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ainteist

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ainteist or dil.ie/1543

n (teist) lit. `non-witness', legal term used of a person not qualified to act as witness. See Cóic Con. 67 . caite a lucht fira, da-sentar iat? . . . tri fira testa ┐ tri fira cunntabartach ┐ tri arra antesta airmither ann, Cóic Con. 39 § 57a (die drei (Klassen von Eides-)Gutmachungen der nicht Zeugniskräftigen). ni feas in test no in antest he ┐ is adetche leisin ugdar duine do beith isin crich gan adrud re testaib no re antestaib, 40 § 58 . nocha triar bias ann acht fir fo aicne testa no antesta, 41 § 60 . testaigid in boaire test ┐ antest, O'D. 1659 (H. 5.15, 23a). nach andtest do na fiastar test, O'Curry 241 ( H 3.18, 135 ). ní bi fiadha na bi urconn innruic . . . fora ní deine ainntest fiadnaise isin cáin so, O'D. 531 (H. 3.17, c. 431). fastait fiacha for robaib testa . . . ┐ for robaib antesta, O'Curry 540 (H. 3.18 p. 266b). ar ba teist ar-ānic antestai oc mīdēnam, ZCP xv 327 § 19 (cf. xvi 221). berid anteist test do luga, berid test antesd (false witness?) de fiachaib, Anecd. iii 24.7 . ? coicce fri hantesda, Lism. L. 4537 = coicne fri hantestai, ZCP iii 449.21 .

bec

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bec or dil.ie/5512
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: lugimen, beag

adj o, ā small, little, of size, quantity, extent, physical and moral: b.¤ quasi ec ebraice paru[u]s interpretatur, , Corm. Y 151. duine beg gl. homunculus, Ir. Gl. 436. magnus et minus . . . mor ┐ beg, Auraic. 676. natat beca gl. non parua, Ml. 18b6 . cid na olc mb.¤ `even any little evil', 35d9 . atá debe m[b]ec nand, 40a20 . ma beth na galar b.¤ for corp duini, Thes. ii 245.34 (Cambr.). na brithemnachta becca `petty judgements', Wb. 9c8 . both b.¤ gl. umbraculo, Ml. 100c21 . inna mmacc ṁbecc, 123b12 . cid b.¤ cid már gl. quantitas, Sg. 28b7 . immar fa b.¤ `whether it be great or small', 73a16 . huan suidiu biuc gl. modica sesione, Ml. 135a14 . o aimsir bicc `for a little time', Wb. 5c2 . is becc rand aos túate ┐ lucht na sencheld mór ucut `the laity and the people of the great old churches yonder are of little worth', Mon. Tall. 137.4 nibo b.¤ in tech, Sc.M² 5. fri ré iúbili bicci .i. uii mbliadna, LU 4044. cansit ceól mb.¤ , LU 3274 ( SCC 7 ). ar thoirsi in meic bic do chosc, MU² 186. atchi tenid mbic `a little fire', RC xxiii 418.25 . id-bert an laoidh mbig si ann, ML² 1151. b.¤ cech glōr is cech gredan, Bruchst. i 62 § 143. dogní na briathra beca sa (of some lines of rhetoric), SG 371.18 . faillsighis . . . doibh-siumh an talamh mbiucc dia mbattar iarraidh .i. tir thairrngire, BNnÉ 77 § 148 . lethad baisi bigi (of a measure of bread), ZCP vi 286.10 . beag nglóire thú i dtalmhain (lit.) small as regards glory, Dán Dé viii 13 (but ex. may belong to subst. use below). más beag mór ar mbéim `all our sins, great and small', Aithd. D. 85.2 . ní fhuil dá éis dom scéimh acht scáil bheag, Keat. Poems 516. do chrích Banbha is beag re maoidheamh `small credit to B.', Aithd. D. 28.6 . b.¤ b.¤ very small, Ériu v 22.21 . becc nāt beg `not too tiny', K. and H. 10 (See Bull. Board of Celt. Stud. xxiv (1972) 484).

Compar. and superl. supplied by root *lug (cf. ). b.¤ ┐ lugum ┐ lugusomh, Auraic. 659. Compar. laugu (sic leg. laugi, MS), Wb. 6b12 . lugu, 16c26 , Ml. 23a13 . laigiu, 17c7 , Sg. 120b2 . lugha gl. minor, Ir. Gl. 1115. dleagait mic leigind . . . saire ada lugu a free status that is less (than that of higher-ranking men of letters), Laws v 102.6 . gnim nad lugu smacht for which the penalty is not less, IT i 70.19 . co nar ba luga hí . . . oltás orcc cránai it was no smaller than a young pig, PH 7210. ni lugu is machtnaigthi lim-sa I have no less reason to marvel, 1758 . gerba lugu d'ais ┐ do airrdi in gilla sin `of lesser age and height', TTebe 393 . Scotia Minor nó Scotia ba lugha, Keat. ii 5797. With DE: combad lugaite a nert i n-agid ríg Lagen that their strength might be the less, LL 6423. his laugudi a pennit, Ériu vii 154 § 2. ba lugaide a galarsom ón do suidiu `thus his sickness was alleviated', Ériu xii 166.7 . ro ba lughaide ro heccaoíneadh a oidheadh go ro thionnsccain sé dol ar bélaibh a athar `was the less lamented', AFM v 1778.1 .

Superl. : lugimen gl. minimam, Ml. 14c10 . is ē dēach is laigem, Corm. Y 447. cia luigem i fuillemaib gell, Laws v 376.1 . With form of compar. : ūair is é mer is lauga isin lāim é (the little finger), Corm. Y 809. na tri fira is luga a fenechus the three smallest (least in value), Cóic Con. 42 § 63 . i coneilg in neich is lughu, Auraic. 677. in aen lámh mharcaigh as luga rob olc `by no means one of the least expert horsemen', AFM vi 2040.11 . In adverbial phrases: na rachthai . . . co cend .x. ṁbliadan a n-as lugu de `at the least' ( TTr. 1776 ), LL 32574. in mēide is lugha dhe, Fl. Earls 178.z . adeirim nī sa lugha cúig Paidreacha at least , Parrth. Anma 777. muna rabha sí ann go follus, ní as lúgha de, bíodh sí a bhfolach none the less, Mac Aingil 2210 .

As adv. in d s. (in) biuc little, a little ; a while?), in some exx. perh. merely expletive: ma conatil biucc `if it has slept a little', Wb. 29d15 . in biucc gl. paulatim, Sg. 12b1 . cid in biucc `even in small measure', 39a25 . in biuc iarum gl. paulo post, Ml. 19b6 . in biuc `to a small degree', 122b7 . seōl bic romaind 'sa rōt cētna / a choss truag-sa, ACL iii 243 § 27. an biuc, a L. corot-aiciller, Sc.M² 9. tair bic ille, LU 3724 ( SCC 33 ). Compar. as adv. ind lugu gl. minus, Ml. 123c12 .

As subst. of persons and things small, petty, unimportant (of state, rank, possessions, etc.): ataat cetheora sabuid tuaithe noda-desruithetar i mbecaib who are degraded to small people, ZCP xvi 177 § 14 (= Laws i 54.8 ), see 184.23 . a becco, ol Fer Rogain, BDD² 888. nān .i. b.¤ ut dicitur, nanus .i. abac nō lucharbān, O'Mulc. 828. dona beaguibh (= paruulis, Psalms 118 ), Parrth. Anma 9 (title-page). In phr. o b.¤ (biuc) co mór both small and great i.e. everybody: tabhach cíosa ┐ cána Maodhóg o bhecc go mór `from small and great', BNnÉ 203 § 44 , cf. v.l., n.3. na coiglidh enduine acu o b.¤ co mor, Fier. 131. donangatarsidhe ó bhiug co mór, Hugh Roe 108.10 . Cf. etir b.¤ ┐ mór both small and great, Ml. 114b17 .

As subst. o, n. a little, a little while, etc., smallness, fewness : beag, m. IGT Decl. § 65. cid a mb.¤ gl. uel paululum, Ml. 29b12 . b.¤ gl. paulum, Sg. 14a11 . Études Celt. xi 110. iṁforling hícc a mbeicc rochreti `of the few of them', Wb. 5b21 . is becc rofitemmarni i rrúnaib dǽe, 12c5 . cid beicc daucbaid si `of little worth', Wb. 21c12 . is hed a mbeccsin nammá dogníu di maith, 24a12 . cid b.¤ ṅdi ulc, Ml. 46a1 . cid cen na b.¤ ndo síd and `even without a little of peace there', 51a5 . ní b.¤ dia ndergeni forcenn a sailm `it is no small thing', 69c7 . corrobu b. du essarcnaib furodamair, 131b12 . becc torbai little profit, Thes. ii 296.4 . a mbecc mín `the small light diet', Mon. Tall. 152.20 . a mb.¤ arathá . . . doṁsaegulsa during the little that remains of my life, RC iii 179.9 . edrad fota do biuc (bicc, v.l.) buair `long the milking time for a few cattle', Ériu v 116.8 . dochóidseom trá i nnem arin ṁb. sin do maith, LL 36833. don ti rucc becc h'innmusa, RC xxvi 366.4 . beg dá hioth do-chúaidh ar gcúl, IGT Decl. ex. 1093. as beag do geabhthar do dhaoinibh fíréanta a small number, Desid. 2257. beag ga bhfoil an ceart ar chuimhne ` few ', Aithd. D. 38.5 . ar uathadh sluaigh ┐ ar beg mbuidhne, AFM v 1662.3 . Of time: ni bia do m'fhuirech-sa anosa mar-oen frit . . . acht b.¤ bet oc tuba h'uilc . . . i t'agaid, PH 8230. dar thrachtsam beg roimhe so `a short time', Geneal. Tracts 53.5 .

With prec. possess. 3 s.: rochotail a becc slept a while, TBC-I¹ 2513. nír codail a b.¤ an aidhchi sin he did not sleep at all, ZCP x 307.18 . ni rucsat a beg ar a m-buidnib they quite failed to overtake, Celt. Rev. iv 206.20 . dá leigeadh a lámha síos a bheag nó a mhór, Eochairsg. 54.5 . hi tōeb na conaire anair a bic `a little to the east', Dinds. 20. gan a bheg `not a whit', Duan. F. i 53.20 . dubhairt-sean nach raibhe a bheag `he said it was nothing', Keat. ii 5272.

With neg. verb and follg. DI anything at all, the smallest quantity: ní romill a becc din chasail (= permanente cassula tantum intacta quod ignis non tetigit), Lat. Lives 11.12 . na beiridh a bhecc da bhar nettaighibh libh asin luing, BNnÉ 54 § 55 . ní haithristear a bheag da scéalaibh `no tidings whatever are given of them', Keat. ii 2571. Cf. nochon do biuc bae dia brīg not slight was his power, ZCP viii 217 § 5.

In phr. acht b.¤ almost, nearly: fri re tri n-uairi acht b.¤ , PH 550. dia bualad co mbo marb acht b.¤ so that he was nearly dead, LU 3290 ( SCC 8 ). roscarsatur ar cuirp fri ar n-anmannaib acht b.¤ `have all but separated', MacCarthy 66.23 . acht madh beac, Fl. Earls 168.23 . b.¤ ná, b.¤ nach almost, nearly (i.e. little but that): b.¤ nachamralae i nderchóiniud ón `I have almost fallen into despair', Ml. 90c17 . b.¤ nád múchtha doíne impu were nearly stifled, TBFr. 272. beag nach brisiodh mo chroidhe / gach dán roimhe da gcumainn, Studies 1918, 618 § 11 . beg do Tuadmumain nár thrían / do bí ag M. M. held almost a third of Thomond, Caithr. Thoirdh. 136.15 . go raibhe trian bhfear nÉireann ré filidheacht beagnach, Keat. iii 1462. So also: is b.¤ mā dorinnus ariam gnīomh . . . badh doilghe liom do dhēanamh hardly , Feis Tighe Chonáin 1469. is beac ma ba oirrdearca C. `C. . . . was scarcely more illustrious', CF 411. Cf. is b.¤ cid dia fesstar a chenél `his kin will be almost unknown', RC xxiv 176.5 .

With copula and follg. prep. is b.¤ do it is little, insufficient (for): ba becc duitsiu cometecht dossom `it were little for thee (sic leg.) to be indulgent to him', Wb. 10c10 . ba b.¤ ṅdamsa mad buith cen chotlud tantum , Ml. 95d13 . Hence with neg. it is enough; an bhraid-sin nochar bheag dí `grief enough for her', Dán Dé ii 23 . ní beag dó dá chora i gcéill / an fhola féin i ló an Luain, Aithd. D. 100.33 . ní beag seal don bhaois, Dánta Gr. 102.2 . níor bheag aon aifrionn amháin do rádh ar gach n-anam a single mass would suffice, Eochairsg. 51.20 . cá b.¤ do ? is it not enough (for) ?: ca beag dóibh so do robhadh?, KMMisc. 352.3 . cár bheag dhuid aithmhéala inn ? `would not repentance satisfy thee ?' Aithd. D. 34.5 . cá beag sin dá chur i gcéill ? isn't that enough to make it clear ? Dánta Gr. 85.8 . is (ní) b.¤ la deems insufficient; thinks little of: is beic (g s.) lim in bríg sin ced molad ced tatháir domberaidsi domsa is beicc limsa a bríg `little do I care', Wb. 82d1 . as becc lem slechtain dó I think it beneath me to make obeisance to him, BNnÉ 13 § 13 . mó as beag lé burba na bhfear `small account did she (viz. Eamhain) make of', Content. xxx 35. fá beag leó . . . iad féin ┐ a sochar do bhuain don duine `they did not hesitate' (Vocab.), TSh. 3065. ní beg limm do biadh gu bráth / balad mo chráibi cáimhe, Anecd. i 34.23 . ná bad begc la hingin ríg hErenn feis lais that the daughter of the King of Ireland should deem it no small honour to sleep with him, BColm. 88.8 . doraid in saer nar' beg lais do shaegul usci do thoidecht docum in muilinn (= sufficit mihi vivere donec), RC xii 344 § 39. adubradarsan nar beg leo féin a fheabhus sin they thought that excellent (i.e. an offer of billeting), L. Chl. S. § 9.12 . is b.¤ ar thinks little of, considers insignificant; despises, dislikes: sgéal is beag ar a mbuachail, Ir. Syll. Poetry 29 § 3. is beg oram cáil na mban, Duan. F. i 85.31 . beg air imurro caingean na namad . . . uair ra dhlighsiot `he thought little of the doings of the enemies . . . for they were entitled to it', TFrag. 154.13 . is bec orumsa gach uile leiges lagtach isin cuis so acht clisteri (= abhorreo), Rosa Angl. 288.16 . gidh beg ormsa S., Ériu v 184.1 . an tí do dhéanadh math . . . dhóibh, go madh é budh lugha orra, Gadelica 38.65 . is lughaidi orum tú beth a t-[S]axanach . . . uair is don talam-sin in dias is lugha orum tainic riam, ZCP vi 87.21 . gidh ard thú ó threibh fhola, / dola i gclú leibh ní lugha you are just as intent on becoming famous, L. Cl. A. B. 215.20 .

In nn. loc.: in herinn bicc bebais `in Becc-Eriu', Fél. Apr. 23. Augustin Insi Bice, Lat. Lives 42.2 . See Hog. Onom.

In n. pr.: feil Brain Bic, Fél. May 18 .

Compds.

(a) With nouns. .x. mbuair . . . mbecalma, Ériu ii 4.11 . ¤baile: go mbeg-bailtip `villages', Fl. Earls 82.20 . ¤brat ina becbrataib `in his swaddling clothes´ Blathm. 34 . ¤déntaid `small worker ' (one of categories of wives with specific activities, see Stud. in E. Ir. Law 34.32 ): masa beccdentaidh, gunudh seiseadh no nomadh gnimha a fir aiccisi ann sein, Laws ii 410.7 Comm. issed da ní beccdentaidh dissi banaicidh (sic) uaidhsiumh ina aighidsi `what makes her a small worker is to have feminine implements supplied by him', 22 Comm. ¤dolb: (in rhetoric) iba srúaim sruthborr slán lam broind begdolb crú, LL 13860. ¤ecla of little fear . pn As epithet: Conaing B., ZCP viii 337.20 . ¤enech of small honour: comairge béldub b.¤ , Tec. Corm. 33.2 . ¤ḟola, small stock, cattle: .x. mbuair mbecfolad . . . glossed: .i. cáirigh nó gabhair nó dairt, Ériu ii 4.10 . ¤grend short-beard: Tuirenn Beggreann, Cóir Anm. ii § 159 . ¤a small thing, a trifle: dorindi in ridiri bagar ┐ becni do briathraibh Sir Gyi, ZCP vi 32.26 . ¤popul little (lowly) people: is cend daim for dartoid [.i.] mōrpersan for becphopul, O'Mulc. 753. ¤ṡaegal short life: gan uamhan báis nō begs[h]aogail, ML² 1189. ¤ṡed little interest, heed: teirce a-cách an creideamh cóir / beigsheadh ag cách san chanóin, DDána 57.1 . ¤ṡelb: i lennmhain a mbegṡelbha bó `their few cattle', Hugh Roe 84.20 . ¤ṡluag a small company, host: is doras bāls beg-s[h]luag, ML² 1384. With vn. ¤carthain: gan bhríogh i mbeag-charthain séad `paltry love of treasures', Content. xxix 13.

(b) With adjj. derived from nouns: ¤cíallda having little sense, weak-witted: boathán builidh beig-ciallda, TSh. 1721. ¤cosach short-stalked: (of a plant) luib b.¤ , ACL i 330 § 11 . ¤cridech small-hearted, hard-hearted: aderthar gurab duine cruaidh no beccchroidhech thu, Ériu v 138 § 124. ¤dígbálach of little harm: neithi iat sein . . . begdighbalacha, Irish Texts v 2 7. ¤eclach fearless: Conaing B., LL 2491. ¤ḟoltach having little substance, `inops': sochla brīg b.¤ , ZCP v 503.1 . ¤lachtach yielding little milk: comét in buair bec-lachtaig, Metr. Dinds. iv 338.26 . ¤menmnach dispirited: dobhí se go brónach begmhenmnach, Ériu v 196.33 . ¤náirech impudent, shameless: m'iaraidh-si do bhancheile led' bogbhriathraib begnaracha, ZCP vi 26.16 . ¤nertach having little strength, weak: biaid in bhuidhe becnertach (of a plague), SG 21.4 . ¤nertmar: don chriosdáidhe óg bhíos maoth beignertmhar, Ó Héodhusa 195.13 . ¤thuicsech feeble-witted: an téigentach bocht begthuigsech sin, Ériu v 166.34 . ¤uiscech: biaidh . . . an geimhreadh . . . beag-uisceach `scarce of water', Corp. Astron. 64.7 . Note also artificial compd. ¤máo: in b.¤ máo (? leg. becmáo) .i. is b.¤ as máo oldáusa .i. is b.¤ in derscugud gl. paruo maior quam ego, Sg. 45a15 .

Note also: muiti .i. mifothai . . . .i. b.¤ caithte a foghur, Auraic. 467.

bélrae

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bélrae or dil.ie/5638

Forms: bérla, bélre, bellrae, mbéelre, mbélre, bélri, bérli, belrai, bélru, belru, il-bélre, mbélre, il-béelre, il-bélrib, béarlaoi, berla

n io, n. also bérla (note -rl- in Wb. ex. cited below, see GOI 113 ). Later m.(bél). n s. bélre n-echtrann, Wb. 12c46 . cech mb.¤ , Ml. 42c12 , bellrae, 53d3 . a s. a mbéelre , Wb. 12d6 , mbélre, 13a2 . g s. bélri, Wb. 12a10 . bérli, 12d4 , belrai, Ml. 31b23 . d s. bélru, Wb. 12b23 , Sg. 31b13 , belru, Ml. 42c14 . a pl. il-bélre, Wb. 12c19 . g pl. inna mbélre , Wb. 13a26 . il-béelre, 12d7 . d pl. il-bélrib, 12b24 . Cf. a pl. béarlaoi, Timth. 1916, 38 , 38 § 14.

I

(a) speech, language: in belrai gl. ling[u]æ, Ml. 28b13 . máel dub fair ┐ belra formend leiss `stammering speech', BDD 114 ( LU 7599 ). ro chren a berla cach ṁbrúit his words (?) provided every history, LL 4424. bídh . . . / sbéis ag mnáibh i mbēarla mBriain, Magauran 230 . aslinge .i. absque linga .i. cen bērla nó tengaid, O'Mulc. 66. dúil bélrai glossary (belonging to the curriculum of the eighth year of poetic training) : duili bélraí (berla, v.l.) sicut est duil dromma cett (see 3 dúil) `Glossare' (182.21), IT iii 50 § 92.

(b) Of specific languages: ataat ilchenéle bérli isin biuthso gl. multa . . . genera lingarum, Wb. 12d4 . du cach belru la grecu `to every dialect among Greeks', Thes. ii 226.23 (PCr.). cech deidbli fil i mbērlæ is -ān nō -ēne dofūarusccuib, Corm. Y 1301. ced belrai inso (i.e. Latin), Trip. 128.7 . cen berla i tirib aneóil, SR 3448. gach son fordorcha gach berla `every obscure sound of every language', Auraic. 11. na dá bérlai (berla, v.l.) sechtmogat, Ériu iv 136.16 . ro fogluim an berla nEgebtacca, Laws i 20.9 Comm. tresan mberla Scoiteagdha, BB 38a30 . isin berla Grecdaí, ZCP xxx 101.6 . condat lia na cenela inaid na berlada, BB 3a9 . gen bérla in tíri i ndechatar, Celtica iv 18.10 . in berla i-n ro-genamar our native language, PH 5380. na berla ro cúmscaigit . . . ico'n tur, 5456 . o'n berla Ebraide, 5487 . o bélraib aingel (= 1 Corinth. xiii 1 ), 5909 . in Tenga Bithnua labhrustair o berlu angelacda `in the language of angels', Ériu ii 104 § 15.

Of the noises of animals: do berlaib cech mil bladmair, SR 7263. belra dligthech (spoken by birds) rational language, Ériu ii 118 § 54. béarla na n-éan, Measgra D. 56.23 .

Hence people, nation : ceneel na [= ná] belre, Wb. 28b1 . tuucthar hi cech belru gl. cunctis gentibus nota est, Ml. 42c2 . in lín catrach in cech threib ┐ in lín mbélra in cech cathraig, ┐ in lín doine im (leg. in ?) cech mbelra, LB 132b30 .

(c) In the mod. period specially of (the) English (language) : 'san mbérla, RC xxv 388 § 2. a hucht a bérla `relying on . . . her knowledge of the English language', AFM v 1530.12 . riaghail . . . S. Clára arna tionntúdh i ngaoidhilcc as bérla, Ériu xv 6 title. croinic Bhéarla Stanihurst, Keat. iii 5462. i Laidin i Scoitic ioná i mBéarla, Flower Cat. 574.z ( GJ xiv 714.67 ).

II In various technical phrases of special forms of language. Of the five divisions of Gaelic: cia lin cenel n-anmann . . . forsin ngaeidilg ? . . . a cóic .i. gaeidelg ┐ bérla teibide ┐ bérla Feni ┐ bérla n-etarscartha iter na feadaib aire[g]daib ┐ in gnath-bérla fognus do chach olcheana, Lec. Gl. 209. an Ghaedhealg . . . 'n-a cúig codchaibh, mar atá Béarla na Féine, Béarla na bhFileadh, Bearla an Eadarscartha, Béarla Teibidhe is Gnáithbhéarla, Keat. ii 140. b.¤ (Féine) (the language of) the Laws ; law, the legal enactments : epscop ┐ saoi berla féne, AFM ii 636.12 . brathchai .i. bretho Cai, ainm aicepta bēlri `a reading of law' (Index), O'Mulc. 125. condelg mbélri (mbearla, mberla, v.ll.), O'Dav. 843. roslá bérla breithemhan, LL 386a36 = sós la . . ., Leb. Cert.² 160.2 . suí Berla a doctor of the `Bérla Féine', Laws i 16.23 Comm. (of a Leinster king) ba hollom berla Féne, Metr. Dinds. iv 344.29 . Crith Gablach graece crisis .i. iudicium, nomen aiciuchta bēlrai, O'Mulc. 229. is e sin othrus is luga isin mberla, O'Curry 587 (H. 3.18. 290). Cf. Keat. ii 140 cited above.

For b.¤ (bán) biait see biait. Note also: imróefet fri berla / o Róim (glossed .i. imrádfit berla Románach), LU 9841.

b.¤ n-etarscartha: berla n-edarscartha etir na feadhaib language of separation between the vowels, Auraic. 210. See etarscarad. b.¤ (na filed) a poetic jargon, an artificial language practised by the poets, `part of the sixth year's course of the student-fili,' fili (for poems in B. na f. see Meyer, ZCP v 482 - 490 ; RC xi 125 , xiii 220 ). (of the ánrad poet) belru na filedh as a naicillidh cách dib aloile, O'D. 1214 (H. 2.15, 84a). b.¤ fortchide see 1 fortchide. b.¤ teipide, tóbaide the selected language, Gaelic , see teipe, teipide, tóbaide: go bhfuilid focail as gach aointeangaidh ar airleagadh san cheathramhadh mír don Ghaedhilg ré ráidhtear Béarla Teibidhe, Keat. ii 948.

brethnaigid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. brethnaigid or dil.ie/6765

Forms: brethnugad

v (breth)

(a) judges, decides, examines, determines : is ed do brethnighedar nach facadar riamh nech budh āille inā E., ML² 581. do réir ecna ┐ eolusa no brethnaig-som cach, CF 73.8 . bendacht Dé ar in sruth / nār brethnaig do bás `that has not determined', BColm. 16 § 14. ro breithnaigustar Sencha asa cetbreithemnus in techtugad banda amuil ín techtugad ferda `S. adjudged', Laws iv 16.4 Comm. is trite (sc. Muire) do bhrethnaidh mhe slainte an chinidh daenna d'oibriughadh (= decernere, Gloss.), Smaointe B. Chr. 197. on cluais conuic an inchinn noch brethnaiges idir an fogar is mo ┐ in fodar is luga `which distinguishes between', Ir. Astr. Tr. 154.28 . do bhreathnuigh (sic leg.) A. . . . an Cineadh Iúdaigheach . . . do dhithcheannadh, Eochairsg. 87.10 . ro brethnaidh (sic leg. for bernaidh) an aisling interpreted the vision, Grail 2196 .

(b) thinks of, plans, designs: ro brethnaigh-siumh aicci fein dol dia fis can as tainic an dellrad . . . sin `he made up his mind to go', Grail 3772 . do brethnaighetar . . . na hedaighe sin do bhreith leo, L. Chl. S. 6. do brethnaighetar na carthanail do bí faris an Papa an cros do togbail, BCC 215.

(c) observes, considers, meditates, reflects (with AR upon): ann dobrethnaig Finn file / . . . / céilide 'ca cháim-ṡethair (sic leg.) `noticed' (Gloss.), Metr. Dinds. iii 56.5 . breathnuigh cia an saidhbhir (= vide . . . quis dives), TSh. 7732. duine bhreathnuigheas a ghnúis a sgáthan `who beholds his countenance in a glass' (James i 23), Donlevy 220.16 . brethnaighimaid-ne gurab d'Eoin suibhisgel do-rindedh hi (sc. mirbuil na baindsi) (= meditare, Gloss.), Smaointe B. Chr. 1525. gur bhreathnaighset a mharbhadh fo chettóir `who meditated', AFM iii 634.17 . breathnuighim 'na dhiaigh sin an ghráin . . . atá ag Dia ar an bpeacadh-sa, Desid. 1128.

Vn. brethnugad.

See brethaigid, brithemnaigid.

bríathar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bríathar or dil.ie/6796

Forms: brethar, breithre, briathar, -glicc

n ā, f. GOI § 161. brethar, Laws i 268.14 . b.¤ f., IGT Decl. § 56. In later lang. also o, m.

(a) word; in religious sense Word (of God); utterance, talk, saying(s), speech, discourse ; non-verbal sign (?) Éigse xxiv 41 : o .i. son i mbraighid. p .i. briathar sechtair, Ériu xiii 37.4 . nach tan do furgaib int augtur brethir for a gin sechtair bid briathar for a menmain fris gair do suidev . . . illud verbum . . . illi verbo . . ., Hib. Min. 12.410 , 411 . briathar cen guth .i. briathar in sgribhind, nó in compoid merda `the written word', O'Dav. 285 , Ériu xiii 37.7 . briathor insce apud Eoles (an Aeolic *βρήτρα seems intended, ed.), O'Mulc. 160. be sóir mo brethre `I shall be free as regards my word', Wb. 4c18 . ammi tuailṅge ar mbrethre gl. uerbo (. . . æpistolas), 17b5 . indat mbriathra gl. verba, Ml. 44b9 . do rad inna mbriathar sa gl. haec uerba, 46a19 . imfresnat a ngníme fria mbriathra `their deeds conflict with their words', Wb. 31b30 . deich míli briathar, 12d25 . it immaircidi dunni inna briathrasa, Ml. 22c5 . ni aithirgi ho briathraib nammá cen gním gl. non usque ad uerba, 23a11 . olc hi cridiu ┐ briathra aildi `fair words', 55a11 . ar chomallad do briatharsu, 39a12 . ni sulbir in b.¤ gl. sermo contemptibilis, Wb. 17b4 . taibred for mb.¤ ráth spirito do chách gl. sermo vester, 37c28 . briathra aildi la cechtar de fri alaile gl. sermone, Ml. 31a24 . inna briathra radas, 42c4 . níbat briathra nach aili gl. non explorata loquar, 68c10 . eritiu briathar ho neuch anall gl. reddendique sermonis, 59a15 . frissaní immeraidtis hua briathrib, 61c12 . briathar lám . . . briathar súle . . . briathar glunæ . . . briathar choirp gl. membrorum motus sermo, 138a2 . int ord nobeth fornaib briathraib gl. dictorum hunc habet ordinem, 27d22 . inna briathra grecdi se, Sg. 72a2 . hi mbrethir hi cocell hi ṅgním, Thes. ii 253.11 (Stowe M.). for brethir `in word', Wb. 15d5 . intan tra batar forsna briathraib se `when they were thus talking', Thes. ii 307.15 (Hy. ii Pref.). umaldóit for (fri, v.l.) bréthir ` mouth-humility ', Ériu iii 102 § 27a . trea chumbair ṁbriathar ` compendiously ', Thes. ii 327.5 . briathar foirbthigedar in duine i ndírgi cáingníma `the Word which perfects man', Wb. 4d6 . in bethu dorairngert som issí in briathar insin gl. uerbum suum in praedicatione, 31a9 . indhí pridchite . . . brethir dǽ gl. qui laborant in uerbo et doctrina, 29a12 . briathra dǽ, Ml. 146a1 . oc procept bréthri Dé, PH 2173. as esiomh . . . an bhriathar = the word, RSClára 142a. cundail a b.¤ (rhet.), LU 3401 ( SCC 18 ). grāibre .i. magar .i. briathar grata, O'Mulc. 688 = graibhri .i. briathar ghrata, no onórach, O'Cl. rabert-si na briathra sa she spoke these words, TBC-LL¹ 5730. ilar mbriathar mbláith rot char, LU 3614 ( SCC 30 ). millse briathra ḟir thochmairc, LL 13975 n. a (121a marg. sup.). in tan . . . bói Ísu oc lábra na mbriathar-sa, PH 3076. Secundi / cain i mbriathraib bíae `fair in words of might', Fél. Mar. 22. cona . . . digebad cid a oen ḟocul dia briathraib `not to . . . take away a single word that she said', Mon. Tall. 150.5 . nach duine isin tig arta-ceisi guth ┐ gním ┐ bréithir with . . . word, BDD² 884. brēthir bláith with gentle words, Sc.M² 21 f . dorónus dōibh dūa[i]n mbinn mbairdne, / brēithir glēisi with clear words, ACL iii 296 § 45. ro-slanaig Ísu me d'aen brethir, PH 2789. briathra Brain (of the baying of a hound), Measgra D. 38.15 . bríathra cogaidh, Studies 1920, 416.1 . ná tabhair bréithir mbréige `utter no false word', 1924, 244 § 26 . Brīathra Floinn Ḟīona maic Ossa (title of collection of maxims), Anecd. iii 10.15 . briathra fíra `just judgements', PH 823. briathar fhoirbhthe an ughdair-se this author's excellent saying, DDána 27a2 . ra bréthir a flatha `at . . . the command of their prince', TBC-LL² 4104 .

In phr. attá b.¤ (la, oc) di: intí diarobe briathar linn riam gl. de quo iam dixi, Sg. 197b12 . in Bethfage dia ta briathar i-fus of which mention is made here, PH 4600. ni do Thempul Solman . . . ro-bói briathar oc Ísu, 2725 .

(b) blessing, prayer, good wishes; in bad sense curse: forácaib bréthir fair (a well) `a blessing', Trip. 162.25 . tre brethir ṁBrigte, LL 38303 (` intercession ', SG 408.5 ). briathar .i. búaidh. fágbhaim ort briathar ┐ buaidh ar Colum Cille re Domhnall mhac Aodha, O'Cl. foracaib Pátraic breithir (.i. escaine) foraib, ACL iii 28 § 78. dorat Brigit brethir for Raith C. cona be[d] etc., Thes. ii 335.34 (Hy. v Comm.). fuirimh . . . / briathar doréir righ na rind / ar Ch. lay a curse on C., BNnÉ 314 § 8 .

(c) word, promise, assurance; pledge, vow: darm brethir (sic leg.) tra . . . isatt ailsiu damsa upon my word, LU 3918 ( SCC 43 ). dar ar mbréithir, CRR² 23. do brīathar bad fīr `let thy word be true', Ériu ii 172 § 3. ag so mo briathar ris . . . nach ticfaind . . . ┐ is briathar eile damh . . . nach gébaind, ML² 1439. ni ro-gabsat uada acht a bréthir do comallad friu save only that he should fulfil his promise to them, PH 908. ? dligid bés brēithir, Anecd. iii 15.2 (` `perhaps' merits a promise', RC xlv 71 § 36 ). co tanic mac N. ar breithir asin tig himag under a guarantee of protection, Ann. Conn. 1239.5 . gēmadh í an bhriathar bheag though it were a mere promise, Butler Poems 1243 . Phrases with verbs: dabiur bréthir . . . na fuil etc. `I swear ', TBC-LL² 747 . do-beram ar mbréthir . . . cunad fír, MU² 284. dobeirim fom bréithir a bhfiadhnaisi an Dúilim I swear in the presence of the Creator, Anecd. i 77.16 . tuc dā brēithir pledged his word, ML² 191. da-oṅg-sa mo bréthir, MU² 181. do radh dhá bréithir . . . nach rachad he vowed, Duan. F. i 1.17 . ni thánic dar a bréthir did not break his word, RC xx 12 § 17. tucus mo bréthir ris . . . ┐ ní faris ticfaither, MU² 179.

(d) Legal statement, testimony: is iat na tri fira is luga a enechus: lorg ┐ briathar ┐ suilgnais. A lorg on mír gan urlabra, a briathar on mir co n-urlabra ┐ a sulgnais on ceill maith gan urlabra, Cóic Con. 42 § 63. na hechlacha, cor indligthech, cin breithir, ni berat coibchi muna thisat fri dligi without guarantee, Laws v 272. y Comm. ? fasc tres brethar an is nesam i n-urd, i 268.14 . na tri briathra da fasc na athgabala . . . gur ab edh adbera don tres brethir i n-urd aisnesin: ro gabuis t'athgabhail, 302.23 , 26 Comm. ni fastann acht na tri briathra .i. in lin fear, ┐ in lin ceall, ┐ in la sundradhach (of the testimony of the mac bec or m. enncai), O'Curry 2431.2 ( Eg. 88, 35a-b ). tecmaltar a insce dó hi teora bríathra his statement is assembled by him into three words (of testimony of the fer midboth), Críth G. 40. Attrib. g s.: aithne breithre `a verbal charge ' (one of seven deposits that require to be restored), Laws v 196.3 .

(e) Gramm. verb: briathar . . . uerbum , Auraic. 300. ind infinit in e ón bréthir in o, Sg. 54a16 . amal as ṁbriathar gníma aperio an active verb, 145b4 . fríssin bréthir as sum , Thes. ii 228.36 (PCr.). ara forcmatis in tuisel sainredach inna brethre hua mbiat, Sg. 149a5 . itar in di brethir so, 203a16 . ar in ṁbrethir ṅdiuit, 140a4 . dia techtat briathra in -go gl. si a uerbis sint in `go' desinentibus, 112b3 . on brethir is axarcisto, Laws v 22.10 Comm. in dobriathar .i. do 'g-a rada nach briathar he, 4.11 Comm. on brethir choitchind asberar sufragor gl. [s]uffragare, Gild. Lor. 1.

Compds. With nouns. in Briatharchath ban Ulad War of Words, LU 8039. gur uo briathor-chealga brēgacha ro chan `deceitful . . . words', Fl. Earls 138.28 . ag bríathar-chomrādh re aroile ` conversation ', 46. 23 . drem dub dorcha brisess bruth, / atbelat fri briathar-chruth, MS. Mat. 633.29 ( LB 242b85 ). Bríatharthecosc Con Culaind inso (heading of precepts of C.C. to king of Tara), LU 3465 ( SCC 25 ). With adjj. co Bresal ṁbrec ṁbriatharchaem of the fair words, Rawl. 83a53 . bērus bre[i]th brīathargla[i]n, ZCP viii 199.27 . derdilinne an eoil oirrdirc / firinne a beoil briathoirgilc (-gilc for -glicc ed.) wise of speech , ii 350.11 . a Bricriu báeth briatharguirt ` sour-worded ', RC xiv 424 § 45. sámud būan bríatharísel ` low-voiced ', Ériu ii 63 § 1. a bhille bhriatharmhaill `o letter of tardy words', Ir. Review 1913, 624 § 13 . an bhuidhean bhriatharnar of modest speech, DDána 75.29 . With adj. as subst. don bhriatharthaoi bhinn quiet-spoken one (of a lady), DDána 117.51 .

2 cert

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 cert or dil.ie/8788

adj expld. as small, little : c.¤ .i. beg, ut est mad c.¤ oig olcena beith i n-adhaltras .i. madh na hoig is luga lan ann no is ceirti lan and beith a n-adaltrus, O'Dav. 544 . ceart .i. beag, ceart a chlocha .i. beag a chlocha, O'Cl. ? is c.¤ ar buaid lib `gering', TBC-LL¹ 2083 (cf. LU 5959 ). nír ba ch.¤ a chéitghníoma, SG 117.31 .

2 co

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 co or dil.ie/9787

Forms: cu, ca, go, cosind, cossin, cusan, cus-in, cosnaib, gusna, com, cut, cot, cona, cua, co, co, conar, cono, conu, cona, condaib

prep., nasalizing, with dat. See GOI 274 , 503 . Perh. in complementary distribution with la, 495 . Also cu ( Ml. 94b11 , PH 132 ). ca, ZCP xi 109 § 16 . In later lang. go ( gu, i 408.2 ). With len. ch- (see GOI 111 ), Wb. 13a26 , Ml. 35d17 . With art. cosind, 133a4 ; cossin, TBC-I¹ 454 ; cusan, Anecd. i 4.21 ( SCano 106 ); cus-in, PH 1412 . cosnaib, Ml. 37a10 ; gusna, Ériu v 20.7 . With poss. com, Fél. Ep. 52 , TBFr. 364 . cut, Wb. 10a29 , cot, Blathm. 230 . In 3 pers. cona passim (later gona, Ériu i 24.135 etc.). Perh. also in: cua rǽr, Ml. 100b16 (oc ?), co rigid with his arm, TBC-I¹ 424 (cá, LU), co a ndibad, Laws iv 44.16 Comm. (1 co ?). With rel. Part. an talamh go n-a dtig de, DDána 37.30 . conar mhair, Stair Erc. 1182 . Rare with pron. suff.: 3 s. m. cono, BCrólige 39 . neut. conu, ZCP viii 310.24 . ?cona as well, Todd Nenn. 144. 152 . 3 pl. condaib, Auraic. 954 . Occas. with accus.: co llín n-ingen, LU 8714 ( FB 53 ). co . . . noemu, PH 3941 etc. go ndícheall ndofhaisnéise, TSh. 1852 . See Magauran 1010 n.

With , most freq. with words indicating accompaniment, attendant circumstances, etc., less freq. of instrument. In uses 2 and 3 somet. with additional preposition limiting the meaning.

1 Glossing Lat. cum: cosin taidbse il gl. cum multa ostensione, Ml. 30b11 . Wb. 28c19 , 30a26 ; Tur. 127 ; Ml. 23a13 , 26d10 , Sg. 39a2 . Note also: conoén guth gl. ex eadem uoce, Sg. 203b12 .

2 With nouns indicating persons (together) with, accompanied by, and ; massu cut séitchi ro cretis, Wb. 10a29 . Saul cona muntair, Ml. 30a3 . 26a8 . 34a22 . 55c1 . as tu cot mac, Blathm. 230 . co maccaib flaithi fer nÉrenn impu, BDD² 205. 469 . C. . . . cona tri nonbaraib, RC vi 174.9 . co-m brathrib, PH 1072 .

3 With nouns indicating objects with, having, carrying, etc.: na tri druide co ndanoibh `bearing gifts', Blathm. 12 . dobert C. for a bois cona luingin `together with his boat', RC vi 183.5 . ó B. . . . / co cétaib cúan, Ériu iv 152.25 . With additional prep.: sengobi cona indeuin fora muin, Mon. Tall. 184.4 . .lll. ngabar ... cona trí coectaib srían . . . friu, BDD² 466 . fer . . . co n-oenṡúil lais, 1351 . gabail (a s.) . . . co cethri cennaib forri, TBC-LL¹ 710 . caisslēn . . . gusin ruibēr ar n-a chomhtharraing 'n-a mhōirthimchioll, Fl. Earls 40.7 .

4 With nouns of less concrete meaning (together) with, provided with, and: dofil Crist cona soscelu, Wb. 4d29 . 26a18 . co pecad in popuil (the scapegoat), Tur. 110c . a laithe . . . cosnaib gnimaib . . . gniter and, Ml. 21c3 . adiecta cona n-ilmrechtrud, Sg. 29b6 . sum conáballib, 193b8 . 209b28 . niurt gene Crist cona bathius, Thes. ii 354.30 . cond neoch noduslen `together with the part which follows', Mon. Tall. 129.2 . sē bliadna . . . co mbloidh do blíadain, ZCP viii 111.27 . lá go n-oidhche, Ir. Review 1912, 517 § 1 . san ló go n-oídhche, Párl. na mB. 3554 . See 1 cet (151.55), leth (L 130.75).

5 With vnn. and similar words indicating the attendant circumstances of an action: bad samlith sulbairichthe co n-etarceirt gl. qui loquitur . . . oret ut interpretetur, Wb. 12d8 . co tabairt taebadh friu `trusting to them', Laws iv 74.22 Comm. gin tairgsin dlighi . . . go tairgsin dlighi, 234.21 Comm. acht mina gabad co fresabra unless he took it (the kingship) with opposition, RC xxiv 202.13 . meabhaidh maidhm forra gusan tenn ┐ gusan tairisiomh baoi leo in spite of, Hugh Roe² 166.1 .

6 Freq. with abstract etc. forming adjectival phrase: cosmulius co n-écsamlus gl. per hominem mors . . . per hominem resurrectio mortuorum, Wb. 13b25 . imbresna co lluindi gl. pugnas uerborum, 29b6 . 27c6 . guth formúigthe co trummai thinfid heavily aspirated, Sg. 9b18 . Ml. 30d18 . 37a10 . 92b10 . lasa senadh condimbrigh `the ignoble assembly', Blathm. 52 . do intliucht co saichi `a bad under- standing', Fél. Prol. 298 . fer corrath `a man of grace', Mon. Tall. 131.26 . ro bámarni . . . co cátaid acut you held me in esteem, LU 3917 ( SCC 43 ). ataí co ngalur ḟúail you are suffering from, Sc.M² 13 . P. . . . co llí, ZCP viii 107.16 . atā . . . in mac-caillech co n-idnaib in labour, KMMisc. 210.3 . ri . . . co fill a treacherous king, Stair Erc. 434 .

7 Similarly after verbs with adverbial force: is co [m]burpi asbéram na aill diar ṅgnímaib, gl. ut minus sapiens dico, Wb. 17c23 . co nhuailbetaid gl. tumultuarie, Ml. 63b8 . 124c2 . co llondas gl. dedignanter, 130a9 . Cf. Wb. 6c6 . 13a1 . .27 . in spirut . . . di-ar snádud co solma / ar gábud, Lib. Hymn. 159.7 . mad cumscaidech co ndeithbire justifiably, Laws iv 62. 12 Comm. do ēirigh sūas co sotla arrogantly, ZCP viii 220.25 . go bhfios damhsa, is mór etc., TSh. 1101 `to my knowledge, I am sure,' Gloss.

8 Of instrument with, by means of, through: co mbreic ┐ togais gl. disimulat, Ml. 61a6 . dia goin cosin laighin, Blathm. 55 . ? cocorib gl. congruentibus (uerbis), Enchir. Aug. 81a ( ZCP vii 483 ). frisinle in coin cona dib lāmaib, TBC-I¹ 523 . co torchair .l. leis cona fhiaclaib killed 50 with his teeth, RC iii 181.35 . madia ndeicennaigter e gus an creic loige ita do reir dligid `if this be purchased for the price which is prescribed according to law', Laws iv 214.13 Comm. rogell si cona luga she promised on her oath, FDG 663 .

comlóg

Cite this: eDIL s.v. comlóg or dil.ie/11445

n (lóg) equal value; joint payment : ar comlogh do sétuib eile, O'D. 513 ( H 3.17, 417 ). ma . . . do gebad neach eile ar c.¤ friu som no a naisge for the same price(?), O'Curry 1608 ( 23 Q 6, 5 a ). ni ḟuarus féin . . . / ferand ná crích a comlúag, Metr. Dinds. iv 92.20 . indili comloigi cin cub comoes . . . indili comaesa cin cub comloigi equal in value, O'D. 1562 (H 5.15, 3a). cennach . . . ar c.¤ no ar ni is luga inas a logh agreed price(?), Laws v 288.5 Comm. Of payment in general: ar comlog no i n-aiscidh, Laws i 88.31 Comm. cethra ba do chana cumraither comhlogh, Ériu xiii 32.24 . Predic. comlogh é ┐ in durthach (of damlíac) of equal value(?), O'D. 916 ( H 3.17, 653 ). In phr. cor comloigi, Laws v 184.20 Comm. cach sochar .i. cor comloigi `every contract of full value', Laws iv 54.27 Comm., i 52.19 Comm. cor comlogha (oppd. to dochor diubarta), O'Curry 2397 ( Eg. 88, 31(32)b ).

cronaigid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cronaigid or dil.ie/13110
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: cronugad, cronaigthi

v (cron). IGT Verbs § 106 . complains (of), rebukes, reproves; claims(?): ná cronaig cleirchiu co grind, YBL 313b59 . ni luga ro-chronaigset . . . míledu, PH 2631 . ro chronaicheadar, YBL 141b40 . pian na croiche nochar chronaigh `complained not', PBocht 24.13 . do chronaigh suil eigin ind, Prolegomena 50.19 . gur chronaigh súil Éibhir Dhuinn / lūth na luinge `chid', Content. xxviii 30 . luit chorcra ní cronaghair `no man complains of crimson wounds', Bard. P. 25.4 . cronuighid iad = corrigant, Rial. S.F. 1529 . cronuigh spreig, Eg. Gl. 11 . See also cronaid.

Legal (precise meaning not clear): in gall doratt ┐ cronaigther iarum `protest is made' (it is claimed?), Laws v 216.13 Comm. inti is a set cronaighes sund `protests', 8 Comm. gach sealb cronaighter for neach, dligis in duine ma cronaighter an baranta d'iaraidh from whom it is claimed(?), O'Curry 292 ( H 3.18, 160 ). dealb dinmolaim / sealb tronaigim (leg. cronaigim), IT iii 92 § 139 . masa innraic cronaiges ag innraic, sealb don innraic aga cronaighter, O'Curry 291 ( H 3.18, 160 ). Note also: cid i ndechnaid cronaigther etir setrad ┐ rindaird in dechnaid both s. and r. (lines) are required(?), IT iii 74 § 34 . ro-cronaiged a comairc `their war-cries were raised defiantly', Fianaig. 88.17 .

Vn. cronugad. Vbl. of necess. cronaigthi.

1 dam

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 dam or dil.ie/14462
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: doim, daim, daum, dum, dam, doim, daim, damaib, daumu, dumu, damu

n o,m. g s. doim, daim. d s. daum, dum, dam. n p. doim, daim. d p. damaib. a p. daumu, dumu, damu.

I An ox : dam .i. bos , Goid. 77 a . ní don daum storidiu act is dínni, Wb. 10 d 8 . is bés leosom in daim (n pl.) do thuarcuin ind arbe, ib. 10 d 6 . in daim (n p.) dodaascansat, Thes. ii 340. 4 . ech fri aige dam fri har bo fri blicht, Laws i 122. 10 . athgabail cuicthi...im damu nad be tairchesa, ib. 184. 13 . lethmiach cach cuilgaib (sic) ó dam co dartaig fri feis, ib. iv 90. 19 . rotarb suas dauṁa (sic) ┐ dam conchaid ní tiaghad a comraind, ib. iv 100. 25 . fichi bó dá tarbb sé doim, iv 310. 26 . baib blichta daim cacha mamu, v 220. 11 . fuil dam oca ngabáil, ib. 152. 3 . áin dam fri fedain techta ( imain na ndam, l. 14 ), ib. 136. 6 . imfedain i ndamaib, ib. 474. 8 . is irrechtaib bó ┐ dam ┐ ech, FB 24 ( IT i 264. 11 ). (a lám) irraibe ere fichet cuinge do damaib, ib. 91 (l. 20) . méit chore rodaim, ib. Arddān co ndam nó muicc maiss, LMU 17 (l. 7) . in mucc ┐ xl dam, ScM. 6 ; similarly 22 (l. 4) . bérthair dam ┐ tinne di immach, BDD 63 . atcondarc senada gela ┐ dumu finna. daim breca ina ndiaid ┐ daim duba iarmu, Trip. 176. 15 . laulgach no dam timchill arathair in tress sét, Corm. s.v. clithar sét (twice). fichi míli do sumadaib ┐ damaib fri himfedain cruithnechta, O'Mulc. 856 . dam ndartaide (sic) .i. colbthach ḟireann, O'Cl. hoc bostar. buaile dam, Ir. Gl. 1044 . tallsatar na daṁu robhátar isin tigh, Lat. Lives 79. 6 (cf. IT i 45. 1 ). co tardsat an éduighe for adharcuib na ndam cura impaset na daim, ib. 7 . secht ndaiṁ ┐ secht tuirc, IT i 311. 29 . nirbo chommairge doendam, CRR 4 . mo damsa is dam dond Dáire, ib. ar chend mo daim, ib. 5 . ciarsa dam co ndá mbeind óir, ib. dam i ninad cach daim, ib. 17 . cor imbir a búrach forru amal dam ndamgaire, TTr.² 1159 . fuath doim de uma PH 1239 . is iat crecaitt na damu, ib. 4637 . ere deich ṅdam, ib. 6296 . antí docheannuigh cúig cuingreacha daṁ, TSh. 209. 28 .

dam air a ploughing ox : for drumni daim inn air RC xxvi 28. 7 = dam fri har, Laws i 126. 18 .

dam comair an ox of co-ploughing, yoke-fellow; metaph. an equal, peer. Doṁnall mór hUa Domnaill... daṁ comair Cuinn Cedchathaigh ar chlódh gach cliathchai ALC i 352. 29 (synonymous with medh comtrom in l. 30 ).

dam conchaid 'a wolf-fighting ox' EIF 49 . dam dílenn a fabulous ox of antiquity. Originally a stag of flood, according to Stokes, Acall. p. 394 ; rather the ox of Dil, cf. dam dile, H 2.16 , p. 242 : dam dili treasingnadh Glinne Dalláin. asind loch cédna táinic a athair co ndechaid for boin do buaib in bhrughadh robói i fail na cilli co ndergnai in dam de; and Dinds. 44 : dá dam Dile ingine Lugmanrach. ib. 111 : dam Dile. SG ii 472. 10 : Bregh a ainm daiṁ Dhile. LL 210 a 15 : daim Díle. METAPH. of persons LL 9635 . —In `dam Dile' the `i' is short, as is proved by Metr. Dinds. iii 198. 25 ( LL 198 a 46 ): Dile: gile (Gwynn). Díle (LL) interchanging with dílenn (Rennes MS, BB), Metr. Dinds. iii 204. 53 .— geisidh daṁ dilenn dá héis, Acall. 850 . gu Cathair Dhaiṁ díleann, ib. 1250 . atát daiṁ dileann ┐ cliathbernadha cét inniú i Cnuc na Cenn, BLism. 129 b 2 . atberam dano do fremaib ┐ do bunud ┐ do craebaib ┐ do daṁaibh dilind ┐ dordaib esoirgni ┐ do ṁergeadaib &c. , BB 452 a. roforbair (in béist) cona ba luga hí oltás dam dílend, PH 7221 . roba coṁrac dá daṁ ṅdíleann in coṁrac sin, ITS v 64. 4 .

dam riattae a trained ox, broken to the plough: screpall ar miaslach luluigh ┐ daiṁ riata, Laws ii 200. 3 . bud daim ríata láig ár mbó, SG 396. 38 .

LOC. Dam drend, TBC-LL¹ 4802 . co Dam ṅderg, ib. 4806 . Dam-inis, Inis na nDam, Onom.

COMPDS. óc-dam: hoc jumentum ógdhaṁ, Ir. Gl. 758 . Hib. Min. 43 (metaph.). ro-dam a great ox ZCP x 369 . cu ngealut dá dartuid fri rodam ┐ cu ngelut dá dartuid sech rodam, Laws ii 74. 18 . FB 91 .

II A stag : dodúisgeadh agoinn daṁ donn, ITS vii 81. 16 . dam donn, 'fallow deer' Acall. 3521 . conaccatar ... daumu móra mǽla ina ligu, RC ix 482.8 . do bupthad na ndam, 482.10 . daṁ seng ag ithe in ḟeóir nua, ib. 18 . mór ndaṁ ndearg dothuit lea nágh, ib. 83. 7 . marbaid .vii. naighi díb imna trí damaib, Aen. 276 . dam allaid, gen. daim allto (-a) a stag. cervos gl. inna dumu alti, Ml. 48 d 9 . dá dam allaid (dual) LU 41 a 39 . asé roforchongair forin daṁ nallaidh toidheacht do threabhadh chuige est qui jussit cervum in aratro laborare Acta Sanct. 306 b n. 17 . adchi ...tri doiṁ allta romora, Aen. 273 . hoc cubile. leabaid in daim all[ta], Ir. Gl. 858 .

III METAPH. a champion, hero : ric in dam tri coecat ṅglonn, RC xx 144. 23 . am dam (.i. ar treisi) secht ṅdírend, LL 12 b 40 . a leo a ócdaim a aqil (of Christ), Hib. Min. 43. 15 . mac Feideilmid daim dásachtaich, Rawl. 152 a 33 . dongní daṁ dásachtach dím, Aen. 537 . posta...daim na céille, ITS xi 54 § 8 .

PERS. Mac in Daim, Imr. Brain 63. 20 . mac Daim Argait, LL 341. 37 . la Cairpre Dam nArgait, ib. 142 b . Dorcha ┐ Dam, Lec. 548 a 33 . 552 b 32 . LOC. Gleann Daiṁ, Gadelica ii 90. 11 .

dernu

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dernu or dil.ie/15690

Forms: dernann, dernainde, dernainni, derna

n n, f. (g s. dernann, O'Gr. Cat. 472.24 . dernainde, LB 242a63 . dernainni, TBC-LL¹ 3983 ). derna f., IGT Decl. § 145 .

(a) palm of the hand; hand: a derno for mo chind, ZCP xiii 179.13 . dearna an Choimdheadh im chló ngéar, Dán Dé xxvi 6 . lil in chertle dia dernainn, Imr. Brain 62 . fodáile doib a mbiad, for a dernaind norannad cech n-ágae, LL 249a46 ( ZCP iv 37.2 ). co ndechaid barr a dha meor tré chlár a dhernann immach ar chúl a láimhe, SG 285.14 . balg ar dhearnuinn láimhe, IGT ex. 591 . gallgha 's as lán dí a derna, ex. 967 . guin na dearnainne deise, A. Ó Dálaigh xxiv 2 . cechtar mo da dernand, TBC-LL¹ 1306 . turcbaid-sium a dóti ┐ a rigthi ┐ a dernanna, 916 . triana dernandaib ┐ cossaib, PH 3316 . cusna dernannaib faena (.i. crosfigell), Ériu ii 227.17 . Cf. further Laws ii 302.7 : dingbail .i. bu coir don fir amuigh. i. na seoit do dernuinn in cele.

(b) Of an animal's paw:luga bīs find for a dernainn oldās fuirre anūas (of a hare), Corm. Y 1045(s.v. pato).

(c) In phr. d.¤ FRI (RE) renouncing: derna fri deman, ACL iii 311 § 2 = AFM 926 (ii 618.11) . do-bheir . . . dearna ré dubháilcibh, TSh. 7832 .

(d) As n.pr. (symbolic): Traig ┐ Dorn ┐ D.¤ , TBC-LL¹ 2401 = TBC-I¹ 1766 . derna Muire, name of a plant, 24 B 3, 90 b13 . lady's mantle, Hogan Luibhl.

díliu, díle

Cite this: eDIL s.v. díliu, díle or dil.ie/16425

Forms: dílend, dílinde, dílind, dilind, díle

n n, f. (*dí-lin-? Cf. GOI § 331 . From Lat. diluvium, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 197 ). g s. usually dílend; occasionally dílinde, rarely dílind (: Find (gen.), Fianaig. 50 , 94.19 ). na dilind , Snedg. u. Mac R 39 . díle, f., IGT Decl. § 145 .

(a) The Noachian deluge: in díle diluuium, Ml. 48d17 . díli .i. diluuium , Corm. Y 480 . amail sóersai Nóë . . . din díle, Fél. Ep. 452 . diliu thromm, SR 2626 . clann Caīn sil Seth na sen | dorigni in diliu a ndilgen, 2724 . otha dilind co Abram, 2297 . iar ndilinn, 2276 . airdde na dilenn o lar, 2525 . o aimsir dilenn, Fél. p. 258 . o rodoirt díliu for bith, Metr. Dinds. iii 238 . robaid in diliu sil Adaim uile ach Noe, LL 1b1 . o dorat Dia in dilind darsin uile ṅdomun ní therna di doenib in domuin on dilind acht mad lucht na hairce, 1b4 , 6 . is mé Findtan . . . d'éis na díleand, Ériu iv 132 . is e oenḟot do thalmain tar na tainic diliu, idon Golgotha, MacCarthy 48 . tarraidh dílind Bith, BB 20b6 . is fir mar rimhim re radh | o Dilinn co Abraham, MacCarthy 260 . san domnach is fath fire | dotraig ar tus in dile, Ériu iii 144 . ni ragbad [Ériu] ria ndile ┐ ni ragbad iar ndíle . . ., Imr. Brain i 286 x . do deoin ríg na dílinne, SG 382 (LL Bóroma). ar teithedh na dilinde (: gan time), BB 22b45 . an chéiddíle . . . | lér dhíoláithrigh Dia an domhon, TD 7 § 29 . is í an díle na danair, 7 § 42 . anall ó dhortadh díleann, 28 § 3 . ó ré dílinne na dtrét | a bfírinne gá coimét, SG 349 . mo ṡáeghul roimh dhílinn duib | cúig bliadhna déc do bliadhnuib | tug Día tar éis dílinn damh | cúig cét cúig míli bliadhan, Anecd. i 25 . rosaerad Noe ar thonnaib na dílend, PH 5884 . créad as a bhfuaradar an drong do bhí ria ndílinn ann ré fhada, TSh. 8528 . iar dturnamh na díleann, 8422 . re hucht na dílinne, 236 . dia hAoine tugadh an díle tar an ndomhan, Gadelica 207 (Eoghan Ó Caoimh). le huisgidhibh na díleann, Gen. ix 11 (Bedell).

(b) torrential rain, wet weather: bláth gach tíre 'na thoradh | gnáth díle mar a dhubhadh | gach fiodh cnó bhán ag bloghadh | gach domhan lán bó is brughadh, G. B. Mac Con Midhe, Book of O'Conor Don 160a(No. 297) . an cheandsachd chaitheas rinde | is grian a ngar dhilinde, GJ ix 307(Tuar feirge § 3) . grian gheal i ndeaghaidh dílionn, TD 24.54 . lá gréine i ndiaidh dílinne, 26 § 25 (doininne, v.l.). Fig. a torrent (of tears): le déaraibh fola dá ndortadh 'na ndílinn, Keat. Poems 944 = Hackett xxxix 312 .

(c) waters of the ocean, sea: Etar étan ri dílind Etar (i.e. Howth Head) forehead to the flood, Metr. Dinds. iii 104 . aés rodmbádi tond dilend (but this may belong to (e)), 106 . Of the names of the Boyne at different stages of her course: Banna ó Loch Echach cen ail, | Drumchla Dílenn co hAlbain, 28 . ardanfud dond dílinne . . . décsiu Cerbaill, RC xxix 211 . dar lebarthonnaib na dileann, Snedg. u. Mac R 33 . da druim ndilinne (: firinne), Rawl. 86b42 . co ti in diliu tar in domun, Aen. 2966 . tar dromchla ndíleann, TD 20 § 33 . fa tholchuibh dílionn, 20 § 35 . siar tar dromchladh na díleann, Keat. Poems 31 .

(d) flood, torrent usually in epithets: ucht ra mór-dilind to breast a great torrent used of facing a battle, CRR p. 46 (§ 40) . Of a warrior in battle: ruc taichim . . . fo cath na nAnmargach . . . mar borbruathur dianbunni dilend, Cog. 188 . ba he tra samail na desi sin (Haemon and Tydeus) amal ro rethidis da buinne (sic leg.) diana dileand a slebtib arda amreidi . . . (Theb.), Celt. Rev. x 318 . Of Caesar's army: . . . an breisim bratha, ┐ an buine dilenn ┐ an diliu ic tuili . . ., CCath. 5376 . as maidhm dilionn ┐ biodhbha sochaide e, ZCP x 280.y . mur buinni ndían ṅdílinn sceithes a hucht airdslébe i n-aimsir thuili, Fianaig. 94 . snámaid sisi ina ndiaid go trén tinnesnach gurba chosmail re buinne mborbruad ndilenn in dá buinne bátar ima taebaib, SG 250 . uaim dhíleann . . . samhuil inntleachta Dalláin, Oss. v 34 .

(e) The gs. is used attributively to denote great size apparently resulting from great (antediluvian?) age: dam dílend (cf. dam ré, TD 14.34 . Keat. Poems 739 ): ┐ xl ar da cetaib dam dilenn leo docum in tuir do cur a fola fai (of the building of the Tower of Babel), BB 14a53 . mar neart ndamh ndighleann, TBC-LL¹ 3870 v.l. roforbair cona ba luga hí oltás dam dílend (the beast slain by Michael), PH 7221 . Dubhchosach Binde Gulban .i. damh diomhór dilean (of a stag 500 years old), Celt. Rev. x 135 . marb eilit Droma Sileann | geisidh damh dileann dá héis, Acall. 850 . an chú glan semhḟáobhrach seng | ór gearrṡáoghlach dam dílenn, Brian Ó Corcrán, Book of O'Conor Don 227a (No. 294). Freq. applied to warriors: ba treass im dam dilend tres catha uime, BB 435a26 . téit fúthaib mar dham ndásachtach ndileann, SG 65 . indsaighis cach a chele dibh . . . mar dhá damh dílind, Ériu iii 170 . In a few exx. there seems to be a confusion in writing between dam Dile the Ox of Dil (q.v.) and dam dílenn: dam dilenn tuargabsat ceann, BB 373b48 = Daim Dile etc., Metr. Dinds. iii 204 . ? ech dílenn: is luaithe mé ná eachradh díleann (Death addressing the sinner), O'Gr. Cat. 593 (but the corresponding line in Cnuasach Comhagall 6 is: is luaithe mé na teacht tromdileann).

Of trees, etc. scolb do dharaigh dileann, CF 712 . Niall mac Echach na ttres ttenn | ríbhile díomsach dílenn, Book of O'Conor Don 155a (No. 59 ). níorbho coinne sgíthbheag, sgathuaimhneach coinne an dá ruire sin acht ba sáthadh dhá charrtha chloch ndileann, ML 140 . gu gluaiste na crega dílinn, Rel. Celt. i 165 (older version?). ar charruig dhíleann, Desid. 649 . dún dílenn a cyclopean fort (cf. dileann firm, solid, sound, strong , P. O'C. ): co fuil and da dun dileann | eargna run re taeb remeand; | uas tuind tibraid fri toraind | sund fri dib imlib Erenn (viz. Dún Sobhairche in the N. & Dún Cermna in the S.), Lec. 578a14 ( LL 17b1 ). cumdach tochair tuir dileand, BB 37a10 ( Lec. 564a37 ). uamdorus dilenn (Antaeus' cave), CCath. 2908 . is tú fa leannán dreach-nár díleann | do ṡíol Éibhir (of a fortress), Keat. Poems 1525 . Fig. uaill dílenn unyielding arrogance (?): laechraid Ulad uaill dileand | ni rorimeam a remeand, Lec. 584a19 .

do-airngir

Cite this: eDIL s.v. do-airngir or dil.ie/17154
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: tairngirid, tairrgirid, duairṅgir, duarngir, doairngair, tairngir, tarṅgir, duairngerat, dorairngerat, thairṅgere, tairṅgérat, dundarairgiurt-sa, dorairngert-sa, dosrern- gart, dorairngertas[s]a, durairrgirt-siu, dorar[n]gertaissiu, dorairngertais-siu, dorarngartais-siu, dorairngert, durairngert, dorarṅgert, do-n-rarngart, dorargert, dorairngert, dorairgert, dorairngert, do-s-rairgert, rorairngert, rotharngert, tharngert, rothairngert, nd-rotairngert, cain-tairrngert, dorairngir, dorarngir, rorarngir, rorarngair, rotharngair, rothairrngir, rothergair, dundrai[r]ngertar, toairngertatur, dorairngirsead, rotharngirset, dorairrngertsit, tarngirther, tarrngirther, duairngerthe, dorairngerad, dorairngired, dorairngered, dorairngred, durairṅgred, rotairngered, tairngirthe, tairngire

(* to-air-in-gair-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 534 , Ériu xxxvi 192-93 ) later as simple vb. tairngirid, IGT Verbs § 65 , tairrgirid.

Indic. pres. 3 s. duairṅgir, Ml. 106a2 , duarngir, 94a4 . doairngair, Laws v 118 . inna hí tairngir , Ml. 50d10 . feib tarṅgir , SR 3359 . 3 pl. duairngerat, Ml. 87b15 . dorairngerat (sic), Tec. Corm. p. 34 .

Subj. pres. 2 s. ní thairṅgere , Tec. Corm. 38 . Fut. 3 pl. ni tairṅgérat , Sg. 208b3 . (Pret. and) perf. 1 s. amal dundarairgiurt-sa , Ml. 109c9 . dorairngert-sa, Anecd. ii 61 . dosrern- gart, Fél. 66.14 . dorairngertas[s]a, PH 3783 . 2 s. durairrgirt-siu, Ml. 74c20 . dorar[n]gertaissiu, LU 5155 = dorairngertais-siu, TBC-I¹ 672 . dorarngartais-siu, SG 322 .

3 s.

(a) dorairngert, Wb. 14c32 . Ml. 46c20 ; 136c12 . TBC-I¹ 2537 . SR 289 . durairngert, Wb. 5c9 . Ml. 105b11 ; 130c16 ; 126c10 ; 123c1 . dorarṅgert, SR 1071 , 3081 , 6361 . LU 6233 . IT i 81 § 19 . do-n-rarngart, Fianaig. 36 . dorargert, Trip. 160 = dorairngert, Trip.² 1863 . dorairgert, FA § 2 (LU = dorairngert LB). do-s-rairgert, Hy. v 15 Comm. ( Thes. ii 329 ). rorairngert, BB 417b36 . rotharngert, SR 2789 , 3057 . feib tharngert , 6359 . rothairngert, Metr. Dinds. ii 30 . Corm. Y 698 . a nd-rotairngert , Mon. Tall. 146 . ni cain-tairrngert , Ériu v 236 .

(b) dorairngir, PH 3408 . dorarngir, 3435 . rorarngir, 3409 . rorarngair, 3144 . rotharngair, SR 3287 . rothairrngir, RC xxiv 202 ; xxxvi 262 . Keat. iii 2508 , etc. rothergair, LL 212b12 .

3 pl.

(a) amal dundrai[r]ngertar , Ml. 67b8 . toairngertatur, Laws i 16 .

(b) dorairngirsead, Lec. 539b7 . rotharngirset, LL 146b28 . Note also: dorairrngertsit, RC xxii 19 n. 4 .

Pass. indic. pres. tarngirther, RC xxv 252(LU) . tarrngirther, PH 3513 . Subj. impf. duairngerthe, Wb. 2c17 . (Pret. and) perf. dorairngerad, Ml. 113d5 . SR 4828 . dorairngired, LU 5944 . dorairngered, TBFr. 410 . dorairngred, Wb. 2c12 ; 19c5 . Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 20 . SR 4828 . durairṅgred, Wb. 19b22 . rotairngered, PH 6995 etc. Part. tairngirthe, Ml. 110d5 .

Vn. tairngire.

(a) promises ; gl. polliceri, Ml. 87b15 , 94a4 , Sg. 108b3 , promittere, Ml. 110d5 ; refers to promissio, Wb. 2c12 , Ml. 74c20 , 113d5 , 136c12 . dorairngeart .i. do geall, ACL iii 14 . Folld. by accus., vn. clause or subord. clause: rocretset dungenad Dia aní durairngert, Ml. 123c1 . dugena . . . inna hi tairngir, Ml. 50d10 . ar comalnad and rotairngert do anmcharait what he had promised to his confessor, Mon. Tall. 146 . ní thairngire ná dotbé do not promise what you have not, Tec. Corm. 38 . cosin tír . . . dorairṅgered do Abram, SR 4828 . ? With dat. inf. pron. dosnairgert immon ferann . . . promised them as regards the territory . . ., Rawl. 127b42 . dorairngerad dōib tuidecht a dōire, Ml. 113d5 . dorairngired dó Findabair do t[h]abairt dō, TBC-I¹ 1478 = LU 5944 . duarngir-som betan duthrachtaig a gnimai-som do Dia he promises that his deeds will be . . ., Ml. 94a4 . dorarngert si nach ḟacfed a da céle for talmain i n-oenfecht (i.e. she undertook, vowed), IT i 81 . dorairngred rombad oirdnide a chland, Wb. 2c12 .

(b) foretells, prophesies: is dō-suide dorairngered orgain in dūini-sea it was foretold that he should pillage, TBFr. 410 . do toircechnatar .i. rotharrnghairsetar, Laws iii 30 . feib rotharngair a chiall chain, SR 3287 . gur tairngir Sgáthach . . . misi do tuitim ris, TBC-LL¹ 3147 . tarngairit curpu do chrádh, Acall. 7593 . do thairrngirsiod naoimh Éireann olc do theacht ar Éirinn, Keat. iii 2513 . dorairngert ōn uraid | mairc bīas isin tulaig | ar cind in con cubaid it has been foretold (?) that woe shall betide him who . . ., TBC-I¹ 2537 (impers.?). dorarngert cech fāith o chēin | gigned i flaith Ochtauein, SR 7523 . tairngairset co na luga do gēbdais in mām Romanach that none the less they would submit to the Roman yoke, Todd Nenn. 72 . toairngertatur donicfad berla, Laws i 16.4 .

dúanaire

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dúanaire or dil.ie/18971

n [io, m.] (dúan)

(a) maker or reciter of verses: rhymer, chanter, poet, bard , P. O'C. filedh, bard, d.¤ , Eg. Gl. 350 ; Luran d.¤ , LL 354e25 . a sealb docuaid ōn curi | nach fuair co dearb d.¤ their gains departed from the band who secured not a poet (to celebrate them), Lec. 365a50 . luga ná dorn in duainire (of Eisirt, ollamh of the Luchrapán), SG 249 . an d.¤ donnshúileach, Ó Bruad. ii 58 .

(b) song-book, poem-book, collection of poems: nech robo mo d.¤ do bi i n-Erinn ina aimsir who had the greatest collection of poems (who had most poems addressed to him?), AU iii 204 . nech is mó ┐ is ferr d.¤ diadhachta 'san aimsir deigheanaigh, 316 . neach . . . roba mó d.¤ ina aimsir `had a larger collection of poems', AFM iv 1008 . fer dearlaicteach duasmhór roba mó d.¤ d'Fhionnghallaibh Ereann `had the largest collection of poetical compositions', vi 1996 . is ionann saltair ┐ d.¤ i na mbiadh iomad do dhuantaibh nó do dhántaibh, Keat. i 90 . tucthar dam d.¤ maic Lonain con faiccmis a cialla na nduan filet ann, LL 288 marg. ( TBC-LL¹ p. 911 ). doghéan d.¤ dod dhán, A. Ó Dálaigh xxxiv 4 . ní peaca a chur deachtaigthe i nd.¤ to dictate and to set down in a poem-book, O'Gr. Cat. 567 . Of a single poem: fis nār ṡuaithnich (sthuaithnich, MS.) riam roime | do dearbus im d.¤ (concluding stanza of poem on Cruachan), Lec. 354a35 .

1 ech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ech or dil.ie/19508
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: t-ech, eich, eich, eich, eith, ech, eoch, each, eich, hich, heich, eit, eochu, ech, eochu, eocho, eocha, echu, ech, echaib, eachaibh, eochaiph, ech, eich, echtaitiu, ecthaighe

n o, m. n s. in t-ech , Metr. Dinds. iii 454 . v s. a eich , TTebe 3494 . g s. ind eich , Metr. Dinds. iii 456 . eich, FB 69 etc. eith, IGT Decl. p. 115 n. 15 , 116 n. 19 . (g s. ech, Aen. 446 etc. is probably only a spelling variant). d s. eoch FB 31 . LL 47b10 . each, YBL 8a4 . n p. ind eich , ZCP viii 106.23 . ind hich , Ériu vi 134.21 . na heich , 135.49 . TBC-LL¹ 1246 . eit, Lec. 376a15 , 22 = Leb. Cert. p. 74 , 76 . eochu Lism. L. 562 . g p. ech, Ml. 16b12 . 43d1 . IT i 125.14 etc. a p. eochu, TBC-LL¹ 1244 . FB 39 . (as n p. Lism. L. 562 ). eocho, TBC-LL¹ 1134 . TBC-I¹ 700. TTebe 1382 . eocha (v.l. echu) Trip. 144.10 . ZCP viii 106.25 . TTebe 1083 etc. ech, Triads 236 . d p. echaib, TBC-LL¹ 1344 . Metr. Dinds. iii 454 . eachaibh (: beathaidh), TD 25.25 . eochaiph, BNnÉ 239 § 169 . a du. dá ech , FB 45 . ZCP viii 106.20 . See IGT, Decl. § 171 .

A horse (incl. mare or gelding) genly. of chariot or saddle-horse, dist. from capall: iomad capall, beaccan d'eachaibh, AFM iii 558.2 . The common use of the fem. pron. with ech in certain contexts implies that mares were preferred for riding or driving (but see CMCS xxiii 89 ); the masc. decl. of the word is however always retained. ainm fuasnada... ech the name of a perturbation of horses (ref. to fremitus = `neighing') Ml. 16b12 . cēt n-ech srianach, IT i 125.14 . eich uaibhreacha, TSh. 5963 . ni madriadsam ar n-echa we had better never have tamed our steeds Triads 236 . nach ech riadar isin domnach is ech tened bís hi ngabul a marcaig a n-iffirn, Ériu ii 194 . in t-ech boi fona carpat RC xii 346.24 . na dá ech filet fón charput, FB 45 . léic na eocho ar férgeilt, TBC-LL¹ 1134 . ar eoch ard on a high steed RC xx 10 § 7 = LL 47b10 . ic dul ar a ech mounting his horse Cog. 144.15 . dochuaidh ar a each ar fud sráide an longphuirt rode his horse Keat. iii 3128 . do ling...ar a each, 3227 . éirghidh ar bhar n-eachaibh, 3228 . each fae a horse under him Laws ii 154.18 Comm. LL 303a31 . má tá...gur chuiris srian | rem each... | cia an neach dar dolta ar a druim | dá socra each gan udhuim, Timth. 1917 VII iii 43 . eich dá ngníomh `exercising of steeds' TD 11.20 . eich...ag dol i gcoimhling, 11.12 . muilenn im-tai ech, O'Mulc. 816 . Interchanging with gerrán : fúacrais Ercoil comlond dó féin ┐ dá eoch forro...marbais gerran Ercoil ech Loegairi, FB 69 . indara hech ..ocus sē lugaid...in t-ech aile ocus sé casmongach TBC-I¹ 1975 . With fem. pron.: tainic each Colmáin...go M...┐ do chuir fona carpat féin í, BNnÉ 239 § 69 . is isi an t-ech oirdherc, B IV 2, 95a = O'Gr. Cat. 488 . ba suaichnich am egcosc inn eich sin .i. gabair gormglasa...is cuma conriadad si muir ┐ tir, TTebe 2282 . co tuiced int ech a n-ebairt-sium ria ┐ ro an ris ┐ dochuaid-sium fuirri 3498 . D. do mharbhadh dia eoch fein ag cor crú fuirre AFM iv 900.8 .

Attrib. gen.: tána eich , LL 295b35 = SG 361.24 .

In O'Dav. 501 the correct reading is probably: in cullach eich (as in F) the stallion , cf. the compd. ech-cullach below.

Defined by follg. adj. or gen. subst.: ech aige `a race (?)- horse' (i.e. for chariot-racing?) Laws v 406.6 . luaithe ech aighe nem medon mīs míthime .i. comluath é ┐ int ech innṡaighther isin aenach a mī medhonach int samraid, Anecd. v 25. 7 . cf. ech fri aige, dam fri har, Laws i 122.10 . e.¤ bagáiste baggage-horse: dona hechaibh bagaisde, Rel. Celt. ii 198 (Bk. of Clan R.). e.¤ anríata an unbroken horse : LL 302a22 . e.¤ bretnach a British (Welsh) horse: ór derg tuarastul in trír | ra taeb ech mbretnach mblathmín, LL 49b6 . in t-ech bretnach (sufficient ransom for a life), Laws v 438.8 Comm. (cf. 220.22 ). MacCongl. 45.16 . AU 1029 = AFM ii 818 . e.¤ buada a winning horse: is ech buada dar mag reid | fer adcosnaid flaith Dé máir, LL 284b42 . conacatar marcach for each mbuadha, RC x 62 z . Lism. L. 2090 . e.¤ crainn wooden horse : Fiacha Figente ... is ē do-rōinde an each crainn ro-n-acht iarum a nĀenach Colmān, Corp. Gen. 230 (152a10 n. a-a) ​= qui fecit equm ligneum​​​​. e.¤ crannda wooden horse : i mbroind in ech cranda, Aen. 446 . e.¤ díla a charger (?) see díl. e.¤ gerr `gelding' BColm. 88.9 ; 90.16 . e.¤ imchair a saddle-horse, riding-horse: m'each iomchuir ag triall ré tal | dob ionchuir srian dá seoladh (sic leg.) Timth. 1917, VII iii 43 . Contrasted with e.¤ díla: an t-each díola nach díol damh | 's an t-each iomchair gan iomchar (sic leg.) Tribes of Irel. 48 . e.¤ immrimme `a riding steed' Laws iv 308.22 (opp. to capul fognuma) ii 160.19 . Cf. i n-imrim do eich .i. sliastai, i 168.11 . each fae i n-aimsir imrime, ii 154.18 . e.¤ riata a broken-in or trained horse FB 31 . .l. each riata la C. fri har ┐ trebad in talman, Fél.² lxi (Mar. 5) tri heich duba daigriata, Lec. 378da 22 = Leb. Cert. 160 . Cf. riagh éineich san bfaithchi, one of the services which Lugh offers to perform at Tara, Ridgeway Essays 326 § 32 , see note. e.¤ sliasta riding-horse Laws iv 322.8 . i 168.11 . e.¤ uisci a water-horse (a goblin): ech usci robói isind loch, Triads 236 . RC xii 346 , 348 . e.¤ uiscide: eich uscide, Alex. 679 (usci BB) crocodiles (?).

COMPDS.

ech-adba? in carbad fuil i n-eachadhbadhaib na n-ech sin, ZCP viii 549.29 (= TBC-LL¹ 1815 v.l.).

¤adbul mighty in horses: i nhErind hechadbail, ZCP viii 270.12 .

¤ba: see echba.

¤bachlach horse-boy, groom (?): n p.; nícon bia acht eachbachlaich uait (a malediction), Ériu viii 157.33 .

¤bán white of steeds, having white steeds: cétrí Herenn echbáne, LL 127a39 (= MacCarthy 150 ).

¤bél horse-mouth, horse-lipped , as npr. or epithet: Echbēl mac Dedad, ScM. 7 . Echde Echbél, ZCP ix 191.1 (= Ériu ii 32 ). co Eochu Echbél, RC xxvi 8 = LL 186a13 . cland Echach Echbeóil, LL 138a37 (see Thurn., Heldensage 443 ). Dinds. 53 . Erge Echbél, ZCP viii 326.5 .

¤breth horse-judgement: i n-echbrethaib Áine, O'Dav. § 813 . ¤buide having yellow steeds: Iubdán mac Abdaein echbuide, SG i 249.25 . ¤cairptech : a crích Umaill echcairpdig, LL iii 20469 . ¤cenn: horse-headed: Eochaid Eachcend, BB 44b31 . ¤cullach stallion: im echccullach for eochu .i. i naimsir echmarta, Laws i 144.4 . ¤cummascda centaur, horse-mongrel: popul torathardha na Centauri ┐. na nEchcumusccda .i. each ┐ duine a cummascc aenpersainne inntip, CCath. 3839 (possibly na n-ech c., and not a compd.). ¤dian of swift steeds: g s m. m. Ailill echdéin, RC xx 140 . ? ¤díle ? bíastai granni dracondai cucund dofutitis | tréna a n-amainsi echdíli cíadcutís, LU 114b17 (Siaburch. om. Anecd. iii 54 - 5 ). ¤dillat horsecloth: marcach for each...eachdillat maith cumtachta foa suidhiu, RC x 62 z . eochdillat, Aen. 2112 . ¤donn having brown steeds: a secht Chind Ḟáelad echduind, LL iii 15296 . ¤flesc rod, horsewhip (cf. 1 echlasc): dobert béim dind echfleisc dó, SCC 8 . ech a cengal die echfleisc, RC xiii 7.14 . pn ¤lúath mounted on, or possessing swift steeds: as epithet: Conall Echlúath, Cóir Anm. 163 . Rawl. 145d38 . ¤mairc: see echthres s.v. ech. ¤mairt covering a mare: doluid [in cullach]...co mbói eter scuru Enna Aignig do saigid echmarta, Dinds. 107 . i n-aimsir echmarta, Laws i 144.5 Comm. ¤míne tameness of steeds: rob iarla co n-echmine possessing tame steeds (?) BB 59a6 . ¤mór great in steeds, rich in steeds: flathius Mael Sechnaill echmóir, Arch. Hib. ii 85 § 46 = LL 185a49 . ¤raite horse-road: doronad fri echraite mendoto a medon, EIF 538 § 1 . ¤réid: see eichréid. ? ¤réim (¤dréim) horse-riding (mounting horses ?): echréim (MS. echdreim) ┐ cor cloiche, Celtica viii 142.18, cf. 149 . ¤rúad having ruddy steeds: dá degmac Ebir echrúaid, LL i 299 . ¤rúathar: aimsir echruathair (one of the seasons in which roads are cleansed), Corm. Y 1082 ; as npr. m.: Echrúathar, BDD 117 . ¤semmar a plant name, horse-clover: maculta treisfolium (maculatum trifolium?) .i. in eachṡemar, RC ix 237 . echṡemmar, LB 101 m. inf. corona regia .i. an eachṡeamar 23 K 42, 415 = Academy 1896, 406b . g s. eachṡeimri, Med. MS . ¤srian bridle: coīcait n-echsrian, ZCP viii 310.22 . Laws iv 326.11 , 328.9 . ¤tháid horse-thief: ní ria a enech...ar echu echthadat he shall not sell his honour for the steeds of a horse-thief ZCP xi 86 § 43 . co luga echthádat, Tec. Corm. § 27.15 . im loingsechaibh ┐ im echtadait ┐ im macu tiri, Laws i 160.2 Comm. echtaitiu (a p.) iii 22.18 Comm. n p. echtáide (sic leg.) Laws ii 270.5 , ZCP xx 480 . ecthaighe, ii 270.5 Comm. ¤thress a horse-contest, horse-race: tucait...dá ech... i n-ech-thress curad, Metr. Dinds. iv 126 . bla each echtres ....i. slan dona hechaib in tres echda doniat eturru budein `horse-fight' Laws iii 294.15 . co ndernad óenuch ┐ echtressa leo ann, IT i 128.15 (corresp. to: ic gním óenaig ech-thressa, Metr. Dinds. iii 350 ). oegidacht Úa nDrona de | ocus ech-thress Ossairge (proverbial expressions?), Metr. Dinds. iii 22 . Dinds. 18 . echtres Ratha Line, BB 268a24 (= echrais, Leb. Cert. 22 ). Cf. echtres .i. echmairc, O'Dav. 805 .

éthchech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. éthchech or dil.ie/20842

Forms: éithchechaib, eithchich

adj o-ā (éthech) lying, perjured: éithchechaib (gl. periuris) Wb. 28a6 . ar ṁbéoil ethcich elnide, SR 1612 . ind eithchich linib luga (n p.) 8344 . gataige ┐ ethgig ┐ áes braith, FA 27 LU (éthig LB).

éthech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. éthech or dil.ie/20843

Forms: ethich, n-eithig, eithchi, eithigh, éithigh

n o, n. later m. ( ZCP xiii 102 ) a false oath, perjury, lying: ind ethich (gl. periurii) Ml. 36a22 (g s.). fri ethech, fri gúforgal, SR 4846 . gubreithemnus ┐ gufiadnuisi ┐ gufoirgill...┐ ethuch i coitcenn, Laws i 56.3 Comm. dodechatar dia lugu i n-éithiuch do P. = venerunt periurare volentes Todd Lect. v 54.7 (= i n-etheuch, Trip. 180. 23 ). gan étheach fo mionnaibh Maodog not to swear falsely by BNnÉ 261.2 . nech tober a cheli ind-eithech, Ériu vii 156.23 (= qui ducit alium in periurio 185 ). With tongid: nib ard a guth, ni thoe eithech, LL 360 marg. inf. nech dothoing ethech...fo cethar-lebrai soscelai, Ériu vii 156.20 . in té tothoing ethech tria ainfis, 156.24 (= qui ductus est in periurio ignorans 185 ). With do-beir: ar an éithioch doradsad, TFrag. 148 . co tugadar a n-eitheach an uair aderit, etc., that they have lied in saying Maund. 118 . ní thiobhruidh tú h'éitheach, Matthew v 33 . With do-gní: dogni ethech air .i. dogni gō for a ceile swears falsely against him Laws v 360.8 Comm. ma rufestar bas n-ethech acht dagni ar...chomitecht, Ériu vii 156.26 (= qui vero suspicatur quod in periurio ducitur tamen iurat per consensum 185 ).

[lámh] Ciarain do tabairt a n-eithech swearing falsely by the hand of C. Ériu vi 160.29 . Keat. iii 819 .

Attrib. gen.: cech oen dogní luga n-eithig , Three Hom. 4.28 = LB 24b60 . RC xx 12.6 . budh luighi eithigh tuc in fear, Ériu vi 160.18 (= l. eithchi , 159.16 ). an te dobheir mionna eithigh , Luc. Fid. 59.9 . do lucht an éithigh , Tim. i 10 .

fairsing

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fairsing or dil.ie/21166

Forms: forsiung-, fairsiung, farṡiung, fairsiung, fairsing, foirsingigem, farsiungmenmnaigi, fairsingmenmnaigi, forsiungmenmnaige

adj i, u, forsiung-, Ml. 60a2 . fairsiung, 84a3 . Fél. Oct. 28 (v.l.) LB 36a35 . farṡiung, TBC-LL¹ 1022 .

(a) ample, broad, spacious: fairsiung (gl. latus) Ml. 84a3 . fairsing (gl. amplus) Ir. Gl. 640 . epistil bai imma bragait, ... in tan nobered fírindi ba fairsing da braigit ; in tan ba gó ba cumang, Bodl. Corm. s.v. sin ( 1160 Y). is cumung is farsiung (descr. of `iffern') LU 2453 . is lethan ┐ is fairsiung in sét (= lata est uia) LB 36a35 = PH 4000 . is fairsing a ṅdál-som `ample is their assembly' [ wide, far-reaching (?), cf. (b)] Fél., Oct. 28 . badhun f.¤ , Maund. 252 . iostad f.¤ , Measgra D. 57.6 . is fairsind urlar a thaidhe, AU iii 612 (instance of -nn for -ng, K.M., Wortk. 68 ). machaire fairsing, TSh. 2556 . fearann fairseing (: eing), Keat. i p. 172 . don árus ḟ.¤ ... na cathrach neamhdha, TSh. 2729 . robsat fiala fairsinge a foirghneamha, MR 102z . fa gíall geimhil ḟairsing í a hostage with a roomy fetter IGT, III. ex. 419 . As subst. : a slucud in oenfecht ... dar farṡiung a bragat, TBC-LL¹ 1022 (fairsingi St). gabsat rompa i bhḟairsiung sligheadh in the open road RC xliii 38 § 36 . ar fairsingib ┐ ar forréitib na ferand the wide (open) and level parts Fianaig. 64.10 . in dabhuch as luga ... | fairsing ndesi [sic leg.], cumang trír, Acall. 3926 (`too wide for two' SG ii 203 ).

(b) in extended sense ample, copious, profuse: slabar cach cumang ┐ eslabar cech fairsing, Corm. Bodl. s.v. slabrad ( 1153 Y). sealg romhōr roḟairsing a widely flung hunt Fianaig. 42.1 . Of persons profuse, generous: Ua C. an chroidhe ḟ.¤ , TD 34.30 . gáir na bhflaith bhfairsing, Measgra D. 57.19 . iostad na bhflaith bhfairsing bhfíonmhar, Keat. Poems 1570 . go mbíodh go fial f.¤ leis na dronguibhsi, Mac Aingil 364.2 . Superl. : foirsingigem (probably for -gimem ; gl. latissimam) Ml. 67d4 . COMPDS. : forsingmenmnach (gl. magnanimus) Ml. 123a16 . ¤menmnaige , f. acc. in farsiungmenmnaigi (gl. magnanimitatem) Ml. 90c4 . dat. huand fairsingmenmnaigi , 136a14 . gen. inna forsiungmenmnaige (gl. longanimitatis) 60a2 .

1 fo, fa, fá

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 fo, fa, fá or dil.ie/22333
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: fo, fó, fu, fa, ba, bá, ba, fá, fao, faoi, fa, ba, fa, fa, faoi, fua, foa, fo, fó, f, fo, fó, fá, fon(d), fón, fónd, foind, fóa, fun, fan, fona, fosnaib, foum, fóm, fúm, fúm, fóm, fout, fūd, fút, —d, fót, —d, fád, fo, foa, fua, foí, fóe, foei, fáe, fou, foú, fó, foa, fáe, foe, fai, fua, fáe, faoi, fa, faoi, faoi, foí, fúe, fóe, foithi, fóthi, foithe, fuithe, fúithe, fáoithi, fúithe, fóithe, faoithe, fúinn, fōin, fōind, fúnn, fúinn, fóinn, faoinn, fuibhsi, faoibh, fúibh, fóibh, faoibh, fóthu, fúthu, fūthu, fōthu, fōtha, fūtha, fútha, fóthib, fōthib, fóthib, foíthib, foithib, fūthaibh, fuithibh, —uí—, fúthaibh, fúthuibh, faoithibh, fóm, fom, bám, fám, fot, fót, fád, foa, fóa, fána, fo, fo, fóar, fo, fánar, fo, foa, fona, fana, fána, foum, f., Fo-

(leniting) prep. with acc. and dat. Forms : fo Wb. 5b3 . 9c31 . Ml. 14d4 . 27d7 . 28c12 . Sg. 140a4 . 153b6 . Acr. 8b1 . BCr. 31c5 . SR 1596 . LU 1928 . 2970 . 4764 . 6615 . LB 67b14 . 171b16 . 201a20 . fó, LU 3806 . 6498 . 6899 . 10792 . 10779 . LB 54a50 . 244b25 . fu, Ml. 63b4 . 67c2 . 77b11 . 94a2 . BCr. 18d2 . fa, LL 177b45 . LB 41b53 . 162b16 . 165b10 . ba, bá, 243a36 . ba, Maund. 237 . fá, LU 9132 . (cf. secht cneslénti [sic leg.] ... bítís bá thétaib ... hi cústul fri gelcnes dó LU 6413 ). fao, Fl. Earls 70.30 . faoi, RSClára 6a . fa (fá, ba) is frequent in Mid. Ir. and is the regular form in Early Mod Ir. (fáoi, fa fhior sin, IGT, Introd. § 73 . ata m'ḟalluing ... fa ḟior o beith faoi IGT, 24 P 8, 190 ), see exx. below. With nasal. rel. part.: fua, Ml. 35a9 ; b16 . 38c3 . 45a3 . Fél. Prol. 86 (fa v.l.). foa, Ml. 59d7 . Marco P. 16 . fo, Ml. 35b18 . Marco P. 136 . fó (ro) 18 . f, TSh. 7542 . Mid. Ir. fo, fó, fá. With art. fon(d), Ml. 35a9 . 53b9 . 36b16 . Sg. 14b1 . 73b3 . Fél. Oct. 15 . LU 3100 . 8461 . fón, LU 1508 . 1797 . 8214 . MacCongl. 103.3 . fónd, LU 6092 . LL 71b1 . foind, LU 6099 . fóa n— (neut.) 8240 . fun, Ml. 65c9 . fan IGT, 24 P 8, 190 . Ó Héodhusa 68 . pl. fona. Incorrectly fosnaib, LL 63bx ( TBC-LL¹ 1020 ).

With pron. suff.: 1 sg. foum (gl. íssum) Hy vi 4 Comm. fóm, LL 82b30 . fúm, ACL iii 236 § 6 . TSh. 4226 . fúm, fóm IGT, 24 P 8, 193 .

2 sg. fout, SR 1734 (monos.). fót, 835 . LU 2815 . fūd ZCP vi 283.21 . fút, —d; fót, —d IGT, 24 P 8, 193 . fád TD 10.20 .

3 s. m. n., acc. fo, Ml. 37a14 . foa, LU 8849 . fua, 8525 . foí, 2011 . fóo, TBC-I² 1283 . fóu, Trip. 130.6 . LB 191b58 (fói). fóe, LL 62b21 . 80a41 . foei LB 7b44 . fáe, Lat. Lives 46.10 . dat. (not distinguished in Mid. Ir.) fou, Ml. 38c3 . 64a10 . 98c10 . Bodl. Dinds. s.v. prull (foe Y). foú, Ml. 35b16 . fó, LU 1483 ( foo, 5620 is possibly acc. pl.). Trip. 222.6 . foa (fóu E) 240.14 . fáe, CCath. 1214 . foe, MacCongl. 89.15 . fai, Lism. L. 1666 . fua, LU 6424 . TBC-LL¹ 3378 . fáe (sin), CCath. 1477 . faoi, IGT, Introd. § 73 . ata m'ḟalluing ... fa ḟior o beith faoi , IGT 24 P 8, 190 . faoi, Ó Héodhusa 68 .

3 s. f. foí, LU 6214 . ? fúe, 7121 ( BDD 80 ). fóe (diss.), Imr. Brain § 6 (ref. to inis). foithi, Trip. 8.10 . Marco P. 16 . Lism. L. 50 . fóthi, LL 59.49 ; 267b27 . foithe, MacCongl. 122.32 . Lism. L. 2220 . fuithe, Acall. 2756 . fúithe, TSh. 1679 . fáoithi, IGT, Decl. ex. 432 . fúithe, fóithe, faoithe IGT, 24 P 8, 193 .

1 pl. found TBC-I¹ 3578 . fúinn, Maund. 157 . TSh. 8033 . fōin, fōind, ACL iii 235 § 28 (: ōir). 237 § 23 (cōir). fúnn, fúinn, fóinn, faoinn IGT, 24 P 8, 193 .

2 pl. fuibhsi, Acall. 2173 . faoibh, Studies 1921, 74 . Luc. Fid. 366.6 . fúibh, fóibh, faoibh IGT, 24 P 8, 193 .

3 pl. acc. fou, Ml. 42 b 7 . fóthu, LL 63b21 . 85a24 . fúthu, Fianaig. 94.17 . fūthu, CCath. 2445 (as dat. 1889 ). fōthu (as dat.) 3032 . 3189 . 4718 . fōtha, 4834 . 5208 . fūtha (as dat.) Maund. 157 . fútha, TSh. 1164 . dat. fóthib, LU 1889 . LL 95b43 . fōthib (as acc.) 62b33 . fóthib, 222a23 ( TTr. 363 ). foíthib (as acc.) LU 6166 . ? foithib (: soithib), Metr. Dinds. iv 86.76 . fūthaibh (as acc.) Marco P. 91 . fuithibh (—uí—?) 100 . fúthaibh, TSh. 2270 (as acc. 2374 ). fúthuibh, faoithibh IGT, 24 P 8, 193 .

With poss. 1 sg. fóm, LL 113b28 . LB 161bx . fom, LB 6a19 . 191a9 . bám, 179a42 . fám, FDG 287 . TSh. 2145 . 2 sg. fot, LL 259b24 ; 32 . fót, LU 3903 . 6090 . LL 259b36 . fád, TSh. 7867 , - 74 . 3 s. foa, Wb. 32c13 . LU 10653 . 10661 . 10910 . fóa, 5596 . LB 192b29 . fána, Keat. ii 6299 . TSh. 1576 . 4216 . fo (axail) BDD 148 U (foo Y). fo (smacht) LB 178b54 .

1 pl. fóar, Wb. 9a1 . LB 172b3 . fo ar, LB 171b37 . fánar, TSh. 5591 (verse).

2 pl. fo bar, Wb. 23d11 .

3 pl. foa, LU 6781 . fona, BCC p. 396.23 . fana, FDG 409 . fána, TSh., 3067 .

I Of local relations.

(a) under, beneath: used more extensively than the corresponding Engl. prep., as the Irish idiom, in speaking of two things one above another prefers to say that B is under A rather than that A is over B: foum (gl. íssum) Hy vi 4 Comm. bieit a namait fo a chosaib som under his feet Wb. 32c13 . a tabairt fu chossa `their being put under foot' Ml. 67c2 . lecca derca fo chossaib, LU 2424 . asin tiprait boí fón drochat, 1797 . co n-accatar fón muir fóthib annís dúine, 1889 . gabais in mnaí foa lethoxail took the woman under his arm 10910 . atnaig C. foí thrusts him under it 5233 . da lurgain lomchaela fae, Thr. Ir. Gl. 36 (Corm. s.v. prull). do chuir a lámh chlé faoi chum éirghe dó, Comp. CC 81.10 . léigcitt a nglūine fútha they kneel down Maund. 77 . gabais ... a chois foí, LU 1503 (`took him by the leg' MU 51 ). co mmema do fergara fót 6099 . ro thescsat a leth-iscait ... foei, PH 554 . mani má in talam fúe, BDD 80 . mana maidi in talam found, TBC-I¹ 3578 . in cloch no geissed fo chosaib cach ríg nogeibedh Hérinn, Dinds.. i § 13 = BB 350a18 . in tan ticedh ri Eirenn fuirre, do ghéised in lecc fái, Acall. 7999 . ro hecrait áine ┐ urluachair fóthu, TBC-LL¹ 998 . mairg cois isa bond fa mbris woe to the foot under whose sole it breaks ACL iii 237 § 21 . atá fó cach duma .l. fer, LU 2873 . a lec na righ ... fút atát cuirp na tri Tadg, Ériu ii 166.30 . líc ... foa n-adnaicthe na gennte, Marco P. 16 . in ail fó ro hadnachta a sin, 18 . fo Loch Echach, LU 2970 . fo dílind, Ériu iv 130.17 . docuaidh se fai an abhainn ... ┐ nir eirich se no gor baithed e, BCC § 149 . (cf. no thogfaind mo chlíu | ma úir, LU 9856 . ge fía dig fa húir, 9859 ). luid fo thalmain, Fél. May 20 . a chor fo thalmain to bury PH 664 . mar fhágbhaid fá úir é, TSh. 970 . droichet fo ngabhait longa under which ships pass Marco P. 136 . fo gréin (nim) under sun (heaven) i.e. alive; in the world: nisfil fo grein fairind ... basid feiliu, ACL iii 297z . gan coimmeas ris fon g. ... acht tusa he has no equal in the world but thee Duan. F. ii 324 § 25 . ní fil fo nim ní ... na dingned, LU 3911 ( SCC 42 ). teglach fo teglach ind ḟir | ni fil fo n., AU 894 . gan neach 'na n-aghoidh fo neimh no one in the world against them Duan. F. ii 164 § 35 . dona daoinibh fá neamh, TSh. 2088 (= sub caelo ... hominibus Actus iv 12 ). Esp. in sense of carrying, supporting: droichet ..., xxx. uaithne fulaing fai, Marco P. 97 . beir let licc ... fot suidi, SR 1593 . is amlaid ... atá in rígsudi ... co cethri colomnaib foi, LU 2006 ( FA 7 ). cen fúndamit fái PH 7816 . tū ag folang fóin supporting us beneath ACL iii 235.28 . ech ... foa suidiu, LU 10661 . tri eich derga foa suidib, BDD 30 (foithib, Eg. fosuidib DE). gerrán Patraic foa (fóu, Eg.) P.'s nag was carrying it (of a load) Trip. 240.14 . na dá ech filet fón charput, LU 8590 . secht carpait ... ┐ ceithri heich dēc fūithibh, ZCP vii 300.12 . fuaim nechraide fó ríg the sound of steeds under a king's chariot BDD 50 . fuaim carbaid fo rígh, BNnÉ 183.11 . in carpat fil fónd ócláig, TBC-LL¹ 1815 . carbad ... bhias faoi ... rothadha fan charbad, Ó Héodhusa 68 . in sdét robúi fae Sir G. ZCP vi 56.32 . ber mul ... fud `have under thee a ... mule' 283.21 . confacatar in fer mbecc ... ┐ luingin creduma foi in a skiff of bronze RC vi 183.4 . in cholcid boí foí the bed he was on LU 10478 . nirbo gnáth in corthe út fo enaib that pillar was not wont to have birds on it LL 121b34 ( RC iii 181 ). ech ... ina laige fo eri, PH 5846 . baile a laighfedh an damh fon ccarpat, BNnÉ 32.1 . arna loscedsi ... in fer nobiad fóthi that it should not burn the man who carried it (of a magic spear) MU² 741 ( LL 267b27 ). tuc gobal ... fo a cinnu stuck their heads on a fork Dinds. 144 . do rad C. a carpat fo leabhraibh Beraich loaded his chariot with B.'s books BNnÉ 31 y . asail berar fa lointibh la gach n-aen `asses laden with provisions are taken' Marco P. 20 . mac in chruittiri fón cruit, Ériu ix 49 § 30 . fer fo bhíudh ... aroile fo lionn, Hugh Roe² 11.26 (f. 6b) . focheirded id n-óir immi | nád bāded fairge foa that the sea might not drown him while he wore it Metr. Dinds. iii 104.23 . éicne ... is é fuillechta fo mil dressed with honey TBFr. § 23 . cuiridh fo shalann é pickle it BNnÉ 74.8 . tuirtín fá luaith (= subcinericium panem) TSh. 4926 . do chorpán fo chrú covered with gore ML 110.13 ( ML² 1455 ). cona brugaib fo blāth flowering meadows SR 379 . boí [Mag Breg] fó a lí ┐ fó bláth cach datha LU 10792 . finemhain fo torud, ZCP v 24 § 2 . gort nach bi fa barr that bears no crops ACL iii 236 § 5 . clúana ... fá sgingbheirt reóidh `meadows wrapped in a cloak of ice' Ó Heódhusa, Studies 1921, 419 . dolluid in curach fo séol trena mocoll under sail LU 1928 . laoidheang fa lán seóil under full sail TD 20.30 . do bhí an domhan fa dhall chiach 7.33 . cotlud dó fón sāith sin, LU 3451 ( SCC 23 ). in ghein fil fat bruindi in thy womb RC vi 175.55 . i taig fó glas, LU 4764 . fuaratar in carcair fon iadhad doratsat forri, PH 3696 . in carcair do beth fon ṅdúnad cetna, 3698 . Cf. a mbeit[h] i mbuaile fo iadhu an oidhche (of cows), Laws iv 96.24 . corbo ecen clar fo dlutad uasu, BB 390b1 . bheith geimhlighthe fá ghéibheann ghrás nDé, TSh. 2201 . docuaid C. fana corp fen san aiér in his own body BCC § 149 . an tan ... nach féadann ... an biadh ... do chongbháil fána chlí cannot retain his food TSh. 1575 . comēt dam mo chride ... ni raib miscais foë let there be no hatred in it ZCP vi 259 § 6 . dosrat fo chlaidiub put them to the sword SR 4148 . ce atagtha fo claideb, Ériu ii 122.21 . dochuaidh Pol fo cloidhem BB 10a3 ( MacCarthy 284 ). luidh fo lannaib fell by blades BB 50b29 ( MacCarthy 422 ). tair fón claideb come under the sword (in token of submission) LU 9659 ( ZCP iii 212 ). cárna samaisci do indarggain fo thál ┐ béuil, TBFr. § 19 . Often loosely used to denote an inferior position: tobert C. a lue ... co mboí a n-imdorus isin tenlug fó, LU 1483 ( MU² 964 , `the door fell down before him' MU 51 ). suidid fo glún Conchobair (i.e. at C.'s feet ?) LU 5206 . ro slecht fo chossaib Mártain at M.'s feet RC ii 400.16 . PH 1335 . tarrustar ... fo chossa G., 1372 . fo chosaib Gamaliél ... ro alt [Pól], 1649 . co mbí fo chrund bethad, LU 1356 . bud iomdha ... mairbh fa ríoghnaibh roisgḟliucha `many will be the wet-eyed queens over their dead' TD 16.71 . do-chuaidh Ionas ... fá chrann, TSh. 2477 . an tan bhíos ... fá láimh chlí Dé on God's left hand 9891 . angcaire ... do léigean fúthaibh, 2374 . fo choimm: see 1 coim. fo chomair: see comair.

(b) of direction towards, into, through: a naslui grién foa fuined `when the sun goes away to its setting' BCr. 33b18 . doluid fon caillid (= ad silvam) Lat. Lives 85 ( dochuaid isin caill, Hy v 61 Comm. ). gur ling an t-each uaidh fán gcoill, TSh. 1001 . ralotar fón fid, CRR 37 . nach tan nosbert eolchaire fo rian roglass whenever homesickness brought them on the sea Anecd. i 69.1 . amair raga sa ... asan curach fo thir RC xiv 60.24 . docuaidh ... roime fon tír, ZCP vi 51.9 . dochuiremar an long fo tír isin oilén, BNnÉ 49.35 . tunda fina do cur fo tir cast on shore Ann. Conn. 1310 § 10 . dús in táir cobair Ulad foo, LU 5620 . buailis fá lár a chorp to the ground TSh. 5586 . ro léig fo lár a ḟoghuil ... ┐ ro an acumsa `abandoned' Fianaig. 76.8 . Cf. roínfid fuil féne fo don, LU 6615 . teiched ... fo fhoithrib, Marco P. 55 . do theich fo sliabh C., CCC 79.1 . ni lamhann drochspirat techt fa tech i mbí, Maund. 15 (c ?). teid fan ceol in the direction of the music ZCP v 501 (cf. II j). tolotatar fon fes came to the feast RC xiii 223.50 . cromait ... fan cath bend to the (i.e. engage in) battle ZCP viii 224 . Cf. cuir aris fao cluasa do chroidhi da eisteacht = ad iterum audiendum aures cordis accommoda Instructio 119.28 . tigid fád lorg = sub tua vestigia TSh. 7867 . Cf. celebrait ... na ocht trath oc molad ... in Coimded co claischétol aircaingel oc tíachtain foí (the birds) sing the hours in praise of the Lord with the quire of the archangels accompanying it LU 2011 ( FA 7 ). do-beir láim fo undertakes, attempts (see lám).

(c) esp. of impact, collision, attack: benaid foo LU 4874 . benaid fona maccu, 4885 . buain fútha meddling with them (?) Ériu v 71.6 . (see benaid, búain). tarlaic urchur fuithib, RC v 199.11 (see do-léci). ac tabairt sádaid do crann a tsleigi fuithe, Acall. 2756 . buailtear an long fá charraig against a rock TSh. 3759 . do-bheir craos-ruathar ... fútha makes a hungry onslaught on them 1164 . téit (imm-soí, etc.) f. turns on, attacks: cobair cethra foa tiagat coin alltai helping cattle attacked by wolves Ériu ii 210.2 . teit [in béist] fo thrédu Gargan ┐ ro marb dímór dib, PH 7227 . amail teit ség fa mindtu, MR 70.16 = FDG 627 . do chu[a]idh fúthu ┐ tríthu, Fianaig. 94.17 . ná deach faoibh fréamh ar ndoibheart ` assail ' Eoghan R. Mhac an Bhaird, Studies 1921, 74 . imsoí foíthib ┐ marbthus íat, LU 6166 . imsói fothu, Metr. Dinds. iii 258.29 . maitti a ndírím fó araill, LU 6667 (`their forces rush at each other' Faraday, Faraday, 96 ). no co roicher (ndeachar v.l.) fo longphort fer nÉ., CCC 94.16 . eirgidh fo palas in rígh `attack' Fier. 131 . amhail choin ... do sgaoilfidhe fá shluaghaibh, TSh. 3122 . ionsoighidh foithib ... amhuil faolcoin fo chaorchaib, Hugh Roe 226.9 (f. 60a) . lingid ... fótha dá n-óirleach, Keat. i 204.31 . co ngreis a choin fona clerchiu, Lism. L. 276 . lecidh in rí na griba futhaibh, Marco P. 91 . lór do chur cháich fa chéile enough to set all at variance TD 6.2 .

(d) throughout, over, gen. of motion: ducuaid inducbal cruche Crist fun domun, Ml. 65c9 . fon domun for cech leth (gl. longe lateque) 53b9 . seinter lat ... cornn ... | co roa a glōir fo secht nime, SR 1368 . teid ... do iarraid a legis fon doman, RC xii 326.22 . ro closs fon ṁbith, Fél. Oct. 15 . dorónad coindmed na filed ... fo Érind, LU 360 . rocluinter ... a nggáir fón firmimint, 2199 . forodalta Conaille fo hÉrinn, ZCP viii 330.29 . roscuir ... a munter ... fon Eoraip sent his people all over Europe PH 267 . rosfuid Dia Michel fo na secht nimib, MacCarthy 68.9 ( LB 112bx ). co clos fona crichaib comfoicsibh, CCath. 1428 . fodlaidh baill an maic ... fo naemaib hErenn distributes the limbs ... amongst the saints BColm. 92.13 . co clos fosnaib tuathaib uili, TBC-LL¹ 1020 . scél scáilter fa chách amongst all CRR 54 . a clú ica irrdercugud fo cech popol, CCath. 333 . do bhrúcht Loch Con fa thír over the land Keat. i p. 162 . In : do himdergadh go mōr fa ghnúis ... na hingine a deep blush came over Ériu v 84.14 , fa replaces imm ; cf. ro himdergad imon ceand, RC xxiv 64 § 26 , and see (f) below. Cf. amal arrograd descad fo bairgin, Wb. 9b13 . laibhín ... faoi leaven mixed with it TSh. 8982 . foillech di menadaich fa bargen, Ériu vii 140.15 (` leg. for,' Ed.).

(e) on: .lll. mac fo chathaírib airgdidib, BDD 105 Y. Cf. faidhit din claraigh uasa mbarcuibh ... ni chuirid pic forro, acht ola ┐ cailc ┐ cnaib do mhingerred tritha, ┐ a cur fuithib (`with this they pay their ships'), Marco P. 145 .

(f) about, around (contamination of IMM , see also II l et seq. below): sciathrach scéith do gabáil fó brágit round his neck CRR 17 . gab craidhi spideoigi ... ┐ cuir fa braigid an ti ... take a robin's heart and hang it round the neck of ..., Rosa Angl. 234.7 . do cuiretar coroin fa chenn, Maund. 16 . craicind ... leoman ba cathbar[r] ma [fo, Eg.] cendaib on their heads TTebe 2672 . slabhra ... fána chom, Keat. ii 6299 (= moa bragit, Rawl. 81a15 . ima b., YBL 127a25 ). do gabh crios fa a colainn, ZCP i 62 § 45 . an bhfuil sróll ... fána chneas?, TSh. 4216 . fá bhrághaid, 7549 . duine fá mbíd an dá ghéibheann úd, 7542 . coróin fána cheann, 40 . fa (um, v.l.) dhruim píasda | filltir slíasda flatha Fáil, IGT, Decl. ex. 1226 . Hence hard by, near (?): ro marbsad lucht dā eathar fan Suca, RC xviii 188.32 (Tig.). Cf. dodechad ... dot chursu fan lind, TBC-LL¹ 3420 = mon lind, TBC-I¹ 2628 , where under is possibly the meaning. maidm ... do tabairt do Ch. fo Beol Atha S. for Conallchaib, Ann. Conn. 1359 § 3 (= oc Áth S., FM).

II Of fig. and abstract relations,

(a) under ; dofucfa ... na mbia fo menmain a chéli cena falsigud o briathraib, LU 2665 . Cf ailithre idan ... ticc co menicc fo menmain, ACL iii 321 § 1 . is messi ... dorat fó menmain Ailella do seircsiu put love of thee into A's heart LU 10779 (= for , Ériu xii 170. 15 ). Especially with words denoting appearance, state, condition, manner, attendant circumstances, classification : dath ... fo chosmailius saphirr like sapphire Ml. 84d4 . dolega ... fo chosmailius dilenn, 62b20 . conrotacht ... a tech ... fó chosmailius na Cráebrúadi, LU 8045 . fon óenchummi in one way Sg. 14b1 . is cuma nóblighthea bai ┐ eillti fon aenchumai cach dia ré linn, Cóir Anm. 26 . dotháet ass fón cumma sin, LU 6496 . fon cruth sa, 3539 ( SCC 29 ). atcessa iat ... fon cruth sin, LU 8770 ( FB 57 ). co n-ebairt fón n-innasa so that he spake thus LU 2317 (cf. sections g, j below). esergi in ciniuda dóennai fon n-innas sa, 2720 . fóa n-innas cetna in the same manner 8240 ( FB 18 ). LU 9095 ( FB 84 ). fon innas cétna, LU 8797 ( FB 60 ). fon n-innus sin, Marco P. 85 . nodslaid fón alt cétna beat him in the same way LU 3288 ( SCC 8 ). secht mbliadnai di fond alt sin in that condition LL 280a23 ( SG 415 ). a mbatar ... fon samail sin thus LU 3301 ( SCC 10 ). dorónad grianán ... fo chomardus imdaí Conchobair as high as LU 8062 ( FB 3 ). fo deilb diabuil in the form of a demon SR 1739 . slabrada ... fo deilb natrach, LU 2174 ( FA 25 ). imad ... lecc lógmar innte fo chuma grene ┐ ésca, LB 138b19 . fo feib, SR 375 . fo clith secretly 1281 . co mbatar blíadain fo chleith, Metr. Dinds. iii 390.79 . fo gné sub specie: fo gné bairgine, PH 5183 . fo bithphianaib, SR 1740 . fo déraib in tears Fél. Ep. 174 . Prol. 24 . sínset fo brón ... cosin crích `pursued their way in ... grief' Metr. Dinds. iii 390.73 . luid C. fo luinni úad in indignation LU 6021 . caland fa scīs a weary body ACL iii 237 § 26 . gan duine fo fhodord dibh `without one of them murmuring' BS 108 § 54 . siu nobeth fo athis rather than be disgraced LU 2932 . bía fónd anim sin thou shalt carry that blemish 6092 . bánbéim na fagaib feith fo saoth .i. fo tinnes, O'D. 826 ( H 3.17, 590 - 1 ). beth fa essanóir, PH 7387 . robúi B. fa anoir, ZCP vi 296.7 . cath ... ó a mbeid Gaoidhil fo mheabhoil, Duan. F. ii 160 . dolluid A. dochum a thíri fó chōri ┐ óentaid fri U., LU 1551 . scarsat ... fo ṡīdh ┐ chaenchomhrac, Marco P. 151. 156 . bheith ag luiṅgseóireacht arthraigh ... fá phioráideacht in piracy TSh. 2165 . bretnas ... cona ecor dé ór fo ṡnīm plaited Anecd. i 61 § 91 (= co mbrephnib óir LU 1809 ). fa áis na maighden `of the age' Maund. 253 . nech ... fu grad epscoip of the rank of a bishop Ériu vii 140.1 . fa marbhdataid ! mortifiyed RSClára 91a . dí laogh fona dathaibh uccat of those colors BNnÉ 10.27 . arrubert bith ann ... fo glēre lesaigt[h]i bíd ┐ cormae, BColm. 84.5 . níl an flaitheas so faoi ghluas acht moving Corp. Astron. 36.15 . eter comslechtaib na cethri sen find fichet fu aen fochanat in unison(?) Rawl. 106b29 (cf. Rev. iv 4 , 10 ). a lan do laechaib ... fa oengnim ┐ oengaisced fris fein equal in exploits ... to himself MR 80.11 = FDG 733 . da mbeth fuath duine ... am chride, ┐ bás d'fhagbail fái-sin cen aithrige were hatred of anyone in my heart, and I died thus, unrepentant PH 7488 (but this may belong to section j, q.v.). Cf. fo réim on a course (?) BDD 50 (sic leg.? Cf. dochuaid int en ... for foluamain fon reim sin, Aen. 1133 ). fo ogi oiffrinn `at completeness of offering' ACC 93 (= LU 994 ).

(b) of grammatical function, in Glosses (a particular application of preceding): is fo huath[ud] ... a n-institutae `institutae' is in the singular Ml. 42b12 . is ainm naimsire hisunt ... ciasu menciu fu dobrethir it is more frequent adverbially 67a4 . is fo infinit dutiagar ... á mmanifestare (the word) `manifestare' is construed as an infinitive 101c6 , 7 . cid fo gním cid fo chésath dotiagar actively ... passively Wb. 6a29 . is fo foxlaid dutiagtar `they are construed ablatively' Ml. 106c3 . fo diultad as a negative Laws iv 68.29 Comm. Corm. Y 407 . ni fú indidit ata `irascemini' sunt ... acht is for imchomarc ata `in affirmation ... in interrogation' Ml. 20b13 . fo neutur in the neuter Sg. 90b 5 , 6 .

(c) of meaning underlying: inni bess fon fogur sin the sense which is under that sound Wb. 12d5 . a folad foṡuidigther fond ṡun `the substance put under the word' Sg. 73b3 . fun trop són (gl. sub hac figure discribitur) Ml. 66a4 . muna cíall shiobhuil bhíos fúthaibh unless they are used with the sense of motion (of certain prepositions) IGT, Introd. § 72 . Cf. ni thuigim an fliuchadh sin, achd munab braiseach ... as mian leis do thuigsin faoí, Rule of Tallaght § 87 . briathar fá n-ab iontuigthe nach cóir, etc. from which we may infer Eochairsg. 9.20 .

(d) under, subject to: fun inuilligud (gl. sub tutione) Ml. 30b23 . fu Moysi under Moses (as ruler) 63b4 . dos-&mdot;béra fo chumachte in maicc, Wb. 13b30 . ni fó ar máam ataid, 9a1 . condumfel fo mám pectho, 3c38 . ni rabatar ... riam fo recht fetarlicce , Wb. 19d11 . bíd Sattan ... fót cumachtu, PH 3937 . biait fót ... airbri imdai archaṅgel, SR 835 . Pilait fua ro chés ar Fíada, Fél. Prol. 86 . ingreim na nIúdaide fó Antoich under (the reign of) A. PH 5499 . níor dúnadh dorus leasa | fa Bhéac `in the reign of B.' TD 32.39 . co mbet Cristaighi fa Idhalaib an uair sin mar attatt Idhail fútha-san aníu, Maund. 237 . úa na rígh ... bhios fo shiol na Saxanach, Duan. F. ii 166.42 . an lā ... dobēra cāch fuibh ┐ sibh os cāch, CCath. 5059 . do ocaib ... biti fo anmchairtes under spiritual direction Mon. Tall. § 71 . slechtais ... fo ogreir Maolruaoin prostrated himself in complete submission to M. (under the absolute will of) § 77 . fo míscaid bretheman brátha, LU 2289 ( FA 34 ). fo chis do Magnus fil si under tribute to M. Marco P. 3 . fo mhamus M. fuil si subject to M. 4 . na ... righ fil fo mamus Naim, 54 . cuiris M. faa smacht he, 99 . dorad iathu E. ... fo smacht flaithiusa Muman, RC xxiv 186.7 . gur chuir faoi forgla an domhain subdued TD 13.40 . na daine éadtroma ... do chonnmhail fa shilens an chlaustra = in claustro sub disciplina Instructio 201.17 . co fuilitt fa plánét Ṡáduirnn under (the rule of) Saturn Maund. 141 . ar mbeith dhuit fá leigheas = sub medicamento TSh. 8190 . mairg atá fá theas na teineadh, 6416 (cit.). ré mbeith don phobal I. fá éagcomhlann, 6103 .

Téit fo submits to, undergoes; assumes: in tan diagmani fo baithis. Wb. 3a15 . tect fo smachtu rechto, 19d11 . intí téte fo recht n-imdibi, 20a12 . dochóid Ísu fo reacht n-imdibe, PH 5652 . in tan teit oen ... fo gradaib in choimded takes holy orders 7157 . mane tē fó láim n-epscoip iar mbathus unless he is confirmed Ériu i 218.24 (see lám). fo-ácaib fo leaves at the discretion (mercy) of: do fágadh in faidhchi folum faī, ZCP vi 31.2 . forḟacaib [in mac] isinn inadsin fo na hethaidib left ... there exposed to the birds RC xxiv 190 § 2 . fágbhaim fá bhreathnughadh gach aonduine, cia is córa ... ?, TSh. 5002 (see fácbáil, fo-ácaib). fag gach aindligheadh ... fa dheithidi ... in bhreitheamhan, Instructio 200.22 . lectir fu mes nDe it is left to God's judgment Ériu vii 158.35 .

(e) under (a name, head, rubric, etc.): fond oinfailsigud (gl. sub eodem ... argumento) Ml. 36b16 . arroét Iosep ... Muire ... fo anmum chomaime under the name of wife PH 6917 . gab fon aithne-si gach lá saire include under this commandment 7372 . atā cech uli ... fon aithne-si every ... is included under this commandment 7542 . atā bán aithne-si ... cech ní 7609 . ní háirmighther Éire ... fan clíma ard Ireland is not counted as belonging to Maund. 157 . fo [o]en aicciund adfiadar `it [a compound] is pronounced under a single accent' Sg. 74b8 . Cf. dosbert fobairt bidbad fó bidbadaib foraib, LU 6498 (`the attack of an enemy among enemies' Faraday, Faraday 92 ). Here seem to belong: ba fou fachart[at]arsom, Ml. 64a10 . is fáei iarom latharsat légnide na mBretan innísin (introducing an explanation), Thr. Ir. Gl. 9 (Cormac s.v. cruimther. Y has instead: is fair iarom rolaset).

(f) under = less than; inferior to: faoi áois iomchubhaidh `before sufficient age' RSClára 6a . an t-aonmhadh lá déag ... faoi nó ós a chionn the eleventh day or thereabouts Corp. Astron. 4.12 . gion go raibhe créatúir san gcruinne fá aingeal budh uaisle, TSh. 1100 . ba hē amāin faoi Dia dusratt in Edāill ... fo chuing chreidmhe, Fl. Earls 100.14 . faoí Dia acht in guibernoir ni himda persa ... is fessach 70.30 .

(g) according to, in accordance with , an extension of (d) and (e) above; in Glosses gen. in combination with vbs. GAIBID and DO-BEIR: fon cheill fuandrogab in faith in the sense in which the prophet has uttered it Ml. 38c3 . cid fosodi[n] nogabad D. .i. foní fuantuic P., 35a9 . is fosodin rogabad 35b10 . bed foú nogabtis ... foní fuatabarr ib. 16 , 18 . as sain ind fiugor fuandrogab in faith ┐ ind rún fuantaibret in suuischelaichthi, 45a3 . is fo dobertar inna anman fonna inni fordi[n]grat names are given in accordance with the qualities they signify 37a14 . fo sin in that case, in accordance with that Ml. 42c24 , 46c14 , Sg. 106a5 . is foa ... dothét cech pennain ... fo meit an pectha every penance is determined by the magnitude of the sin RC xv 487y . pennith fon cinaid, Ériu vii 158.2 . gu cumaid a ndeghghnima fon n-etargna sin, Lism. L. 4612 . do suidhigedh na sluaig fo med i [ = a] n-uaisli, Fianaig. 56.1 . mani fochlither a bruth ... fóa réir fodein unless his ardor be attended to according to his own pleasure LU 8622 ( FB 46 ). direnar leithdire ... fo suire cacha feda according to the rank of each tree Laws iv 168.21 . dīre cāich fo miad `according to his dignity' i 40.13 . fothud ... do cechtar da lina fo miad, ii 378.5 . daithin na dáime fana miad ┐ fana ngrad, FDG 409 = MR 50z . doronsat iomarbaigh ... fa ccumang according to their ability Leb. Gab.(i) i 248.25 . fam dhícheall to the best of my power A. Ó Dálaigh x 2 . fá a ngníomrad mestar mic rígh, O'Gr. Cat. 358.5 . fuaratar fona mian í itir tess ┐ fhuacht as they liked it BCC p. 396.23 . Cf. in lucht dara betha a colann fo na míanaib do frestal, PH 7463 . rotheichset fo nertaib bāgh by dint of courage (?) RC x 54. 2 v.l. ( ICM xxi ). Here, perhaps: to-tēt meas fo aimseara, BDD 28 Y (fó U), expl. by: téid an breitheamhnas ris an aimsir, O'Cl. s.v. meas (8) .

(h) like, corresponding to (extension of preceding. Cf. fo bēsad fir trebuir `after the manner of a prudent man' Wb. 29d23 . fo béesad fir téte do chath, 9a3 ): ni thainicc riam tegluch fóo ┐ nicon riccfo co brath, IT iii 238.111 . orguin fón orguin dorat dún, BDD 48 (.i. mar an argain, Stowe; lit. in proportion to i.e. in requital of (?)cf. (q)). robad orgain fo araile in sin, 66 U (fon aile Y. ba argain már a chéle hí, Stowe). ni fail mac rig ... fo Ceallach, AU 894 (poem). ni taircell Eriu ... fer fo Mael ... Muru, 886 (= mar AFM 884 ). flaith fial fo rig nAilbine as generous as AFM 845 . fo Choin Culaind comchosmail, LU 8454 ( FB 30 = for, Eg.; fri, Voss.). teaghlach fo theaglach an ḟir ni fil, AFM 890 = AU 894 . fón bfleadhughadh út doronabair abhus forbia mu fhleadhssa tall daibh like the feasting you have enjoyed here Marco P. 12 .

(i) with numerals as multiplicative (an early use, perhaps orig. implying motion, ZCP viii 33 - 34 ): fo dí twice Wb. 24b22 . Ml. 46a21 . a úaig dil fo dí doubly dear LU 9977 ( PRIA iii 538 ). dammidethar fá dí, LU 9132 ( FB 88 ). a óen fo deich ten times one BCr. 31c5 . fo thrí, Wb. 17d4 . rogabsat ... forro fo thrí in n-insi, LU 221 . blegon inna mbo fo thri Hy v 32 . dorónsat fa thrí, LU 193 . fo aen a mbliadain once a year Laws iv 350.19 Comm. Cluain maic N. do argain fo thri ... fecht o Sil nA. ┐ fo dó hó Callraidhi, RC xvii 390.25 . AU 1050 . resíu goires in coilech fa dó, PH 3196 . a sé fo chethair four times six LL 181b28 ( Arch. Hib. ii 48 ). a chairdis Crist fó secht his seven-times gossip RC xviii 14.19 . With compar.: aidbliu fo míle, LU 2003 . soillsi fo secht oltas grian, FA 10 LB (= soillsithir ... andá LU 2029 ). mó fá dheich ten times more IGT, Decl. ex. 1027 . With co (later also co ba, co ma): confitebimur du ebert cu fudi twice Ml. 94a2 . co fo ṡecht, LL 209b46 ( Ériu vii 220 ). ro loisc Life co ba ṡecht, ACL iii 304 § 4 . tri cēd ... co ma thri thrice three hundred Fen. 354 . mo bhennacht gomá secht go Breifneachaibh, BNnÉ 267.7 . gid scriptuir bes go ma secht | in cech cill, Anecd. ii 38.1 .

(j) at, by (of occasion, conjuncture, etc. on or at which something happens, orig. perhaps an extension of (d) above): is fo forṅgartaid tra fosin dutiagar á manifestare ... is fo infinit dutiagar fu[n] dul so the (word) `manifestare' is construed as an imperative in that case [ = under that interpretation] ... as an infinitive in this case Ml. 101c6 - 7 . dochuamar i nEigeipt fo chuiriud Foraind at Pharaoh's invitation Ériu iv 140.21 . ar a gabail fo lige fo eirge for singing it at lying down and rising Lib. Hymn. i 46.17 ; 5.30 . lá lodmar fo gairm in ríg at the king's call LL 206b4 ( RC vii 290.6 ). tiucfa se fa guth an cluic at the sound of the bell BCC § 220 . is fad thúarasgbhailsi tanag (= on hearing of thy fame) Ériu v 98.31 . tancadar fir Erenn fo thasc in rig (i.e. on the report of the king's death), Dinds. 136 . in duine ticced fón n-égem, LU 1908 . egis in gilla. doroich Loegaire fua, LU 8525 ( FB 38 ). eighthi in muccid, co tanic tuath in da Maine fae, BDD 20 . Cf. ro héged immumsa ... tanacaisiu fon égim, ScM. 11 . fo sodain, fo sin usually means by that time but occasionally at (with) that: íachtais in gilla—tic C. fo sodain, LU 8537 , LU 8546 ( FB 39 , 40 ). ro scáich noínnin Ulad fo sodain by that time LU 5899 . dolluid E. immach fo sodain, 8242 . tic F. fó sodain, 5645 . dochuadar amach fái sin, RC xxiii 424.11 . tainic dereadh in lai fae sin, CCath. 2416 . rucsad forro fai sin, Ann. Conn. 1270 § 7 . dorochair D. fóisede by that time RC xvi 280.16 ( Dinds. 161 ).

(k) during: fiu and fo domnach `rested there throughout Sunday' Trip. 156.19 ( fó d., Trip.² 1825 ). Trip. 182.21 ( Trip.² 2143 ). fiusam fo domnach ann, Trip. 174.7 ( Trip.² 2025 ).

(l) Of approximate time of an occurrence, at, about (cf. imm): fó athgin [taite v.l.] in erruigh ar chinn by the return of spring CCath. 169 . C. do ēcc ... fo fel Lurint, Ann. Conn. 1243 § 8 (cf. F. ... d'ecc im feil Martain ib. § 7 ). sluagad ... la maccaib rig C. ... fo fel Muri, 1249 § 9 . fo fel cros doronadh ALC ii 116 = Ann. Conn. 1405 § 15 . fá'n Nodloig-si, Ériu v 54.9 . na hanmunna tecuit fo dhomhnach a hifern on Sundays RC xiv 48.19 . an tan fa ticfa, Fianaig. 74.9 . dochuaidh ... fo ṡamhain ar cciontt hi ccenn Gall `went to the English the ensuing Allhallowtide' AFM v 1622.6 . ón am far scríobh Caesarius , Keat. i p. 48.14 . ón tráth fá dtánaig tar muir, TD 2.58 . an uair fa dtigthí ar Ibh Táil whenever ... were mentioned 3.48 . fá aimsir chinnte by a certain time TSh. p. 160 . ón tráth fár dhearbh lais as soon as he was certain 2800 . Of space: ro ḟorcongair forra celcc do inneall fá mhile do Ṡlicceach `within a mile of Sligo' AFM vi 1978.3 (see f above). Similarly in expressions like: fo dered, fo deod, fo dechtsa, etc. (see 1 deired, dead, fecht): go fuighedh bās fa cend tri la within three days BCC § 257 . muna bfacchadh fios ... faoi chenn bliaghna, Ériu iv 51.18 . Cf. first cit. under (f), above.

N.B.—In most of the exx. in the follg. sections FO (FA, FÁ etc.) replaces imm.

(m) after words denoting cause or reason, in rel. construction with vb.; cia hádbar fa filet oc iarraid ... ? why are they seeking ... ? PH 2761 . cid imár adair Ísu, ┐ cid fa tuc anoir do ?, 2611 . adbar bá ṅdlegar a sechna, 7435 . issé adhbur fa ndernatar ..., Maund. 10 . is dona hadhbharuibh as mó fár chuir Ronán one of the chief reasons for which R. put Ériu v 74.17 . is é fath fa tangamar, ZCP vi 50z . crét fá tancabar ?, PH 2924 . crét an fáth fa ndentar sin ? RC xxix 124.12 . ni ḟuarais maith ... far mholta dhuit ... iad for which they should be praised by thee ZCP viii 219 § 10 . an dara hadhbhar fár fhuiling Dia ... another reason why God allowed ... TSh. 3513 . an treas fáth fár thuit Ádhamh 3527 . With cop.: is é fáth fána doilghe this is the reason why 1132 . ciodh fár chóra ... ?, Keat. ii 936 .

(n) in respect of, as regards: is iad so mogha fíre Fergusa fo neart ┐ fo ghniomhradh, Ériu viii 136.16 . i gcuibhreann na mbó fán bhféar `feeding on grass with cattle' TSh. 3464 . fear mar Ghuaire fá dhúais d'ógaibh, Keat. Poems 211 . Esp. after adj.: réidh fá mhaoin lavish of 526 . brugh fa fial fá bhiadhaibh, 861 . líonmhar ... fá dhaoinibh populous Keat. ii 937 . as bhuaine fa bhuanfholuibh, 23 F 16, 195 (`in respect of long-enduring kindreds' O'Gr. Cat. 399 ). In asyntactical constr.: fan seanchas chuirim chugaibh, congbhaidh é `as to the facts I bring forward' Content. xxi 6 . About, concerning: bá thómos a thigi thancabair `about the measure of his house' (Hennessy) MU² 855 ( LL 268b17 ). iar saruccadh Ruadain do Diarmait fa Aedh nG. after D. had insulted R. in the matter of A. BNnÉ 88.18 . cogadh ... fa chrích ... bhFáil fógrais É., TD 18.25 . damsa ceart ... | fon gcloidheamsin `grant justice ... about that sword' Duan. F. ii 132 § 28 . an bhreath ... rug Solamh ... fán gcloinn, TD 2.48 . mun ní fá dtairge a theagosg in anything in which thou attemptest to instruct him 15.51 . mór d'ulc ... do-righneadh fa (um v.l.) cheann an chnuic, 4.1 (see 1 cenn). síodh fan gcrann peace (i.e. forgiveness) for the spear Dán Dé iv 9 . súil Gaoidheal ruibh fad ríoghadh TD 10.31 . go dtug sé ... tuarastal do thaoiseach ... fá thoidheacht a reward for coming TSh. 259 . Esp. after words denoting mental action or emotion: cen chuimni fon ēc without thought of death ACL iii 239.16 . eagla ... fá thuitim, TSh. 3520 . fonn ... fá bhás d'fhagháil, 6059 . débhóision ... fána naomhaibh ┐ fa thaisibh na naomh, Ó Héodhusa 144x . amharus ... fa ḟiadh gConnacht doubt about TD 21.42 . budh ainfesach clēirigh fana fēiltiph fīre, ZCP x 50.14 . ní baránta inchreidthe é fa righ Lochlann do bheith, etc., it is not a credible guarantee that ... Keat. i p. 46 . After a number of vbs. (most of which are also used with IMM), e.g. of entreating, commanding, permitting, refusing, promising, preventing, of object of entreaty, etc.: roguid in coimdid bá indechad forsin errig, PH 792 . guidhim sibhsi fa guidhe ar mo shon fa mo leiccen mar so I entreat you to pray for me that I may be left as I am BNnÉ 67.6 . guidhes Dia ... fan documal sin do fortacht, RC xii 332.21 . do ghuidhsiod ... Dia fá gan eisean do mharthain that he might not live Keat. iii 2138 . impidhe do chur ar an rígh fá shaordháil do thabhairt dó, TSh. 4496 . tucc C. aonta fa theacht agreed to come Anecd. iii 2.17 . cead do thabhairt do L. fa chúanairt forba ... d'ḟaghail to allow L. to obtain Ériu v 78.28 . glend nach érthar nech fa coinnmedh where no one is refused entertainment BNnÉ 131.15 . díol farbh' éartha gach aoighe a payment which should be denied every guest TD 10.14 . is e Colum Cille bai 'na slanaigecht fona techt ... doridisi C. was security for his return RC xxiv 62 § 23 . muna dtugadh móid don rígh fá bheith díleas dhó, Keat. ii 5220 . rothairmisc tra in scel sin fa Polinices dul prevented P. from going TTebe 2767 (= imm, see do-airmesca). Of mocking: oc fanamut fa Ísu, PH 2864 (= imm). do fhochuitbiud fói (= immi) 3328 . dorindetar móran fonamhaitt fói, Maund. 15 . ag gāire fan ḟéin laughing at the fian CF 723 . occ gáiribh futha, BNnÉ 76.35 . ag fochuidmheadh fana seanchadhaibh, Keat. i 50.2 . Cf. focherdat in macrad gāir foa, LU 8849 . On account of: dobermáit glóir do Dia fá éistecht riut, Ériu ii 146 § 165 = RC xxiv 384.23 . éirghe amach i n-aghaidh a dtighearna fa n-a chíos féin d'iarraidh orra, Maguires of F. § 25 . Here perhaps: t'enech d'ácbáil fo bíad, LU 4353 . Of purpose, aim: trosccadh ... do dhenamh frisin cCoimdedh fa shoirbheachadh doibh that they might prosper BNnÉ 51x . créd do dhénmais fa dhul tar an sruth what we should do to cross the stream 49 . a llāma sínti fon dhiubhracad extended for shooting CCath. 5564 .

(o) along with, including (= imm): tucad ár forro fa mac Maic U. ┐ im A. Hua M. including the son of Mac U. and A. RC xviii 189.12 (Tig.). tucc coecait each fa ech ngorm, ZCP viii 221.5 . do loisgedh céad ech ... fa eachuibh an airdríogha, Ériu i 24.134 . tucadur i raibe do braighdibh ann leó, fa mac [U]i R. all the hostages including the son of Ua R. AU ii 488.5 . tuccadur a mbai do braigdib ... leo fo mac .h. R., Ann. Conn. 1348 § 6 . cuit do galloclaechaib .h. C. do marbad doib fan Constapla .i. fa Mac R., 1342 § 3 . ... dar marbad seser mac rig fo Chorbmac .h. nE., 1365 § 4 .

(p) after vbs. of swearing, asseverating, etc. of that by which oath, etc., is made (cf. 1 tar, dar BV); perhaps an extension of (d) above. tongu-sa fom [bam, tar, dar v.l.] chumachta, Ériu ii 196.18 . nech dothoing ethech fo cetharlebrai soscelai vii 156.20 . luigimsea bam arm, v 72.11 . ind lec ... cech oen dogní luga ṅ-eithig foithi who swears falsely by it Trip. 8.10 ( Trip.² 87 ). in luige thuccad fó ainmm Dia, PH 7636 . luige ... ba chnedaib Crist by the wounds of Christ 7324 . tug ... a minna fon aendia, ZCP vi 34.17 . dobheirim briathar ... fam chloidhemh, Ériu i 26.146 . doberimsi fam bréithir gomadh ..., ZCP x 277.34 . dobiur-sa fám gaisced ... nach FDG 287 . gúidim tú fon Día da creididh ┐ fat faistedh I adjure thee by Fier. 40 .

(q) in distributive sense with numbers (perhaps orig. in return for, cf. section h): dobheredh P. tri bhuille fan aónbhuille dhó would give three blows for every one he got Ériu v 182.334 . da bheim ... fo gach aoínbhéim, Duan. F. i 69.29 . biaidh an ghealach comhartha ar a haghaidh fo gach deich dá mbia san uimhir sin the moon will be advanced one sign for each tenth of that number Corp. Astron. 108z .

III Various idioms.

(a)

(1) ATÁ ... FÚM I intend: ... ní fhuil | fúm acht inneal ar olcaibh I aim at nought but sin A. Ó Dálaigh xxxix 13 . más faoisidin bliadhna atá fúd do dénomh, Mac Aingil 151.13 . ris in drochrūn doui fuí, Ériu v 98.8 . do bhríogh nach raibhe faoi an ceathramhadh ... do leigheas because He did not intend TSh. 1524 . Cf. do bhí a bhara faoi fēin díoghaltas do dhéanamh he intended, purposed 6085 (see 2 bara). an t-ógan agá mbí drochfhuadar faoi who is bent on evil 5316 .

(2) ATÁ FO is liable for (?) in tan is innlaeg berar in bo amach is hegen beith fuithe no co mbere laeg isin aige rogellad, O'Curry 653 ; 1100 (< H 3.18, 316 ; 446 ) = masa indlaeg ... is egean beith fuithe, O'Curry 689 (< H 3.18, 334 ). Cf. madh fo rāith dara ... beither, O'Curry 1100 . in inbaidh ... bīthar fo rāith a hinnlaoghais ib.

DO-ICC FO

(1) impugns: tecor fo coruib na druingi seo the contracts of the group are impugned Laws v 184.23 (see do-icc).

(2) is decided upon by: tainic fái a mhainistir ... d'fagbail he decided to leave ( RC xxv 396.31 . tainig fothaib a denam, Fen. 348z .

DO-TÉT FO: ní taīt Dia fo t[h]airngere conid-chumscaiged `God does not come under a promise that He should alter it' Ml. 109a5 . CUIRID ... FO (NECH) incites: an pecadh sin ... do cur faoi to incite him to that sin BCC § 223 . an merughadh sin do cuir an diabul fúd ib. CUIRIM FUM I settle down: iar gcur fúm i gclúidh, Ó Bruad. ii 248 . DO-BEIR ... FO ...: daringni da nathraig ... eittecha ┐ dorat foluamain fóthib for ammus lasoin made two serpents ... winged, and sent them fluttering towards Jason LL 222a23 ( TTr. 363 ). Cf. scarsit fóu ┐ L. `they parted from (?) him and L.' Trip. 130.6 ( Trip.² 1492 ).

(b) the form with 3 s. pron. suff. fó, foí (fáoi) occurs as adv. in some expressions: cid fó cid for ... bem[m]e whether we be beneath or above Snedg. u. Mac R § 7 ( YBL 12a10 ). ó tét grian fáe when the sun sets Maund. 246 . iar ndol don ghréin fáoi `after the setting of the sun' RSClára 15a . tré dhul fé do ghréin a bheatha, Ó Bruad. ii 242 . coirt darach do berbadh ... go ndeach a trian faoi till it is reduced (in bulk) by a third 23 K 42, 332.10 . amail dogentais in mbeirt | co mbad foe Hériu ardneirt Ireland should be subject (to them) Ériu iv 110.2 . mór míad dorad damsa in rí, | dom ríar dorad fiadha faoi he subjugated lands (?) ACL iii 304.22 . Here perhaps : ro thairc ferand fō (: gó), LL 147a35 (`that has won good land' PRIA iii 551 ). cath slebe Fúait ria Fergal dosfanair fói, Arch. Hib. ii 60 § 25 = LL 182bz . Cf. foí.

(c) fá mar as (of manner) : fá mar adeir an file, TSh. 2837 . fá mar dho níd na cearrbhaig ... go meinic, Ó Héodhusa 156 . Later also fé mar. See immar. See now Celtica ix 126 .

IV Fo enters into a number of stereotyped advbl. phrases, each of which will be found under the second constituent : see bíth (-in), commar, dáig(-in), deó(i)d, dered, leth, 1 sech, tharsna.

V Fo- enters into composition

(a) with vbs. as preverb, see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 295 , Thurn. Hdb. § 829 , Sjoestedt-Jonval, Études Celt. iii 219 ff . In some Middle-Irish MSS it is wrongly substituted for other preverbs, see Ériu xiv 129 ff .

(b) with nouns and adjs. as prefix generally either with diminutive sense (with adj. = rather, somewhat , (e.g. fogel), q.v. or that of subordination. Sometimes defining position (e.g. fochóel, q.v.). Hence fo .i. bec nó derōil, O'Dav. 981 .

fri

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fri or dil.ie/24329
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: frimm, rimm, frim, frím, frium, frimsa, friumsa, frit, fritt, friutt, fritsu, rut, rutt, fris, friss, frissom, f., frie, friae, frise, frie, frinn, rinn, rind, friunn, riund, frind, frinni, raindi, frinnai, frib, frithib, fribsi, friu, friú, friu, friü, frithiu, friithu, friusom, riom, rum, riot, rut, ris, ria, rinn, ruinn, ribh, ruibh, riú, r, frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar, fria, frim, frim, frim, ram, frit, frit, frit, rit, rat, rot, friar, friar, fribar, fribar, fria, fria, fria, re-na, rena, fria, fris(s)a, frisi-, risi-, fris-, ris-, frismbiat, fris-mbruchta, fris, fris, fris, risa, frisin-, frisnid, risnad, ris, fria, frisa, re n-, fria-, re, ra-n-adh, re, re, ré, freisin, FRI

prep. with acc. For etymology see Thurneysen, GOI § 839 , Fraser ZCP viii 37 , J. E. C. Williams, Celtica iii 126 . In later spelling prefixes h- to following initial stressed vowel; does not leníte following consonant (cf. frinna aill, Sg. 45a16 . fri nnach ..., Ml. 75a9 , fri nnech 23c20 ; but fri nech further on in same gloss and regularly elsewhere); the initial s- of the article following fri is preserved. In Middle Irish gradually replaced by the forms RI, RE (already in Ml: oc eregim re Abisolon, 44b4 , cf. fre, 90c27 ); RA (common in some LL texts, see CRR 54 , TBC-LL¹ 499 , 602 , 740 , etc.); rarely RO ( SR 1990 ZCP xiii 204 15 ); FRIA, RIA, RE also common. Hence in Early Mod. Ir. there is occasionally confusion with , RÍA `before', see Bergin's note Stor. Keat. p. xix , and section IX (e) below. Apart from this the latter prep. sometimes replaces FRI after fáilid, fáilte and kindred words (as in Mod. Ir.). On the parallelism of some of the pronominal forms of FRI with those of LA see GOI l.c. (with Translator's n. 178 ). Though FRI still appears in some later texts, especially those of the archaising type, it had become obsolete in the classical language. Its later form (RI, RE) remains down to the end of the Early Mod. period and is recognized by the grammarians as distinct from LE (LA), see IGT, Introd. § 75 , 24 P 8, 194 ( IGT VI , Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ). In the modern spoken lang. it is replaced partly by LE, partly by CHUN (O.-Ir. dochum). For a contrary development cf. Engl. `with,' originally `against,' which has absorbed the functions of A.S. mid `(together) with.'

In development of meaning generally FRI shows a remarkable parallelism with Engl. ` with '; it also agrees with ` against ' in several senses.

Forms: With suff. pron.

sg. 1 frimm St. Paul Codex Thes. ii 298.17 . rimm, IT i 123.24 . frim, SR 1422 , 2049 . LU 5228 . LL 110b26 . frím Ml. 38c19 . frium, Ml. 71b9 . frimsa, Wb. 26d17 . Ml. 33a18 . friumsa, Ml. 127a2a .

2 frit, Wb. 5a31 . 10a29 ; Ml. 103d14 . SR 1425 . fritt LL 93a10 . 249b1 . friutt, PCr. 62b2 (= ḟrit, Sg. 151a3 ). fritsu Ml. 91d8 . 112b8 . rut, SR 2031 IT i 123.15 . rutt, LL 110b27 .

3 m., n. fris, Wb. 14c37 . 15a1 . 22c15 . ACL iii 304 [: [Mael] mis]. (: eisleis). SR 6109. 6317 . ([mēt] anfis) LL 33b21 . friss, Wb. 2c24 . 3c6 . 6a4 . 8a12 . 14d22 ; Ml. 91a21 . frissom Wb. 5d39 .

f.¤ frie, Sg. 72b1 . Ml. 40c15 . 67d15 . friae, 130c9 . Wb. 28a20 . cf. frise, Ml. 74c21 , which Ascoli corrected to frie ( Thes. i 722b ).

pl. 1 frinn, Wb. 4b12 . 17b10 . 19d22 . rinn, Ml. 54a3 . SR 1821 . rind, SR 1905 (: herḟi[o]nd). friunn, Ml. 38d20 . riund TBC-LL¹ 1874 . frind, LL 177b39 . frinni, Wb. 17b32 . 17c5 ; Ml. 32c15 . 93a13 . 106c12 . raindi, BColm. 68.9 . frinnai Ml. 91c9 . 114a8 .

2 frib, Wb. 17b16 . 22d9 . 24d26 . cf. frithib, Ériu iv 162.13 . fribsi, Wb. 14c42 . 17b14 .

3 friu, Wb. 4a10 . 4c37 . 24a4 ; Ml. 54c23 , 72b22 , 110c9 . LL 35a21 (: fiú) friú, Wb. 17b9 . Ml. 74a2 , diss. friu, Hy. V. 54 , cf. friü: at-chiü, ACL iii 294 § 10 ; frithiu, Blathm. 94 § 17 ; friithu, LU 4671 (see further GOI 515 ). friusom, Wb. 20c25 ; Ml. 17c5 , 54c18 ; 26 .

For forms found in later texts see citations below.

In the Early Mod. Grammatical Tracts the forms given are: riom, rum; riot, rut; ris; ria; rinn, ruinn; ribh, ruibh; riú, r, 24 P 8 194 ( Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ).

With following poss. pron.: frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar, fria, e.g. frim ort. Wb. 29d2 . frim peccad, 28a14 . frim foraithmet, Ml. 23d9 ; ram anmain, TBC-LL¹ 3692 (rem St.). frit adrad su, Ml. 136c11 . frit c[h]ele, 70d2 ; frit laim, SR 5854 . rit láim, TBC-LL¹ 3055 . rat láma, 3052 . rot chlaind, SR 2031 . friar corp, Wb. 15c22 . friar fochric, 33a9 ; fribar n-ícc, Wb. 24b3 . fribar pecthu, 13b19 ; fria mbriathra, Wb. 31b30 . In Mid. Ir. the form `fria' is often used for the simple prep., hence occas. fria a = prep. + 3 s. pron. In Early Mod. Ir. 3 s. and pl. form re-na sometimes appears: rena ardnaem, BCC § 12 (see III c below). fria n-a, Fl. Earls 214.4 . Cf. the n- prefixed to poss. after le, ó, tre in Mod. Irish.

With rel. pron.: O. Ir. fris(s)a n ...; Mid. Ir. also frisi-, risi-, fris-, ris-: frismbiat, Sg. 202b3 . fris-mbruchta, Fél. June 21 . fris n-agar, E. 406 . fris-reith, Prolegomena 302 . fris-tarddam, Thes. ii 293.19 . risa n-abar, Acall. 53 , etc. With cop. frisin-, frisnid, risnad ail, LB 257b9 . ris na duthracht 256a44 . fria ndechraiged (= frisa nd.) Sg. 28a14 may be a mistake. In later MSS. the form re n- becomes common: fria-cosmailend, PH 7674 . re ndubairt, 7464 . ra-n-adh KMMisc. 156. 124 . re n-abar, Acall. 1241 , etc. re rāiter, Ériu viii 139.4 . ré raibhe, Keat. ii 4467 , etc.

Composition.

(a) In vn. and prototonic verbal forms, before a vowel, frith-; before a cons. fre-, e.g. frecre, fretech; with syncope of a follg. vowel, fres-, e.g. frescsiu, fresndid, fresndís, fresngabal. In Glosses fri is often used in compos. with a vb. to represent Lat. ob-. Later frith- is used before cons. with or without lenition of following cons.: see frithgnam, frithsét, etc.

(b) In deuterotonic verbal forms fris-; before an infixed pron. in rel. construction frith- or friss-: fritum-chomart-sa (= frith-dum-) Wb. 33a12 ; but friss-idn-oirctis, Ml. 39a20 (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 147 and cf. Strachan's OIPG⁴ ed. Bergin, p. 27 n. 2 ).

SYNOPSIS OF MEANINGS.

N.B.—The classification is perforce somewhat arbitrary as, perhaps in the majority of instances, the meaning could derive from the original sense in I. Cf. J. E. C. Williams Celtica iii 122 ff .

I Of local relations

(a) towards, facing, turned to ;

(b) against (touching; cf. d); alongside, down along, by ;

(c) against (implying violent or hostile action);

(d) next to, at, in contact with (cf. b).

II To express association, along with, beside (both of local and mental relations).

III To express figurative direction

(a) aim, purpose (cf. VI), frequently of function, specific purpose;

(b) after adj. in sense of Lat. gerund or with ad or supine in -u;

(c) to express direction of feelings, behaviour towards (cf. I a);

(d) of prayer, etc. to ;

(e) of opposition to, hostile feeling, attitude towards ;

(f) to express protection, guard, watch against, also limitation, boundary;

(g) in elliptical sentences with these meanings.

IV

(a) after adjs., nouns or verbs expressing resemblance, equality or comparison;

(b) to express difference, distinction from .

V

(a) with respect to, with regard to ;

(b) on account of:

(c) on behalf of ;

(d) according to, in agreement with (cf. II).

VI To denote occasion

(a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. verb or equivalent;

(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on which something takes place.

VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion of .

VIII

(a) to denote agent;

(b) to denote instrument through, by means of .

IX In expressions of time

(a) in O.-Ir. in locatival sense;

(b) to denote period during which something continues or takes place;

(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place;

(d) of point of time;

(e) used for RIA ` before .'

X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs.

A classified list of the instances in Wb is given by Fraser ZCP viii 37 ff .

I Of local relations

(a) towards, facing, turned to: do rosc frisna nemdaib = looking heavenward SR 1604 . a n-aiged fri Dia facing God LU 2048 ( FA 12 . Cf. III c). a lām chlē fri muir the sea on their left SR 4074 (see lám). do cumlaiset for fairgi ┐ dochorsatar aurlunn fri tir, Corm. Bodl. s.v. prull . bai D. 'sa druim fri fraig D. had his back to the door SR 6053 . is amlaid bai in gilla ┐ a druim fria thigerna, TBC-I¹ 2327 (see druim(m)). Ethne ... fria chossa E. (standing) at his feet (i.e. at the foot of the bed) LU 3300 ( SCC 10 ). Carpre ... 's a hucht ra hág, LL 32b49 (see ucht). a druim re dimsachaib, a des fri deiblenaib, ZCP viii 204 § 26 . an let[h] bis rinne don rē the side of the moon turned towards us ITS xiv 90.19 . fri bun cruche at the foot of the gallows Mon. Tall. § 1 . síl nÁdhuimh ... re sáluibh a senathar at the heels of (i.e. following) Ériu iv 118 § 33 . níor chubaidh tigearna ... d'ḟágbáil re caladh on the beach [i.e. when about to land; perh. fig. cf. beirid i gcaladh brings to safety, see 1 calad] viii 139.23 . dā traig .x. ... a [sic leg.] fot fri dún its length towards the stockade (of the internal slope of an earthen rampart) Laws iv 336.23 . dā dúncladh ... ré dá taebh na clasach along both sides of the fosse CCath. 1747 . ní thurcaibh crand ... cét míle fria taebhaibh within a hundred miles from (lit. towards) its sides Marco P. 11 [cf. the temporal use IX (c)]. See also phrases s.v. agad, ais, enech, gnúis, sáil, taeb, ucht.

This use is regular in Old-Ir. in stating relative position: fri Grecia aniar ... fri Etáil anáir west of Greece ... east of Italy Wb. 6d17 . fri Alpai ndesiu (gl. cisalpina) Sg. 217b8 . frie anall ... frie desiu (gl. ultra ... citra) 71b1 , 2 . fri Ath F.D. desiu, TBC-I¹ 2183 . frie anechtair outside it Ml. 40c15 . fri Pardus amuich outside Paradise SR 111 . ra chuala sa fri hEmain andess I heard it (as I was) to the south of Emain LU 5056 . altoir fri dorus antuaid, SR 4261 [cf. la taeb ind rigthaige aniar, LL 3810 (30a) ]. a mmag fris anair the plain in front of him LL 122a33 . co ndechaid [in gai] triana chend ┐ co ro marb nónbur ris aníar behind him 121a21 . frit aniar, LU 4134 . is e a chorp in taitneamach rit anall the shining one opposite thee RC xxiv 60 . Also fig. : foscichret i crandchor ... fáicebthair Lugaid fris anechtair they will cast lots for it... L. will be left out of the chance RC xiii 444x ( LL 289b8 ). See also s.v. lám (fri l.).

It is doubtful whether: i mbae neach fri hopair immuig BB 362a21 (= Dinds. 20 ) is an instance of this construction; the literal meaning here is was anyone at a work outside ? The Rennes `amuig' is perhaps merely a late spelling.

After verb or vn.: tan turcbad E. a di láim fri Coimdid nime, SR 5085 . suidig do da laim fri ... clasp thy hands (in prayer) to ... 1606 . rosecroth a chend frisin slúag brandished his (severed) head at the host LU 5269 . crothad in chind frisin slóg, 5280 . donnochtat a mbruinni fris bared their bosoms to him 5199 . rochoraig fri tenid he arranged [them] before the fire RC xiii 6.21 . roscóraig gnúis fri gnúis (see gnúis) LU 2046 ( FA 12 ).

Cf. tuídhleach ind óir frisin ngréin the glistening of the gold against the sun BDD 1 . crand airgit ris tatin grían LU 3700 ( SCC 33 ).

(b) against (touching), alongside, down along by: doesetar ┐ a nglūne fri talmain, TBC-I¹ 3164 . éc fri hadart death against a pillow i.e. a natural death Lib. Hymn. i 62.72 (see adart). fri etnu dam ... bátár fedmand la firu Herend = [till then] the loads had been harnessed to the foreheads of the oxen LU 10816 (= Ériu xii 178 ). tennait a n-ette fria curpu press their wings against their sides LU 2281 ( FA 33 ). cf. doimmaircet ind eoin a n-ette friu ┐ a cossa can scibud ette ná cosse co tairic in precept the birds fold their wings, etc. LU 1361 . dosnimthasa i llai a broit fri a bruinde `gathered her to his bosom in the fleece of his cloak' Ériu xii 154y . co tard a druim frisin liic leaned his back against the stone LU 3284 ( SCC 8 ). dossleced fria thoeb he let them (i.e. his arms) fall to his sides SR 5091 = no thimoirced a lama fria thoeb, LB 124b29 (cf. LU 1361 above).

In local sense of attached to or pending from: úathroic ... cona cimais do banór fria having a fringe LU 6421 . beilge óir friu golden bits on them TBFr. § 3 . srian ... fria graig, LU 3649 . Cf. srian do thabairt fria thoil to bridle his passion PH 4990 (see srían). Cf. la I (a).

Here perhaps: i ngialnai fri fraigid in hostage-ship at the wall LU 7015 ; 7295 ( BDD 66 ; 94 ). (of the brazen serpent, Numbers xxi 9 :) turgabar fri crann ... uasin [t]slúag fri sirsellad let it be hung on a pole to be gazed at SR 4163 .

Cf. an carracc ard ar cuiretar ... an Tigerna da teilgen ría sís to cast him down from it Maund. 106 . tuitim sioss re beinn an ailt, Fl. Earls 86z .

(c) against (implying violence or hostility; cf. III e): rop saiget húan fri demnai, Hy i 20 . friu conuccaib ind oub, Hy v 54 . conéracht Glaiss Ch. friu the stream C. rose against them (= to bar the way) LU 5362 . Cf. conocbath in carpat fris ... ┐ concligtis ind h[e]ich fris the chariot would tilt up before him and the horses would spring at him Ériu vi 134.21 . bēim a cinn fri cloich, Ml. 139c3 . beim cind fri hall, LL 225b38 (see benaid). esarcain cind fri hallib, 176b33 . aiges (feras) in tond frisin mbruach, Anecd. i 12.19 (21) . cf. FB 44 , see fri. See also phrases with cúl, druim(m), lám).

(d) next to, at: folt dond fri toind a chind, folt croderg iar n-airmedon, LU 2564 . dond fri toind cind, 6542 . lene de sról ... i custul fri gelcnes ... dó, 6296 . léne ... sita fria gelchnes, 1810 . cona luirigh ... ria cnes ... ┐ lethan sciath fria gualaind, Stair Erc. 1243 . In this use frequent with ais, cnes, taeb.

II To express association, along with, beside (of local or mental relations, cf. V d): ní bí friu hi comasndeis it is not with them in apposition Sg. 212a5 . in tan mbís nihelas do .u. fri .g. when u is silent beside g, 6b11 . nobiad fri femen `it would be [used] with the feminine' 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them' 215a5 (cf. biit remsuidigthi ... cen briathra leo ib. 6). See also s.v. comṡuidigud. is tabarthi `bonum est' fri cechtar in da fersa so, Ml. 112d1 . cen tabairt anman trén fríu, 30a9 (see do-beir). ni bai crand dond indsi fri aroile (i.e. the walls were shattered) Anecd. i 2.5 . ar choibnius frisna comaccomla sa, Sg. 203a10 . in oentid fri Crist, Wb. 15a12 . ni ba suair[c] comlepaid no comaentu frissi, TBC-LL¹ 2079 (fris St) In: ni reid bith fris im longud no im ligi, LU 5957 , the meaning may be different; see atá (fri). toeb fri toeb ata in ri is Eocho F. side by side LU 2839 (see taeb). comaitecht re hairdrigh, ZCP viii 116.5 . méraid ra cách a chumne TBC-LL¹ 740 (here perhaps: meraid hua chlaind fri claind Ml. 100b4 ). is frit mo chairde `with Thee is my compact' Fél. Ep. 534 . (see cairde). iar corai fri I. after making a pact with I. SR 5946 . Cf. córe fri Dia, Wb. 2d16 . is core doib fribsi (gl. salutate invicem) 18b19 . bad chore dúib friu, 7b4 ; - 14 (`lit. let it be peace to you towards them' Thes., but the original meaning of córe points to `with' as the sense of the prep. here). Cf. also: biid pax libsi fri cách (gl. cum omnibus hominibus pacem habentes) 5d33 .

Here probably: isi no beired teora pōc fria cach copān ... dō, TBC-I¹ 2218 . Cf. further: hi cocetul fri Eman in unison with Hib. Min. 4.12 . do dlommad E. is A. ... fri gorta, SR 1419 . ara toimlid fri sid sain | toirthi Parduis, 1085 . taed as fri sidh ┐ fri subha `let him go ... in peace and happiness' AFM 979 .

In this sense with verbs of joining, connecting, also occasionally with verbs of motion and in nominal phrases, such as imma llé fri, immaróen fri, see s.v. , óen (cf. Ériu xiv 142 n . ) also cos, taeb.

In: crithnaigset ... immar bocsimin fri sruth the meaning of the prep. is doubtful. curtar a fuigill re sruth ┐ re fairgi `be the remnant cast out to be carried off by the sea-tide' O'Gr. Cat. 182w . Cf. perhaps: Drochet Atha do dhul re sruth `D. was carried away by the flood' ALC i 260.7 , though these may be exx. of the confusion of re (FRI) with le (LA). curcas fri sruth, FB 44 ; `against a stream' Strachan ZCP iii 419 . Cf. Ériu i 194.4 . See 1 téit and la I (d).

Passing into sense in addition to: tris fer friu (gl. te tertium) Sg. 2a5 . cethri chet bliadan ... a noe sechtmogat fri sein, Rawl. 68b31 ( ZCP iii 18 ). Cf. is fri ni dona salmaib dognid a figild, Mon. Tall. § 5 . fris sin moreover, besides , Leb. Gab.(i) i 88.1 . Hugh Roe 114.1 (f. 30b) . Cf. mod. freisin. For a special sense of with see Mon. Tall. cited under V (d).

III To express fig. direction (cf. V a);

(a) aim, purpose, freq. of function, specific purpose: cen nech dim chlaind frim foraithmet to preserve my memory Ml. 23d9 . ce notechtad ilgotha fri inchosc in mrechtraid sin `that it should possess many sounds to express that variety' Sg. 197a11 . ní fris arícht fri slond persine it was not for that it was invented, to signify person ib. (cf. cid arna airecht pronomen ... dia ṡlund, 198b3 ). in bríg frissa ndéntar a saithar sin the value for which that labour is performed Wb. 11a9 . am loor fri cach reit (gl. ego ... dedici, in quibus sum, sufficiens esse) 24b16 . altoir ... | fri loscud n-edpart an altar for burning [ = on which to burn] offerings SR 4162 . dá magh ... do ṡlaidhi ... co rabad do grés fri geilt do ceithrib ┐ fri trebad do daīnib, Ériu xii 150.6 . primepscop ... accu fri huirdned a n-oessa graid, fri coisecrad a n-eclas ┐ fri hanmchairdes do ḟlaithib, etc. Ériu i 218.2 . sechtmoga fer fria cobair to aid them SR 4196 . drong ngilla ... fri timthirecht, 6280 . ra ergitar ... dalemain fri dail, LL 173a27 ( CRR 13 ). mōr salm | fri hindarba plāg-tedmann, BColm. 70.8 . slóged hi crích ... fri indnaide slogid tairse a hosting into a country to delay a hosting (coming) across it Críth G. 511 . fergniae fri forngaire ndoirseo, 591 . In this sense perhaps in: fót fri haltóir, see 1 fót (d). pars de feoil fri foimtin terci as a precaution against scarcity Mon. Tall. § 12 . Here perhaps: dognith Saul intleda ... fri Duaid used to lay snares against D. Ml. 30a3 . techt do Roim ... fri foglaim n-ecnai, Trip.² 241 . roairis re sloind senchasa he remained to relate Ériu iv 152.6 [or remained relating ? See VI (a)]. cid frisi farcbad int id for what end the withe was left LU 4752 (= cid imma ndernad int id, TBC-LL¹ 597 ). cid frisindrolais in cloich why hast thou thrown the stone ? LU 5092 . o tancamair friss `since we have come for it' ( = for that purpose) Fél. 72.24 (cf. inní imo tainic ib. 30 ). co ndernur inní fris tánac LU 4347 . Cf. doluid Saul fri tāirsin David i fus, SR 5959 . lurech imme ... fri cathugud, SR 5757 . treb Leue ... immon eclais fria immarchur, 4883 . docúaidh B. frissan umaloitt sin gusin muilenn `on that service' BNnÉ 26 § 19 . téit féin re toisc ┐ re túrus a crichaib na hEspáine on business CCath. 1806 , cf. do chuaidh gach aon rea dtoisgibh ┐ rea dturasaibh féin, ML 26x (= le tosgaib fein, ML² 347 ). The follg. perhaps are elliptical: the idea represented is anticipating, forestalling: dogniad pars de feoil fre terci do t[h]ecmong = as a provision against the occurrence of scarcity Mon. Tall. § 12 . do na .u. gaiscedaib dec no bitís ... hi tegluch C. fri maidm n-airm no fri gabáil ngasced do neoch LU 5046 . Cf. Fél. Nov. 14 cited VI b.

(b) after adjs. in sense of Lat. gerund with ad or supine in -u: leiscc .i. fri fognam, Wb. 31b23 . conid mesc fria rim so that it is confusing to count it LU 4794 . ba gnim ṅdangen fri himluad, SR 7229 . ingnad fria innisin, LU 2074 ( FA 15 ). adhbal rea n-innisi prodigious to recount ZCP viii 204 § 26 . cenco beth ... and acht C. ba lór fri immarbaig, LL 107a19 ( Ériu iv 28 ). lia iná rúainne ... re n-áireamh, IGT, Decl. ex. 1201 . Cf. atait ... re a ttaispenadh go follus are plainly to be seen Fl. Earls 50.12 . In this use modern Irish has le (LA).

(c) to express direction of feelings; behaviour towards, after nouns or adjs., both of persons and things (cf. I a and V a): conroib deserc leu fri cách, Wb. 26d22 . fáilte fri noíbu, 7b2 (see fáilte). ar formut fribsi, 12c29 (see format and formtech). ropat ḟáilti frimsa, Fél. Dec. 18 (see fáilid). hissel fri hard, sleman fri garb, ZCP iii 447z . anmne fri fochaidi, 449.15 (see ainmne). mailli fri cloc slowness at (answering) the bell ib. 21 . dána fri tōla tromsluaig daring in face of an army SR 5778 . uair ná dernsam huimli fri forngaire, 1854 . ar gart friu for generosity to them ZCP viii 313.12 . créd nach frim atā a maithe ? why is not their bounty bestowed on me ? ACL iii 296 § 38 . ní ar maith friu it is not for their good Wb. 4b37 . ar ulc friu, Ml. 72b22 . tar aesi n-uilc huai[m] se friusom, 74a2 (see also s.v. maith, olc). bad chert do cluchi frim play fair with me LU 5228 . ar ngabáil bāide ... dō rena ardnaem having conceived affection for his high saint BCC § 12 . lére duit frí ríg ngréne ┐ réde fri doíni, Ériu i 193 . is buide linn frib (gl. rogamus vos) Wb. 25a39 (see 2 buide). is maith robai Dia rind, SR 1905 . ní maith ro mbátar frim they have not treated me well LU 4891 . Cf. is maith ro ngabus fritt, TBFr. § 11 . bad faitig frisin foirin sin (gl. observate eos) Wb. 24a23 (see faitech). bid cennuis a gnuis risin lucht ra-nadh (= frisndid) rathmar to whom he is gracious KMMisc. 156.124 . in maith frit menma ind airdríg whether the king is well-disposed to thee SR 6114 . ba fearr di frib menma bar mathar, RC xxiv 56 ( YBL 206a47 ). Cf. is beite duit menma fris `thou must take heed of him' Ériu xii 176.16 . Similarly in expressions like: do-gní maith (trócaire, etc.) fri (see do-gní). nech no comaildfed fir fer frimb uime RC xiii 29.6 .

(d) of prayer, etc. to: irnigde fri Dia, Wb. 4d18 . cf. abstanait fri Dia, PH 4988 . ro throiscset ... fri Dia im a ḟurtacht, 7258 (see troiscid). im aīne fri Dia cora faillsigthi dō ... fasting towards God, that ... might be revealed to him Ériu v 120.12 . Similarly: frit, a rí ..., mo dēr | conom thī ... Mīchēl, SR 2091 . co ndēraib frisin coimdid, PH 6292 . (cf. use with ad-teich). cossoít a thuaithe fri Dia, Wb. 5a23 (see cosaít). Here, perhaps, should come such expressions as the following: ar Christ frit, aithirigh pēin dam, Cáin Ad. 13 . ar do chubus riut, a ingen, crét tuc ort ?, Acall. 6012 . ar bar cubus rib..., crét..., 5476 . ar fir do chubais riut..., 5824 . cf. 4544 . ar t'ḟírinne riutsa, nā furáil, CCath. 1659 .

(e) of hostile feeling, attitude, conduct towards: fri aicned contrary to nature Wb. 2c25 . ba fri aicned ... in talam ... do indluch, Ml. 129d8 . frisin n-uall (gl. adversum inflationem mentis) 68c1 . trifar pecthu fri Dia through your sins against God 115b8 . Common after verbs of opposing, hindering, fighting: hóre nád comeicnigther nech fri toil no one is constrained against [his] will Wb. 28b1 . tuidecht fri toil Dé resistance to God's will 4c23 (see do-tét). cf. o dorala ... | frim thala mac I. | duit ... | niba céle SR 6014 , where opposition seems implied despite the similar phrase cited below under V (d). soud a gnuso fri nech frisa mbi ferc do (gl. ne auertas [faciem tuam] a me Ml. 47d8 (`to turn his countenance from one against whom he cherishes anger' Thes., but surely `fri nech' here must also mean either against ... or towards ... ? See soïd). fergach fris Fíadu, SR 6837 . iar ndebaid do fri Duid, 6994 . na cathaig frim do not contend with me 2877 . ni sirsan do Ch. a n-imned i tá a óenur fri firu Herend not happy for C is the trouble in which he is, alone against the men of E. LU 5995 . Cf. do thoitim fria Cu | ba dirsan sad that thou shouldst fall by [ = fighting against] C. (?) TBC-I¹ 2715 (see also III g). Mairg fris ticfa a ḟerg ... Mairg ticfa re cert, Fen. 200 (see do-icc). ar bruc fris `in displeasure at him' Mon. Tall. § 58 . namthi garga fri sluagh nA., ACL iii 297 § 55 . atat frim hi cotarsnai, SR 1520 . Cf. ni bia th'anim fri fugall | ind ríg hí laithiú brótho, Ériu i 196 § 13a . With adj.: cotarsne fri Dia, Wb. 26a18 . is torcda ┐ is díchéill notaí frim, LU 10831 (= Ériu xii 172 ). is bairnech mo menma frit, LU 10832 (= ib.). is tromda atai rim, RC vi 183.13 . olc roba rim, Ériu v 208.8 (see III c). Here perhaps: tromde ... ro buí frisim ind chaillech oc atach Dé, Mon. Tall. § 7 (= do bhí sí roliosda ar Dh., Rule of Tallaght § 41 ). But cf. VII below.

(f) To express protection, guard, defence, watch against: gabthe dūnad les fris, Ml. 55c1 . inna cathrach conrotacht la Duaid fri Ebustu, 48d27 . múr trén ... fri dóini, fri demnai, Fél. Ep. 152 . tocuiriur etrum ... inna huli nert so fri cech nert n-amnas in ..., Hy vii 49 . cor gabad Sinann friu the Shannon was held (defended) against them RC xviii 10.28 . gébtaít ar tír frind, LU 4634 (see gaibid). iadad Caisil frim eochu the closing of C. to my horses Anecd. iii 63.4 . cóir duit arechus ri siút, TBC-LL¹ 1280 (aire do tabairt fri ... St; see 1 aire). Dia lem fri cech snīomh, Ériu iv 236 . Crist credal fri demnaib, ACL iii 221.12 . dín ... re holcaib, ZCP viii 202.18 . Of limitation, boundary: nā bí crích la nech fri peccad that no one sets a limit to sin Ériu i 218.9 . Cf. samaiges crích fri aidchi, Hy ii 55 , corresp. to contra noctem terminum pones, Ardm. 8a1 . See also s.v. inillius.

(g) In elliptical sentt.: leic ... in fognam, ol se; ni lamaim, ol sī, frisin rigain = I dare not disobey the Queen RC xxiv 192 (but perh. FRI here = because of; see V b ). ro an ... ina aenar ru remained alone to oppose them ZCP vi 56.31 . rofetursa a n-as maith dúib fris I know a good way for you to deal with him LU 5934 . tarmairt mo Dia dil frisin tuaid ... a cor fo leittreib lethglenn = my dear God had well nigh (in His resentment) against them cast them down ... SR 4718 . Cf. lām fri idal to renounce idolatry SR 4845 (see lám).

IV

(a) after adjs. and nouns denoting resemblance or equality (esp. those compounded with com-) and vbs. of resembling or comparing: cosmil fri cethir (gl. animalis) Wb. 8b14 . cutrummus fri Dia, 17c8 . i cutrummus fribsi 17b14 . ɔodernain hi cutrummus frim cheliu `to do like my fellows' PCr. 2a2 . (pariter) fri, Sg. 77a2 . i tomus fri nech Wb. 17b11 . intamail ... fri nech, Ml. 22c1 . cen a chondelg fri nech, Sg. 42a6 . cosmaili tuisil `sui' fri tuisliu `ego' ┐ `tu', 200a12 . (similiter) fri, 203a5 . cf. (eandem significationem habens) .i. fri `cum', 218a1 . diatā oenḟolaid ... frissin Athair, PH 177 . ba cudruma re core mōr é, RC xviii 183 . ni caithedh acht coibeis fri gach manach he used to eat only as much as any other monk BNnÉ 300 § 3 . nir chumma nech ris im chath, Metr. Dinds. iv 344 . ru boí i comré ri Cormac, LL 3796 (30a) . i comhrē ris coeval with him Moling 4 . rogheanair i n-aenuair fria was born at the same time as she BB 406bz (= Dinds. 111 ). Cf. IX (b).

Replacing O. Ir. construction with equative: comdhub fri hec, Thr. Ir. Gl. 36 (prull) = duibidir éc, Corm. Y 1059 . Bodl. comard fri fid, Ériu iv 138.26 . meidithir fria hasal as big as an ass Marco P. 10 . corbo chomfota frisin sroin LU 6472 .

See also verbs and adjs. of comparison, e.g. 1 do-ella, samlaithir, in-samlathar; cosmail, 2 cutrummae, etc.

(b) to express difference, distinction from : frissaní immeraidtis (gl. longe aliud) Ml. 61c12 . sain fri .c. `different to c' Sg. 6b7 . do dechor fri praenomna aili, 28a13 . huare nád deligedar fri praenomen , 28a15 . do dechrugud persine fri alaili, 202a4 . is allail pronomen aní sin fri `sui' (gl. `is' aliud pronomen...) 209b10 . (differentia) fri, 213b15 , gl. contra 214b4 . Cf. nipo choím less frinn He was not dear to Him compared to us (?) Wb. 4b12 [Fraser l.c. suggests this rendering, ZCP viii 41 n . `in our case (?),' Thes.].

See s.v. 1 dechor, dechraigidir, deiligidir and other words of similar meaning.

V

(a) with respect to, with regard to (cf. III c) : is sain fri cath sain fri scor different for battle, different for unyoking (of trumpet-call) Wb. 12c46 . idain fri cach réit faithful as to 31c13 . cen chinaid n-uaim fri nech, Ml. 54d16 (see cin). nach é Dia is ciontach riú is to blame for them TSh. 10499 . as eola fri aidgne ind Athar, Wb. 19d9 . it maithi a arilti frib `He deserves well of you' (`literally good are his merits as to you' Thes.) Wb. 16c11 . airle Dé fri Herind, LL 49b13 ( Hail Brigit § 2 ). .iiii. seóit a dire ... is fechem is fiadnaisi friu `four seds are his `dire'-fine ... he is a suitor and witness for them' (i.e. he is liable to that extent) Laws iv 308.2 ( Críth G. 138 ). is amlaid in t-athair frisin mac ngor; ... nimtha in t-athair frisin mac n-ingor thus the father acts with regard to the dutiful son; ... not so with regard to the undutiful one Laws iii 56. 22 ; z 0 . ba fria as-breth: cruth cách co hÉtaín 'of her was it said, 'every woman is fair till compared with Étaín'' BDD 43-44 , Celtica xv 57 . 'fer hi lorcc so,' ol in fer deginuch fri Nero 'a man is following us,' said the last man with regard to Nera RC x 216.48 . conidh ed isberdís cách fris, Cóir Anm. ii § 150 .

Cf. further: crādiis Ultu fri Cethirnd guin Fécc the slaying of F. imbittered the U. against C., ZCP viii 305.32 . ferdha a cathuibh iat, ar is friu ronnaltadh oc imairecc fria geinnti, Marco P. 189 . ro alt ... ind ingen co digrais fri légend ┐ gaís, LL 279a47 ( SG 413 ). Possibly the last two exx. belong rather to III (a), also : is me is cintach fris ni he is cintach frim, BB 479b14 (see cintach). See also : a lleth fri, s.v. leth.

(b) on account of (cf. VI b) : ro lega in snechta ... fri meit brotha in miled, LU 5858 . ba lond F. friside (-suidi), RC xxvi 12 § ix . saeth mār fri luga dige great distress from [?] lack of drink Fianaig. 12 § 20 . cid mís no bheinn gun ríg thess | ro-fess ná bíad mo scís fris, ACL iii 304.20 . ní ḟaicim-si ... ni rís budh choir t'obadh for which it were right to refuse thee Ériu iii 154.5 . atchess ... na haīble tened ... uasachind re fiuchud na ferge, LU 6466 . ba mertnech Moisi fri hilchaingni ... fri orddugugd cāich fo mām, SR 4542 . batar toirsech fri Moisi, 3886 (in these two exx. fri = oc of prose LB 122a etc.). féimdid sim imt[h]echt fri scíss he cannot go on from weariness BColm. 94.16 . ni ro chotail C. fri himṡním, LB 274a55 . ni faict[h]e ise fri feidm a léiginn she used not be seen because of her duty of study ACL iii 308 VI 13 . Cf. la III a.

(c) on behalf of: aitchitt an C. ris comad he noberad, etc. they beseech the Lord for him that it might be he BColm. 98.15 . dogníther airnaigthi frisin ríg co nambed fot saegail do, MacCongl. 59.23 . ica cantain fria Cianoig chanting (a prayer) for C. ZCP vii 308.7 . Cf. also : ata mo briathar ┐ mo comairghi fria ar Tuatha D., Ériu xii 152.9 . o doratsat briathair fris, CCath. 1236 . in tī bes rí is fris beimmi, ZCP viii 316.3 . See do-beir, gell, and ráith.

(d) according to ; in agreement with, with pers. somet. = in obedience to: ni ni nach breith nā bi fri canoin cumtastar [sic leg.] no judgement is valid that is not framed according to the canon Corm. Y 1224 . cf. manib fri fasach fuirmider, Ériu xii 199.23 . fri mes airechta adrimter, Laws iv 298.25 ( Críth G. 22 ). fri saltair nogebad ... a salmu by the psalter (i.e. with the psalter before him), Mon. Tall. § 39 , cf. ni lugae mbis ind menme hisin cheill dia gabail ind tsailm de memur indas cid fri saltair ib.). fosernd clothri Connacht ... fri senchus ... fri buaid ┐ breatha in conformity with (the claims of) pedigree, with prowess and legal decision ZCP viii 108.10 = Ériu v 234 . bid som iarum fria toil (= they will be able to do as they like) Mon. Tall. § 35 (= go mbid ... aca ara ttoil fein, Rule of Tallaght § 35 ). fri tala ind rig ... domrala I am about the king's business SR 6187 (Rex praecepit mihi 1 Reg. xxi 2 ). cia ro delb fria thuil a ndath who coloured them to please himself (?) SR 7675 . For FRI TOIL in a different sense, see III (e). Cf. nitattorbi fri toil Dé (gl. non omnia expediunt 1 Corinth. x 22 ) `against God's will' Thes., Wb. 11b 17a . Also : ind tí dogní ní do maith fria menmain fadesin ... ar ind bo neoch gabti he who does a good thing in accordance with his own inclination ... should openly proclaim it Mon. Tall. § 21 (= chuirios ní maith ... do dheunamh uaidhe fein, Rule of Tallaght 71 ).

VI

(a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. vb. or equivalent = to be at, engaged in or about to engage in (some occupation, process ; cf. III a) : in tinscanfam .i. in biam fris (gl. incipimus ... commendare ?) Wb. 15a1 . ní uisse do mug Dae buith fri debuid to be at strife 30b26 . cf. ní bethe fria acre, 9c20 . ni piam fri aithirgi, 30b17 . ni biat som fria togais adi (= non fallacia ad quoscumque loquuntur) Ml. 31a17 . cechtar nathar fria saindān `each ... at his special art' Thes. ii 293.14 . feib donrala fri comrad, SR 1214 . indí ... bíte fri tnúith `those that are given to lust' Mon. Tall. § 11 . nebbuith fri éthech not to be lying Ériu ii 64 § 6 . céin bete fri soíthar while they shall be at work Fél. Ep. 298 . in tan natbi fri frestal na n-anmand when he is not attending to LB 110b43 (cf. SR 1199 ). ní mo chean ... tarrla re freastal ... na fairrgi sin, CF 42 . amail do beith se re goibhnecht ríam as if he had always been at smith's work BCC § 92 . na saoithe do bhí re seanchus, Keat. i 74 . cuirim suas don ghrádh, | ní fiú é bheith ris, Dánta Gr. xiv 3 . Cf. boí a ben fri idna in travail LU 105.86 (see 1 idu). Similarly without subst. vb. : nachitochthad fria choscc `let him not wear thee out in admonishing him' Wb. 31d11 . conus tarttsat fria ttoghairm chuca an lucht they set about calling the people Hugh Roe § 8 . Cf. airfitech re tetaib, ACL iii 223.23 (= Keat. ii 5358 ). dias fri cerdacht, SR 190 (perh. III a). dá mbeinn re héagnach `had I purposed to revile' Content. v 7 (cf. le hóradh bhriat[h]ar da mbeinn, Ó Héodhusa 4 ). In class. lang. `re' is used with vn. to express futurity : an chathair atá ré teacht ( = civitatem futuram) TSh. 2751 . i n-oirchill na n-olc bhíos ré tuirling orra, 532 .

(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on or from which something takes place (some of the exx. could be explained as extensions of other uses (cf. V b ; IX a) ; often the construction is elliptical) : gaibed cach a greimm ... | fria brethir in primsacairt, SR 4400 . ba huisse soillse fri éitsecht na noeb at the death Hy ii 60 . Cf. co mbidis i nd-aenmaigin fria n-ég, Corm. Y 1233 (fri héc LB. ria n-ec LL 179b ). fri gein Críst ... tindscan lechsa léri, Fél. Nov. 14 (cf. III a). ro eirgis fri breithir Isu, PH 2780 . ret[h]it daim ... ri dorddan na damgaire, Ériu vii 2 § 1 . phreab as G. risan gair, Ériu i 18.33 . ac cantain cheóil ... fris coteltais Síl Adaim, LL 3305 ( Ériu xiv 156 ).

VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion of (cf. similar use of Lat. apud, and see la) : ni cumdabairt fri Cirine is tre metur Jerome does not doubt Hib. Min. 6.187 . nad maith fri C. ciasperthar ..., 7.235 . frithir frisin mac i n-ebras riss, Ériu vii 225 ( LL 209a16 ). ba bind fri cach na canaind, LU 1301 (`sweet to all was what I said' Imr. Brain ii 298 . But this may be ex. of : canaid fri). bid inmain fria cách a ainm loved of all PH 4299 . ba hingnad mor frisin popul sin, 2959 . ba mo a grad fri Gargán oldait a uli cethra G. loved him more than all his cattle 7178 . Cf. Mon. Tall. § 7 cited under III (e) where the meaning seems different. gurbh annsa ré hEóin Críost ioná ré Peadar Christ was dearer to John than to Peter TSh. 10327 .

VIII

(a) to denote agent (a late use, mostly in texts in artificial style). ar na bennughadh fri sanctuss Silvester consecrated by Fl. Earls 196.19 . laech ... frisimbia mo thiglecht (= who will cause my death) Metr. Dinds. iv 360 (but perh. this is ellipt. and belongs to III (e) ; cf. TBC2 cited there). romarbtha na maithe ... frisna crechairib LB 154a63 . in lucht frisa tucad in digal .i. Uespiam ┐ Titus ib. 16 . Constantiana ... .i. eclas rocúmdaiged fri Constantin 157b48 . Of parenthood : trī meic Medba fri Fergus, Corp. Gen. 279.33 . sē meic do Mīlidh fri Scota ┐ dā mac frisin nEspānaig 'Míl had six sons of Scota, and two sons of the Spanish woman', ITS xliv 64 § 424 . do chomthusmed clainni fri hA. to have children by A., Alex. 512 .

(b) to denote instrument, through, by means of, by dint of (cf. similar uses of Engl. `with') : sénais Brigit fria bachaill with her crozier Hy v 58 T = lia F. fria noebainm ... séntae cech slóg subach by [or at ?] his holy name every happy host was sained Fél. Prol. 99 . ícaid [Tipra C.] gallrae ... fri troscud aici, BColm. 52.15 . argain fri daigid (destroying by fire LL 107a21 ( Ériu iv 28 ), cf. multi nobiles ceciderunt ... fri daigidh ro horta uile, AU 900 (see RIA Dict. s.v. daig). go nach deachaidh neach re siúbhal ... as no one escaped by flight ML 88.31 . re dán nglas ... dán breaghdha do bhréagnachadh with a simple poem to refute an elaborate one Content. vii 13 . ro ēirigh fri nert seoin ┐ solaid, Moling § 4 (possibly = with here cf. dol ar fairrge ... ré cóir na gaoithe = with a favourable wind ML 36z = le ML² 466 . cuir me ... chum seoil ... re cóir ghloin, Measgra D. 48.16 ).

IX In expressions of time :—

(a) in O. Ir. in locatival sense in phrase : fri dē by day, in the day-time Ml. 121d8 . Wb. 6a30 . fri dei, 9a5 , 24d14 , 26b17 . Cf. in gabail fri dei ... in gabail cech ráithi a catch (of fish) daily (?) Trip. 250.14 (2950) . fri díe, Mon. Tall. § 55 . fri haidchi by night Trip. 208.25 (2452) . gl. contra noctem Lat. Lives 18 . re lá, Ériu iii 148 § 3 . arna imbreth ... i n-aidchi cía nosgonad fri dé, LU 5609 .

(b) usually to denote period during which something continues or takes place : 'na fuair frisna secht ṁbliadnaib SR 3394 . fri a n-aimsir in their time Laws iv 210.28 . niro chotail C. frisin ré sin, LU 6337 . fria ré hi fut a saegail for their lifetime SR 5932 . bai cocad mor etarro fri re ciana RC xxiv 186 . batar ... fri re secht la amlaid sin, ACL iii 225.1 . conosrala for sechrán fri re bliadna co lleith, LU 1279 . bá-sa i Tul T. fri ré inna dílenn, Ériu iv 144y . maith graig dorat damh rem lá in my day ACL iii 304.23 . D. ba talchar fria ré in his day Metr. Dinds. ii 40 . dorumaltsa ... m'aimsir fri hamsir Nemid, LU 1276 . nir siubhuil in conuir-so re bliadhain aenridiri for a year past ZCP vi 104 z.

(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place : ni ba marb-sa fri sin I shall not die before that ZCP i 105.4 (co sin v.l.). Cf. also the locative use in Marco P. 11 cited I (a). tanic ... uidi na .xii. mís fri .xii. laa made the twelve months' journey in twelve days LB 139a31 . icuis fri teorai nomaidhe within thrice nine days RC xii 66x . nos ithend ... friha brathad sula in the twinkling of an eye LU 1895 ( RC x 56 ; fri b. v.l.) do imredar ... re trí lá, ┐ ní ruc G. énchluichi rissin, Acall. 1348 .

(d) of point of time ; in some cases approaching VI (b) above. fri dead n-aissi, SR 2829 . in tan nadbi fri húair i fos | frithalmi when he is not here at the hour of attending ... 1199 (cf. LB 110b43 cited under VI (a) above). cech dūil ... rosdelb fri oenuair, SR 7864 (similarly 7234 , 7386 ). grend Muman ... grend Connacht ... ra hóen-úair at the same time Ériu i 130.36 ( LL 46b ). buaidh ... damh fri deiredh mo ṡaoghail, ACL iii 231.1 . ra dered flatha Domnaill, LL 185a48 ( Arch. Hib. ii 85 ) = Rawl. 154a52 . Rí dorat na deich plāga | forthu fri huair combāga, SR 3942 . ? cid fri geld bāis nobeth `though he were at the point of death.' Mon. Tall. § 48 (see gell). re húair nfaicsiona at the time of looking RC xxix 128.13 . fri huair tacrai do ghníma, Ériu ii 228.7 .

(e) in follg. exx. perhaps used for ria before: na buidne ... robatar fria Crist...rofhogain don Choimdid fria tuidecht soscela (= turbae quae praecedebant ... ante evangelium) PH 4573 . dorad som a cuibidil fria mbass made his confession before death RC xviii 53.19 . Cf. co ro muid fri maccu Israel, LB 122b47 = re, YBL 293b40 (corresp. to mebaid remib SR 4765 ).

(f) In later lang., 3 s. ris occurs as adv. bare, exposed, uncovered : mar do leig ris a n-aoinfheacht 'how it left [her] uncovered at once' Duan. F. ii 332 § 9 , Éigse ix 228 . do theilg Ercuill a bhrat de ┐ ro leig a lorg ┐ in croicenn leomainn ro buí re cnes ris, ITS xxxviii 997 (Stair Ercuil) . chonarcadar a ccroicinn go coirtighthi buídhe ris, Smaointe B. Chr. 150 . ó bhí mo chroiceann-sa nochtuighthe síos reis, 160 . cia d’innis doit-se a bheith nochtuighthe síos reis (leis, v.l.), 161 . See also la VI (d), léicid.

X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs (and nouns of cognate meaning with them), e.g., those of speaking, addressing, boasting, complaining, asking, thanking ; meeting, touching, striking, rubbing, grinding ; listening ; waiting, expecting ; entrusting ; co-operating, associating, helping ; visiting ; resembling, comparing, differing ; parting, severing (from) ; doing (something to), acting (towards), giving, distributing, apportioning ; requiting, paying, selling ; refusing, rejecting, denying ; hindering, restricting, opposing, combating, etc. See especially : ad-cosnai, ad-gair, ad-teich, ad-tluichethar (attlugud), aigid, 1 anaid, ar-báigi, as-beir, benaid, beirid, 1 caithid, canaid, 1 cingid, comalnaithir, 1 con-clich, con-delca, con-gní, con-ricc, con-sní, con-túaisi, crenaid, dálaid, dlomaid, do-beir, do-gní, do-icc, do-rogaib, do-slí (tuillem buide fri), do-sluindi (diúltad), do-tét, dúnaid, 2 erbaid, fáiltigid(ir), feraid, fo-gella (2 fuiglid), fo-rig, fris-oirg, fris-tairissethar, fris-taít, gaibid (fris-gaib), gellaid, íadaid, 1 íccaid, imm-beir, imm-fogni, imm-fresna, in-samlathar, in-túaisi (éistid), labraithir (labraid), laigid, 1 ligid, lingid, 1 luigid, meilid (con-meil), naiscid, ráidid (ol, ar), rannaid, renaid, saethraigidir, scaraid (and compds.), soïd (do-soí), 1 téit, tongaid.

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