Search Results

Your search returned 123 result(s).

1 aile

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 aile or dil.ie/978
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: oile, eile, arch, aild, aile, aile, aill, aile, aill, aili, ailiu, ailiu, áili, aili, aili, aile, ailib, aile, aili, aile, aili, aili, a., n-aill, n-aile, éile, éle, aill, aili, ailiu, ailiu, aile, alaill, allail, alaill, alaili, alailiu, aili, alaaili, alaili, n-aile, allaili, aile, alaili, aili, alaile, holailiu, horaili, fulailiu, folaill, hualailiu, alaile, alaill, alaile, arele, lelele, alaill, aláil, araill, alaili, aláili, álaili, araili, áréli, alailiu, arailiu, alaili, aili, lialailiu, liala ailiu, aile, alailib, alaili, aréli, alaili, indala, indala, dondala, indala, indala, indala, all, AILE, ALAILE, arailiu, alailiu, alaile, (a)la, al(l)

In later lang. oile, eile other, one of two, second , pronominal used as adj. and noun. Inflected as io, iā -stem except in n a s. neut. (aill, see below). GOI §§ 486 ff. , Hamp, Études Celt. ix 477 (aill, arch. aild). Old-Irish forms. Stressed forms

(a) aile (as adj. follows noun; as subst. always with article or nach). As adj. n s m. aile, Wb. 12c46 . n. aill, 9c3 . a s m. aile, Wb. 9d31 . n. aill, 13a1 . g s. aili, Sg. 30a2 . d s. ailiu, Wb. 21a7 . ailiu, Sg. 30b4 . n p. áili, Wb. 12b1 . aili, 22d14 . a p. aili, Sg. 28a6 . g p. aile, Wb. 12b3 . d p. ailib, Wb. 12b11 . Fem. n s. aile, Wb. 10d18 . a s. aili, Sg. 189a8 . g s. aile, Sg. 188a12 . n p. aili, Sg. 22a3 . a p. aili, Sg. 191a2 .

n As subst. n s m. nach a.¤ , Wb. 20a10 . n s n. a n-aill , Wb. 4b24 . a s m. nach n-aile , Wb. 8a3 . éile, éle (influence of céile, GOI p. 308 ), 6a15 , 6c18 . a s n. na aill , Wb. 17c23 . g s. nach aili , Wb. 17b28 . d s. nach ailiu , Sg. 209b12 . a p. amal na heliu, Sg. 9b1 . ailiu gl. quos (nullos tepefacit sol), Ml. 94b20 . Fem. g s. inna aile , Thes. ii 15.42 (BCr.).

(b) With double stem ala aile, alaile, with dissimilation araile (with stress on -ail-) (as adj. precedes noun; as subst. does not take article or other proclitic, cf. Ped. Ériu xv 188 ff.).

As adj. n s n. alaill ṡain, Sg. 6b24 . allail (recte alaill, edd.) pronomen , 209b10 . g s. alaili thríuin, Sg. 96a4 . d s. alailiu chruth, Ml. 98d1 . n p. alá aili aidme, Ml. 89a9 . alaaili réta, Sg. 111b5 . a p. alaili dliged, Ml. 18c11 . g p. ala n-aile ndoine, Ml. 54a21 .

Fem. a s. allaili mbeasti, RC xi 446.1 . g s. ala aile aidme, Ml. 51c5 . d s. alaili tain gl. quando, Sg. 222b2 . n p. ala aili interiecta, Sg. 10a1 .

When used with a prep. ending in a vowel alaile sometimes drops its initial: holailiu, Ml. 80a2 . horaili, 2a6 . fulailiu (sic MS.), 102d2 . folaill, Laws iv 102.14 . But hualailiu, Ml. 40d17 . Sg. 25b12 . With la see substantival use infra.

n As subst. n s m. alaile, Wb. 6b20 . n s n. alaill, 7d11 . a s m. alaile, Wb. 5d15 . arele, 9c19 . With la: lelele, 16c24 . a s n. alaill, 4c33 . aláil, 12a10 . araill, 23b21 . g s. alaili, Wb. 4c13 . aláili, 12a34 . álaili, 13a9 . araili, Sg. 10a10 . áréli, Wb. 13a5 . d s. alailiu, Wb. 2a14 . arailiu, 21a13 . n p. alaili, Wb. 13a16 . ala aili , Sg. 215a1 . a p. with la, lialailiu, Ml. 14a4 (liaailiu, MS.). liala ailiu, Sg. 32b5 . g p. ala n-aile (gl. reliquorum), Ml. 37a21 . Sg. 201b15 . d p. alailib, Wb. 25b13 . Sg. 208b8 . Fem. a s. fri alaili , Sg. 202a4 . d s. aréli (see above), Wb. 8a7 , alaili, Sg. 189a7 . 212b3 .

In Bardic verse this form alliterates with words beginning either with r- or vowels: líonmhar dá reic re-roile, DDána 61.3 . sgol i n-ucht ar-oile ag ól, 103.25 .

(c) Unstressed forms (always adjectival preceding noun or aí, see below, and most usually with preceding article or cach). With article (both words indecl.) n s m. indala mmod, Ml. 45b11 . a s m. indala fer, Wb. 4c16 . d s. dondala lucht, Wb. 16c20 . n s f. indala chlas, Ml. 138d1 . g s f. indala rainne, Sg. 74b7 . a s n. indala lestar, Wb. 4c32 . With cach, usually cach la: cach la sel, Wb. 15d9 . cach le céin, Ml. 19c1 . Without art. somet. also all, see C I (a) below.

A. The form AILE.

I As adj. following its noun other, second: frituidecht a.¤ anísiu, Sg. 21b11 . pronomen naill, 197b17 . fogur na liter na.¤ , 4a8 . guidiu itge n-a.¤ , Fél. Ep. 413 . anní nail as much again, IT ii1 180.177 . cethri fogaetha a.¤ , SR 49 . immon michil lasin crosfigill-so immon muiri lasind crosfigell na.¤ immasech `with the next', Mon. Tall. 137.z (§ 28) . do nach raod aliu `to any other matter', 143.30 (§ 43) . isind le[i]th ailiu, Críth G. 591 (eliu, MS.). do c[h]ellaib elib, BColm. 62.20 . forsin triur aili `the other three', RC xxiv 174.10 . aisceda imda eili, Sc.M² § 4 R . Longínus in ainm ele, PH 673 . a dhuine dhiombuain eile, DDána 27.3 . céd eili d'uaislib `a hundred other nobles', IGT Decl. ex. 60 . ┐ ní eili and furthermore, Hy Maine 161.31 . beag oile as congnamh ré chois `little else', Dán Dé x 17 . aill with non-neut. noun: ro-lēcus-[s]a gaí n-aill cucut-su, Sc.M² § 13 . issin láim n-aill, MU² 543 . do thuc bulli n-aill, TBC-LL¹ 1998 . fecht n-aile (n-aill), úair a.¤ another time, on another occasion see fecht and 2 úar. Of future time, next, forthcoming: lathi n-and resint samḟuin a.¤ cind bliadna, LU 3298 ( SCC § 10 ). cosin caiscc naili `until the next Easter', Mon. Tall. 132.17 (§ 12) . nach (na) . . . a.¤ (aill) any other . . . : nábat nacha arm aili `let it not be any other arms', Wb. 11d14 . dochum nacha rainne a.¤ , Sg. 188a12 . indtan noteigdis nach leth aili, Mon. Tall. 129.18 (§ 6) . in nacha reduibh ailib, Ériu ii 106.9 . Masc. with neut. noun: huare nad fil na nert n-a.¤ , Ml. 29d5 .

n II As subst.

(a) another, the other, others etc.: cuit inna aine ┐ inna a.¤ of the one and of the other, Thes. ii 15.42 (Bcr.). amal na heliu `like the others', Sg. 9b2 . arus leth do fallaib an aill do doebdadaib `for half is due for the neglects, the other for the claimants,' Laws iv 126.21 Comm. mad a.¤ da lina beta olca folaid `one of two parties', ii 366.11 . ma a.¤ dá lína bes anfoltach, O'D. 565 ( H 3.17, 441 ). co ndearnadhsom in a.¤ chédna likewise, TFrag. 22.22 . mani tucad . . . ní din chéttadall ni bered a n-aill, Sc.M² § 1 . ní fargaib bennachtain ┐ ní thuc anaill (alali, v.l.), RC viii 52.25 . aroile . . . anaill the one . . . the other (ref. to léo), Grail 3399 .

(b) period of two days: a.¤ do mnaib . . . treisi do rig, Laws i 78.15 . nat ṡasai aena tar a.¤ `that one day should not be extended beyond two days', 120.18 . athgabail a.¤ itir uin ┐ treise rosmidir Sencha, 126.11 . cach athgabail a.¤ , 144.24 .i. for ata anad naili ┐ apad aili, 146.21 Comm. is for dail na haili, 146.12 Comm. athgabail a.¤ do ingin im comorbus a mathar , 146.y .i. ar ata anadh naili, 148.3. Comm. a.¤ déc space of twelve days (cf. a.¤ déc one twelfth , (g) infra): a.¤ do mnaib, a.¤ dec doib im roe, Laws i 78.15 .

(c) Frequ. a n-aill something else, anything else: nimbe anaild arbera bith `he has nothing else that he may eat', Mon. Tall. 146.16 (§ 50) . ind lethbairgin ┐ ind cethramtu nó anaild `the half loaf and the quarter or other quantity, 151.z (§ 63) , ní fogbat merdrecha Ulad a n-aill acht foraim én dóib, LU 3254 ( SCC § 5 ). it é do theoir ríagla / nítroib anaill bas diliu `have thou naught else dearer', Ériu i 194 § 7 . in fil anaill? ol Grigoir `is there anything else?' ZCP iii 30.21 .

(d) Hence with ocus, etc. furthermore: ┐ anaill forácbus[s]a . . ., LL 279a7 . ┐ anaill béus, iarfaig-siu and furthermore, ask . . ., TBC-LL¹ 1920 . ┐ dano a n-aill and úair ni chesend nech, LU 2654 . ┐ anaill niro tagaill . . ., Grail 2786 . Cf. similar use of araill: et araill aile dana béus, TBC-LL¹ 106 . ┐ araill and, dano, . . . ní fil rígain . . ., LU 4015 ( SCC § 46 ). araill ele bheós ro leth ainm . . ., AFM v 1858.z . ┐ araill ele nir bó siodhach . . ., vi 2052.10 .

(e) Uninflected aill . . . aill one . . . another, some . . . others (not found in O. Ir. Glosses): imrordus in rígraid / . . . / aill úas laithib lígdaib / aill fo díanaib déraib some . . . others, Fél. Prol. 23 . aill fir mair . . . / aill ingene húage `one of a mighty man . . . another of a virginal maiden', June 5 . áill fri cumaid . . . aill ele fri teichead (of persons), Alex. 309 . .lll. carpdech . . . aill bruitt budi aill bruit deirg `some in yellow mantles others in red mantles', RC xiv 412.8 . Hence adverbially partly . . . partly: aill is tóla catha crūach / aill is cōra cacha crích, ZCP xi 110 § 30 . go ruc in ingen leis aill ar áis aill ar égin, Ériu xi 46.13 . Cf. aill .i. aonfecht .. . ut est aill torla tres tochuired, O'Dav. 34 , Ériu xiii 15.11 .

(f) With nach any other: arna arroímatsom nach na.¤ `lest they should receive any one else', Wb. 14d37 . cen acaldaim nach aili, Sg. 153b7 . cen acomol naich aili do `without joining any other to it', 197b17 . nib écen na aill, Wb. 22d12 . ni gessid na aill act búaid precepte, Wb. 26a34 . ní epur na haill `I say nothing more', Sg. p. 217 marg. sup. (Thes. ii xxii). in fail na aill adcota[r] dam, Trip.² 1323 . cona bía cuit do nach ailiu i nHére, 2766 . do-bérad naill ( = na aill) would give something else, BDD² 276 . With partitive DI something else of: asbéram na aill diar ṅgnímaib, Wb. 17c23 . in fuil anaill d'ingantaib air?, Grail 2983 . Cf. aill do buadaib Duind C. andso something of the triumphs, TBC-LL¹ 1529 .

(g) In numerals (fractions). a.¤ déac one twelfth: oile dég f., IGT Decl. § 3 . oil a dég (oil dhég v.l.) lochdach, IGT Decl. § 14 . aili deac brotto `the twelfth part of a second', Thes. ii 13.29 (BCr.). erpais Patraic aili deac Erend dó the twelfth part of Ireland, Trip.² 911 . `a.¤ dhéc the twelfth part, the Brehon's fee . Anglicé allayéag,' O'Don. Suppl. ni uil aile déc dosomh ┐ atá éiric a gubreite fairsium, O'D. 536 ( H 3.17, 432 ). da tecarthar ni da folaid cruid on breithemain, no ailedec, Laws i 234.17 Comm. diablad na aile dec, 234.18 Comm. no co thormaigi fa geall co roib aile dec, v 252.20 Comm. log a breithemnuis, aile dec, 212.22 Comm. Perh. also in: ni bhía an oile dēgsi am díaigh / nach foighe Ó Bríain d'éicsi úaim, IGT Decl. ex. 216 . barr na ngēg uile re n-idnaibh / uile dég gun fidhbaidh ortt (lochtach), ex. 225 . Cf. Kl. enair for dardain ail uathaid fuirre `the second day of the moon thereon', RC xviii 176.27 (Tig.). 284.2 . For ail dec 35.9 Stokes suggests reading ail uathaid.

B. The form ALAILE etc.

I As adj.

(a) other: aliud pronomen . i. is allail (recte alaill, edd.) pronomen , Sg. 209b10 . cenn cridi ┐ alaaili réta `and other things', 111b5 . sech alaili dliged ┐ indliuchtu `apart from other sayings and meanings', Ml. 18c11 . imtech[t] Boinde . . . ┐ alanaile n-aband, AU i 308. 11 , cf. 330.4 , 374.4 . In later lang. neut. form somet. used after noun irrespective of gender: leth in moige . . . al-leth allaill, RC xi 446.52 . don taeb araill, Stair Erc. 782 . isin luing araill, Grail 2969 . isind láim anaill, TBC-LL¹ 1719 . Note also: adhaigh n-aill n-aile another night, BNnÉ 324 § 38 .

(b) Usually some, a certain (gl. quidam, aliquis): hualailiu chlausul gl. uelut in clausula, Ml. 40d17 . holailiu lon gl. quodam adipe, 80a2 . ainm alaili thríuin `name of a certain hero', Sg. 96a4 . alaill ṡain, 6b24 . hualailiu mud gl. quodammodo, 25b12 . con alailiu fogoir (leg. fogur, edd.) gl. aliquo `with some sound', 39a2 . alaili tain gl. quando, 222b1a . ac gūmāidim ala naile nairec ninganta falsely boasting of various wonderful inventions, Corm. Y 825 . cornan alaili cuislendach, `a certain piper Cornan', Mon. Tall. 131.23 (§ 10) . alaili fáith marb, Trip.² 1395 . di araile anmcharait, ACL iii 5.3 . aroile fer angid, PH 818 . doní . . . araile gaitt irisech `she commits a certain pious theft', BColm. 84.10 . i n-araile domnuch, ZCP iii 33.15 . ro indsaig araile carruic . . . ┐ ros buail, Grail 1435 . in araile locc i lLaighis `at a certain place', AFM ii 1066.3 . Cf. co aroile mainistir ecin, RC x 187.4 .

n II As subst.

(a) another, the other: ni ferr nech alailiu, Wb. 2a16 . ni áir do neuch molad alaili, 16a24 . is coitchen do cechtar de ainm alaili `the name of each is common to both', Ml. 14d12 . intí diib bes tresa orcaid alaile, Ml. 19d6 . tar cenn alanaile gl. aliorumuice, 95d9 . Sg. 201b15 . cenmathá dobrethir ┐ alaaili `except the adverb and other (parts of speech)', 71b17 . muidit secht catha ren Osseirgé for na Déise . . . asberat araile is tricha cath others say, Ériu iii 138.102 . in foirend is craibdige araile `the folk who are more believing than the rest', PH 6363 . coná baí aithgne neich sech alaile díb, TBFr. 271 . cach gabal tra issuidiu araile hisesam `every other division is sung sitting, the next standing', Mon. Tall. 140.4 (§ 31) . gach clas ro claideadh do línadh do arbaim alaill do imbim the furrows to be filled alternately with corn and butter, Laws iv 98.14 Comm. drécht diib i nAidniu, araill diib oc Dubcechair, ZCP viii 305.30 . Hence alaile . . . alaile etc. (the) one . . . the other, another: biit alaili and rofinnatar a pecte rosíu (sic) docói grád forru alaili is iarum . . ., Wb. 29a28 . alaaili diib hi remthechtas . . . alaaili dano it coitchena eter remthechtas, Sg. 215a1 . Later araill . . . de is used of all genders: comérgit Ulaid araill díb . . . araill, LU 5017 . Cf. a dá grúad . . . co ndeirgi fola laíg ┐ araill eile co solusgili sneachta, BDD² 38 . Also when first part of phrase contains ind ala (infra).

(b) With idea of mutual action each other: con rochra cách a.¤ lit. that each may love the other (= that all may love each other), Wb. 6d1 . rosbennach cách dib elathain aroile, Fél. 4.20 . Eogan . . .┐ Oed . . . do marbad aroili, Ann. Conn. 1340.12 . ar bruinnib ┐ ochtaip aroile ┐ a chēile, Fl. Earls, 80.17 . Frequ. with prepp.: combad imned for araill domsa so that it should be trouble upon trouble for me, Wb. 23b21 . Cf. in peccath for arele, 9c19 . is ball cách dialailiu, 5d4 . ar a ndig cechtar dīb sech anaile (araile v.l.) so that they can get past each other (of two chariots), Corm. Y 1082 (96.11) . ni dernai nechtar n-ai olc fri araili, TBFr. 24.3 = fria chéile, 420 . ón tráth co roili, BDD² 1251 . lán ón orsain go ar-oile / an teach . . ., DDána 85.37 . casmhail a rún dá-roile, 92.6 . an ro loitseat Goill ┐ Geraltaig imo roile (roile) isan tansa `the injuries mutually done upon each other', AFM v 1734.15 . dīss derbrāthor dieroile `two . . . brothers', Fl. Earls 124.1 . ?asrean a ceile agh fo laill do `his neighbour shall give him another calf', Laws iv 102.14 Comm.

(c) somebody, something; a certain person or thing . In sg.: araill tra cairigedarsom there is a certain thing (?) (`there are other things now which he blames'), Wb. 25b9 . So also: [con]-secha alaill indib (`he corrects another thing in them'), 26c1 . aroile do lāmhoip S. Niclās `one of the hands', Fl. Earls 80.20 . ba ingnad liasna Fomoire alaill tarfas doib isin cath a certain thing, RC xii 92 § 122 . atpert aroile fris `a certain man', Stair Erc. 1449 . Note also: ara ara bélaib isin charput sin araile forseng fánfota forbrec a charioteer in front of him . . . and he was, LU 9274 . In pl.: is sí cétbaid alanaile `this is the opinion of some', Ml. 36a1 . circunflex la grecu for alailib diib, Sg. 208b8 . With DI: araill d'feraib Midi `some of the men of M.', RC xviii 23.31 . do deachaidh fein cona mac . . . ┐ ar oile dia mhuintir innte, Leb. Gab.(i) 242.26 . d'foraithmet araill dona neithibh remraiti, 272.6 . araill d'áes na cemenn sin, CCath. 86 .

(d) As adv. (d s n.) arailiu `otherwise', Wb. 21a13 (introducing an alternative explanation); cf. alailiu chruth gl. aliter, Ml. 98d1 . alailiu, Wb. 9a23 (see Bergin, Ériu xiv 29 ; xvii 1; Pedersen, Ériu xv 188 ). alaile, Anecd. iii 59.2 . araili .i. gne eile, Laws iv 68.3 . Perh. also in TBC-I¹ 1044 , TBC-LL¹ 1833 ff. (reading ... cadān co leith. Allaile (alailiu LU) dia tonda etc.) .

C. The form (a)la, al(l).

I As adj.

(a) other, one of two, second (in this use a `compositional prefix', GOI § 394 ): all-aidchi on another night, IT ii2 194.21 . alachéill in sin, ZCP viii 313.29 . Morc .i. ala flaith na Fomoire, Leb. Gab.(i) 80.30 . béra cend ríg alathúaithi lat, BDD² 727 . fria lesa alabrugh of other territories, O'Curry 454 ( H 3.18, 242a ). rogrād fir alathīre 'great love of a man of another land', Ériu ii 15 § 2 . ? nach for ala thire tí tarrassais 'that you did not abide upon the surface of another land', PMLA lvi 940 ( LL 37013 ). li ala lécuinn Saul `by one of S.'s cheeks', Ml. 55c1 . ala n-or di i teg, a n-aill fri sīn, Corm. Y 35 (aurso). ala thred dub alaili find, Anecd. i 57 § 58 . tēora blaī būirig . . . blaī mescae . . . alablaī dúnaid la túatha téchtai tecraiter the second exemption, ZCP xi 83.1 . cath Ocha alachath `the second battle', RC xiii 54.10 . ala-chor second contract, Laws ii 274.z . mád ala feacht iar mbrethaib forru `for the second time', 66.16 . See also under compds. and 1 al. See also under allabrig.

(b) With article ind ala one of two, (the) one (. . . the other) (see also B II (a) supra): dotóeth indala fiacail airthir a chinn `one of the two teeth', Thes. ii 248.9 . arambé indala rann cen diall `that one of the two parts be undeclined', Sg. 74b6 . ind ala c. gl. praetermisit unam c (i.e. by writing hoc for hocc), 205b5 . co lluid tré scíath n-ete indala heóin one of the two birds, LU 3282 ( SCC § 7 ). doroigu ind ala fer . . . et romiscsigestar alaile, Wb. 4c16 . is léir dorigni indala lestar is dínnimu dongní alaill, 4c32-33 . ni coir dídnad dondala lucht et troscud dond lucht ailiu, 16c20 . īadais andala (indara, LU) sūil . . . asoilg alaile, TBC-I¹ 394 . benaid . . . Mac Cecht a chend dondala fir . . . ro boí in fer aile oc élúd, LU 7942 . Loch nE. dindala leith di ┐ Slíab C. dind leith ailiu, Trip.² 1957 . Later indara: indara láim dó fri ubull bragat in chon. dobeir araile fria chúl one of his hands, LU 5012 . indara fecht . . . canait ceol . . . in fecht n-aill contúaset fri ceól muintire nime, 1978 ( FA 5 ). is hé indara fer . . . ró an . . . Donnmal int aili, Trip.² 1521 .

(c) ind ala the second (cf. tánaiste): cengsat siar dind ara chur `for the second time', Metr. Dinds. iii 4.33 . isin dara cét lá deidenach don ré `on the second last day of the term', Laws iv 136.1 Comm. Hence in compd. numerals: ala rann deac `one twelfth', Thes. ii 13.29 (BCr.). issed indala nainmm déc the twelfth name, Thr. Ir. Gl. 25.9 = indara hainm, Corm. Y 750 . indala descipul lxx at the seventy-second disciple, Laws i 20.2 Comm. fir errainne co alasét sesed with sixty-two `séts' ZCP xii 361.21 . ?torad cach trethain ala cairrge, Laws v 484.2 (Comm. takes as all beyond). Cf. co treathan ala cairge no ala caire, O'Curry 20 ( H 3.18, 9a ).

(d) cach (a)la every other, every second: cach la céin . . . in céin naili sometimes . . . sometimes, Ml. 19b1, 3 . cachlacein `alternately', Mon. Tall. 146.29 (§ 52) . is i fescur cachlacēin / dlegar dīdnad dōib they are entitled to a meal on alternate days at vesper-time (of fasting regulations), ZCP xiii 29.14 . cach la sel dún for imrádud dé in sel aile for precept `at one time meditating on God, at another time preaching', Wb. 15d9 . ammarbad cach la sel iarum do a mbeogud indtale dia marbad `he continues alternately to mortify and revive them from their dying state', Mon. Tall. 147.16 (§ 52) . bó cona timthuch cech la blíadnai . . . colp[d]ach ḟirenn lee in mblíadnai n-aili every second year, Críth G. 266 . cach alablīa[dain] every second year, Corm. Y 1082 ( Anecd. iv 96.16 ). cach ara bliadain, Laws iv 140.29 Comm. druinech cechla bean / crecōir cechla fer, ZCP ix 170.17 . ate cuir treineacha la Feine cach la fear dia urgaire, alaili dia forngaire, Laws iv 54.13 . gach re n-am alternately, Dán Dé v 41 .

II n As subst. indala n-aí (invariable) one of the two: is dochu ind ala nái oldaas a n-aill, Wb. 4b24 . togu ind ala n-ái . . . damnad alaili `to choose one of the twain . . . to condem the other', 4c13 . ci atbela ind ala n-ái ni epil alaill, Sg. 30a3 . ind ala n-aí antúaid alaile andess, 67b22 . co n-accai in da mnaí . . . indala n-ai brat úaine impe alaili brat corcra, LU 3285 ( SCC § 8 ). elcuig indalanae, ruibidh alailiu, ZCP viii 105.11 . da fítt . . . inddala hí do tabirt do Día . . . araile do tomailt fadein, Mon. Tall. 161.10 (§ 80) . Later also ala (n-)aí: ar lēicse ala aí di arailiu, ZCP xv 316 § 10 . ni frith ala ai do thacru, 354 § 42 . dá [n]dorus [n]-and—comla[e] ar ala n-aí, clíath ar alailiu, Críth G. 101 . bōthar, talla dā boin fair .i. alanāi for fot alaile for tarsnae, Corm. Y 1082 ( Anecd. iv 96.17 ).

COMPDS. cosnamach fri hailecricha, Ériu viii 173.28 . i n-ailithír, Trip.² 2033 . asna hailithírib foreign countries, TTr.² 1747 (cf. ailithir). aile máthair, Sg. 152a2 (not treated as compd. by GOI § 394 . Perh. infl. by the Lat. altera mater). See also C I (a) above.

aimles

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aimles or dil.ie/1122

 

Forms: aimhles

n (les) aimhles m., IGT Decl. § 38 .

(a) disadvantage, harm, mischief: ni fes cuich les cúich amles to whose disadvantage it is, LU 10822 . in fer fris rodálusa ní ar chul no amles ticht ar a cend, 10769 . ní ar amlessaib in tslúaig / tíagu cech fordul a húair, 4720 (TBC). muna thaithnet a gubreatha ar [a]imleas neich aile to the disadvantage of somebody else, Laws ii 328.18 Comm. fiach aimhlesa, O'D. 578 ( H 3.17, 444 ). cur rem aimhleas do b'ail lé `it desires to attempt my ruin', Dán Dé xix 2 . ceim fri ha.¤ negalsa, Ériu ii 228.15 . ní bu báes, nī bu amless / umlae dond áes bad chomdas `humility . . . would be no disadvantage', 63 § 3. d'aslach a aimhlesa ar a eascarait, MR 306.18 . In phrase do-gní a.¤ x harms x: ropo mór do thech . . . cia doriṅgned and t'amles, TFerbe 286 . uchān a Dé mo dī lāim . . . dorōnsat mōr domn (sic) a.¤ , ACL iii 233.6 . nach dingne[d] a.¤ a mathar , Ériu v 148.32 . As quasi-vn.: ro bá oc amless m'anma, Trip.² 1435 . do amlius fer mBruidne to injure, BDD² 1186 . ni biadh acht oc a.¤ Édaine, Ériu xii 154.12 (TE2). doriacht Forann caladh thes / dia faghal is dia n-aimhles, RC xxxvii 347 § 47 . ag innell ┐ ag a.¤ ┐ ag órdugad sírchogaid do dénam orro, Caithr. Thoirdh. 139.38 .

(b) evil report, false charge: ni creidem-sa a.¤ air, ZCP vi 54.31 . an seanshuileach . . . do dalladh laiss a loss aimhlesa, AFM iii 350.18 . a.¤ an sdibaird ar Sir Gyi calumny, ZCP vi 55.24 . litreacha aimleassa letters containing false charges, Expugn. Hib. 73 . dorinnedh aimhles damh uirre fa ḟior eile I made a false charge against her, Ériu v 196.611 . d'ḟiadhnaisi ḟir an aimhlis of the mischief-maker, TD 17.61 . amlus .i. brath, Laws i 234.4 Comm.

airláthar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airláthar or dil.ie/2181

 

n (láthar) dispensation, disposition, arrangement: tria érlathar ┐ comairli nDé gl. dispensatione superna, tríana erlathar gl. dispensatione spiritus, Rawl. B 512 f. 66c-d . (Plummer MS. notes). in spirut noem dogéna a erlathair, PH 2018 . cubaid sin fri erláthar ┐ fri ruin na screptra, 5738 . fri hirlathair . . . a n-imdechta for arranging, LB 123b28 . gebe manach . . . raghus fri herlathar uaitsi ni baithfidir, Lism. L. 2241 . gur thorrach Muire máthar / go hiodhan don urláthar `by that great power', Aithd. D. 49.12 .

airnastaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airnastaid or dil.ie/2304

 

n i (based on part. of ar-naisc) spouse, bethrothed one (usually husband) (for the formation see GOI p. 171 ): in fáilte fil do'nd ernastaid spirutalda in-a (m)banernastaid (i.e. Christ and the Church), PH 3986 . fedba cen irnastaid, LB 233b51 . ernastaid togaide mathar in Choimded, 13a5 . commām . . . ar cēle, ar n-irnastadha sochenēlaigh .i. Iósa Críst, Otia ii 100.2 . a irnastaid muinntire ifirn (the devils address the soul), PH 8175 .

aisec

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aisec or dil.ie/2482

 

Forms: aiseag, aisiog

n o aiseag m. IGT Decl. § 11 , §104 . aisiog, Verbs § 65 . See Lochlann ii 213 . act of restoring, giving back; restitution, restoration: a gell slán cona ḟuillem do aisiuc, Críth G. 288 . in ni do berar inn do aisiuc as in-oigi, Laws i 48.8 Comm. aithghin commaith d'aisiuc on fechemuin, ii 10.7 Comm. is eicen do in rath da.¤ uad, iii 130.20 Comm. ba hingnad a.¤ (of a wolf giving back a sheep), Trip.² 147 . cach assec cona thasséc, TBC-LL¹ 1929 . bā hā.¤ cen taisec, MacCongl. 73.24 . aisic (asec, asiuc v.ll.) a chreiche ┐ a einich do M., Anecd. ii 73.1 . fria a.¤ don scolaige `to be delivered to the scholar', MacCongl. 43.3 . do chuinghidh aisicc a chruidh, AFM vi 2104.4 . asec a rige fein do, Ann. Conn. 1250.2 . do chungid assic Helena, LL 234a23 ( TTr. 1269 ). ria slán-aisec . . . docum a máthar doridhissi `safe return', RC xxiv 62 n.5 . slánti d'aisiuc duit, PH 804 . d'aiseag radhairc a intinne dhó, TSh. 9269 . lá ar aisiog ní fhuighe sionn / dar chaith mé I shall not get back any day I have spent, Dán Dé v 3 . m'fhuighle dámadh áil d'aiseag if one wished to answer me back, PBocht 16 § 32 . ? dul fri cath mas fer fine do cuaidh a trebairi he haisic catha tar a cenn; mana tarda, tabrad budein diablad catha a reib coisicartha, O'Curry 394 ( H 3.18, 220 ). Note also: aiseag a purge, a vomit , P. O'C.

2 aithne

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 aithne or dil.ie/2754
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: aithgne, aichinte, aithennta

O. Ir. aithgne. io, n. Later f., and g s. also aichinte, PH 2910 . aithennta, ZCP vi 276.32 (infl. by 3 aithnid). Vn. of ad-gnin, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 546 . IGT Verbs § 54 .

(a) act of knowing, recognising, perceiving; knowledge, recognition, perception: do aithgniu ┐ etarcnu dǽ treu, Ml. 42b13 . ar is hé as eola fri aidgne ind athar (gl. missit Deus Spiritum Filii sui in corda uestra), Wb. 19d9 . do thudidin do menman do aidgniu gl. quoniam benignitas Dei ad penitentiam te adducit, 1c15 . aithgne et adrad, 1b13 . cin sula, di aithniu no foircsiu (leg. -in?) mignima, Laws i 238.14 . as ionad anma d'a.¤ , Anecd. ii 22 § 4 . ┐ iat ic aichne a n-inaid catha do congbail for they knew that their place of battle was being kept, CCath. 6143 . cen aithgne a litri có sin without knowing his letters, Trip.² 97 . a.¤ reanna ┐ úaithne ┐ úama, IGT Introd. 2.19 . robo dibreite aichne . . . in Baibiloin da togail it was inconceivable that B. should be destroyed, BB 6b53 . lucht aichinte Isu those who knew Jesus, PH 2910 . gin gur ghabhuis a.¤ uaim-si as reil dait though you weren't told by me, RC xliii 42 § 39 . do thaobh eólais is aithni, O'R. Poems 1202 . triur as lia iul is a.¤ (of the Trinity). DDána 25.6 . a.¤ thoile Dé, Parrth. Anma 3306 . aos aitheanta ar gceirdi-ni, Content. xxii 17 note . dom a.¤ to my knowledge, Aithd. D. 16.38 . Content. xviii 67 .

Less commonly with follg. AR: beas is mísí is olc aichní ar Isac perhaps it is I who do not know I. properly, BB 236b21 , do reir ar n-aithni-ne ar Conn as far as we know C., ML² 1426 . Cf. a.¤ ar chur ┐ ar chosg réime knowing about, IGT Introd. 2.6 . dlighidh a.¤ iomurbhádha . . . ┐ ar bhráithribh . . . dísbeaguidh, 2.30 .

Used like 3 aithnid: nī ha.¤ dhamh dhīobh díogha I know no refuse among them, O'R. Poems 3161 . a.¤ dhamh go bhfaghair . . . I know that you find . . ., Luc. Fid. 301.7 .

Transfd. of persons: an tú m'a.¤ `are you my acquaintance?' Ir. Review 1912, 378 § 1 . ní mé bhur n-a.¤ `he whom you know', Studies 1922, 245 § 1 = Dánta Gr. 47.1 . bhur na.¤ ┐ bhur neamha.¤ those of you who are known etc., CRR² 13 . cabair . . . a carat na a lan-a.¤ , `intimate acquaintances', MR 238.16 . Cf. mo dhaoine aitheanta acquaintances , TSh. 4252 (3 aithnid?).

Transfd. meaning that by which something may be recognized; characteristic: caide ém aichne rinnairde? Fél. 4.26 . is si a.¤ na tunataide, Laws iii 98.2 Comm. cair caide airceand? .i. comaircim caiti a.¤ na aircinde itir, iv 138.y Comm.

(b) In more active sense of coming to recognise or getting to know: cloc focain cethra .i. . . . fo braigit dia n-a.¤ , Laws i 142.15 Comm. secht ndoirsi fora thichthe / ind laich nar hannsa d'aichne, Rawl. 87a11 . coná baí aithgne neich sech alaile díb, TBFr. 271 . ní ermadair . . . aichne adnacail a maicc she was unable to recognise, Trip.² 1441 . báttar iaramh ag a.¤ ┐ ag adhnacal a ccaomh ┐ a ccarat, AFM v 1646.27 . doním tar muir d'a.¤ uaim / a ghruaidh, Rel. Celt. ii 242.23 . ar eagla h'aithennta for fear of being recognized, ZCP vi 276.32 . ar n-a.¤ Donnchaidh dhóibh, IGT Decl. ex. 670 . With vb. and AR, FOR: saig aithgne forru try to recognise them, IT i 144.24 . atnaigh in ingen aichne fair conar bé Ailill the girl recognized that he was not A., IT i 126.9 ( TE § 12 Eg.). sáilim a.¤ ar an guth nglan / gan cruth a aighte d'ḟégadh I think I recognize (him) by his clear voice, Prolegomena 44 § 16 . míorbhuile máthar Íosa / iomdha fear fhuair a n-a.¤ got to know them, DDána 10.39 .

In phr. beirid (somet. do-beir) aithniu (d s.) with follg. accus. or clause recognizes, realizes, gets to know: ni beram achni (= achniu) aní sin we know nothing of that, LU 10100 ( Imr. Brain 64 ). aralégda (leg. araléga edd.) inda libra ar a mbelaib combo moude ronduca athgnu `let him read the books before them, so that he may gain the more knowledge of them(?)', Mon. Tall. 160.z (§ 79) . tresaní nad rucis aithgnu since thou didst not recognize him, Ériu ii 222.15 . na ber aichne, ar bid fír recognize it, for it will be true, Alex. 835 (with inf. pron. 3 s. n., no bera, v.l.). tuc an ingin a.¤ gurbh'e righ Erenn do bí ann, Ériu iii 152 § 6 . tucsad Gaill aichne cur' fír sin `perceived', RC xviii 299.4 (Tig.) du-s-rad a.¤ gur `he knew that', Fl. Earls 52.18 . Note also: aenoclach . . . m'a.¤ doberudh go becht, Prolegomena 44 § 15 .

Do-beir a.¤ for recognizes (of persons and things only): dobéra imorro cach duine thall aich[ne] for araile iar n-esergi, LU 2661 . sí sin aichni do-biur-sa forru that is what I recognize them for, TBC-LL¹ 1247 . as é sin do ber a.¤ ar galar in duine, 5508 . ní tucsatt . . . na manaig aichne for Colmán, BColm. 80.25 . ní thuc . . . a ech a.¤ ar a hechlais, IGT Decl. ex. 555 . léicid aithne co reveals one's identity to: ro léacceas m'aithne chuicce, Acall. (Leabh. ó Laimhsgr.) iii 71.17. do leig a aithne chuca, Smaointe B. Chr. 5219 (seipsum eis revelat).

(c) recognition (in sense of recognition of a poet by his patron), generosity: an dáonnacht 's an deagha.¤ , O'R. Poems 71 . fear a.¤ na healadhna / urradh is fhearr le a cheathra, 1075 . nár dhamh . . . / gan mh'a.¤ dod ghruaidh ghairthe (of a poet), Aithd. D. 46.1 . benacht chugaibh . . . ar son na ha.¤ do-rin[n] sibh ar an dan so, Mackinnon Cat. 117.14 . tug séala athanta ar shleachtaibh . . . `recognition's seal', Ó Bruad. i 204 xvii .

(d) With subj. gen.: ba maith . . . enech ┐ aichne na mná generosity(?), LB 129a29 . Cf. as é . . . bud ferr i[n] aichni 'na einech (.i. bud fer ri aichni .i. ingne inntlechta) `whose wit was clearest in his countenance', RC xxiv 46 § 3 . fear h' a.¤ si a man with your knowledge, Oss. v 26.7 .

amnair

Cite this: eDIL s.v. amnair or dil.ie/3183
Last Revised: 2019

 

n [r, m.] mother's brother, maternal uncle (see O'Brien, Études Celt. iii 364 ); mother's kinsman (?) Peritia v 142 : a.¤ bráthair máthar gl. auunculus, Sg. 61a21 . a.¤ in druad, Irish Texts i 2 § 4 = avunculus magi, 3.1 . ? a chinn Chaisil, ód omhnair (MS o domhnair), | taisigh inn 'nar n-ollomhnaibh 'o chief of Caiseal, protect us poets from your maternal kinsman', Ériu lxiv 170 § 1.36 ​.

1 apa

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 apa or dil.ie/3855

 

Forms: apae

vn. of *ad-ben, see LEIA Cf. also Celtica i 337 § 6 . Orig. apae io, n. Later m. an t-aba, Bard. Synt. Tr. 17.16 . reason, cause: cid uma bfuilti dubach ? . . . a aba ┐ a adhbar againn, Acall. 963 . in t-aba ó ccantar Ceilbe, Metr. Dinds. iii 54.16 . cid són ar M. fail a morabba (damna v.l.) dam, TBC-LL¹ 149 . fail a mór abba ám dóibsium . . . ciarsat . . . torsig, LL 12066 . fil a abba dó, PH 1961 . cuirfidh go fada soir sinn / ni fhoil ar n-aba a n-Éirinn there is no reason for our being in Ireland, Bard. Synt. Tr. 17.17 . ? it e abbae donacht (abai danocht v.l.) C. . . . di A. i nErend, ZCP xiv 62.12 (cf. 72.7 ). aba .i. adhbhar, O'Cl.

In phrases. i n-a.: ata in aba duit-siu sin do radh you have reason to say that, BB 426b39 . ar a.¤ prep.and adv. phrase. Alliterates with vowel in classical verse (cf. ar aí s. 3 aí). As prep.phrase not to be used in class. verse with a poss. pron. except when a demonstr. follows, see Bard. Synt. Tr. 17.18-25 . Usually folld. by gen. or vn. clause, but may also be folld. by nom., Bard. Synt. Tr. loc. cit. Because of, on account of, for the sake of, etc.: ar a.¤ comruicc fri hēnḟer, TBC-I¹ 2438 . ara.¤ a māthar dīb because his mother was of them, 2247 . ar a.¤ chomlund (comlainn v.l.) oenḟir by dint of, TBC-LL¹ 3197 . foraba ḟledoil, LB 273b69 ( SG 54.28 ). ni arabba a hadartha, 235b1 . ar aba a ḟialusa fris, AFM v 1812.z . dá ngada dhíom ní dhlighe / síodh ar aba th'oirbhire, DDána 67.43 . ar aba an aba (? leg. adbair) shuthain / mór caomhna an chuirp fhréamhdhuthain, Aithd. D. 50.33 . ar aba a huilc, Studies 1921, 76 § 22 . ar aba anma aon deise `to save the lives of any two', ML 106.14 . ná bídh aire énduine . . . re anmuin ar aba ingabála dona huaislib in hopes that these nobles will quit the field, Caithr. Thoirdh. 103.12 . robtar subhaigh . . . ar aba a ttérnuídh tar gach mbaoghal, AFM vi 1922.11 . ar a.¤ a ndernais de drúis, Ériu vii 223 § 35 . Folld. by nom.: ara.¤ a fath tancammar because of the reason we have come(?), TBC-LL¹ 2136 . aicme gan aga ar a neart / an mhaicne ar aba a n-aithcheacht, DDána 60.5 . ? eisdeacht fada as fada dhamh / ar aba an eisdreachd abadh, IGT Decl. ex. 844 . leagar deoch ar áth aga / deoch ar aba cách chuga (sic leg.) he puts aside his drink because his foes are approaching him, Bard. Synt. Tr. 17.22 and notes. snáith t'oige ar aba iomrádh (: ngrádh), 141.20 . Folld. by vn. clause: nach fuighbead bo ar aba in chatha do chur as a result of fighting the battle, SG 50.13 . Note also: ar aba an cheathrair do theacht . . . níor beanadh etc. if the four had not come, Content. vi 89 . ge ead arabba sin tanic confad catha . . . `and yet for all that a rage of battle came . . .', TTebe 1599 .

As adv. phrase nevertheless, however . Perh. orig. ar apu, cf. ar-abu, MU² 1007 ( LU 1510 ). With possess. ara aba, ZCP xiv 214.6 (late). Also ar apaide (resolved by Zimmer, KZ xxx 5 as: ar a.¤ side. Cf. ar aí, araíde under 3 aí). ba mōr a uathmaire ind ḟir; fanōpair-seom araba, TBC-I¹ 467 (= ar apu; arapa, araba, arappaide, MSS, Stories fr. Táin 6 ). comalta ┐ fer bithchotaid dam Cūchulaind. Ragadsa ara.¤ ara chend imbārach, 1539 . nobered cach-ra-cluchi for C. . . . ar a.¤ , TBC-LL¹ 1812 . atbert ar abba a ádnocul uair ba rí he, LB 236a12 . cid ed ar abba is duine démnacdu he, PH 2688 . ba comlund cét cirthi cráeb / ara.¤ raforraig Aéd, Ériu v 223.60 (= Metr. Dinds. iv 360 ). ní fhuighe ar aba ní achd neamh, DDána 42.12 . d'fhuiling . . . anfadh fada, / armchladh é ar aba dóibh, Ó Bruad. ii 274.12 . ar apaide: ni[b]-farc[h]elsam a ócu olse ar apaide is mochen dūib nevertheless you are welcome, Sc.M² 5 . iss é óenfer ar apaide adroinni drochternam úadsom, LU 6079 (TBC). aropaidi (sic) roás ind n-imguin foraib, Ériu ii 30 § 15 . arapaidhe (arapaiti, v.l.) is menma comarba, TTr.² 182 . arapaidhe tra rosochtsat in churaid, Anecd. ii 56 § 18 .

2 ar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 ar or dil.ie/3903
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: air, ar, ár, úaire

prep. 1 ar used as conjunction for, since, seeing that, for the reason that . In O. Ir. also air (see GOI § 168 . This spelling predominates only in Ml., ar being commoner both in Wb. and Sg.). Also ár, LU 3255 , 3257 ( SCC 5 ) (vowel perh. influenced by ór = úaire, MU2 Gloss., cf. also ór from ó + ro). Occasionally leniting ( Ml. 42c8 , Sg. 206a3 ), see GOI § 906 . Perh. substituted for earlier ol, al (see 2 ol). Cf. ar ni raibi, IT i 118.14 = ol ni rabi, LU 10718 . Also ál asbert, 10721 = al, Ériu xii 164.1 (TE2. ┐ isbert, v.l.). Wind., IT i Wtb . compares olchena archena.

`Introduces principal causal clauses or periods', GOI § 906 or dependent negative: ba samalta re Meidb na beth penning a selba lé. arna baí tarb a chomméit lé fora búaib 'it seemed to Medb as if she had not a penny of possessions since she had not a bull as great as that among her kine' LL ii 7624 , Celtica ix 122 . radis friss ara tísed uathad leis … ár nach crích ł ferand baí aice, 'he told him to come only with a small number … for he had neither land nor domain' LL ii 8382 , Celtica ix 122 . atraachtatar Ulaid co barbarda ara n-armaib. ár nar lam Sencha érgi eturru 'the Ulstermen rose furiously to seize their arms since Sencha did not dare to rise among them' LL v 34699 , Celtica ix 122 . The clause so introduced is usually an explanation or amplification of the circumstances attending a foregoing statement or question, e.g. co farcbad leesi a liasom . . . Ar adrubairtseom is isind liic robui a anim a mathar , Anecd. i 10.13 ( SCano 309 ). cid ane . . . meic na mbachlach . . . do chomram cucam ? Ar ba mese sacart oc baistiud ind anma sin fora athair, Sc.M² 12 . With absol. and deut. form of verbs: airataat iltintudai leu cene, Ml. 3a14 . airis ho athir because it is from the father, 17c7 . air danimmart greim á aite, 14b14 . ar ba doig lais, PH 293 . ? ársit cara `since thou art a friend', Metr. Dinds. iv 362.175 (órsad, v.l.). Folld. by proclitic: arciaricc, Wb. 2a5 . ar cia bésiu, BColm. 106.6 . ar diambe . . . `for if he be', Mon. Tall. 153.8 . ar mani thuaslaicea isind chaisc, 132.16 . ar nifarnic, Wb. 2a21 . arníasse nóib disuidib, 3d28 . air ni foircnea, Ml. 102a15 . ar ní hinfíadnaisi, Críth G. 35 . is hí tucait in carpait do breith cu Fíacc, ar notéighed . . ., ZCP viii 106.28 . Note also: ar céin con-oadar . . . nicon tessēba maith airi, ZCP xi 81 § 9 . In asyntactic constructions where a nominative precedes the main clause: air an oen ar fichit it trisecht són, Ml. 2d2 . arlín inna laithe ised immefolngi éccintigi dund aimsir for it is the number of days which causes, 17d6 . arincorp . . . frissaroscarsom . . . nifil taidchur do dochum inchoirpsin, Wb. 3a14 . ár cech ben ro charastar C.C. ba clóen, etc., LU 3257 ( SCC 5 ). ar cid bās dobera for cethra is coitchend dōib, ZCP viii 104.5 . Note also: air cia salmscribdid conicfed són `for what psalmist could have done that?' Ml. 14a6 . With prec. causal conjunction: daig ar-dot-roset fir hErend for the men of Ireland will come to thee, TBC-LL¹ 1495 . fó bith ar is, LU 3446 ( SCC 22 ). In a loose connective sense: ar do-loga 'further, let it forgive' Ériu xl 27 . ar is sí trisfintiu innso 'this is one of the three kindred-rights' Peritia iv 313 (BB 10) . air [is] i suidiu ro suidiged gelfine ┐ derbfine, iarfine ┐ indfine 'here gelfine, derbfine, iarfine, and indfine … has been established' ibid. (BB 11) . ar is sí breth ba(i)rr-bunaid 'this is the judgement of 'branches-and-trunk'' ibid. 316 (BB 12) .

ar-oslaici

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ar-oslaici or dil.ie/4241

 

Forms: ar-osailci, arṅdaosailci, arosailcem, ardaosailcet, arosailcther, ersoilced, aranosailcea, aranosailcet, arndaersoilcet, aranosailcter, arosailced, arosulcubsa, -ersoilcfea, -ersoilcfithe, -ersoilcfitis, -airsoilcset, airsoilset, airoslaicid, airslocud, airslaicthe, ro-oslaic

v earlier ar-osailci (see GOI 525 , Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 563 ). In O. Ir. glosses Lat. pandere, aperire, reserare and also intrans. patere (see note on Ml. 110a5 and cf. use of inf. reflex. pron. in Sg. 147a2 , Ml. 36b8 etc.). Indic. pres. 3 s. arṅdaosailci gl. patere, Sg. 147a2 . 1 pl. arosailcem (appar. suggested by aperuit, Psalms lxxvii 23 ), Ml. 98a4 . 3 pl. ardaosailcet gl. aperientibus, 46a11 . Pass. sg. arosailcther gl. aperitur, Ml. 14c15 , 19 ; gl. reseratur, 27b3 . Ipv. 3 s. ersoilced gl. pateat, Ml. 127a20 . Subj. pres. 3 s. aranosailcea gl. reserare, Ml. 24d19 ; patere, 36b8 ; pandere, 42b12 . 3 pl. aranosailcet, 42b11 . arndaersoilcet gl. aperientibus, 46a12 . Pass. pl. aranosailcter gl. reserrari, Ml. 131c2 . Subj. impf. 3 s. co arosailced gl. ut pateret, Ml. 39c19 , 110a5 . Fut. 1 s. arosulcubsa gl. reserabo, Ml. 37d21 . 3 s. -ersoilcfea gl. patebit, 107d11 . Condit. pass. sg. -ersoilcfithe gl. portae H. quae credebamini in aeternum clausae, Ml. 46a14 . Pass. pl. -ersoilcfitis, 46a19 . Pret. 3 pl. -airsoilcset (airsoilset , MS) .i. inna ginu gl. ora concludit quae nunquam veritati . . . patuerunt, Ml. 31b9 .

Later as simple verb airoslaicid. See also oslaicid. IGT Verbs § 50 , § 65 .

Vn. airslocud. Part. airslaicthe.

(a) opens. Trans. arosailcem ar n-ítige riam we open our granaries before him, Ml. 98a4 . cach fermac arosloice broind a mathar , Laws iii 38.8 . asoslaic Balám a gin, SR 4801 (conflation of ar-oslaici and as-oilgi?). aroslaicfiter senistri nime remib, Ériu ii 196 § 12 (arosluicfidir, eroslaicfithir, uroslaicfider, arosailcfithir, MSS). glas. . . nāchunursloicce nac[h] dúi `which no ignorant person can open', Fianaig. 14 § 34 . erslaicc feinistri do trocaire, Grail 2380 . eroslaic do doirrsi, PH 3889 . r o-ersluicc [an Coimde?] an talamh uaistibh, BNnÉ 318 § 10 . ro eroslaicti a roisc dó his eyes were opened, Trip.² 93 , Lism. L. 60 . Intrans. (the first two exx. quoted could also be pass.): batar da liaic hi T. . . . inti arfoemtis arosilctis fris, Ériu vi 134.24 . ni airslaictis riam na da liaic, 28 . co n-airsolg in loc hi mbōi corp Petair apstail, ii 192 § 1 (rofoslaic, conaurslaic, condursoilg, co ro-oslaic , MSS). co n-iadand ┐ co n-erslaicend ria cech n-oen, PH 1925 .

(b) reveals, discloses: arosailcther hires tre degním gl. ad fidem aditus aperitur, Ml. 14c15 . fordhorcha anisiu uili . . . conid erslaic in Tenga Bithnua, Ériu ii 98 § 3 .

(c) Various: anocht rohirslaicedh a irlabra dho speech was restored to him, Anecd. ii 3 § 4 . ite na hochra aroslaicet na rudartha resolve(?), O'Curry 2471 - 2472 ( Eg. 88, 38(39)b ). Cf. eochrai ar-da-fuaslaicet, O'Curry 422 (H 3.18, 23a). aroslaicet toidli teined assa mbelaib they emit, Ériu ii 130 § 103 .

as-luí

Cite this: eDIL s.v. as-luí or dil.ie/4453
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: aslui, asloi, atd-lu, -elai, asluat, -elat, as-luigit, adluinn, elaind, asluad, asloa, -elammar, ciacloid, ciatloid, asloat, -élat, n-elathar, -rohéla, -erla, -ērlam, asrullat, aslóinse, -elaitís, atrullad, atluife, as-luífet, as-la, as-lōe, atlōi, at-lúi, as-lōeth, asluíd, asluiset, asruluús, -erlós, at-rulais, as-rola, as-rulla, at-rullai, atrulláe, adrullui, asrulaid, adrulaidh, -erlai, atrullaiset, -erlaiseat, atrullatar, adrullatar, -erlatar, élúd

v (* ess-lu-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 571 ). Later also with petrified inf. pron. at(ad-)-luí (or early confusion of ad- and as- Ériu xxxv 110 n. 65 ). Indic. pres. 3 s. aslui, Thes. ii 21.36 . asloi, ZCP vii 482 (Enchir. Aug.). adlai, IT ii2 197.17 . atd-lu, MU² 1028 . -elai, Laws i 118.6 . 3 pl. asluat, Ml. 44a17 . -elat, Laws iv 190.12 . ? as-luigit, Ériu lix 124 § 7 . Indic. impf. 1 s. adluinn (adluinid text) (no elaind v.l.), Imr. Brain ii 292. 35 . 3 s. asluad, Ml. 54c21 .

Subj. pres. 3 s. asloa, O'Curry 60 (H 3.18, 21b). 1 pl. -elammar, LU 1161 (ACC). 2 pl. ciacloid (leg. ciatloid, note), Wb. 26a2 . 3 pl. asloat, Anecd. iii 24. 15 . -élat, Ériu i 219 § 9 . ? Pass. sg. co n-elathar (-arlathar, -aicillther v.l.), MU² 560 and Gloss. With ro: 3 s. -rohéla, Wb. 30a10 . -erla, Laws iv 240.3 . 1 pl. -ērlam, Corm. Y 1059 ( Anecd. iv 92.9 ). 3 pl. asrullat, Laws iv 240.6 . Subj. impf. 1 s. aslóinse, Ml. 59a1 . 3 pl. -elaitís, LU 5734 . With ro 3 s. atrullad, Alex. 608 .

Fut. 3 s. atluife, ZCP x 344.2 . 3 pl. as-luífet, BDD² 1158 .

Pret. 3 s. as-la, BDD² 1510 . as-lōe, ZCP xv 343 § 34 . atlōi, Corm. Y 698 ( Anecd. iv 59.15 ). at-lúi, LL 247b25 . as-lōeth, ZCP viii 314.7 . asluíd, BB 25b8 . 3 pl. asluiset, Laws i 64.3 . Perf. 1 s. asruluús, Wb. 17d16 . -erlós, Fing. R. 116 . 2 s. at-rulais, Sc.M² 9 . 3 s. as-rola, Fél. Apr. 3 . as-rulla. Laws iv 240.3. at-rullai, Fing. R. 535 . atrulláe, LU 4376 . adrullui, IT i 144.4 . asrulaid, Metr. Dinds. iii 266.19 . adrulaidh (: churaigh), Anecd. i 62 § 103 . -erlai, SR 5349 . 3 pl. atrullaiset (atruluiset v.l.), Airne F. 186 . -erlaiseat, AFM i 556.4 . atrullatar, Dinds. 125 ( RC xvi 77 ). adrullatar, BB 255b20 . -erlatar, SR 4471 .

Later as simple vb. élaid q.v.

Vn. élúd. IGT Verbs § 64 .

(a) escapes (in physical sense): ni erla nech dib acht aenfher, LB 129a5 . co ro gonad fadeín ┐ co n-erlai iar n-a guin, LL 275a24 . ? asrulaed fo ííí ┐ ro giall Ériu do fo tri he escaped(?), YBL 418b4 = ar aslaesead co fothri . . ., 140a46 . co nerla ina longaibh iar nár a mhuintire, AFM ii 682.6 . In more general sense escapes, absconds, goes off, decamps: lotar (asluat v.l.) anair . . . co hA., Metr. Dinds. iii 442.37 . atlai . . . F. for teicheadh rias na mnaibh, Leb. Gab.(i) 14.20 . nech . . . oca coimet arna ra elat (of bees swarming), Laws iv 174.27 Comm. saithi beach matrollae, ii 420.10 Comm. ag iarraidh bó atrulla (do éló uaidh v.l.) do bhreith laigh, BNnÉ 16.y . gur 'trulla la M. `until she eloped', Todd Nenn. 178.4 .

With o, A(S) or DE (of the person or place escaped from): atrula int-ossar uad, SR 5317 . adlaoi uadhaib Asgall, AFM ii 1176.16 . atdluí Crumthand . . . ass, LU 1527 . nocha n-érlai asin cathraigh acht cía térnai do rind gái, TTr.² 158 . aen duna tesbadachaib atrulladar a Temraig, BB 408b23 . atluí morfesser díb do Cruachnaib Aí, LU 1584 . ? ni n-érlá acht atrullai di rennaib gai, LL 224b49 . With AR: is amne asruluús airi gl. síc effugi manus eius (of St. Paul's escape), Wb. 17d16 . atlui iarom fair co ndechaid issin n-áith do thirad, Irish Texts i 35.3 . as-luífet airib húaire is a sídaib doib, BDD² 1158 . in ērla . . . mo mac-sa foraib? ZCP xiii 178.32 . asloíset Lagin ar Chormac, LL 4908 .

(b) absconds, evades (a legal liability, etc.). Used absolutely: nach deoraidh ... cintach aslai, Laws iv 242.15 . ma nerla mas rulla teit for innile, 240.3 i.e. if a guilty person absconds his chattels become liable. ma atloat gaibter a sesci, ii 120.10 Comm. eisce .i. bith fri hais ┐ adrulla ┐ asrenar eisce immbi ceni tarracht, O'Mulc. 436 . With IMM (of that in respect of which absconding or evasion has taken place): is ima log nenech atrulla in flaith, O'D. 263 (H 3.17, 211). dia nel[a] impu, Laws ii 194.8 Comm. With prep.A: ben aslui a cain lanamna, Laws iv 184.16 . at-rulláe-side a giallai (an giallacus v.l.), ZCP xxvii 28.9 . co n-erlai a rrecht ind rig dodrigne (of Lucifer), Ériu ii 108 § 22 . With AR: raith ar mug aslui ar a flaith, Laws v 224.4 . athgabail eloduig aslui ar a fine, athgabail fuidir aslai ar a flaith, 260.18 .

With accus. bésse inna fedb asluat hiris `who evade the faith', Wb. 29a3 . slógad tar crích fri túa[i]th asidluí, Críth G. 513 . atumluifessa .cxx. annis . . . ┐ do athcuirfe cucum it will depart from me (i.e. the church will be alienated from me) . . . and will revert to me, Trip.² 1842 . athgabail . . . feicheman aslui dligid, Laws i 214.22 . fer aslui flaith `a man who evades [his obligations to] lord', BCrólige 16 . ma as-loa cobach (.i. feichem) tra conna acmai naidm da saigid fair, Bürgschaft 13 § 44 . ben no fer aslui gairi a mathar , Laws iv 184.16 . With figura etymol. ba hēlud as-lōe, ZCP xv 343 § 34 . corup elod aslui inti imma cuirither in t-eisce, O'D. 873 (H 3. 17, c. 624).

In phrase a.¤ sáeth(u) dies(?): slúag E. . . . / asrola sáeth (asaeth v.l.) sétaib, Fél. Apr. 3 .i. ro éla asna saethaib, Fél.² lxxi . asrala ri sacart saethu .i. ro la as ri na sacart a sáethu .i. i n-amsir a etsecta, LU 710 ( ACC 38 ). i n-ucht fiadat . . . asrola samthand saethu, LL 365 marg. sup.

1 athair

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 athair or dil.ie/4625
Last Revised: 2019

 

n r, m. See GOI 214 . IGT Decl. § 32 . father: amal caras athir a chláinn, Ml. 91b17 . athair a máthar , Sg. 31a15 . itanathir innafer, Wb. 4c1 . amal rocretset arnaithir, Ml. 96b5 . ba árosc insin la aithrea, 136a5 . fri arnathra, 97a3 . maic indegaid anathre, Wb. 30b14 . tar ǽsi pectha innanaithre, Ml. 123d8 . ásenathrae gl. maiorum suorum, 47d9 . amal dorolgis diar naithrib, 125a12 . trí thinnacul ho athraib, 97a10 . fora a.¤-sium, Sc.M² 10 . eter in mac ┐ a a.¤ , LU 8087 ( FB 6 ). ad-mestar athra scēo māthra, ZCP xi 95 § 49 . a báid-athair!, LL 290a37 . la n-athrechaib, LL 8364 . róide ar n-aithredh dob aithnidh, IGT Decl. ex. 896 . d'ulc ar n-aithrichne (aithrechne v.l.), ex. 898 . ar n-aithrecai-ne na ar maithrechai-ne, Ériu iii 158 § 11. a.¤ cleamhna father-in-law, Gen. xxxviii 13 . a.¤ dála representative: a oide a athair dála (a penitent to St. Francis at death), DDána 52.39 . an t-athair spioratālta 'godfather', Carswell² 52.1771 . Of an animal: ar petachd ro bui a mathair ┐ athair, O'Curry 1223 (H 3.18, 490b).

pn God the Father: int athir gl. Deus, Wb. 14b9 . rongenairsom hua athir . . . gein maicc hua athair, Ml. 85b11 . deacht athar, 17c7 . lasinnathir nemde, Wb. 19d7 . In phrase Día atha(i)r, see 2 día. Note also: ar trí aithreacha the Trinity , IGT Decl. ex. 897 .

Fathers of the Church, priest, etc.: beatha na n-aithreadh naomhtha, Desid. 2862 . i mbeathaidh na n-aithreach, TSh. 663 . a aithreacha noemu (to an assembly of bishops), PH 19 . a aithre spioradáltha priests , Desid. 3454 . a.¤ tocchaidhe don ord remhráite, AFM vi 2218.12 . Pátraic . . . a.¤ baitsi ┐ creitme fer nErenn, Trip.² 76 . a.¤ rúin father confessor , O'R. Poems 1909 .

In pl. parents; forefathers, ancestors: na ndenat na haithre d'ulc / don lucht assa n-aithle is olc what evil the parents do, LL 122 marg. sup. luid . . . co aithriu iar na dlomad as a righi, YBL 137b48 . dlighid clann umhla d'aithribh, DDána 40.2 . onóir . . . do thabhairt dot aithribh nádúrtha, Mac Aingil 2303 . iar mbreith . . . da oileamain dia oideaghaibh ┐ dia aithreachaibh, ZCP xii 396.20 . uí Ethach . . . 'sna haithrecha ór ghensodar, O'Gr. Cat. 396.3 . ac admolad a n-engnuma a n-aithrech ┐ a senaithrech, TTebe 2992 . do-niad cailg abhla na haithne / mairg tamhna dar bh'aithre iad, DDána 31.5 . athardhacht aithreadh, TD 26.44 .

Compds. ¤-dán: a n-athardanu gl. patrimonia sua, Ml. 28c13 . ¤-gein: cen mathir cen athargein paternity, Thes. ii 291 § 2 . athar-marbthach gl. parricida, Ir. Gl. 317 . ¤-oircnid: athiroircnid gl. parricida, Sg. 12b6 . atharoircnidi gl. parricidalia arma, Ml. 18c15 . ¤-thír fatherland: cia th'ainm ┐ t'atharthir, LL 12679 . d'iarraid ar n-athartiri bunaid fein, BB 445a49 . ¤-umal: ropsa becda atharumal of humble parentage, O'Curry 51 (H 3.18, 18b).

attá

Cite this: eDIL s.v. attá or dil.ie/4927
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: attá, Fil, fil, faeilfit, fil, fil, atóo, attó, attóo, ató, -táu, -ttóo, -tó, atái, atái, -tái, adta, ata, at, atáa, attáa, ataa, att, -tá, -ta, -táa, -dathar, ataam, attaam, ataid, ataaith, ataaid, ataad, -taid, ataat, ataat, -tat, -taat, tathum, tathut, táithi, táthus, táthunn, taithiunn, tathuib, tás, fil, fil, feil, fel, fail, fil, file, fel, fele, feil, fail, biuu, -bíu, -bí, biith, biid, bíid, -bii, -bí, robīi, -rubi, -rubai, -ruba, bíis, biís, bis, bís, bithir, bither, -bither, -rubthar, bímmi, -biam, bimme, biit, bíit, robiat, -biat, -bíat, -rubat, bíte, -bíinn, -biinn, -bíid, -bíth, -bid, -bith, bithe, -bímmis, -bitis, -bítis, b, bíth, bíith, bíid, biid, bíd, bithom, biid, bith, biat, beo, beu, -béo, bee, b, -bee, robhe, beith, beid, bed, beth, -b, -bée, bethum-sa, rob, robe, rubé, rob, robbé, -roib, bess, bes, bethir, bether, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -bem, -robam, beithe, bethe, -beith, -beid, -robith, beit, rubet, be(i)t, -bet, -robat, bete, -beind, -beinn, -betha, nobed, nobeth, -bed, -beth, -robad, -rabad, -bethe, -bemmis, -beimmis, -bemis, -bethe, -betis, -[ro]ibtis, bia, bie, bieid, bied, -bia, -bia, -bia, -bía, bethiumm, bethib, bias, bies, beithir, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -biam, -piam, bethe, bethi, -bied, -bieid, biet, bieit, biet, -biat, -bíet, bete, beite, nombeinn, nobiad, -bíad, nobemmis, nobetis, b, -bá, bói, bái, -bói, boie, boithius, boíthi, baísu, both(a)e, botha, -both(a), bamar, bámar, -baid, bātir, -batar, batar, rob, -roba, -raba, rob, robói, rambái, robui, -robae, -robe, -rabae, romboth, rombod, -rabad, robámmar, -robammar, rubaid, -robaid, robatar, robbátar, -rabatar, -robatar, -rabtar, buith, buithi, atáu, atú, itu, it, atú, ataim, -t, -tái, -toi, taoi, -t, atá, attá, ata, at, atáthar, dáthar, atass, -das, itám, tám, ataum, ataim, atamaoit, atámaoid, atám, -taum, -dtám, atathai, atathi, atáithi, -táithi, -dathai, -taidh, itāt, atáit, ataut, táid, -táit, itat, atat, fil, -fhile, -fhuile, -fuili, -ḟoili, -ḟuile, fail, fail, fuil, -fail, -fuil, -uil, -ḟil, -ḟuil, -ḟoil, fil, fail, fail, filter, -fuiltear, fuilemm, -failmet, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, -bhḟuilti, failet, filet, fuilet, -failet, -filet, -fileat, -fuilet, -fuilid, failet, failet, fuilet, filet, bim, bím, -bím, -ruibim, -bi, bíd, bíd, -bí, -bíonn, -bind, bídh, -b, bither, -bithar, bímit, bídmaid, bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, bíth, bīd, -bíat, -bít, -bíd, bit, bít, bhínn, nobīth, robíth, bhíodh, bhíoth, bithi, -bithi, bithea, naboitis, nobīdis, beitis, bitis, bhítís, bhídís, bír, b, bīdh, bíodh, bíoth, bíom, bíthe, bídh, bidhí, bíod, ber, uér, beor, bheith, bur, -rabor, -rabhus, rabasa, bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, bé, beir, -rab(a)i, -rabha, -rabhair, -mbéis, -beis(se), -rabais, beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, beth, -b, -raib, -rab, -raibhe, rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, bess, beas, bethur, beme, bemmit, bemait, -bém, -beam, -ruibem, -rabum, bheam, rabham, bethi, rabthai, beit, -bet, -beat, -rabat, -rabut, -rabhait, -rabhaid, -rabheid, beinn, rabainn, beithi, beithe, bethe, beitheá, beith, nobith, mbeadh, -mbeath, -rabad, -bethe, -bette, rabtha, mbiadh, nobeitis, nobeidis, mbeith, bíat, biat, biad, bhead, bed, bét, bett, -biu, -bhiú, biad, -bi, bía, biae, biaidh, bía, -bía, bethair, bied, biaid, biáid, -bia, bíes, bés, bes, bess, bhias, biass, beither, beithir, bemit, bemait, -bem(ni, beimíd, -biam, -biaim(ne), -ben, bethi, beitte, bete, -bed, biait, biat, beit, beiti, beti, betit, beidid, -bīat, beidíd, beid, -bíad, no-béind, dobeind, do beinn, -beinn, bheitheá, biadh, -bied, bífad, rot-fiadh, biath, bhiadh, bethe, bheidīs, ro-bádus, bhádhus, bhí, -rabus, -rabhas, -rabadhus, bá, -raba, bádhus, -rabadhas, basa, bhádhuis, bhí, -rabadais, -rabhais, bhádhuis, -rabhadhuis, bae, bóe, baei, búi, -bae, -buí, robai, robae, robói, bí, robuidh, bí, bhói, bhaoi, -rubai, -roibe, -roibi, -roba, -raba, -raibhe, -rabha, -robha, bí, -raibi, baí, -rabha, -rabhustair, boí, bāi, būi, bae, buí, baí, boí, both, rombatha, robās, rombas, robás, -rabus, rabas, -bádus, -bás, bás, bas, -rabas, bas, bhás, bāmur, bámar, bhámair, -rabamar, robabair, -babhair, robadbair, bhábhair, -rabhuir, -rabhabhair, bādar, -bátir, badar, bádar, bídur, -rabadar, -rabhadair, baisit, -rabhsad, bátar, bátar, bheith, beitte

(ad-tá) subst. vb. is . The distinction betw. subst. vb. and copula is in the first place syntactical, and cases are found where there is no distinction of form. Cf. the type, common in ACC: boe sab he was a leader, ACC 26 . See further below, and the discussion by Bergin, Ériu xii 208 - 211 (cia taísiu, cia bé, etc.), who refers to cases like: is uera pictura ro bai sin, Thes. ii 6.32 as emphatic. See also Ériu xvi 46 , GOI 475 . For nimtha laám, Wb. 12a21 , nímptha fírion, 8d24 (copula ?) see GOI 487 . Note also the form of the pron. in (later): matait tall iat, Laws iv 86.8 Comm. , atá ar conair é, ACL iii 216.z . bí N. eices cecinit, RC xvii 175.14 is perh. a mistake. In follg. use of subst. vb. perh. due to infl. of Latin: mar nobéind athair doib = pater eram pauperum, PH 6107 . ata in innsci ordugud etc. = oratio est. . ., Auraic. 591 .

Apart from the ordinary indic. pres. all forms of subst. vb. are from a root beginning with b-. In indic. pres. the stem tá (in absol. position attá) is used in non-rel. sentences without conj. particle, after conj. particles with inf. pron. dat. and when the conj. particle consists of a preposition and rel. (s)a n-. Absolute inflexion of tá- is found in oldaas, indaas, etc. than (is), in meaning is angry, and with follg. suff. pron. The uninflected form fil (with accus.) is used after conj. particles where no dat. inf. pron. is present, in leniting rel. clauses and often in answers to questions containing subst. vb., and in archaic texts in absol. position in meaning there is . For fuller details see GOI 476 - 483 and exx. below. See also Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 419 ff. , Strachan, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899, 1 - 82 , Ó Máille, Ériu vi 1 ff. , Études Celt. xxxiv 143-44 . Forms of gaibid, do-coissin, díchsnigidir and 1 ad-cumaing also have the force of the subst. vb. in certain uses, see separate entries.

Note further that attá is usual after hóre (see Wb. 19a19 , 22d14 and compare GOI § 781 ) and occurs later after amal ( LU 7072 , Laws iii 90.18 ). Fil is somet. found in sense there is in mid. Ir.: fail crois d'ór in cach dorus, SR 361 . TBC-I¹ 2561 . Note also: fil derg it is red, Marco P. 173 .

The use of accus. after fil continues into the classical period, see IGT Introd. § 129 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 92 - 93 . A few exx. of forms other than fil with accus. occur: ni raibi deilb, TTr.² 1664 , ní raibi . . . mhnái, 370 , ní bhiadh mnaoi, Ó Bruad. ii 252.z (with assonance). Note also with inf. pron. rosṁbai inna tass, SR 5107 . ? nim tha maith . . . do chath fri firu, LU 3343 ( SCC 13 ). From the mid. Ir. period on fil takes personal endings except in 3 s., and occurs occasionally as an independent verb: faeilfit (fut. 3 pl. absol.), Caithr. Thoirdh. 120.26 . In rel. function attá is found side by side with fil from an early period: is heiside attá hi S., Trip.² 534 , a lucht atá istig, RC vii 298.131 , the form fil finally disappearing in this use.

In mid. Ir. fil occurs for earlier -tá with dat. inf. pron.: nichar fail tlacht, SR 1560 , ni-s-fil biad, PH 1310 . Also in rel. clause after prep.: bale hi fail, LU 7516 , fors fil, Imr. Brain 43 (see also Strachan, Stories fr. Táin 3rd ed. p. 1 note).

The consuet. pres. 1 s. conj. -bíu has in classical Ir. the force of a future: biad ní biú, IGT Verbs § 7 , see also TBC-LL¹ 882 , Acall. 6179 , Duan. F. i 43.4 .

Early forms (for fuller lists see Strachan loc. cit.). Indic. pres. 1 s. atóo, Wb. 12a21 . attó, 21c19 . attóo, 26d8 . ató, 26d17 . -táu, 32a10 , -ttóo, 17d24 , -tó, Ml. 92b8 . 2 s. atái, Wb. 5b27 . atái, Ml. 110d15 (sic MS, see Ériu xiv 30 ). -tái, 5b38 . 3 s. adta, Laws v 390.10 (see ZCP xxv 247 ). ata, Wb. 13c26 , at, 27a11 , atáa, 6a19 , attáa, 32a6 , ataa, 26b31 , att, 4b11 . -tá, 31c7 , -ta, 2b12 , -táa, 13a35 . Impers. -dathar (see GOI 477 - 478 ), Wb. 21c9 . 1 pl. ataam, Wb. 15a13 , attaam, 32a28 . 2 pl. ataid, Wb. 4a4 , ataaith, 20b16 , ataaid, 23c28 , ataad, 22d14 . -taid, 19d26 . 3 pl. ataat (trisyll.), Blathm. 471 . ataat, Ml. 55d11 , 37a10 . -tat, 42b10 . -taat, Sg. 71b3 .

With suff. pron. tathum, Metr. Dinds. iv 284.3 . tathut, Fél. July 24 . táithi (tathai, v.l.), Críth G. 197 . táthus, Fél. Feb. 5 . táthunn, Prol. 217. taithiunn, Thes. ii 293.19 . tathuib, Rawl. 88b51 .

For rel. s. without preverb (taas, tás) see atás, indaas, 4 ol.

The form fil, etc. As conj. form: fil, Wb. 16b9 , Ml. 92a8 , Sg. 193b7 . feil, Wb. 24c4 . Ml. 60b2 . fel, Wb. 3c38 , Ml. 27d10 . fail, 44b10-11 , Sg. 32a1 . As rel.: fil, Ml. 121c8 , file Wb. 23a5 , Ml. 51d11 , Sg. 151b7 . fel, Wb. 4c1 , fele, Ml. 93c7 . feil, Wb. 33b18 . fail, BCr. 18c4 .

Consuet. pres. 1 s. biuu, Wb. 16d8 . -bíu, 20a3 . 2 s. -bí, Ml. 135d1 . ACL iii 312 § 4 . 3 s. biith, Wb. 29a26 . biid, 4d33 . bíid, Sg. 150b4 . -bii, Wb. 28b25 , -bí, Ml. 103c3 . With ro: robīi, TBC-I¹ 1730 . -rubi, Wb. 11c17 , -rubai, Ml. 20d4 , Sg. 7b3 . -ruba, 3b28 . Rel. bíis, Wb. 13a12 . biís, 28b28 . bis, Ml. 61a33 . bís, Sg. 140b2 . Impers. bithir, Ml. 56b15 . rel. bither, 108b4 , -bither, 100c21 . -rubthar, cited GOI § 784 . OIPG 69 . 1 pl. bímmi, Ml. 15a4 . -biam, Wb. 16a8 . Rel. bimme, Wb. 12c11 . 3 pl. biit, Wb. 29a28 . bíit, Sg. 217a1 . robiat, 138a5 . -biat, Ml. 59d7 . -bíat, Sg. 148a4 . -rubat, 138a5 . Rel. bíte, Wb. 9d28 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. -bíinn, Ml. 108b1 , -biinn, 58d9 . 3 s. -bíid, LU 5080 (see Ériu xvii 121 ), -bíth, Sg. 148b6 . -bid, Ml. 33a5 . -bith, Vita Br. 12 . Impers. no bithe , CCath. 3971 . 1 pl. -bímmis, cited GOI § 785 . 3 pl. -bitis, Ml. 86d6 . -bítis, Sg. 5a15 .

Ipv. 2 s. b, TBC-I¹ 2391 . 3 s. bíth, Wb. 10a8 , 25 , bíith, 8d9 , bíid, 5d33 , biid, Ml. 74d3 . bíd, Wb. 3a14 . With suff. pron. bithom, Fél. Ep. 404 n.17 . 2 pl. biid, Wb. 23c11a . bith, 22b26 . 3 pl. biat, Ml. 51d13 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. beo, Wb. 23b41 . beu, Ml. 53b8 . -béo, Fél. Prol. 273 . 2 s. bee, cited OIPG 70 and see GOI 482 . b, ZCP viii 311.z (see xxiv 122 ). -bee (perh. absol.), ZCP vii 494 (Enchir. Aug.). -bē, Fing. R. 82 . With ro: robhe (restored as ro-bé), Blathm. 92 § 9 . 3 s. beith, Ml. 108a11 . beid, Wb. 14c23 . bed, 3c10 . beth, Thes. ii 245.34 (Cambr. Hom.). -bǽ, Wb. 22b14 . -b, Sg. 29b14 . -bée, Wb. 12c43 . With suff. pron. bethum-sa, Fél. Ep. 384 n.14 . With ro: rob, Wb. 5d30 , robe, 18c4 , rubé, Ml. 20d4 , rob, Wb. 28a23 , robbé, Sg. 169a1 . -roib, Wb. 16c24 , Ml. 118c5 . Rel. bess, Wb. 5d14 . bes, Ml. 77d3 . Impers. bethir, Wb. 5d33 . rel. bether, Ml. 107d8 . -bether, Wb. 10a18 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 31c11 . beimmi, 19a16 . -bem, 24a10 . -robam, 26c10 . 2 pl. beithe, Wb. 18b16 . bethe, 24b13 . -beith, Ml. 46a10 . -beid, Wb. 27c9 . With ro: -robith, Wb. 26a28 . 3 pl. beit, Wb. 10b5 . rubet, 26a23 . ro be(i)t , Vita Br. 35 . -bet, Wb. 9d27 . -robat, 11d9 . Rel. bete, Wb. 10c22 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. -beind, TBC-I¹ 1856 . -beinn cited GOI § 787 . 2 s. -betha, Wb. 4c24 . 3 s. nobed, Wb. 3b10 . nobeth, Ml. 27b1 . -bed, Wb. 9d1 . -beth, Ml. 88b15 . -robad, Wb. 17a13 . -rabad, 34a4 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . 1 pl. -bemmis, Wb. 9a3 . -beimmis, 29d23 . -bemis, Vita Br. 23 . 2 pl. -bethe, Wb. 9c20 . 3 pl. -betis, Sg. 138a9 . -[ro]ibtis, Wb. 28a1 .

Fut. 1 s. bia, Ml. 137b7 . 2 s. bie, cited GOI § 788 , OIPG 70 . 3 s. bieid, Wb. 4d6 . bied, 14c1 . -bia, 5d35 . -bia (disyll.), Blathm. 572 . -bia and -bía, GOI § 788 . With suff. pron. bethiumm. Ériu xiii 20.6 . bethib, ZCP viii 316.5 (see xxix 174 ). Rel. bias, Wb. 23b38 . bies, Ériu iii 102 § 32 . Impers. beithir, TBFr. 248 . -bether, MacCongl. 61.4 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 9c10 . beimmi, 21b7 . -biam, 15a1 . -piam, 30b17 . 2 pl. bethe, cited GOI § 788 . bethi, Trip.² 1589 . -bied, Wb. 9a21 . -bieid, 26d26 . 3 pl. biet (disyll.), Blathm. 472 . bieit, Wb. 4c40 . biet, 9d27 , Sg. 198b6 (also bíet, GOI § 788 ). -biat, 9c28 . -bíet, 40b14 . Rel. bete, Wb. 13c26 . beite, 4c40 .

Condit. 1 s. nombeinn, Ml. 59a22 . 3 s. nobiad, Ml. 32d5 . -bíad, Wb. 9d1 . 1 pl. nobemmis, Ml. 134b3 . 3 pl. nobetis, Ml. 100c7 .

Pret. 1 s. b, LU 9407 . 2 s. -bá, cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 , see perf. 2 s. below. 3 s. bói, Wb. 31c18 . bái, 27a16 . -bói, 17d17 , Ml. 78a4 . Rel. boie, Thes. ii 242.11 (Ardm.). boīe (MS. ba), Ériu xvi 46.10 (see n. 0 and Celtica vi 223 ). boíë (MS. baoí), Ériu xxvi 67, 85 . Cf. cech nóeb bói, fil, bías, Fél. Ep. 289 (where six sylls. required). With suff. pron. boithus, IT i 137.8 = boithius, 21 . boíthi, Sc.M² 3 . ? baísu, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 37.5 . Impers. *both(a)e, postulated GOI § 789 , botha, TBC-I¹ 1572 . -both(a), Vita Br. 33 . 1 pl. bamar, SR 1558 . bámar, 3286 , Imr. Brain i 48.5 . 2 pl. -baid (baïd ?), cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 . 3 pl. bātir, TBC-I¹ 217 . -batar, Ml. 55c2 . Rel. batar, Ml. 123b5 . See GOI § 789 .

Perf. 1 s. rob, Wb. 28a9 . -roba, Ml. 44c4 . -raba, TBC-I¹ 3068 . 2 s. rob, LL 14442 . 3 s. robói, Wb. 5c10 . rambái, 2c13 . robui, Ml. 93c3 . -robae, Ml. 41a5 , -robe, Wb. 18d7 , -rabae, Ml. 28d3 . Impers. romboth, Wb. 19a9 . rombod, 5b31 . -rabad, Ériu iv 146.4 . 1 pl. robámmar, Wb. 20d12 . -robammar, Ml. 105b16 . 2 pl. rubaid, Wb. 3b19 . -robaid, Ml. 46a8 . 3 pl. robatar, Wb. 24c5 . robbátar, Sg. 57b1 . -rabatar, Ml. 100c11 . -robatar, Sg. 45b1 . -rabtar, Ml. 37a16 .

Vn. buith.

Vbl. of necess. buithi.

Later forms (see also Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish, Ériu vi 1 ff. ; Mulchrone, Verbalformen der Vita Tripartita, ZCP xvi 440 ; Falconer, Verbal System of LU Táin, Ériu xvii 116 ; Strachan, Verbal System of SR, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1895, 1 - 76 ; O Daly, Verbal System of LL Táin, Ériu xiv 80 ; Mac Eoin, Verbalsystem von Togail Troi, ZCP xxviii 125 ; Sommerfelt, Le système verbal dans In Cath Catharda, RC xxxviii 41 ; Nuner, Verbal System of the Agallamh na Senórach, ZCP xxvii 272 ; PH Glossary; Lloyd, Impersonal passive forms of the Irish substantive verb, Ériu i 49 ff. ; TD Introd. lxxv ; IGT Verbs § 7 ).

Indic. pres. 1 s. atáu, Trip.² 1412 . atú, 2578 . itu, SR 1187 . it, TBC-LL¹ 434 . atú, IGT Verbs § 7 . ataim, Fier. 14 . -t, Acall. 4516 . 2 s. -tái, SR 3102 . -toi, TBC-I¹ 937 . taoi, TD 15.48 . cia doaisiu mac?, RC xxvi 30 § 128 . 3 s. -t, Trip.² 744 . atá, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. attá, Trip.² 534 , ata, SR 7708 etc., at, Acall. 429 . Impers. atáthar, TBC-LL¹ 3316 . dáthar (: máthar ), IGT Verbs ex. 99 . atass, Ériu iv 114 § 17 (:as). -das (: as), IGT Verbs ex. 104 . 1 pl. itám, SR 1727 . tám, 3493 . ataum, PH 1556 . ataim, TBC-LL¹ 874 . atamaoit, TBC St. 121 . atámaoid, atám, IGT Verbs § 7 . -taum, PH 1506 . -dtám (: ár), IGT Verbs ex. 111 . 2 pl. atathai, PH 2734 . atathi, 597 . atáithi (: fáithi), IGT Verbs ex. 105 . -táithi (: sáithi), ex. 96 . -dathai, Alex. 190 . -taidh, Ériu ii 118 § 53 . 3 pl. itāt, TBC-I¹ 3132 . atáit, CCath. 1215 . ataut, PH 1064 . táid, TD 8.5 . -táit, CCath. 1701 . Rel. itat, Trip.² 882 , atat, SR 7949 . For later forms in meaning than (is) see atás, indaas, 4 ol. See also II (d) below and daas.

The form fil. 1 s. ni ḟuilim, ni ḟoilim, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. -fhile, PH 8116 . -fhuile, 3335 , -fuili, Acall. 3217 . -ḟoili, -ḟuile, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. fail, TBC-I¹ 60 , SR 353 etc. ro fail , TBC-LL¹ 263 , fuil, 3072 . -fail, Trip.² 2764 , -fuil, 872 , -uil, PH 3181 , -ḟil, Acall. 3709 . -ḟuil, -ḟoil, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. fil, Trip.² 842 , fail, SR 392 , no fail , 933 . With impers. ending: filter, MacCongl. 31.25 . -fuiltear, TD 2.42 . 1 pl. ra fuilemm , TBC-LL¹ 2971 . -failmet, SR 6320 , -ḟuilmíd, Acall. 5101 . -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. -bhḟuilti, Acall. 962 . 3 pl. failet, SR 345 . filet, 477 . fuilet, TBC-LL¹ 4739 . -failet, Trip.² 1119 . -filet, TBC-I¹ 1848 , -fileat, CCath. 1270 . -fuilet, 427 . -fuilid, TD 7.23 . Rel. failet, SR 400 . ra failet , TBC-LL¹ 5225 . fuilet, 4709 . filet, PH 435 . See also do-fil.

Consuet. pres. 1 s. bim, PH 6393 . bím, -bím, IGT Verbs § 7 . ? -ruibim, SG 373.29 . 2 s. -bi, SR 2035 . bí, ní bí, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bíd, TBC-I¹ 1453 (LU). biid, SR 4537 . bíd, 4588 . -bí, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bíonn, TD 22.12 . -bind, RC xlix 37.13 . bídh, -b, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bither, PH 7441 . -bithar, Laws iv 234.2 Comm. 1 pl. bímit, Acall. 886 . bídmaid, 5481 . bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bíth, Acall. 6139 . 3 pl. bīd, TBC-I¹ 1075 (bít, LU). -bíat, TTr.² 330 . -bít, PH 4189 , -bíd, TD 5.5 . Rel. bit (= bíït), SR 7259 . bít, TBC-LL¹ 1320 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. do bhínn , TD 23.7 . 3 s. nobīth, TBC-I¹ 593 (nobíid, LU cited above). robíth, TBC-I¹ 1903 (LU). do bhíodh , TD 14.23 . do bhíoth , 26.12 . Impers. bithi, Auraic. 5286 = -bithi, RC xx 150.y (ACC Pref.). no bithea , Acall. 156 . 3 pl. naboitis, TBC-I¹ 855 LU (nobitís, Y). nobīdis, 3621 (Y). bítís, 1898 (LU). no beitis , LL 407a27 . ro bitis , PH 1957 . do bhítís , Acall. 830 . do bhídís , TD 15.18 . Rel. tri cnuasa bítís ann, Acall. 455 .

Ipv. 1 s. bír (: gním), IGT Verbs ex. 94 . 2 s. b, Parrth. Anma 3871 . 3 s. bīdh, ZCP vi 271.z . bíodh, TD 16.2 . bíoth, 17.1 . 1 pl. bíom, Dán Dé xiv 17 . 2 pl. bíthe (: -chíthe), IGT Verbs ex. 95 . bídh, ex. 109 . bidhí, Luc. Fid. 3430 . 3 pl. bíod, TD 16.19 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. ber, SG 172.15 . uér, Ériu ii 92.9 . beor, v 222.46 . bheith mé, TD 8.9 . -ra bur , TBC-LL¹ 1112 . -rabor, ZCP xii 401.30 . ? -rabhus, ZCP v 523.27 = rabasa, Ériu xii 144.12 (TE). -rabar, ZCP iii 32.37 . bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bé, SR 1607 . beir, BNnÉ 288.29 . Acall. 592 . -rab(a)i, BDD² p. 80 . -rabha, Irish Texts iv 75 § 16 . -rabhair, Fing. R. p. 13 note 86 . -mbéis (: Céis), IGT Verbs ex. 100 . -beis(se) (: meise), Dán Dé xiv 20 . -rabais, Fing. R. 86 , BDD² 363 (see ZCP xxvii 75-8 ). beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. beth, TBC-I¹ 270 (beith, v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 101 . -b, TBC-I¹ 1671 . -raib, Trip.² 2753 . -rab, TBC-I¹ 1430 . -raibhe, Parrth. Anma 2616 . rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bess, TBC-I¹ 1104 (beis, Y). beas, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bethur, Laws ii 36.20 Comm. 1 pl. beme, Snedg. u. Mac R 9.14 . bemmit, TBC-LL¹ 2137 . bemait, Acall. 5478 . -bém, CCath. 1124 . -beam (: leam), Dán Dé xii 10 . -ruibem, SR 5540 . -rabum, PH 7899 . bheam, rabham, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 1233 . rabthai, PH 1977 . 3 pl. beit, Trip.² 1653 . -bet, TBC-I¹ 1053 . -beat, Lism. L. 4702 . -rabat, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. -rabut, PH 994 . -rabhait, BNnÉ 269.4 . -rabhaid, Parrth. Anma 2836 . -rabheid, RC xxix 136 § 51 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. do beinn , do rabainn , IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. no beithi , Trip.² 2972 . no beithe , 2983 = no bethe , Trip. 252.21 . do beitheá , TD 1.44 . 3 s. no beith , Trip.² 2967 . nobith, TBC-I¹ 3543 . dá mbeadh , TD 29.6 . -mbeath, IGT Verbs ex. 97 . -rabad, RC iii 184.24 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . -bette, Metr. Dinds. iii 382.19 . rabtha, TBC-LL¹ (C) 1675 . 1 pl. dá mbiadh sinn, TD 28.25 . 3 pl. nobeitis, SR 7855 . nobeidis, TBC-I¹ 3557 . dá mbeith siad, TD 26.36 .

Fut. (see Bergin, Ériu ii 46-8 ) 1 s. bíat, TTr.² 89 . biat, PH 1244 . biad (bíatt v.l.), CCath. 5137 . bhead, Parrth. Anma 6378 . bed, ZCP vi 41.10 . bét, 69.2 . bett, BNnÉ 52 § 42 . -biu, TBC-LL¹ 882 . -bhiú, Dán Dé xiv 20 . biad, -bi, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bía, Trip.² 1593 . biae, SR 1599 . -bíai, BNnÉ 291 § 2 . biaidh tú, TD 1.26 . bía, -bía, IGT Verbs § 7 . bethair, ZCP ii 225.4 . 3 s. bied, LU 10362 . biaid, Trip.² 1071 . biáid, TBC-I¹ 169 (LU). biaidh, -bia, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bíes, Trip.² 2671 . bés, CCath. 300 , bes, 657 . bess, PH 4666 . bhias, TD 3.50 . do biass , L. Chl. S. 1 . Impers. beither, Acall. 5259 . beithir, ZCP x 415.11 . 1 pl. bemit, LU 9753 , PH 1501 . bemait, CCath. 1467 . -bem(ni, LU 9753 . beimíd, -biam, IGT Verbs § 7 . -biaim(ne) (: siairni), ex. 108 . ? -ben, BCC 396.19 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 3083 . beitte (: eiti) (beththi, bete v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 102 . -bed, Trip.² 1590 . 3 pl. biait, Trip.² 2665 , TBC-I¹ 2057 (beite, LU). biat, Trip.² 1288 . beit, TBC-I¹ 80 . beiti, TBC-I¹ 2078 . beti, SR 8157 . betit, SR 853 . TBC-LL¹ 246 , TTr.² 760 . beidid, ZCP x 338 § 1 . -bīat, TBC-I¹ 1132 . beidíd síad, BCC 290.12 . beid, -bíad, IGT Verbs § 7 .

Condit. 1 s. no-béind, PH 6107 . dobeind, 7489 . do beinn, -beinn, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. do bheitheá , TD 19.13 . 3 s. no biadh , CCath. 3754 . -bied, TBC-I¹ 504 . ro bífad , TBC-LL¹ 5112 . rot-fiadh, IT iii 320.4 ( Cóir Anm. 70 ). do biath (: sgiath), IGT Verbs ex. 97 . do bhiadh , TD 2.54 . Impers. no bethe , TTr.² 533 . 3 pl. do bheidīs , Parrth. Anma 5227 .

Pret. and perf. 1 s. ro-bádus, PH 699 . do bhádhus , TD 23.6 . do bhí mé, 5 . -rabus, Acall. 7913 . -rabhas, 1584 . -rabadhus, 356 . do bá , -raba; do bádhus , -rabadhas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do basa ( : bádusa; proscribed form), ex. 103 . 2 s. ro bhádhuis , CCath. 553 . do bhí tú, TD 28.6 . -rabadais, PH 3725. 8121 . -rabhais, Acall. 123 . do bhádhuis , -rabhadhuis, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bae, SR 7608 . bóe, 6265 . baei, BDD² 127 . búi, CCath. 95 . -bae, SR 4975 . -buí, Trip.² 1505 . robai, SR 2229 , robae, 2262 . robói, PH 2572 . ro bí , CCath. 1302 . robuidh, Ériu iii 198 § 22 . do bí , CCath. 278 . do bhói , Acall. 58 . do bhaoi (: draoi), Dán Dé xii 22 . -rubai, SR 1241 . -roibe, BDD² 498 , -roibi, 1393 . -roba, 251 . -raba, 1533 . -raibhe, TD 2.25 . -rabha, 8.36 . -robha, 1 . do bí , -raibi, do baí , -rabha, IGT Verbs § 7 . With depon. ending -rabhustair, BNnÉ 322 § 31 . Rel. boí, Trip.² 626 . bāi, TBC-I¹ 1277 . būi, 630 . ro bae , Trip.² 288 . ro buí , BDD² 287 . ro baí , 1451 . ro boí , 1517 . Impers. both, Trip.² 2264 . rombatha, Ériu ii 20 § 3 (-a added later). -rabad, iv 146.4. robās, TBC-I¹ 2147 . rombas, SR 7564 , robás, TTr.² 151 . -rabus, Trip.² 54 . rabas, Laws iv 212.22 Comm. , -bádus, MacCongl. 43.22 . -bás, 61.3 . do bás , do bas , -rabas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do bas (: as), ex. 98 . do bhás (: fhás), Dán Dé xxvi 9 . 1 pl. bāmur, TBC-I¹ 399 . do bámar , Acall. 1283 . do bhámair (: Ádhaimh), Dán Dé xv 17 . -rabamar, TBC-I¹ 2495 . 2 pl. robabair, Anecd. ii 14.9 . -babhair, Blathm. 23 (see notes ). robadbair, TBC-I¹ 2502 . do bhábhair , TD 22a.1 . -rabhuir, Acall. 114 . -rabhabhair, TD 22a.2 . 3 pl. bādar, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bátir, TTr.² 1308 . ro badar , CCath. 573 n. ro bádar , Acall. 75 . do bídur , 5942 . -rabadar, TBC-I¹ 3108 . -rabhadair, TD 26.10 . ro baisit , O'Dav. 728 . -rabhsad, TD 16.21 . Rel. bátar, Trip.² 591 . BDD² 505 . ro bátar , 543 . Vn. an bheith , IGT Verbs § 7 . Vbl. of necess. beitte, TD 28.30 .

Cf. cenmothá, íarmothá, óthá.

Used in meaning is in a large variety of contexts. Normally replaced by copula (see 1 is) in certain fixed syntactical patterns (classification, identification, etc.), and when used in these cases exceptional (see above and II below).

I Expressing existence.

(a) Used absolutely is, exists, there is, etc.: ata in coimdiu gl. Dominus in cælo sedis eius, Ml. 30b27 . nabad hed a méit nádmbǽ `let it not be only that it is not' gl. nec nominetur in uobís, Wb. 22b14 . ní fil aimsir nad mbed ref. to fuit et est semper, Ml. 17a15 . ní torménmar-ni ara mbetis in gnimai sin gl. præter spem nostram, etc., 115b1 . ni fil chumtubairt gl. indubitabilia, etc., Sg. 154b2 . ma nubed `if it existed', 31b21 . ro baoi siomh re tuisdinsiú `he existed', Blathm. 632 . as e as soithcerndomh fil, 773 . ma rombe is maith if it is, it is well, Laws iv 2.14 Comm. ni rabi uair . . . nad ro bai `there was no hour . . . that He existed not', Ériu ii 106 § 16 . a cin for athair .i. uair na bí mac, Laws iv 240.16 Comm. Columb [ro]baoi, Columb bīaas, ZCP viii 198 § 20 . tar ēis a mic . . . / nī raba acht dā aenbliadain `was alive only two years', Ériu iii 198 § 24 . as a rad ata a nadmaim cin co be by saying there is a covenant though there is not, Laws iv 52.30 Comm. ni tha . . . ní a ngeimre in winter there is nothing, 90.1 (with petrified inf. pron. 3 s. n. in dat. sense?). ní bía terca bíd there will not be a scarcity of food, BColm. 52.5 . bid dno maith, ┐ ni bi derrscugud de `yet there is good, and nothing to surpass it', Auraic. 703 . is tré ómun bíid serc, Ériu i 195.1 . céin beti neóil im gréin ngil, Metr. Dinds. ii 38.z . i céin raibh nemh is talamh as long as . . . endure, BNnÉ 314 § 8 . bai cocad mor etarro, RC xxiv 186 § 19 . In phrase (acht) atá ní (chena) but, moreover, see 1 ní (e).

In periphrasis when emphasis on some element other than the verb is required: bieid nach dréct diib hícfider, Wb. 4d6 . bieid bes ferr de, 32a13 . do budh cusmail rit co robuis uair ecin, ┐ co n[d]ingenta rét feramail `that thou wert once such an one that thou couldst . . .', ZCP vi 87.13 . ba-sa tan / nī folabrainn ilach gamh, Ériu ii 95 § 3 . ata[a]t .iii. cáini nad chumgat comarbai do chumscuchud, Ériu xvii 68 § 9 ( Laws iv 210 ). Note further: atāit teora brīathra / ata lōgmaire for nim, ZCP vii 312 § 25 .

With words expressing time: bieid aimser nad creitfider, Wb. 28c14 . aidchi robuī `one night', Ériu ii 222.25 . fecht robai `once', Mon. Tall. 147.2 (§ 52) . biaidh uair 's . . . a time will come when, Dán Dé vii 31 .

Introducing a statement: cia beith ara rogba bóairechas riasíu ropo chúairddulchach though it be that he assume, Críth G. 67 . dá mbeith fós go mbiadh an Fhraingc comh líonmhar ┐ adeir seisean `granted that', Keat. ii 933 . má tá go seachnoid síol Éibhir . . ., TD 29.7 . ci(d), gi(d) bé whatever, whoever (see Ériu xii 210 ): ria flaithaib, .i. rias na flaithib, cibe flaithe iat `whatever chieftains they be', Laws iv 154.17 . gidh bé lá cheannghar an chairt, Dán Dé xiv 17 . cidh bé do bhean díbh an dúthaigh, DDána 26.1 . bíd (ipv. 3 s.) co n- although: admhuim . . . mo pheactha . . . bīodh gomadh é mo mhīan a bhfolach though I should wish to hide them, Parrth. Anma 4625 . bīodh nach gcaoifithea go spesialta fá gach peacadh though you might not weep specially for each sin, Mac Aingil 235 . bíth gur gheallas . . . though I promised, Ó Bruad. ii 212 § xiv . In constr. manibed x ní bíad y were it not for x y would not be, see má II (b).

(b) The subst. vb. is usual with predicates consisting of adverbial phrases of all kinds (prep. and noun, adjj. and nouns used adverbially, etc.) and thus enters into a large and varied corpus of idioms. A select list follows. Reference should in all cases also be made to the nouns, adjj., adverbs and prepositions concerned.

With CO: atáthar sund chucut your adversary is approaching, LL 10300 ( TBC-LL¹ 3316 ).

With CO N-: atúsa com thegluch there is myself and my household troop, TBC-LL¹ 437 .

With DI: im chaingin robui de muintir Tamlachti friss `about a business that arose between the monastery of Tallaght and him', Mon. Tall. 157.7 (§ 72) . masu de chlaind Echdach aird / atāi, ZCP xi 108 § 1 . ní bia debaid . . . de, Ériu iv 108 § 69 . Of materials: an crann dobí na sesam ... dobí sé do cepresus was a (lit. of) cupressus, Maund. 9 . In phrase a.¤ di such is: roboi du meit a pecthae `so great were their sins', Ml. 98c6 . má beth tra do hūaite ind āessa gráid `if the ordained folk be too few', Ériu i 220 § 13 .

With DO: biid do anmmaim cathrach `(Samnis) is as the name of the city', Sg. 104b5 . nád robatar suin do ṡlund in dúildetad inchoisget `there were not words (enough) to signify . . .', 45b1 . manusbeth tenga dia relad `if (the sun) had a tongue', Ériu ii 126 § 81 . ata eric a fogla do dul a ruradh o duine, Laws iv 50.5 Comm. Expressing possession, etc.: con roib core dúib fri cách so that you may be at peace with all men, Wb. 26b30 . in fochricc file do i nnim, 29b29 . cach ngrád asid n-ísliu bíid dó i céilsini, Críth G. 374 . robi timna in ríg don Comdhe, RC xviii 182.5 . nico mbái dó acht bás there was nothing for him but death, Vita Br. 32 . fecht robúi damsae domchaomnacuir `once it happened to me', Mon. Tall. 144.7 (§ 45) . atá damhsa ris an dáimh / gan ísliughadh neith dá gcáil it is my duty in regard to the sages not to belittle . . ., Content. xiv 8 .

With FOR (later AR): as ṅdath glas roboi forsind sl[é]ib the mountain was green, Ml. 84d4 . cech dath is maith ré neach bid forro, RC vi 183.9 . cēin beó ar in mbith mbuide, Ériu ii 92.16 . nocha cuinnghim bethaid mbí / ōtú ar sīth mo Rīgh amuigh since I am outside the palace of my king(?), ZCP vii 301 § 10 . scríbend menmman .i. robbói for a inndṡliucht-som `it had been in his mind', Sg. 178b4 . in sét atá form aire on which I am intent, Ériu vi 115 § 6 . a mhacnas orm gidh eadh raibh though I greatly desire to do so, Dán Dé xix 6 .

With FRI: nobiad fri femen `it would be (used) with the feminine', Sg. 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them', 215a5 . ni humhal robabair rim cen erghe rónn you were not submissive to me, Anecd. ii 14.9 . ba [mait]h ro mboth friu they were well treated, TBFr. 145 . is throit ra bass risin fer út that man was quickly dispatched, TBC-LL¹ 2986 ( LL 10035 ).

With I: is hi tuaisciurt slebe sióin ata in chathir, Ml. 67d8 . ataam ar ndiis i cuimriug, Wb. 32a28 . is and . . . bieid finis, 13b29 . is sunt bia-sa i n-eilithri, Ml. 137b7 . nach dú i mbí isnaib salmaib iustitia, 109a2 . bēti a scēla illāidib, ZCP iii 37.32 . dēna torba airm i mbī, vii 311 § 9 . ro-bas i lurg an madma la clannaibh Néill the Clanna N. pursued the rout, xiv 234.16 . adh bes fiu da trian na samuisce atá isín focreic, issed ata isin fogail doníther ris na ferandaib cétna i fuacht an geimridh `a calf which is worth two thirds of the `samhaisc'-heifer which is paid for the rent, it is it that is paid for the trespass', Laws iv 92.16 Comm. cínta do niad na cethra . . . leth a mbia ina nairlim isedh bias ina tairsci `half of that fine which lies for their `airlim'-trespass . . .', 74.8 Comm. cod a midídar ruire trachta ┐ raite? Nin; co rabadar ocht nurcora dec and do fhleascach, 138.4 Comm. ní bhíadh na ghoin é d'oighedh / toil Dé muna deónaighedh His wound would not be enough to cause His death, IGT Decl. ex. 378 . Common in form with suff. pron. 3 s. n. ma beith nech and tra labrathar ilbélre if there be anyone, etc., Wb. 13a4 . ar atá brithem and cenut-su `a judge is there apart from thee', 6b25 . ataat alaaili interiecta and it coitchena do cach ceniul, Sg. 10a1 . attaad teora bliadna and. Niconcomracamar díoblíonaib `it is three years since we two had intercourse', Mon. Tall. 134.26 (§ 21) . For phr. cid fil and trá see trá. In idiom tá sé i n-a fhear he is a man (see Dillon, ZCP xvii 307 ff. ): is amlaid . . . atá in rigsudi sin inna chathaír chumtachta, LU 2005 ( FA 7 ). cidead bes ina bibdaid `even though he be a caitiff', Ériu v 22.20 . gu raibhe 'na cholum ghel, Acall. 1080 . ce raib se i n-a fhír, PH 7324 . do bí 'n-a mnaí grádaig ac Find, Acall. 2018 . do rígh gion go rabhthá id mhac, DDána 91.15 . Note also: tuc . . . aithne gurbh e righ Eirenn do bí ann that it was in fact the king, Ériu iii 152 § 6 . ro innis do gur 'uo he Isu ro ui ann, RC xii 344.15 .

With IMM: ni baitir, ni loisctir cein beit immo `he is not drowned or burnt as long as they are on him', RC vi 183.8 .

With LA: gan bheith le Dia is ann bhus aithreach if we are not on God's side, Dán Dé x 27 . Expressing possession and related ideas: is lib atá a rogu, Wb. 9a23 . is derb lium attá latsu gl. certus sum autem quod et in té, 29d14 . ainmm ninchoisc cenéuil issed file la laitnóri, Sg. 30b8 . is airi nobíth digaimm leo ante ρ. sin, 9b10 . ni fil bríg laisiom hisind accobar sin `he considers that such desire is no great matter,' Mon. Tall. 151.13 (§ 62) . is dé atá lem, fobíth, etc. this is why I think so (of an assertion), TTr.² 343 . itá a rīgan la cach ríg sund, TBC-I¹ 190 . fail leis secht nimi, SR 629 . ar ní ḟil acht oenlám lim, LL 14150 .

With ó: báoi alaile anchoire antuaid o sláne `there was a certain anchorite from Slane in the North', Mon. Tall. 159.8 (§ 77) . cech lennánacht fil isin domvn is úadhi atá originates with her, TTr.² 370 . Bressal Ó Tressaig ō' tāit / Hī Tressaig `. . . from whom are sprung', Ériu ii 50 § 7 . ni fil[et] o neoch ┐ ni filter uaidibh `they are not derived from anything, and nothing is derived from them', Auraic. 1507 .

With OC: ar notéighed dīa sathairn init co mbídh oc Cnocc Droma Coblai, ZCP viii 106.29 = Trip.² 2858 . ma no bith . . . mo c[h]laideb acom if I had my sword, TBC-I¹ 3543 . co rabat aidmi oc cech altōir . . ., Ériu i 219 § 9 . in ti ac na biat ba, Laws iv 36.10 Comm. in fhil biad ocaib sund? PH 6709 . ná raibh agad ar n-éra `refuse me not', Studies 1918, 99 § 16 . In impers. constr. cindas atathar occat? how are affairs with thee? RC xxvi 368.9 . a.¤ y oc x x has the power to do y: ní bhía . . . ag boigṡín / mo chor tar creich Phádraigín, Ériu ix 163 § 7 .

With adverbs and adv. phrases: céin bett abus `while they are here below', BColm. 98.28 . ní rubai nach cruth ailiu `it cannot be otherwise', Sg. 7b3 . ataat ám in chrut sin, 140b1 . hóre nád robe Tit ar mo chiunn, Wb. 14d29 . na muindtire bís id choimidecht `of the monks that live with thee', Mon. Tall. 128.8 (§ 3) . dá rabh mé ar éanmhagh is í, Dán Dé ix 12 . is bether go hīsiul de, ZCP x 51.6 . bidh co mín michuir ret c[h]airdibh, vi 272 § 3 . is samlaid insin robói a flaithemnacht indibsi, Ml. 18a8 . nī hamlaid beitid na nāimh . . ., ZCP xiii 9.26 . dobadus co subhach rompa, KMMisc. 319.27 . léig mar atāit tall, ZCP viii 202.4 . trath atusa sund, TBC-LL¹ 2379 . ionmhuin uan nar fhás ó mhnaoi / do bhás go truagh ar a thí, Dán Dé xxvi 9 . Note also: dá mbem a-moigh `if we win forth', Ériu ix 162 § 2 . With interrogatives: ceth leth atā E., TBC-I¹ 376 . can ata? whence is it? Hib. Min. 8.270 . cāit atā do t[h]igerna?, TBC-I¹ 789 . ciatā inso?, ZCP viii 311.13 . a Findtain, arse, ┐ Éri cía gabad ca rabad inde? `where have things been therein?' Ériu iv 146 § 23 .

(c) Used with inf. and suff. pron. to express possession. With inf. pron.: rosmbia a lóg `they shall have payment for it', Wb. 5d35 . ind indocbál no-b-tá in futuro, 14c16 . ro-n-da-biad cech maith, Ml. 33b13 . rombia-sa la dia . . . a day will come for me when, Vita Br. 12 . roborbē (roburbe v.l.) which is yours, Cáin Ad. 27 . nīmthat asnai I have no ribs, TBC-I¹ 2871 . gell cóic sét di neoch rodmbí `of whatever he has', Críth G. 283 and n. uair nach tá tír dia fhulung fri re napuidh because he has no land to support him (?), Laws iv 30.19 Comm. rom be nem may I have heaven, Snedg. u. Mac R 14 § 76 . Femen intan rombai rí . . . when it had a king, RC xvii 148.19 . cia luag nomtha?, SR 1165 . rombí lethbairgen, Anecd. i 73 § 211 . atbert Cathair nimthasa ní dhuit I have nothing to give you, LL 386b22 . Note also: nintha do imtecht liumm `I have (lit. we have) no news', RC xiii 222.20 . With cumang (or similar word) and prep. DO has the power to: nímtha cumachtæ ṅdo, Ml. 140b7 . ní-s-ta som . . . cumang domm orcuin-se, 60d3 . nísmbói didiu do chumacc a mmbo do imain they hadn't the strength to, Vita Br. 24 . sáerthar lat in domnach cech cumang rotbé (rodbe, rotbia, v.ll.) dó `with all your might', Ériu ii 204 § 22 . nícom thása cumang dia tabair[t], TBFr. 302 . apraind nachimbai-si nert do theacht cucu alas that I had not strength . . ., TBC-I¹ 3439 . Used independently is able: nīmt[h]a a dechmad d'indisin / nech doní do maith `I cannot tell a tithe of all the good he does', BColm. 70.6 . nimta-sa sin . . . uair da caithius mo dan re sciathaib Ulad I cannot do that . . ., Ériu v 72.8 . Note also: ango dano for Ingcél adfía basa lecht bas briscium `peradventure I shall be the frailest corpse', BDD 102h ( RC xxii 211 ) = at-mbia basa lecht bas brisceam, BDD² 716 (leg. ro-t-bia?).

With suffixed pron. taithiunn . . . / ni fris tarddam ar n-áthius `we have . . . something to which to apply our acuteness', Thes. ii 293.19 . táithi caire umai he has a bronze cauldron, Críth G. 197 . tathum rūn, TBC-I¹ 848 . bethib sūirsi lim-sa dano ye will enjoy freedom with me, ZCP viii 316.5 . tathat lim logh do áes, logh do sinnsire thou hast with me = I accord thee, xii 365.13 . baíthium anfud mílach mend, LU 3018 . tathuib comram, Rawl. 88b51 . tathum o día praind, Anecd. i 64 § 120 . tāthud ochtar la suidiu / airm hi fail a crōlighe `thou wilt find eight men . . .', Fianaig. 12 § 16 . tathai eolus maith, ZCP vii 310 § 1 . tatos subhae `they have happiness', Blathm. 82 . Pleonastically: tathai erouidh . . . bithbron `Herod . . . has eternal sorrow', 83 .

(d) In nasalising rel. clauses to denote has something the matter, is ailing: ced das in ben maith? `what ails the good woman?', Thes. ii 329.48 . cidh tás do sūil, a clērich? what is the matter with your eye? RC xxvii 280 § 35 . Oengus mac in Dagdai hisiurcc di bliadan. Cid tas or Bodb, RC iii 345.9 . ra[fh]etur sa . . . an daas ind ingen what is wrong with the girl, Vita Br. 5 . ni fetarsa cid no-tó I do not know what is the matter with me, ZCP viii 176.5 . cid no-taí? Sc.M² 3 . roḟetarsa a n-attath[a]i. Ni taam ni or Cano, Anecd. i 9.25 ( SCano 293 ). cid tāthaí, a maccu? . . . oc imresain atām . . ., Ériu viii 157.16 . ni confetatarsin cid rombui hissennath, RC iii 344.10 . dia ḟis cid robái (rombui, v.l.) grían to find out what was the matter with the sun, Ériu iv 140.13 .

With prep. DO feels (inimically) towards, is angry with, worries: propter incredulitatem fracti sunt .i. cani airi .i. badochu lem són is [hed] romboth doib that is the fault found with them, Wb. 5b31 . cren dímsa m'ingin . . . Cid dathir di? . . . Is dichmarcach what cause of annoyance has she given? Vita Br. 13 . fiarfaig Conchobar scēla dō. —Cidh tāi di ṡodain? ol Bricriu why do you bother with it? ZCP v 502.15 . cadai-siu duind?, TTebe 424 . In good sense treats in a special manner: ca tāthar dúin do domnach des / sech gach laithi lāndiles? `why do we hold Sunday above . . .?' Ériu iii 143 § 7 . With added prep.: cidh 'ma bfuile dam? ZCP x 10.11 . ná bí réd chathrachaibh dhúinn `talk not to us of your forts', Content. vi 31 . See further s.v. daas. Frequ. in class. verse in phrase gá dtá, dás (acht) what is the use? in short. Either gá dtá or gá tá may be used to suit alliteration, see Ir. Syll. Poetry 86 . fogus orchra don éigsi / gá ttás cur ré coiméidsi `how can she be saved?' Studies 1923, 421 § 1 . gá dás luadh imdheachta an ḟir? `what need to recount', TD 13.40 . gá dás mé dá mīrbuile / acht sé d'fás ó ÓghMuire, IGT Decl. ex. 200 . gá dtám? —acht torchuir bu dheas in short, TD 3.10 . With follg. prep.: gá dtám ris . . . / acht meise féin foidhidneach, TD 3.41 . ga dtú ris, a rí L.? / ort chuirim mo chomuirghe, 30.12 . ní bhiú ris acht, Dán Dé vi 31 . ní fhuilim dó, xi 30 .

(e) With words indicating number, quantity in sense of accompanied by, having: bí[i]th a th[a]urchreicc cóic ṡétaib, Críth G. 71 . baei Conairi a ceithri cairpthig il-Lifiu, BDD 12 (a cethror cairpdech, v.l.). itó-sa lín do gona, TBC-LL¹ 434 . denam d'ḟiadach na muice in lín Feinde atámait, Acall. 2223 . atáthaoi líon a n-ithte, Keat. iii 4439 . atú-sa caegait fer, MR 248.17 . Later: bed-sa ┐ mili ridiri maraen rium ad diaig, ZCP vi 41.9 .

II Expressing state, condition, kind, etc. with pred. consisting of noun, pron. or adj. (usage more usual with copula, see introd. section above).

(a) With noun pred.: boe sab suithe cech dind, ACC 26 ( RC xx 168 ). boe saegul sneid, 24 . boe dind oc libur leigdocht, 27 . biait betha airchind they will be chieftains of the world, Rawl. 125b9 . With subj. standing between the vb. and pred.: atá dia atach ṅ-dún-ni ais dethrebo God is a refuge to us the people of the two tribes, Ml. 66d1 . bói Fíachnae Lurga athair Mongáin, Imr. Brain 42.1 . Cf. Sg. 20b3 .

(b) With adj. pred.: boe seim sáth, ACC 25 . biat slana, SR 4167 (copula?). feib atam nocht, 1347 (copula?). bía slan, LU 3344 ( SCC 13 ). Cf. habe . . . (.i. sana sis .i. slán bee), Enchir. Aug. 82a ( ZCP vii 484 ). dlegar doibsium na be lobtaigh cor ( ar dlegar doibsium na bed lobthaig cor, O'Dav. 1191 ) (Atk. in Glossary emends to be[t]), Laws iv 54.10. atámait ainmfesach, RC xxiv 371.7 . bítíss meth (leg. methi, ed.) occ tinntúd, IT iii 235.z . co filim garbliath i rricht, LU 1272 . ro boísium imnedach i tossuch a bethad, LL 7305 . ro-bádus-[s]a dronnach, PH 2788 . céin beorsa beó as long as I am alive, Ériu v 222.46 . is follus co fuilti eaclach, Fier. 69 . maith dīghōltar ant andlocht / bethar taoblom tarrnocht trūagh folk will be, ZCP xii 395.23 . With subj. betw. vb. and pred.: is trissa ndede sin biid duine slán et fírian, Wb. 4d33 . amal mbís tegdís fás [amm]edón ┐ scópthe gl. sicut domus uacans et scopata, Tur. 14 ( Thes. i 485.23 ). arrobói a rígthech lán de rígaib, Imr. Brain 1 . amal no beithi féin béo and, Trip.² 2972 . co mbatar na hádnaicti óbéla, PH 676 . bis an puls tonnmur lethan, Rosa Angl. 272.8 . oir dobi se crodha do laim ┐ mor do mét, Fier. 2 .

(c) With part. as pred. Immediately follg. vb. (see GOI 475-6 ; OIPG 147 ): amal nombemmis érchóilti gl. tanquam morti destinatos, Wb. 9a3 . biid ersoilcthi ar chiunn for ríg `be ye opened before your king' (of doors), Ml. 46a7 . co rabais (rabhdais, v.l.) marbtha mudaigthi, TTebe 854 . With subj. standing between vb. and pred.: ataat mesai Dǽ nephchomtetarrachti the judgements of God are incomprehensible, Ml. 55d11 . céin nombetis inna saigtea tuidmithi inna feuil `as long as the arrows were fixed in his flesh', Ml. 58a9 . órobatar ind liss dúntai, Imr. Brain 1 . co ra-bi in uli demnaigecht fomamaigthi dó, PH 2796 .

(d) In sentences where the vb. stands in a nasalising rel. clause and refers to a pred. expressed in the principal clause: is faittech rond-boi som, Ml. 21d4 . ni ba cian mbias in pecthach, 56c22 . fer . . . nadip romar bed a sommæ a man . . . whose wealth should not be too great, Thes. ii 241.9 . is-gáibthech atátur i-sin-magh sin, RC xxiv 378.12 . is trog robas isin chotlad sin, Ériu v 34.z . ní cás duid madh diomdhach raibh / grása Dé . . ., Dán Dé xix 22 . [is] slán do bhaoi an brat-sain, xii 22 .

(e) In the type of sentence where the description constitutes an independent sentence with copula: ego sum uermis et non homo .i. atāim-si conad cruim mē ┐ nāch duine, Corm. Y 211 . ro boi Victor co mbo ḟortachtaigthid do Pátraic, ACL iii 10 § 8 = Trip.² 217 . unus non est . . . .i. nochon fhil int aen co mbad airim, acht ata conidh fotha airim, Auraic. 689 . dom dóigh . . . robadhuis uair ecin ┐ roba díl anora tú `it seems to me . . . that there was once a time when thou wert worthy of honour', ZCP vi 99.5 .

aurba

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aurba or dil.ie/5007
Last Revised: 2013

 

n [io, n.] vn. formation from ar-fo-ben(?) or *ar-uss-be- Ériu xxxix 99 . act of lopping, clearing; gap: a.¤ ria slabra hi fer, aurb[a] ria laegaib do buaib, Laws i 168.4 and Stokes Crit. p. 6 . urba itir feraib, 232.6 . athaigh feadha . . . cuic seoit ar earba `five ''seds'' is the fine for lopping them', iv 150.7 Comm. a.¤ tire .i. fíreibe in feraind, 152.7 . ata orba . . . nad aclaidead, a.¤ neigne ria slogh . . ., 154.12 .i. ata firebeda do berar ar in ferand ┐ noco tabar aclaide fiach ar in ti do ní iat, 14 Comm. urba in berna i fert aireach, v 474.12 . ma ro sgailustar duine . . . airbeda . . . is lán smacht orba uadha, O'D. 752 (H 3.17, c. 542). a.¤ nimḟeadna . . . urba ria collaib, Laws iv 154. 19 , 22 . ? comhla gen gob ī rem baeis / m'aeis is ī da orbha ar m'ēis, ACL iii 236 § 9 (see Aithd. D. 62 ). Gramm. breaking of a rule, exception: lanchumang intibh uilibh eter fedha ┐ taebomna co nd-a.¤ huath .i. conas-firbade uath `with the exception of `h'', Auraic. 1202 = co nd-urba u., 983 , co nd-ourba, 4314 . ? Cf. a urbad no a gerrad . . . a broind a mathar , Ériu ii 176.5 (forbad, v.l.).

baítsech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. baítsech or dil.ie/5272
Last Revised: 2013

 

n ā, f. (báeth) name of a class of women of diminished legal standing ; a woman who has entered a union without the consent of her family; a harlot. See Stud. in E. Ir. Law 99 ff , Éigse xviii 204 n. 40 . Not distinguished in Laws from merdrech and echlach. Regularly glossed by bé (ben) táide, and so once in text: baidseach cach be taige (= táide), no cach ben deiraig a lanamnus cen deithbire, Laws v 456.21 . mac baitside (one of the seven classes of sons whose father does not share in their upbringing), 202.4 . la fine mathar mac baidsaide, 452.21 . baitsaige, 19 . im dingbail mic baitsige taking away the son of a `b.¤' (from his mother's `fine'), i 184.16 . mec buitsige, 236.27 (glossed mac na mban taidhi a sanais, 238.3 Comm. ). mad o mnaibh dlighthecha . . . mad o baitsechaib, 190.32 Comm. baitsech .i. merdrech, [ut est] baitsech cach bé táidhe, O'Dav. 306. fer dobeir coibche mor fri baidsig fornascar a dilsi `a man who gives a large coibche to a baitsech to secure (?) ownership of her', Stud. in E. Ir. Law 100 (Laws iv 56.z). cach baithsigi a crislach `to every harlot her womb', ZCP xvii 54 § 41. Cf. gach mathair a crioslach, xx 196.20 .

bráthair

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bráthair or dil.ie/6585
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: bráithre, bráthar, bráthre, brāthri

n r, m. Later with n p. bráithre, g p. bráthar, and k-infl. in pl. See GOI 214 - 215 , Stokes on g p. form bráthre, KZ xxxviii 461. b.¤ m., IGT Decl. § 32.

(a) brother: brathair . . . quasi fratair ar frater rotruaillned ind. Frater quasi frauter eo quod fraudat ter .i. patrem et matrem et fratrem , Thr. Ir. Gl. 6 , Corm. Y 111. b.¤ gl. frater, Ir. Gl. 1047. In O. Ir. gl. frater and used in both a lit. and transferred sense, see meaning (c). In later language in lit. sense (a male being related to others as child of same parents) replaced by derbráthair q.v. Cf. brathair glossed dearbhráthair, Laws iv 240.6 , 16 ; 258.8 , 12 . ingen et athir siur et brathir, Wb. 10b4 . frater brathir . . . is brathir deit iar colinn et in fide domini , 32a15 . far mbráthir fadisin, 4c40 . Timotheus et bráthir in hiris gl. T. frater, 14b4 . lasin brathir gl. fratrem meum, 10c13 . don bráthir hiressach, 10c1 . nertad na mbraithre, 10c21 . ainm bráthre gl. fratres, 7d8 . ua mbraithrib gl. a fratribus suis, 34a6 . fria mbraithrea `to their brethren', Ml. 100c26 . da brathir iudas ┐ ionathan gl. Ionathan fratrem, 75d4 . a brathir `his brothers', Tur. 128. amnair b.¤ máthar gl. auunculus, Sg. 61a21 . ingen bráthar gl. neptis, 67b4 . macc bráthar athar gl. patrui patruelis, 56a2 . bráthir athar gl. patruus, 1 . bás bráthar Iohannis (sc. Iacob), Fél. July 25 . amal sóersai Ióséph / de lámaib a bráthre (: ma(i)thre; brathar: mathar, v.l.), Ep. 528. fognífi do síl do sílaib do bráthar = . . . seminibus fratrum, Trip.² 740. ingen fria brathair (one of the relationships between couples in Cáin Lánamnae), Laws ii 344.3 . tellach brathar for araile itir cotta (one of seven `entries' for which no díre is paid), v 206.5 . mandras arma / brathar athar (rhet.), LL 35337 = athar athar, Fing. R. 467. is si ba hara dia brathair (Deichtine), LU 10564. a brāthri (n p.), ZCP viii 304.z . dia braithir, RC xxiv 176.12 . roind Conoill ┐ a bhrāithriuch and of his brothers, ZCP xiv 246.3 . Domnall a fradhir, , AI 356 (s.a. 1253.2) . mar aon ré dá bhráthair a mháthar, Keat. ii 5523. Fig. bladh Tuathail bhíos gan bh.¤ `is without an equal', RC xlix 174 § 38.

(b) kinsman, cousin; fellow-member of the same kindred-group (see Stud. in E. Ir. Law 138 ), oft. translated ` tribes- man' in Laws. Opposed to derbráthair: la hua brathar a athar .i. la hiarmo der[b]rathar a shenathar the grandson of his father's cousin i.e. the great-grandson of his grand-father's brother, Auraic. 118. na .u. braithri . . . sech macu a braithri (on distribution of a woman's estate in the gelḟine) `kinsmen', Stud. in E. Ir. Law 137.19 . finnatar . . . brathir scéo mbroga (rhet.), LU 3476 `kinsman and lands', SCC² 373 (? leg. bráthirsi mroga, Binchy, note). ro-n-ain Moedoc mainech / ar is brathair bagach `kinsman', Fél.² Apr. 11. Loith .i. brathuir Abraam `A.'s first cousin', Maund. 55. is brathair focus dam-sa he `a cousin of mine', Grail 2455 . ar id b.¤ (braithre, v.ll.) a n-urraid dib línaib `their freemen on both sides are akin', Leb. Cert.² 804. a braithri budein . . . `kinsmen', Ann. Conn. 1238.3 . braithricha, 1289.6 . dochum a braithrich, 1248.5 . d'fhios a bhráithreach, Keat. ii 638.

(c) brother, member of a religious community: in b.¤ (brathir, v.l.) `the brothers', Ériu iii 100 § 24. Rí na mb.¤ mbocht `Lord of friars', Dán Dé iv 14 . brathair minur `a Friar Minor', Ann. Conn. 1244.11 . esaonta . . . eittir braithribh Dúin na nGall ┐ na manaigh `the friars ', AFM vi 2046.5 . bráithre . . . Oird San-Froinsiais ` Franciscans ', Donlevy xxi 21. bráithre túata = lay Brothers, RSClára 89a .

(d) Gramm. word of similar declension: a mbráithri .fer. (bráithreagha .fer. comha, v.l.) masculine words similarly declined, IGT Decl. § 2 (39.1) . b.¤ dísbegaid masculine diminutive: b.¤ dísbeagaidh cnoc no cnocán, slat no slatán, no a leithéid eile, IGT Introd. § 114 (27.33) . See immarbág, imdugud, siur.

Compds. dochum a brātharfinne, BColm. 84.11 . bráthar-marbthach gl. fratricida, Ir. Gl. 319.

? 2 bregda

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? 2 bregda or dil.ie/6671

 

n (cf. breccda): ma ta mac ann, noco beirend in ingen [ní do] dibadh a mathar no athar, acht lann, ┐ rann, ┐ bregda `the tartan cloth ', Laws iii 404.2 Comm. = lanna ┐ ranna ┐ bregdha . . . .i. in bricin, Stud. in E. Ir. Law 168 § 23 = breghdha . . . .i. in bricín, O'D. 1996 ( Eg. 90, 14d ) = O'Curry 1629 ( 23 Q 6, 8b ). See Ir. Recht 30 , Stud. in E. Ir. Law 171 n.3 .

1 brú

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 brú or dil.ie/7037
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: brugha, broinn, bronn

n n, f. Note d. sg. b.¤, , Fél. Ep. 464 , ZCP lvii 156 . n p. (? as g-stem) brugha (= alvos), 23 K 42, 26.1 . Later n s. broinn, Anecd. v 22 n. 5 . b.¤ f., IGT Decl. § 97. g s. bronn, ex. 1773 .

(a) abdomen, belly; bowels, entrails: amal sōeras Ionas fāith/ a b.¤ míl mōir, Thes. ii 304. 5 (Hy. i). de b.¤ céti magni, Fél. Ep. 464. a bróndaib in tríir from the bellies of the three men, Trip.² 2120. niruho herosai . . . den laec[h] imdecht lie mét a bronn `owing to the bigness of his belly', RC xii 86 § 93. a bruindi a tir Arabia: a bru a Lodain `his (Adam's) belly', MacCarthy 25.4 . im stáic do broinn B. `for a steak off B.'s belly' (a man in the shape of a pig), Metr. Dinds. iii 388.20 . giamtar lana na brondanda `though the bellies were full', CCath. 2579. faisbedgarnach na mbruinnech ┐ na mbronnann `of the . . . bellies', 5937 . inne a brond `his bowels', RC iii 181.16 . céin robo beo ní thaudchaid a b.¤ for cóir (an injured warrior), LU 6078 (TBC). fíce secda brond `dry internal piles', Mon. Tall. 152.9 . co ceanglann an reubarbrum an b.¤ , Rosa Angl. 290.6 . sgaoileadh . . . bronn looseness of the bowels, TSh. 1729. See menad .

In sense of bruinne: bru arna tromghuin, IT iii 96 § 150. og tabairt do an gai a broind an maic, Anecd. i 16.13 . dorecgmaing 'sin scíath ósa broind `over his breast', TBC-LL² 1128 . b.¤ ealae (B. na f.) breast of a swan, ACL iii 310 § 4. Note also broinn ar bhráighid ` side by side ', Bard. Synt. Tr. 24.25 .

Esp. womb: cid hua b.¤ gl. ab utero, Ml. 75d9 . isin mbroin mathardi, 44a10 . i mbru a mathar , 71c15 . figor cuirp crist rosuidiged hi linannart brond maire (of the Host), Thes. ii 252.10 (Stowe M.). teuir oenaidchi fo b.¤ `three nights (were passed) in the womb', Thes. ii 291.6 . compert maic Dé . . . i mbroind (bru, v.l.) Muire óige, Ériu ii 198.15 . cotombertsa b.¤ sóer, LU 8280 ( FB 22 ). fot broinn / búredaig `in your bellowing womb', Celtica vi 222 § 67 . inna broind, LU 10602 = it bruinn (Eg.), IT i 139.23 ( Comp. CC 5 ). níra alt Banba da b.¤ , LL 11034 `nor has B. ever nurtured', TBC-LL² 3594 . coro thoed a b.¤ `till her womb should have fallen' (with childbirth), Dinds. 94 . toircheas bronn na banóighe, DDána 9.11 . an lá gheintear neach i mbroinn, TSh. 2388. med do ghail ar broind o mB. `relationship on distaff side' (note), Magauran 2526 . do fágbadh i mbroinn `was posthumous', O'Gr. Cat. 351.4.

(b) body (or part of it) consuming food, hence appetite, gluttony: srīan frit broind, ZCP vi 264 § 5. mar lán mara a-mach 's amuigh / bídh b.¤ gach aoinfhir amhlaidh, Aithd. D. 80.36 . As seat of consciousness, emotions, etc. roscé anni robi ina broind `he disburdened his heart', RC ii 197.18 . is maith cach broinn i mbídh in bēlrad aidhbind .i. teibernighes aircetal ūaithi mind (?), Anecd. v 22 note 5 . do ghabh . . . 'na broinn . . . rún ro dhaingean, Desid. 2155.

? In B. na f.: mo b.-sa ris nī berba, / gorab en lemno luæ, ACL iii 310 § 5. dlicht sāer sāerus broind, Anecd. v 22.17 .

(c) Extended meanings interior, cavity; front (etc.), surface of things, ground, etc.: asréracht . . . / Íssu a b.¤ thalman, Fél. March 27 . cusin bhfialluch ngaiscid bui 'na mbroinn `therein' (in `war-castles' mounted on elephants), Marco P. 114. ros tóccbhaidhther tú a broind áoilich from the middle of a dung-heap, BNnÉ 325 § 42 . b.¤ dhealbhnathrach serpent-shaped hold (of a ship), Measgra D. 48.33 .

(d) In prepp. phrs. With AR (FOR), FRI, TAR: thūaidh atā an cethrar calma / as féile atā ar broinn Banba over B., ZCP viii 109.29 . ar brū na bearna `facing contest' (Gloss.), O'R. Poems 395. ar broinn an chatha `in the battle-van', Aithd. D. 26.21 . doronad istada re broinn seilgi `for hunting', Marco P. 49. dá sluagh . . . fri broinn (re hagaidh, v.l.) catha do chur `on the point of joining battle', BNnÉ 7 § 23 . re broinn shollamhna mar soin `at the approach of such a festival', Ériu v 54.19 . atracht . . . neart Cruithneach ┐ Gaedeal dar broind Bretan across B., Todd Nenn. 72.5 . dar broind mionn, ┐ comairgeadh `in violation of relic-oaths and sureties', AFM ii 1072.21 . With DO: pógadh ban do bhroinn a bpósta | peacadh már do gach mhac óg 'kissing women before they are married is a great sin to every young man', Giolla Brighde 242 § 24 .

Compds. With nouns: arhirchus bronnbuar oc bánfethig (rhet.), ZCP viii 306.32 ; big-bellied cattle Studia Celtica Upsaliensia ii 62 § 11 . ? coire breth . . . con-berbha bretha brúchaire breithemhan, Ériu xiii 26.10 . Ioin . . . brunndalta Ísu `beloved disciple', PH 1454. Cf. Eoin bruinde, 8421 . bronndalta do bhí ag Colmán `a beloved fosterling', Studies 1918 , 99 § 10 .

fora bronnfine (.i. . . . fora macaib) on her immediate family (bosom-kin of sons, grandsons, Thurn.), Ir. Recht 28 § 31 , Stud. in E. Ir. Law 111. ni mad chine / nad choisc a bronnḟine, LL 19127. sruth ... ṡiris bronnghaotha 'den ... Strom, welcher die Bauchwinde durchwandert', Akten Linz 137 § 5 .

gríss bronn-galair glanas broinn `the fever of an abdominal disease, etc.', Triads 224 . go bronn-lár nó go bolgán na bruidhne sin to the very middle of that hostel (sc. hell), TSh. 6649.

With adjj.: ar losaid bhronn-áird `in a deep trough', Tribes of Irel. 46.9 . do láigh breacca broinddearga red-chested fawns, Acall. 94. a mbárca . . . brondḟarsiuṅga, LL 32149 ( TTr. 1338 ). do b[r]ithemnaib bronngaethaib ` wise-hearted ' (Gloss.), SR 4566. an chíoch . . . bhruinngheal, Aithd. D. 85.11 . ba bronnlan longa na Lochlannach with full holds, Caithr. CC 77. .l. gabur . . . it é . . . bruinlethain, LU 10812. brighmur broinntseng bríatharcert ` emaciated ' (a saint), RC xii 320 § 1. With part. broinn-tesctha, ML² 1797.

cáep

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cáep or dil.ie/7639

 

n appar. orig. o, m., later ā, f. clod, clot, lump, mass : caebb .oo. gl. iȧcur, Sg. 6b15 and n . ata la nech asitchid batar cāib a inchinde romebdatar tria c[h]loicend, Corm. Y 1059 ( Anecd. iv 9.16 ). bit lir bomand ega . . . caíp for n-inchindi, BDD² 862 . congabtha caepa doib corsat briste were pelted with clods, LB 238(d)a7 . do beandaís tuirt ┐ tromchaepa a taebhaibh . . . a chéili, CF² 1268 . amal comcumaisctis na gaetha . . . amal no betis is in caip cumascda as ar-tebit ar tus . . . .i. asin mais, TTebe 3081 . ealta caob (sic leg.) a crobhuibh each, Aithd. D. 27.4 . With defining gen. c.¤ cró clot of blood: is c.¤ cró mo chride cain, TBC-LL¹ 3691 . in ch.¤ chró ┐ ḟola ro-boí for a chride, CRR 12 . dara n-ésse ba c.¤ chró / in Lug rosgáet, Metr. Dinds. iv 216.15 . tánac ar tús . . . / am chaob chró a corp mo máthar / am chaob chriadh fá deired dam, O'Gr. Cat. 346.y . do-rigne . . . dí choep criad, PH 2289 . in fail i faghdais caeba críadh . . . no fóda fliuchaidi, CCath. 2520 . gur ghabhadar do chaobaibh criadh orra, Keat. iii 1430 . tángadar Tuath Dé / i coepaib (caipaib, v.l.) cíach cíar, Ériu iv 132.10 . caeba cruaidhrighni crefoigi, ZCP vi 279.y . risna cæboib coemchubair, TTebe 3065 . teilgidh an lasair . . . a lan . . . da caebaib teined, Ir. Astr. Tr. 44.14 . Fig. 'na caeb cumadh, IT ii2 131.229 .

Compds. camchúl . . . cadhblúb (of hair), Hackett² xxiii 3 . cor bo caep-meall cunscaigthech (sic) ar na comshuathad, MR 256.12 . gur crithnaigset in clar caeb-trom, 226.3 .

1 cenn

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cenn or dil.ie/8622
Last Revised: 2020

 

Forms: cend, ch., cenna, ciunn, cinn, cenda, cinnu, cind, cind, cinnu, cionn, ceann, cionn, cionn, ceinn

n o, n., later m. n p. cend, LU 9385 . ? a p. ch.¤ , Sg. 54a11 . n a p. usually cenna. On d s. ciunn, cinn see GOI 177 . For masc. infl. in pl. cf. a p. cenda, TBC-I¹ 483 = cinnu, LU 4970 . n p. cind, FA 22 LB. cind `chiefs', Laws v 440.23 . a p. cinnu, LL 8132 . In later lang. both cionn (O. Ir. ciunn) and ceann occur in d s. (see Donl., Párl. na mB.), the former mainly in fixed prepositional expressions (ós cionn , etc.). a s. cionn, Beatha S. F. 2567 . g s. ceinn, Párl. na mB. 535 , n p. Keat. i 196.15 . IGT Decl. § 65 .

Note also: for ar ceinn, Vita Br. 24 . in ch.¤ cleasach . . . Tesifóne, MR 168.6 . iar ndenamh creiche chinne maghair (n. loc.), AFM iv 1356.6 .

I The human head, head of an animal .

1 cend a uerbo graeco .i. gennome (γίνομαι) .i. nascor, O'Mulc. 217 . donchind gl. capiti, Gild. Lor. 102 . du-uic in foiltne i ndiad in chínn, Ml. 84c24 . mani roima fora c.¤ ní mema forsna bullu, 89c11 . beim a cinn fri cloich, 139c3 . ammi corp do Crist et is c.¤ som duunni, Wb. 5d2 . airmitiu féid in chinn, 7d14 . cen chaille fora ciunn, 11c9 . in boill dó ass ón chiunn, 22a17 . adart foch., Sg. 198a10 . dim chinn, Blathm. 95 § 17 . oc folcad chinn a athar, Vita Br. 15 . airecc cinn Iohannis, Fél. Feb. 27 . contt cēill ciunn curp in sense, reason, head and body , ZCP vi 258.10 . rochromsat a ccinnu, ZCP xiv 234.5 . imruidbed mo tenga as mo chind, Ériu ii 102 § 9 . madit a shuili inna cinn, 122 § 61 . amhuil chinn ina bhalluibh, Luc. Fid. 3454 . Of a head of hair: ceinn-fhionna (sic) do bhíodh ar fhearaibh Éireann re n-a linn `white heads', Keat. i 196.15 (see cenann).

2 In phrase with follg. gen. forming n. pr.: Coirpri Cind cait Cathead , Cóir Anm. 241 . C.¤ Fáelad Wolfhead , see Corp. Gen. 541 - 2 . Cend Ghegain, IT iii 101 § 183 . Finguine mac Laeghaire Cenngégain, Cog. 18 (see also s.v. cinnchucán). Eochaidh cendmhairc Horsehead , Miscell. Celt. Soc. 6.8 . da ingin dec ailella cind nathrach Snakehead , Rawl. 134b18 .

3 Of the head cut off in battle: fris-cithsead far cenna díb, BDD² 869 . tri laíchcind . . . im chend do chétmeic, LL 13149 (Sc.M2). co fargaibhset xl c.¤ lais, AFM i 498.2 . So in phr. ár c.¤ = ár: co fargaibset ár cend aicce, LL 2536 . cor' ben a ngabala dib ┐ ár cend leo, RC xvii 354.4 .

4 Attrib. g s.: na heónu / cosna ceólu cinn-sin (sic leg.) shrill notes, Metr. Dinds. iv 214.68 . Cf. gotha cinn . . . ag báinealtoin, Ir. Syll. Poetry 71 § 5 . See Études Celt. iv 397 . iter chosa cinn ┐ cos[a] tóna front legs , Thr. Ir. Gl. 26 . nocha bán-bhéim acht cneadh chinn head-wound, serious wound , Miscell. Celt. Soc. 162.9 . ? secht ccumala cinn, Ériu xiii 22.24 . gilla cinn eich gl. auriga, Ir. Gl. 17 . laicce chinn, RSClára 4a . go mbeith rith chinn ré fānaidh aco ar gach n-aon eile would completely outdistance, would utterly rout(?), Párl. na mB. 99 .

Vendryes, Études Celt. iv 397 , cites BDD² 886 and We. parallels in support of a meaning mouth.

5 In various idiomatic phrases: ro héige in ben nert a cind at the top of her voice, SR 3215 . conā fāgad inad a chind for bith that he might find no abiding-place, TBC-I¹ 2214 . o cionn co fonn from tip to toe, Blathm. 152 . nom-loiscc eter chend is choiss completely , Ériu vii 223 § 34 . dia cennaib ┐ cosaib utterly, entirely , LB 115b42 . bein cinn fri hald `striking a head against a cliff' (of wasted labour), RC xii 96 § 127 . co ro benad a tech dia chind `unroofed his house', RC xxiv 46 § 4 . roloiscedh . . . a ndúin . . . ina cendaibh, Ériu v 158.215 . a ndiaidh a gcinn headlong , Donlevy xviii 25 . an ceann fá dhruim head first (coffin lowered into grave), Dán Dé xxix 7 . co mbiat cend ar díb cendaib (of a fierce battle), TTr.² 907 . ar ba `c.¤ i mbolg' . . . do ṡil Adhuimh were in complete ignorance, Ériu ii 98 § 1 = ba-c.¤ a-coim, RC xxiv 369.6 , cf. Études Celt. vi 201 . cend i cotlud a peaceful death(?), Ériu ii 118 § 54 . ? ní bheinn teann ar chlíabh a cill / sní bhíadh mo cheann a cuigind, IGT Decl. ex. 1400 . c.¤ a ngabal `head in fork' (bad behaviour in a horse), Laws iii 180.18 Comm. c.¤ i láp see láp. c.¤ i, fo muine see 1 muine. ? fír, ol Óengus, Fergas cend fo raithin, Trip.² 1495 .

6 Of a single animal, etc.: do mac Loigsiu pa mōr ngō / ar in āincend an cēt mbō, ACL iii 2.12 . Note also: aon bhuaidhreadh amháin . . . an dara ceann, De Imit. 29.23 . ? robii cosnom im oenchend `there may be strife about one head' (Faraday), TBC-I¹ 1730 .

7 Various: ceann cait owl , Párl. na mB. 1452 . go dul tar ceannaibh cuan, Measgra D. 48.8 ` billow, breaker ', Gloss.

8 In various idioms with prec. vb.: ni mo tarrthus cend furre no forin gaeth `it was no more possible to get hold of her than of the wind', Aen. 649 . do-fócaib c.¤ appears see do-fócaib (D 269.36 ff.). ? immicurtis iarum cenna sechaiseom darsi ṅGairb sair ┐ siar eter Laigniu ┐ Ossairge, LL 36728 . tug a ch.¤ a n-inisle iomagallaimhe orra `entered into converse', ITS v 112.17 . no indsaiged in Troianda . . . congebead cend in Grecdai ┐ no indsaiged in Grecda . . . co ngebid cend in Tr. ┐ combdis cind ar cind, BB 435b22 .

9 Of buildings roof: ni rabi cenn for tempul Fidnacha in tan-sin, Ann. Conn. 1244.5 . c.¤ co claradh oir for tor dibh, Marco P. 117 . c.¤ Frangcach `a ribbed vault, a groined roof ' (Meyer Contribb.), AU iii 161.8 . don chend luaidhe boí for tempall an bhaile, AFM vi 1956.16 . Note also: roclúdadh na lestra fóa ccennuibh covers, tops , Ériu xiii 24.22 .

II End, end-point, termination.

10 In concrete applications: c.¤ cridi gl. uiscus, uisceris, Sg. 111b5 . nóe cend nine tips(?), LU 9835 . achind dochnama, IT iii 103.19 . a-cinn a-cruibh, RC xxiv 377.1 , .3 . cennæ na ngái, Liad. and Cuir. 12.9 . ceand muilind `the head of a mill', Ériu xvii 70 § 12 gl. 3 ( Laws iv 214.29 Comm. ). laim re ceand in droichid, Ériu xvii 72 § 13 gl. 10 . comrad chindcherchailli, TBC-LL¹ 3 . mó ná cliab co cendaib dés ` sheaves ', Metr. Dinds. iv 138.81 . do bhalad cinn én coinnle, RC xxiv 383.33 . dealg do chennaib óigsgech, IGT Decl. ex. 1082 . Metr. aisde cind tṡinte, IGT Metr. Faults §§ 48 , 49 . co casbairn chinn truim, Decl.ex. 623 (see cenntromm).

11 Of territories: a tá isin chionnsa thes (of a hill), SG 118.10 . isin c.¤ ba nesa dó don tír, AFM vi 2056.19 . i cind Maige Dála at the end of Magh Dala, Ériu i 132.74 . Of journeys: a gceann uidhe their objective, O'Hara 1241 . ceann bhar gcoimhleanga, DDána 74.56 . is iomdha slighe . . . / 's a ceann go magh nimh a-nonn, Dán Dé xxiii 4 .

12 Abstract applications: ceann m'aradhna ná léig lim let me not hold mine own bridle, IGT Decl. ex. 311 . sa chionn cunntuis in the account, Fl. Earls 90.13 . ní ricfa c.¤ scéoil úainne tar tech not a whisper of it will get out of this house, TTr.² 1796 . Of time: ar c.¤ fri c.¤ Enair `our end against the head of January' (i.e. 31 Dec. and 1 Jan.), Fél. Ep. 8 . c.¤ do shaoghail, BNnÉ 293 § 12 v.l. For sa cheann cháol etc. see cáel. do cheann don dáil `what you shall get in this affair', Content. xxvii 15 .

13 Of the end or completion of an affair, etc.: foruirmed c.¤ forsnaib cotarsnaib gl. aduersa nostra . . . constant inpleta, Ml. 74c20 . ni tucthar c.¤ essib gl. genelogís interminatís, Wb. 27d22 . oc tabairt chind for airimmeirt sluaigh ┐ shochaidhi, TTr.² 310 ( LL 400b10 ). cend ┐ forcenn air sin that's enough of that(?), Acall. 5361 . ní bia cend for th'ermitin `there shall be no limit to thy dignity', Celtica iv 16.180 .

III Of persons, chief, head person, leader.

14 Legal: nad cennaib coirib comallat, ZCP xiv 379 § 43 `cond . . . den voll Geschäftsfähigen. Die andern haben einen cond als c. `Haupt' über sich, der sie `unterstüzt', für sie in ihren Sachen spricht, etc. ', 380 . rí bunaid cach cinn, Críth G. 447 `caput, head of family, individual', Vocab. fortét cech c.¤ ba tressa(i) inní bes étressa, 474 . c.¤ caich iar nduinib i fine besid sruithe, ZCP xiv 369 § 31 ( Laws ii 278.21 ). cend cartus a memar a chief who rejects his tenant, Laws v 164.19 Comm. dlegaid cind cuindreach `the chiefs are bound to rectify', 440.23 . cach cind (sic MS) a chonrach, ACL iii 227.31 .

15 In non-legal contexts: cend do ḟeraib Herenn Patraic, Thes. ii 326.32 (Hy. iv gl.). for bélaib a cind ┐ a tigernad, Alex. 274 . M. . . . fa chend ar clēirchib, ZCP viii 120.5 . na cinn clāena cin crābud `the wicked, impious chiefs', Ériu iii 30 § 8 . a cheann féin `his Master', PBocht 11.20 .

16 With follg. noun in gen. indicating category of persons: c.¤ bocht almoner (?), AU ii 32.4 . c.¤ cáid caillech n-Érenn, Fél. Feb. 1 . cend degban is deorad, SG 64.35 . c.¤ fedna see fedan. c.¤ fine head of family or clan: lochdach an Róisdeach achd ón chionn fhine, IGT Decl. 7.14 . da ch.¤ fhine ina ionad, AFM iv 1146.16 . i ndioghail a ccind ḟine, iii 404.z . i ndegaid in chinn manach the abbot, Ériu iii 100 § 25c . c.¤ in réclessa, Ríocht na Midhe viii 15 . c.¤ sluag fer Fáil, Trip.² 1793 v.l. Cf. also: is cend daim for dartoid [.i.] mōrpersan for becphopul, O'Mulc. 753 .

17 With follg. gen. of abstr.: c.¤ athchomairc see athchomarc. ar gceann bāidhei-ne an bhean our chief love (of Mary), Dán Dé ii 29 . cend cathaigthe as chalma ro bai do Leith Mogha battle-leader , RC xviii 11.24 . a Chind, coisc na crích (a chind coisc ?), Ériu vii 221 § 22 . c.¤ comairle cuindrig muintire fri comairle comneirt, ‘a “head of counsel” who controls the household with advice of equal strength’, CL 240.3 . nach ben forsa-mbe c.¤ comuirle, ZCP xiv 375 § 38 . cenn comuirle ┐ adchomairc fer mBregh n-uile, 'chief counsellor and consultant of the men of all Brega', AU² 374.6 . in fer ba húasle ┐ ba mó rath issin túaith iss e ba cend comairle do chách, LL 118 . co tech ar cind comairle, ‘to our counsellor’s house’, Éigse vii 77 §11 . cend crabaid ermoir Erenn paragon of piety, RC xxvi 362.2 . gan chend cundraid na comairle rempo, LL 12344 (TBC). uair robesin cend gaili . . . sluaig, Cog. 194. 29 . c.¤ ecna . . . iartair domain, CS 320.9 . c.¤ cech erais, Fél. Apr. 23 . in bandea ingen Terrae cend scaílti scél in betha chief disseminator of news, LL 31001 (TTr.). a chend sochair slúaig Ulad chief benefactor, MU² 58 . In follg. perh. headquarters, centre : uail (= bhail) itā ceand in cogaidh, ZCP viii 115.18 . baili i mbai cend ídlachta ┐ druídechta na Héirenn, Trip.² 431 . flaitheas Dé is ceann chomhsanta dhúinne, Eochairsg. 98.25 ( end, goal ?).

IV Used in a wide variety of adverbial and prepositional phrases.

18 cinn at the end of (see 33, 40, 52) (ciunn, cinn, dative without preposition, GOI 537 ): cinn rehe gl. secundum hoc tempus, Wb. 4c11 . cinn blíadnae at the end of a year, Fél. Sept. 17 . cind .ix. mís, LU 1662 . cind in tres laí, 7977 (BDD). cind cethri ndíni `at the end of four genera- tions', Arch. Hib. ii 48 § 1 . cind mile bliadan, Ériu ii 132 § 109 .

19 In phr. cinn chomair: nó huachiunn chomair gl. e rigione `or, from before', Ml. 119a9 (`von dem Anfang der Richtung', Ped. KZ xxxv 435 ). fri re mis cind comar, AU ii 88.x . Usually of place (see 28, 31): cinn chomair gl. contra (solem), BCr. 33c17 . for in phurt cind chomair dó `opposite to him', RC xiv 406.1 ( LL 12675 ). cind comair frissin ṁbeist n-amnais, LL 398b18 = cinnchomair, TTr.² 148 . i cinncomair friu opposite them, CCath. 5561 . ro badhusa cind comraic riusom, Acall. 6795 . Cf. i comair chind airtherthuascertaig, LL 3865 = hi comardus cind, etc., RC xv 283 § 29 .

Usually with prec. prep. In the follg. sections the arrangement is according to the preceding preposition, with which an adverbial in addition to a prepositional phrase is frequently formed. In a number of cases meanings under various prepositions coincide.

With A.

20 In sense of ós ciunn (60): asa chind guarding him, Metr. Dinds. iv 358.94 . ata M. . . . asa mo chind-sa oc fúr m'anma, PH 806 . batar a cind na cathrach who were over the city, 2488 . In diff. sense: as a cheann féin `of his own Head' (of his own accord), Donlevy 330.16 . The follg. are obscure (leg. ar for as in one or more of the exx. ?): cen ascur sáitha asa chiunn `without remission of tribulation from His presence(?)' (in store for him ?), Wb. 25d16 . conid ari rogabad al-lam a pardus dochum gortæ ┐ bochtæ . . . ┐ bais ┐ hifirn asa cind `thenceforth', Ériu vii 164 § 8 . ? gidh bé do cuir asa chionn `it matters not whom he drove from his head' (Notes), Duan. F. i 32.20 . Perh. in literal sense: in t-ēolus-[s]a rádi rimm, / ferr duit nā cloisti as do chínn, ZCP xiii 3 § 2 .

With AR (see also 42).

21 ar chenn with vbs. of motion towards, in the direction of, to meet (see 39, 45): ceni esǽrsitis in choirp ara c.¤ `to meet them', Ml. 15c8 . condaáerset do failti ar ch.¤ a rríg to welcome their King, 46a12 . ara cénn gl. occurrentes, 60d5 . do-luid in biail arithissi ar ch.¤ inna samthige came back to the handle, Tur. 131 . techt ar ch.¤ Crist, Wb. 25d25 . co toracht Emain Macha ar cend Conchobair, LU 8073 ( FB 4 ). ní-s-cuirfind techta ar dho chend-sa, PH 450 . canat biet in alltair / ar ch.¤ clocáin don phroindtig at the sound of the refectory bell, Ériu iii 102 § 28 . gearr go dtiocfa teachtaire / . . . / ar do cheann, DDána 56.1 . docuaidh . . . arcinn na conuire a ticcidh aran sliabh `went to the road', ZCP vi 56.8 . Cf. airg ┐ áird-leasdair . . . do chomdhlúthúghadh ar cheann na céd aimsire do thairrngir D. . . . dhóib `against', ML 6.25 .

22 Of going to meet in battle: ara chend dait a Fergus, LU 6698 . rotbīa F. . . . ar ndul ar c[h]end ind ḟir ucut, TBC-I¹ 1247 (LU).

23 In sense of going or coming for, to fetch someth.: is ar ch.¤ focheda dodechommar `to meet suffering', Wb. 25a12 . tecat ar ch.¤ in chon co sochruid to fetch the hound, Sc.M² 4 . dula uaimm ar do chend-su to fetch you, PH 446 . teacht ar ceand cind duine isinn ārmuig, RC xxiv 58 § 18 . in lind ara tánac c.¤ the water for which thou camest, Ériu iv 106.7 . ? ochd bhféinnidhe as ḟearr a n-ágh / ar ceann t'éindighi d'fúarán, IGT Decl. ex. 1333 . socraiti do dol . . . ar cend artraige dochum Domnaill, Ann. Conn. 1248.5 . Note also: do lleblaing int écne ara chend (ref. to ordnasc f.), TBFr. 208 , cf. Meyer Contribb., Fraech p. 35 .

24 In meanings of tar c.¤ (66-70) (confusion of prepp.): cuirtha cumtaige ara cend `buildings were overthrown', KMMisc. 152.62 . ar cinn a chesta ┐ a caingne, Anecd. i 42.9 . tagra . . . do thagras ar cheann Mumhan on behalf of, Content. xviii 12 .

25 ar chiunn of time in the future, afterwards, later : frisnaccai archiunn gl. ad aliquam rem, Ml. 53b23 . artha ciúnn són gl. in posteram, 132a3 (see note). ar chinn gl. adhuc, Wb. 2a9 . archiunn . . . diéis gl. siue ante seu retro, BCr. 31b4 - 5 . ar oman imtormaich ina pecad ar chiund future sins, Ériu xix 58 § 6 . in maith iar cind future good, LU 9889 (for ar ch.¤ ?). rogabsat flaith ar chiund from then on, ZCP viii 313.21 . doairchaintis . . . anno bíth ar chind dóib, Trip.² 327 . ? mod airchiund di lubair a disposition ready for work(?), Rawl. B 512, 40c (Plummer MS. notes).

26 ar chiunn as quasi-adj. of points of time next, following, ensuing (in later lang. somet. with (i)ar in this use): san aidhchi ar chínd, BB 39b6 . co belltaine ar cind, BColm. 92.2 . an bliadhain ar ccionn, Leb. Gab.(i) 56.4 . isin laithe ar ccind, 146.2 . In later lang. also as prep. with poss. in this sense: go medhōn oidhche buī ar a gcionn, Fl. Earls 8.20 . go Bealltaine ar a gcionn till the following May, Keat. ii 3137 . See 38 .

27 ar chiunn in textual reff. below, in what follows; later, following : forsin canoin ar chiunn `on the following Scripture passage', Ml. 54c34 . trachtad . . . forsa nouit ar chiunn `on nouit that follows', 64a7 . in testimin ar chiunn `the following text', 104b3 . titul in dligid ar chinn, Wb. 10a12 . ata ní ar chiunn, Sg. 39b10 .

28 ar chiunn in front of, before (see 19): córus dúne ríg . . . ar chi[u]nn a thúaithe, Críth G. 566 `vis-à-vis', Vocab. bui siom oc huamim ara cind `before her', Mon. Tall. 149.18 . co nacca ara chind in fer, TBC-I¹ 448 . Cf. muir ara cendaib, in nem huasa ṁbennaib, 3006 . amail nobeith beo ar a chind as if he were alive in front of him, ACL iii 5.5 .

29 ar chiunn awaiting, ready for, in anticipation of (someone or someth. arriving): biid ersoilcthi ar chiunn for ríg gl. eliuamini, portae aeternales, Ml. 46a7 . ni farnic-sede nach maid ara chiun isin domun, Wb. 2a21 . ar ar ciunn-[n]i `against our coming', 25a33 . anais ar cionn antsluaigh `waited for', Blathm. 102 § 41 . co fuaratar a cele isind apdaine ara cind `on their arrival', Mon. Tall. 162.30 . aínínbuidh na fuair acht triur ar a chinn thall isin fíne (of a man who has joined or rejoined the tribe from outside), Laws iv 294.26 Comm. ar cinn ṡamraid at the arrival of summer, ZCP vii 310 § 8 . dá rabh a Rí na glóire / . . . / do mhaor ar chionn na coinnmhe / liom if Thy steward receive the company, Dán Dé xiv 11 . ar cinn chamhárach before daybreak, IGT Decl. ex. 1195 . ar cinn in lae, Fier. 135 . With petrified masc. poss.: arna beith ar a chind `in her way', RC xi 452.2 , cf. Meyer Contribb.

30 ar chiunn of time in store for (see 51): a fil ar mo chiunn gl. ad destinatum, Wb. 24a15 . cén bes fine ar a cinn as long as he has descendants, Laws iv 240.19 Comm. a n-airchend fil ar ar cinn the destiny which awaits us, Ériu i 68.12 . fuair Poimp bas ┐ fuair cidh Cesair ara cind afterwards, CCath. 8308 .

31 ci(u)nn ar chi(u)nn face to face, at grips (see 19, 54): atraig cach fer di alailiu . . . co m-bátar cind ar chind is taig, IT i 67 (LMU). fíal tened ┐ fíal d'aigriud . . . cind ar cind, LU 2067 ( FA 14 , cf. RC xxvi 148 § 27 ). inn-uair dobímmis cind ar chind, RC vii 302.1 . as and baoi Laogh ┐ a brathoir ciond ar ciond, ZCP x 295.27 . cind ar cind fri Dunchad, Ériu v 242.153 .

With co.

32 co c.¤ to the end, to completion (see 43): berthi leiss co c.¤ gl. perficiet, Wb. 23a19 . ní dernad in cnocc co c.¤ , Metr. Dinds. iii 44.79 . is co cend in cuidbiud the mockery has come to a head, Ériu i 118 § 10 . Cheville: céim co cend, Metr. Dinds. iv 26.9 .

33 co c.¤ with nouns indicating periods of time till the end of, for the duration of (see 18, 40, 52): co c.¤ blīadne, Thes. ii 319 ( Hy. ii 56 ). co c.¤ cairdi, Críth G. 366 . co cend trédenuis, PH 1859 . go ceann cóig n-aimsear, DDána 6.9 . go ceatra ceand[a] raithi `for four quarter-years', Magauran 804 . Note also: in fer co cind a chéli, MU² 991 `against', Gloss.

With DI and/or DO.

34 di chennaib of poetical composition appar. extemporaneously (see however Thurn. cited below and compare aisnēis do c[h]ennaib a chnāmae, Corm. Y 756 , which may point to a ritualistic procedure of some kind): canad do chennaibh, Ériu xiii 17.5 . ailges do ceanduibh, O'D. 2208 (Nero A vii, 144a). dligedh do feghar saor daor do chennaibh, Ériu xiii 25.30 = fedhair .i. dorenar, ut est dliged dofedhar sóer, dóer dochennaib .i. continuo , O'Dav. 828 . do . . . suid filed for-can di c[h]ennaib `von (seinen Knochen-) Enden', ZCP xvi 175 § 4 ( Laws i 40 , co ndenand rand can smuainedh, 42 Comm. ). is dochennaib . . . ro trial Dallán a duain do denum `extempore', RC xx 122.z (ACC). Also in phr. díchetal di chennaib, see díchetal. cetal do chendaib (a metre), IT iii 61 § 123 . See Ériu xlviii 45 .

35 intan tét a laithe di chiunn `passes away', Ml. 21c3 .

36 di and/or do chiunn in return for, for the sake of, instead of, on condition of, because of, for , etc. (see 68): do chinn a mbíd, SR 3406 . do c[h]inn loghaidh `in return for remission of tribute', Ériu xvii 22 § 16 . dúais do chionn chomáoine a quid pro quo , KMMisc. 346.28 . sgēl do chinn chummaéine, Anecd. i 36.3 . dia chind an tsréin in return for the bridle, BColm. 38 § 40 . nech . . . do cathugud di chend Crist for, PH 789 . do tairgeadh bó aile dí da cind, Imr. Brain 58.30 . berair-siu mac díachinn in its place, Cóir Anm. 133 . do chinn mo claidhem fen instead of my own sword, Fier. 60 . ragtais dia chind i comrac on his behalf, Metr. Dinds. iii 446.88 . do chionn a seachna `on condition of' (notes), Dán Dé x 12 . ró-mhór fuaramar d'a chionn too much we have got from it, Ériu i 96 § 52 . do chionn ubhaill, DDána 26.6 . do chionn an tshaoghail do thréigean through abandoning, Beatha S. F. 748 . dá chionn on that account, TSh. 1942 . do cind ced cennaighechta do denum in order to get leave, ZCP vi 90.15 . ar ngellad a marbtha d'Ulliam Burc do chind luaigi in consideration of, Ann. Conn. 1310.5 .

37 Of soliciting or having intercourse with a woman in spite of or unknown to her husband, etc. (see 70): comrac frim dot chind-so, Fing. R. 114 `in disregard of', Vocab. ben-side Ch. . . . co rustoirrchestar E. do chind a cēile, Corp. Gen. 139.x . a breth di-a chind (another man's wife), PH 833 . luid . . . F. . . . do thochmarc a mnā do chind Oilella, Fianaig. 6.16 . docomraiced-som fria mnaib aili dia cind si in disregard of her, ZCP i 104.10 .

38 Various: cia ruslā dia c[h]ind . . . T. . . . is he rosla(n) dar a chend, ZCP xiii 7.24 . conom thí de chind chúarda till it is my turn(?), LU 6699 ( TBC-I¹ 2158 ). ar chuir dá ceann all he added to it(?) (cf. 48), DDána 91.14 . ó Inid go Cáisg dá gcionn till the following Easter (see 26), Aithd. D. 75.18 . ? nior cuir dha chionn do bhí ag Fionn, Duan. F. i 32.20 .

With FO.

39 fo ch.¤ towards, against, for (see 21, 45): teacht fam cheann `(to) attack me', Content. xviii 1 . éirghid fo cend mo c[h]reiche they go for my booty, ZCP viii 226.22 . Note also: gabh fád cheann mo chonmharccsa `take upon thee my quarrel(?)', Studies 1924, 243 § 12 .

40 Of time within, during (see 18, 33, 52): fo ch.¤ aimsire giorra at the end of a short time, Ériu v 188.456 . fo c.¤ begain aimsiri, Stair Erc. 258 . fo chionn dā lō go n-oidhche, Fl. Earls 10.16 .

41 fo ch.¤ (less freq. chiunn) about, concerning, with regard to, for the sake of, etc. (see 59): ? craed aderum focheann, YBL 149a4 . fuaire a chách a-taoi fám chionn towards me, Dánta Gr. 86.8 . fa a gcionn because of them, DDána 25a1 . déna . . . fá ch.¤ oirbire t'filedh `to thy poet's objurgation make concession', O'Gr. Cat. 402.20 . mar go bhfuair duadh ┐ doghruing fá a ceann `on her account', Keat. ii 2342 . ? alaind a dath / fa ceand na cuach, IGT Metr. Faults§ 68 .

With FOR.

42 for c.¤ , ciunn. Usually = ar ch.¤ , chiunn (21 ff.): an do lotar for cend conaire, Vita Br. 40 `as they were proceeding on their way', Ir. Hist. Stud. i 132 . dochuaid fóncaillid forcend chonnaid for firewood, RC ii 396 § 33 . ro-fhóidestar P. . . . gilla turusa for cend Ísu, PH 2602 . for bar cind, LU 8388 ( FB 26 ). doluid D. for cuinn (leg. ciunn) a sethar do ḟailte frie, Rawl. 134b1 . co tarrla in muir ina clár comréidh . . . for cinn in catha, CCath. 1927 . for a g-ceann awaiting them, ML 44.22 . gusin dia dardaoin buī dō for cionn `until the Thursday following', Fl. Earls 258.4 . Perh. for orig. tar c.¤ (68 ff.) in: du gabail rigi for ch.¤ á athar `in his father's stead', Ml. 44d29 . cach adaltrach do-t[h]et for ceand cetmuintire, Stud. in E. Ir. Law 49 (`in spite of', note p. 50) ( Laws ii 384.1 ). do accallaim Grigair for cend uird ┐ riagla, LU 3095 (fo ch.¤ ?).

With I.

43 beirid, do-beir i cinn finishes, completes (see 32): doberar opair i cind and sain, LL 32264 ( TTr. 1452 ). maine berthar i cinn, 400b18 . ? focal nāchar thuill a gciond (: rinn), ZCP viii 223.x .

44 do-tuit etc. ina ch.¤ falls down, topples (see 67): a toitim ina chend dorisi, TTebe 1669 . ag tuitim ina ccenduibh do bhedis colamhuin . . . na cathrach, Ériu iv 56.18 .

45 i c.¤ in contexts implying motion (us. with prec. vb.) to, in the direction of, towards, against (see 21, 39): na torcair nemh inna ccent `on them', Blathm. 68 . lotir remib hi cend in Brogo, LU 10575 . co torracht C. i c.¤ in droichit cucu, CCath. 1283 . ben sund i cend for máthar , Metr. Dinds. iii 6.55 . dorat . . . / Conall i cend Chonculaind matched C. against C., Metr. Dinds. iii 446.96 . ro cuired cach i ceann araili dona Romanchaib, CCath. 3159 . an uair chuirid i n-a chionn when they oppose him, DDána 96.33 . connsuine . . . do rachadh na cheann, mur atá so: slat ┐ dearg, slaitearg sin which would be assimilated to it, IGT Introd. 10.2 . do tuit an torc a cend a choss fell forward, BCC 324.30 .

46 i c.¤ with prec. vb. of motion and follg. Vn. etc. in g s. implying beginning or undertaking of an action: o dochotar . . . i c.¤ taispenta ind immuin do G., Lib. Hymn. 63.40 . do chuadar i cend a retha took to their heels, MR 318.4 . notheiged-som ┐ a gilla a cend bleogain na bo, Ériu v 34.22 . ná ragaind i ceand catha ina agaid, FDG² 465 . dochuaid i cend in sceoil (d'innisin, v.l.) `she went ahead with the tale', TTebe 1833 . T. . . . do dol a c.¤ oilithri, Ann. Conn. 1307.18 . lotar . . . i cend séta, TBC-LL¹ 451 . Note also: ra érig in fili ┐ do chúaid i n-a cend ┐ issed ro ráid, LL 39018 ( SG 385.34 `went to work'; `came to them', Stokes, RC xiii 107 ).

47 i c.¤, ciunn in addition to (see 63): foghellta ┐ bleth do dul ina ceand `shall be added', Laws iv 130.27 Comm. Matha a cind Crist ro scrib a shoscéla together with, LB 153a64 . ag flaith Li do chím 'na cheann / ní do gach tír 'na thimcheall also, Ériu v 64.15 . a cc.¤ gach sgéil eile dar innis doibh, Rel. Celt. ii 196.32 . a c.¤ a roibhi aigi, ZCP vi 51.10 . na c.¤ sin in addition, Maund. 15 . hi cc.¤ a chéle together, Hugh Roe² 40.13 .

48 cuirid i c.¤ adds to (see 38): cindus do-chuirfed tuilled i n-a chend, PH 7730 . cuir 'na ceand, O'Gr. Cat. 311.9 . teine do cur a ceann teineadh making bad worse, 23 P 10 ³, 15a30 . Note also: ni fuair Fergus ríam ni do cuirfe a cend Modha do marbadh do Dubthach `anything to compare with the slaughter of M. by D.', Celt. Rev. ii 116.x .

49 i c.¤ in preference to: am cheann do chomóradh 'was given preferential treatment over me', Ériu lxiv 162 § 1.7​​​ . S. . . . do chor i tticcernus . . . hi ccend Ch., AFM iii 360.16 . taisech do denam doib do mac M. . . . ina c.¤ , Ann. Conn. 1262.9 .

50 i ciunn at the head of for purpose of leading: m'anam-sa a Dhé mar budh dall / sé 's an chalann-sa 'n-a cionn, Dán Dé xxiii 13 . bi 'n-a cinn = ducas eum, Smaointe B. Chr. 1050 .

51 i ciunn in store for, destined (see 30): a-tá lá cúirte 'n-ar gcionn, DDána 23.29 . a uilc i gcionn gach chiontaigh his wrongdoings await every sinner (for punishment), Dán Dé vii 15 . i gc.¤ gach baíth a baegul, MR 286.21 . go bhfuil an bás . . . i gcionn gach aoin, TSh. 99 .

52 i ciunn of time at the end of (see 18, 33, 40): a cínd da bliadna onaímsir-si two years ago, RC x 186.1 . hi cind tredenais, ACL iii 309.10 . a cc.¤ a fhichet bliadhna da aois in the twentieth year of his age, Rel. Celt. ii 196.7 . a ccionn trí lá, Desid. 6345 .

53 Various: i mbun na gabla ro boí hi ciund tened over against, LU 9194 ( FB 92 ). a cheann i cind tened, ZCP i 464.33 . gach aon a gceann a dhíre ┐ a dhúthchasa féin in possession of, ML 102.14 . mac S. a cind arrad at the head of nobles, Ériu v 244.194 . in cís d'ícc a cind chruid, LB 133b56 `in respect of', Todd Lect. vi 40.6 .

c.¤ i c.¤ (ceann a cceann is an exception to the rule that the same word may not be used more than once in a line, Bard. Synt. Tr. 24.36 ). ? ceann a ceann, .c. o an doilgheas, 55.24 . Also cionn a ccionn (: fionn), 25.1 .

54 c.¤ i c.¤ = ci(u)nn ar chi(u)nn (31): misi do cur c.¤ i cc.¤ / as Cuchulainn, TBC-LL¹ 3151 . cuirid c.¤ hi c.¤ , Fianaig. 60.27 . is and sin . . . do rancadar Leth Cuind ┐ Laigin ceand i cend, RC xxiv 50 § 10 . go g-cómhraiceam ceann a g-ceann, ML 82.25 .

55 c.¤ i c.¤ together; simultaneously : Conchabor, Aedh cend a cend `head to head' (of kings buried together), Ériu ii 166.47 . cia leitir sin c.¤ a c.¤ / dognīad lethfod is lethtenn, ZCP xii 295.8 . nocor thathaigh ceann i c.¤ / na cuic cuicidh na hEirenn, xi 43 § 31 . cred dorad tu c.¤ a c.¤ / a comhaitreab na catcend?, KMMisc. 315.16 . trí Cormaic theas ceann i gceann / im an seang, DDána 91.33 . do dortsed fair cend i cend (of attackers), Ann. Conn. 1405.15 .

56 c.¤ i c.¤ successively (see Aithd. D. Vocab.): gan a ccloistecht cend i ccend / gabhāla airdrīogh [n]Ērenn, ZCP viii 218.30 . fiss gach catha c.¤ a ceand, Anecd. i 29 § 35 . rob ionchuir é, ceann a cceann / is inghean airdrīgh Éireand point by point, KMMisc. 356.7 .

With IMM.

57 is fachain dá gcar um cheann to make them change their attitude(?), DDána 67.4 . (taken by Ed. as i and mo).

58 imm ch.¤ about, around : tarrassaid inn irgal im chend Connacht, LL 12308 (TBC). doiri crannrabhan mad cheann round thee, Magauran 436 . ní ráidhte um cheann gcomhóla during a drinking-bout, O'Hara 146 . radharc um cheann a calaidh `the sight of its shores' (Gloss.), Measgra D. 52.35 .

59 imm ch.¤ about, concerning, with regard to (see 41): rola B. . . . / ilach im cheand Feargaile (perh. in semi-literal sense), RC xxiv 54 § 14 . imcheand cach formaid bai etarru `for all the ill-feeling', Ériu ii 178.16 . an-scél . . . im-c.¤ deilbe . . . in-domain, RC xxiv 369.5 . t'fhearg . . . um cheann do chloinne, DDána 10.22 . um cheann craos-óil in the matter of, TSh. 7446 .

With ós (see 20).

60 ós chiunn (on as cionn beside ós chionn see Desid. p. xxxv ). In more or less literal sense: in tituil robói huas ciunn Crist isin chroich over Christ's head, Ml. 74b1 . ōs chinn sanct-Brigte, Thes. ii 329.2 ( Hy. v 15 ). Over, above: baí . . . ben . . . oc airiuc dont ṡluág os a cind, LL 259b15 . Cuncha cnoc os cind Life, ZCP xi 41 § 1 . nochtais . . . in claidheab os cind na hingeine, RC vi 175.30 . ós chionn mo leabhráin studying, Content. ii 14 . ōs a ch.¤ , Fl. Earls 66.15 .

61 With prec. vb. of motion: tānic . . . ōs ceann N. made for, Celtica i 116.118 . téighim ós chionn a chosnaimh I undertake to defend it, Content. xxi 12 .

62 in control of, in charge of: os chionn Bhanbha, Content. xxx 26 . sdiobhard ós ceann mhórāin maoine, Mac Aingil 568 . ōs cionn in cholāiste, Fl. Earls 68.25 .

63 over and above, in addition to (see 47): ós c.¤ fhichit each, AFM iv 1134.28 . faoi nó ós a chionn `or thereabouts', Corp. Astron. 4.12 . ōs a ch.¤ sin `besides', Fl. Earls 90.15 .

64 Note also: bun ós cionn `upside down', Psalms cxlvi 9 . más bun os cionn atá sé `if he haue any auersion', RSClára 155a . For fuller treatment see 1 bun.

65 With ré: ria cind tri trath in three days, RC xvii 386.2 .

With TAR (see also 24, 42).

66 fo-ceird etc. tar c.¤ (somet. with possess. before c.¤ ) overthrows, upsets, turns upside down : in cor tar c.¤ gl. euersio, Ml. 36d23 . gl. euertando, 72b12 . tochur tar c.¤ , Críth G. 233 . ro lá in slúag . . . tara cend, LU 9760 . fochichret in Trói dar cend, TTr.² 389 . ro-chuir cend dar cend . . . miassa na monotóri, PH 4392 . is e ro-lá dar cend ar forcetul-ne subverted, 1686 . See fo-ceird. Cf. dos-curedar tara cend 'she collapses', CMMucr. 50 § 43 .

67 With do-tuit (see 44): co torchratar . . . dara c.¤ hi suan, ZCP iii 6 § 20 .

68 tar c.¤ on behalf of, for the sake of, in return for, in lieu of, because of, for, etc. (see 36): dufiastar tara c.¤-som `punishment will be inflicted for them', Ml. 27c4 . deich tarm ch.¤ `take vengeance for me', 72d11 . no oircthe . . . tar c.¤ a p[ecthae] ind aile `for its sins', Tur. 110c . taiccéra cách dará chen fessin gl. pro sé, Wb. 6b28 . oc irbáig dar far c.¤-si gl. de uobis, 16d8 . ? mo ort do gabál darm ch.¤ `that my rank should be taken for me', 23b18 . a setig . . . do pennait tar a cend fadesin ┐ dara cendsom on her own behalf and his, Mon. Tall. 163.18 . dar cend na cāna in return for, Cáin Ad. 25 . ciata glinni con-daigi dar cend frithaisceda?, MU² 65 . do foglaim na Tāna rucc in sái rōmānach a hArdmacha dar cend in cuilmin, ACL iii 5.31 . na feicheamna dara tecait cend, Laws iv 60.18 Comm. tarc.¤ gabhála aigi ┐ tacra tar a ch.¤ pleading in his behalf, CCath. 535 . díol tar ceann a chomaoineadh, Content. ix 25 . tar ceann do chloinne, Dán Dé xxviii 29 .

69 in spite of, in violation of; notwithstanding : ba holc lais dith Fergail darceand a shida, RC xxiv 64 § 25 . tar c.¤ Conoill, Duan. F. i 84.8 . tar a cheann sin nevertheless , Desid. 3220 .

70 Of begetting offspring by a woman in spite of or unknown to her husband (see 37): trī meic Medba fri Fergus dar c.¤ nAilella, Corp. Gen. 279.1933 . mac ruc don Dagda . . . / dar cend ḟir na síde, Metr. Dinds. iii 30.75 . is e doroine in toirrcis sin fria dar c.¤ Cathbaid, RC vi 175.51 .

71 As conj. tar c.¤ go notwithstanding the fact that, although : tar ceann go n-abair an Chóir Anmann gur . . . ní mheasaim gurab . . . , Keat. ii 2344 . tar cheann go n-anann tú feadh do bheathadh san olc, Mac Aingil 1040 . tar ceann gur shaoil . . . notwithstanding the fact that, TSh. 541 . tar cheann go bhfuil mórán etc. even though there are . . . , Párl. na mB. 461 .

Compds. (general composition-form in early lang. cenn-. Later also cinn- and ceinn- before palatals).

With nouns.

72 In dvandva-compds. (see Wortk. 130 ): bidh suī lēigind co cendanim head and soul, ACL iii 231.22 . cend-chossach head and feet (of cooked animal), Ériu iv 124 § 2 .

73 With c.¤ qualifying second member: cu nach fácbadh claidem ar cennadairt, Acall. 1632 = SG 129. 29 `pillow' ( -adart, BLism. 212 rb13) . Fig. cennadart fona fertaib inso, Thes. ii 332.27 ( Hy. v 23 gl .). Of a person: O'M. a cceann adhart, Top. Poems 58.18 . oenball dia curp nó da cendagaid `countenance', CCath. 4700 . gráin catha ar mo cheannaghaidh (sic leg.), Content. xxiii 15 . tria cendairde no tria cendísli doníther in taidbhriudh anuasan, O'D. 908 (H. 3.17, 649) = O'Curry 2164 ( Eg. 88, 4(5)d ) (see O'Gr. Cat. 139 ). cennait muilind `the head (site) of a mill', Ériu xvii 76.10 . cennáit `head residence', AFM v 2082.2 . ? Cf. an chríoch nó an cionnaidh is dúthaigh dhó, TSh. 1775 (chianáit, v.l., Gloss.). ar Chrīst ar cennabaid chief lord, ZCP viii 214.6 . do ghabh clogat . . . fa n-a cheann-bhaithios `head', MR xiv 21 . ¤barr see cen(n)barr. ¤bécc see cennbécc. ¤bert see ceinnbeirt. cennbhile oir na n-ardriog (a prince), LL 394.8 . bheith dheit ad chinnbhile ós coill, O'Gr. Cat. 381.22 . súdh ceannbhracha `malt liquor', O'Hara 4076 . in Cennc[h]at[h]ach ina laimh .i. a bachall, Lism. L. 3103 . ¤chléithe = cenn: scothais a chenn clēithi de, ZCP viii 117 § 12 . ní chuirthear ceannchnaipe óir ar phaidrín mhaide, Mac Aingil 1041 `Pater Noster bead(?)', Gloss. lom[r]aid a cendchongraim din mnái headdress, Hib. Min. 77.9 . ceann cosnamach comegin C. `violent groans', MR 260.6 (leg. ¤osnadach ?). for cenn-cumhdach a choroine ` head-covering ', Misc. Hag. Hib. 43 § 62 . capitolauium .i. cenddīunach, Corm. Y 296 . cend-drong filed fó fírda, Metr. Dinds. i 36.93 . inceindetan gl. gigram, Gild. Lor. 82 . donchendfiacail gl. capitali, 134 . ¤ḟochrus see cennḟochrus. cenngalor (in marg. dolor capitis), Wb. 17b25 . Vita Br. 28 . dia ro h-icad don cheann-galar, YBL 174b23 . ? ni tormaig ni fora notrus . . . a cendgelt, Ériu xii 40 § 51 ; 'tonsure' ZCP xlii 48 . caeca echlosc orda co cendimlaib airgid, IT ii2 191.14 (cennpairtib, v.l.) `end knobs'? Plummer MS notes. ¤ísle see cendairde. ¤lá see cennlá. ¤liter capital letter. Usually metaph. of persons and things: cinn-litre ceall `the capitals of the churches', Content. xv 30 , cf. xviii 73 . dún iona cáir cinnlitre, Ériu v 60.4 . ceinnlitir siodha ┐ coccaidh `arbiter', AFM iv 976.3 . snímcha cendmaisse `head- dress', Tec. Corm. xvi 84 . cendmaisse laime glove, Acall. 5971 v.l. ¤míl name of an ornament: coíca acrann . . . co cendmílaib, TBFr. 31 . fuath . . . [na] cendmila tucsat a coscar catha, Aen. 1563 . Of persons: Ísa Críst . . . in cennmíl cumdachta, ZCP viii 204.34 . ní ba cendmíl muinntiri / nech nach fulaing a hécnach, iv 468 § 17 . a fírchlethe a chendmullaig, LU 6475 . brat tlachtgorm corcarrda hi cennfait impe (i.e. thrown over her head?) (cennḟait, MS), TBC-I¹ 2791 . cendpaite imma cenna `fillets', RC ix 484 n.5 . cinnréallna `stars of first magnitude', Ó Bruad. iii 14.7 . cend-róit `highway', CRR 28 . (Auricula Muris) ceinn-sgethrach do ghenam dhe, ┐ glanaidh an inchinn o na salcar, 23 K 42, 367.5 (see sceithrech). fá cheannsmacht, Oss. iv 274.24 . ` paitric' cennsrián, Metr. Gl. 19 `headstall', Plummer MS notes. dotuit ar a cenntruime topheaviness, O'Dav. 200 . cenntruime .i. gin collad, O'Curry 2598 ( Eg. 88, 50(51)d ). cend-urra a slánaigthe `Captain', Heb. ii 10 .

With adjectives.

74 C. chendalaind, ZCP xi 41 § 5 . cendard cassetnach, IT iii 246.80 . dá ech . . . cendbeca, LU 9257 . na dá chendbricc 'the two piebald-headed ones' TBC-LL² 1086 . cnā ceand-buidhi, ZCP v 22 § 16 . tre cnoccuibh corra cenncæla, ZCP vi 290.22 . ic imbirt fidchilli .i. na Cendchaeme (as subst.), LL 8350 (TBC). ingena cendálli cendchassa curly-headed, 31382 (TTr.). do innsaighi cnuic cennchuirr, ZCP vi 60.12 . cendchrom torsech, LL 12064 (TBC). ¤étig freq. as n. pr., see Corp. Gen. etc. trian a scéith chendfhada comdhualaig, ZCP xiii 211.11 . ar coiciud cendḟind Connacht, LL 3224 . See cenann. cheillínill / ceandfolaim, IT iii 92 § 139 . an fer cendgarb, i 273.29 ( FB 40 Eg.). cairrge ceann-gharbha, ML 34.4 . cranngal cheinngér, IGT Decl. ex. 905 . Eoghan an airm cheannghlais, DDána 99.40 . ar taisbenad a craisigi cenn-guirme catha, MR 196.5 . ¤grúcánach see grúcánach. a muinter . . . cendísel Corccaige `hang-head', MacCongl. 29.22 . arocul becc . . . cendisel low-pitched, Todd Lect. vi 42.2 ( LB 134a35 ). laech caem cendlethan, LL 11824 (TBC). cofacca . . . in deilb . . . cennléith, Ériu iv 102.12 . ocbud . . . chendmas, Anecd. i 60.88 . a dhá chraoisigh ceann-reamhra, ML 112.21 . ar ná ba cennscoilte `lest you get your head broken', Tec. Corm. 38.26 . Cuirrín Cheannsholuis, ML 32.18 . dia sephaind céis cenntoll céol, ZCP iii 7.2 . ¤tromm see cenntromm.

Rarely with verbs:

75 ceannlasfaidh a cró coirrshleagh (of warriors), Aithd. D. 16.28 . gu cennlúbdais na clocha na caolsoighdi the stones turned the points of the arrows, Caithr. Thoirdh. 113.6 .

Freq. as second element in compds.

76 See GOI 219 (nochtchenn, ardchenn). Freq. in this use in form -genn, see GOI 87 , O'Rahilly, Ériu xiii 140 . See cloicenn, cromcenn, corrcenn, 1 dícenn, táilgenn, tollcend (1 toll). Note further: crothid conchend catha ceirp, LU 3629 ( SCC 31 , see note in SC2). teiti tair fo thalmain trell / i nEgiptacthaib láncend (the Nile), LL 16325 . m. Fiachach Uanchind, Corp. Gen. 88.7 . Baccan mac Brain meic Eircc hUbulchind, Rawl. 126b43 .

77 Very freq. in nn. loc., see Hog. Onom.

Load More Results