biat, Ériu i 193 § 3a . do beir in biat anmain a hiffurn hi cind bliadna, Rawl. 75a40 . līn fers na biate in sein gl. sechmoga sē passe ar chēt, ZCP iii 20 n.5 . sirgabail na biaide ┐ cantaci Maire .i. magnificat , Mon. Tall. 127.3 . gaibti seom tra teora biadi . . . biad cech cáocad `three Beati . . . a Beati to each fifty' (psalms), 129.8.9 . biad iarmergi iarum ┐ magnificat lee `then the Beati of nocturns, and along with it the Magnificat', Mon. Tall. 131.3 . nodlēice . . . for gabāil a hēcnarca .i. secht ṁbiate cech lāi leis [┐] cēt slēchtain [7] na trī chōicait cech lái leis, KMMisc. 210 § 4. ag rádh tri caibdel don Biaid, Lism. L. 1095. ig gabhail a Bhiaide, 4846 . in bíait cech dia ar m'anmainse, LL 36272. cid as mō dot-tessairc . . . in b.¤ or sisi, KMMisc. 212 § 5. ag binnghabháil a bíáidæ, Ériu v 86.17 .

In phr. bélre (bérla) bán b.¤ (also with bias, cf. beatus ? Later taken as fut. rel. of attá) `the pure language of the Beati', Celtica v 84 § 8 , i.e. Latin; usually of scriptural law or canon (orig. breth bélri báin b.¤ ), see MacNeill, Law of Status ( PRIA xxxvi C 16 (1923) 277 n. 5 ), Mac Cana, Stud. Celt. v 67. Somet. in shortened form bélre mbán: berla ban bias .i. recht litre , Laws i 16.4 Comm. do aircechnadur do icfa in berla mban mbiaid .i. canoin, O'Curry 758 (H. 3.18, 358b), cf. bélre bán biaid . . . .i. . . . in fírbérla bias iardain .i. in légenn, O'Dav. 711. bret feni ┐ breth filed ┐ breath berla bain bias, Laws v 92.17 . doridnacht recht bérlai báin / do Moyse, Ériu iv 136.7 . do fir in berlai buain .i. inna canoni náimi, RC vi 165.14 . In blessings: tria mberla mbán bendachais gach ndámh do (= dá) cheile, Anecd. i 72 § 193. beirsi let a gille glain / mo biait is mo bhennachtain, Reeves Ad. 287.10 . See bélrae.

boing

Cite this: eDIL s.v. boing or dil.ie/6313

Forms: -edh

n = búain. b.¤ f. (g p. -edh), IGT Decl. § 14.

(a) oc b.¤ ( ic buain, TBC St. 1264 ) na fertas, TBC-LL¹ 1402 = fertse . . . do béim, LU 5256. saoir uirre ag buing beathadhach workmen carving animal figures on it (i.e. an oaken beam), Ériu v 62.4 . ag buing litre óir ar eing, IGT Decl. ex. 143. gan bhuing n-arbha gach achaidh, Magauran 2826 . b.¤ in ḟeadha a ḟúaslagadh, IGT Decl. ex. 743. gan t'fhuireach ré a bhláth do bh.¤ `to pluck its blossom', Ériu viii 195 § 2. buing céad laoch i n-a láimh `his hand could smite down', A. Ó Dálaigh lv 12. Fig. atúsa . . . / dom buing do bhithin t'eachtra / i ttuinn fhichidh mh'aigeanta `I . . . am torn . . . in the boiling wave of my mind', Studies 1921, 75 § 13 .

In phr. b.¤ béime: dá d[h]íothludh ar bh.¤ mbéime `which protects him from being insulted', O'Hara 2050. ní b.¤ bhéime ar mhoigh Mháidhe `it is no reflection on', 2036 . dá bh.¤ as an mbéim saving him from reproach, IGT Decl. ex. 762. níor bhuing dot éigse `is no insult to your profession', Content. ix 19.

(b) act of exacting, levying: cech airchindech fritai in les-sa do b.¤ , O'D. 989 (H. 3.17, 853) `who resists the enforcement of this right', Plummer MS. notes.

(c) With prepp.: do ghaois-se a broid ag a mb.¤ rescuing them from bondage, DDána 74.35 . sgéith don tuinn . . . / do bhuing h'ardtolcha as mh'amharc `that the teeming of the . . . ocean . . . should snatch . . .' (addressing Éire), Gadelica 12 § 7 . do b.¤ breatha dind, YBL 173b41 . do bh.¤ (a) eallaigh d'Uilliam `to obtain cattle from W.', Ériu v 66.16 . gan trubhus gan bróig do b.¤ / ar turus don chloinn óig ḟind without taking off, IGT Decl. ex. 724. ní fédthor b.¤ dhóibh a ndeaphaidh `to rival them in battle', O'Hara 1063. b.¤ fa dhuais do dháil to set about bestowing rewards, 2593 . b.¤ fá chéimeannaibh cogaidh `to take to steps of wars', Miscell. Celt. Soc. 354.12 .

1 cenn

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cenn or dil.ie/8622
Last Revised: 2020

Forms: cend, ch., cenna, ciunn, cinn, cenda, cinnu, cind, cind, cinnu, cionn, ceann, cionn, cionn, ceinn

n o, n., later m. n p. cend, LU 9385 . ? a p. ch.¤ , Sg. 54a11 . n a p. usually cenna. On d s. ciunn, cinn see GOI 177 . For masc. infl. in pl. cf. a p. cenda, TBC-I¹ 483 = cinnu, LU 4970 . n p. cind, FA 22 LB. cind `chiefs', Laws v 440.23 . a p. cinnu, LL 8132 . In later lang. both cionn (O. Ir. ciunn) and ceann occur in d s. (see Donl., Párl. na mB.), the former mainly in fixed prepositional expressions (ós cionn , etc.). a s. cionn, Beatha S. F. 2567 . g s. ceinn, Párl. na mB. 535 , n p. Keat. i 196.15 . IGT Decl. § 65 .

Note also: for ar ceinn, Vita Br. 24 . in ch.¤ cleasach . . . Tesifóne, MR 168.6 . iar ndenamh creiche chinne maghair (n. loc.), AFM iv 1356.6 .

I The human head, head of an animal .

1 cend a uerbo graeco .i. gennome (γίνομαι) .i. nascor, O'Mulc. 217 . donchind gl. capiti, Gild. Lor. 102 . du-uic in foiltne i ndiad in chínn, Ml. 84c24 . mani roima fora c.¤ ní mema forsna bullu, 89c11 . beim a cinn fri cloich, 139c3 . ammi corp do Crist et is c.¤ som duunni, Wb. 5d2 . airmitiu féid in chinn, 7d14 . cen chaille fora ciunn, 11c9 . in boill dó ass ón chiunn, 22a17 . adart foch., Sg. 198a10 . dim chinn, Blathm. 95 § 17 . oc folcad chinn a athar, Vita Br. 15 . airecc cinn Iohannis, Fél. Feb. 27 . contt cēill ciunn curp in sense, reason, head and body , ZCP vi 258.10 . rochromsat a ccinnu, ZCP xiv 234.5 . imruidbed mo tenga as mo chind, Ériu ii 102 § 9 . madit a shuili inna cinn, 122 § 61 . amhuil chinn ina bhalluibh, Luc. Fid. 3454 . Of a head of hair: ceinn-fhionna (sic) do bhíodh ar fhearaibh Éireann re n-a linn `white heads', Keat. i 196.15 (see cenann).

2 In phrase with follg. gen. forming n. pr.: Coirpri Cind cait Cathead , Cóir Anm. 241 . C.¤ Fáelad Wolfhead , see Corp. Gen. 541 - 2 . Cend Ghegain, IT iii 101 § 183 . Finguine mac Laeghaire Cenngégain, Cog. 18 (see also s.v. cinnchucán). Eochaidh cendmhairc Horsehead , Miscell. Celt. Soc. 6.8 . da ingin dec ailella cind nathrach Snakehead , Rawl. 134b18 .

3 Of the head cut off in battle: fris-cithsead far cenna díb, BDD² 869 . tri laíchcind . . . im chend do chétmeic, LL 13149 (Sc.M2). co fargaibhset xl c.¤ lais, AFM i 498.2 . So in phr. ár c.¤ = ár: co fargaibset ár cend aicce, LL 2536 . cor' ben a ngabala dib ┐ ár cend leo, RC xvii 354.4 .

4 Attrib. g s.: na heónu / cosna ceólu cinn-sin (sic leg.) shrill notes, Metr. Dinds. iv 214.68 . Cf. gotha cinn . . . ag báinealtoin, Ir. Syll. Poetry 71 § 5 . See Études Celt. iv 397 . iter chosa cinn ┐ cos[a] tóna front legs , Thr. Ir. Gl. 26 . nocha bán-bhéim acht cneadh chinn head-wound, serious wound , Miscell. Celt. Soc. 162.9 . ? secht ccumala cinn, Ériu xiii 22.24 . gilla cinn eich gl. auriga, Ir. Gl. 17 . laicce chinn, RSClára 4a . go mbeith rith chinn ré fānaidh aco ar gach n-aon eile would completely outdistance, would utterly rout(?), Párl. na mB. 99 .

Vendryes, Études Celt. iv 397 , cites BDD² 886 and We. parallels in support of a meaning mouth.

5 In various idiomatic phrases: ro héige in ben nert a cind at the top of her voice, SR 3215 . conā fāgad inad a chind for bith that he might find no abiding-place, TBC-I¹ 2214 . o cionn co fonn from tip to toe, Blathm. 152 . nom-loiscc eter chend is choiss completely , Ériu vii 223 § 34 . dia cennaib ┐ cosaib utterly, entirely , LB 115b42 . bein cinn fri hald `striking a head against a cliff' (of wasted labour), RC xii 96 § 127 . co ro benad a tech dia chind `unroofed his house', RC xxiv 46 § 4 . roloiscedh . . . a ndúin . . . ina cendaibh, Ériu v 158.215 . a ndiaidh a gcinn headlong , Donlevy xviii 25 . an ceann fá dhruim head first (coffin lowered into grave), Dán Dé xxix 7 . co mbiat cend ar díb cendaib (of a fierce battle), TTr.² 907 . ar ba `c.¤ i mbolg' . . . do ṡil Adhuimh were in complete ignorance, Ériu ii 98 § 1 = ba-c.¤ a-coim, RC xxiv 369.6 , cf. Études Celt. vi 201 . cend i cotlud a peaceful death(?), Ériu ii 118 § 54 . ? ní bheinn teann ar chlíabh a cill / sní bhíadh mo cheann a cuigind, IGT Decl. ex. 1400 . c.¤ a ngabal `head in fork' (bad behaviour in a horse), Laws iii 180.18 Comm. c.¤ i láp see láp. c.¤ i, fo muine see 1 muine. ? fír, ol Óengus, Fergas cend fo raithin, Trip.² 1495 .

6 Of a single animal, etc.: do mac Loigsiu pa mōr ngō / ar in āincend an cēt mbō, ACL iii 2.12 . Note also: aon bhuaidhreadh amháin . . . an dara ceann, De Imit. 29.23 . ? robii cosnom im oenchend `there may be strife about one head' (Faraday), TBC-I¹ 1730 .

7 Various: ceann cait owl , Párl. na mB. 1452 . go dul tar ceannaibh cuan, Measgra D. 48.8 ` billow, breaker ', Gloss.

8 In various idioms with prec. vb.: ni mo tarrthus cend furre no forin gaeth `it was no more possible to get hold of her than of the wind', Aen. 649 . do-fócaib c.¤ appears see do-fócaib (D 269.36 ff.). ? immicurtis iarum cenna sechaiseom darsi ṅGairb sair ┐ siar eter Laigniu ┐ Ossairge, LL 36728 . tug a ch.¤ a n-inisle iomagallaimhe orra `entered into converse', ITS v 112.17 . no indsaiged in Troianda . . . congebead cend in Grecdai ┐ no indsaiged in Grecda . . . co ngebid cend in Tr. ┐ combdis cind ar cind, BB 435b22 .

9 Of buildings roof: ni rabi cenn for tempul Fidnacha in tan-sin, Ann. Conn. 1244.5 . c.¤ co claradh oir for tor dibh, Marco P. 117 . c.¤ Frangcach `a ribbed vault, a groined roof ' (Meyer Contribb.), AU iii 161.8 . don chend luaidhe boí for tempall an bhaile, AFM vi 1956.16 . Note also: roclúdadh na lestra fóa ccennuibh covers, tops , Ériu xiii 24.22 .

II End, end-point, termination.

10 In concrete applications: c.¤ cridi gl. uiscus, uisceris, Sg. 111b5 . nóe cend nine tips(?), LU 9835 . achind dochnama, IT iii 103.19 . a-cinn a-cruibh, RC xxiv 377.1 , .3 . cennæ na ngái, Liad. and Cuir. 12.9 . ceand muilind `the head of a mill', Ériu xvii 70 § 12 gl. 3 ( Laws iv 214.29 Comm. ). laim re ceand in droichid, Ériu xvii 72 § 13 gl. 10 . comrad chindcherchailli, TBC-LL¹ 3 . mó ná cliab co cendaib dés ` sheaves ', Metr. Dinds. iv 138.81 . do bhalad cinn én coinnle, RC xxiv 383.33 . dealg do chennaib óigsgech, IGT Decl. ex. 1082 . Metr. aisde cind tṡinte, IGT Metr. Faults §§ 48 , 49 . co casbairn chinn truim, Decl.ex. 623 (see cenntromm).

11 Of territories: a tá isin chionnsa thes (of a hill), SG 118.10 . isin c.¤ ba nesa dó don tír, AFM vi 2056.19 . i cind Maige Dála at the end of Magh Dala, Ériu i 132.74 . Of journeys: a gceann uidhe their objective, O'Hara 1241 . ceann bhar gcoimhleanga, DDána 74.56 . is iomdha slighe . . . / 's a ceann go magh nimh a-nonn, Dán Dé xxiii 4 .

12 Abstract applications: ceann m'aradhna ná léig lim let me not hold mine own bridle, IGT Decl. ex. 311 . sa chionn cunntuis in the account, Fl. Earls 90.13 . ní ricfa c.¤ scéoil úainne tar tech not a whisper of it will get out of this house, TTr.² 1796 . Of time: ar c.¤ fri c.¤ Enair `our end against the head of January' (i.e. 31 Dec. and 1 Jan.), Fél. Ep. 8 . c.¤ do shaoghail, BNnÉ 293 § 12 v.l. For sa cheann cháol etc. see cáel. do cheann don dáil `what you shall get in this affair', Content. xxvii 15 .

13 Of the end or completion of an affair, etc.: foruirmed c.¤ forsnaib cotarsnaib gl. aduersa nostra . . . constant inpleta, Ml. 74c20 . ni tucthar c.¤ essib gl. genelogís interminatís, Wb. 27d22 . oc tabairt chind for airimmeirt sluaigh ┐ shochaidhi, TTr.² 310 ( LL 400b10 ). cend ┐ forcenn air sin that's enough of that(?), Acall. 5361 . ní bia cend for th'ermitin `there shall be no limit to thy dignity', Celtica iv 16.180 .

III Of persons, chief, head person, leader.

14 Legal: nad cennaib coirib comallat, ZCP xiv 379 § 43 `cond . . . den voll Geschäftsfähigen. Die andern haben einen cond als c. `Haupt' über sich, der sie `unterstüzt', für sie in ihren Sachen spricht, etc. ', 380 . rí bunaid cach cinn, Críth G. 447 `caput, head of family, individual', Vocab. fortét cech c.¤ ba tressa(i) inní bes étressa, 474 . c.¤ caich iar nduinib i fine besid sruithe, ZCP xiv 369 § 31 ( Laws ii 278.21 ). cend cartus a memar a chief who rejects his tenant, Laws v 164.19 Comm. dlegaid cind cuindreach `the chiefs are bound to rectify', 440.23 . cach cind (sic MS) a chonrach, ACL iii 227.31 .

15 In non-legal contexts: cend do ḟeraib Herenn Patraic, Thes. ii 326.32 (Hy. iv gl.). for bélaib a cind ┐ a tigernad, Alex. 274 . M. . . . fa chend ar clēirchib, ZCP viii 120.5 . na cinn clāena cin crābud `the wicked, impious chiefs', Ériu iii 30 § 8 . a cheann féin `his Master', PBocht 11.20 .

16 With follg. noun in gen. indicating category of persons: c.¤ bocht almoner (?), AU ii 32.4 . c.¤ cáid caillech n-Érenn, Fél. Feb. 1 . cend degban is deorad, SG 64.35 . c.¤ fedna see fedan. c.¤ fine head of family or clan: lochdach an Róisdeach achd ón chionn fhine, IGT Decl. 7.14 . da ch.¤ fhine ina ionad, AFM iv 1146.16 . i ndioghail a ccind ḟine, iii 404.z . i ndegaid in chinn manach the abbot, Ériu iii 100 § 25c . c.¤ in réclessa, Ríocht na Midhe viii 15 . c.¤ sluag fer Fáil, Trip.² 1793 v.l. Cf. also: is cend daim for dartoid [.i.] mōrpersan for becphopul, O'Mulc. 753 .

17 With follg. gen. of abstr.: c.¤ athchomairc see athchomarc. ar gceann bāidhei-ne an bhean our chief love (of Mary), Dán Dé ii 29 . cend cathaigthe as chalma ro bai do Leith Mogha battle-leader , RC xviii 11.24 . a Chind, coisc na crích (a chind coisc ?), Ériu vii 221 § 22 . c.¤ comairle cuindrig muintire fri comairle comneirt, ‘a “head of counsel” who controls the household with advice of equal strength’, CL 240.3 . nach ben forsa-mbe c.¤ comuirle, ZCP xiv 375 § 38 . cenn comuirle ┐ adchomairc fer mBregh n-uile, 'chief counsellor and consultant of the men of all Brega', AU² 374.6 . in fer ba húasle ┐ ba mó rath issin túaith iss e ba cend comairle do chách, LL 118 . co tech ar cind comairle, ‘to our counsellor’s house’, Éigse vii 77 §11 . cend crabaid ermoir Erenn paragon of piety, RC xxvi 362.2 . gan chend cundraid na comairle rempo, LL 12344 (TBC). uair robesin cend gaili . . . sluaig, Cog. 194. 29 . c.¤ ecna . . . iartair domain, CS 320.9 . c.¤ cech erais, Fél. Apr. 23 . in bandea ingen Terrae cend scaílti scél in betha chief disseminator of news, LL 31001 (TTr.). a chend sochair slúaig Ulad chief benefactor, MU² 58 . In follg. perh. headquarters, centre : uail (= bhail) itā ceand in cogaidh, ZCP viii 115.18 . baili i mbai cend ídlachta ┐ druídechta na Héirenn, Trip.² 431 . flaitheas Dé is ceann chomhsanta dhúinne, Eochairsg. 98.25 ( end, goal ?).

IV Used in a wide variety of adverbial and prepositional phrases.

18 cinn at the end of (see 33, 40, 52) (ciunn, cinn, dative without preposition, GOI 537 ): cinn rehe gl. secundum hoc tempus, Wb. 4c11 . cinn blíadnae at the end of a year, Fél. Sept. 17 . cind .ix. mís, LU 1662 . cind in tres laí, 7977 (BDD). cind cethri ndíni `at the end of four genera- tions', Arch. Hib. ii 48 § 1 . cind mile bliadan, Ériu ii 132 § 109 .

19 In phr. cinn chomair: nó huachiunn chomair gl. e rigione `or, from before', Ml. 119a9 (`von dem Anfang der Richtung', Ped. KZ xxxv 435 ). fri re mis cind comar, AU ii 88.x . Usually of place (see 28, 31): cinn chomair gl. contra (solem), BCr. 33c17 . for in phurt cind chomair dó `opposite to him', RC xiv 406.1 ( LL 12675 ). cind comair frissin ṁbeist n-amnais, LL 398b18 = cinnchomair, TTr.² 148 . i cinncomair friu opposite them, CCath. 5561 . ro badhusa cind comraic riusom, Acall. 6795 . Cf. i comair chind airtherthuascertaig, LL 3865 = hi comardus cind, etc., RC xv 283 § 29 .

Usually with prec. prep. In the follg. sections the arrangement is according to the preceding preposition, with which an adverbial in addition to a prepositional phrase is frequently formed. In a number of cases meanings under various prepositions coincide.

With A.

20 In sense of ós ciunn (60): asa chind guarding him, Metr. Dinds. iv 358.94 . ata M. . . . asa mo chind-sa oc fúr m'anma, PH 806 . batar a cind na cathrach who were over the city, 2488 . In diff. sense: as a cheann féin `of his own Head' (of his own accord), Donlevy 330.16 . The follg. are obscure (leg. ar for as in one or more of the exx. ?): cen ascur sáitha asa chiunn `without remission of tribulation from His presence(?)' (in store for him ?), Wb. 25d16 . conid ari rogabad al-lam a pardus dochum gortæ ┐ bochtæ . . . ┐ bais ┐ hifirn asa cind `thenceforth', Ériu vii 164 § 8 . ? gidh bé do cuir asa chionn `it matters not whom he drove from his head' (Notes), Duan. F. i 32.20 . Perh. in literal sense: in t-ēolus-[s]a rádi rimm, / ferr duit nā cloisti as do chínn, ZCP xiii 3 § 2 .

With AR (see also 42).

21 ar chenn with vbs. of motion towards, in the direction of, to meet (see 39, 45): ceni esǽrsitis in choirp ara c.¤ `to meet them', Ml. 15c8 . condaáerset do failti ar ch.¤ a rríg to welcome their King, 46a12 . ara cénn gl. occurrentes, 60d5 . do-luid in biail arithissi ar ch.¤ inna samthige came back to the handle, Tur. 131 . techt ar ch.¤ Crist, Wb. 25d25 . co toracht Emain Macha ar cend Conchobair, LU 8073 ( FB 4 ). ní-s-cuirfind techta ar dho chend-sa, PH 450 . canat biet in alltair / ar ch.¤ clocáin don phroindtig at the sound of the refectory bell, Ériu iii 102 § 28 . gearr go dtiocfa teachtaire / . . . / ar do cheann, DDána 56.1 . docuaidh . . . arcinn na conuire a ticcidh aran sliabh `went to the road', ZCP vi 56.8 . Cf. airg ┐ áird-leasdair . . . do chomdhlúthúghadh ar cheann na céd aimsire do thairrngir D. . . . dhóib `against', ML 6.25 .

22 Of going to meet in battle: ara chend dait a Fergus, LU 6698 . rotbīa F. . . . ar ndul ar c[h]end ind ḟir ucut, TBC-I¹ 1247 (LU).

23 In sense of going or coming for, to fetch someth.: is ar ch.¤ focheda dodechommar `to meet suffering', Wb. 25a12 . tecat ar ch.¤ in chon co sochruid to fetch the hound, Sc.M² 4 . dula uaimm ar do chend-su to fetch you, PH 446 . teacht ar ceand cind duine isinn ārmuig, RC xxiv 58 § 18 . in lind ara tánac c.¤ the water for which thou camest, Ériu iv 106.7 . ? ochd bhféinnidhe as ḟearr a n-ágh / ar ceann t'éindighi d'fúarán, IGT Decl. ex. 1333 . socraiti do dol . . . ar cend artraige dochum Domnaill, Ann. Conn. 1248.5 . Note also: do lleblaing int écne ara chend (ref. to ordnasc f.), TBFr. 208 , cf. Meyer Contribb., Fraech p. 35 .

24 In meanings of tar c.¤ (66-70) (confusion of prepp.): cuirtha cumtaige ara cend `buildings were overthrown', KMMisc. 152.62 . ar cinn a chesta ┐ a caingne, Anecd. i 42.9 . tagra . . . do thagras ar cheann Mumhan on behalf of, Content. xviii 12 .

25 ar chiunn of time in the future, afterwards, later : frisnaccai archiunn gl. ad aliquam rem, Ml. 53b23 . artha ciúnn són gl. in posteram, 132a3 (see note). ar chinn gl. adhuc, Wb. 2a9 . archiunn . . . diéis gl. siue ante seu retro, BCr. 31b4 - 5 . ar oman imtormaich ina pecad ar chiund future sins, Ériu xix 58 § 6 . in maith iar cind future good, LU 9889 (for ar ch.¤ ?). rogabsat flaith ar chiund from then on, ZCP viii 313.21 . doairchaintis . . . anno bíth ar chind dóib, Trip.² 327 . ? mod airchiund di lubair a disposition ready for work(?), Rawl. B 512, 40c (Plummer MS. notes).

26 ar chiunn as quasi-adj. of points of time next, following, ensuing (in later lang. somet. with (i)ar in this use): san aidhchi ar chínd, BB 39b6 . co belltaine ar cind, BColm. 92.2 . an bliadhain ar ccionn, Leb. Gab.(i) 56.4 . isin laithe ar ccind, 146.2 . In later lang. also as prep. with poss. in this sense: go medhōn oidhche buī ar a gcionn, Fl. Earls 8.20 . go Bealltaine ar a gcionn till the following May, Keat. ii 3137 . See 38 .

27 ar chiunn in textual reff. below, in what follows; later, following : forsin canoin ar chiunn `on the following Scripture passage', Ml. 54c34 . trachtad . . . forsa nouit ar chiunn `on nouit that follows', 64a7 . in testimin ar chiunn `the following text', 104b3 . titul in dligid ar chinn, Wb. 10a12 . ata ní ar chiunn, Sg. 39b10 .

28 ar chiunn in front of, before (see 19): córus dúne ríg . . . ar chi[u]nn a thúaithe, Críth G. 566 `vis-à-vis', Vocab. bui siom oc huamim ara cind `before her', Mon. Tall. 149.18 . co nacca ara chind in fer, TBC-I¹ 448 . Cf. muir ara cendaib, in nem huasa ṁbennaib, 3006 . amail nobeith beo ar a chind as if he were alive in front of him, ACL iii 5.5 .

29 ar chiunn awaiting, ready for, in anticipation of (someone or someth. arriving): biid ersoilcthi ar chiunn for ríg gl. eliuamini, portae aeternales, Ml. 46a7 . ni farnic-sede nach maid ara chiun isin domun, Wb. 2a21 . ar ar ciunn-[n]i `against our coming', 25a33 . anais ar cionn antsluaigh `waited for', Blathm. 102 § 41 . co fuaratar a cele isind apdaine ara cind `on their arrival', Mon. Tall. 162.30 . aínínbuidh na fuair acht triur ar a chinn thall isin fíne (of a man who has joined or rejoined the tribe from outside), Laws iv 294.26 Comm. ar cinn ṡamraid at the arrival of summer, ZCP vii 310 § 8 . dá rabh a Rí na glóire / . . . / do mhaor ar chionn na coinnmhe / liom if Thy steward receive the company, Dán Dé xiv 11 . ar cinn chamhárach before daybreak, IGT Decl. ex. 1195 . ar cinn in lae, Fier. 135 . With petrified masc. poss.: arna beith ar a chind `in her way', RC xi 452.2 , cf. Meyer Contribb.

30 ar chiunn of time in store for (see 51): a fil ar mo chiunn gl. ad destinatum, Wb. 24a15 . cén bes fine ar a cinn as long as he has descendants, Laws iv 240.19 Comm. a n-airchend fil ar ar cinn the destiny which awaits us, Ériu i 68.12 . fuair Poimp bas ┐ fuair cidh Cesair ara cind afterwards, CCath. 8308 .

31 ci(u)nn ar chi(u)nn face to face, at grips (see 19, 54): atraig cach fer di alailiu . . . co m-bátar cind ar chind is taig, IT i 67 (LMU). fíal tened ┐ fíal d'aigriud . . . cind ar cind, LU 2067 ( FA 14 , cf. RC xxvi 148 § 27 ). inn-uair dobímmis cind ar chind, RC vii 302.1 . as and baoi Laogh ┐ a brathoir ciond ar ciond, ZCP x 295.27 . cind ar cind fri Dunchad, Ériu v 242.153 .

With co.

32 co c.¤ to the end, to completion (see 43): berthi leiss co c.¤ gl. perficiet, Wb. 23a19 . ní dernad in cnocc co c.¤ , Metr. Dinds. iii 44.79 . is co cend in cuidbiud the mockery has come to a head, Ériu i 118 § 10 . Cheville: céim co cend, Metr. Dinds. iv 26.9 .

33 co c.¤ with nouns indicating periods of time till the end of, for the duration of (see 18, 40, 52): co c.¤ blīadne, Thes. ii 319 ( Hy. ii 56 ). co c.¤ cairdi, Críth G. 366 . co cend trédenuis, PH 1859 . go ceann cóig n-aimsear, DDána 6.9 . go ceatra ceand[a] raithi `for four quarter-years', Magauran 804 . Note also: in fer co cind a chéli, MU² 991 `against', Gloss.

With DI and/or DO.

34 di chennaib of poetical composition appar. extemporaneously (see however Thurn. cited below and compare aisnēis do c[h]ennaib a chnāmae, Corm. Y 756 , which may point to a ritualistic procedure of some kind): canad do chennaibh, Ériu xiii 17.5 . ailges do ceanduibh, O'D. 2208 (Nero A vii, 144a). dligedh do feghar saor daor do chennaibh, Ériu xiii 25.30 = fedhair .i. dorenar, ut est dliged dofedhar sóer, dóer dochennaib .i. continuo , O'Dav. 828 . do . . . suid filed for-can di c[h]ennaib `von (seinen Knochen-) Enden', ZCP xvi 175 § 4 ( Laws i 40 , co ndenand rand can smuainedh, 42 Comm. ). is dochennaib . . . ro trial Dallán a duain do denum `extempore', RC xx 122.z (ACC). Also in phr. díchetal di chennaib, see díchetal. cetal do chendaib (a metre), IT iii 61 § 123 . See Ériu xlviii 45 .

35 intan tét a laithe di chiunn `passes away', Ml. 21c3 .

36 di and/or do chiunn in return for, for the sake of, instead of, on condition of, because of, for , etc. (see 68): do chinn a mbíd, SR 3406 . do c[h]inn loghaidh `in return for remission of tribute', Ériu xvii 22 § 16 . dúais do chionn chomáoine a quid pro quo , KMMisc. 346.28 . sgēl do chinn chummaéine, Anecd. i 36.3 . dia chind an tsréin in return for the bridle, BColm. 38 § 40 . nech . . . do cathugud di chend Crist for, PH 789 . do tairgeadh bó aile dí da cind, Imr. Brain 58.30 . berair-siu mac díachinn in its place, Cóir Anm. 133 . do chinn mo claidhem fen instead of my own sword, Fier. 60 . ragtais dia chind i comrac on his behalf, Metr. Dinds. iii 446.88 . do chionn a seachna `on condition of' (notes), Dán Dé x 12 . ró-mhór fuaramar d'a chionn too much we have got from it, Ériu i 96 § 52 . do chionn ubhaill, DDána 26.6 . do chionn an tshaoghail do thréigean through abandoning, Beatha S. F. 748 . dá chionn on that account, TSh. 1942 . do cind ced cennaighechta do denum in order to get leave, ZCP vi 90.15 . ar ngellad a marbtha d'Ulliam Burc do chind luaigi in consideration of, Ann. Conn. 1310.5 .

37 Of soliciting or having intercourse with a woman in spite of or unknown to her husband, etc. (see 70): comrac frim dot chind-so, Fing. R. 114 `in disregard of', Vocab. ben-side Ch. . . . co rustoirrchestar E. do chind a cēile, Corp. Gen. 139.x . a breth di-a chind (another man's wife), PH 833 . luid . . . F. . . . do thochmarc a mnā do chind Oilella, Fianaig. 6.16 . docomraiced-som fria mnaib aili dia cind si in disregard of her, ZCP i 104.10 .

38 Various: cia ruslā dia c[h]ind . . . T. . . . is he rosla(n) dar a chend, ZCP xiii 7.24 . conom thí de chind chúarda till it is my turn(?), LU 6699 ( TBC-I¹ 2158 ). ar chuir dá ceann all he added to it(?) (cf. 48), DDána 91.14 . ó Inid go Cáisg dá gcionn till the following Easter (see 26), Aithd. D. 75.18 . ? nior cuir dha chionn do bhí ag Fionn, Duan. F. i 32.20 .

With FO.

39 fo ch.¤ towards, against, for (see 21, 45): teacht fam cheann `(to) attack me', Content. xviii 1 . éirghid fo cend mo c[h]reiche they go for my booty, ZCP viii 226.22 . Note also: gabh fád cheann mo chonmharccsa `take upon thee my quarrel(?)', Studies 1924, 243 § 12 .

40 Of time within, during (see 18, 33, 52): fo ch.¤ aimsire giorra at the end of a short time, Ériu v 188.456 . fo c.¤ begain aimsiri, Stair Erc. 258 . fo chionn dā lō go n-oidhche, Fl. Earls 10.16 .

41 fo ch.¤ (less freq. chiunn) about, concerning, with regard to, for the sake of, etc. (see 59): ? craed aderum focheann, YBL 149a4 . fuaire a chách a-taoi fám chionn towards me, Dánta Gr. 86.8 . fa a gcionn because of them, DDána 25a1 . déna . . . fá ch.¤ oirbire t'filedh `to thy poet's objurgation make concession', O'Gr. Cat. 402.20 . mar go bhfuair duadh ┐ doghruing fá a ceann `on her account', Keat. ii 2342 . ? alaind a dath / fa ceand na cuach, IGT Metr. Faults§ 68 .

With FOR.

42 for c.¤ , ciunn. Usually = ar ch.¤ , chiunn (21 ff.): an do lotar for cend conaire, Vita Br. 40 `as they were proceeding on their way', Ir. Hist. Stud. i 132 . dochuaid fóncaillid forcend chonnaid for firewood, RC ii 396 § 33 . ro-fhóidestar P. . . . gilla turusa for cend Ísu, PH 2602 . for bar cind, LU 8388 ( FB 26 ). doluid D. for cuinn (leg. ciunn) a sethar do ḟailte frie, Rawl. 134b1 . co tarrla in muir ina clár comréidh . . . for cinn in catha, CCath. 1927 . for a g-ceann awaiting them, ML 44.22 . gusin dia dardaoin buī dō for cionn `until the Thursday following', Fl. Earls 258.4 . Perh. for orig. tar c.¤ (68 ff.) in: du gabail rigi for ch.¤ á athar `in his father's stead', Ml. 44d29 . cach adaltrach do-t[h]et for ceand cetmuintire, Stud. in E. Ir. Law 49 (`in spite of', note p. 50) ( Laws ii 384.1 ). do accallaim Grigair for cend uird ┐ riagla, LU 3095 (fo ch.¤ ?).

With I.

43 beirid, do-beir i cinn finishes, completes (see 32): doberar opair i cind and sain, LL 32264 ( TTr. 1452 ). maine berthar i cinn, 400b18 . ? focal nāchar thuill a gciond (: rinn), ZCP viii 223.x .

44 do-tuit etc. ina ch.¤ falls down, topples (see 67): a toitim ina chend dorisi, TTebe 1669 . ag tuitim ina ccenduibh do bhedis colamhuin . . . na cathrach, Ériu iv 56.18 .

45 i c.¤ in contexts implying motion (us. with prec. vb.) to, in the direction of, towards, against (see 21, 39): na torcair nemh inna ccent `on them', Blathm. 68 . lotir remib hi cend in Brogo, LU 10575 . co torracht C. i c.¤ in droichit cucu, CCath. 1283 . ben sund i cend for máthar, Metr. Dinds. iii 6.55 . dorat . . . / Conall i cend Chonculaind matched C. against C., Metr. Dinds. iii 446.96 . ro cuired cach i ceann araili dona Romanchaib, CCath. 3159 . an uair chuirid i n-a chionn when they oppose him, DDána 96.33 . connsuine . . . do rachadh na cheann, mur atá so: slat ┐ dearg, slaitearg sin which would be assimilated to it, IGT Introd. 10.2 . do tuit an torc a cend a choss fell forward, BCC 324.30 .

46 i c.¤ with prec. vb. of motion and follg. Vn. etc. in g s. implying beginning or undertaking of an action: o dochotar . . . i c.¤ taispenta ind immuin do G., Lib. Hymn. 63.40 . do chuadar i cend a retha took to their heels, MR 318.4 . notheiged-som ┐ a gilla a cend bleogain na bo, Ériu v 34.22 . ná ragaind i ceand catha ina agaid, FDG² 465 . dochuaid i cend in sceoil (d'innisin, v.l.) `she went ahead with the tale', TTebe 1833 . T. . . . do dol a c.¤ oilithri, Ann. Conn. 1307.18 . lotar . . . i cend séta, TBC-LL¹ 451 . Note also: ra érig in fili ┐ do chúaid i n-a cend ┐ issed ro ráid, LL 39018 ( SG 385.34 `went to work'; `came to them', Stokes, RC xiii 107 ).

47 i c.¤, ciunn in addition to (see 63): foghellta ┐ bleth do dul ina ceand `shall be added', Laws iv 130.27 Comm. Matha a cind Crist ro scrib a shoscéla together with, LB 153a64 . ag flaith Li do chím 'na cheann / ní do gach tír 'na thimcheall also, Ériu v 64.15 . a cc.¤ gach sgéil eile dar innis doibh, Rel. Celt. ii 196.32 . a c.¤ a roibhi aigi, ZCP vi 51.10 . na c.¤ sin in addition, Maund. 15 . hi cc.¤ a chéle together, Hugh Roe² 40.13 .

48 cuirid i c.¤ adds to (see 38): cindus do-chuirfed tuilled i n-a chend, PH 7730 . cuir 'na ceand, O'Gr. Cat. 311.9 . teine do cur a ceann teineadh making bad worse, 23 P 10 ³, 15a30 . Note also: ni fuair Fergus ríam ni do cuirfe a cend Modha do marbadh do Dubthach `anything to compare with the slaughter of M. by D.', Celt. Rev. ii 116.x .

49 i c.¤ in preference to: am cheann do chomóradh 'was given preferential treatment over me', Ériu lxiv 162 § 1.7​​​ . S. . . . do chor i tticcernus . . . hi ccend Ch., AFM iii 360.16 . taisech do denam doib do mac M. . . . ina c.¤ , Ann. Conn. 1262.9 .

50 i ciunn at the head of for purpose of leading: m'anam-sa a Dhé mar budh dall / sé 's an chalann-sa 'n-a cionn, Dán Dé xxiii 13 . bi 'n-a cinn = ducas eum, Smaointe B. Chr. 1050 .

51 i ciunn in store for, destined (see 30): a-tá lá cúirte 'n-ar gcionn, DDána 23.29 . a uilc i gcionn gach chiontaigh his wrongdoings await every sinner (for punishment), Dán Dé vii 15 . i gc.¤ gach baíth a baegul, MR 286.21 . go bhfuil an bás . . . i gcionn gach aoin, TSh. 99 .

52 i ciunn of time at the end of (see 18, 33, 40): a cínd da bliadna onaímsir-si two years ago, RC x 186.1 . hi cind tredenais, ACL iii 309.10 . a cc.¤ a fhichet bliadhna da aois in the twentieth year of his age, Rel. Celt. ii 196.7 . a ccionn trí lá, Desid. 6345 .

53 Various: i mbun na gabla ro boí hi ciund tened over against, LU 9194 ( FB 92 ). a cheann i cind tened, ZCP i 464.33 . gach aon a gceann a dhíre ┐ a dhúthchasa féin in possession of, ML 102.14 . mac S. a cind arrad at the head of nobles, Ériu v 244.194 . in cís d'ícc a cind chruid, LB 133b56 `in respect of', Todd Lect. vi 40.6 .

c.¤ i c.¤ (ceann a cceann is an exception to the rule that the same word may not be used more than once in a line, Bard. Synt. Tr. 24.36 ). ? ceann a ceann, .c. o an doilgheas, 55.24 . Also cionn a ccionn (: fionn), 25.1 .

54 c.¤ i c.¤ = ci(u)nn ar chi(u)nn (31): misi do cur c.¤ i cc.¤ / as Cuchulainn, TBC-LL¹ 3151 . cuirid c.¤ hi c.¤ , Fianaig. 60.27 . is and sin . . . do rancadar Leth Cuind ┐ Laigin ceand i cend, RC xxiv 50 § 10 . go g-cómhraiceam ceann a g-ceann, ML 82.25 .

55 c.¤ i c.¤ together; simultaneously : Conchabor, Aedh cend a cend `head to head' (of kings buried together), Ériu ii 166.47 . cia leitir sin c.¤ a c.¤ / dognīad lethfod is lethtenn, ZCP xii 295.8 . nocor thathaigh ceann i c.¤ / na cuic cuicidh na hEirenn, xi 43 § 31 . cred dorad tu c.¤ a c.¤ / a comhaitreab na catcend?, KMMisc. 315.16 . trí Cormaic theas ceann i gceann / im an seang, DDána 91.33 . do dortsed fair cend i cend (of attackers), Ann. Conn. 1405.15 .

56 c.¤ i c.¤ successively (see Aithd. D. Vocab.): gan a ccloistecht cend i ccend / gabhāla airdrīogh [n]Ērenn, ZCP viii 218.30 . fiss gach catha c.¤ a ceand, Anecd. i 29 § 35 . rob ionchuir é, ceann a cceann / is inghean airdrīgh Éireand point by point, KMMisc. 356.7 .

With IMM.

57 is fachain dá gcar um cheann to make them change their attitude(?), DDána 67.4 . (taken by Ed. as i and mo).

58 imm ch.¤ about, around : tarrassaid inn irgal im chend Connacht, LL 12308 (TBC). doiri crannrabhan mad cheann round thee, Magauran 436 . ní ráidhte um cheann gcomhóla during a drinking-bout, O'Hara 146 . radharc um cheann a calaidh `the sight of its shores' (Gloss.), Measgra D. 52.35 .

59 imm ch.¤ about, concerning, with regard to (see 41): rola B. . . . / ilach im cheand Feargaile (perh. in semi-literal sense), RC xxiv 54 § 14 . imcheand cach formaid bai etarru `for all the ill-feeling', Ériu ii 178.16 . an-scél . . . im-c.¤ deilbe . . . in-domain, RC xxiv 369.5 . t'fhearg . . . um cheann do chloinne, DDána 10.22 . um cheann craos-óil in the matter of, TSh. 7446 .

With ós (see 20).

60 ós chiunn (on as cionn beside ós chionn see Desid. p. xxxv ). In more or less literal sense: in tituil robói huas ciunn Crist isin chroich over Christ's head, Ml. 74b1 . ōs chinn sanct-Brigte, Thes. ii 329.2 ( Hy. v 15 ). Over, above: baí . . . ben . . . oc airiuc dont ṡluág os a cind, LL 259b15 . Cuncha cnoc os cind Life, ZCP xi 41 § 1 . nochtais . . . in claidheab os cind na hingeine, RC vi 175.30 . ós chionn mo leabhráin studying, Content. ii 14 . ōs a ch.¤ , Fl. Earls 66.15 .

61 With prec. vb. of motion: tānic . . . ōs ceann N. made for, Celtica i 116.118 . téighim ós chionn a chosnaimh I undertake to defend it, Content. xxi 12 .

62 in control of, in charge of: os chionn Bhanbha, Content. xxx 26 . sdiobhard ós ceann mhórāin maoine, Mac Aingil 568 . ōs cionn in cholāiste, Fl. Earls 68.25 .

63 over and above, in addition to (see 47): ós c.¤ fhichit each, AFM iv 1134.28 . faoi nó ós a chionn `or thereabouts', Corp. Astron. 4.12 . ōs a ch.¤ sin `besides', Fl. Earls 90.15 .

64 Note also: bun ós cionn `upside down', Psalms cxlvi 9 . más bun os cionn atá sé `if he haue any auersion', RSClára 155a . For fuller treatment see 1 bun.

65 With ré: ria cind tri trath in three days, RC xvii 386.2 .

With TAR (see also 24, 42).

66 fo-ceird etc. tar c.¤ (somet. with possess. before c.¤ ) overthrows, upsets, turns upside down : in cor tar c.¤ gl. euersio, Ml. 36d23 . gl. euertando, 72b12 . tochur tar c.¤ , Críth G. 233 . ro lá in slúag . . . tara cend, LU 9760 . fochichret in Trói dar cend, TTr.² 389 . ro-chuir cend dar cend . . . miassa na monotóri, PH 4392 . is e ro-lá dar cend ar forcetul-ne subverted, 1686 . See fo-ceird. Cf. dos-curedar tara cend 'she collapses', CMMucr. 50 § 43 .

67 With do-tuit (see 44): co torchratar . . . dara c.¤ hi suan, ZCP iii 6 § 20 .

68 tar c.¤ on behalf of, for the sake of, in return for, in lieu of, because of, for, etc. (see 36): dufiastar tara c.¤-som `punishment will be inflicted for them', Ml. 27c4 . deich tarm ch.¤ `take vengeance for me', 72d11 . no oircthe . . . tar c.¤ a p[ecthae] ind aile `for its sins', Tur. 110c . taiccéra cách dará chen fessin gl. pro sé, Wb. 6b28 . oc irbáig dar far c.¤-si gl. de uobis, 16d8 . ? mo ort do gabál darm ch.¤ `that my rank should be taken for me', 23b18 . a setig . . . do pennait tar a cend fadesin ┐ dara cendsom on her own behalf and his, Mon. Tall. 163.18 . dar cend na cāna in return for, Cáin Ad. 25 . ciata glinni con-daigi dar cend frithaisceda?, MU² 65 . do foglaim na Tāna rucc in sái rōmānach a hArdmacha dar cend in cuilmin, ACL iii 5.31 . na feicheamna dara tecait cend, Laws iv 60.18 Comm. tarc.¤ gabhála aigi ┐ tacra tar a ch.¤ pleading in his behalf, CCath. 535 . díol tar ceann a chomaoineadh, Content. ix 25 . tar ceann do chloinne, Dán Dé xxviii 29 .

69 in spite of, in violation of; notwithstanding : ba holc lais dith Fergail darceand a shida, RC xxiv 64 § 25 . tar c.¤ Conoill, Duan. F. i 84.8 . tar a cheann sin nevertheless , Desid. 3220 .

70 Of begetting offspring by a woman in spite of or unknown to her husband (see 37): trī meic Medba fri Fergus dar c.¤ nAilella, Corp. Gen. 279.1933 . mac ruc don Dagda . . . / dar cend ḟir na síde, Metr. Dinds. iii 30.75 . is e doroine in toirrcis sin fria dar c.¤ Cathbaid, RC vi 175.51 .

71 As conj. tar c.¤ go notwithstanding the fact that, although : tar ceann go n-abair an Chóir Anmann gur . . . ní mheasaim gurab . . . , Keat. ii 2344 . tar cheann go n-anann tú feadh do bheathadh san olc, Mac Aingil 1040 . tar ceann gur shaoil . . . notwithstanding the fact that, TSh. 541 . tar cheann go bhfuil mórán etc. even though there are . . . , Párl. na mB. 461 .

Compds. (general composition-form in early lang. cenn-. Later also cinn- and ceinn- before palatals).

With nouns.

72 In dvandva-compds. (see Wortk. 130 ): bidh suī lēigind co cendanim head and soul, ACL iii 231.22 . cend-chossach head and feet (of cooked animal), Ériu iv 124 § 2 .

73 With c.¤ qualifying second member: cu nach fácbadh claidem ar cennadairt, Acall. 1632 = SG 129. 29 `pillow' ( -adart, BLism. 212 rb13) . Fig. cennadart fona fertaib inso, Thes. ii 332.27 ( Hy. v 23 gl .). Of a person: O'M. a cceann adhart, Top. Poems 58.18 . oenball dia curp nó da cendagaid `countenance', CCath. 4700 . gráin catha ar mo cheannaghaidh (sic leg.), Content. xxiii 15 . tria cendairde no tria cendísli doníther in taidbhriudh anuasan, O'D. 908 (H. 3.17, 649) = O'Curry 2164 ( Eg. 88, 4(5)d ) (see O'Gr. Cat. 139 ). cennait muilind `the head (site) of a mill', Ériu xvii 76.10 . cennáit `head residence', AFM v 2082.2 . ? Cf. an chríoch nó an cionnaidh is dúthaigh dhó, TSh. 1775 (chianáit, v.l., Gloss.). ar Chrīst ar cennabaid chief lord, ZCP viii 214.6 . do ghabh clogat . . . fa n-a cheann-bhaithios `head', MR xiv 21 . ¤barr see cen(n)barr. ¤bécc see cennbécc. ¤bert see ceinnbeirt. cennbhile oir na n-ardriog (a prince), LL 394.8 . bheith dheit ad chinnbhile ós coill, O'Gr. Cat. 381.22 . súdh ceannbhracha `malt liquor', O'Hara 4076 . in Cennc[h]at[h]ach ina laimh .i. a bachall, Lism. L. 3103 . ¤chléithe = cenn: scothais a chenn clēithi de, ZCP viii 117 § 12 . ní chuirthear ceannchnaipe óir ar phaidrín mhaide, Mac Aingil 1041 `Pater Noster bead(?)', Gloss. lom[r]aid a cendchongraim din mnái headdress, Hib. Min. 77.9 . ceann cosnamach comegin C. `violent groans', MR 260.6 (leg. ¤osnadach ?). for cenn-cumhdach a choroine ` head-covering ', Misc. Hag. Hib. 43 § 62 . capitolauium .i. cenddīunach, Corm. Y 296 . cend-drong filed fó fírda, Metr. Dinds. i 36.93 . inceindetan gl. gigram, Gild. Lor. 82 . donchendfiacail gl. capitali, 134 . ¤ḟochrus see cennḟochrus. cenngalor (in marg. dolor capitis), Wb. 17b25 . Vita Br. 28 . dia ro h-icad don cheann-galar, YBL 174b23 . ? ni tormaig ni fora notrus . . . a cendgelt, Ériu xii 40 § 51 ; 'tonsure' ZCP xlii 48 . caeca echlosc orda co cendimlaib airgid, IT ii2 191.14 (cennpairtib, v.l.) `end knobs'? Plummer MS notes. ¤ísle see cendairde. ¤lá see cennlá. ¤liter capital letter. Usually metaph. of persons and things: cinn-litre ceall `the capitals of the churches', Content. xv 30 , cf. xviii 73 . dún iona cáir cinnlitre, Ériu v 60.4 . ceinnlitir siodha ┐ coccaidh `arbiter', AFM iv 976.3 . snímcha cendmaisse `head- dress', Tec. Corm. xvi 84 . cendmaisse laime glove, Acall. 5971 v.l. ¤míl name of an ornament: coíca acrann . . . co cendmílaib, TBFr. 31 . fuath . . . [na] cendmila tucsat a coscar catha, Aen. 1563 . Of persons: Ísa Críst . . . in cennmíl cumdachta, ZCP viii 204.34 . ní ba cendmíl muinntiri / nech nach fulaing a hécnach, iv 468 § 17 . a fírchlethe a chendmullaig, LU 6475 . brat tlachtgorm corcarrda hi cennfait impe (i.e. thrown over her head?) (cennḟait, MS), TBC-I¹ 2791 . cendpaite imma cenna `fillets', RC ix 484 n.5 . cinnréallna `stars of first magnitude', Ó Bruad. iii 14.7 . cend-róit `highway', CRR 28 . (Auricula Muris) ceinn-sgethrach do ghenam dhe, ┐ glanaidh an inchinn o na salcar, 23 K 42, 367.5 (see sceithrech). fá cheannsmacht, Oss. iv 274.24 . ` paitric' cennsrián, Metr. Gl. 19 `headstall', Plummer MS notes. dotuit ar a cenntruime topheaviness, O'Dav. 200 . cenntruime .i. gin collad, O'Curry 2598 ( Eg. 88, 50(51)d ). cend-urra a slánaigthe `Captain', Heb. ii 10 .

With adjectives.

74 C. chendalaind, ZCP xi 41 § 5 . cendard cassetnach, IT iii 246.80 . dá ech . . . cendbeca, LU 9257 . na dá chendbricc 'the two piebald-headed ones' TBC-LL² 1086 . cnā ceand-buidhi, ZCP v 22 § 16 . tre cnoccuibh corra cenncæla, ZCP vi 290.22 . ic imbirt fidchilli .i. na Cendchaeme (as subst.), LL 8350 (TBC). ingena cendálli cendchassa curly-headed, 31382 (TTr.). do innsaighi cnuic cennchuirr, ZCP vi 60.12 . cendchrom torsech, LL 12064 (TBC). ¤étig freq. as n. pr., see Corp. Gen. etc. trian a scéith chendfhada comdhualaig, ZCP xiii 211.11 . ar coiciud cendḟind Connacht, LL 3224 . See cenann. cheillínill / ceandfolaim, IT iii 92 § 139 . an fer cendgarb, i 273.29 ( FB 40 Eg.). cairrge ceann-gharbha, ML 34.4 . cranngal cheinngér, IGT Decl. ex. 905 . Eoghan an airm cheannghlais, DDána 99.40 . ar taisbenad a craisigi cenn-guirme catha, MR 196.5 . ¤grúcánach see grúcánach. a muinter . . . cendísel Corccaige `hang-head', MacCongl. 29.22 . arocul becc . . . cendisel low-pitched, Todd Lect. vi 42.2 ( LB 134a35 ). laech caem cendlethan, LL 11824 (TBC). cofacca . . . in deilb . . . cennléith, Ériu iv 102.12 . ocbud . . . chendmas, Anecd. i 60.88 . a dhá chraoisigh ceann-reamhra, ML 112.21 . ar ná ba cennscoilte `lest you get your head broken', Tec. Corm. 38.26 . Cuirrín Cheannsholuis, ML 32.18 . dia sephaind céis cenntoll céol, ZCP iii 7.2 . ¤tromm see cenntromm.

Rarely with verbs:

75 ceannlasfaidh a cró coirrshleagh (of warriors), Aithd. D. 16.28 . gu cennlúbdais na clocha na caolsoighdi the stones turned the points of the arrows, Caithr. Thoirdh. 113.6 .

Freq. as second element in compds.

76 See GOI 219 (nochtchenn, ardchenn). Freq. in this use in form -genn, see GOI 87 , O'Rahilly, Ériu xiii 140 . See cloicenn, cromcenn, corrcenn, 1 dícenn, táilgenn, tollcend (1 toll). Note further: crothid conchend catha ceirp, LU 3629 ( SCC 31 , see note in SC2). teiti tair fo thalmain trell / i nEgiptacthaib láncend (the Nile), LL 16325 . m. Fiachach Uanchind, Corp. Gen. 88.7 . Baccan mac Brain meic Eircc hUbulchind, Rawl. 126b43 .

77 Very freq. in nn. loc., see Hog. Onom.

certugud

Cite this: eDIL s.v. certugud or dil.ie/8811

Forms: certachadh

o, m. vn. of certaigid. certachadh, IGT Verbs § 106 (245.12).

(a) act of putting to rights, emending, adjusting, arranging; arrangement : cach coibchi a c.¤ , ACL iii 227.33 . comlán in c.¤ / ria roid (leg. roind) i cóic, LL 1041 . a certughadh fiad Patraic fria recht litre (of the traditional law), Laws i 24.7 Comm. c.¤ in libair, Laud 610, 42r marg. (Plummer MS. notes). ica cumma ┐ ica c.¤ (of ship Argo), LL 30959 . ag ceartú et ag cōrughadh an oiread sin éaduicc oruinn féin, Párl. na mB. 1251 .

(b) act of controlling, disciplining, correcting, reproving : tuath gan certachad, Ériu v 142.2 . certachadh gl. correctio, Ir. Gl. 888 . ba cobsaid oc c.¤ corach `firm in correcting sinners', RC xii 336.3 . coimnert an cumairce / chuinncim dom c[h]., ZCP viii 202 § 19 . do argain na n-óglach . . . ┐ ni d'grad a certaigthi, PH 7529 . int ech robui fa P. . . . nir cumaing a c.¤ , TTebe 2359 . dochuaidh roime docum tire ele dia certughudh, Stair Erc. 2266 . adeir . . . nach am ceartuighthe na beathadh am an bháis, Mac Aingil 1500 . an uair chongbhus sē a c[h]uairt certaighthe (of the Visitor), RSClára 130b . ceartughadh na gciontach, TSh. 5416 .

comarb(b)ae

Cite this: eDIL s.v. comarb(b)ae or dil.ie/10741

n io, m. (orbbae) Cf. comharba uasalchille, Études Celt. xii 521 . heir, successor : it sib ata chomarpi Abracham gl. heredes, Wb. 19c20 . conrandat comarba cetamus a randa ┐ a sealba, Laws iv 68.20 . atat .iii. caine nad chumgat comarbai do chumscuchud, 210.26 . da comarba treabar im easeart, 128.3 . athgabail comarba conrandat curu a nathur, i 216.2 . comarba aicinta natural heir, O'Curry 1227 ( H 3.18, 492b ). ní fil . . . scoth ná comarpa úad, Trip.² 861 . sochla sám comarbbae, Corp. Gen. 47.36 . tabairt mna dó fo déig co farcbad comarba, LU 10166 . cóich comarbai cré `to what heir the land belongs', ZCP xv 188 § 9 ( LU 3474 ; SCC² 271 , retoiric). lín cend comorba the number of heirs, Ériu i 215.22 . a chomhḟorba ┐ a chrioch .i. neanaidh truim ┐ tradhnaidhe (a curse), v 94.18 . fo selba Cuind comarbae `to the estates of Conn's heirs', xvi 46.13 . atrubalt iarom ┐ ní fargaib fer comurbai male heir, RC x 66.7 (ICM). comarba meic, Acall. 4914 . do-llega a chlanda ┐ a chomarbbu, ZCP xi 85 § 38 . ni chechrat mo comarbai alacomorba nad n-acatar i n-orbaib æithre (= aithre) aendān `my successors (heirs, posterity?) will not love an outsider whom they have never seen in their paternal heritage', xii 364.31 . airm gen fiadnu ┐ carbaid cen comarbada owners(?), occupiers(?), TTebe 3050 . Ioin mac Zepedeíí brunn-dalta Ísu, comarba na hógi (because he took the place of Jesus), PH 1454 .

Meaning unclear in: litre la caid comarba im ardmanach marbdilsi (one of the three things that establish a claim), Laws v 498.3 (= O'Dav. 530 ). bith la flaith .i. bid he-side bid caidh comarbai, O'Curry 871 ( H 3.18, 391b ) (cf. Corp. Gen. 2.27 and MR 90.1 s.v. comarbus).

In phr. c.¤ for c.¤ (?): athcuiredh comarba for comarba gin seotu `the one heir transmitted it to the other', Laws ii 208.15 Comm. in inbuidh is comarba for comarba, 210.10 Comm.

Very freq. of an ecclesiastical successor: comarba latinised conuerbius, Petrie, Christian Inscriptions ii 100 . féil Flaind . . . / comarbai . . . Bennchuir, Fél. Dec. 15 . Maelbrigte . . . comarba Patraic (i.e. abbot of Armagh), AU an. 927 . do Aed mac Crimthainn . . . do chomarbu Choluim, LL Introd. xvi 6 (printed ed.). comorba Crist i n-ecna (of St. Paul), PH 1650 . ó chomharba Pheadair (= the Pope), DDána 72.2 . comhorbaidhe an dá easpog dhéag soin, Keat. iii 413 .

dírgidetu

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dírgidetu or dil.ie/16730

Forms: diriatai, dirgiata

n t, [m.] (dírge, cf. dírgetu, straightness, direction:) proper regulation, correctness; rectitude, righteousness: ragaid cech oen assa richt .i. assa dírgidetaid, LL 188b9 . ní denad ní d'oene acht iar ndirgidetaid Dé, RC xx 272 ( ACC 97 Comm. ). fo dirgidetaid na nóeb, 274 ( ib. 100 Comm. ). rochoill . . . a recht ┐ a dirgidetaid . . . oc feiss Temrach .i. mind óir na rigna thall a tig Midchuarta, LL 159a39 . asé roshíol reacht, riaghail ┐ dirgiatadh gacha haoi . . . iar ccóir law, rule and direction for each science, AFM i 116.6 . Frequent in Laws as gloss on recht: a dirgidetu litri, Laws i 38.15 Comm. (gl. o recht litre , 30.26 ). o dirgidetaidh na litri, 17 . in ae fo dirgidetaid the law case at hearing, 84.19 . fri rachta .i. fri dirgetaid cana, iii 18.9 . orguin in broga ris na coir dirgetaide isin geimre, iv 88.16. ditiu in fer elos a dirgetu De, v 292.7 . Also written diriatai, dirgiata: aige rechta litre .i. don ogae 'ca mbid diratai na litri, i 42.33 . na cethre díriataidh so, 280.y Comm. recht fetarluig .i. isi in diriatai roloprustar a Paitir do Maisi, 282.1 . Cf. dirgiatadh, AFM i 116.6 cited above.

fáith, fáid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fáith, fáid or dil.ie/21211

Forms: fáith, fáid, fáidh, fáith, fáidh, fáth, fádh, fatho, ḟátha, fáda, fáidh, fáith, fháidh, fáthi, fáithi, fádi, fáde, fátha, ḟáthe, faithae, fáthe, fátha, fádi, fáth, fágh, fáidedh, fáithib, faidh, fáith

n (see Ériu xii 216 ) i, m. n s. fáith, Wb. 13d23 . Ml. 64c22 . fáid, LL 7a1 . PH 2796 . fáidh fáith, IGT, Decl. § 112 . fáidh, TSh. 16 . fáth ... fádh (?) IGT, Decl. § 38 . g s. in fatho , Ml. 74d13 . ind ḟátha , SR 7065 . LU 1416 . fáda, LL 8bz . (fáidh, fáith) IGT, Decl. § 112 . an fháidh , TSh. 4122 . n p. ( fáthi, Wb. 5a1 . Hy i 14 . fáithi, Wb. 21c5 . IGT, Decl. ex. 1842 . fádi, LL 91b44 . 316c50 . fáde, LU 1990 ( FA 6 = fátha LB). v p. a ḟáthe , LU 177 . g p. faithae, Wb. 21b13 . fáthe, Thes. ii 253.1 (Stowe Missal). fátha, LB 171b5 . fádi LL 360 marg. sup. PH 1712 , etc. fáth, TD 18.6 . fágh, Jerem. xxvii 16 . fáidedh, Fl. Earls 236.9 . d p. fáithib, Wb. 13a36 . In: dorarṅgert cech faith o chein | gigned i flaith Ochtauein, SR 7523 , probably a real rime is not intended; cf. ruithnig and druidib, 7537 - 8 ; Petur and étan, 7717 - 8 . A seer, prophet (used in wide sense, both of heathen seers and druids and of prophets of Scripture): faidh (gl. propheta) Ir. Gl. 2 . fáith ib. 350 , 958 . fírfidir a n-asrubart in f.¤ (gl. tunc fiat sermo qui scriptus est) Wb. 13d23 . amal donairchet hi fáithib et ro fiugrad i rrect (gl. secundum Scripturas) 13a36 . ar ba faith ar ba file (of David), Hib. Min. 5.157 . do chomallad in neich roterchan in f.¤ , PH 4375 . recht litre i rabatar fáithe, 5472 . atbertsat nach tanic fáid amal Ísu 2796 . Ionas faith, Hy i 37 . Héle f.¤ , SR 7109 . Iriel fáid, MacCarthy 158.5 . a n-aontaid uassalaithrech ┐ fháidedh, Fl. Earls 236.9 . fāstini Berchāin in prīmfāda, Cog. 225 = LL 309a53 . a ḟáthe ind ríg, LU 177 (of druids). feib ratharngirsetar drúidi ┐ fádi ... fer nErend, TBC-LL¹ 4545 . .iii. faithi fis la geinti .i. Mathu, Nuada, Goibnend the pagans have three seers of knowledge O'Mulc. 665 . Bóann, faigh mna prophetess ZCP xiii 166y . fáighi ┐ fir eola , Ériu iii 172.4 . as cian o ata acc fathaib bar ttiochtain your coming has long been foretold Leb. Gab.(i) i 252 . do sheol an realta na faighe dochum Iosa (of the Magi) BNnÉ 183.8 . fisich (= fissid) cach faid, fáid cach sen, ACL iii 228.80 . faidh gach flaith every prince is a seer RC xliii 10.1 .

Compds.: Some of those given under fáth may really belong to this.

fili

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fili or dil.ie/22070
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: fili, filid, filid, filed, filid, ḟilid, fileda, filed, file, fileadha, filidh, filed, fili, fili

n t, m. n s. fili, Wb. 31b19 . Sg. 29a3 . LU 10942 , etc. a s. filid, 10944 . d s. filid, Sg. 140a1 . g s. filed, 71b16 . n p. filid 63a14 . ind ḟilid , 162a3 . Ml. 26b10 . a p. fileda, Sg. 63b4 . 212a11 . g p. filed, Rawl. 124a46 . n s. file, LU 10941 . Rawl. 156b5 . IGT, Decl. § 21 . n p. fileadha ( Keat. iii 1239 , etc.) is proscribed as incorrect, IGT Decl. § 21. ex. 784 .

Orig. seer, diviner (cognate with Welsh gwelet, see Thurn. Heldensage, 66 ), and in earlier documents generally implies occult powers or knowledge : fili gl. propheta, , Wb. 31 b 19 . imbass forosnae .i. dofuarascaib sechip ret bas maith lasin filid ┐ bes adlaic dó d'foillsiugad, Corm. Y 756 . is a Senc[h]as Mar ro airled comdire do rig ┐ epscop ┐ aige rechta litre ┐ sua[i]d filed for-can di cendaib, Laws i 40.16 ( ZCP xvi 175 ), with gl. : .i. in sui file[d] ... da faillsigend imad a sofesa ... co ndenand rand can smuainedh .i. cen imradud, Laws i 42x Comm. firt filed (a miracle wrought by a poet) AU 1024 . See also ZCP xix 163 , IT iii 96 § 155 , Imr. Brain i 46 , Corm. s.v. Mug eme , Coire Brecain ; RC xxvi 8 . For `fili' and `drui' as interchangeable terms see Plummer V. SS. Hib. i clxi , clxii . Poet (historian, panegyrist, satirist), man of learning (the `fili' in early times was not always sharply distinguished from the `breithem' and `senchaid,' and seems originally to have united all three functions : ni dhligh cúairt no cennaighect | ar ni fili fíreólach | hi feidm eoluis ilcrothaigh | manip co fēigh fessara | cīsa tenna is tuarustla | ... ; ni dlig cuairt ... | file nach dron dechraighfes | sochur dochur dílmaine | drēcht cech tīre thic, ZCP iv 237 . Leb. Cert. 236 . on uair dona ronuc Aimirgin Glungel cetbreth i nEre robu la filedhu a n-oenur breithemnus, cusin Imacallaim in da Tuar i nEmain Mache .i. Ferceirtne file ┐ Nede mac Adna ... Ba dorcha didiu in labrad ro labairset na filid [sic leg.] isin fuigell sin ┐ nirbu reill donaib flaithib in brethemnus ronucsat ... Do allad didiu brethemnus [sic leg.] ar filedhaib iar sin, acht a nduthaigh de, ┐ ro gab cach d'feraib Eirenn a drecht don breithemnus, Laws i 18 Comm. Cf. dichetal filed, one of the things by which law is preserved in tradition, ZCP xvi 175 = Laws i 30 . canaid in breithem fassach firaicnid ┐ roscadh filed, da cois ina brethe in sin, Corm. Y 1224 . See also the tract on The Privileges ... of poets, ed. E. J. Gwynn, Ériu xiii p. 2 ff .) : amal as ho molad ┐ adamrugud in choimded intinscana in salm sa [isamlaid] forcentar dano amal dundgniat ind filid linni cid in sin, Ml. 26b10 . filidh (gl. poeta), Ir. Gl. 1 . Of Latin poets Sg. 63a14 . fili .i. fī a n-aoras ┐ lī a mmolas ┐ brecht a fuacras in file, Corm. Y 600 . f.¤ ... .i. seircid foglamo. nó ... fī fora aeir ┐ lī fora molad, O'Mulc. 537 . duarfine ... ainm d'filethaib .i. fine duar .i. fine foccul, Corm. Y 445 . rosiachtus glún Amargin filed coro molaim ríg as cach feib i mbi, LU 10298 . rātha eturru secht ṅdruid, secht filid, secht n-ócthigirn. na secht ṅdruid dia rímsad tría brichtu, na secht filid dia ṅglámad ┐ dia n-erḟuacra (`the seven druids to bewitch (?) them by means of spells; the seven poets to satirise them and denounce them') Dinds. 161 . nemed .i. fili ... ar is a fidnemedaib fognitis filid a ngressa, O'Mulc. 830 . nem-uath fri filedaib iarsinni aerait nech co n-epil de, 830 f . asbert in fili nodnaírfed ... ┐ no áerfad a athair ┐ a máthair ┐ a senathair ┐ docechnad fora n-usciu conná gébtha iasc ina inberaib, LU 10946 ( Imr. Brain i 46 ). Applied to Virgil , Sg. 29a3 ; Epimenides Wb. 31b19 . ar ba faith, ar ba file (of David), Hib. Min. 5. 157 . ro can in filid ┐ in faith .i. Bec mac Dé, Cog. 10.22 . Find fili, mac Rosa, LL 311b53 . c56 . Rawl. 118b30 . gen. Find filed m. Rossa, 117e28 . Faifne file, LL 160b11 . Ferchertne file, Rawl. 156b4 . ZCP viii 326.1 . The `filid' was commonly attached to the house-hold of a chief. The calling was hereditary and the office of `fili' to the head of the clan was, in later times at any rate, often the prerogative of a particular family : fili Conchobair in tAed, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 22 . Fergus Fínbel, file Find, Dinds. 52 . Fergus Fínbél, fili na Féinde, Acall. 3017 . file Chon Raoi, Feircheirtne a ainm, Keat. ii 3524 . clann Fhir bhisigh .i. fileadha Ua nAmhalghaidh ┐ Cloinne Fiachrach, Hy Fiach. 10 . adubhairt ris file do bheith 'na ardollamh aige féin ar aithris na ríogh roimhe, Keat. iii 1465 .

duais ḟiled is ruidles .i. a ndoberr [sic leg.] i logh natha acht rop iar firinde ┐ choir mbeith in nath the poet's fee is absolutely conveyed, that is, what is paid for a poem, provided the poem be truthful and correct ZCP xiii 20.19 ( Bürgschaft 7 ). coic gne in berla tobaidi .i. berla fene ┐ fasaige na filed ┐ berla etarsgarta ┐ berla forttide [fortcide v.l.] na filed triasa n-agaillit cach dib a chele, Auraic. 1303 . berla na filed, part of the sixth year's course of the student-`fili' IT iii 38 .

From early times the `filid' formed an important and highly organized corporation classed among the `saer-nemed' (privileged classes) : tri nemid uaisli ... .i. espoc ┐ flaith ┐ file, O'D. 1631 (< H 5.15, 16b ). it e saernemead filead and .i. ecalsi, flatha, filidh (.i. graid filedh), feine, Laws v 14.10 . There were seven grades of fili, of which the highest was the ollam filed : in t-ollam filedh iarna uirdned ag rig tuath the fully qualified poet when appointed by the king of territories Laws i 42z Comm. ollamh fileadh ` master poet ' Studies 1919, 74 . Cf. O'D. 1214 ff ( H 2.15A, p. 84 ). in t-ollam sair ... adeitig lasin ugdar ni bud mo do na cutruma risin ollamain filed, no risin ollamain mberla no risin fear legind, Laws v 92x Comm. secht ngrad filed : ollam, ansrut[h], cli, canae, dos, mac fuirmid, focluc, O'Mulc. 537 . IT iii 96 § 155 . RC xii 119 . See also Laws iv 358 - 60 . v 26 ; 56 ff . is a ndanaibh defrighet ┐ dearscaighit gach grad filedh o raile i sos ┐ i segda ┐ i n-aircedal BB 296b29 ( IT iii 6 n .). sé dá rádh go riacht tusa | ... seacht ngradh na bfilidh ar fad ..., Gofraidh Mac an Bhaird, 23 L 17, 148b . The fili was at all periods distinguished from the bard (q.v.), whose qualifications and status were inferior (in: a bhfilidh, dá ngairid báird, Keat. i 70 , he is rendering Camden : poetas, quos bardos vocant) : cescc cidh dlighedh i ffil an bhairdne lasna filedhoibh ... ? amhail roghabh rithim arradh Mettuir, as amhlaidh ataid na báird cona mbairdne arradh na ffiledh, Ériu xiii 42.4 . dichlannaigfiter filid cona biat filid etir acht baird tantum , Rawl. 111b14 ( RC xxvi 44 - 5 ). is aire tra na dlegait baird acht letheneclann na filedh uair na frithgh[n]at, uair ni [di]reanar a ngradhaibh filedh neach na frit[h]gnat no o nach frit[h]ghainter the reason bards are entitled to only half the honor-price of poets is that they do not serve [ = practise their art], for `dire '-fine is not paid for any in the grades of a poet who do not serve or are not served BB 296b33 . Amal forber cach gradh filed seach araile im mod soís in oircidail toimside, forber ... cach gradh dibsom [viz. the bards] seach aroile IT iii 24 . fogluim na .uii. mad bliadna .i. brosnacha suad .i. bairdne na mbard ┐ dlegair dond ḟilid a ḟis, ar is he accept na sechtmad bliadna don ḟilid, 39 . ni dír báird acht dír fileadh | fis cach righ is a dhlighedh, Leb. Cert. 182 . The fili in his twelve-year course of study ( IT iii 31 ff .) had to master the various metrical tracts and oghams, memorize a mass of verse and prose tales, and learn certain methods of incantation : is hi ... foglaim na hochtmaide bliadna .i. fiscomarca filed .i. duili berla ┐ clethchor choem ┐ reicne roscadach ┐ laíde .i. tenm laída ┐ immas forosnai ( ZCP xix 163 ) ┐ dichetal do chennaib na tuaithe ┐ dín[n]ṡenchus ┐ primscéla Hérend olchena fria n-aisneis do ríghaib ┐ flaithib ┐ dagdhoínib. Ar ni comlán in fili chena, sicut dixit poeta : ni ba dúnad cen rígu. niba fili cen scéla, IT iii 49 - 50 . in-feded in fili scél cacha aidche do Mongán, LU 10942 .

Sometimes in sense a learned man, one skilled in literary composition in Irish, dist. from the Latin author on one hand and the unlearned Irishman on the other : a ngrad con-deilg lasin Laitneoir is eatargoiri a n-ainm lasin filid `the comparative degree of the Latinist (writer of Latin) is named inflection by the [Irish] poet' Auraic. 640 . possit ┐ comparait ┐ superlait lasin Laitneoir .i. fothugudh ┐ forran ┐ formoladh lasin filid : maith ┐ fearr ┐ fearrson lasin nGaedeal, 645 . maith, etc. (.i. lasin nGaedel coitchend a n-ecmais in filed, fothugad immorro lasidhe) 657 . ocht ndeich tra atrimet filidh na Goídilce the Gaelic poets reckon eight (metrical) feet Corm. Y 447 .

foclóracht

Cite this: eDIL s.v. foclóracht or dil.ie/50279
Last Revised: 2019

n ā, f. (foclóir) vocabulary : mā tá uireasbhuidh fhoclōrachta nō chearta scrībhtha nó litre a n-inadh litre sa leabhar-sa, Carswell² 112.3939 .

1 il

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 il or dil.ie/27239
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: iliu, hil, n-ili, il, lia, lia, il, ilága, il, il, il-

adj i (orig. u, GOI § 358 ). As subst. a p. iliu, O'Dav. 621. LL. 119b50 . Sg. form of adj. with pl. noun : nidat glain for n-adbai hil (: dil), SR 7996.

With a noun in pl. many, numerous: atá n-ili dána in spirto `that the Spirit's gifts are many,' Wb. 12a11 . it corp in boill-sin cit íli, 12a13 . arnaib réib ilib, 22a8 . inna leri ili gl. operas multas, Ml. 28c2 . os ní ili `we many', 43a6 . rugil (gl. nonnullo= rug-il `sehr viel'), ZCP vii 488 § 41 , cf. GOI § 366. co mmárbuidin martrae | naptar ili lochtae, Fél. March 18. fertae amrai ili | dogénatar airi, ib. Ep. 175. it ile imda mo anmandsa cheana, BDD² 554. ili insi Mod ... ili tonna mara : liä dāma Domnaill, Bruchst. i § 12 . bātar ili Cothraige | cetharthrebe dia fognad `many were there whom C. ... used to serve,' Thes. ii 309.3 . do flaithib ilib echtrandaib, Laws ii 308.17 . di each dec diamut ili sealbu `if they have belonged to various owners,' v 242.10 Comm. robdar úaite a n-éolaig ┐ robdar ile a n-anéolaich, Ériu iv 126.10 . fíad andrib ilib, LU 3902. ili ceanna, ūatte enech, ZCP viii 195 § 10. bid uaite bar n-airchisechtai, bidt ile bar námait, Alex. 223. go ro chaoininn m'ulca ile, Measgra D. 42.27 .

With a noun in sg. manifold, much, great: cosin taidbse il gl. cum multa ostensione, Ml. 30b11 . in tomais il .i. in toimseo truim (gl. multi ponderis), 20a21 . bith cen ṡeotu | arlicud il | ilar carat `much lending,' Tec. Corm. § 14.29 .

As subst. many, a multitude: tresa n-íccatar híli `through which many may be saved,' Wb. 27c20 . do ṡlund hile `to signify many,' Sg. 28b24 . ní derscaigi in comparit di hilib a cheneiuil feissin, 40a6 . a n-il gl. multum, Ml. 43d23 . aisnefimit uáiti do ilib dib `de multis pauca perstringemus,' Lat. Lives 45.7 . togaethfaid sochaide soifid iliu, LL 119b50 . gellfat-sa de fīad ile in the presence of many, ZCP x 41.22 . co ttangattar ili diabhal ina thimcheall, BNnÉ 6 § 19. tidhnacul mbīdh ... coemthach n-ile, ACL iii 296 § 41. fechtas for iliu oenfer `which one man wreaks upon many,' O'Dav. 621. ar ilib ... ┐ ní ar na huilib dóinib `pro multis .. non pro omnibus,' PH 5227. dú in ro marbhadh íle, AFM i 440.9 . cf. ile .i. iomad, no iolardha, O'Cl.

Equative: con bús lir bommanna ega, TBC-LL¹ 5949. comtar lir gainem mara ... a lleithchind ┐ a llethchloicne ..., RC iii 177.29 . For compar. : comtís lir a mmairb anda a mbí, TBC-LL¹ 6006. at lir turim thrá frassa na saiget past counting, LU 2212. With compar. ending for comparative : is liriu feoir no folt fidbuide `more numerous than ...,' Ir. Gl. p. 70 n . Compar. lia more, more numerous, greater: nabad lia diis no thriur `let it not be more than ...,' Wb. 13a4 . lia gl. plures, Sg. 41a9 . air robtar lia sidi ol mbatar maicc israhel, Ml. 123a8 . ce beth lin is lia do crichaib eturru `a greater number of territories,' Laws i 222.z Comm. lia ceasta canoine nā canoin, ocus lia aicned inā udaras, iii 32.8 Comm. at líu luibni fidbad fann | no ruibni rinndglan retglann, SR 7291. is lia indisi ┐ epirt a ndo ligdath doadbat `beyond telling,' Ériu ii 114 § 39. is lia turem tra ┐ aisneis ina mboí dí degmnáib and, LU 8416. ni ḟil nech is lia seóit ... andú-sa, TBC-LL¹ 59. níba lia in rí is taig andā-side `the king had not more people ...,' ZCP xii 272.30 . bid lia a mairb lais na hoirgne andáta a mbí, BDD² 801. longes ba liu andasaide, Cog. 228.14 . ar mhodh nach liadh da a gceannuibh ina da gceudfadhuibh (=quot capita, tot sententiae), Luc. Fid. 333.4 . iomdha fochuinn as a bfoil | fearg ag Chríosd re cloinn Ádhaimh | ... lia tobar na trócuire ` stronger ,' Dán Dé xxi 12. is lia ná soin daonnacht Dé greater , x 12 . am lia d'ḟios is d'ealadhain `I am richer in knowledge ...,' Content. xiv 10. Ír, ní raibhe laoch ba lia `no warrior was greater,' Keat. ii 747. With de : nocha liauite in biadh `the food is not the more plentiful,' Laws ii 28.17 Comm. is liate in da urlabra `the more lengthy,' Auraic. 635. indar leosom gach imat cruth bias fora ndee is liai-di a cumhachta, Marco P. § 152. liaide duine ag dul 'n-a teach | cor na gcreach ar Muire amach, DDána 21 § 16. lía assa lía more and more numerous: lia sa lia an t-aos ealodhna, Ériu v 52.10 . lia sa lia treablaid is teadhma, Dán Dé xii 2. cóir cungnamh as lia sa lia, DDána 34 § 9. lía assa chách more and more numerous: ┐ ni lia 'sa cach iad ┐ ni huaiti, YBL 85a23 . Superl. issē mac dian lia eōlas i nĒrind, Ériu viii 156.7 . ar an leirg bhus lia duine very numerous ?, DDána 24 § 8. corn lán as lia trócuire, A. Ó Dálaigh ix 1. fód as lia iasg ar abhann, Gleanings from Irish manuscripts 8 § 3 v.l. an tráth as teirce an fhéile | 's as lia lucht an toibhéime, L. Cl. A. B. 64.154 . lia toimhdeadh atá don fhior very many , 174.61 .

Adv. ind il greatly: multum .i. is ind il as ferr iudeus quam gentilis, Wb. 2a4 . With de : is lia de creitfess `the more ,' 23b7 .

Compds. il is most commonly compounded with plur. nouns, but may also be compounded with nouns of a collective or abstract character, e.g. il-chésad, il-chonách, il-ecor, il-ḟodlaidetu. ¤adbai many dwellings: dia n-ergnaib, dia n-iladbaib, SR 7264. ¤adbara many materials ? : ri secht nimi, rí talman, | ardruiri na n-iladbar, 7734 . ¤ág manifold combat, many fights: g. (? s. or p.) airm ilága , TBC-LL¹ 4105. ¤aicdi many materials: rasilsat i. adhamrai ann .i. nemaind Locha Lein, Anecd. ii 6.6 . ¤aicmi many races, many families: nicon fogail hilltuathai ┐ hilaicme fear talman, Alex. 236. ¤airdbe many slayings: bé dia mbiat ilardbe | eter Ulto erredaib, IT i 69.9 . ¤airm many weapons: dia n-ilarmib, SR 732. ¤anman many names: ilanman domber doib du(a)id 'many names which David gives to them', Études Celt. xl 65 ( Ml. 48c34 ​). ainmnigud oen folaid húa ilanmmanaib, Sg. 30a5 . ¤arda many heights: dor-riagat ilardae uisscib indberaib, BDD² 455. ¤átha many fords: for ilathaib Boinde, YBL 173b52 . m'oenur dam ar ilathaib, TBC-LL¹ 2336. co mensat (leg. memsat, Ed.) ort forsna ilathu, LU 6097. ¤baill many limbs: dorígeni dia corp ... ó ilballaib, Wb. 12a29 . ¤bélrae, ¤bérlai, ¤bérlada n. later m. many languages: is ferr precept oldaas labrad ilbéelre, 12d7 . ni labrátar uili ó ilbélrib, 12b22 . do fogluim na n-ilberla fon doman, Laws i 20.7 Comm. iar cumasc na n-ilbérlae `after the confusion of tongues,' Ériu iv 140.21 . eoin ... cantai ilcheolu i n-ilbelraib, ii 118 § 54 . áit ionar thiodhnuic Día ilbhérladha an domhain do Neamhrúadh, IGT Introd. 3.12 . ¤benna many horned animals: il-benda, Laws i 64.9 . ¤berta ` many burdens,' many tasks ?: gessa ┐ i. bítis for Coinculainn, RC xiv 398 § 1. ¤blassa see blas. ¤blátha many blossoms: forsnig inna hilblátha, Imr. Brain § 6. ¤blíadnai many years: ecmaing bátir ilblédni, § 62. demun oca himluad fri hil-bliadnu, PH 1990. ¤brecht(n)ugud great diversification, great variegation: hilbrectnugud retland roglan i n-aidchi réoid, TBC-LL¹ 5048. ilbrechtnugud cech datha inti, Acall. 5454 n. ilbrechtugud, 7168 . ¤brechtrad, ¤mrechtrad manifold variety: adiecta cona n-ilmrechtrud, Sg. 29b6 . hilbrectradh ndath n-éxamail na cathsciath, CCath. 1728. as lais tuccadh ilbrechtradh gacha datha i n-edighibh ar tús, AFM i 42.z . ¤bríathra many words: mrechtrad inna n-ilbriathar, Ml. 122d11 . ¤brugai (see mruig) g p. imtiagad breatha ilbruige `the judgments on the various farms vary,' Laws v 466.15 . ¤búada many victories, many outstanding qualities: dia n-ilbuadaib, SR 716. ra bátar ilbuada ilarda ... for Coinculaind, TBC-LL¹ 660. innisidh a iolbhuadha, DDána 67 § 23. ¤búaid great excellence ?: lat mac n-oebind co n-ilbúaid, SR 2864. ¤buidne many bands: na hilbuidni airridrici, TTebe 1444 . ¤chaingni many affairs, many troubles: ba mertnech Moisi ... fri hi., SR 4542. ¤chatha many battles: fri frithalim n-i., 5058 . ¤chathraig many cities: Sg. 13a2 . a n-ilchathrachaib tíre Iúda, PH 3675. ¤chelga many treacheries: a fhír-indilltech na n-il-chelg n-exsamail, 8174 . ¤chella many churches : et fundavit il-cella i nDáil Araidi, Lat. Lives 34.13 . ¤chenéle many kinds: ataat i. bérli isin biuth so, Wb. 12d4 . ¤chennadacha many provinces: do luid ri Eoganachta for creich ┐ innrudh ilchendadhach, YBL 1a16 . ¤chenna many heads: tolaib ilchend (of a beast), SR 882. ¤chéola, ¤chéol many melodies, many harmonies, manifold music: binnithir ilcheólu in domain ..., LU 2034. co srethaib ... ilchéolaib, SR 992. parrthus cona thairthib ┐ cona il-cheolaib, YBL 157a16 . binn leisna harcainglibh ilcēol na hēnlaithe, ZCP viii 199 § 5. seinn i., Studies 1919, 611 § 1 . ¤cherda many crafts, many accomplishments: batar hi. inganta leo, PH 889. go ráith bhfódsgoraigh na n-ilcheard n-éagsamhail, DDána 70 § 14. ioldanach .i. duine lan d'ealadhnaib no d'ilcheardaib, O'Cl. ¤chésad ` act of torturing in various ways' : go raibhe dá il-chéasadh ann (i.e. in Hell), TSh. 564. ¤chéta many hundreds: tríasna hilchéta blíedne, Imr. Brain § 65. co ruc il-chéta bó as, RC xvii 363.8 . ¤chethrai many cattle, cattle of various kinds: isin cumusg n-ilcethra `in the intermixture of various cattle,' Laws ii 4.y Comm. imtar imdai a n-i., SR 4662. ¤chíalla many meanings: na ilchialla asind óinrainn, Sg. 197a17 . o oin inna n-ilchial, 154a1 . ataat ilchialla isint sun ebraidiu, Ml. 37a10 . ¤chinéla many races: na hilltuatha ┐ na hilchinela, LB 122b39 . ¤chlessa many tricks: a ilcleasa neme ar indell aicci, TBC-LL¹ 3931 (Stowe). i n-árach a n-il-chleas `varied tricks,' TSh. 528. ¤choin many hounds: airm i mbiat i. géra, LU 2418. ¤chomarbas manifold heirship: can forbeir coimaithces ? A il-comarbus `from several heirs,' Laws iv 68.19 . ¤chomraic many encounters, many combats: nipa frithenech debtha hit ilchomraicib, LU 3495 (SC). ¤chonách : dochuaidh ilconach do Césair `manifold prosperity,' CCath. 2368. ¤chuir many turns ? many circles ? : línib hilchor (a cheville), SR 166 ¤chrícha many territories: i n-ilchrīchaib comadais, ACL iii 218 § 7. ¤dála many delays: a ben, ná bi ic hildalaib, SR 1698. ¤dána many gifts, many arts, many accomplishments ; sg. ¤dán varied skill, manifold science: nítat ildáni do óenfiur et ní óen dán do sochuidi `it is not many gifts to one man ...,' Wb. 21a16 . tormaigid eneclann du neoch il-dana du beith aigi, Laws v 108.16 Comm. In sg. : fairenn cach ildāna of every varied gift, Ériu iv 163.14 . ? used as adj. iar n-eladnaib ildánaib, SR 2226. ¤dath, ¤datha sg. and pl. many hues, varied colouring: Emne co n-ildath féle, Imr. Brain § 60. co mbrechtaib cach illdatha, SR 56. Loch Riach ..., illatha de gach n-aenlā dath gorm, dath buidhe ..., ZCP v 24 § 14. Attrib. gen.: i mbeirtibh óir ioldatha, TD 7 § 26. ¤dechraib d p. many differences: isnaib i., Ml. 125d7 . ¤delba many shapes, varied shapes: rí rodasgni ... i. na n-anmanna, SR 7270. ¤dírib d p. many fines, many compensations: slan enech ecmaing in il-dirib i n-ordaib il-grad ecsi, YBL 179b13 . ¤draídechta varied enchantments: na hildraidhechta ┐ na hileicne ro imerset draithe Cormaic orro, RC xliii 58 § 58. ¤dúili many elements: trí accomol n-ildule `through the conjunction of many elements,' Ml. 145c4 . ro chainset na hilldúile, SR 7760. ¤échta many slayings, many slain: re himad na n-ar ocus na n-ilécht, MR 240.8 . āra ┐ ilēchta, TTebe 2856 . ¤ecor much decoration, much inlay: etaigi caema ... arna n-ilecur do snath alaind orda, TTebe 2214 . Attrib. gen.: ruithean na cathbarr n-orda n-ileagair, 917 . cloidim cru[a]idgher ... ┐ se ordhuirn ilegair, Aen. 1955. ¤ḟaebair, ¤ḟaebra many weapons, varied weapons: na hairm ┐ na hilḟaebair, Acall. 2031. ní geibhtis renna ná ilfaebra he, RC xliii 46 § 45. gé bhrisim ... beirn le beagán iolfhaobhar, DDána 82 § 2. Metaph. armtha lé hiol-fhaobhraibh na haithrighe, TSh. 10816. ¤ḟodla many divisions: nos deocraigitt i n-ecsamlus na n-ilfodal fil forsin mbairdni, IT iii 6 § 4. ¤ḟodlaidetu manifold division: cid i n-airecar ilfodlaidetu forsin cetardu sin (viz. na cethri primfodla filed forsin bardni), IT iii 6 § 4. ¤ḟolta : fri slond n-ilḟolad `to signify many substances,' Sg. 28b22 . ¤ḟuirech much delay: ní bad muilleóir duit fer ilḟuirig `a man of much delay,' Tec. Corm. § 34.5 . níbat ilḟurig im írad n-echtrand `do not often delay ...,' SCC 272 (= LU 3471 ). ¤gáiri, later ¤gáirthe, ¤gár(r)tha many cries, much clamour: a cuirdís óic ilgáire, Acall. 3094. fodord mor ... ┐ ilgaire troma fergacha, LB 151b37 . iolgháirthe gan méid do mhair, IGT Decl. ex. 1983. iolgháirthe badhbh is brainéan, TD § 31. iolach ┐ iolgarrtha, RC xxix 122.7 . ¤gáirdes much joy: cūis ilghairdis, Fl. Earls 238.10 . ¤gáirdiugud much rejoicing or merrymaking: ticdiss ... d'ilghairdiugadh inntinne dōip `to make amusement for them,' 58.15 . ¤gessa many spells, many enchantments: mar mhná na n-ilgheas oile, TD 1 § 17. ó do imdhigh a n-ilgheasa `their great prerogatives,' Aithd. D. 45 § 3. ar eól amhra i n-ilgheasaibh, Hackett l 8. ¤géill many hostages: a p. huaire do-foxla ilgiallu, Laws iv 330.4 Comm. ¤glésa many arrangements, manifold equipment: im thalmain co n-ilglessaib, SR 90. re hil-gles a hoirfideach, MR 102.17 . ¤gné many kinds, varied appearances: bieit i. indi són, Ml. 97a1 . Lucifer linib hilgne, SR 1690. nocon fetarsa indat ilgnae do-chuirither in folt fair fo indat trí fuilt failet fair, BDD² 1125. ¤gníma many deeds, various deeds: nicond ailet il-gnima `various works,' Laws v 414.x . a ghríobh na n-ilghníomh n-orrdhuirc, DDána 92 § 40. soidheach il-ghníomh n-amhghlan inn, Aithd. D. 73 § 3. tar eis na n-ilgnim sin do denum, Stair Erc. 1223. ¤gotha : ba uisse ce notectad ilgotha ` many sounds ,' Sg. 197a11 . ¤grád(a) many orders, many grades: ni do thoimsib na n-hilgrad, SR 714. cona ecalsib i n-ilgradaib, ZCP iii 223 § 4. ¤gréssa many ornamentations, many illuminations (of a MS.) : in sgribenn n-amrae ... cona ilgresaib aillib examlaib, Fél. 90.6 . ¤imad very many, a great quantity: maille re hiolimad dona págánachaibh, Ériu v 192.530 . ioliomad édála léo, 194.564 . fer saidhbhir ... co n-ílimad gacha maithusa, RC x 187.14 . Ionas, Iob, ┐ il-iomad oile, TSh. 8434. go n-ilimat bād ┐ ethor, Fl. Earls 86.12 . ¤innéirge : ilinnerghe ineragar o ecluis bunuidh `many desertions are made from an original church,' Laws iii 64.20 . ¤intliuchta : sluindes ilsésu ┐ ilintliuchtu `that signifies many senses and many meanings,' Ml. 37a10 . ¤lanna many blades: ar fich arm il-land ngorm, LL 43a13 . ¤liuna a p. : arna tormastar fort iliuna len lighe `lest there be added to thy numerous sorrows the sorrows of a sick bed,' Ériu viii 173.30 . ¤ litre many letters: ar it lia sillaba o illitrib quam ó oinlitrib, Sg. 71a18 . ? ¤lúamand : ? roīr dam ... deich tallima taroeda il-luamand, Ériu ii 28.31 . ¤luicc many places: dorata i. dáib, Trip.² 1185. ¤maicni many tribes, many families: frisna iltuathaib ┐ frisna ilmacnib ┐ frisna ilmílib, TBC-LL¹ 453. ¤maín(e) much wealth, many treasures, many gifts: ladiri ocus ilmuine mic Dé `manifold powers,' Laws i 22.22 Comm. ar id ilmaoine moighter comarbaib, iv 266.24 . fuath lais ór is iolmhaoine, Aithd. D. 20 § 21. do bhronn d'filidh ilmhaíne, IGT Decl. ex. 1173. Fig. (see maín (c)) ; im ṡeirc Dé ba hilmain, Fél. Feb. 11. taimthiu Ióib ilmain (? in app. to taimthiu), June 30 . ¤mara many seas: tíre is iolmhara eadroinn, Studies 1918, 453 § 15 . ¤mairb many dead: ro-thóduscastar hil-marbu ... lais a bás, PH 3747. ¤míana many desires: cin nach n-uiressbhaidh dia n-ilmianaib, Stair Erc. 624. ¤míla many animals: Adam, sruth is ilmílaib, SR 1642. cona huilib hilmilaib, 1632 . ¤míli many thousands: i fil ilmíli brecc mban, Immrama 11 § 19. bíaid ... cath for ilmilib, IT i 131.39 . cid oenfer do hilmilib, SR 4024. co ruca hilmíle lett dochum Nime, Lat. Lives 82.11 . do caithedar ... ilmilti do liagaibh lámh, Stair Erc. 1549. ¤mílid many soldiers: in coica curad ... ┐ na hilmili[d], TTebe 3259 . ¤mná many women: cell a ndentar imot adaltrais ri hilmnaib, Laws v 122.6 Comm. ¤moda many ways: roptar cosmaile hó ilmodaib .i. Moyṡi ocus Pátraic, Trip. ii 474.20 . ¤nathraig many snakes, various snakes: co n-immud a hillnathrach, SR 4684. ¤phairti many parts: cor bloidh in cathbarr a n-ilpairtibh, Stair Erc. 354. ¤phectha many sins: acht ro pennead a n-ilpeacta, Laws v 448.2 . a lloss ilpeacadh cloinde n-Adaim, Leb. Gab.(i) 8.11 . ¤phersain multiplicity of persons, many persons: ní tre ilpersa sed per filium dei (? leg. ¤persana, Edd.), Wb. 32b2 . ¤phíana many pains, varied pains: coro innithmigtís hiffer[n]d cona ilphíanaib, LU 1960. ag ingheilt ar il-phianaibh ifrinn cropping the varied pains of hell, TSh. 1963. ¤phíanad act of torturing in many ways: tuc co port Rig da riagad | na hiuidail, da n-il-pianad, Metr. Dinds. iii 416.34 . dá il-phianadh go síordhaidhe, TSh. 9165. pl. varied tortures: imat ilpianad itfrinn, RC xxviii 320 § 37. ¤phíasta, ¤phésti many or varied beasts, many reptiles: eisc ┐ ilpiasta ichtair in aiceoin, Ériu v 20.12 . no-chodlad a oenur eter na hilphiasta ┐ ni erchoitigitis do, PH 875. tearc ann do na hilphiastaibh, DDána 112 § 16. ¤phíast, ¤phéist (= oillphíast, see s.v. oll) s. monster, serpent: an dubh-loch ... irraibhe an il-péist fraochdha, BNnÉ 135. iiib. 14 . ilphiast 'na hinbhearaibh, TD 13 § 10. ¤ranna many parts, various parts: comsuidiugud o ilrannaib uil composition from all the many parts, O'Mulc. 100. ¤ratha many graces, many blessings: is liriu feor nó folt fidbaide i. in marbnaid noeb siu, ZCP iii 225.4 . ¤rechta many shapes: is de atberthe in siriti ara met no delbad i n-ilrechtaib, LU 9009 (FB). domrat ... rí na nuli i n-ilrechtaib, 1290 . ar a immat d'ilr[e]achtaib a téiged sí, Acall. 2402. bean bhroit úaine a n-ilreachduibh, IGT Decl. ex. 1587. ¤rechta ? : fiu a heire éara dá hilreachtaibh, DDána 83 § 1. ¤ríana many paths, many ways: a n-ifurnd na n-ilrīan, ACL iii 216 § 3. échta ┐ ilriana in ármhuighe sin, MR 318.30 . ilriana urbadacha eli ic fostad ... fhoirne dá n-ógbhadhaibh, 316.28 . many floods, many seas ? : atraachtatar a róin ... ┐ a chenandain ┐ i. in mara, CRR § 10. ¤rind many stars: firmiminti na n-i., SR 274. ¤rith manifold course ?, many courses ? : srethaib ilretha rétlann, SR 718. ¤rúna, ¤rún many mysteries, varied mystery ? : ri rooirdnistar mac Nún | Essu, co n-immud hilrún, SR 5006. d'aisneis ocus d'ḟiadhnughadh aignidh ocus illruine na n-oghbriathar, MR 92.1 . ¤ṡailm many psalms: it ilsailm hi tadbadar foisitiu a pecthae do duaid, Ml. 32b18 . ¤ṡésu a p. : sluindes ilsésu ┐ ilintliuchtu `that signifies many senses ...,' 37a10 . ¤ṡelb many possessions: ag nach fuil gradh ilṡelba, Imr. Brain 88.5 . ¤ṡenman : cosmulius tuib arataat ilsenman `many sounds,' Wb. 12c46 . ¤ṡétchi many wives: adellad ilsétchi `that frequent various mates,' Mon. Tall. 132.1 . ¤ṡlúaig many hosts : a p. inna ilslogu, Tur. 110a . is mortcend do ilslúagaib, LU 8958 (FB). ¤tegdaisi many dwellings: ... catrach ... ┐ iltegdaisi i medon indde, Hib. Min. 221. ¤tintudai many translations: ataat i. leu cene, Ml. 3a14 . ¤tíre many lands: for túathaib, for iltírib, SR 6620. ¤toimtin many meanings: de dliguth inna n-iltoimdden, Sg. 26b7 . ¤tóisigh : dorochratar i. rothréna di cechtar na dá ṡlóg, TTr.² 1120. ¤treba : etir iltrebu `between many tribes,' Ml. 37d10 . ¤túatha many peoples: for hinnilib na n-iltuath, SR 2346. fo hill-tuathaib in domain, PH 6452. na hilltuatha ┐ na hil-chinela, LB 122b39 . ¤uisci many waters: amal tondgur n-iluisce, SR 608.

With adjj. It has been found convenient to take together adjj. compounded with il- and those derived from compound nouns of which il- is the first element, e.g. ilchenélach, ilainglech, ilmíanach, as it is not always easy to distinguish between them. There seems to be a distinction in meaning. il-, in the true compounds, having for the most part merely intensive force, e.g. il-bind, il-chrúaid, il-gránda. With those adjj. which clearly derive from compound nouns no hyphen is used here. ¤adbal very vast: ō Muir Icht álaind iladhbail, ACL iii 231.21 . ilainglech surrounded by many angels: co ríg n-il-ainglech n-ūasal, Thes. ii 300.8 ( Hy. i ). ilarmach many-weaponed: ger'bo raith óc i., Acall. 2741. ¤bind of manifold sweetness: sluag ... i., ilchaem, ... co claiscedal aingel, YBL 163b17 . ¤blasta very sweet, very tasty: cruithnecht i., LB 139a52 . ¤bras very eager, very quick: a bil-[l]aburthach ilchlesach i., PH 8181. a il-geranach ... il-ceolach i., YBL 162a20 . ¤brecc much variegated, very spotted: inar do s[h]rōll ilbreac ingantach, ML² 1471. ba hi in nirmamint ilbrec, Cog. 178.19 . forsna sciathaib ilbrecca, LB 152b31 . na haquili ... ilbreca `the speckled eagles,' CCath. 4927. ua (= ba) hilbrecca illathach na moigi ... risna cethaib comgela cubair, TTebe 2340 . As subst. : díallait órdha co n-ilbrecaibh, Imr. Brain 68.21 . ¤brechtach much variegated: sciath oirderc ilbreachtach, TTebe 3576 . ¤brén very foul: slog mor dub dorcha i. ... do démnaib, PH 8101. hi tégdais ... tenntige il-brein, 8297 . ¤brethach of many judgments, critical: an fhlaith ríoghdha il-bhreithech, RC xliii 280.z . il-geranach imchosaitech i., PH 8180. ¤bruthach very fiery: slog ... i. ... do démnaib, 8102 . ¤búadach of many victories, having many outstanding qualities: a nda sciath ailli ilbuadhacha, CF 295. conaca in tiprait ... n-ilbúadaig `endowed with many virtues,' Ériu iv 100 § 34. clanna ilbuadacha na hErend, Cog. 52.2 . gluaisis mac Ruaidhrí an ruathair iolbhuadhaigh, Aithd. D. 4 § 3. As an epithet : Oscar ilbuadhach, CF 786. ¤chaem very beautiful, possessing many charms: sluag ... il-bind i., YBL 163b17 . ilchenélach of many races: na hAdam-clainni ilcenealaichi, Cog. 166.6 . ilchenélaigthe peopled with many races: clanna ... na hErend ilcenelaigthi, 52.2 . ilchennach many-headed: in pheist irdairc úathmar i., LU 2429. pesti ... ilchennacha, RC xxviii 318 § 36. ¤chéolach of many melodies ?, very melodious ? : fail coll n-écsi n-ilcheólach ` music-haunted ,' Metr. Dinds. iii 286.24 . i nÉirinn ilcheolaigh, Aithd. D. 4 § 5. ag éisteacht ré hoirfideadh il-cheólach, TSh. 10916. uttering many complaints ? : a ilgeranach ... ilceolach ilbras, YBL 162a20 . ilchéolta : in fhailti ilceolta `many melodied,' RC xxviii 322 § 49. ilcherdach skilled in many crafts, very skilful, skilfully made: ionann iomorro ioldánach is ilcheardach, Keat. iii 666. ón mhúr ḟoirbhthe ilcheardach, TD 16 § 40. ilchessach : glic an éigse ilcheasach `of many problems,' Dánfhocail § 66. ilchíallda of many meanings: focail i., Content. v 43. ilchlannach having many descendants, having many divisions: clann .i. fodhail, ut est ro clui aicme ilclannaigh (v.l. ilclannach) `a tribe of many subdivisions languished,' O'Dav. 350 (? read he overthrew a tribe ...). go hAdhamh ... n-ilchlannach, MR 98.9 . possessed of many qualities or qualifications ? : iar n-urd eolais ilclandaigh, Leb. Cert. 236.7 . is ferr aicni ilclannach as a mbuaidh bretha berdar .i. asa mberar in brethemnus co buadach, O'Curry 2276 (< Eg. 88, fo. 20c ) = aiccnedh i., O'Curry 1610 (< 23 Q 6, p. 5b ). ilchlessach of many feats, of many tricks: an fear fionn iolchlesach, TBC-LL¹ 5466 (Stowe). Aengus ilclessach, Acall. 2732. a bil-[l]aburthach il-chlesach il-bras, PH 8181. ag aimsighthibh ilchleasacha an aidhbhirseóra, TSh. 10489. ¤chlóen very wily ? : as subst. : co Sencha mac Coscra, co ilcloin, Ériu i 116 § 5. ¤chodach ? : i. airchetail, IT iii 105 § 208. ¤chonda very wolfish, very fierce: cāinḟāel i. `ein ... vielgrimmer Wolf,' Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 25 (a) . ¤chossáitech very quarrelsome, much given to complaining: a ilgeranach, ilchossaidech, YBL 162a19 . ¤chráibthech very pious: betha Fharannain iolcraibtigh, Anecd. iii 1.5 . ¤chréchtnaighthe having many wounds ?, very badly wounded ?: cuirp ... ilcrechtnaigthe, LB 207a16 . dofuit ... M. ilcrectnaigte la hAicil, BB 439a21 . ¤chrothach very shapely ?, of many shapes, of varied beauty ? : ba hingen cumachtach i. hi (of Caer Ibormeith who had power to change into a bird), Aisl. Óeng. 19.7 . i mmag n-Árach n-i., Metr. Dinds. iv 28.46 . na heoin ailli il-chrothacha, KMMisc. 316.15 . i [bh]feidhm eolais ilchrothaigh, Leb. Cert. 236.3 . A common epithet of Juno : Iunaind ilcrothach, TTebe 2621 . in t-anmann ilchrothach-side (of Juno transforming herself into many shapes of animals) `this many-formed animal,' Stair Erc. 87. in rigan og alaind i., 929 . ¤chrúaid very hard: iombualadh ... iolchrúaidh, Atlantis iv 212.y . ildánach very gifted, skilled, accomplished, having many gifts or accomplishments (frequently used as subst.) : is amlaid bái in Dond Cualgni dubdond diumsach...illanach, IT iii 245.77 . ioldanach .i. duine lan d'ealadhnaibh no d'ilcheardaibh, O'Cl. Of the heads of crafts appointed by the ollamhs at the Feis of Eamhain ┐ the Feis of Cruachan to preside over the industries of the country : do gairthí ioldánaigh dona saoithibh-se. Ionann ... ioldánach is ilcheardach, Keat. iii 664 - 6 . tráighfidh muir ... go hiongantach ioldánach, DDána 29 § 6. fear ... ioldanach i lLaidin, AFM v 1584.9 . ioldánach `a jack-of-all-trades ,' O'R. As sobriquet of Lugh Lámhfada (cf. Samildánach) : ó armmuib in Illdhánaigh, Anecd. i 31 § 49. Superl. amail is illdanaighe dofuaramar according to the most expert knowledge we could find, BB 38a9 . ildathach many-coloured: co n-étaigib ildathachaib, TBFr. 36. in tuaig nimi n-illdathaig, SR 2628. cóeca ingen [n-]illdathach `arrayed in many colours,' SCC 803 (= LU 3980 ). meirgi ard ill-dathach, ML² 1181. barr i. in talman, O'Mulc. 201. a hearr iol-dathach (of a peacock), TSh. 2352. Name of a mythical country , as ā, f. : techt in-Ildathig i.e. nomen regionis, Imr. Brain § 24. ildathaigthe many-coloured: meic ... Israeil na thErend illataigthi, Cog. 160.18 . ildelbach having many shapes, adorned with many figures; beautiful ? : Emne i. fri rían, Imr. Brain § 19. amal cach scrin n-ildelbaig, SR 4212. issind dluim chruind ildealbhach `in the round, multiform cloud,' Ériu ii 108 § 22. in maccamh óg ildealbach, Acall. 1680. lēine il-delbach ōr-s[h]náith, ML² 1690. treabh na n-earradh n-ildealbhach `with varied vestures,' TD 21 § 26. saorchorn óir ildealbhaigh `of variously wrought gold,' 31 § 7 . ildelbda many-shaped: hilerda na n-anman n-án | is na n-i. ndermár creatures of varied shape, SR 310. ildionnach many-hued ? : don mhoigh eangbhláith i. (: Teamhrach), TD 24 § 37. ildírech : beas ill-danach, bid ill-direach he will have many fines (of one to whom because his honour-price is high, large fines are due for injury suffered), Laws v 108.12 . Aurard ilgradhach ildanach ildirech, Anecd. ii 65.6 . ¤ecairthe much adorned, adorned in various ways: cathbarr ... d'or alaind ilecairthi, TTebe 3205 . ilḟaebrach armed with many weapons: don druing fhuiligh iolfhaobhruigh ` sharp-sworded ,' Aithd. D. 3 § 17. ilḟoclach containing many words: in gach aen ebert ilfoclaig, Auraic. 1558. ilgáirdeach agreeable, pleasing: ru-s-taispein ē fēin go supailceach ilghairdeach dōib, Fl. Earls 38.x . ba lūthghāireach ilgairdeach lasin rīg ..., 222.25 . ¤geránach : a il-geranach `[thou soul] full of complaints,' PH 8180. ilgessach possessing many powers or enchantments: an líg n-ilgheasaigh n-áluinn ` many-virtued ,' TD 22a § 41 . ilgnéthech of many kinds: ilghnétheach, iolradh, eugsamhla ` Divers ,' Eg. Gl. 416. ilgnímach skilled in the performance of many deeds: uair nirb óc, rop i., Metr. Dinds. iii 242.12 . ind Aige ḟíal i., ii 66.8 . ilgnúisech ? : firmarius (read formarius) .i. ilghnuiseach ` many faced ,' Auraic. 811. ilgonach many-wounding: ardcomrac aigmeil i., CF 666. ilgothach many-voiced: re haltrom én [n]-ilgothach, Ériu i 39 § 3. ¤grádach very distinguished: Aurard ilgradhach ildanach ildirech, Anecd. ii 65.6 . As an epithet : Eicsi il-gradhach inghen Dána, 50.16 . ¤gránda very hideous, very ugly: led dhoirr n-iolghránna n-aidhbhsigh, Content. xxii 19 n . ilgrésach adorned with much ornamental work: chóig imlenda āilli ilgrēsacha `variously wrought,' Fianaig. 58.22 . fā Bera uasail ilghrēsaigh of varied accomplishments, ML² 578. ¤imda very numerous, manifold: ciarsat ailimda a clanna, Cog. 52.1 . deacair foghnamh do thoil dá thighearna | foghnamh iliomdha soin ..., Studies 1932, 140 § 1 . ilmaínech very wealthy, possessing varied treasures: Uisnech álainn iolmhaoinech, ZCP viii 221 § 44. don árus fhairsing ... iol-mhaoineach, TSh. 2729. ¤míanach very covetous: ní bad rannaire duit fer i. `a man of many desires,' Tec. Corm. § 34.4 . ¤níamach very splendid, very bright: na n-edaighi n-ilniamach, Stair Erc. 224. ilphíastach abounding in monsters: ar muir úathmuir ilpíastaigh, Anecd. i 32 § 57. glend aigméil, ilpiastach, uathmar, BNnÉ 131.17 . i gcarcair il-phiastaigh ifrinn, TSh. 802. goibél úathmhar ilphíasdach, IGT Decl. ex. 933. ¤rathach abounding in grace: it riched ilrathach, Fél. Ep. 466. ¤rechtach many-formed ? ; very frenzied ? : is i. in tí 'sa tuarascbáil, MU² 635. is and so cétríastartha im Choin Culaind co nderna úathbásách n-i. n-ingantach ... de, LU 6443. do-rinne fuath n-i. n-anaithnid de, Comp. CC 102.17 . To a woman who had changed appearance : is ilreachtach sin, a bean, ol in mac, RC xxiv 200 § 15. i Ráith ilreachtaigh Eochuill, TD 40 § 21. ilríanach : san éigse il-rianaigh `in the mazy land of poesy,' Content. xxii 14. ¤ṡínach with much bad-weather: gamh ilṡíonach, gaethach ` changeable ,' AFM ii 1100.12 . ¤tairthech very productive, very fertile: morthír ... iltairthech, SR 4702. ¤tríathach very lordly, very princely: mac Edlicon iltríathaig (v.l. imtriathaich) `head of many chiefs,' Metr. Dinds. iii 276.6 .

immord

Cite this: eDIL s.v. immord or dil.ie/27899

n transposition, changing the order of: fu rō .i. fo ūr .i. imord fedha, Corm. Y 698 ( Anecd. iv 59.11 ). is imord feda fil and .i. Colmān quasi comlān, BColm. 6.5 .

? Of the transferring of property after the death of its owner: litre la caid comarba imard (? leg. im i.¤) manach marb-dilsi .i. in ni em ordaiter do dilsi leisin manach marb .i. im ordugad na manach for in ti fod [dibad ?] ro dilsi in fiallach is marb, Laws v 498.3 , and 16 Comm. imord manach [.i.] cach manach tar eis alaile on eclais isin cena dosli disli do eclais a aicsi lee samlaid manup derg mir, O'Curry 871 (< H 3.18, p. 391b ).

? Of the transferring of persons from one place to another: mac crabuidh cin uair nimuird (one of six sons who are not bound to honour their father), Laws iii 62.2 Comm.

1 is

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 is or dil.ie/29104
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: nídam, nída, atar, atin, ammi, bem, be, combin, is, am, im, isam, isim, sam, isam, am, isam, nidha, nis, indat, n-iat, cenita, coich, citné, cisné, cis, manid, minad, minid, munid, minap, munab, béso, bésu, gon, gion, indid, inid, inad, ina, 'nar, díand, díanid, díanad, dían, díanda, dían(d)at, dána, dán, darab, bad, ba, ba, badat, ba, -bo, -p, -b, cid, -rop, -rup, -rub, ropond, ce, cía, cit, cía, ce, bed, bad, pad, bud, ba-da-, bádam, ma, matis, diambtís, bé, biam, bum, bid, bith, beith, bed, bud, -pa, -ba, nípa-dn-aidrech, -ba, -pa, -bo, -po, -bu, -pu, -b, -bad, -bud, bit, be(i)t, bat, biat, bidat, -rsam, -rbam, -bi, ropsa, rupsa, ropsat, robsat, ropat, robat, ropot, ropdat, -rbsat, -rsat, -rsa, -rbat, nārsat, ba, bu, bo, be, fa, fá, fo, bad, bud, ba-id-n-, fa, fá, -pu, -bu, -po, -bo, -p, nip, nipu, -rbu, -rpu, -rpo, -rbo, rba, -rob, -rb, -ra, -r, -rsa(t), -rso, -rsa, -rsad, rsam, -rsat, -rbtar, -rptar, -rtar, -rbat, -rpsat, -rsat, -psat, -bsat, -psatar, gomsad

v copula (see Strachan, Substantive Verb in O.Ir. Glosses ( Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899 ); Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish; Dillon, Nominal Predicates in Irish ( ZCP xvi , xvii ) ; GOI § 814 ff. ; Ó Nolan Studies in Mod. Ir.).

USAGE.

The copula is alway unstressed and proclitic. The normal order of words is vb.+pred.+subj., e.g. is cele dae in fer hisin, Ml. 30c3 . is bésad inna flatho doem et dofich (i.e. to protect and to avenge is a princely custom), Wb. 9d2 . Prec. by asyntactic nom.: fáilte cáich bad fáilte dúib-si, Wb. 5d24 . mad i n-aeclis tra in choss is hé óis achtáil `if then it be in the church, the foot is the practical folk,' 12a23 . Frequ. in verse: Illand mac Scanlain is marb, Anecd. i 12.24 . andar la fer bis a cein | Inber Cindbera is reid, 15.1 . a comrádh bind nocho brég, 35 § 81. An inversion of the usual order (see Ó Máille, op. cit. p. 74) occurs in: nī bu ṡanctBrigit ṡúanach (v.l. sanctbrigit suanach) `Saint B. was not drowsy,' Hy. v 21 (see GOI p. 476 and n. 168 ). is tria chin mban | bit fernai fer dlochtai, LU 8430 (FB, rhetoric). Common in rel. sentences in Fél.: mórṡlúag A. | dia mbu Demon dubach `from whom the Devil was sorrowful,' Fél. April 2 . súi diand Ériu inmall, Sept. 10. manach | asa díthrub dubach `whose hermitage is gloomy,' Prol. 98 (but: S. | ata soilsi slechtae, Sept. 7. Carissim ... | asa rúamdae relic, Ap. 16 ). Where the predicate is a compound phrase the subject is introduced into the middle of it (Strachan, op. cit. p. 49.30), e.g. is irlam ind anim do thuil Dée, Wb. 5c18 . nirbu samlaid són doibsom, Ml. 90c27 . nibo mór a mbríg linn, Wb. 18d10 .

In O.Ir. when the subject of the copula was a personal pronoun it was, as in other verbs, implicit in the verbal form: am irlam, Wb. 13c8 . at fechem dom, 32a21 . combed adultera `so that she should be a.', 3c9 . nirbu choimdiu `he had not been a lord,' 33a5 . bad carthi `let him be loved,' Sg. 148a2 . nítat ainmnidi `they are not nominatives,' 189a10 . amal bemmis bibdaid, Ml. 114d4 . It was frequently strengthened by a pronominal particle suffixed to the pred. not necessarily to express emphasis, nor to distinguish between persons: niba dimicthe-se libsi `I should not be despised by you,' Wb. 21d3 (but: nida apstal apstil `I am not an apostle's apostle,' 18c1 ). massu rath-som, 5a30 . ciasu i colinn am béo-sa, 19a20 . it firian-su, Ml. 55d11 . ammi cland-ni doib-som, 101d9 . ropsa huallach-sa, 49b12 (cf. GOI § 811 ). nimda scál-sa ┐ nimda aurdrach, ZCP xiii 373.11 .

The logical pred. of the copula may be (a) an adjective ; (b) a prepositional phrase; (c) an adverb; (d) a pronoun ; (e) the substantival demonstrative í; (f) the subject of a relative verb; (g) a clause introduced by as n- `that it is' ; (h) a substantive.

At all periods of the language the predicates (a), (b), (c) and (d) immediately followed the copula.

(a) In O.Ir. the general rule was that the predicative adj. agreed with the subj. of the copula in gender and number (see Dillon, op. cit., for development from O.Ir., of which he cites as type: it moírb in boill sin, Wb. 11d11 , to Mod. Ir.: is mór iatt, is saidhbir na tírtha so, Maund. § 138 , §227 ).

(b) amal as o spirut, Wb. 15b7 . ciaba beo bid do precept anme Crist, 23b29 . is occ maid atáa, 6a18 . condib tria n-uile mbethaid ón, Tur. 71. is fria binn aníar atá t'esérge, Thes. ii 242.3 (Ardm.). is airi asbersom ..., Ml. 126c10 . cid tre étged rop othar, Críth G. 61. nochon ara omun cena, TBC-I¹ 2364. gonadh uime sin adeir I.¤ ..., TSh. 4816.

(c) níp and nob irpaid, Wb. 8b2 . hóre is amne atáa, 12d7 . is samlith is comadas dúun ..., Thes. ii 246.3 (Cam.).

(d) mad hé á luum, Wb. 4a14 . bad hé for n-ere `let Him be your burden,' 9d12 . rupu sí a rreilic, 33a22 . is tú is diliu limsa diib, IT iii 83 § 69. ionnus gomadh é féin bud ughdar réna bheathaidh, TSh. 3406.

When the logical predicate of the copula was either (e) the substantival demonstrative í or (f) the antecedent of a relative verb, or (g) a clause introduced by as n- `that it is' a pronoun was introduced immediately after the copula to act as grammatical predicate while the logical predicate stood in apposition to this pronoun.

(e) matu hé ata horpamin indí rochomalnisset recht, Wb. 2c14 . bit hé magistir dongegat indhí asindisset a tola féisne dóib, 30d8 . it hé in toirthi amal sodin inna hí adfiadatar hi testimnib file isint salm anuas, Ml. 46c14 .

(f) is hé didiu in tecttaire maith condaig indocbáil dia thigerni the good envoy is he who seeks his lord's glory, Wb. 8d20 . it hé inimici lessom qui fraudant et qui iniuriam faciunt , 9c25 . it hé gními epscuip asmbeir sís the works of a bishop are the things he mentions below, 28b20 . is he in firfindbathach no in firion atcobra na huile beatusa the truly blessed ... is he who desires all the blessings, Hib. Min. 429.

(g) is ed asberat ind heretic as laigiu deacht maicc indaas deacht athar, Ml. 17c7 . ni ed a met as n-etarcnad dun `not only that it is known to us,' 138a12 . is ed asberat as ndu deacht ... rogabad in salm so, 24d29 . is ed adfet a legend as ndath glas roboi forsind sléib fo chosmailius saphirr, Ml. 84d4 .

(h) With indef. noun as pred.: condib dídnad domsa foirbthetu hirisse dúibsi, Wb. 1b1 . combad notire rod-scribad cosse, 27d16 . mástat carait ... mastat námait, LU 9090 - 1 . níor ghníomh meirbh, DDána 91 § 24.

With def. noun as pred.: in O.Ir. and early Mid. Ir. a definite substantive can immediately follow the copula. Even in O.Ir. however a pronoun is frequently introduced immediately after the copula as grammatical predicate, the logical predicate standing in apposition (cf. (e), (f) and (g) above). This is the normal construction in the later language: ni a doenacht fesine ru-da-n-ordan `not his own Manhood has dignified Him,' Wb. 33c5 . ni in cholinn donatháira acht is a n-accobor, 3d3 . is athir-som innaní techte foirbthetith `he is the father of them that possess perfection,' 2c11 . mad Ānlūan no-beth is'taig, ScM. § 16.8 . is Duid a oenar rochachain inna psalmu, Hib. Min. 134.

With pronoun: bit hé na precepta cétni no pridchob doib, Wb. 17b20 . is hed a trede sin foloing, 29d17 . is hé in peccad rogéni a n-uile comaccobor, 3c25 .

After the introduction of the pronoun, the normal order of the sentence seems to be that in which the predicate follows the pronoun but this order does not appear to be fixed and the predicate may be put at the end either for emphasis or for the better balance of the sentence, e.g. a predicate which is the antecedent of a relative verb is most usually placed after the subject. Predicate and subject can only be distinguished by means of the context and the distinction, it would seem, is by no means as clear-cut in Irish as in other languages.

Predicate immediately following pronoun: ní ceilsom tra as n-é Crist in lie, Wb. 4d16 . issí ind ainim as airlam do chomalnad recto Dé ní in corpp, 3d11 . measaim gurab é an bás, an marcach úd, TSh. 37.

Subject following pronoun: mate nama anfolaid in cele falla frithgnama `if neglect of service was the only disqualification of the tenant,' Laws ii 324.6 . ar is he besad felsub etarcert di dúlib et saigid forru et nebchretem a n-adiadar di crist, Wb. 27a10 . it he caeli la suide ind apstail soscelae, Ml. 42b7 . is ed mind n-aingel Crist mac Dé, LU 944. measaim ... gurab í an chathair úd Ierusalem an domhan, TSh. 708.

In O.Ir. where the subject of the copula was a pronoun of the 1st or 2nd person, it required no other expression with an indef. pred. than that supplied by the 1st or 2nd person of the copula: at macc ríg, Trip.² 970. itib ingena ríg talman, 1138 . am dún díthogail, IT iii 53.26 .

Cf. Mid. Ir.: is descipul ... tu-su, PH 2768. conid mog De thú, 510 . is gadaige thu, 7781 . is clann én athar ┐ én máthar sind, 7501 .

With def. pred. the usage in O.Ir. is not certain (? at lūam in gaiscid grind (but: v.l. at tualaing gaiscid grind), Bruchst. 12 § 20 ). In the saga literature the normal expression is: Setanta ... atomchomnaicse, LU 4892. Rí Alban atomchomnaicse, RC xiii 446 § 31.

Cf. Mid. Ir.: is me Oengus céle Dé, SR 8009. ni thu Issau semnach na slóg | acht is tú int engach Iacób, 2876 . is mesi Ísu mac Dé, PH 3732. misse Marcellinus, comorba Petair, 612 (but cf. Tuan mac Cairill mesi, LU 1219 ).

At all periods of the language the expression of the copula in the 3rd persons was not obligatory at the head of a principal sentence: alind á óiph in forcitil, nemnech immurgu a inne, Wb. 7c1 . faelid-sem ... | os me chene am faelid, Thes. ii 293 § 6 ( SP II ). cride hē, | ... | ōcān ē, Bruchst. 69 § 160. ili insi Mod | ... | liä dāma Domnaill, 9 § 12 . Aed Ailig, inmain lim hé, ACL iii 304 § 1. Andreas ard a ordan, Fél. Feb. 6. glē la cāch immorro ba for teithed luid C. remiseom, TBC-I¹ 1260. móra a molta, Gorm. March 5. Fer Loga mo lennān-sa, ScM. § 20.12 . gnáth tromthóir dhoirbh 'na dheaghaidh, DDána 85 § 30. ionann sin ré a rádh ..., TSh. 2826.

SPECIAL USES.

In periphrasis (see Strachan, op. cit. p. 49): nitat huili robtar uilcc filii Israhel `all f. I. have not been evil,' Wb. 11a23 . is do immarchor chóre dotíagat ind fir so, 5a5 .

Elliptical: demes .i. mess dēde and, ūair it dá scín lais there are two blades ..., Corm. Y 438. is dos didiu isin blīadain tānaisi in fochlac .i. it ceitheora duillne fair, 423 . nī ba comairle aile acht a c[h]rochad, MacCongl. 19.4 .

Manibad were it not for , etc. with follg. accus.: mainbad éicin, Wb. 4a20 . manipad taschidetaid ind metir, Ml. 136c2 . manibad trocairi ndáe, 111b28 . manipad do chrúass, Trip.² 1370. menbad bíth einig F., TBC-LL¹ 1855. Later replaced by subst. vb.: meni beth in clessín ingantach, 2063 . ropsar marba ... | meni beth Find, RC vii 302.183 .

To express an obligation: praind do tomailt la marb hi tig ... is a hurcul `to eat a meal with a dead man in the house is forbidden,' Mon. Tall. 153.4 . ma dorat(d)a forcraid ngill is lóg a enech ... do aisiuc, Críth G. 288. ma ro-achtaigh comain airithi ina setaib, is a beth do, ┐ masa comain do rer dligid roachtaigh, is a beth air `soll es ihm werden ... soll er es bekommen,' Cóic Con. RE § 13.106 .

On sentences of the type ceso femmuin mbolgaig mbung, see Bergin, Ériu xii 197 ff .

Confusion between copula and subst. vb.: gérbho soicenelach hé iar ccolainn ro bai soichenelcha iar menmain, RC xxv 390 § 3 (? or read ro ba). dogniind ... airchisecht dib, mar no-béind athair doib `as though I had been their father,' PH 6107. Frequ. in ACC: boe (bui, bái, boi, v.ll.) sab suithe cech dind .i. ro bo sab daingen no soad cech ndimus, RC xx 168 § 26. boe saegul sneid .i. suail nó bec nó garit a saegul, § 24. boe seim sáth, § 25. boe dind oc libur leigdocht, § 27.

FORMS

(a) from O. Ir. glosses and texts in Thes. Pal. (for further exx. from O. Ir. glosses see Strachan, loc. cit.). (b) from other texts.

In Mid. Ir. the forms of the copula in the 1st and 2nd sg. and in all persons of the pl. fell to a great extent into disuse, their place being taken by the 3rd sg., of the tense required with a pron., corresponding in form to the O.Ir. infixed pron. or to the poss. pron. of the person and number to be expressed, infixed between it and the following predicate. Occasionally the inf. pron. was added to forms other than sg. 3, e.g. nídam for nída (s. 1), atar, atin (pl. 3+ inf. pron. pl. 1) for ammi, bem for be (fut. s. 1). These forms while at first used impersonally as already occurred in O. Ir., e.g. issum ēcen, Wb. 10d24 , isat dílmain-siu, Ml. 55d21 , diandam thísed mucc ḟonaithe robad-am béo, Stories from Táin 5.16 , later came to be felt as simply the copula, as is shown when plural forms are folld. by pl. adjj., e.g. nibar troig, SR 3641 , gurdar síthaig, Hib. Min. 82.23 , acht co mbadar maithe díblínaib, TBC-LL¹ 35 ; and by such instances as: gidar comaltai, ib. 3680 . ropdhar fir chomdeirgide, ib. 3535 . As it is not always possible to discover whether a particular writer regarded this combination of copula + inf. pron. as such or as copula only, all such examples have been grouped together, so that, for instance, all the forms under subj. past s. 1 below should be taken not necessarily as being, to the mind of the writer, that particular form but rather as being his way of expressing what would in O. Ir. be expressed by combin, etc.

Examples of the 1st and 2nd persons are found both in Classical verse and in Early Mod. Ir. prose but the more commonly occurring forms are those of the 3rd sg., number and person being expressed by independent pronouns: is ort iarraim gidh óg thú, DDána 67 § 3. is fearr mé iná thú, IGT Introd. 22 § 90. t'fhearg, a rí, ... | re searg dí bu fhearr inn-ne, DDána 10 § 22. ag an druing ... rénar milis briathra borba, TSh. 1568. do bhríogh nach cumhachtach sinn féin ris aní se, 30 . is beannuighthe sibhse, 5669 . do bhríogh gurbh fheasach thú gurbh amadán mé, 9638 .

Indic. pres.

A. Absolute

s. 1

(a) am: am tualang dano a hétarcerta, Wb. 12d22 . is airi am cimbid-se, 27c22 .

(b) am, im, isam, isim, sam: am senóir ┐ am lobur, Trip.² 2045. am caemsa ... am maccam, TBC-I¹ 583 - 4 . amm eolach, TBC-LL¹ 1750. uair am aithrech, SR 7824. (cf. isam aithrech, 7789 ). im fáilid, Ériu v 224.73 . as me Ulltán ... im fili, im faidh, BNnÉ 257 § 214. From early in Mid. Ir. period the form isam (<is s. 3+ inf. pron. s. 1) occurs, side by side with am. In follg. exx. it must already have been understood as s. 1: uair isam bensa curad caín, LU 8440 (FB). issam ingen ríg, TBFr. 163 = im, ZCP iv 38.11 . asam senoir, CCath. 5495. issim meabrach, Acall. 3115. orsam (=ór isam) heolach, SR 1786. sam crochta gan cionadh réil, Ó Bruad. ii 132.11 .

s. 2

(a) at, it: at fechem dom, Wb. 32a21 . air it firian-su, Ml. 55d11 .

(b) at, it, ot, isat, asat: at meirb, Fél. July 19 . at ferr do lāech indó-sa, ScM. § 16.8 . fobīth ad ōegi, TBC-I¹ 507 (YBL) = dáig ot áegi, LU 4996. it gilla co ngicil, TBC-I¹ 2667. id file, Content. iv 2. isat lac, Bruchst. 30 § 67. isatt áil-siu dam-sa, SCC 739 . isit aneōlach, MacCongl. 122.9 . isat duni dána, TBC-LL¹ 3057. asat tretholl-sa, TBC-I¹ 3632.

s. 3

(a) is, rel. as`: is samlith is comadas dúun, Thes. ii 246.3 (Camb.). is hé céetne fer ceta-ru-chreti, Wb. 7b11 . is ferr ainm do denom de, Sg. 26b5 . is cele dae in fer hisin, Ml. 30c3 . Freq. written iss before vowels: iss uisse, Wb. 22c21 . iss i rráe choir immumruidbed, 23d30 . iss ed inso nád chumaing, Sg. 209b13 . Freq. written together with a follg. initial s, one s falling out: isuáichnid, Wb. 23d30 . isamlaid, Thes. ii 11.40 (Bcr.). rel. brothchán as chóir duib, Wb. 33c15 . as choimtig, Sg. 54b8 .

(b) is(s), as, us, es, rel. as`, is` (it is not clear when lenition ceased to be used after the cop. used relatively. It is less often marked than not in TBC, see Ériu xiv 90 , 93 , 94 ): is túath oirdnither ríi[g], Críth G. 493. is toirthech int inber, Trip.² 370. is gabtha na eich ┐ iss innilti in carpat, MU² 49. is cosmhail Samson ┐ an bás, TSh. 763. iss a miad neich dogniat mancuine, BCrólige § 50. iss messe rorecsabair, SR 3636. i[s] slān in fear, Laws iii 156.5 . isaer ém domrimgartsa, LU 10307. as iat na fir[a] fola no saraigthe, Cóic Con. H § 59. in ti do beir ... as e do ron, Laws iv 32.19 . as do hIddomdaib do, PH 6946. In TSh. `both abs. and rel. are written as in MSS.,' TSh. Introd. xx n. 3 . es dilmain, Anecd. iii 23.5 . es coitcend, ib. 2 . essed dobeir ..., 26.24 . es bec trá ná comráncatar inn a mméur ocus a coss, CMT² 58 § 132 . es de boí inn nem-sin fuirri(r), CMT² 60 § 133 . ar us aire isperar ..., Laws i 264.7 . ar us merle cach n-indligiudh, ii 70.25 . Somet. the vowel of IS is dropped: ┐ síad bhīos ag coimhēad, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1341. rel. as chóir, Mon. Tall. 146.27 . as chórus, Críth G. 223. a n-us tol lat-su, MacCongl. 33.9 . ? With class C inf. pron.: forband ... as-dom moo airli, Echtrae Chonnlai 121 § 6 . After constructions which take rel. n- the predicate of the copula is eclipsed (where the first word of the predicate is unstressed the usage varies): do thaidbsiu as n-iress nóibas, Wb. 19b14 . as ndia side gl. doceo, 13a18 . as n-é tairrchet, 6d6 . as ndirruidigthe a n-animm-sin, Sg. 56b10 . as ndí Assaraib ... rogabad in salm-sa, Ml. 35a10 . asberat as ndu deacht ... rogabad, 24d29 (but cf. adciam ... as ar chenél cruche adrímther ..., Thes. ii 246.25 (Camb.)). amail is n-adētchide in flesc, Corm. Y 606.8 . In Mid. Ir. rel. n- dropped out: uair ... as inann nadúir don duine ┐ ..., PH 7433. amail as diaisneisi in Coimdi, Ériu ii 144 § 159. in tan is indligthech iat, Cóic Con. H § 14. amail as crom craobh fo chnoibh, BS 54.15 . Very early the non-rel. form IS is used for rel. and vice versa, see above: cía dit maccaib is diliu latt ?, Trip.² 1774. mer is laugu, Corm. Y 809. is ed is chonar fugill ann ..., Cóic Con. RE § 24. intí is cosmail do Dia, PH 6266. ní íar chána is ḟairbrígh d'ḟir, IGT Decl. ex. 980.

pl. 1

(a) ammi, ammin, immi: ammi techtiri árt-phersine, Wb. 24d9 . ammi irlaim ... do dul martre, 4b21 . amminn imdibatai-ni ┐ ammin dilachtai, Ml. 83c3 . airmi (leg. airimmi, Ed.) ardu-ni, 23d23 .

(b) ammin, ar, dar, atar, isar, atin: is olc ar mblāth amin gorti, TBC-I¹ 1614. amin mairb, BDD² 330. ar troig ... dot' impartain we are wretched, SR 1482. ar n-idain fiad testaib Dé, 3583 . fortgellam Dia ... dar slana on chinaid-se, 3612 . cid einech rígh rontidnaic | atar dimdaig ..., Hib. Min. p. 82.x . isar scítha énirti, CCath. 2562. `atin budig de' ar an oicc, Anecd. i 5.18 (cf. batin aithrig, Ériu i 68 § 3 ).

pl. 2

(a) adib, idib, adi: adib cland Abrache, Wb. 19c20 . adib oís muntire, 21c4 . adi mmaicc, 9a13 . hóre adi ellachti, 21c17 . ar idib maithi, 16b9 .

(b) itib, at(a)bar, atfor: ár itib ingena ríg, Trip.² 1138. itib lía andú, BDD² 412 (= dáig abtar (leg. atbar) lia andúsa, LU 6870 ). ┐ itib degdoene, LL 281b28 . atabair ecen, LU 8097 (FB). is dásacht a ndognithi-si ┐ atbar dásachtaig fen, LB 212a10 . atabar glana-si, PH 5262. 5264 . apraid fris at for n-aithrig do debaid fris, Cymmr. xiv 118.11 ( Rawl. 132b29 ).

pl. 3

(a) it, at (once only in non-rel. sense), rel. ata`, at, et: it carit domsa, Wb. 5c7 . it dássactig, 12d36 . it coitchena, Sg. 10a1 . air at cuidi tirmaidi sidi, Ml. 123d3 . rel. in mairb ata thestis, Wb. 30a11 . it sib ata chomarpi, 19c20 . do retaib ata chosmaili fri fír, Ml. 51b8 . it hesidi at inbésa, 45d1 . it hé sidi et inbéso, 27a9 . confitetar són ata ndoini, 91c18 .

(b) it, at, isat, isid, rel. ata`, at: at remra na loeg ┐ it buidig na hoegid, Hy. v 25 Comm. it é inso trá gníma bóairech, Críth G. 183. it móra, Trip.² 1291. isat úathe dó ilib, 3096 . it cadlai dí ingein A., Fél. Dec. 9. at bidbaid, IT iii 502 § 10. isat bána, 514 § 7. hit imṡláin, SR 194. at mora, 3625 . id mesa indád demno, Anecd. iii 27.4 . at aena `these are of one day,' Laws i 156.y . at móra glonna Medbi, TBC-I¹ 1668. it cāema, 583 . cf. is mōra na comada' ... `isad mōra,' 2233 - 4 . i n-ifern isid bronaigh, Anecd. iii 55.29 (Síaburcharpat) = at brónaig, LU 9462. at cotarsnai, PH 711. isat lána, 5870 . rel. it é ata érlama, Trip.² 1539. amuis ata chórai, Críth G. 578. dí gérait at glainiu, Fél. May 7. saire ada lugu, Laws v 102.6 . laích ata dech, BDD² 757. adad dech, 1159 . seoit ... ad adhailge daib, Anecd. ii 53.3 . áos ata etromae cinaith `whose sins are lighter,' Mon. Tall. 158.7 . dāine ata maige imarīadam `on whose plains we would drive about,' Otia i 122 § 4.

B. Conjunct.

I Neg.

s. 1

(a) níta`, nída`: nita chumme-se friu-som, Wb. 20c25 . nida apstal apstil, 18c1 . sech níta aidlicen, Ml. 70b7 .

(b) nída`, nídam, nídom, nímda, ním, níam, níom, níum: nída choimsech mu ṡoíre, Trip.² 2976. nida (nidu, v.l.) dīr dermait it is not fitting for me to forget, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 16 § 1. nidha bheo-sa, TBC-LL¹ 6080 (fut. sense). nīdam macc, TBC-I¹ 645 (= nimda, LU 5129 ). nīdom sāitheach, TBC-I¹ 507 (= nimda, LU 4996 ). nīm láech cen lāmach, TBC-I¹ 2260. nidam dermatach, LU 10286. nidam snímach, SR 2382. nim dana, 2069 . nimda scál-sa ┐ nimda aurdrach, ZCP xiii 373.11 . nidom athair do duiniu, viii 561 § 2 . ni dam ben-sa fós do, Caithr. CC § 93. nida Christadi, Irish Texts i 2 § 4 . nidom chuchtach, BS 30.1 . níom tualaing suan, TSh. 2144. ní um claoidhte re a gcionnluas (ní um chl., v.l.), Ó Bruad. ii 138.6 .

s. 2

(a) No occurrence.

(b) nída, nídad, nídat, nít: nida tūalaing mo ergairi, Ériu i 116 § 6. nidad dichumaing, Anecd. i 11.13 . nít marbdae for tercphit, Fél. Sept. 8. nīt mess methchrainn, Bruchst. 17 § 33. nít firlaech-su, TBC-LL¹ 1343. nidat doss ós duss, 3460 . nidat mac-sa, FDG 718.

s. 3

(a) ní (geminates the follg. consonant, e.g. is rad dáe ... ni mmarilliud `(it is) not my merit,' Wb. 21c20 ): ní cuman lim, Wb. 8a3 . ní cuit broto acht is dugrés, Ml. 32c10 .

(b) ní (a form nís occurs once in ACC and may possibly be archaic: hua Airt nís Neill co nert `not with N.'s strength is he,' RC xx 406 § 128 ): ní rí Caisil co rón-ordnea, Trip.² 2302. ní tiamdae tim-som, Fél. Prol. 259. ni cosmail smachta cacha raithe, Laws iv 78.4 . ní segda, LU 1655. ni fír, PH 2715. ní críonna an tí nach tuigeann, DDána 35 § 2. ní hiongnadh an meas soin do bheith ..., TSh. 243. The follg. exx. from TBC show lenition after ní but they may be scribal errors: ní ḟlaith Ulad nod chosna, 2788 . ní ḟurusa, 3050 . In Mod. Ir. ní prefixes h to a fully-stressed word but not to a proclitic: ní ag cnúasach bó am theagh atá, Éigse iii 168 § 9 (and see note). With inf. pron.: nímdil cid dīthrub Temair (glossed: ní hinmain lem T. cid fas), Hy. ii 44. ním-nert acht mac Dé I have no strength but ..., LL 133b8 . nin-fissid frisbered omnu huain `not to us is the Knower who used to avert fears from us,' RC xx 164 § 16 (ACC). nin forcetlaid, ib. § 18.

pl. 1

(a) nítam`, nítan`, nídan`: nitam toirsich (sic leg., Ed.) gl. non angustiamur, Wb. 15b21 (a prima manu). nidan chumachtig for n-irisse, 14c41 . nidan chosmili, 14d37 . ar nitan reprobi-ni, 18b9 .

(b) nidar: nidar n-idain, SR 3626. nidar glain, 1609 .

pl. 2

(a) nítad, nídad (see OIPG p. 66 n. ): nitad lib fésin `ye are not your own', Wb. 9d11 . nidad óegid, 21b14 . 14a8 . ar nídad ferr-si, 8c7 .

(b) nibar, nifor: nibar troig, SR 3641. ni for gliccu ... inda oen na n-ánmanna, 1235 . is tróg niforn-intliuchtach (? leg. -aig), 1238 .

pl. 3

(a) nítat, nítaat, nídat, nít, nis: nitat cosnama domundi, Wb. 7d12 . ar nitaat cosmuli, 9b17 . nídat chummai, Ml. 115b3 . nit derachti, 128d1 .

(b) nídat calaid, Fél. Jan. 17. nít mórdai fria ngudi, March 1. nītad tabartha, TBC-I¹ 2856. nídat námait, LU 8264. nidat glain, SR 7996. nidad tlaithi, 1571 . nidat carpait, MU² 374. nit righ os ro-chathaib, LL 386a18 . nīdat cuibde, MacCongl. 7.16 . In ZCP xx 371 f. , Thurneysen gives the follg. exx. of a 3 pl. form, nis, occurring in Law texts: acht nis cosmailsi comarba[i] `aber Erben sind nicht von Gleichheit,' Laws iii 42.25 . atait tri comurba la Feine, nis comsaer a cuir, 46.18 . nis dilsi acht a tri, ZCP xiii 21.17 . nis cuir bel dilsi, xii 365.1 . nis maithi dam log n-aisi, logh sinsire, log fognama, ib. 8 .

II With dependent negatives:

(a) nád who (or which) is not, that (it) is not (see s.v. 1 nád, 2 nád, 3 nád and Strachan, loc. cit. l. 1007 ff.).

(b) nant, nan that (it) is not (see s.v. nan and Subst. Vb. l. 1011 ff .).

(c) nách that (it) is not (see s.v. 3 nach, 4 nach and Subst. Vb. l. 1018 ff. ). For nícon, noco, nochon, etc., see s.v. nícon.

III With interrog. particle in-:

s. 1

(a) inda: inda apstal `am I an apostle ?,' Wb. 10c20 .

(b) ? anom (=indom) adbar gascedaig, Ériu xiv 89.2175 (= TBC-LL¹ 1186 ).

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) indat: indat creitmech, Trip.² 917. indat ómnach ?, Lat. Lives 90.0 . indot eolac[h], CCath. 2883. indat sochenel, PH 695.

s. 3 For both (a) and (b) the interrog. particle alone is used, i.e. in (later an) :

(a) in cuntubart lib inso, Wb. 3c3 . in ed fodera báas domsa, 3c33 .

(b) inn a síthib in do déib dúib ?, Trip.² 1114. co fessur ... in he [Is]sau no inne Iacob, SR 2884. an beó do thigerna ?, BDD² 1519.

pl. 3

(a) indat: indat mbriathra ? `is it the words ?,' Ml. 44b9 (cf. sechitat n-é (sic MS.), V below).

(b) indat: nocon fetarsa indat ilgnae do-chuirither in folt fair fo indat trí fuilt failet fair, BDD² 1125 - 6 . indat facsi don purt are they near ...?, LU 1873 (ICM). indat pettai sút no indat éoin chena, TBC-LL¹ 1328. Later the interrog. particle without pl. suffix is used also for pl.: co findara in n-iat tanic, PH 440.

IV With neg. interrog.

s. 2 (a) cenita: cenita chumgabtha-siu `art Thou not exalted ?' Ml. 84c3 .

s. 3

(a) cani, cini: cani doich, Wb. 5b35 . cani messe immoforling cretim dúibsi, 10c18 . cani mebuir lib, 20a5 . cini glé lib ..., 12d4 . cini inonn, 18a16 . caní románda .ó., Sg. 49b23 .

(b) cani: Ōengus do guin ... cani ōin do decraib Dē ?, Bruchst. 50 § 110 .

These forms were early replaced by nách q.v. s.v. 5 nach (nách).

Interrogative sentences containing cía, cid who, what (is). etc.

(i) The copula is not expressed after cía but that it is implied is clear from the follg. rel.: cinuid mic n-altrumu, cia forsa tiagat ?, Laws ii 178.3 . cia roblaiss bethaid ┐ na faicfe éc (qui vivit ┐ non videbit mortem), LL 281a32 . cia tir ass as[s]am lat do thabairt dúinne, ZCP viii 318.33 . gá cara don uile as fhearr, A. Ó Dálaigh xv 5. cia in fear sin ?, Anecd. ii 9.22 . cía can duib ?, Trip.² 1113. In gen.: coich úainn hí ? to which of us will it belong ?, 811 . íarfaigset dó ... cúich he, LU 1838. With verbal ending added: cóichet na heich se ?, 8522 (FB).

(ii) cid (see Thurneysen, GOI § 466 ): cid as dénti frisin, Wb. 12d41 . cid as maith, 12d12 . ní tucthar cid frissa-sennar, 12c46 . cid is conair ... is sed is conair ..., Cóic Con. H § 138. cid ara n- why ? : cid ara ndéntar pecthach díim, Wb. 2a10 . cid ara cuinchi-siu sein ?, Thes. ii 307.12 ( Hy. ii Introd. ). cid ara n-eipenar ?, Laws ii 194.2 . cid ara cuirther do trise ina lesa so ?, i 236.9 . cid how ? cid na déccaid uili how do not ye all see, Fél. Prol. 201. cid ēcōru mo beithse and anās ..., TBC-I¹ 2224.

pl. 3 citné (`gekürzt aus ci ata n-é ,' Thurn., ZCP xx 372 ): assindet sunt tra citné cumacte diandid cóir in fognam `what are the powers unto which the service is proper,' Wb. 6a9 . citné briathra robatar `what were the words ?,' Ml. 61b7 . citné robatar `what were they,' ib. 8 . citne a nanmand na soerbard (caidet, v.l.), IT iii 5.8 . ceitni trī seōit fūair C. ?, ZCP xiii 5 § 19. citni rig ... robatar' sind amsir sin ?, SR 2347. The corresponding form in the Laws is cisné: cisne lesa do na ibh sen tascnat treise `what cases of these extend to three days ?,' Laws i 230.21 . cisne tri biada na tuillead leaptha na hapta, v 438.14 . cisne trí ana soitcedach `what are the three wealths ...,' Triads 239. Sometimes cis immediately precedes the noun : cis formmenn écndaircc doslíat dílsi ?, ZCP xii 366.25 . cis ndíthle do trebaib na tuillet dire ?, 26 . cis forcsen fola la Fēne ?, BCrólige § 65. cis lir how many: cis lir congellait for tresi, Laws i 230.3 . cis lir lanamna docuisin la feine ?, ii 344.1 . cis lir chuir dochuisin ?, iii 4.5 . cis lir fodlai filet forsin mbairdne ?, IT iii 6.13 . cf. cit lir fodlai ..., ib. 20 .

V With various conjunctions.

(i) cía, cé, ci although, that.

s. 1

(a) No instance.

(b) ciam, cidam : ciam toebnocht, SR 1540. cid am laech-sa, TBC-LL¹ 1677. misi gedam foidhidech, ZCP xii 393 § 10. gidh im c[h]rochbán-sa, BS 138.y . giodh am midhiongmhala, Parrth. Anma 333.18 .

s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) cíasa, cidat : cíasa lobur, no rega, Trip.² 1282. cidat fír-Dhia ... ro-gabais colaind ndoenda, PH 163.

s. 3

(a) césu, céso, cíasu, cíaso, cíasa : cesu threde in tummud, Wb. 21d13 . ciaso ḟolud ... sluindes, Sg. 211b7 .

(b) césu, céso, cíasa, cid, gid : césu réid ar lebrán, Fél. Ep. 133. ciasa (ceso, v.l.) femmain [m]bolgaigh [m]bung (see Ériu xii 197 ), Corm. Y 1059.64 . ciasa díthrub, Metr. Dinds. iv 42.2 . ciodh olc an bás nádúrtha, TSh. 987. gidh ionann atá ..., 2900 .

pl. 1

(a) No instance.

(b) cíammin, gidar : cíammin bí, BDD² 329. gidar comaltai, TBC-LL¹ 3680

pl. 2

(a) cenuded', cenotad' : cenuded issidi (=ḟissidi) `although ye are knowing,' Thes. i 713.25 (Tur. Cod.). cenotad maic-si raith, Wb. 33b8 . cenutad suíre, 4a10 .

pl. 3

(a) cetu', ceto' : cetu chummascthai, Sg. 62a2 . ceto écintecha, 203b10 .

(b) ciato', cetu', ciat, cidat : ciato chomṡruithi, Críth G. 493. cetu cummai a feba, Bruchst. 39 § 94. cíat ísliu fíad dáinib ... bit áird, Fél. Prol. 153. cidhat (cit, v.l.) ili fuile, Corm. Y 975.39 . srotha in dithruib ... ciat serba slassa, SR 4071. cidat mora, 446 . cidad mōra, TBC-I¹ 2235. ceat olca, ZCP vii 269 § 17. Ériu ii 122 § 63.

cía + neg. s. 3

(a) cinid, cenid : cinidlúith (=cinid dlúith) lib, Wb. 12b9 . cinith mút, Sg. 5b4 . cenid ed, Ml. 85b11 .

(b) cenid, cini : cenid mé in murgelt, LU 3022 (H). cini di sīl Chuind dóu, ZCP xiii 375.10 .

(ii) má (ma) s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) masat (masae, v.l.) : masat mac Dé, PH 4708. masad acuraig, CCellaig 449 . masat eólach, ZCP xiii 3 § 5. másat (masae, v.l.) geilt, BS 100.13 .

s. 3

(a) masu', maso', masa' (see Thurneysen, KZ xlviii 60f .) : masu chundubart, Wb. 4d28 . masa choimdiu, Ml. 108c16 .

(b) masu', masa', mas' : see s.v. 3 má (ma). Add : masu ar oítid, Trip.² 1483. mása thol, 584 . a Ḟir diad masa thú, TBC-LL¹ 3659. massa anfisac, Laws iv 36.25 Comm. mas da fis, 22 Comm. mas é Dubthach, TBC-LL¹ 2780. masad (massa, v.l.) ḟír, Mór M. 266.15 . mása thoil leat, TSh. 8093. más é is críoch, 1366 .

pl. 3

(a) matu : matu hé ata horpamin, Wb. 2c14 .

(b) masat, mástat : masat elti, MU² 399. mástat carait ... mastat námait, LU 9091 (FB).

ma + neg. s. 3

(a) manid : manid fír, Wb. 13b14 . 17b32 . Ml. 21a11 .

(b) manid, minad, minid, munid, minap, munab : manid caindleóracht, LU 9196 (FB). minad hé, BDD² 1287. minid hé, 917 . mani daig, 593 . munab follus, TSh. 5164. See s.v. 3 má (ma) and TSh. Introd. xxi n. 3 . The form béso, bésu is used as a subjunctive (for its origin see Thurn., KZ xlviii 60.f .) : bésu dagduine cini estar túari `he may be a good man,' Wb. 6b23 , 24 . massu ed béso mó a fius dúibsi, 19b11 .

(iii) co n- so that.

s. 1

(a) conda : is rad dée immum-forling conda apstal, Wb. 13b6 . conda marb, 19a17 . 17c10 .

(b) conda, conam, conadam, conidam : domāncatar-sa uile | conda eōlach a n-achne, Otia i 127 § 29. conam torsech co haithbe, 128 § 33. rom ebail Sencha ... conidam trén, LU 10285. 10304 . conad am lista liumm fadén ┐ nach am inmain frisnach āen, MacCongl. 95.4 .

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) condat adbartnaigthi-siu, PH 1795.

s. 3

(a) condid, conid : condid flaith do in coimdiu, Wb. 9d2 . tremiberar ... conid ainm dun chrunn, 8a5 . condid di thetacht in spírto ... profetauit , Thes. i 496.26 (Ardm.). conid e epscop insin cita-ruoirtned, ii 241.15 (ib.). conid femen, Sg. 123b2 . condid étrummu, Ml. 90a11 . connid ed, 91a19 .

(b) condid, conid, conad, cunad, etc.: condid ann, AU i 434.22 (A.D. 916) . Hib. Min. 25. conid eiter a lamaib ..., Mon. Tall. 153.12 . conid edh, AU i 538.6 (A.D. 1015) . conid soillsi, Corm. Y 426. LU 10931. 10306 . PH 2245. 720 . conad dēach ainm gach sillaibe, Corm. Y 500. PH 1371. 6132 . Laws iv 18.2 Comm. cunad fír, MU² 284. cunid soillsithir, 554 . condad leis Aidhne, Ériu i 46.32 . conodh i, Ériu iii 141.206 . conud e, RC vi 184.19 . gonid lór, ACL iii 306 § 1 . gonadh aire sin ..., Ó Héodhusa 51.1. TSh. 1824. 5960 . conid was replaced by gurab (gur), gura originally a subjunctive form : corop Tuigi im Thamon and sain, LL ii 9911 . gorop de atá Cruachna Áe, ii 12397 . innister curab pecthaig ..., RC xxiv 378.17 . gurab droch-duine ..., PH 7682. corub iat, 445 corab í so, 7334 . gurb i luaithreadh ..., TSh. 300. gur bréagach a bhreathnughadh, 395 . gurab é an bás, 37 . gurab tearc, 94 . er co ra mian leisin nádúir maith do dénum, PH 7394. gur tú mo Chruthaightheoir, Donlevy 406.5 . gur ionmholta, 132.10 . do-fedar gura tú C., ZCP viii 546.26 . Cf. also : casmail lem gom (=co mba) e in mac beg, 538.15 .

pl. 1

(a) condan : hóre ronsóirni ... condan fírianichthi, Wb. 2d14 . immunrordad condan maicc togu non naturae , 20d10 .

(b) No instances.

pl. 3

(a) condat : condat anman som, Sg. 188b3 . condat reli inna aicsin hisin, Ml. 51d15 .

(b) condat, condot, cundat : condat e tri decmainge in domain a d[t]indtud, Laws v 426.3 . condat cora, SR 296. SCC 320 . PH 736. cundat marthanaig, MU² 310. gondat Ulaid, TBC-LL¹ 704.

(iv) With cen co (not found in Glosses) :

(b) s. 1 gon com (gen gob, v.l.) maith-se oc immarbáig, TBC-LL¹ 3219.

s. 3 gion go glan mo sgáth, DDána 24 § 30. gion gur caomh a dhreach, 91 § 6.

(v) With no :

s. 1

(a) nonda', nunda' : amal nonda thorisse `as I am trustworthy,' Wb. 10a28 . a nunda thinnachtae-se, Ml. 126d12 .

s. 2

(a) nonda', nunda' : lassaní nonda brithem `when Thou art judge,' Ml. 92a15 . a nnunda chocuibsid-siu, 58b6 . 38c27 .

pl. 1

(a) nundem, nundan : oire nundem membur uili du Dea, Thes. ii 246.5 (Camb.). á nnundan deeth ní, Ml. 120b3 .

pl. 2

(a) nondad : amal nondad maicc cóima, Wb. 27b16 .

(b) These forms did not survive O. Ir.

(vi) After the co-ordinating conjunctions sech and noch the absolute form is used. See under 2 sech and 1 noch. sechi whoever, whatever probably contains cop. s. 3 : sechi é cretes `whosoever believes,' Wb. 15b1 . sechi hed bás són `whatsoever death ...,' 13c1 . sechi dú nu-t-soe-siu, Ml. 112b6 .

pl. 3 sechitat hé ` whoever they are ,' 49a19 . sechitat hé (né, MS.) ` whatsoever ,' Thes. ii 25.38 (Bcr.). (Cf. indat mbriathra, III above).

VI With various prepositions in relative clauses.

(i) i n- (in many exx. has the force of a conjunction, see Ériu i 12 ) :

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) inda : cid at-chí dúnd, inda fisid `since thou art ...,' BDD² 545.

s. 3

(a) indid, innid : cia airm indid immaircide do epert amén, Wb. 12d18 . ind labrada innid eula nech, Ml. 42c4 . indid mailliu a tuile `by which the flood is slower,' Thes. ii 14.35 (Bcr.). 20.41 (ib.).

(b) indid, inid, inad, ina: indid Niall ... ro malart since it is N. ..., AU i 438.26 (A.D. 918). indid Alend is dún fás, Hail Brigit § 14. inid mo athair ... ortabairsi, BDD² 737. Bruchst. 47 § 105.3 . inad gilla óc ... tarfás dúnn, BDD² 161. PH 5029. do Maig Mell inid rí Boadag, LU 10004. aít init sruithiu dliged oldas naidm, ZCP xiii 23.1 . inad ina fairsingi in cathuir, Maund. § 75. eccla ifirn ... 'na minic fóidh guil, ACL iii 216.17 . Forms originally perf. and subj. came to be used as pres. indic. : sé céimeanna 'nar cosmhail ré chéile iad, TSh. 1231. ní fhuil ainm oile ... ionarb (ionab, v.l.) éigean sinne do shlánughadh, 2088 . neg. traigle i nach ūathad uidre, Bruchst. § 88. teagh is nach uathadh urra, DDána 119 § 23.

pl. 3

(a) indat : indat iudei itirroscar[sat] fri hiris n-abarche since they are Jews, Wb. 5b34 . cid ind aimser indat sláin ennaic som, Ml. 76a6 .

(b) in am indat slána, TBC-LL¹ 952. inat ṡlana, 1386 .

(ii) día n- :

s. 1

(a) No instances.

(b) díanda, díanam : Chríst dianda chéle `whose servant I am,' Fél. Ep. 307. an rí díanam gilla, ZCP v 497 § 12.

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) díandat : cia díandat céliusiu ?, TBC-I¹ 1382.

s. 3

(a) díant, díandid, dían : intí diant ainm discessio, Wb. 26a5 . in rét diant torbach ..., Ml. 121d1 . dian-did nomen hiber, Sg. 100b1 . in son diandid tintud ..., Ml. 37a10 . dian duthoig Liphe, Thes. ii 295 § 4 ( SP v ). neg. di nach follus (=dunach, Edd.), Thes. ii 8.35 (Acr.).

(b) díand, díanid, díanad, dían, díanda, dían(d)at, dána, dán, etc.: dianid opair oen laithi, AU i 342.22 (A.D. 839) . Corm. Y 825.2 . fer dianid comainm Labán, SR 2944. diand sanctlethan slondad, Fél. June 12 . April 22 . indī dianda coimmēid, Corm. Y 269. 892 . dianad ainm clí, 275 . PH 5180. 5494 . mí diandat (diando, MS., dianid, v.l.) ainm Marsiius, Corm. Y 892. cid dianat maith ind uair si ?, Hib. Min. p. 50.6 . Cū dīan comainm Culand, TBC-I¹ 2263. dianaid rī, 560 . dian serb cach sruith, ZCP vi 267 § 2. cia dana céile thusa ?, viii 545.2 . Ériu ii 229.19 . drem dīb dan eōl, ZCP viii 216 § 78. Laws iv 60.12 . ACL iii 237 § 15. na nathrach neimhe danadh ainm tyrus , TSh. 8973. Pres. subj. and perf. forms used as pres. indic. : darab ceann sgríbe an chríoch dhéidheanach, TSh. 725. cia d'ar ceart, Donlevy 106.7 . neg. airchindech do nach diur adhultrus, Laws i 58.22 Comm. do neoch do nar bo chotlud, TBC-LL¹ 2962. cia dánach feasach ... ?, TSh. 6401.

pl. 3

(a) neg. : donnatdet adblama inna esiu (leg. inna hísiu, Edd.) `to whom these things are not ready,' Thes. i 713.23 (Tur. Cod.).

(b) díanat, díandat : amail rondeiligthe sinethae dianat anmanna dela, Corm. Y 431. Metr. Dinds. iii 312.116 . bó ... díandat slána a secht mbliadna, LU 8122.

(iii) ara n- :

(a) arndid : cid arndid ísliu aesce quam sol , Thes. ii 22.41 (Bcr.). in di accuis ... arndid coitchen ..., Sg. 200a13 .

(b) ara n- : is ed sin ara n-amra `arcu fuin' `for which a.f. is admirable,' ZCP vii 312 § 26.

(iv) ó n- :

(a) óndid, ónid : in sians ondid accobor limsa ícc cáich, Wb. 12d23 . honid techtae molad Dáe, Ml. 51c2 .

(b) ón, óna, ónab : díles Néill ón cunnail cell, Ériu iv 92 § 1. toirt[h]igi in lā | ōnab lēir feadha, ACL iii 235 § 21. gním óna mó ar dtachrádh, IGT Decl. ex. 412.

(v) frissa n- :

(a) frisin : dochum cétnidetad frisin cosmil `to which it is like,' Sg. 188a13 .

(b) frisnid, ren, rena, renab, renar : inmain samail frisnid cosmail a n-adchīusa, TBC-I¹ 2875. nech risnid [andsa], LU 4004. drem ren dothroide ar ndeabhaidh, IGT Decl. ex. 1167. is dona neithibh renab usa truailled do gabail cuigi, in baindi, Rosa Angl. 112.8 . dream ... réna deacair, TSh. 4665. ag an druing ... rénar milis, 1568 . 711 .

pl. 3

(a) No instance.

(b) frisndat : inna ferta sa ... cía beith nech risndat móra araide isat úathe dó ilib, Trip.² 3096.

(vi) lasa n- :

(a) lasin : intí lasin format, Ml. 129b3 . lasin n-accubur, 53c16 .

(b) lasnad, lenab : intí lasnád ecul `who fears,' PH 2411. lasnad ail, 1421 . cibé lénab mór a n-abraim, Keat. i 76.44 .

(vii) oca n- :

(a) No instance.

(b) ri ind lochta hicnad suithi a n-ord, RC xx 174 § 38 (ACC). co flaith Dúrlais, 'cán mór mé, Hy Fiach. 284.5 . sdéd gan dóigh urraim na n-eillteadh, IGT Decl. ex. 1177 = gán, 662 .

(viii) fa n- (O. Ir. imm) :

(a) No instance.

(b) fán, fána : a cCionn Coradh fan léir magh, ZCP viii 225 § 42. fáth fána doilghe ... an bás, TSh. 1132.

(ix) asa n- :

(a) No instance.

(b) asarb : briathra asarb iontuigthe ..., TSh. 5664.

(x) forsa n-, fora n- :

(a) No instance.

(b) forab : o sheircc in domain-sea forab airchindech diabul, PH 7118.

Cons. Pres.

s. 3

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) bid : bid coitchenn dliges cach ngrád ... i córus othrusa, Críth G. 50. bés bid cethrar nó chóicer bíte hi comarbus bóairech, 146 .

Conj.

(a) -bi, -pi : nipi cían a masse in choirp, Wb. 28c25 . 12c12 . air nibi eulach, Ml. 42c9 . 128d3 . níbí cian, 91d2 . combi remib rethith iarum, Wb. 13b13 . indhí lasmbi accobur, 30c23 . imbí hinun folud whether the substance is the same, Sg. 188a6 .

(b) -bi, -pi : nī bī clōen in t-ere, Corm. Y 447.16 . ni bi briugu nad bi cedach, Laws v 76.10 . i ngait nádbi aí `which is not his,' Críth G. 218. ben las(a)mbi cuma cip cia las fia, BCrólige § 44. is bec a ain iphthi compí sāitheach, ZCP vi 257.y . i tig as mbi eggna suillsi, BDD² 175. dīa mbī dīn Cūan Caill, Four Songs 20 § 4 . pl. 1 (a) ? isin chruth-sin bimmi nóib-ni 'it is thus that we become holy' Wb. 3 d 27 , ZCP xxxii 120 .

pl. 3

(a) No instance.

(b) bit : imscarad dotluigigter flaith fri aigillni na bit anfolaid in ceili gaibter ann `a separation which the chief requests from the tenant not on account of any disqualification of the tenant,' Laws ii 316.z .

Ipv.

s. 2

Abs.

(a) ba' : ba chuimnech dilguda duinni, Ml. 46b29 .

(b) ba, bat : ba faitech ar nā ba fīachach, Anecd. iii 13.10 = bat fattech, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 14 § 3.1 . bát umal ... bat cumnech, LU 3490 - 1 . bat cúimnech, PH 1208.

Conj.

(a) -ba', pa' : naba thoirsech, Wb. 29d19 . napa chondarcell, 31c22 .

(b) -ba, -bad, -b(a)dat, -rbat, -rab, -rsat : nā ba lonn frim, TBC-I¹ 1210. nad bad lond-so, TBC-LL¹ 1045. na badat, 1106 . nabdat dolam, SR 1253. narbat (marab, narab, v.ll.) timtheirc tais, KMMisc. 262 § 9. nárbhat dian, Acall. 587. nárbat bronach-su, FDG 397.

s. 3

Abs.

(a) bad', bed', pad' : bad chore dúib friu `have peace towards them,' Wb. 27d11 . bed chuimnech, 33d5 . pad glicc far n-intliucht, 5c21 .

(b) bad, ba : arān Mochue ... ba hé dobertar dúin, Mon. Tall. 128.25 . bad and sein not adnastar, Trip.² 2991. bat (bá, v.l.) tusu bas ara, 2580 . bad (bud, bidh, bu, v.ll.) sonairt ar n-airle, Fél. Prol. 261. bad uallach, ScM. § 4.11 . ba (bá, LU) maith blāth in claideb, TBC-I¹ 934. bá[d] sí riar Aengusa, Ériu xii 146.2 (Tochm. Ét.). nech atcobra bithbethaid ... bat umhal, ZCP vii 312 § 23. With inf. pron. s. 2 : badat cuman remember, Rawl. 72b39 .

Conj.

(a) -bad' : nábad chotarsne fri bar n-ícc a nno-gessid, Wb. 24b3 . nabad do réir far colno beithe, 6b4 .

(b) -bad, -bud, -pa : ná bad ead do-gneth, BDD² 411. nábad olc do menma, LU 3271. na pa machtad amh libsi, Mon. Tall. 157.20 . nā bud sgēlach, ZCP vii 311 § 9.

pl. 1

(a) ban', baán' : ban chossmaili friar tuissech, Wb. 33b20 . 29b17 . baán tairismich do irnigdi, 5d22 .

(b) No instance.

pl. 2

Abs.

(a) bad', bed' : bad chensi fri cách, Wb. 24b1 . bad treúin i n-iriss, 27a6 . bed adthramli .i. gaibid comarbus for n-athar, 9a14 .

(b) No instance.

Conj.

(a) -bad' : nabad anfoirbthi-si, Wb. 12d26 .

(b) ? nadib leisc, SR 7843. narbar dúrcridig, 4842 .

pl. 3

Abs.

(a) bat' : bat chosmuli frinni `let them be like unto us,' Wb. 17c5 .

(b) bat, bad : bat menci do dalai, Ériu viii 173.8 . bad sgrībt[h]a a sgēla, ZCP viii 110 § 10.

Conj.

(a) -bat : bad armatura dei bess lib nábat nacha arm aili, Wb. 22d14 .

(b) No instance.

Impf.

s. 3

(a) No instance.

(b) bíth : nicon ibdis bandai cormmai i tír Cualand, cia bith ara tecmainged dóib `whoever it used to be that they used to meet,' Mon. Tall. 129.19 (tr. Bergin, Ériu xii 209 , q.v.).

pl. 3 (see Bergin, Ériu xii 225 f. ).

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) batis : a trian rocharsa[t] Coin Culainn batís [d]aill ... batis clóin ... batis guit, RC viii 60.15 ( LL 117a7 - 10 ). ? batis gnatha ar buadhuiph band, Anecd. ii 70.8 .

Conj.

(a) No instance.

(b) -btis : imrethitis a da thraigid ┐ a n-adbrond comtís luathidir ruathar funemda, Ériu iv 30.2 . comtis scítha, Snedg. u. Mac R § 27. dabertis T.D.D. lubi ... for aibnib ... comtís brecca ... na srotha díb, TBC-LL¹ 4213. comdis fliuch iad do deraib, TTebe 3711 . comtis, 2884 . nībtis omain neich `they used not to fear any man,' ZCP iii 38.25 (tr. Ériu xii 225 ).

Subj. Pres.

s. 1

(a) -ba : ciaba deróil la nech, Wb. 18a7 . 23b29 . niba dimicthe-se libsi `I should not be despised by you,' 21d3 . mainba aecne lib, 17c10 .

(b) -ba, -pa, ropom (ropa, v.l.), -rbom, -rbam, -rba, -bam ; with ma, madam : ni reg-sa assin chruachán-sa co mba marb, Trip.² 1294. nipá pene na régi, Mon. Tall. 131.17 . riasiu ba marb-sa, ZCP i 105.25 . acht ropom (ropa, LU) airdricsa, TBC-I¹ 571. im-caemros[s]a do gaethaib corbom gaeth fo-deisin, BDD² 167. díamsa saithech bíd when once I am satisfied, LU 8469 (FB). nírba cintach `may I not be guilty,' Ériu vi 116 § 3. dīa mba bēo-sa, KMMisc. 208.y . corbam cruithnecht it' it[h]lainn, Ériu iii 31 § 24. narbam crimnach, SR 3202. nīrbam utmall anbsaid, a meic mo Dé, ZCP vi 260 § 10. madham buidech-sae, CCath. 4210. madam beō-sa do-gēba luach a taisgedha ... minbam beō imorra ..., ML² 1495.

s. 2

(a) -ba' : armba cháinchomraccach-so, Wb. 30b23 . cia ba loingthech, 6c9 . ciafa firián, Ml. 36a32 . comba soilse-siu, Wb. 22c3 . Ml. 54b19 .

(b) bat, -ba, -pa, -bat, -pat, -rba(t), -rbot, -(b)sa(t) : with cía, cidat ; with ma, madat : ni ba dicheoil, SR 2197. nipa frithenech, LU 3495. ní pa, Ériu i 198 § 16a . nibát athboingid ar narbat aithrech, LU 3502. nibat comromach ar nábat miscnech, 3503 . nirbat díscir ... nibbát ecal ... nipát tairne ..., 3467 - 9 . ba hēmich corbad sercach, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 14 § 3.3 . bat umal corbot ūasal, ib. § 3.7 . nírba chreccach, Ériu i 200 § 22. nirba truag, SR 3295. doroimle corbat cétach, ..., LU 8796 (FB). atraí coropat mor, 3533 . céin bat béo, 3919 . nirbat ancretmech ... acht corbat cretmech, PH 6776. diamba breiteam arafeser ... `if thou be a judge, thou shouldst know,' BCrólige § 66. diambat rolabar, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 18 § 7.16 . ZCP vii 298.17 . diamsa coemainech, IT i 70.2 . diamsat fissid, iii 488.352 . BS 86.25 . nírsat bidbha oirechta, Acall. 597. 598 . toich duit cidat rī, toich duit cidat druī (to a child), PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 546 § 3 ( LL 147a ). cidat lond im gním garta, IT iii 508 § 1. madat fīrēn flaith `if you be a just prince,' KMMisc. 262 § 15. madhid trēn, ML² 1437.

s. 3

I Forms without ro-.

(i) Abs. The form ba appears to be used only as jussive subj. :

(a) ? bá tualang cách forcital alaili `let each be fit ...,' Wb. 6d13 ; ba samlid dúib `be ye thus,' 19d29 , but in both instances the editors would read bad for ba.

(b) do Chríst ba mór do gaire, Ériu i 200 § 22. ba i n-ómun ba i n-incridiu | gudem Críst let it be in fear ..., 195 § 10 (but ? cf. 1 fa).

Conj. (ii)

(a)bé (see Bergin, Ériu xii 208 ff .) : cia bé a mmēt adae `however great it may be,' Ml. 61b28 . cip hé ade asberam, 25d11 .

(b) cip hé gellus dít, Trip.² 1626. cibbe noda saraigfed, 789 . cipe a isle, ciape a huaisle, Laws v 386.15 . secht tellaige ... nad erenaiter cidbe indola, 206.2 . cidbe fine dib dibus, Cóic Con. H § 69. cebé baile no beth, LU 365. cipé tí, TBC-LL¹ 1768. cipia frisa ferthar tnú, Ériu v 211.69 . gidh bé haird iona dtuitfidh, TSh. 3985.

(iii) -bo occurs in the Glosses seeming sometimes to be the jussive subj. (neg.) and once after in whether , but these exx. may perhaps be pret. (but see (iv) below) :

(a) ní bo comitesti (rectius chomitesti, Ed.) dó `he should not be indulged,' Wb. 1c12 . nibo intain no mbeid ar súil tantum `it must not be when ye are before (His) eye,' 27c9 . rofitir side imbo ho chridiu fa nacc, 27c11 .

(b) No instance.

(iv)

-p, -b :

(a) níp tarisse lat `trust him not,' Wb. 30d24 . nip sain a n-asberat et immarádat, 28c1 . nip crú cruach, Thes. ii 250.11 (Stowe M.). arnáp hé som ..., Wb. 6c7 . ar nab laigiu, Sg. 179b1 . imb anacol dom fa nac, Wb. 23a6 . immaid (=imb m.) fa olcc, 8d26 . im fochróib bá chían, Sg. 151b2 . sechip hé ... `whosoever it be,' Wb. 3b15 . sechib grád i mbether and, 10a18 . cip cruth bíid páx libsi fri cách `howsoever it be,' 5d33 . cib cenél tra dia ro scribad ind epistil so, 3b20 . mainip in chrud-so, 10a5 . manip hinunn etargnae, Sg. 188a12 . Ml. 14d10 . cenib fír, 24d22 . cenip ho étrummugud inna n-olc, 59a23 . cinip hond sémigdetu, 59a23 .

(b) -p, -b, -pe, -be, later -ba, -bo ; with día, díam : acht nip inbleoguin, Laws ii 98.17 . bés níp aill do dáinib, Fél. Ep. 417. níp anchobrai, LU 9663. bes nipe nessu éc do suidiu oldás daitsiu, 9210 . mad ben urnadma na be cetmunnter, Laws ii 380.25 . ar n[a] himirbera neach na be hai, v 476.z . diam dlaí di chi[u]nn adairt, Críth G. 229. BCrólige § 38. diam chuibse cataid `to whom veneration is due,' Laws i 10.24 . mairg ... diam cara Colco, Anecd. i 7.11 . cach fuil druith dinnap inna ramot techtai torai, BCrólige § 64. cid nabsin (? = nab sí in) Fedelm-sa ... cichsed, LU 8296. nabbsin, 8318 . air nā ba (v.l. arnab) sothuissledhach, Corm. Y 434. arnapa dimicnithi, Trip.² 2048. sechib dán di[i]b, Críth G. 323. sicip hé dígbas ..., Trip.² 751. secip blas bá mellach, LU 1787. PH 1428. mad iar stair cip indus, Trip.² 33. BDD² 655. cip magen inda tecmai `in whatever place,' BCrólige § 40. cidh be manach doda-goad ┐ cib can a cinel whencesoever, Anecd. i 44.8 . cecip ní foillsighfithir daitt ` whatever ,' Aisl. Tond. 96.9 is fīach dia blīadnai dō īar sin d(h)inap (sic leg.) turbuith deithbire dothnairp dia nephthairiuc 'it becomes for him a debt [payable only] in a year’s time unless a legitimate excuse excuses him for his non-appearance' Bürgschaft 17 § 53 , Ériu xx 230 . dinnap ina ramot techtai torai 'unless it has accrued in a lawful way (?) ' Ériu xii 52 § 64 , xx 230 . manip do Chonchobor, ScM. § 3.16 . PH 2080. manib tualaing, Anecd. iii 23.12 . maniba t'ainmnet ..., Trip.² 859. manab ac oen flaith beit, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. munab neasa, 44.4 . DDána 76 § 24. munob cunntabartac[h], BCrólige § 14 n. 1 . munup, Laws iv 26.13 . menip, SR 3597. Cóic Con. RE § 23. minub, BCrólige § 23. FDG 389. minap, TBC-I¹ 795. PH 1542. minab, 6035 . munbo cairnech in craidhe, ZCP vi 268.12 . munba, ib. 11 . IGT Decl. ex. 352. cinip mór do bríg, Trip.² 1888. LU 1435 (MU).

The form arimp in the Glosses always has a final sense except the doubtful ex. in Ml. 130b8 (see below). The ex. from Críth Gabl. is also final, the others all express an indirect command or wish (cf. airndip, see (v) below) :

(a) arimp áigthidiu-de `that it may be the more dreaded,' Wb. 23d23 . 32a2 . 15c4 . arimp díthnad ... dúibsi foditiu fochide dúnni, 14b17 . arim tairismech, 25a9 . ised as maith la dia airimp (? leg. airndip) isin gess ... `this God would have ...,' Ml. 130b8 .

(b) arim túalang gabála[e] ríg, Críth G. 187. cach ōen comaldathar in cāin si ... arim sírsaegul ... ┐ arop airmitnech fēith, Cáin Ad. § 30. abbair fri Feradach, arim remḟissid arad sencharpait `er solle ein vorauswissender Lenker des alten Wagens sein,' ZCP xi 83 § 27. nach oirecht ... árim (corob, v.l.) cáin domnaig cétadéntar ann, Ériu ii 210 § 33. The usual way of expressing a wish or exhortation is rop (see section II below), but cf.: adair ... do Dia ┐ co mbá dó a aenur fhogna, PH 4724. searc Íosa ... go mba hé th'arm DDána 20 § 7. goma, 93 § 37 . in cū ruad ... coma taīseach cāemc[h]uaine, CCellaig 463 . With cen co : cen cop foccus a gcairdiss, Anecd. ii 62.2 . MacCongl. 39.27 . PH 3100. cin cob aire doronsat, 3237 .

(v)

(a) -dip, -dib : condip slán á anim, Wb. 9b9 . condib cumme, 24a22 . is tacair arndip samlid it is meet that it be thus, 22c11 . airndip maith a forcell `that the testimony may be good,' 25d21 . airndib ecmailt, Tur. 71 (airndip may have either final or consecutive sense, see note on arimp in (iv) above). duús indip fochunn ícce do, Wb. 26b27 . dús cia port indib maith, 24 .

(vi) With ma (má),

(a) mad : mad cumme imned á cheli et a imned fessin, Wb. 20c6 . 12a23 . 4a14 . mad cétnide a n-animm, Sg. 197a2 . 3b19 . mad du rúin `according to the mystic meaning,' Tur. 103.

(b) mad, mád : mad a dligiud ḟénechso (Corr., Ed.) is menbu, Críth G. 11. mad nóeb arid-léga, Fél. Ep. 178. Corm. Y 1233. mad na mna `if it belong to the woman,' Laws ii 402.1 . mádh táesca dhuit iná dham, Anecd. i 32 § 54. mád, LU 9216. madh peacthach é, TSh. 4315.

(vii)

With cía although, that ,

(a) cith, cid : deithbeir do ceith aneola, Wb. 33c16 . cith etarṡuidigthe, Sg. 68b4 . Mon. Tall. 159.2 . cid accobrach, Wb. 4c34 . cid doib doarrchet `though they were prophesied unto,' 5a16 (here the sense appears to be indic., see GOI § 793 ). cid comsuidigthe, Sg. 201a10 . Ml. 2d12 .

(b) cid, gid: cid ē marad tarm ēisi, Corm. Y 180. cid diabal fod foirge, Laws iv 18.19 . cid sain na conairi (pl. subject). Cóic Con. H. § 43. gid rogāeth nī rogand, TBC-I¹ 2596.

cid ed nevertheless: (b) cid ed nī rochotail, TBC-I¹ 2512. gidh eadh ní híad as andsa, KMMisc. 352 § 6.

cid ... cid, cid ... nó whether (it be) ... or ...:

(a) ma gorith locc cith ine chuis nú ine láim, Thes. ii 245.36 (Camb.). cid maid cid olcc la nech, Wb. 30d6 . cach réit cid precept cid labrad, 13a29 . Sg. 2a7 . Ml. 26a8 . cid ho deacht maicc nó ho deacht athar arafoima doinacht maicc aní arroet, 17c3 .

(b) cid cóem cid díchóem, Críth G. 225. Corm. Y 1167. SCC 679 .

cid cia whoever it be: am chind cid cia raib, KMMisc. 254 § 4.

cid though it be has also the sense even , in which sense its verbal content must early have been forgotten so that it may be folld. by plural noun or pronoun, and by a dependent vb. in indic. instead of subj.:

(a) cithisse `it is even he,' Wb. 22a7 (a prima manu). corrici cith besti béoa, Thes. i 4.31 . ceith cenmathá in tegdais n-ucut `even besides,' Wb. 33a4 . cid ind fochith follongam `even the suffering which we endure,' 14b15 . ceth Máolruoin, Mon. Tall. 135.24 . co seichetar cid a comroircniu, Sg. 1a2 .

(b) coire ... no suigfedh cid Erind, Corm. Y 323.8 . ní dénaiter cid clocha fotraicthi díb, Trip.² 873. ni cuma dono cid cach mis disuidiu, Laws iv 88.19 . ní thibrind i tindscra cid Meidbi insin, TBFr. 185. cid mecnu, LU 10560.

II Forms with ro-.

(i)

(a) rop, rob, ropo' (the form rob occurs only before b and m): rop corae doib fri dia `peace be with them ...,' Wb. 20d1 . rop scīath dún diar n-imdegail, Hy. i 20. rop fír, ib. 39 . nicon fil bas sciith lim act rop ar crist, Wb. 18a2 . acht robronach (=rob bronach, Ed.), Ml. 86d12 . act ropo cho n-etarceirt, Wb. 13a26 . act ropo cho torbu, 27 .

(b) rop, rob, ropo': rop múr ar cech merblén' Babill, Fél. Jan. 24. rob hí ascaid connaga, Ériu iv 106 § 59. rob dimbríogh gach tonn dá ttuil | gach imshníomh sonn rob soruidh, Studies 1921, 76 § 25 . DDána 122 § 21. acht rop la forcomet, Mon. Tall. 161.27 . Trip.² 2941. acht rob tol dait-so, ZCP viii 312.8 . riasíu ropo chúairddulchach, Críth G. 68.

The form robo, robu and with inf. pron. rodbo, rodbu occurs in the sense either, or (cf. Fr. soit ... soit). The editors of Thes. Pal. (i 433 n. ) say it `seems to be regular in the first of two or more alternatives.' It is so used in the great majority of cases but in Wb. 14c24 and Ml. 58b11 (see below) it precedes the second alternative. Pedersen ( KZ xxxv 404 f . q.v.) suggests an original meaning `was es sei' and the loss of the demonstrative pronoun a n- or aní before robo. Thurneysen ( GOI § 886 ) believes it to have been a potential ro- subj. It is found somet. where in the Lat. uel .. uel .., or Lat. aut .. aut ... occur:

(a) rodbo dia adroni ... ł. is hé-som adroni ... either God has committed ..., Wb. 29d29 . 16d7 . fo chenéle lugi [i]ssiu rodbo chosmi[liu]s `as a kind of oath ... or a similitude,' 14c24 . robo intí forchain gl. siue qui docet, 5d10 . robo folad diles ł. doacaldmach, Sg. 197a1 . 200b6 . robu óenlitrib gl. uel singulis literis, 28a12 . robu cho adersetar gl. uel emendentur ... (uel ...), Ml. 30d11 . robu a caratrad gl. (uel necessitudo) uel (familiaritas), 58b11 (but Eds. suggest on p. 721b : `as robu regularly refers to the former of two alternatives, gloss 11 may gl. uel necessitudo'). robu a nnu mothaigtis gl. aut stupentes, 44c6 . 109c3 . 121b6 .

(b) rodbu forcetail ł. scribend ł. uaimm n-etaig, LB 11b13 . innahí rohaisneid dó N. .. rodbo o littrib no a himaccalmaibh, ZCP ii 321.y .

(ii) -rop, -rup, -rub:

(a) corrup mithich gabáil ferainn do, Wb. 19d3 . corrop hed mo indeb Crist, 24a6 . corop he to menmme, Thes. ii 255.14 (Stowe M.). Wb. 7d10 . Sg. 40b7 . corub mebuil leu, Ml. 138c8 . See also Subst. Vb. l. 1389 ff.

(b) -rup, -rub, -rob, -rop, -rab, -rap, -rip, -rp: corup messu de dún, Trip.² 2592. TBC-I¹ 1577. PH 5319. corob gel in mag, Trip.² 555. TBC-I¹ 2455. corrom mé (=corrob mé) nosn-orr, BDD² 721. corab meisi, Trip.² 1360. Laws iv 62.18 Comm. Anecd. i 17.17 . curub cutruma cuit cach fir dib, Cóic Con. H § 102. co rāssa in cū hīsin ┐ corip ingnīma, TBC-I¹ 539 = corop, LU 5028. acht corp dall, SR 2900. āgusta dō gurab trū, Corm. Y 1238. ní rop áilsed `let there not be neglect,' Fél. Ep. 522. nī rob do soinmige ┐ nī rob do fechtnaidi dō, TBC-I¹ 640 = nipo ... ┐ nirop, LU 5125. arnarap galar doib, Mon. Tall. 147.23 . arnā rob olc, Corm. Y 425. fégad cech aen uaib ... ná rob dáll ... hé, PH 4666. Sometimes the final b or p dropped out, at first before initial b or f: arnara fochand báis dóib, Mon. Tall. 146.29 . 152.11 . curu bēl ainmnech urnaigthech, ACL iii 234 § 9. luiget ... co ro bréc, PH 2685. co ro huain doib, 4997 .

rel.

(a) bes`, bas`: níi bes chotarsne diar n-ícc, Wb. 11a24 . bes chossecarthae, Ml. 63a6 . bes miniu, Thes. ii 254.14 (Stowe M.). céin bas mbéo, Wb. 10b23 . a mbas cete, Thes. ii 17.34 (Bcr.).

(b) bes`, bas`, bus`: nech bes ardu, Críth G. 115. lin bes coir, BCrólige § 48. ni bes epiltiu, Mon. Tall. 152. 31 . dírimm bas choímiu ná bess áiniu, TBFr. 47. ontí bass formbthi, Mon. Tall. 141.19 . dís bas ḟerr, BDD² 1222. ríasiu bus lá, MU² 322. neich bus chomgrād dó, Ériu i 219 § 7. i llaim neich bessa set `of the person whose property it is,' Laws v 376.4 . do cach besa ai whose it is, ii 398.z . iv 28.5 . i 264.18 . A pron. may be infixed between rel., and its pred.: doeim dano in clī innī besidn-īsle, doemar som ōnnī besadn-ūaisliu, Corm. Y 275. set inna muin cachae besid fiu, Laws v 384.z . 382.8 . ech beissid fiu, 406.9 . cenn caich ... i fine besid sruithe, besid n-uaisliu, ZCP xiv 369 § 31. ailid .iii. seotu bes da fiu, Laws v 408.7 .

pl. 1

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) ropond: ropond bēo for deis mic Dē may we be alive, ZCP viii 106 § 9 (ropo-nd = 3 s.+inf. pron. pl. 1).

Conj.

(a) -ban`: co comalnammar a pridchimme et comman (=co m-ban) dessimrecht do chach, Wb. 31c11 . a numman aircheltai, Ml. 27b10 .

(b) -ban, -rdar, -(r)bar; with cía, gidar: is am comman tairisiu `'tis time that we should be ...,' Fianaig. 26.14 . an biucán gurdar síthaig, Hib. Min. 82.23 . gidar comaltai, TBC-LL¹ 3680. co mbar commaithe, 35 . tiagam ass con (f)acamar na milchonu ...┐ corbar (go mbat, v.l.) scithu oco, TBFr. App. § 16.

pl. 2

Abs.

(a) bede: conicfid-si bede preceptori uili `ye will all be able to be teachers,' Wb. 13a10 .

Conj.

(a) -bad: combad accomalti-si limsa, 23a26 . arnábad toirsig dim chuimriug-sa, 27c34 . arna bad huilcc, 5d38 . dia mbad mathi, 16a13 . ma[nba]d irlaithi, 27c11 . ? To this: annambaid (anambaid, MS.) buidig `when ye are not content,' Ml. 115b10 .

(b) nibur n-ecnaigid, SR 4871. nibfor cétludaig, 4872 .

pl. 3

I Forms without ro-.

No absolute forms occur without ro-.

Conj.

(i)

(a) -bet`, -pat`, -bat`: mainbet mathi, Wb. 11c5 . nó innabet o nach ainmm-diu etir `or whether they are not from any nominal form at all,' Sg. 56b1 . arnapat toirsich, Wb. 26d21 . combat irlamu-de ind ancreitmich do chretim, 12d29 . armbat eolig, 31d15 . armbat chosmaili, Ml. 130a12 . a mbat n-erchoissi, 73c9 . cinbat huili, Wb. 4d6 .

(b) -bet, -bat: im damu nad be tairchesa (leg. bet airchesa), Laws i 184.14 . iv 54.10 . mat cuibdi ... manbet cuibdi, i 244.3 . adubairt ... conod brathair iat cen go bed, Celt. Rev. x 36.18 . acht conbat beoda, TBC-LL¹ 39. combat sithamla, PH 4015. 6746 . manibat óga a frithḟolaid, Ériu i 219 § 9. menbat allmaraig, MU² 517. diamat glain, SR 1461. cenibat fiu, Laws ii 316.20 .

(ii) With ma,

(a) mat: mat hé na briathra-sa forcane, Wb. 28c21 . mat anmann adiechta emnatar and, Sg. 189b4 .

(b) mat, madat, mádit: mat comaithi a folaid, no mat comolca, Laws ii 362.25 - 6 . mat e ... anfolaid in cele falla frithgnama, ZCP xiv 387 § 53. madat comlūatha, ZCP viii 217 § 2. mádit (sic leg.) creidmech, KMMisc. 146.4 .

(iii) With ce, cía although ,

(a) cit: cit imdi far forcitlidi, Wb. 9a12 . 4d4 . 12a13 . cit comsuidigthi, Sg. 207b11 . 190b1 . et muscreitfet cit hésidi `even they,' Wb. 5c2 .

(b) cit, cidat, ciambat: cit lir, Mon. Tall. 156.26 . Fél. Prol. 245. cith (leg. cit) lir cétuib, ZCP viii 195 § 7. cidat (cid, v.l.) créchtnaig, BDD² 1347. KMMisc. 268 § 41. ciambat ilardai, SR 4833.

(iv) With cía, ce who, what ,

(a) No instance.

(b) cit: indid damsa cit n-armand | hi fil chend erred Ul[ad] tell me what are the places ..., LU 11056.

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) ropat`: ropat choin altai ... adcear, Thes. ii 293.7 ( SP i ). acht ropat ṡaini tertpersin, Sg. 199a1 .

(b) ropat`, robat`, robet, ropsat: ropat lir a tellaig, Trip.² 2571. ropat óin dom ṡnádud `may they be one,' Fél. Jan. 21. robat mo cuirn coidin midc, Otia i 126 § 24. robet ar seilb an ōenfir, BColm. 54.10 . ropsat idain dīan-báis ám, KMMisc. 210.3 .

Conj.

(a) No instance.

(b) -rbat, ? -rsat: ciarbat mara a treba, Hy. ii 60 Comm. curbat úagṡlá[i]n, BColm. 54.11 . nirbat ile a liberna, LU 1035. girbat linmara, TBC-LL¹ 4196. garbat discailtig, 544 . apair ó brethir namá corbat bairgin na clochasa, PH 4918. ciarbot maithi, KMMisc. 266 § 32. ? gorsat lir a mmairb andas a mbí, TBC-LL¹ 6015.

rel.

(a) beta`, bete`, bata`: beta téit `when they are wanton,' Wb. 29a1 . beda fiscina baptizerium, Thes. ii 226.29 (Pcr.). donaib hí beta cheti, Ml. 126c4 . ni cumcat bete gentilia, Sg. 33a16 . a mbata n-aersigthi, Ml. 127a4 .

(b) beta, bete, bida: mad aile da lina beta olca [a] folaid, Laws ii 366.11 . itir na ceithre comaichaib beda neasa do, iv 116.2 . tech sruithi bet (leg. betc) fuirbthium, Mon. Tall. 136.23 . tri haidche bede cora, Laws v 438.24 . cusna belltenaib bida nesom, ii 390.20 . trian de don ḟir bed a (leg. beda a) beich `whose bees they are,' iv 116.1 Comm. Cf. do fir bede heich, 106.1 Comm.

Subj. Past

s. 1

(a) -bin, -benn: commin inricc dó `so that I may be worthy thereunto,' Wb. 24a11 . combin cosmail, Ml. 91b7 . arnamtomnad námmin duine, Wb. 17d23 . nombin dermatach, Ml. 20a4 . toimtin armbenn duine, 130d4 .

(b) -badim, -badam: abraind nā badim (? sic leg.) slānsa ... ropad rēill mo tholcsa and, TBC-I¹ 3532. bad cháined dom ḟir co mbadim ferr-sa, TBC-LL¹ 34. damadam (sic leg.) rig (dia mbam airdrí, v.l.) for Erinn if I were , FDG 519.

s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) -badat: da mbad in lāsin, nī epertha co mbadad (leg. mbadat) ferr do lōech annā Cū., TBC-I¹ 2503. is é in claideb dobéraind ... menbadat (sic leg.) aide, RC xiv 426.25 ( LL 111b4 ).

s. 3

I Forms without ro-.

(i) Abs.

(a) bed`, bad`: arna tomnathar bed foammamichthe deacht don dóinacht `that (the) Godhead is subject,' Wb. 13c2 . dommuinfide bed n-ísel intí dia, Ml. 40c17 (in these two exx. we have the type of sentence in which bid occurs in Wb. 25c12 , see (iii) below). din dínit bed ṡástai, Sg. 39b11 . ni arindí bed leth ngotho nobed indib, 5a4 . dóig linn bed n-acuit, 30a8 . bed chuintechti, Ml. 92a17 . ni robe nech bad huaisliu, Wb. 33d10 . aimser ba (leg. bad, Edd.) chomadas dó, 21a1 . cia bed a mmēt inna fochaide `whatever the greatness of the tribulations might be,' Ml. 39a13 (see Bergin, Ériu xii 208 ff .).

(b) bed`, bad`, pad, bud: ba dóig leó bed a sídaib dí, BDD² 42. nech bed chomalaind dó, LU 1667 (ICM). nad baí baili bád cuidbiu dó, Trip.² 429. lāech bad chāime, TBC-I¹ 3242. BDD² 79. mad mē bad chend ..., Ériu iii 140.183 . cīa ragas ...? Cīa pad cīa ... acht Condere `who should it be cut C.', i 114 § 3 . muc bud grátu, Corm. Y 118. ní bud ṡíre, BDD² 138. ciped mac díb no gabad gasced, TBC-LL¹ 1089. With inf. pron. s. 3: tegdais adchondarc indiu | ni fa[il] ba-da-crichidiu (? leg. bad-da-), Thes. ii 292 § 1 (Ml. Poems). marbān badid n-ingnathar, Bruchst. 45 § 102. coich bia beo badid [n-]amradair, RC xx 260 § 65 = badib amradair, LU 873. badid-rédithir ... badid-némithir, RC xxiv 56 § 17. s. 1: nī faigebasu curaid ... bádam fiusa, LU 3913.

(ii) Conj.

(a) -bed`, -bad` (mainbed (minbad, manibad) is regularly folld. by acc.): mainbed maith latsu, Wb. 32a11 . combed chiall ainsedo ildai and, Ml. 67d24 . ni bed uilliu, 54b30 . is cumme nibad móidem `it is the same as though it were not boasting,' Wb. 2b14 . amal nibad fiu, Ml. 63d2 . mainbad éicin, Wb. 4a20 . Hy. v 32. manibbad hinunn, Sg. 17b8 . manibad trocairi ndáe, Ml. 111b28 . manipad taschidetaid, 136c2 . arnábad rómár, Wb. 11c7 . conapad firdía mac, Ml. 21c12 . diambad mathi, Wb. 16a13 . combad choitchen, Sg. 72a1 . Ml. 21d1 . combath chomlan rith lunae , Thes. ii 33.27 (Bv.). na epred a menme armbad ferr són, Wb. 10a16 . arimbad and furruimtis a praintech, Thes. ii 242.4 (Ardm.).

(b) -bed`, -bad`, -pad, -bud, -bod: ised bud cóir laisim combed de laim anmcharat ..., Mon. Tall. 146.25 . Trip.² 2246. ní ... tresambed elned do, Mon. Tall. 164.7 . manipad lor, 128.15 . manipad do chrúass, Trip.² 1370. minbad in mbáin mbic, MacCongl. 107.7 . cid daitsiu nábad lat in curathmír, LU 8112. diambad Chú, 3752 . dámadh linn, TSh. 5962. combad chennach, LU 4296. bá cubaid cíapad tussu bad dall, Trip.² 1516. dūs imbad lór, Mon. Tall. 133.8 . mun budh le druimm cáein Cesrach, Anecd. i 32 § 60. minbud thu, ii 4.11 . ar na bud ed, PH 3074. ? go nach budh rí ar Israel tú `ne sis rex,' TSh. 8330. cid daitsiu ... nád bod latt curadmir Emna, LU 8140. cía lasmboth scīth ┐ lasmboth laind techt int slōgaid, TBC-I¹ 154.

(iii)

(a) bid (this form, which Thurn. ( GOI § 806 ) suggests may be an unstressed form of vn. buith, occurs regularly after amal, oldaas, is cumme, in doich, in comparative and equative clauses and in a few other instances. This would suit an ex. like Thes. ii 294 § 3 below but does not explain phrases where bid follow amal, is cumme, etc. It survives into Mid. Ir. but is somet. replaced by bed or bad, and in a few cases spreads to other types of sentence (amal bid is regularly folld. by acc. cf. mainbad, above): amal bid dia as though he were God, Wb. 26a7 . amal bid claind noclantis, Ml. 63b9 . amail bith ball di crist, Thes. ii 255.14 (Stowe M.). amal fid na derscaigthiu, Ml. 37b22 . amal bid inn accaldim deithidnig (leg. nd.), 35c27 . is cumme doib bid idalte domeltis, Wb. 10c3 . in doich bid saindóire dúnni, 10d1 . is nessa do inni lemm oldaas bid ar n-áinsem, 4b17 . ní lugu ... indáas bid praeceptóir asidindissed, Ml. 42b18 . arna tomnitisom bid do irgairiu cotulta, Wb. 25c12 (see above under (i) where this type of sentence occurs with bed in Wb. 13c2 and Ml. 40c17 ). ni meite bid machdad forgare forru, Sg. 161b12 . ba coru tra bid adnuntiabit nobeth híc , Ml. 45b14 . soilsidir bid hi lugburt, Thes. ii 294 § 3 ( SP iii ).

(b) amal bid oc caíned ... [no beth], Trip.² 87. amal bid do thecht secha, IT i 72.14 . amail bid a haongiun, Corm. Y 1059.37 . amal bid fótrond ..., LU 9099 (FB). ba doich lind bid din lucht forācaibset som, ZCP viii 313.25 . ba hé mo líthsa bid é do-chorad and, BDD² 494. asberat alaili bid di lucht na luinge ..., ZCP viii 313.23 . In a type of sentence where it did not occur in O. Ir.: flaith athuigh na bid flaith a athair whose father was not a chief, Laws ii 200.21 . nā tānic rīam nā īarum bīd (leg. bid) errdarcu, MacCongl. 45.28 . ar cend neich bid (budh, v.l.) éolchu ┐ bid síne andás, Ériu iv 126.15 . ingen bid chaime tochim, RC xxiv 198.24 . In the follg. exx. O. Ir. would show bid: amal bud he Crist, PH 129. mar bud, 4098 . amal bad a domun aile thíssad, TBFr. 278. is cumme lem bed (bid, v.l. App.) i taulchubu fhína no beth mo chend, TBFr. 47. in dōig bad ē Conchobur, TBC-I¹ 2758. (cf. also: ba doig bed n-ingcert, Ml. 61b15 ). dōig leam bad i ndiamraib ... nobeith, TBC-I¹ 884.

(iv) With ma (má),

(a) mad: mad mo ríar-sa dognethe and, Wb. 9d25 . mad forcenn libuir, Ml. 2d1 .

(b) mad, mád: mad meise con-ísed mo chomairle, BDD² 708. mád ina ṡláinti ind fir fil sund robad chomairche ar Ultaib ulib, LU 3303.

(v) With cía, ce although ,

(a) cid: ni pu imdu do in mann cid trén oc tecmallad `though he were,' Wb. 16c25 .

(b) cid: cid fín bárc do-téised treut, BDD² 740.

II Forms with ro-. ro- is rare with past subj. The instances are:

(a) act robad tairismech linni, Wb. 18d11 . ní ar maith friu ... act is corpad mithig lessom inducbál dia nóibaib, 4c37 .

(b) ? ingé (read perhaps itge, Ed.) ropad limsa ol sésim adpand do seinm tr. `I would crave a boon, said he, to play a tune,' Mon. Tall. 131.28 . acht corbad maithi a gnima, Ériu v 124.76 . amal ro bad pheccad leo as though they considered it a sin, PH 3232.

pl. 1

Abs.

(a) bimmis, bemmis : amal bimmis octarche `as if we were dregs,' Wb. 9a7 . amal bemmis bibdaid, Ml. 114d4 .

(b) amal bemís marb, PH 2967.

Conj.

(a) -bimmis : amal ni bimmis cutrummi frib, Wb. 17b16 . Ml. 63b1 . commimmis ecil hi fochidib, Wb. 29b16 . commimis less huili, 6b21 .

(b) -badar : acht co mbadar maithe díblínaib, TBC-LL¹ 35.

pl. 2 No instance.

pl. 3

Abs.

(a) bitis, betis: nírbu mou leu bríg a tobai indate bitis cranna doiscairi dufubaitis `than though they had been cutting down common trees,' Ml. 92d6 . donaib déedib betis chloithib, 131d11 . amal betis degmaini, 90a14 .

(b) bitis, betis, batis : amal bitis chóic ṡutralla, Trip.² 1448. ba bindithir ... ┐ betis téta mennchrot, BDD² 189. TBFr. 27. amal betís margretai, PH 2445. dicunt betis secht maic, ZCP viii 314.34 (Laud Gen.). asberat araile batis trī brāthir, ib. 331.14 (ib.). doruimenatar bádis fir ṡīthe, Trip.² 1112.

Conj.

(a) -btis, -ptis : comtis indbaid i n-iris, Wb. 10d33 . conabdis apstil, 5b15 . comtis ainmmnidi, Sg. 7b2 . coniptis erlama, Ml. 100c24 . maniptis mu charait, Ml. 73d1 . Sg. 120a1 . ni aisndet duaid airmdis hé iusti indí ..., Ml. 54a12 . airmtis ní etir, 79b11 . amtis forbristi ind ríg, 85d9 .

(b) -btis, -ptis : comtis secht maic, Trip.² 901. PH 7013. comdis sidhaighthi, ZCP xiii 254.12 . comtís comarda síat, TBC-LL¹ 5015. ba cóir ceniptis árdda do chongbala-su, Trip.² 1564. naptis messaiti, Ériu iv 24 § 10. diambtís rátha iat, MU² 376. diambtís craind, 434 . ciabtis cosmaile, SR 2892. ciapdis ganna, Anecd. ii 69.8 . ciamdis dimolta, i 21.5 . With amal betis under (a) above, cf. marbtís máirb as though they were dead, LU 9761. immarbdais meic do, 4097 .

With ma

(a) matis : matis huili conabdis apstil tantum `if it were all (the Jews) and not the apostles only,' Wb. 5b15 . matis mu namait, Ml. 73b1 .

(b) matis is replaced in Mid. Ir. by diambtís q.v., supra.

Fut.

s. 1

Abs.

(a) be : be sóir mo brethre `I shall be free as regards my word,' Wb. 4c18 . bé (biam, bum, v.ll.) sóir cech inbaid, Hy. iv 8.

(b) bea, bem, bam, bíam, bidam : bem (bea, v.l.) torbach[u]-sa duit-si oldās ..., Corm. Y 1059.30 = bam tarbach sa deit, Anecd. iv p. xiv.y . in hed bam beo, SR 3187. Ériu iv 142.z . bam tarb tnúith isna tressaib, IT iii 510 § 4. Anecd. i 12.7 . bam anoraigti-sea oc Dia, PH 2428. biam tigerna os cech drung, SR 855. bíam cúsa ... dot imdegail, LU 5027. bidam chusa, TBC-LL¹ 1049 (v.l., Eg.). bidam bithchuimnech, RC xvi 46 ( Dinds. 95 ). CCath. 3348. bídham tigerna fer an domain, 4046 .

Conj. (a) No instance.

(b) -pam : ni pam slán-sa ... conid n-accur, IT i 72.1 . nípam comchirtisea do neoch, LU 4248.

s. 2

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) ba, basa, bat, biat, bidat : ba baeth, SR 5955. ba bruiden ban ndérach, Metr. Dinds. iii 96.19 . bása bec bíaid úair | basa már iar tain, LU 9854. bat neirt ar do lochnamtib, LU 10423. bat (ba, v.l.) fornocht, Metr. Dinds. iii 96.4 . bat (ba, bad, v.ll.) dín ar gád, ib. 9 . bát nimidech, LU 9633. biat rīsiu co derb, PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 546 § 8 . § 15 . biat forscailtech, ib. § 17 ( LL 147a ). bidat úallach, ZCP vii 298.17 . LB 151a48 . bidhit neimedach, BNnÉ 93 § 204. toīsechu bia marb oldās bia meirb, PRIA iii 546 § 8 ( LL 147a9 ) (this is really the form of the subst. vb. but seems to be intended as copula, cf. biat, above).

Conj.

(a) Strachan ( Subst. Vb. l. 1316 ) gives : co mba soilse-siu, Wb. 22c3 (gl. inluminabit tibi Christus) but translates `so that thou mayest be,' Thes. i p. 639 which is probably correct.

(b) -ba, -bat : adbert fria drai ... ni bam rai (? leg. niba-m-drai) badechtsa mene dingba ..., BB 407a1 . da lecea tú Ísu ass, ni bat cara do Cessair, PH 2815.

s. 3

Abs.

(a) bid, bith : bid héet lib-si geinti do bith in hiris, Wb. 5a13 . bid cumma et riam, 18a13 . bith sechmadachte, Sg. 147b3 . bith flaithem intí Solam for saint, Ml. 90a9 .

(b) bid, bith, beith, bed, bud : bid nath n-airec fordarc, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 16.6 . bidsom fria toil `it (heaven) will be at their pleasure,' Mon. Tall. 141.17 . bid misi, Trip.² 1963. Laws i 6.z . bid calma, TBC-I¹ 2469. bid hē lā a phennati, MacCongl. 29.6 . PH 4032. ata lasna tuati beith lór dóib do ascnam nime acht doratat ní dona hanmchairtib, Mon. Tall. 141.15 . rochrúfemne ... ind pennit bes chóir fortsu. Bed cet ol D., 130.23 . With inf. pron. s. 2 : bidat eigen dola, Aisl. Tond. 101.x . ammarach bud maith do threóir, Anecd. i 39 § 114. ib. 17.18 . RC xxiv 194.7 . budh hē bērus an bāiri, ZCP xiii 17.27 . budh iomdha ann fós arracht ag eagcaoine, TSh. 4068.

Conj.

(a) -pa, -ba : nípa cosmuil frisin titacht tóisig, Wb. 25d13 . níba cuit adíll, 14a8 . níbbá i n-anus regaid int diruidigud, Sg. 36b1 . in corp i mba flaith in coimdiu, Wb. 9d3 . With inf. pron. s. 3 : nípa-dn-aidrech, 5c9 .

(b) -ba, -pa, -bo, -po, -bu, -pu, -b, -bad, -bud : níba ed bias de, Trip.² 453. BDD² 58. niba fír, ScM. § 11.2 . nipa mor do brig lais, Mon. Tall. 142.4 . admat na ba tíamdae, Fél. Prol. 294. nīpa mise, TBC-I¹ 2141. níbá fír sin, LU 8199. ár | día[m]bá lán Mag F., 3368 . With inf. pron. s. 2 : níbat écen nach n-aill, MU² 1037 (LU). ? nib amles, LU 3325 (tr. `it will be no harm,' SCC 117 ). toingimsa ... corob misi cētfer roficfa (b inserted later, Ed.), TBC-I¹ 2243. mani thuaslaicea isind chaisc nipo assa doib iarum, Mon. Tall. 132.17 . nipo fócrach, Ériu vii 219 § 2. nībo dirsan dait, TBC-I¹ 1048. nipu sén maith itir ... ni fu líth don fleid, FDG 121. nī bu inmuin, Bruchst. 60 § 134. níbu shirsan, TBFr. 370 (= nipi siursan, App. § 26 ). nī bad (ba, v.l.) fāilid, Bruchst. 40 § 95. bat righ uili iat gin co budh comṡaeglach, Anecd. ii 1.15 .

rel.

(a) bes`, bas` : in hed bes chobuir dó, Wb. 20c10 . bes lintae, Ml. 44d7 . hore bas fír quod dicam, Wb. 17d20 .

(b) bas`, bus` : Marcán ... bas dech do Uíb Garrchon, Trip.² 2191. félire bas (bus, v.l.) certu, Fél. Ep. 148. ro-fessar ... bas n-olc, LU 7566 (BDD). ni-sn-idnus sund nī bus siriu, TBC-I¹ 3104. inní bus comairle [lat-sa is sí bas chomairle] linne, Anecd. i 41.3 - 4 . cīan bus chumain, ZCP viii 119 § 4. an feadh bhus cumhain leó iad, TSh. 1256.

pl. 1

(a) bimmi ?, bemmi, bammi : isin chruth-sin bimmi nóib-ni, Wb. 3d27 (but see ZCP xxxii 120-21 ). 12c9 . bemmi caelestis, 13d15 . isamlid bami coeheredes , 4a17 .

(b) batin: batin aithrig is tír thall `we shall rue it,' Ériu i 68 § 3 (this is from a poem, occurring in H 3. 18 and LL, which Meyer ascribes to 9th cent. Perhaps one should take it as : ba don-aithrig it will be a matter of regret to us, but cf. atin budig de we are content, Anecd. i 5.18 = YBL 129b23 ).

pl. 2 ? folaich in mac, bar bibdaith bāis ind dia fessara Mac Con, ZCP viii 311.5 , CMMucr. 69 .

pl. 3

Abs.

(a) bit : bit hé na precepta cétni no pridchob doib, Wb. 17b20 . bit comṡuidichthi, Sg. 4b1 . bit comlin fri fér, Ml. 90b8 .

(b) bit, be(i)t, bat, biat, bidat : bit coirmmgnáithi do chomarpai, Trip.² 1565. bit fūaitne fīanna lib Luigne, Corm. Y 1018.46 . bit lia mairb ... andate a mbí, LU 7187 (BDD). bit lir bomand ega ... for lethchind, 7233 (ib.). beit fir móra ar macáin bic | ...bid daim ríata laíg ar mbó, LU 9587 - 9 . bed glana chenai, Mon. Tall. 130.1 . bet imnaraig, Anecd. ii 55.4 . bat mairb fir, IT iii 470.105 . bat lana, TBC-LL¹ 1055. ? in dóig bát dom éligudsa ón ? that they will be a cause of accusation to me (?), LU 3277 (obscure, perhaps bat is s. 2). biat mathi do chland, PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 546 § 9 ( LL 147a10 ). bidat gai géra, ib. 550 § 31. bidat marthanaig, LU 1998. bidat mo na huilc innas ..., CCath. 988.

Conj.

(a) -pat, -bat, -bet : nipat ferr, Wb. 12d28 . nibat litre , Sg. 6b23 . níbat briathra, Ml. 68c10 . a mbat n-airbirthi buith, 94d1 . anambet ecailsi, 15d7 .

(b) -pat, -bat, -pdat, -bad : nipat ili anmand eissi, Trip.² 934. ní bat buana, TBC-LL¹ 1692. nipdat duthaine, SR 8355. airm inbat budig do bēoil, MacCongl. 77.4 . im bad tíre ┐ feranna, Anecd. i 42.1 . ní bad sgíotha dot sgéulaibh | na Burcaigh, Studies 1919, 439 § 10 .

rel.

(a) beta` : beta hícthi, Wb. 3d29 . beta messi, Ml. 70a9 .

Sec. Fut.

s. 1

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) badam : cid andib badam slansa mad ail duitsiu, Ériu xii 166.13 (Tochm. Ét.).

Conj. -badam : [ba] meti nibadam beo d' ingnais rig M. `I were not likely to live,' Ériu x 190.16 ( LL 276a41 ).

s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) ropadat, badat : díambad curadmir do chosnam i nEmain duit, ropadatren (for ropadat trén, Edd.) for ōcaib Emna, LU 6720. ar badat slanchommairgi-siu bar Ultaib, TBC-LL¹ 1165.

s. 3

I Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) ropad`, robad` ; ar ropad maith limsa labrad ilbelre dúibsi, Wb. 12c29 . Sg. 90b2 . robad bethu dom dían chomalninn, Wb. 3c28 . roppad diil tanaisi, Sg. 111b2 . dorairngred dano rombad oirdnide a chland, Wb. 2c12 .

(b) robad`, ropad`, rubad`; robud` : robad chongbail ... dó, Trip.² 1731. robad chomairche ar Ultaib ulib, LU 3303. asbert fria rubad torrach húad, 10601 . robud sía, ACL iii 304.16 . ropad chora, PH 2593. robad was later replaced by dobad : dobadh cōir, Feis Tighe Chonáin 130. dobudh aisg ar m'fhine tar m'ēisi sin, ML² 1413. dobudh mór an éagcóir, TSh. 4845. 2718 , which in turn gave way to the modal pret.

Conj. No conjunct ro- forms occur.

II Forms without ro-.

Abs. These are rare in the Glosses and do not occur in independent sentences, but become more usual later.

(a) bed` : conidfessed cia bed flaith inna diad, Ml. 89b7 . bed messe gl. ratum fore, 105b14 .

(b) bed`, bad`, bud` (bud seems not always to have been folld. by lenition, see ex. below from TSh.) : asbert fri Cassan bed n-ann a eiseirgi, Trip.² 828. ní bad toisigiu dún something that would be ..., Trip.² 117. Corm. Y 473. cia bad chōir do thabairt, TBC-I¹ 2203. BDD² 126. cia de bud ferr la hUltu ..., TBC-I¹ 692. ní bud fiú sain, Anecd. i 28 § 28. budh urlamh, Studies 1921, 75 § 15 . an bél dúnta as eadh budh ḟearr, IGT Decl. ex. 1285. budh dual, TSh. 1584. In independent sentences, where O. Ir. would show robad : bád maith limsa, LU 3354. faicthear 'n-a dhorus a dheilbh | 's badh solus aitreabh Ifeirn Hell would be radiant, DDána 60 § 37.

Conj.

(a) The forms without ro- supply the conjunct of both bed and robad. -bad`, -pad` : na bad eola inar cintaib, Wb. 33b21 . asbertis cipad a déne ind hesséirgi, 25b27 . níbad ṡamlaid, Sg. 4b4 .

(b) -bad`, -bud` (in the latest exx. there seems not to have been lenition) : imrāidset ... nīpad andsu, TBC-I¹ 1330. ni bad chained, TBC-LL¹ 34. na bud chalmu, 2063 . adubart-sa ... comadh fearr, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1132. ní bud liacha, BDD² 493. fá bud chasmail, PH 7544. nī bud cobair, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1919, 93 § 36 . do bhríogh gomadh cosmhail, TSh. 4766.

pl. 1 and 2 No instances.

pl. 3

I Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) robtis, roptis : epert ... robtis maithi for mbésa-si, Wb. 16b19 . roptis imdai piana donaib anmanaib, Ml. 15c8 .

(b) robtis, roptis : roptis fola ocus cro | mo der do marb Imblecho, AU i 138.15 . asbert roptis gallraig, Trip.² 2786. roptis ferra, Anecd. ii 53.14 . robtis (roptís, LU) do renga, TBC-I¹ 1182.

Conj. No instance.

II Forms without ro- :

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) be(i)tis, beidis : robad do chland-su betis comarpai ind, Trip.² 1710. beitis lir leamsa cendae fer ..., TBC-I¹ 3543. bad dōig lim beidis hē fir Themra, 3371 .

Conj. -btis, -ptis, -bdís : asbert P. nabtis toirthig, Trip.² 2455. connaptís bí, LU 9519. nibdís aingil diada, PH 1787.

Pret.

s. 1

I Forms without ro-.

Abs.

(a) basa : basa iudide ó écosc `I was a Jew in appearance,' Wb. 10d34 .

(b) ba(sa), bam(sa), basam : ba-sa cāem, Corm. Y 883.53 . ba-sa cu-sa tairdbi buiden, Anecd. iii 53.13 and 15 (Sia- burcharpat) = basa chausa ..., LU 9328. ba-sa cathach, Tec. Corm. § 8.8 . basa chúsa, LU 9326 , 9328 . bása chomrar, 9335 . bassa collid giallasa, 9318 . bam-sa cu-sa, Anecd. iii 53.10 . fam rí (bainrith, v.l.) ar énlaith Érenn, i 36 § 87 . ba-sa maoth fri maithi, ba-sam imnedach frimm tair, iii 53.20 . basam (bam-sa, bam-siu, v.ll.) dalta tair[i]si, ii 71.7 .

Conj.

(a) -psa : nipsa iudide ó béssaib, Wb. 10d35 . 17c2 . hore am apstal ... cainipsa sóir ce dognén cach ngním, 10c16 .

(b) -psa, -bsa, -ba, ? -bam, -msa, -sam : nipsa chúsa gabála lis, LU 9325 = nipsa cu-sa ..., Anecd. iii 53.10 . nipsa cell cin chlocc, ii 60.4 . nipsa (nirsam, nipsam, v.ll.) condirclech, Ériu ix 45 § 2. ciapsa reithenech, ib. (geinsam, ciamsam, robsam, rosam, gersam, gerbam, gerbhum, v.ll.) ciapsa duine ciapsa bled, LU 3003 = ciarsam ... ciarsam ..., Fél. 52.37 . domgní mūichnech ingnais Ērenn | diamsa cuimsech for which I (myself) was accountable (?), ZCP vii 309.24 . i mbsa dechenborach ... i mbsa fichtech, Tec. Corm. § 8.6 - 7 . imsa nāidi robsa nā[i]r, Ériu ii 16 § 5. nimsa cu-sa imlo[m]tha fuidhel, Anecd. iii 53.13 and 15 = nipsa cháusa ..., LU 9327. ? cach crích ar bam cend `where I was head,' PRIA III (3rd ser.) 550 § 35 ( LL 147a ). pecdach mé ósam macám, IGT Decl. ex. 376.

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) rupsa, ropsa, robsa, rob : rupsa frithortae-se, Wb. 33a12 . doménarsa ropsa beo, 3c27 . Ml. 49b12 . durumenar romsa dia ┐ rom bith-béu, 49b13 .

(b) ropsa, robsa, ropsam, robsam, robsum, robam, ropom : an airet ropsa béo, Trip.² 1434. ropsa altra dia aithair, Anecd. ii 71.4 . imsa nāidi robsa nā[i]r, Ériu ii 16 § 5. robsa ceile si do Ch., ZCP viii 545.7 . ropsam aithrech isin ngním-sin, PH 701. robsam fíadnaisech fodeirc, Ériu iv 153.4 . robsum flaith, BS 126.6 . Metr. Dinds. iii 310.85 . robam céle comadas, LU 3972. ropom tuire tend, PRIA III (3rd ser.) 550 § 35 ( LL 147a ). robam rí ar ó ngelChuind, IGT Decl. ex. 537.

Conj.

(a) -rbsa, -robsa, -rupsa, -rubsa : nirbsa dagduine i tossuch, Wb. 18c14 . anarbsa fuillectae-se, Ml. 127c17 . corupsa lán diib, 104d3 . annarobsa bithe, 45d6 . arromsa cumscaigthe, 46b9 . arrumsa immainse-se, 62c9 .

(b) -rsam (-rbsam) (the sense is very frequently pres. indic. a survival of the original perfect sense), -rbam : is mise Fintan fili, | nirsam écne óen-lindi, Metr. Dinds. i 4.42 . níorsum duine do éra, ML² 1959. nirsum drochlaech, ZCP viii 548.18 . níor sum (níor soim, níor shámh, ní rabhus, v.ll.) taithleach na n-each riamh, Ériu i 100.23 . gērsam snímhach Fiadat find, Ériu ii 95 § 4. gearsom glic nīr chrainn um ní, KMMisc. 350 § 7. corbam tualaingse, Anecd. i 10.17 . ciarbam treórach, nírbam timm, Metr. Dinds. iii 312.131 . Aisl. Tond. 96.4 . gerbham sáeirfher séimh, BS 28.10 . Brethnaigh níor bham caroid-si, Duan. F. i 87.y . or bham nóidiu since I was, LL 282a12 .

s. 2

I Forms without ro-.

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) ba, bat, basat : cia bátar do gníma intan basat (v.l.) gilla, Tec. Corm. § 8.2 . bat dín ar gád 's ar guba | bat fál is bat fidruba, Metr. Dinds. iii 96.9 - 10 (bad, ba, v.ll.). a chlaidib Cherbaill ... bát menic ac cur chatha, RC xx 9 §1 ( LL 47a50 ).

Conj.

(a) No instance.

(b) -bi: cot-ráncamar ó bim (órbat v.l.), BDD² 1173 (Ed's. note : `read ó bi mac (D), where bi seems pret. s. 2').

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) robsa, rubsa : huare romsa ugaire doib `because Thou wast a shepherd unto them,' Ml. 96d1 . arrumsa dite-siu, 103a4 .

(b) ropsa, rupsa, ropsat, robsat, ropat, robat, ropot: an tan rupsa Etain Echraidhe ... ba misi do cetmui[n]ter, Ériu xii 170.6 (Tochm. Ét.) (= ropsa, LU 10771 ). intan ropsa (ropsat, basat, v.ll.) gilla, Tec. Corm. § 8.2 . ropsat slan o chianaib dia fesmais `thou shouldst have been healed,' Ériu xii 166.12 (Tochm. Ét.) (= ropdat slán, LU 10746 (sec. fut.)). uair ropsat cara, PH 3099. LL 343d53 . intan robsat Cernach-sa, ZCP i 104.36 . ropsat fraechda, RC xx 12 § 16. ropot álaind ó chíanaib, IT iii 514 § 6. is derb ropat degairle, 482.280 . robat cara do cech cléir, 482.277 .

Conj.

(a) No instance.

(b) -rbsat, -rsat, -rsa, -rbat : ro-t-rathaig narbsat fírgaeth that you were not, SR 1318. nirbsat meirb, RC xx 12 § 16. nirsat neóit, TBC-LL¹ 43. lēir dam ... | nārsat cara do Chellach, CCellaig 447 (where the sense is pres. indic.). gérsa maeth-macámh ... i tús lai o chianaib thu, ZCP viii 529.12 . cot-ráncamar órbat (v.l., see n.) mac, BDD² 1173.

s. 3

I Forms without ro-.

Abs.

(a) ba, bu (once in Tur.) (gemination occurs after ba, see below) : ba frithorgon dó frithorgon cháich, Thes. ii 246.18 (Camb.). ba calar do galar caich, ib. 16 (do.). ba uissiu són quam inflatio , Wb. 9b1 (modal). 29d8 . ba hed ón ba chóir, Wb. 10b9 . aní ba choitchen, 50a3 . a mba cloithe `when he was overcome,' Ml. 32b2 . a mba ndiuscartae, 19c15 . ar ba P. dubert baithis du Chrimthunn, Thes. ii 242.9 (Ardm.). ba em carat `it were, indeed, the part of a friend,' Thes. i 3.4 . ar ba mmadach, Ml. 135a9 . ba mmo, 86d6 . (cf. ba mmebul lee, TBFr. 136 ). air bu ainm leusom maledictus do c[ec]h óin ..., Tur. 136.

(b) ba, bu, bo, be (once), pa, fa, fá, fo, bad, bud : ba slán iarom, Trip.² 1517. bá cubaid, 1516 (modal). ba lith mor la Colum cille, Mon. Tall. 156.7 . ba di Bretnaib di, Trip.² 707. rofitir in ben ba o Lomnae rofes, Corm. Y 1018.26 . Fél. Nov. 5. ba ferr a comaitecht ... oldaas a tuitim, IT i 75.6 (modal). ba mese ba sacart oc baistiud ind anma-sin fora athair, ScM. § 12.9 . nip sī sin adaig ba sāmam (rectius sh-) dōib, TBC-I¹ 211. BDD² 423. co torchratar bond fri bond ... ba sí tiget ind áirbaig such was the denseness of, TBC-I¹ 1996. cach nech ba siniu ┐ ba so, PH 104. in ti ba (?=ba a) tir `the person whose land it was,' Laws iv 4.29 Comm. With inf. pron. s. 3 : ba-id-n-imomain-side he was greatly afraid, TBC-I¹ 786. With suffixed -ch (= Lat. -que) (see Thurn., ZCP xiii 299f .) : do-luid tar feart a cedteallaig bach for fine forcomal `und es war eine gewaltsame Besitzergreifung gegen die Sippe,' Laws iv 16.22 (tr. Thurn., loc. cit.). bach ri Temrach, 178.13 . 16.22 . nī ticc dīa ēissi bu duilgi āer, MacCongl. 9.5 . ar bo fortachtaid dó día mboí i moxaini, Trip.² 254. bo ferr, BDD² 1320. a mbo ṡeiscc dind ḟolud, TBC-I¹ 1127. is aice bo doigh a mbith, no is e bo doich da fagbail, Laws iv 36.8 Comm. be sé sin trian macraidi Ulad, LU 5907. ol pa immaircede leis Loch nEchach, Trip.² 1956. pa menci, K. and H. § 1. pa hamru delp Fothith, ZCP xx 401.3 . The earlier instances of fa are mostly rel., but later it becomes freq. in non-rel. use. fá is the regular form in TSh. : is mé fa hairdbrethim binn, Anecd. i 28 § 30. 36 § 91 . curob é fa ri Connacht, v 21.25 . im orgain fa togaidhi do Ingcél i nHérinn, BDD² 423. as í fa banchele dó .i. Eithne ... fa díl ... leis hí, Ériu iii 150 § 1. beathadhach fá cosmhail ré mathghamhain, TSh. 1025. 3264 . (Cf. fa gairit limm beth ar Bóinn, Anecd. i 26.15 . Ériu iv 116 § 24. fa hadhbail re innisin an toran[n], Feis Tighe Chonáin 1841. IGT Decl. ex. 861. fá héigean, TSh. 2489. 5559 . 3715 ). ised sin fo lucht dō, Ériu ii 20 § 1. ri fo ferr sith, Ann. Conn. 1224 § 2. issed bad doig la C., Mon. Tall. 161.22 . ? bat (? bad) ead indas ind troiscti sin, 155.35 . bád chumma rom altsat Ulaid uli, LU 10305. do bríogh gurab é Eóin budh teó grádh, TSh. 10328. do bhríogh gurab é Ádhamh budh ceann fine, 9 .

Conj.

(a) -pu`, -bu`, -po`, -bo`, ? -p` (elision of vowel before initial vowel) : nípu accobor leiss, Wb. 14a22 . nípu séit samil, Thes. i 495.26 (Ardm.). Hy. v 7. nipu nach dernainn-se áem, Wb. 8a5 . Thes. i 495.4 (Ardm.). cepu ed adroilliset, Wb. 4c35 . ar nibu thacair, 33b13 . nibu techtae (`rectius: thechtae, but cf. 34c17 , 53d6 ,' Ed.), 100b22 . níbu machdath, Sg. 65a1 . conepertis ón nadmbu choir, Ml. 136b4 . in loc diambu thabarthi ermitiu feid, 22a4 . nipo chóim, Wb. 4b12 . nípo úaib act ba o apsatalib, 13a20 . napo chenéel, 5a14 . nibo cen fochidi, 24c19 . ? nip (`leg. nipu ? or is it subjunctive ?,' Ed.) ar irlami far cúrsagtha, 26b23 . 5b3 .

(b) -pu`, -bu`, -po`, -bo`, -p`, -b`, -ba`, -fa`, -bad (as lenition was somet. marked we may assume it was regular) : rofitir P. nípu chian, Trip.² 2866. LU 4974. Fél. Sept. 27. nīpu samlaid, TBC-I¹ 1280. napu díb lamaib, LL 123b2 . asrubart M. nibu moo, Mon. Tall. 133.10 . ni bu cād, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 40 § 17. ni bu chul serci, IT i 77.2 . nī bu ṡanct-Brigit ṡúanach, Hy. v 21 ō bu becān, Ériu viii 164.7 . cíid iarom P. combu [ḟ]liuch a agad, Trip.² 1305. nabu cert, SR 3673. nīpo rom, TBC-I¹ 1728. dalēici sōn C., cobo (LU combo) thairis docher, 1737 . ni bo chomailt, AU i 110.8 . Fél. Prol. 114. BDD² 549. abaind letain nádbo domain, LU 1747 (ICM). combo chomsolus lá ┐ adaig, 8056 . iarfaigis dó cia diambo cheli, 8535 (FB). nī fo cīan, TBC-I¹ 485. nipsī sin adaig ba sāmam dōib, TBC-I¹ 211. nip seoit fo-fhiallach, Anecd. ii 57.z . ba fae leo nip n-ēn comadus ina n-ēill, Corm. Y 1059.18 . nīb sī t'opar comadhas, TBC-I¹ 785. nib sam, Anecd. i 13.14 . roluited ind scīn co nāb ālaind īarnamarach, Corm. Y 883.32 . níba s[h]uthain, TBFr. 5. comba samalta ┐ snāth ōir, TBC-I¹ 2027. comba comsolus lá ┐ adaig, LU 10125. co mba fliuch, BDD² 885. FDG 615. comba taí tastadach for Ultaib, MU² 119. PH 1082 (there is no instance here of lenition marked after comba). taitned fria in grían co bba forderg, BDD² 12. diamba Cholum coemdalta, LU 752. ni fa si do conair, YBL 174b14 . co nebairt co mbad mac don rig he, FDG 724.

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) rupu`, rubu`, ropu`, robu`, ropo`, robo` : rupu sí a rroilic, Wb. 33a22 . aní rupu thascide, Thes. ii 225.17 (Pcr.). rubu fer-som muintere, Wb. 33a5 . Essu rubu thoisech hi suidiu, Ml. 63b5 . ropu thol les a dénom, Ml. 71b2 . hore rombu thoissech, Wb. 33a20 . ar robbu digaim, Sg. 17a5 . robu foirbthe, Tur. 33. ropo thróg laiss, Wb. 21b5 . ropo thol, 14b3 . ropo chobair dond Érinn | tíchtu Patraicc, Hy. ii 15. amal rombo chuimse, Wb. 22a2 .

(b) ropu`, robu`, ropo`, robo`, rupa`, ropa`, roba`, rop`, rob`, rap`, ro bud ; do replacing ro : do bo`, do ba`, do bu`, dob`, do bud ; dorob (where the final vowel has dropped out the copula is nearly always folld. by a vowel or ḟ) : rob e a n-immed conna ... `such was their multitude that' ..., Thes. ii 298.9 ( Hy. i Introd. ). sádid echlaisc and ropu dos iarom, Trip.² 1851. TBFr. 11. ind ingen robu ṡiniu, Trip.² 1116. ropo cridiscél, Mon. Tall. 136.23 . ropo thír cāich, Hail Brigit § 2. ropo suthain, LU 1077. PH 1673. robo maith, Corm. Y 31. nirbo chucumsa ... robo chóir dál, LU 8750. ar rup[a] la Coirpre Crích Conaill, Trip.² 1724. ropa anaichnid, PH 5287. Mon. Tall. 136.20 . (asbert) ... romba si sainserc samdine hé, Mon. Tall. 150.14 . an romba (arrombúi, v.l.) dech do thimthagail, Corm. Y 1059.12 . is ar a deirc ... ro-ba buidech Dia do Abél, PH 5882. rop nem thened tír Hua Néill, BDD² 240 (= ropo, LU 6743 ). rop é fochond ná dilend, LU 129. rofidir ... rop si Etain, Ériu xii 154.2 . rob aille leo, Corm. Y 503. ScM. § 240. PH 1590. túaith rob ferr icht, Metr. Dinds. iii 310.88 . PH 68. uar rombi (ro-m-bī) ind fit cetne, Mon. Tall. 147.14 . rap aithrech, Ériu vii 229 § 75. dobo mana crimb chnáma, Anecd. i 31 § 50. dobo cléguin, Ériu iv 112 § 2. doba díchur flaithesa dō, ML² 1422. doba ferr linn, KMMisc. 320.4 . doba dhainmidh dhó a ndermad, IGT Decl. ex. 1180. dob áil, PH 7584. dob fhíor, Feis Tighe Chonáin 72. fa chloinn Uisnigh dob ḟearr clú, KMMisc. 356 § 4. dob fhearr liom go n-eagnuighidís (utinam saperent), TSh. 6857. 4957 (both modal). do búdh tusa cnoc na cclíar, KMMisc. 346 I § 2 . do budh [de] chloind Cuillinn ..., Feis Tighe Chonáin 1161. adharc ... dobudh faide ionā an adharc oile, TSh. 22. dorob ingnad in cuairt crecht, Ériu v 246.228 .

Conj.

(a) -r(o)bu`, -r(u)bu`, -rbo` (the exx. in which the vowel of ro is not syncopated are all from Ml.) : nírbu faás foruigéni, Wb. 13b7 . nírbu chuman leu, Ml. 124b5 . hóre nárbu bae, Wb. 5b12 . Ml. 60a12 . donarobu gnath techt for culu, 129d3 . corbu écen, Wb. 32c17 . Ml. 31b16 . corrobu bec, 131b12 . conrubu chrín, 99a2 . indí ... lasinrubu chumtabart, 102d4 . 131d11. nírbo sar leu ar cocéilsine, Wb. 19a1 . nirbo chuit eperte, 24c5 .

(b) -rbu`, -rpu`, -rpo`, -rbo`, rba`, -rob`, -rb`, -ra, -r`, -rsa(t), -rso : nírpu sía léu oldaas oenuair, Trip.² 2054. nirbu chían, LU 1756 (ICM). corbu réill, Trip.² 2136. ciarbu tholgdae, Fél. 125. fer fial ... diarmbu (sic) lan Temair, AU i 394. 13 (A.D. 878) . nírpo o chridiu, Trip.² 1562. nír bo thoirneach ..., BDD² 191. LU 915. corbo chonair letartha, TBC-I¹ 1887. gérbo tri haicmedha íatt, Anecd. v 20.25 . nírba maith, LU 315. nirba choir, Anecd. i 20.14 . PH 3078. adeirdis corba mac, Corm. Y 896.8 . gurbha (gur fa, v.l.) héigean dó, TSh. 2484. órba cindti forba a bethad dó, BColm. 96.4 . nī rob urāil, Bruchst. 37 § 87. nirb oróil, MacCongl. 111.7 . nírbh é, IGT Decl. ex. 1274. níorbh fheasach, TSh. 2973. nocorb áil, Trip.² 397. aided narb inmain, ScM. § 24d . ainm ... ionarb éigean sinne do shlánughadh, TSh. 2088. níra míad leo dul assin chrích co mbetís aidchi longphuirt inti, MU² 843. nīr mīad ... leis ind ūaburdelb ... tārfas dōib, TBC-I¹ 2020. nīr cōir, ACL iii 221.24 (modal). nir thim a ḟer, Ériu v 244.211 . Feis Tighe Chonáin 1203. níor ghrása na bronntanas na grása ... dá mbeith ..., Donlevy 214.y (modal). níor chían, TSh. 2479. cinnas nachar chomtig, LU 10316 (modal). créad is iontuigthe as sin, acht gur dhearbh leó ..., TSh. 653. cíar adbol a ndrong, LU 9395. ger mhór in ail, Anecd. i 29 § 36. teagh ar ar lia fear faire, PBocht 12 § 26. drong ... rér mhaith deighmheas do bheith ag an bpobal orra, TSh. 8926 (? modal). ón tráth fár dhearbh leis é féin d'éag, TSh. 2800. draig ... ór doilghe dul, Ériu ix 6.51 (modal). ónar thana lucht loingsi `by whom sea-roving crews are thinned,' Duan. F. i 81.9 . The ending -rsa, -rsad may have arisen on the analogy of the 1st and 2nd sg. -rsam, -rsat (qq.v. above) : derb leo nírsa meath don mac, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 44 § 2. nirsa monar maca[i]n maith | dingbail in laich, 44 § 1. ailtir in mac ... gursa hoglach mor, 43.13 . carsa dúal don aithech-mhadudh ... tocht ... d'imrisin risin árchoin ?, ZCP viii 553.29 . ciarso thucait ro-dos-foglúais, LL 133b16 . TBC-LL¹ 1935. ciarsa dam `though it were a bull,' CRR § 5. brugaid ... darsat (? leg. darsa) comainm C., ZCP vii 307.17 , but cf. oglach darsad comainm E., viii 549.10 . Cf. pl. : carsad comhadha sin ?, 544.22 .

pl. 1

I No forms without ro- occur.

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) robummar : robumar cuindrichthi gl. erecti sumus, Ml. 43d6 . huare robummar bibdid-ni dait-siu, 62b5 .

(b) ropsar, ropar, robdar, robatar: ropsar marba meni beth Find, RC vii 302.183 . ropar cocle cridi. ropar caemthe caille. ropar fir chomdeirgide, LL 10510 (MS ropdar with d expunged) = TBC-LL² 3071-73 ; robdar TBC(C) 2127-29 , RC xi 29 § 54 ; robatar, TBC St. 2903 ; robadar, RC xi 29 § 54 .

Conj.

(a) -rbommar : nírbommar utmuill ... nírbommar tromdi gl. non inquieti fuimus, Wb. 26b14 .

(b) -rsar : cid sinni nirsar malla, RC vii 294.81 .

pl. 2 No instances.

pl. 3

I Forms without ro-.

Abs.

(a) batir, batar : iarsindí batir inricci du báas huili, Wb. 5c14 . batir athissi ... dait-siu, Ml. 90d17 . air batar carait, 31a3 . 23c16 . Hy. ii 6.

(b) batir, batar, bat : batir banbrugaid sōn ┐ batar maithi, Corm. Y 1018.14 . batir faelti, LU 10585. batir hé iarom bátár im Ch., 8161 . BDD² 398. bátir (batar, batir, v.ll.) Érenn ardae, Fél. June 25 . LU 1699 (ICM). bátir īalla bātar inde, MacCongl. 89.26 . forsin fer batair bech whose bees they were, Laws iv 178.15 . batar sinde rīadatar it was we, Corm. Y 698.37 . SR 4072. BDD² 19. batar imtholtanaig, LU 3244. bátár hé sin a imtechtai, 11030 . bāttar dóini carsam-ne, Otia i 122 § 3. § 4 . bat comluatha dana fri conaib, IT i 72.11 . bat failid uili de sin, RC xliii 24 § 22.

Conj.

(a) -btar, -ptar : nitat pecthi ... indechtso cebtar hé riam, Wb. 4a8 . ciaptar mora a pecthai-som, Ml. 98c5 . a namtar tuidchissi, Sg. 6a13 . amtar mbati `when they were drowned,' Ml. 84d5 .

(b) -btar, -ptar, -btor, -tar, -but : céptar bailci bressa, Fél. Prol. 74. ciabtar glain, SR 2421. cíaptar áilli, Fél. Prol. 133. níptar ecnaig, ib. Nov. 9. níbtar dermaill, Corm. Y 398 . nibdar dimdaig, SR 3550. BCC 66.8 . imtar láin ..., | imtar ilerda, SR (Greene) 4659 . amdar suidigthi ... forsin teinith, Trip.² 131. comtar mairb, SR 5111. LU 8373. PH 5479. comdar slána, Trip.² 157. immuscomarcair cibtar hē asked who they were, Corm. Y 1059.58 . gu mbut ōga a n-ocobair till their desires were fulfilled, ACL iii 3.12 .

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) robtar, roptar, robatar (Ml. only), robdar : nitat huili robtar tuicsi, Wb. 11a21 . hore romtar óis teglig, 7b13 . robtar beca, Ml. 90c25 . déde hí roptar bibdaid som, 124c2 . inna hí ruptar ardda, Thes. ii 11.42 (Bcr.). is follus romatar bibdaid som, Ml. 125b9 . 78b12 . rocretset ... romdar tosge maith doib nanní ..., 96b5 .

(b) robtar, roptar, raptar, robdar, robdur, ? ropat : ar robtar cosmaili, Trip.² 1297. Corm. Y 690.4 . robtar auctair in dana sin, Trip.² 328. LU 9602. SR 3449. robdar druid co mōreōlus, TBC-I¹ 835. Anecd. i 46.12 . ar ropdar mebhra laiss iat, ii 43.3 . arinni robdur ceithri uidhi, Laws i 262.4 . ropat móra do berta (? or leg. ropsat), IT iii 484.281 . ropsat comchuibde ar ceta, Ériu i 72 § 4. RC vii 294.82 . MR 214.16 . FDG 557. rapsat irlama, MU² 149. TBC-LL¹ 3243. Ériu i 72 § 4. robsat athlumha, BS 18.26 . robsad buana, ML² 2084. ZCP viii 539.17 . ? To this : na sluaig remi rosatr[i]uin (? leg. ropsat triuin), SR 3983.

Conj.

(a) -rubtar, -ruptar, -roptar : isuaignid ni rubtar gáitha for comairli, Wb. 18c6 . conruptar fadirci ind usci, Ml. 40d16 (MS. ɔ possibly for co L in which case ruptar could be abs., Ériu lvi 40 n. 56 ). ceruptar enartu, 49a17 . arrumtar doirthi, 34d10 . déde hí roptar bibdaid som, 124c2 .

(b) -rbtar, -rptar, -rtar, -rbat, -rpsat, -rsat, -psat, -bsat, -psatar : nírbtar humail fris, Trip.² 1976. Corm. Y 179. nírptar fáilti, BDD² 337. nirdar subaig, TBC-LL¹ 3242. ciarbat ile, PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 548 § 23 ( LL 147a ). garbat discailtig, TBC-LL¹ 544. gurbat daitinigh, RC xliii 75 § 75. Leb. Gab.(i) 118.1 . corbhat foithe, RC xliii 84 § 85. nirbat sathig (nirbot, nirbad, nirbo, v.ll.), Metr. Dinds. iii 78.24 . nirpsat [m'] airm[-si] can ulaig, Ériu i 72 § 2. nirsat tualaing a dhinghmhail, v 158.210 . nirsat methol a n-athól they were not a band in the second drinking ?, BCC 290.28 . a mbrughaidh nírsat bronuigh, Ériu iv 116 § 24. gursad luatha, RC xiv 28.12 . cersat mor, PH 250. da ghadaige ... darsat comanmann Dismus ┐ Iesmus, 2852 . cārsat comadha sin, ML² 1387. carsad, ZCP viii 544.22 . ciapsat guir fri crabud nglé, SR 8007. nibsad adbul a ḟir bain, Anecd. i 13.15 . batar gnima erred lat-sa, nipsatar gnima con, Anecd. iii 53.8 . In : gomsad daerbhesacha macneda Uladh. ZCP viii 546.7 . the form is pres. pl. 3 but the sense calls for sec. fut. pl. 3. Cf. 545.21 .

On buith as vn. of copula see GOI § 817. Cf. mo bith lomnocht, SR 1336. maso ḟír ... | for mbith iarmui do Abram, 3498 .

itge, itche

Cite this: eDIL s.v. itge, itche or dil.ie/29148

Forms: e(i)tche, aitche, hitgi, itche

n occasionally e(i)tche, aitche. io, m. Somet. f. in Mid. Ir. Cf. hitgi thren, SR 1629. is i sin itche ro-chuinchis, PH 3967. ar chuindche 'n aitche (? leg. na itche) sin, 3973 . Vn. of a compd. of tech-, see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 639.

a request, petition, prayer; a boon: ferid i.¤ frissin deacht `makes prayer to the Godhead,' Wb. 4b19 . i.¤ aile, 25a32 . a i.¤ gl. ailgis, Thes. ii 339.47 . roortachtaiget dun a i.¤ si `may her prayers help us,' 348.33 . áilsi P. ... ┐ ad cotedae inn i.¤ `he got the boon,' 240.23 . cléirig do dénum it(i)gi a thige ` hallowing (?),' Críth G. 572. nach i.¤ no guidiu | duitsiu, Fél. Ep. 337. cach foxal cen logud, cen aithce, cen digide without being requested, Laws ii 388.18 . masa cuinghi chlaindi tria itghe, v 298.5 Comm. troisc limsa ... fri Dia co tarda itchi dam, LU 9625. ria n-itgib ána eistid, LL 216a42 . ro iarratar ... d'itche ┐ d'athcuinge ar Ch. techt go hEirinn, Anecd. iii 2.14 . cid bindem lat rochúala ? ... i.¤ degmná dia hadurt ` invitation ,' Tec. Corm. § 10.6 . cona-gabaind mo di erail (gl. .i. itge), MS. Mat. 633.21 . in eitchi connaigh, nī sunn atā dhó, acht a Clūain mic Nois, ACL iii 4.34 . ar itghibh na n-inghean at the request of, DDána 82 § 19 . gan díth na litre is lugha | fríth ó itche an érlamha (of books recovered from the sea), IGT Decl. ex. 871 = Dán Dé iv 23.

duine itgi a suppliant, a beggar: marbthair in duine etci bocht ud!, ACL iii 322.13 .

As grammat. term, the optative subjunctive: gach pearsa aga bfuil .r. ar a hitche .n. as cóir ar a fíafruighidh ar láindeimhnioghadh, IGT Introd. 7.x . gu ndernar s.g. (i.e. suidiugud gaoideilge ┐ itche hé, IGT Verbs § 1.19 .

lebor

Cite this: eDIL s.v. lebor or dil.ie/29673
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: lebar

n o, m. (Lat. liber) Also with li-, liu-. In later lang. lebar, lio- m., IGT Decl. § 75 . l.¤ quasi libor a libro , Corm. Y 816.

(a) book, volume (as physical object): ainm do teig liubair, Ir. Gl. p. 70 . ina téig libuir, PH 925 . astal .i. gai liubuir, O'Mulc. 96 . ónd úair . . . oslaices Héli in l.¤ do forcetol na n-anmand, LU 2274 ( FA 33 ). ro fothaig [Palladius] . . . Cell Fine i farcaib a libru, Lat. Lives 50.4 . libair bána / leisa ngabar salmthrátha blessed books, SG 52.2 . nach comartha aithrige dam . . . mo uli lebar do badud?, PH 2243. tuc in t-espuc in lebar for aird ┐ atbert tital in libair, 25 . tuitid a liobhair . . . / . . . i n-íochtar an aigéin / gan díoth na litre as lugha, Dán Dé iv 23 . Folld. by qualifying gen.: leabhar . . . slighedh a road-book, itinerary , SG 23.17 . lebhar aithffrind gl. missale, Ir. Gl. 853 . ṡailm ┐ orthain filet isin libar espuic a pontifical, LB 277a61 . in lebhar sochair sea do Chonall `Book of Dues', Miscell. Celt. Soc. 22.6 . mo leabhar glaice / d'airitmetig orduighthe `handbook', Studies 1923, 598 § 7 .

(b) book, volume, part of a book in sense of written document, treatise: scribinnd ind libur-so (recte libuir) `(the day) of writing this book', Wb. 15a30 . dorimther hí libur Essaiae á scel-so, Ml. 16c10 . i llibur iudicum, 104a7 . mad forcenn libuir nach magen i mbeth amen indib, 2d1 . ised inso . . . tosach ind libuir, Tur. 39 . a thitol re cach libur, Sg. 2a8 . l.¤ airissen `a book of chronicles', 106b15 . fastus .i. l.¤ , 106b19 , cf. 18 . tar hési denmo ind libuir after the writing of this treatise, 2a7 . Mael Issu Húa Brolchan . . . co nderna fen liubra ┐ eladhna, RC xvii 417.y (Tig.). ro thúirsem libru, Fél. Ep. 75 (liubru, libra, v. ll.). acht ara légda inda libra, Mon. Tall. 160.y (§ 79) . it comdire hi lebruib .i. . . . a leabraib in leidinn `in the books [of Canon Law?],' BCrólige 5 . nonbur tra do-erglas do ordughadh in liubair-si (of the Senchas Már), Laws i 16.21 Comm . dogniat im̅ augtair ┐ libair aile corugud aile fora n-imthechtaib, LU 5390 (TBC). bai dind oc libur leig doct .i. no forcanad libru ind rechta co clethe quia fuit doctor in libris legis, 662 (ACC). in dá l.¤ fichet fetarlicce isind áirim óinlibuir atrímter, Hib. Min. 2.59 - 60 . fodailter i cóic libru combad forcind libuir nach maigen i mbi fiat fiat, 2.47 . do gheunam roinn . . . ar an leabar-sa aga roinn a leabhraibh saine, MS. Mat. 581.41 . léighthear i leabhroibh feasa / gurb é . . . / an tairrngertach, L. Cl. A. B. 137.77 .

In Laws Comm. in l.¤ , l.¤ aile or liubair frequently cited as authorities: is i sin ech is mo log indeises lebur `that any book mentions', v 416.2 Comm . ruidles athghabala na daoine so do reir liubair, i 106.33 Comm . nochu n-indisiund leabur dethbir in eduigh, O'D. 207 ( H 3.17, col. 164 ). na geill aisneidhis in dlighedh so sís, no in leabhur so, O'D. 198 ( H 3.17 col. 160 ). atbeir in lepur eile curub inunn . . . , O'D. 211 ( H 3.17 col. 168 ). uii. mairbriara do ḟlaith cedgiallna ┐ nochon indis leabhar marbriara do ḟlaith forgiallna, O'D. 1010 ( H 2.15A p. 16 ). in logh is lugha fogabar a liubar, O'Curry 596 ( H 3.18, 293 ). cáin airlictheo, ní aurasu a cocáelad la Féniu ┐ libru 'in Irish law and the books [of Canon Law]', Cáin Ónae 38 § 5 .

Freq. in the titles of Irish MSS.: Lebar fata Lethglindi, Laws v 472.24 Comm . a Leabur na hUacongbala, IT iii 199 § 58 (see LL Introd. xii ). a Libur Dromma Snechta, LU 10557 n. (H). Slicht Libair Budi Slani, 3220 (H). Fland tra ┐ Eochaid eolach hua Cérin is iat ro thinolsat so a llebraib Eochoda . . . i nArd Macha ┐ a llebraib Manistrech ┐ asna lebraib togaidib archena .i. asin Libur Budi testo asin carcar i nArd Macha ┐ asin Libur Girr boí i mManistir, 2920 ff. (H). rucadh siar . . . in Leabar Gearr a ḟuasclodh I Dochartaigh ┐ Leabar na Huidri do dul a fuasclodh meic ollamon I Domnaill, 2779 - 80 (entry of A.D. 1470). Liubhuir . . . Cluana mic Nóis .i. na hUidhri, Mart. Don. xxxviii . Leabhar Buidhe Moling ┐ Leabhar Dubh Molaga, Keat. i 80.1 . l.¤ Cindfaeladh, Auraic. 67 . lepur Aedhagain, O'D. 248 ( H 3.17, 199 marg.). incipit da Leabhur na cCeart [in-]indistear do chísaibh ┐ tuarastlaibh Ereann, Leb. Cert. 28.3 . Liupar Gabhaltus, liubhair Dinnsenchus . . . Liubhuir Arda Macha, Mart. Don. p. xxxviii (in a list of the Libri famosiores). do bhrig gur bo beus do na seanchaidhibh slonnadh leabhar ar leith, do rer a saine, do shaorchlannuibh Gaoidheal . . . mar ta leabar Connachtach, Ultach, Laighneach, Muimhneach, MS. Mat. 581.37 ff . an Leabhar Eoghanach, L. Cl. A. B. l .

(c) charter, title-deed (?) (cf. scríbend II): leabhair (leabhar, MSS.) Bhriain ar fiaidh bhFuinidh, L. Cl. A. B. 89.72 .

Used in affirmation: int-ī tuc lebar aiffrind no dealb Dia, PH 7333. Here also probably: deog liubair `the book drink' (some kind of religious test), Laws v 472.23 Comm . (gl. fir . . . comperta naime, 470.x ).

COMPDS. ¤choimét book-cover, case for holding a book : leborchométa chethrachori (bibliothicus qua[drata]s), Trip.² 1075 . ¤choimétaid librarian: Maoliosa . . . leabharcoimhédaigh [Arda Macha], AFM ii 1052.9 .

légad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. légad or dil.ie/29737

Forms: légam, léigem, légaid

u, m. Also légam, léigem. vn. of légaid. Older vn. léigenn q.v.

(a) act of reading, studying : iar leghadh mo leghínd, IT iii 93 § 142 . diadacht do legud ┐ do scríbad, PH 7371 . nírbo reil do-som legad ina litre le ciamdorcacht na hoidhchi, Grail 1211 . cairt nach léir do léghadh, L. Cl. A. B. 237.11 . ré léghadh leóin as a los `while they read of grief to follow it', Studies 1919, 257 § 11 . ag léaghadh leabhar ndiadha, TSh. 9586. reading out, aloud : gá léaghadh re linn an chunntais / cairt mo locht, DDána 59.4 . tar éis léighthe an reachda, Acts xiii 15 . ag éisteacht ré beathaidh na n-ard-aithreach . . . agá leaghadh, TSh. 404 . léaghamh líne reading, book-lore (among the accomplishments of a chief), Keat. Poems 767 = léigheamh, Hackett xxxix 135 . Fig. of one who is well-read: tobar fis / . . . / léaghadh meall nglanrolla ngeal / ceann foghluma na bhfileadh (of a dead Ó Dálaigh poet), DDána 73.42 .

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