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1 árach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 árach or dil.ie/3926

 

Forms: arag, airge

n o, n. n p. arag, Laws i 260.15 . airge, Cóic Con. 15 § 2 (see GOI § 280 ). Later m. Vn. of ad-rig, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 592 .

(a) act of binding, tying; bond, fetter: res in coin na fetar d'arach, Laws iii 416.16 Comm. cibe inad . . . i nderna fer araigh arach `wherever the man who ties [the cow] performs the tying', 228.13 Comm. fot in araig, 412.21 Comm. airge con anaithne, O'Curry 2510 ( Eg. 88 41b ) = erge con, Laws iii 416.6 - 11 (see eirge). būrach .i. bō ┐ ārach, Corm. Y 131 (cf. bárach). a druith na halla / sen araigh corra / croma cama fodchossaigh bindings, shoes(?), IT iii 99.1 . cú áraig `a chained hound', Triads 168 . loman áraig leash , see loman and cf. cona.¤ dog-chain, leash , TBC-LL¹ 1003 .

(b) act of binding, guaranteeing (a contract or other legal obligation or transaction); bond, guarantee: ailid cac otrus a arag hi coraib bel `every sick-maintenance entails its binding (i.e. must be secured) by contracts', BCrólige 55 . a harach: arach fir fri firgilli the binding of evidence takes place with proper pledges (Thurn.), Cóic Con. 17 § 4 . issed coir cach troiscthe . . . arach for soraith nad elai `the security of a good surety who would not evade', Laws i 118.6 . faill . . . do feichemnaib lecud a naraig do derna dar a cenn `breaking their bond', Laws iii 512.1 ( O'Dav. 169 ). mad tuc arach re airisemh uirre, O'D. 538 (H 3.17, c. 433) `if he gave surety to abide by the decision', Plummer MS notes. gell ria narach geall iar narach, O'Curry 2719 ( Eg. 88, 61(62)a ). breth gin dilsi gin arach, 2290 ( Eg. 88, 21(22)d ). inann a nepert ┐ a ná.¤ , 535 (H 3.18, 265b) `their word is as good as their bond', Plummer MS. notes. ? dul do chennach gin airrchi, Ériu xiii 62 § 7 ( Triads § 74 ) (cf. airrach). If certain relatives of a dead man have all pre-deceased him then the person who inherits his `díbad' is: in fear uasal a.¤ in geilfine, O'D. 740 (H 3.17, c. 538).

In literary texts: dogen-sa aní . . . acht nar milter úaib-si a n-arach on condition that the pledge be not violated by you, LU 5849 (TBC). ní géb-sa gan á.¤ / dáig nim láech gan lámach I will not undertake it without security, TBC-LL¹ 3044 . tan nad rabe naidm nó á.¤ nó aitire acht fiadnaissi namma, LL 4996 . do tarlaic dar ārach uad `in violation of a bond', Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 20.3 . gan urradha gan á.¤ , AFM vi 1988.16 . ro naidhm árách (sic) ┐ rátha fair, 2046.18 . fonaiscis fair araige, ZCP iii 247.6 . ocht dtrátha ar atach á.¤ / [. . .] na n-ocht ndubhálach `to implore safeguards', Dán Dé xxiv 2 . fagaibh-si Teamhraig . . . re bliadain . . . dóigh tarrus á.¤ orum-sa uime sin `I have pledged myself to this', Ériu iii 154 § 8 . is andsin tarroidh Meadhbh modh n-aroidh ar Fer nDiag um an comhrag do dhénamh, ZCP x 278.8 = ra siacht M. máeth n-áraig bar F., TBC-LL¹ 3163 . táirthis baéth n-araig fair, RC xiii 106.8 ( LL 306b15 ) (see maeth).

(c) favourable opportunity, advantage, opening (frequ. with for (ar) of dat. incommodi): ōtconncatar dā mac Sgōrāin . . . á.¤ comlainn uirri `a chance of fighting against it', Fianaig. 64.19 . iarras do námhaid á.¤ ort seeks an opportunity against thee, TSh. 7762 . iarrais a.¤ ar an rígh gur marbhadh leis é `sought an opportunity and killed the king', Keat. ii 660 . mná i n-iodhnaibh . . . / gan á.¤ ar sgur dá mbrón , Measgra D. 5.34 . do-chuaid d'iarraidh áraigh air to get a chance to reform him(?) (Monica and Augustine), DDána 59.10 . á.¤ na humhlachta d'iarraidh to seek an opportunity to practise humility(?), TSh. 185 . fo-gaib (gaibid) á.¤ for (ar): ní faghthar, ní fríoth, á.¤ / orra fa Art Chaomhánach no chance was found to attack them under Art, DDána 100.24 . fuaradar Fionnlochlonnaigh . . . á.¤ ar bheith ag aithmhilleadh Éireann, Keat. iii 2911 . á.¤ ní fhaghaim ar shuan, Measgra D. 5.45 . nir gabadh á.¤ oruinn osin alé, ZCP i 131.24 .

Note further: in uair na raibhe á.¤ acut fén ort `when you had no power over yourself', PH 7391 . gidh nach bhfuil arach air though there is no help for it, Fen. 69 n.7 . ríodhamhna saor somholta / ar nach bhfuil neart nō á.¤ , O'R. Poems 1090 . an uair is mó bhíd i n-á.¤ a n-ilchleas rely on, TSh. 528 . conid he arach a raíníg . . . a cor a tenid ┐ a losgadh plan, BB 417a16 .

See also árad.

bél

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bél or dil.ie/5607
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: beoil, beóil, beolu, beula, beulu, belu, bélib, i mbeolu

n o, m. g s. beoil, Sg. 14a16 . n p. beóil, Wb. 7d9 . a p. beolu, Wb. 3b11 , beula (gl. ora), Ml. 19c9 . beulu, 35d22 . belu, Thes. ii 251. 16 . d p. bélib, Wb. 7d10 . b.¤ m., IGT Decl. § 61.

I

(a) In some exx. explicitly lip , in pl. lips, but here usually mouth: don b.¤ gl. labio, Ir. Gl. 107. Gild. Lor. 139 § 40. tri beulu dlútai gl. fixis labris (17), Sg. 6a18 . ni radi ní trí thalmaidchi, amal dundchuirethar inna beulu as it rises to his lips (`as he takes it into his lips'), Ml. 35d22 . anasberaid hó bélib `what ye utter with (your) lips', Wb. 7d10 . anasbérat mo beiúil, 12d12 . (of a hag) tacmaicced a b.¤ íchtarach coa glún, LU 6828 (BDD). i socraidi labrait biuil (: Iúil), 3875 ( SCC 38 ). niamdai a beóil partardeirg (partuingdeirg, v.l.) her crimson lips, IT i 69.8 . ( LMU 4 ). co ṅditned a srona ┐ a beolu `so that it protected his nostrils and his lips' (but perh. transl. nose . . . mouth), CCath. 5265. folcuit a n-aighti uile lena mbélaib úachtair upper lips, Maund. 176. beoil lethna thick lips, Marco P. 187. cúiseach bind asa bēalaibh `sweet piping from her lips', Ériu iv 174.15 . maille siabhradh beóil ( = labium . . . pervertatur), 23 K 42 , 54.14 . do scoltad an croimbeoil ┐ in béil iocht[a]ir of chapping of the upper and lower lip, O'Gr. Cat. 191.z . baile .i. maith . . . digbail dubha baile bel .i. is maith í o belaib no i mbel `from lips or in mouth', O'Dav. 224. (in application of an incantation) imbir in da mér . . . it bélaib, Thes. ii 249.11 . doberar in salann i mbelu `the salt is put into the mouth', 251.16 . asoilgg a bēolu . . . combo ecna a [g]inchrāes, TBC-I¹ 396. (of a witch) a beóil for leith a cind her mouth in the side of her head, BDD² 540 . gebid dano cenn in tarra ina béolu, Sc.M² 17.6 . do-lleblaing int éicne ara chend, ┐ gabsus inna béulu took it in its mouth, TBFr. 209. an tan immoro no berid an leg laun ina beolu `when he used to put the ladle full into his mouth', RC xii 86 § 91. nicon acca beolu eich / amal beolu ín liathainigh, IT iii 68.2 . inbat budig do bēoil do shainól ┐ do shainait, MacCongl. 77.4 . secht traigid eter a ó ┐ a beolo . . . ┐ secht n-artim inna bélaib, Ériu iv 26.9 , 10 . acht nad neibre dod belaib nama `although thou hast not said so by word of mouth', Laws iv 108.1 Comm. cuit mo b.¤ (term of endearment), LL 18576.

(b) mouth in sg.: sróin súil b.¤ , Ardm. 434a marg. (220va). i cinaid do laime, do sula, do thengad, do beil, Laws i 156.32 . issin ṁb. tacras sin in the mouth that asserts that, MU² 369. laech . . . belmar . . ., meit a beil beolu eich, TBC-LL¹ 5400 n.4 . fuil rochuiread tara bel ┐ dara sroin, TTebe 2414 . beiris i n-a bheōl . . . ar lampa airgit seized a silver lamp in its mouth, Fl. Earls 138.1 . Note also: na beula gl. ora, the mouths (?), Ml. 19c9 . Fig. gá tarbha an béal do bheith lais / 's an intinn in-a éagmhais, Dán Dé xxii 20 . an b.¤ dúnta as eadh budh ḟearr better be silent, IGT Decl. ex. 1285. Prov. is binn beál ó bheith iadhta, Dánfhocail 55 . By metonymy person : cerd cach ṁb. .i. eladu cech duni do ḟoglaim ar dáig forcitail caich (`art for every mouth', RC xxvi 22 § 62 ), LL 24410. crochadh ar bh.¤ na bréige! `perdition (lit. a hanging) to him who tells the lie' (Gloss.), LBranach 1072 . b.¤ na psalm (nickname of St. Fintan), Mart. Don. Mar. 27. Grigoir Béil óir `Gregory the golden-mouthed', BNnÉ 172 § 16 .

(c) In phrases: derg-mír i mbélaib lit. red (raw) morsel in (the) mouth apparently of property illegally acquired or attached: atait tri deirg-mireanda naidet usa a mbelaib cacha hecalsa (glossed: is indligthech do'n eclais a ngabail cuichi o belaib, 432.3 Comm. ), Laws v 430.22. at-ballat, ¤bailet (a) béoil with poss. or foll. subj. gen., see at-bail(l): co n-aplat a beoil i mmbron (leg. mbrōn ?) ┐ toirrsi `they perish', Ériu ii 114 § 38. Note also: bás fort béolu, Fing. R. 72 `death on your head!' RC xiii 378.11 .

(d) Of the mouth as the source of speech: iss ed bói i mbēlaib cáich this was the common talk, ZCP viii 317.26 . go rabhadar na lán béil ┐ buanteanga ag gach aon that they were a continual subject of conversation to everyone, RC xiv 28 § 6. lán beóil don ríoghfhuil Bhranoigh, LBranach 3581 . budh lán beoil an Brianachsoin, Studies 1925, 253 § 6 .

By extension word(s) ; subject of talk : fer na ropeccaig o bel na o gnim `in word or deed', Ériu v 20.2 . idna beoil integrity of speech, LL 3901. roiarfaided o Fiachroig Muillethan . . . dia belaib his advice was asked by F., ZCP xiv 156.14 . gurab mó do theagascdaois . . . ó theagasc beoil ioná ó scríbhinn by traditional instruction, Keat. ii 976. (explanation of the name of Eogan B.) b.¤ cach tuaithi ina thimchell `the mouth [i.e. the acclamation] of every country round about', SG 64.z . b.¤ cach flatha ina lenub / ar ó Fiachrach foltlebur, 65.2 . In phr. breth a b.¤ féin self-judgment, -doom: atetha breth do b.¤ (sic leg.) féin duit, RC xiv 430.8 . co tucsat Gaill breth a beoil fein d'O Neill, AU ii 270.8 . In adv. phrase ó óen-b.¤ unanimously: o aen bel, PH 7233. dh'aoinbheul, Luc. Fid. 2856. Legal. cor b.¤ , see 1 cor 12.

II Applied to various things resembling lips or mouth .

(a) edge, rim ; mouth of cavity, orifice, opening : b.¤ gaili, a mbél an gaile ( = orificium stomachi), RSláinte 3698. do fínégra ar b.¤ an gaile `on the pit of the stomach', O'Gr. Cat. 193.25 . b.¤ cridi (used as term of endearment): a bél mo chraidi, ACL iii 243 § 24. edge, opening of wounds: bador beoil na ccneth ag claoi a cheile, ZCP x 292.9 . a lomma cro ic teprisin dar belaib na n-alad batar fair, Grail 685 . rucc b.¤ na cneidhe chum a chéile ┐ ticc sele fuirre, ITS xvi 42.13 . Other applications: co fil āit a beōil isin c[h]loich fóss ann `the mark of its rim (i.e. of a bell) is still there in the stone', BColm. 64.9 . sileadh deór rúadh ar ruisgne / mur uisge a beól (mbéol v.l.) úar eisci like water out of a vessel (?), IGT Decl. ex. 1081. mé is b.¤ na cróine ar mo chind, ex. 81 . lase foruillecta beóil in chalich di mil, Wb. 7d9 . īadais indala sūil . . . asoilg alaile comba mor bēolu fidchōich as large as the orifice of a wooden bowl (?), TBC-I¹ 395. b.¤ dabcha ele 'na b.-si anúas (of one vat turned over another), BColm. 72.6 . (of a bag for chess-men) a ferbolc, is amra sceúil / de ór imdernta a beúil opening (`rim'), Fianaig. 14.22 . go bhfuilti claoidthe . . . a mbeul an tsaic (of opponents silenced in controversy), Luc. Fid. 4127. béil a ngunnadh `the muzzles of their guns', Rel. Celt. ii 194.11 . (of prongs of pincers) do briseadh teanncuir an ghobhann, ┐ an t-īarann dearg 'na beal `with the red-hot iron in its jaws', ZCP ii 562.30 . beola crot ┐ bolg ┐ buinne `mouths of harps and bags and pipes', RC xii 108 § 163. the eye of the upper millstone (Studies on Early Ireland 16 ) : iss e sin doberimsi a mbel in muilinn si, RC xiv 52 § 62. upper of shoe: bróg tar teach do teilgeadh leam . . . nar bhean tall a b.¤ fa a bonn `a shoe whose upper was detached from its sole was thrown at me' (Notes), Bard. Synt. Tr. 2.z.

(b) Further extended applications: mén mara .i. bel na mara, O'Cl. ( mēn .i. bēl, Corm. Y 948 ). fri beolu mara, Trip.² 1581 ( = in sinu maris, Lat. Lives 33 § 25 ). dá thraigid .x. lethet a b.¤ the width of its opening (an earthwork), Críth G. 571. (of Tara) deis fri Banba, b.¤ fri Bóin `her front towards the Boyne', Ériu iv 92 § 3. tir cen beula without entry, Corm. Y 674 ( Corm. 22 ). tir cin toin cin beolu bis itir da ferunn cin conair `ingress', Laws iv 158.14 Comm. cuiris comla dar a b.¤ (a well), Metr. Dinds. iii 326.19 . triall istech tar beolu na hecuilsi `threshold of the church', Marco P. 173. léigthear suas beoil na bruighne `portcullis', Aithd. D. 3.19 . siar go b.¤ na sráide `the entrance of the street', AFM ii 900.2. Of gunwale of a ship: chuir iad am beòil mhòr re chèile, SGS xviii 107.1 .

III In phrases with prepp.

(a) prepositional. With A: crithre sin a beól (mb. v.l.) bhruithne sparks from boiling heat (?), IGT Decl. ex. 1296.

With AR (FOR): huare romboi ar belaib tempuil `in front of the Temple', Ml. 48d8 . ar beolu diabuil `before the Devil', Wb. 3b11 . gontai Cūchulaind, co tabrad a marb ara (ar, LU) bēolu a brāthar, TBC-I¹ 1637. ar belaib ind ríg ( = in conspectu regis), Lat. Lives 10.8 . arbelaib (.i. a fiadnaise) fer nErenn, ACL iii 14 § 31. finta cia as toisech fodla ┐ ar a ndentar bélaib `before whom it is made', RC xiii 446 § 26. cathair . . . for bel ḟasaigh dhimhoir `at the edge of a great desert', Marco P. 20. dán bog ar bh.¤ na slighiodh `on the open road', Studies 1918, 617 § 5 .

Freq. of replacing in kingship, headship, etc. one who had the normal claim, before, in preference to, in place of : rogab F. righe ara belaib, RC xvii 233.32 (Tig.). gabais C. flaith ar belaib a athar, Ériu iii 142.4 . an crioch do ghabail for a belaibh `to snatch . . . the country away from him', Leb. Gab.(i) 226.5 . mar tugadh ceannas na slógh / ar bhéal Éibhir d'Éireamhón `to Ê. rather than to Ê.', Content. xvi 33. With verbs of coming, etc. do-tét indḟine ar beolu de(i)rbḟine `the ` indḟine' comes in front of (i.e. is preferred to) the `derbḟine', Ériu xvii 64 § 3 ( Laws iv 206.7 ). D. . . . do beith ag dol ar bélaibh a athar `attempted to depose', AFM vi 1891.1 . an tánaiste do theacht ar beulaibh mic tighearna an fhuinn `that the tanist takes precedence of', Keat. i 66.6 . dul fora mbelaibhsiomh `to anticipate them', Hugh Roe² 172.2 .

With FRI (RE) before, at, close to; on the point of : fri beolu báis on the point of death, Fél. 74.19 . cen bith ria mbeolu oc airiuc thuili dóib not to be close to them, Fing. R. 432. ag so anois an bás rem bhéal close to me, Dánta Gr. 63.15 . re béal a theachta don toigh `before its reception' (of the Blessed Eucharist), Dán Dé xviii 2 . cosg fiabhrasa re b.¤ mbáis, Studies 1919, 613 § 12 .

With I N- i mbeolu, i mbeól, i mb.¤ before : in bo boi 'na beola sin `that was in front of her', Dinds. 142.10 . a mbeol an dunaidh `in front of the fort', BNnÉ 187 § 27 . do-chífe bárc a mbeól chúain `in the harbour's mouth', Ériu ix 168 § 46. towards, to : do-bhir im béal teachtaire `He sends a messenger to fetch me', Aithd. D. 83.3 . sgath dealg 'na beol muna bheath `had not the thorn-points been in the way', 95.20 . over, across : seolais iarsin Brenainn . . . i mbéolu (a mbhél, v.l. , = for beluibh, Lism. L. 3590 ) in aiccéin iongantaigh, BNnÉ 97 § 5. Note also: ro herbad da oclach lais da chur i mbeolu na tuinne to cast it (an infant) upon the sea (?), LL 14623 ( ZCP xii 273.17 ). do chur a mb.¤ mara ┐ mor-fhairrge set adrift on the open sea, KMMisc. 313.13 . a mbēl na h-oibre at the beginning, ML² 1.15 . i mbeol airechtais at the very beginning of sovereignty (?), Ann. Conn. 1410.2 . ni ḟuil amuigh gidh seól síth / crích nach fuil a mbeól a bláith, IGT Decl. ex. 992 . i mbéal a tharbha do thoigheacht, Aithd. D. 25.4 .

With TAR: tar béolu out of : adre amach dar beolu in duin, Marco P. 23.

(b) Adverbial. With FOR (always with possessive) on the face, face downwards : for a mbeulu gl. prone, Ml. 131b6 . tairniud form béolu bend face downwards, LL 36766 = Goid. 180.10 = Fél.² cv 8. an corp bis ina rogad ar in talmain for a beolu, RC xv 491 § 31. tolduid iarum taurtaim fair fora beolu `a trance fell upon him, as he lay on his face', Mon. Tall. 155.15 . (of a collapsing house) amal ro clóenad a thech conda tarla for a lethbeólu uli, LU 8382 ( FB 25 ). (of a cup) rohimpa iarum Patraic in copan fora beolu upside down (?), Anecd. iii 35.9 . b.¤ ar b.¤ , ó bé(o)l go b.¤ face to face : truagh gan sinne bel ar bel, TTebe xv 7 (scribe's note). (of a bird-decoration) ealta 's a mbeoil béal ar bhéal, Aithd. D. 9.7 . ag labhairt libh beul ar bheul (os ad os, 3 Joh. 14 ), Eochairsg. 15.30 . go labradh se riss ó b.¤ go b.¤ `face to face', ZCP xi 118.2 ( BCC 236 ). meic ollamhan Innsi Fáil / . . . / god choimhreic ó bheól go b.¤ `repeating thee from mouth to mouth' (i.e. the contents of a manuscript Gaelic Miscellany), Studies 1919, 440 § 12 . adeirid o bheol go beul they say so currently, Luc. Fid. 4088.

With IAR N- iar mbélaib (contrasted with iar cúlaib): i ngilfine iar mbelaib, amuil atá athair ┐ mac ┐ ua ┐ iarmua ┐ innua co cuicer; ┐ geilfini iar culaib .i. brathair thathar, ┐ mac co cuicer beos `in the direct line', Laws ii 160.z Comm.

(c) In fig. phrase do-ní a b.¤ re turns to, seeks help from : do-ghén . . . mo bh.¤ ré seabhcaibh Saxan `I will turn my face to', Studies 1924, 242 § 11 .

Note also: muna thí dhíom bas rem béal unless I can keep a guard on my lips, Dán Dé ix 4 . a-tá 'gan chol bas rem béal `raises its hand against me', xxiii 31 . In nn. loc. see Hog. Onom.

Compds. With nouns. ¤braise: feib atféd mo bhélbraisi `eloquence', Leb. Cert.² 164 § 9. ¤deirge: beildeirge redness of lips, Prolegomena 43 § 26 . ¤étan: (of a charioteer) dara béletan mouth and forehead (?), LL 24905. ¤mod manner of speaking (?): caistidh ria bēlmod, ACL iii 307 § 28 ( Measgra Uí Chl. 153 ). ¤proicept traditional teaching, tradition : bēalphroceapta nó teagusg bheōil na n-absttal, Mac Aingil 5949 . béulphroicheapta asbaltha ┐ eagalsa, Desid. 4942. With vnn. ¤chengal: ar mbélcengal a mbeochréchtadh when their fresh wounds had been sewn up, Caithr. Thoirdh. 124.7 . ¤tuidme: fiacuil .i. fia figo . . . fiacuil didiu bēl-t. fastening for the mouth, O'Mulc. 507.

With adjj. ¤balb: do piastaibh bel-balba `dumb-mouthed', Ériu iii 164 § 20. ¤binn: longphort . . . bíthe bēilbhinn melodious (?), Butler Poems 556 and n. ¤blasta of excellent sound : (of `Gaedelg,' the language) in berla b.¤ bind, LL 17716. B. blaith belblasta well-spoken (of a hand-maid), BB 237a2 . ¤buide yellow-lipped : (of a famine-stricken appearance) ina n-ímágib b.¤ nochtḟiaclacha, LB 154b61 . In n. pr.: Eochaid Bēlbuidi, ZCP viii 274.1 . ¤chamm crooked-mouthed : la hUnchi mbrúachda mb.¤(-mall, v.l.), Metr. Dinds. iii 98.6 . ¤cherr: in senBodb Barchi b.¤ `wry-mouthed', Metr. Dinds. iv 338.20 . ¤chert: mo dhaltán búilid béilchert `right-spoken', SG 190.7 . ¤chorcra crimson, red-lipped : belchorcra banamla detgela, TTebe 730 . ¤chráibhthech hypocritical : Content. vi 270. ¤chumang narrow-mouthed, having a narrow opening, entry : a crocan (leg. corcán ?) belchumang narrow-necked, Lia Fáil iii 122.20 ( 23 P 10 ³, 11b7 ). ar na bernadhaibh bélchumhgaibh, AFM v 164.22 . ¤derg red-lipped, red-mouthed (in good and bad sense): buriud berna Baidbi béldergi, LL 10872 ( = TBC-LL¹ 4024 ). na brithemain bēilderga `red-mouthed brehons' ( = severe in judgement ?), Ériu iii 30 § 7. cáinead in barrchais béilderg `the curly-headed red-lipped fellow', iv 216.20 . F. file m. Oengusa Bēlde[i]rg, ZCP viii 326.1 . ¤dub black-mouthed : comairge b.¤ becenech `a black-mouthed guarantor of small honour', Tec. Corm. § 33.2 . a curaig blaithe belduba `black-prowed', Ériu viii 10.36 . sgéala libh go báirc mbéalduibh `tidings to your black-decked barque', RC xlix 173 § 32. ¤ḟairsi(u)ng wide-mouthed, having a wide entrance : .l. bléide buabaill belḟairsiuṅg, LL 7292. ro cóirged bruidin brotla bélfairsing `wide-doored', Fianaig. 70.31 . ¤ḟota long-lipped : D. b.¤ , LL 354c64 . a mbíala belfhoda `wide-edged', Hugh Roe² 174.24 . ¤ginach: na trī badhbha bēl-ginacha three witches with gaping mouths, ML² 1585. ¤glicc: mo bhreath bheilghlic gan bhine `my skilled oral judgement', Keat. ii 1287. ¤lethan broad-doored : ós bruidin béllethoin, SG 230.24 . ¤lúath hasty of speech : 'ná bheith baoth beul-luath aig teagasg cách, De Imit. 13.24 . ¤maith: C. b.¤ `C. Fair-lips', Metr. Dinds. iii 324.11 . ¤mall slow of speech : la hU. mbruachdha mbelmhall, BB 365b37 . ¤remor thick-lipped, big-mouthed : belremur bolcsuilech, LU 8516 ( FB 37 ). badhbh béil-reamhar, TSh. 6623. ¤ṡalach foul-mouthed : Badb birach belsalach, RC xxiv 52.1 . ¤scaílte wide open; split open ; scattered : i mbrudin bronnḟarsing bélscailti, RC xiv 414 § 28. ina mbuidhnib bega bélsgāilte, Fianaig. 54.4 . (of a cast-up ship) go ndéantar blogha béal-sgaoilte dhi, TSh. 735. ¤tais with soft, moist lips : an chuideachta chuanna bhuadhach bheóltais (of fair women), Hackett xxvi 57 . ¤tana: go mbiailibh blathsnaoighte b.¤ `thin-edged battle-axes', AFM vi 2126.25 . ¤tirim: bérla breganta beoiltirm (spoken) with a dry mouth, O'Gr. Cat. 518.30. ¤trúag: na bid fri baisi ṁbeltrúaig poor-mouthed (?), SR 3890.

See béillic, bélaites, bélscál, bélscálán, bélscáth.

brón

Cite this: eDIL s.v. brón or dil.ie/6964

 

Forms: bróin, bróin

n o, m. See GOI § 62. b.¤ m., IGT Decl. § 96.

(a) sorrow, grief, grieving, lamentation; distress, burden: brōn .i. a fronte etc., O'Mulc. 167. brōn .i. prono graece, dolens, unde brōn, 168 . do beir nech in cuma ┐ in mbrōn for a sūilib, 340 . cumha, caoi, triabhuin, b.¤, tuirse doilghíos, Eg. Gl. 134. b.¤ ref. to tristitiam (8), Wb. 14d10 . b.¤ caích bad b.¤ dúibsi gl. flete cum flentibus, 5d25 . ni far mb.¤ si etc. gl. contristati, 16b8 . in b.¤ gl. mestitudinem, Ml. 129c6 . 86d6 . bá b.¤ di suidib m'aicsin i n-imniud, 44c6 . in bróin (g s.), 77d12 . i mb.¤ , 108a11 . atcondairc setig fo b.¤ `in grief', Thes. ii 329.48 (Hy. v Comm.). dá b.¤ flatha nime (title of tract), LU 1428 ( RC xxi 386.15 ). fer b.¤ fort, LU 10886 (TE) (see feraid II (d)). b.¤ búridach `loud-voiced care', TBC-LL² 4566 . gabála báise . . . b.¤ oc fleid . . . b.¤ fri ríg, Tec. Corm. § 14.11 , 31 . domna bróin, CRR 4. ró-gab b.¤ ┐ toirsi . . . na hapstalu (= contristati sunt, p. 432.13), PH 5119. ni bron da niad rashlogh R. `never loses heart', Magauran 4332 . mo bh.¤ (interjection), Keat. Poems 1477. Attrib. g s.: a bás bróin , ZCP vi 269 § 4.

Extended applications: trí bróin ata ferr fáilti: b.¤ treóit oc ithe messa, b.¤ guirt apaig, b.¤ feda fo mess `the heaviness of a wood under mast', Triads 68 . brón déisi ag dathaghadh `harvest's gloom', Arch. Hib. i 93 § xxix . Perh. as opp. of fáilte in: ce dobera bron doib treimit (of refusal of hospitality), Laws v 172.z Comm. b.¤ .i. troscad, ut est: ar ní fuben díre dó cé dobera bron doibhsidhe, Ériu xiii 75 § 194. b.¤ .i. trosgadh, O'Cl. In phr. b.¤ trogain see 1 trogan.

(b) As quasi-vn.: ag bron, Bard. Synt. Tr. 97.71a40 (see 242).

Compds. With nouns. ? bebais brónamaill (: mórālaind) ṁbratha, LL 15906. fri bronag `against mournful battle', Gorm. Oct. 19. ? ba h-airithe les in aird-rig a brun-dalta . . . do bron-tiugh-bhádúg báis, MR 112.3 . ro and brónbríg (: mōrríg) `weakened sorrows' force', Arch. Hib. ii 72 § 32. i mbrónchaoi . . . ghéir, Hackett xi 12 . brón-chommbrúdh contrition , TSh. 8889. go ccualadar an brónchómhrādh . . . éugcaointeach, Celt. Rev. x 134.17 . cosg tarta gach brōn- chuire, Mac Aingil 3609 . Ó Héodhusa 229.12 . tug cantlamh bantrachta ar bhrón-fhleidh, Keat. Poems 150. adhbhar . . . brón-ghuil, O'Rah. 56.13. fo brón-guba `dismally wailing' (of demons), Metr. Dinds. iv 84.z . With adj. ? ¤derc, see 1 bráen compds.

1 cía

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cía or dil.ie/8965
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: cía, ci, cá, gá, cá, gá, cár, cá, cía, citné, cia, ciodh, cisne, cipé, cipé

interr. and indef. pron. Given in list of interrogatives, Laws v 6.1 ff. Comm. ; for forms permitted and prohibited in classical verse see IGT Introd. § 16 . See GOI §§ 456 - 460 , Strachan, Ériu i 6 ff. , Bergin, Ériu xii 205 ff.

A As interrogative.

I General form cía (ce, ci) (`unstressed or weakly stressed,' GOI § 456 ) without indication of gender. In later lang. freq. cá, gá (cf. gia, TBC-LL¹ 56 , giá, 730 etc.). who? what ? (in direct and indirect interrogation).

(a) With dependent verb (as conj. part. or in accordance with Bergin's Law). As subject of vb.: cia beir búar o thig Temrach who takes? LL 1566 . cía rét Brega?, LU 9306 . ? cia saig do rús Herind. . .?, LL 1787 . cía taisiu?, LU 6307 . cia bátar do bésa?, Tec. Corm. 7 . ní fitir R. cía-rraba / crích `whose was', Metr. Dinds. iv 4.45 . immoscoemorcuir ceptar hé, Corm. Bodl. 34.21 . As object: ce róich `how far . . . extends', Sg. 26a11 . cia roich eneclann?, Laws iii 536.1 . cia-roig dire? Ir. Recht 13 § 14 . cia fairneac?, Ériu xi 44.3 . cia acca whom didst thou see? LU 7135 . bec a ḟis duid cia do ordo, Anecd. i 7.5 ( do(o)rdo, SCano 198 `what I croon', Gloss.). So also in cíar(r)icc (separate article). Rarely cid in this use. Nom. cid dernad?, LL 251a18 . Accus. cid dernais?, LL 251a39 .

With inf. pron. usually cich-: cichib foruireth? . . . fon-roireth imned what has been caused to you? TBFr. 399 = ZCP iv 45.28 . cichib-roerad? what has been prepared for you (i.e. how have you fared?), IT iii 237.62 = cichib roér ol Bodb. Nin foruireth nammaith olse, LL 246b24 . mnā brataiter . . . cichi brata? cichi aig? cichi goin? who abducts them? TBC-I¹ 1081 (cicen, cíche, ciche, LU). ? ciche bárogell a regg / sonend ┐ dubdonend, LL 376a4 . Exceptionally: ar feisidh ciab dergeine `who has made you', Blathm. 91 § 6 . fir gontair, mnā brattar, bai agthar . . . cistabrata, cisdagata, cisdabeir? TBC-I¹ 2989 . See ZCP xxii 29 .

With copula: innaní asbertis cipad a déne ind hesséirgi `that used to say what would be the swiftness of the resurrection', Wb. 25b27 . conid fessed cia bed flaith inna diad, Ml. 89b7 . For cía ba chan see can.

Hence in various adverbial meanings. (b) how ? cia Ulto ána acca?, LL 13439 . cumma cīa-thōetsat imbi, Sc.M² 3 (`how', Gloss.). cía festa `how should ye know?' Metr. Dinds. iii 48.12 . cia ḟacci ar sluág?, TBC-LL¹ 223 . is cuma dó c.¤ eipli, Liad. and Cuir. 20.17 `how he dies', Contribb. 363 . With deut. form: cía dorochair Cróeb Dathi?, Metr. Dinds. iii 148.1 . Note also: cīa tairicc? Tairic hi cind teora mblīadna when? ZCP viii 312.29 .

(c) where ? In later lang. cá, gá (nasalizing), with narrative tense cár. cá `lochdach', IGT Introd. § 16 . Orig. with téit: ni fetatar cia deochaid where he went, LU 3329 ( SCC 12 ). nocon ḟess cia deochatar, LL 290a27 . With deut. form of vb. cia dochuatar ass? where did they go? TFerbe 565 . In later lang.: cá ngabhaid?, Oss. iii 232.5 . Keat. Poems 1545 . cá bhfaighion tú an raidhirc so?, ZCP v 215.419 . cā ndearnais do c[h]ēadc[h]reach?, Feis Tighe Chonáin 145 . cár ghabh, 490 . cá ar fríth é?, ZCP v 215.418 . carbh ail les dul, Stair Erc. 981 . With attá: ga ffuil maithe na Féine?, Duan. F. ii 322 § 15 (see iii 151). ga bhfuil suim . . . na naitheantadh `what is the abridgment?' Donlevy 52.22 . ro fhiarfaigh I. ca rabe A., Stair Erc. 25 . do f[h]iafraigdur dī cā raibhe sí whence she was, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1666 . Note also cia racha, ITS xvii 188.1526 etc.

(d) With fíu glossing Lat. quam, how (great, etc.): cia fíu .i. mór ní gl. quam admirabile, Ml. 17b12 - 13 . gl. quam (sollicite), 23a10 . ce fiu gl. quam maxime, Sg. 114a3 . See Dict. Fasc. fíu and compare cia fiú me bheith beó etc. how can I remain alive? ITS xvii 159.963 .

(e) With follg. noun (often as antecedent of rel. clause). With masc.: ciachruth gl. quomodo, Sg. 212a1 (see 1 cruth). cia dune ind inni-sseo gl. qualem . . . hominem, Ml. 35c33 . cia mod .i. imba do gres . . . `what measure', Ml. 100d4 . Perh. also in the follg.: dús cia port indib maith óigedacht `in what place', Wb. 26b24 . cia salmscribdid conicfed són `what psalmist?', Ml. 14a6 . amal nad finnatar sidi cia loc sainriud dia regtais, 99b10 . cia randdatu bis indi, Sg. 27a12 . cía cethrar? Rí ┐ brithem etc., Críth G. 536 . cia file ar secht ccumhaluibh dlighidh what poet . . .? Ériu xiii 18.4 . cia fot atúsa isin chotlud sa how long? LU 6359 . gá fad?, TSh. 1618 . ca sén dob ferr?, Ériu iv 224.13 . ca ræt in muirn . . . ar-at-cluineam?, TTebe 1901 (see crét). ca hinad?, LB 137b51 . gá cara don uile as fhearr?, A. Ó Dálaigh xv 5 . DDána 50.12 . gá fhios nach . . . (ḟ = bf?), O'Gr. Cat. 456.10 . gá chúis fá . . ., 12 . cár bh'iongnadh?, Hard. i 204 .

(f) With fem.: cia airm `what place', Wb. 12d18 (see cairm, cáit). ceseirc gl. quam caritatem habeam, 14d15 (differently GOI 289 ). ce meit gl. quanto, 33a1 . ce mét aimmser bes indi `what times may be in it', Sg. 25b16 . ce méit a[s] sinu aís quam A. `how much older', Wb. 34a5 . See méit. cia dú gl. quo, Ml. 40c7 . cia inni soas `how He turns', 123d8 (see note). cá huair díscáeilter in doman nó cá tráth thiucfus Dia?, RC xxiv 382.32 . ca delb rogabais? Ériu iv 104.15 . cia ben is mesa do mnáib?, ZCP viii 113.11 . cá slat is slimghile bas?, O'Gr. Cat. 332.27 . ga hobar dhíbh nach doiligh?, Studies 1921, 588 § 1 . gá breath rug féin ar an bhfear? Dán Dé xxv 16 .

(g) With neut.: cia eret mbete oc m'ingraimmim-se `how long?' Ml. 33a9 . cia airet bis micomus etc., Laws ii 186.6 . cia hairet, PH 1501 . See airet, cairet. anfis ca cinel aire nos beir etc., Laws i 188.6 Comm. cia forcenn doberthar foraib, Ml. 33a9 . na fetar . . . ca galar . . ro-t-básaig, CRR 3 . cia indas conaittechtatar a n-íc, Ml. 90b16 . décaid . . . a arm cia indas rundgabsat, 55c1 (see indas, cindas). cia leath reghma?, Anecd. i 2.9 ( SCano 25 ). cia tír, ZCP viii 318.33 .

(h) cía with follg. prep. and noun or pron. rendering oblique cases of Lat. pronn. (see GOI 228 - 229 ): cia ar neoch gl. ad quid, Sg. 217a5 . Cf. cia erneo gl. quam ob rem, Ml. 101a4 . ci erniu gl. quamobrem, 47b1 . cairhe biit, Sg. 242b1 leg. ciairneo = quamobrem, n . ciarrét gl. quamobrem, Ml. 48c2 . cide gl. de quo (cia de? cid de?), Sg. 3a9 . cia du neuch gl. ad quem . . .? Ml. 16a9 . cia dunaib hi do foirmsed gl. de quibus adderet? 35a17 . cia du forcunn gl. quem ad finem, 33a9 . cia du rét gl. cui rei? 121d1 . cia isnaib hí gl. in quibus, 49c13 . cia in n-erbirt ṁbiuth gl. in quem ussum, 46b28 . cia i n-olcaib gl. in quibus malis, 23b2 . ci onaibhi, gl. quibus, 47a10 . cio ainmnid dixnigidir gl. ex quo sit nominatiuo? Sg. 207b3 . ciofut gl. usque quo, Ml. 20a17 . 93a15 . ci ho fothaib són gl. quibus (dementiae facibus accensi sunt), 16b19 . ci o retaib gl. quibus rebus, 35c35 . gl. ex quibus rebus, 44d24 . cio thomus gl. qua libra etc., 55d16 . So also probably in later lang.: cia chuige a ndírighmid ar nurnuigh, Donlevy 364.16 . ca as a tangadar, Stair Erc. 1412 . casa ticit siat, Ir. Astr. Tr. 146.1 . Hence perh. in later phr. gá d'ulc what is the harm of? (see olc, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.z ). gá d'ulc bogur an bhása?, IGT Decl. ex. 758 . gá d'ulc mé gan mothugadh?, ex. 224 . gá d'ulc óigrí eslobar?, O'Gr. Cat. 470.9 . Cf. 2 cair. See Éigse xii 136 .

(i) In phrase cíadono why (then)? (see GOI 289 See further Éigse xii 136 .): ar cia dono gl. ut quid autem, Wb. 2d10 . hóre ro-n-ortigestar dia cedono tuidecht friss `why then?' 6a4 . ce dono rigne occo `what, then, is the good of prolixity in it?' 8d15 . cepu dono adrad dǽ do thabirt do Pool?, 7d16 . ciapu dono dún indarpe geinte `why should we then expel the Gentiles?' 19a14 . ? ēludh ann for romhuir / nícon fess cia dona, ZCP x 344.13 .

(j) In various constructions with adjj. In early legal texts with superl.: cia measom do cain ts.? `what is the worst of . . . ?' Laws ii 194.1 . cia dilsiumh d'ḟiledhoibh, Ériu xiii 31.2 . cía háithemh eó? acais dlighidh, etc., 25.6 . Prob. also: cia so do rinnibh etc. 20.30 = ciaso do ninnaib, O'Dav. 1289 . In later lang. in phrase gá beag is it not enough? ga beag mur ḟáth duilghis, IGT Decl. ex. 1057 . cá beag d'fhiadhnaise? Studies 1920, 97 § 2 . gárbh fhearr céim, 98 § 6 . gá bheag dhúinn dá dhearbhadh ort is it not proof enough for you? Content. vi 25 . Freq. with compar. in rhetorical questions. Cf. ga meisde ┐ ga c[h]an ┐ ca d'ulc, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.z . gá cruaidhe ceisd what more difficult question (is there)? DDána 12.1 . ga deacra ní do neithibh?, IGT Decl. ex. 938 . car doilge [le] inghin Taidg / éc Aodha aird . . . / inā d'Echtaigh a bás bróin / Corbmaic hūi Cuinn . . . , ZCP vi 269 § 4 . ca ferr duind ar mbeandacht do chur . . . go fer in liubair sea na a fágbail aigi?, LU 2769 (colophon). gá fearr m'áis-se ná m'aindeoin how is it better to get my consent than to constrain me? Dán Dé i 5 . ga feirdi me do m[healladh]?, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.2 . cá bud fherrde, PH 7582 . gá misde don cholainn chriadh / an t-anam d'faghbháil ilphian what harm? Dán Dé xxv 41 . m'uabar gá mó mínáire?, O'Gr. Cat. 346.33 . do Mhuire gár mhó guasocht?, Dán Dé xx 47 . Note also: cá minic do chionntaidh sé `how often', Donlevy 320.28 . an lícc dimor uccat fil forsan tulaigh, cía mó atá i ttalamh dhi na uása how much more of it is in the earth than above it? BNnÉ 8.16 .

II Inflected (`more fully stressed', GOI § 456 ) cía, cisí cid, citné etc. In classical verse the forms cia and ciodh are stressed, see DDána 12.1 , 58.35 . `cía, can, cúich . . . were in direct interrogation used with the copula *esti (cf. mod. Ir. cé h-é) . . . ', O'Brien, Féil. Mhic Néill 88 .

With indep. form of verb (a) cía m.: cia beraid doib a remeperthe `who will refer to them the aforesaid?' Ml. 37a9 (perh. transition from I(a) above). Usually with rel. clause: cía rédes ruind?, BDD² 294 etc. cia dib gebus t'forba?, RC xxiv 194.1 . cía de as sru[i]thiu?, Críth G. 492 . cīa nād cūala?, ZCP xi 109 § 7 . Prob. also in follg., where there is no mark of rel.: cia con-icc ní dúun?, Wb. 4b11 . cia folínfea? 12d14 . cia dobera íc do Sión?, Ml. 34d5 . dús cia atrebea isin chathraig `to learn who will dwell in the city', 35b24 . cia de dogega `which of them I shall choose', Wb. 23b33 . dús cīa díb do-ngegad, Sc.M² 19 . caidi bad ferr la hUltu, a mmarb nō a mbeo . . . ?, TBC-I¹ 681 (cia dé, LU). do fiarfaidh A. de cia dá cloind do beith etc., ZCP xi 128.34 . quis est horum qui vicit . . . .i. cia ro blaiss bethaid?, LL 281a32 . cia aca is rogha leat?, Hard. i 274.y .

(b) cid n. (rel. frequently marked): cid aem no-dom-bera-sa cucuibsi, Wb. 1a8 . cid atobaich cen dílgud cech ancridi `what impels you . . . ?', 9c20 . nícon fitir cid asbeir, 12c22 . ro fitid cid aridfuirig a foilsigud, 26a11 . dús cid forchomnacuir indi `to learn what hath happened therein', Ml. 16c5 . cid du-gén-sa osme `what shall I do, even I?', 30b9 . ní fintar cid attrebthar and `what is possessed there', Sg. 200b13 . niconfetadar cid fodruair `they . . . knew not what had caused it', Mon. Tall. 147.13 . asbert nicon feddur cid fil do sirgabail na biaide I do not understand your continual singing of the Beati, 127.2 . cid dogén?, ZCP viii 113.9 . cid tuccais ō Guaire what hast Thou got from G.? ACL iii 2.10 . With subst. vb. in nasalising rel. clause what ails, what is the matter with? see attá. With copula: nad fes cid as maith no as olc [do] denum, Ml. 51b7 . dober Dia aithesc cid as denti no cid as imgabthi, 51b8 . cid as dech do mnáib? what is the best type of wife? ZCP viii 113.5 . Note the variation in: na cóig guthaidhe, cía dhíobh as glan no as neamhghlan, no ciodh as cáol no as leathan da bfeadhuibh oireaghdha, ┐ créd atá na ndefhoghrachuibh etc., IGT Introd. 1.10 .

With nouns in sense who is? what is?

(c) m. cía (also occasionally with other genders, and regularly with ainm, see Ériu i 9 ): cia haes esca?, SR 7964 . cía méit in gill?, Críth G. 282 . cía [a] míad sidi?, 586 . cia th'ainmsiu?, LU 10774 . cía hainm? what's your name? BDD² 264 . cía hainm dá mnaí?, 365 . cia n-anmand what are their names? TFerbe 357 . cīa cétliaigh robūi ind-Ēirinn?, ZCP viii 105.12 . cía bar lín-se is[in] indsi-se?, Ériu iv. 142.21 . nī hētur cia hainm in maic aile, ZCP viii 293.24 . cia don teora crannsa an chroch, Dán Dé iii 27 . cia an monghar mór-sa?, DDána 85.6 . cia an duine bhias beó = quis est homo? TSh. 3125 .

Forms in -so, -su etc. (cf. indic. pres. 3 s. of 2 cía. See Celtica vii 38-42 ): ciaso baili ata in crann?, SR 7931 . ciaso buaid duinne?, Bodl. Dinds. 27 . cia so gním what deed? TBC-LL¹ 958 . cíasu anmann bai for suidiu?, IT ii2 195.153 . nī fetar-sa ciasu adba etc., Fing. R. 969 . ciasa bas . . . do bean . . . in bas-crann?, Ériu iv 116 § 26 (`whose hand?'). ciasa fogealtad son? .i. miach cacha mis, Laws iv 106. 15 Comm. ím comirc doib ciasa hairm ín ro scuirsid, 106.22 Comm. ciasa run, Auraic. 5210 (císi, v.l.). ciarsat comainm celisiu what's your master's name? LL 9041 (TBC). carsat comainm?, Acall. 390 . ciarso choma no bértha dó?, LL 8937 (TBC). garsa gním sain?, 9990 (TBC).

(d) cía with pron. who is? cia tussu díxnigedar who art thou? Wb. 4c24 . cia hé nu-n-dixnaigther-siu gl. qui sis, Ml. 75c9 . ciahé gl. qui (sit), 14d14 . cia hé `who is it?' 46c17 . ce hé roscríb `who it is that has written', Sg. 197a19 . cinní sin frisnaiccai siu `whom dost thou expect?', Thes. ii 227.30 (from intí-sin, GOI § 460 ). cia so who is this? Anecd. i 8. 23 ( SCano 257 ). cía so?, Sc.M² R 10 . cīa and-so?, 11 (for inso?). cia tusu?, RC xxiv 200.9 . fochtuis Feilis scela de, ce he budein, ZCP vi 25. 18 . cīa pad cīa . . . acht . . . Condere . . . who should it be but C.? Ériu i 114 § 3 . beag a fhios agad . . . / cia misi d'fhearaibh Eireann, Studies 1924, 243 § 17 . With -so, -su: cía so thú?, LU 10768 = ciasu tu, Ériu xii 170.3 . cársa cúich thú?, Mer. Uil.² 90 . cársa cía[s]ib-si etir?, 250 .

(e) cía with follg. prep. as antecedent of rel. clause (cf. I (h) above): cia dia fiachaigedar gl. ad quem debeat, Ml. 44b3 . cia forsa tiagat? `on whom do they fall? Laws ii 178.3 . nicon-fes cīa ō-tucad, Sc.M² 3 . cia ar nach tug a thrócuire? Dán Dé xxv 46 . cor dib Painiel dian / Gabriel cia ar nach cor?, KMMisc. 254.14 . d'iomad rogha ag Día dá dhiomda / fola cía dá ttiobhra ar tós, IGT Decl. ex. 109 .

(f) cisí, ces(s)í with f. noun: cisí chomairle ǽm `what indeed is the counsel?' Ml. 34c18 . cissi slabrai in díscer sa? LU 5162 (TBC). cissi gáir seo?, 4475 . císí (sic) suillse mór sucut?, BDD² 591 . áil dūn a ḟis . . . cisī rāth so, Ériu viii 157.6 . Freq. with follg. rel. clause: cessi aimser hi rogbath `at what time it was sung', Ml. 24d10 . cisi aimsir hi for-comnactar in gnimai, 97a5 . cisí digal didenach dumberaesiu a Dǽ, 100d5 . co n-eperthae cia aiccent ┐ cisi aimser derb thechtas, Sg. 26a6 . cisi rann dogéntar di, 27a13 . cesí aram gl. ad quod genus uel numerum refertur, 197b3 . cisi chiall bís indib `what is the meaning that is in them', 217a2 . cisi muime bat tualoing what fostermother could have? Blathm. 100 § 32 . cisi mathair con bert / an geinsi? ib. (MS. cisi in, text). cisi gnuis . . . forta napsalmo?, Hib. Min. 3.76 . cise noail noclanna `by what oath shall it be settled?' Laws iv 142.3 . cisi airm hi tá L.? LU 3620 (SC. 31). rāidh frim cisé (ciséd, v.l.) dāil di ṡund dogénum, ACL iii 294 § 13 . cisi breth rucais?, Rawl. 113a2 . cissí dichuimni rod dall?, LL 21767 . fég darisse . . . cisi chonar dotháet `look again, what road is he coming', RC iii 183.33 . inderb . . . cisi uair no cisi aimsir regthair, Ériu v 120.3 . cisí hairle do beradh, Hugh Roe² 292.14 . With ellipse of rel. clause: tair limsa . . . co ndérais. Cisí dígal?, MU² 1034 . Also somet. with other genders: ciasi animnairme (ainm n-áirme) fil . . ., Hib. Min. 2.41 . ciasi ord fil forna psalmu, 6.196 . ra iarfaig . . . cissi log conattaig, LL 30975 ( TTr. 156 ). occa scrúdadh . . . cisi cruth no aithfedh, Hugh Roe² 96.15 . Note also: atbertsat cipsi magen i ferfaithe in cath, Dinds. 188 ( RC xvi 274 ).

(g) cid with n. noun. In sense what is? cid aes ṅ-esci? BCr. 32a9 . cidh dire Mac-ḟuirmidh?, Ériu xiii 25.27 . cid an ní seo?, BDD² 242 . cid damhna bar ndocesaid?, ACL iii 310 viii 3 . ciodh achd ar ghrádh no ar ghrádsa / clár págsa d'fhior ón Aodhsa?, IGT Decl. ex. 137 .

With follg. rel. clause: imrádat imráti cid maith as déntí `as to what good is to be done', Wb. 1d7 . cid ḟolad ṡluindes, Sg. 25b17 (see note). ce torad gl. quem . . . fructum habuistis? Wb. 3b29 . cid chenél gl. quod genus . . . refertar, Sg. 197b3 . Perh. also: cidechor (= cid dechor) gl. quae sit differentia, 23a2 . In difft. constr. (cf. II (c) above): ced torbe doib etarscarad . . . fria tola what does it profit them? Wb. 13c6 . ce torbe dúib-si . . . in fogur-sin, Ml. 12d5 . ced slīab inso thall?, TBC-I¹ 614 .

(h) cid with pronoun: ced ed tra `what is it then?' Wb. 3b28 . cid so?, Mon. Tall. 130.15 ; YBL 118a23 ; ZCP xiii 179.3 . cid sin?, BDD² 448 . cid ón `what is that?' RC iii 184.25 . ceadh sibh acht na seacht dtroighthe what do you amount to? DDána 53.21 .

(i) cid with DO. With follg. neg.: cid dait-siu . . . nád bod latt curadmir, etc. why shouldn't you have? LU 8139 ( FB 10 ). cid daib . . . nach mair[b]fed sib?, TTebe 1865 . cidh damhsa cen dul d'iarraidh a maithme why should I not go, etc.? RC xxvii 294 § 38 . Note also: cidh duibsi what think ye of it? (?), RC xxvi 366.13 . cidh dhúinn déanamh a bhfeasa `why need I tell of them?' Content. iv 27 .

(j) cid with DI: cid de ón what does that matter? LU 6361 . cid de-side why so? TBC-LL¹ 5580 .

(l) cid with prep. and rel. clause: cid asa fordailtea grád túa[i]the on what basis have the lay grades been laid down? Críth G. 6 . Sliab B. cid diata whence is it named? RC xv 301.5 . cídh día ndearnadh Adhamh, 23 E 26, 5.18 .

(m) In similar construction in meaning why? With AR: cid arind epur frit why do I say it to thee? Wb. 5a31 . cid ara ndluthid caratrad friu iterum?, 27a30 . cid ara todlaigther inso, Ml. 32a5 . cid ara fodaim int ais firian inna fochaidi? 55d11 . cid armad machdad etc.? Sg. 167a4 . cid arṅdid huathuislib ildaib disruthaigedar?, 198b3 . cid ar bad?, Thes. ii 227. 34 . cid ara n-eperr Críth Gablach?, Críth G. 1 . cidh ar a fhuil Cuncha ar in inadhso?, ZCP xi 40.35 . With DI: cid dia leícid cundubairt for drecht uáib?, Wb. 13b12 . cid dia n-éirena(i)tar?, Críth G. 121 . rofiarfaig . . . desim cid dia mboi fora iarrair, Grail 1522 . With IMM (later FÁ): finnaid . . . cid imma ndernad in t-id, LL 8053 (TBC). cidh ma tancais alé `why hast thou come . . . ?' Ériu iii 158 § 11 . cid 'ma n-iarthai?, TTebe 1700 . cid . . . 'mara loirgis, TFrag. 118.15 . ciodh far dhoilghe trí thairnge?, DDána 40.10 . innis dúinn ciodh fa ttánghuis, Duan. F. i 78.16 . ciodh fa ttiobhradh, IGT Decl. ex. 1311 .

(n) cid as adverb, why ? cid no mbetha . . . on what account shouldst thou be . . . ? Wb. 4c24 . cid na déccaid?, Fél. Prol. 201 . ced nach maith?, Trip.² 1968 . cid nabsin Fedelm-sa . . . cichsed, LU 8296 ( FB 22 ). Tond Chlidna cid aréracht?, Metr. Dinds. iii 214.54 . cid éige, a bean?, Celtica iv 16.154 . cidh tāi a[g] gul?, ZCP viii 559.5 . cid . . . na caithi do chuidich? Ériu v 36.19 . do chách ciodh nach aithréasda?, DDána 58.35 . cidh na ro chomaillis an gealladh doradais?, BNnÉ 295 § 22 . Cf. cid ane . . . meic na mbachlach . . . do chomram cucum what business have the sons of rustics to be contending with me? Sc.M² 12 .

(o) where ? whither ? With téit: co n-at[h]comaircter nde cid ted, RC xiii 222.5 . cid nothēigid ?, ZCP xiii 176.8 . co fesamar úait . . . cid thége whither thou goest, Ériu iv 140.5 . ní fedar festa cidh rachad, Anecd. i 77.9 . cid lotar ?, LL 12826 . cid ghébmoe ?, BDD² 245 . Exceptionally with attá: d'iar[r]aidh fhessa . . . cuith a roiphi in ingen where, TTebe 33 (leg. cáit ?).

(p) In phr. cid tra acht, see trá.

Plural forms.

(q) citné, citni (prob. from cia ata n-é ` who, what (is it) that they are?', Thurn., ZCP xx 372 , GOI § 456 ). assindet sunt tra citné cumacte diandid cóir infognam what are the powers, Wb. 6a9 . citne gl. (sí . . . quaeritur) quae (gentes), Ml. 16b13 . cit né briathra robatar `what were the words?', 61b7 . cit né robatar `what were they?', 8 . asindet ón ciné (leg. citné? edd.) fochainn . . ., 101a3 . citni rig reachta . . . / robatar 'sind amsir sin?, SR 2347 . citni trenfir dotiarmórsetsu?, LU 10261 . cit n-é uisce . . . do-ríadhad?, BDD² 456 . ni fetar citne briga / mo dul i teach cor-riga I do not know what good there is in my going into the house to kings, Ériu v 30.2 . citni cenela na fuillet, Rawl. 69a29 . indis . . . dam . . . / citne clerig notrefet, / citne oic notndeirget, Three Hom. 110.16 , 17 . citne tire in geinseadar?, Leb. Gab.(i) 234.20 = Keat. ii 741 . Without follg. noun: citné foruar what are they which He has prepared? Wb. 8b5 . citne and dī rott eblatar?, LU 10284 . citn-éisidi?, BDD² 555 . ? citne in ferand?, LL 15993 = Todd Nenn. 222.3 (ceisi urrand, v.l. 223 n.).

(r) cisne (described as an `iarmberla', Auraic. 1308 ): cis n-é amuis ata chórai?, Críth G. 578 . cisne lesa . . . tascnat . . . ?, Laws i 230.21 . cisne tri leaca robaid?, v 450.1 . cisne sgéith sguirde caithche?, Ériu xiii 17.15 . cisne trí gealla nád fuilled . . .?, 33.28 . cisne tri horba doranaiter la Féne? O'Curry 2167 ( Eg. 88, 5(6)a ). cisne a trí a nemtiger cléirech, O'D. 2209 (Nero A vii, 144b). cís ní doghair oes eiscí? IT iii 262.12 . cia on cotagair æsa escai?, 61.18 = cis non dogar eassa uiscci?, Leb. Gab.(i) 264.13 . Exceptionally with pl. ending: cisneíd side ? . . . baes ┐ aneolus ┐ eitges, ZCP xii 363.2 .

(s) cis (see ZCP xx 372 , Ériu xiv 140 ): cis tána? ZCP xx 372.19 . cis n-dithle `welches sind Entwendungen?', 17 . cis duirn díolmhuine dlighther?, Ériu xiii 23.5 = O'Dav. 584 . cis dúar dían drongaighther . . . ?, Ériu xiii 26.2 = cis [i] duar etc., O'Dav. 883 . cis daghmaine domain dingnaith? O'Curry 2460 ( Eg. 88, 37(38)c ). cis rechta na gaibter a fiadhnaisi? 2600 ( Eg. 88, 51 (52)b ).

(t) Phr. cis lir how many (are) ? See Bergin, Ériu xiv 140 ff. cislir .i. cia lear no lin na sochaidi, Laws v 4.x Comm. cis lir tairgsin cach fine `how many are the . . . ?', 463.13 . gabála báise cis lir `the ways of folly, what is their number?' Tec. Corm. 14 (24.2) (gabail, v.l.). With follg. noun and rel. clause: cis-lir fir for a nasgar how many men are there who are bound? Ériu xiii 31. 21 . cis lir lanamna docuisin la feine? Laws ii 344.1 . cislir fodhla fil forsan mbron?, Anecd. v 24.16 . With follg. rel. verb: cis lir ata chóra[i] do ríg do giull how many (things) are legal . . . ? Críth G. 505 . cis lir congellait? Laws i 230.3 . cair cis lir dos-liad . . . ?, Ériu xiii 30.33 . Rarely with pl. -t: cesc citlir topuir, O'Curry 505 ( H 3.18, 257 ). See 2 lir.

(u) c(i)ata: ciata glinni con-daigi?, MU² 65 . cata cuir con-daigi-siu?, 72 . ciata builg itir ón?, RC xiii 66 § 67 . ni fedadar ceta inada . . . no indsechtais, CCath. 776 . Note also: cialín nasluag . . . / . . . ceti arbair, SR 7907 .

B As indef. in a variety of phrases.

(a) cía with noun: cia port i mbai a mathair wherever her mother was, Vita Br. 4 . cía baili i ffod as iatt sin / oidheadha na n-ócc eistidh `whatever place they may sleep' (reading i ffaoíit with note), Leb. Gab.(i) 188.3 .

(b) cía with vb. (conj. and prot.): cia tīasam wherever we go, Thes. ii 299.30 (Hy. i). cia bronntar indi, Críth G. 234 . cia taccra(i) whoever may claim (them), 425 (see 398 n.). cía denar cia therar whatever I do, whatever I say, Ériu i 227.5 . nocha n-érlai asin chathraigh acht cía térnai do rind gai, TTr.² 158 . a n-athair rempu cia thé `where'er he went', Ériu iv 100.2 . In chev. with adverbial force: cia bé however it be, LL 382 , 15039 . cia bia, Rawl. 137a38 . cia de do teacomnacair whichever it happened to be, Blathm. 98 § 25 (see notes). Cf. ciade gl. uter, Sg. 242a1 . ? is derb ní báes cia 't bera, Metr. Dinds. i 36.95 .

(c) cía with indic. of attá: cia bai dia chalmacht . . . bái dia nertmaire however brave he was, TBC-LL¹ 773 . niconibdis bandai cormmai . . . cia bith ara tecmainged dóib `they used not to drink a drop of beer whomsoever they might happen to meet', Mon. Tall. 129.19 . ( Ériu xii 209 ). cipia frisa ferthar tnú whoever shall be an object of envy, Ériu v 211.69 ( Ériu xii 209 ). cía búi de `whatever came of it' (cheville), Metr. Dinds. iii 396.23 . cía baoi dhe .i. gibé dobhi dhe, O'Cl.

(d) cip, cib with noun: cib cenél tra diaro scribad ind epistil to whatever people, Wb. 3b20 . cip port i ndēntar, Cáin Ad. 36 . Usually with cruth however it be, at all events: cipcruth bíid páx libsi etc., Wb. 5d33 . cipcruth tra, 12d24 . ni confetor cib cruth ind aingel fa dia, Blathm. 100 § 31 . See cipindus.

(e) cecip with noun (see Contribb. s.v. cech ): cecip maighean i raegbadh wherever, AFM i 30.3 . cecib tan tiostaois, v 1552.4 . tre bithin gona, no fiabhrasa cecib diobh whichever it was, vi 2024.5 . cecib nech tairisnighes iniort an coimdheadh, 2126.1 . cecip cruth foghabhtais, Hugh Roe² 86.2 . In follg. the use is strictly speaking interrogative: ní feas cecip tucht i tudchaidh, AFM iii 286.3 .

(f) cipsi with noun: cipsi aitt i loich dosfail, Rawl. 127a44 . cepsi cruth, BB 22b13 ( for cip c.¤ , Ériu xii 208 n. ). cipsi cruth `no matter how', Hugh Roe² 290.22 . cipsi mbith dáil for congra, Hard. ii 292.y . airlim n-eicne cipsí whatever it may be, Laws iv 92.z .

(g) cissí: ro geall Sir Persaual di sin cidhsi cor ara fetfad, Grail 1979 . case chruth i mbet, TBC-LL² 348 .

(h) cía bé, cipé, cid bé etc. with noun ( Ériu xii 208 ): cia bé a mmet `however great it may be', Ml. 61b28 . cipé leth tiasam, Thes. ii 299.42 . gidhbe an smólach ní chodhlann `even the thrush does not sleep', Duan. F. i 84.30 . cipe cruth, LU 3870 ( SCC 38 ). cipé rí bes hi Caisiul, ZCP viii 315.27 . ce-b e nech and do-neth . . . , PH 478 . cipé tan bud ríg tusa for Érinn 'whenever', FDG² 11.327​ . cipé a léire baistither in duine however devoutly, Ériu i 218 § 3 . gidh bé neimhdhéine do neinn, Dán Dé xiii 8 . cidh bé dhíobh staid, TSh. 3986 .

(i) cía bé, cipé etc. with verb: ciphéade (sic leg.) asberam `whichever', Ml. 25d11 ( Ériu xii 209 ). cipé da mbad áil etc., MU² 560 . céb é uabsi comallas frimsa hé, LU 9013 ( FB 76 ). atú ar bhaois gidh bé nach fuil, Dán Dé ix 8 . gidh bé ara geall, 16 . cibé labhras, TSh. 1781 . acht gidh bé éistios riomsa, Proverbs i 33 . gidh be ar bith bheanas ría `whosoever', vi 29 . Note also: mairbt[h]eim coich bē a dīe, Corm. Y 419 .

(j) cipé as adv. at all events , etc.: cipé gl. ubilibet, BCr. 31c2 . do gessaib ríg T. . . . / . . . cocad ruind co bráth ce bé `howsoever it be', CRR 54 . fiū cōicait cumal cipē, Fianaig. 50 § 27 . is maith liom a theacht gidhbé, Oss. vi 166.12 . ciphe de, BB 398b6 .

(k) cíabed, bad, beith etc.: ciabed ammet inna fochaide however great, Ml. 39a13 . cia beith a lin na noged however numerous the guests, Vita Br. 7 . ce bad hé frisa ndénte to whomsoever ye should do it (so Ériu xii 210 ), Wb. 9c24 . ciabadh hé richt a mbeith `in whatever shape she might be', Ériu xii 154 § 18 (TE). cebedh si maigen . . . a mbeith `in whatsoever part of Ireland she might be', ibid. cé beth da lánáille, ZCP viii 208.29 (but see Ériu xii 206 ). ge do beith do méit a tindenuis, Mer. Uil.² 146 . ciabadh e, Blathm. 96 § 20 , restored as ciabad de `whichever it be'. cia beith no co bia-so fó mebail whatever happens, LMU 10 .

(l) ciped (see Ériu xii 208 ): ciped techtas nech `whatever it is that anyone has', Wb. 12d41 ( Ériu xii 210 ). gip ed no raditís, TBC-LL¹ 152 . cipead dommaire `whate'er befall me', Ériu ii 90 § 16 . gibedh o ttíosadh whencesoever they shall come, TFrag. 190.16 . ciped mac díb no gabad gasced, TBC-LL¹ 1089 . giped chuin at some time or other, 3338 . ciped laa . . . forsa m-be notlaic mór (cidped, cipe, gebe, cip, MSS.), Ériu ii 208 § 28 . cip ed de at all events, CRR 4 .

(m) cid: cidh urrunnus nodleisead in t-athair `whatever proportion . . . the father is entitled to', Laws iv 60.24 Comm. cidh dergoine daon, O'Dav. 585 = cib dergona daon, O'D. 2199 ( Ériu xii 206 ). cid dusgní whatever he do, BColm. 100.9 . Cf. cidh ead dogneth hEchtair do calma imon Troi whatever brave action . . . , BB 433b24 .

(n) cid cía: cid cía bes inti whoever be in it, BColm. 52.21 . seanfhocal súd solus a chiall / ciodh cia do chum, Ériu xvi 132 § 2 . cidh cia ro chodail and 'san aidhchi sin nochur' chodail Didho, Aen. 873 . cidh cía donī, ZCP x 51.7 . na cionnta gidh cia 'gá mbeid whosoever shall have (i.e. commit) sins, Dán Dé v 13 . ? gidh cia frí senadh atúaidh, Duan. F. ii 166 § 44 . Note further: cia bad cia dia theilcfead (sic) sop, Ériu v 34.8 . cid bé cia thú `whoever thou art', TTebe 4720 . ciped chia díb nomarbtha artús, RC iii 183.8 . gidh créd do íar Aitheirne, IGT Decl. ex. 1377 .

See 2 cía and 3 cía, 1 cóich.

cían

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cían or dil.ie/9003
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: cén, cíana, cíana, chíana, ciana, cían, céin, céin, géin

Arch. cén ( Ériu ix 48 § 23 , xvi 146.7 below). The follg. may contain a by-form cíana: ed cíana , Harl. 5280, 42b (cited Meyer Contribb.), TTr.² 499 , hi tir chíana , Trip.² 1438 , if not attrib. gen. of the abstract cíana, q.v. Cf. also cu ciana , LL 13576 ( Irish Texts i 33.10 .).

I As adj. o, ā long, enduring; far, distant : c.¤ .i. fada, O'Cl. Attrib. of time: ho etartetarcur cián `at a long interval', Ml. 88d13 . sechmadachta ṅ-ocus ┐ c.¤ , Thes. ii 229.26 . fri ed cián for a long time, TBC-LL¹ 1846 . íar n-aimseraib cíanaib, Imr. Brain 17.12 . ra charusa in laech út uair chéin for a long time, TBC-LL¹ 4560 . loc dam-sa . . . co hūair chéin, ZCP viii 312.2 . tri rei ciana `for a long time', Ml. 90d14 . iar reib cianaib, Ériu xvi 36.5 . dolodar . . . filid . . . riab cianaib iarsna gnimaib-sea (`a little time'), Auraic. 149 = reib chianaiph, 2452 . roan . . . fri ré ciana = multis diebus, Lat. Lives 4.9 . bui iarum imale fri Fergus re ciana, Ériu xvi 37 § 1 . fria rē ciana, Grail 629 . bai cocad mor etarro fri re ciana iarsin, RC xxiv 186.9 . le headh gcian, Aithd. D. 52.5 .

Of place: i crīchaib cīanaib, ACL iii 224.20 . adclos ua na (fana v.l.) crichaib ciana comaidchi, TTebe 694 . écndairc cian ut ille gl. absenti, Sg. 138a2 . i cendachaib cianaib in domain, PH 5500 . tancatar a tirib ciana, 5497 .

Of persons: Colmān cian of yore, Corp. Gen. 126.2 . Conán máol coinntinneach c.¤ `wearisome (?)', Duan. F. ii 258 § 37 . Corpre comramach c.¤ (: fírian), LL 15741 . Nial c.¤ Caille `old', Arch. Hib. ii 61 § 42 .

Other applications: ce beo i tairisium chian, Airne F. 138 . gidh céim c.¤ , BS 120.15 . faghail chian distant, Magauran 4396 . in cú ch.¤ (: níad), LL 29333 .

Predic. with copula, usually long (of time): ni ba cián ṁbete oca cloinib, Ml. 28a10 . nipi c.¤ a masse in choirp lasting , Wb. 28c25 . ni ba cian mbias in pecthach, Ml. 56c22 . ni ba cián ṁbete and, 66d14 . is cián arfolmas dún in sin, Wb. 21a2 . as cian do rairngredh, Blathm. 127 . is cian bus cuman, TE 9 (Eg.). domun dīan / cia bether fair nī ba cīan, ZCP vii 498.5 . cian bhus bladh, Aithd. D. 21.36 . as cian ata an sean-fhocal, MR 286.21 . Of space: is c.¤ etarru `far', Ml. 119d10 . im fochróib bá c.¤ `whether at hand or afar', Sg. 151b2 . ré nách c.¤ , LU 1992 ( FA 6 ).

In phrases. is c.¤ co it is long till (freq. with neg. shortly, soon): niba ch.¤ (leg. c.¤ ? Edd.) cu forcenn á saiguil gl. instare tempus, Ml. 56d7 . níbí cian conid apail, 91d2 . mad c.¤ co tari a fobdhub if it is not immersed quickly (a spear), BDD² 1237 . nirbo chian co toracht C.C. in sligid cetna, LU 8530 ( FB 39 ). nir-bo chian do Chonchobor . . . co facca, CRR 11 . ní cian . . . co teccema frit-sa é, Grail 2665 . Note also: nir cian d'Ercuil . . . in tan nocunnuic in rí E. soon saw, Stair Erc. 463 .

is c.¤ ó it is long since, far from. Of time: is c.¤ ós accobor lemm far ríchtu I have long wished to come to you, Wb. 7a3 . is cian . . . o rot carus, Grail 2359 . robo cian o nach facca-som iad, 1550 . mairg nach cian ó dchualabhair, Content. xi 4 . cian ód cualadh, Keat. Poems 1357 .

Of place: ni cian huaib imbíat `not far from you where they are', Mon. Tall. 151.9 . ni c.¤ úait here he is, IT i 71.20 . is c.¤ uait . . . airm in-das-fil, TBC-LL¹ 884 .

In disjunctive phrases with gar: cid c.¤ cid gair gl. quanto tempore, Wb. 3c5 . cēn gair cech fān imthéit lēn `sooner or later every wanderer comes to grief', Ériu ix 48.23 . cian gar dom beith it ingnais `whether I be a long or short while away from thee', LL i p. xvi 11 . c.¤ garit co bráth, 307a8 ( SG 386.18 ). gēr c[h]ian gar, ML² 156 . As quasi-conjunction however long, as long as, while : cián gar ro batar for innuropair sin, TBC-LL¹ 2038 . cien goirit boi C. ig a díchur dhe, 2302 . co na baoí tesbhaidh neith . . . cian gairitt battar hisuidhe, AFM vi 2276. 11 . cid c.¤ gairit ro bás . . . atrochair . . . , Acall. 4736 . cian gar co toirset nóim ind until (?), 2673 (cid cian gairit no co tí, v.l.). See 1 gar.

With prep. LA: rochīan limsa anad fri sodain I am not prepared to wait that long, TBC-I¹ 375 = c.¤ lim-sa di shodain, TBC-LL¹ 881 . ba cian lasin righ boi an t-ara tall, BNnÉ 323 § 33 . cian lem . . . / tren tucc fa toirrsi m'aignedh it grieves me(?), 254.21 . fada ar saoghal d'éis na bhFian / ní cneasta ná badh cian linn if I did not find it tedious, Measgra D. 71.22 . cíen liom 's ní ar a ghrádh `I long for', Duan. F. ii 162 § 28 . Note also: is c.¤ dúni beith acot irnaidi, TBC-LL¹ 991 .

Adv.: in ch.¤ gl. diu, Ml. 38b4 . Cf. níbu in c.¤ (níbuncían, MS.) riam gl. non multo ante, 32b17 . ro clos cian son a garma `far', Thes. ii 312.16 (Hy. ii) glossed: fo Herinn. co c.¤ dar éis na haband `till long after', Metr. Dinds. iii 168.20 . co cíen `continuously', Ériu xix 10 § 5 . iar tochaithem a bethad dó . . . co cian i fhechtnaigi, PH 4296 .

II As subst. ā, f. (elliptical for ré c.¤ , Zimmer KZ xxx 26 - 27 ). a long time, period : triasna cíana cotaislia .i. trisin ré cian, LU 985 - 6 ( ACC 90 ). is cian mór ó 'tbaltsa, 9496 . baoi cian d'aimsir ag coimhmeasgadh flaithis na Rómha `a length of time', Keat. i 226.19 . mainistear . . . do bhí cádhasach cian d'aimsir, iii 1345 . In: re cian do bhliaghnuibh, Párl. na mB. 390 and re cian d'aimsir, Parrth. Anma 6000 re (see 1 ré) may be noun and cían adj. le cianaibh for ages, Hackett² 21.15 . Of distance: is c.¤ do thír már do muir / eturru is Imlech Ibair, ZCP viii 327.36 . In cheville: céin n-gle `temps glorieux', RC xvii 282 § 6 .

In a variety of adv. phrases. Without prep. (cach la céin) . . . in céin n-aili: cach la céin aisndís dia throgai in céin n-aili aisndis dind fortacht durat Dia do at one time . . . at another, Ml. 40b8 . in céin n-aili `at another time', Sg. 8a9 . in céin n-aili gl. nunc, Ml. 39d12 . Cuaird Comgi Michíl, Cuaird Comgi Muire a n-ainm laisim i cen n-ale (of Hymn to Michael and Hymn to Mary) `respectively', Mon. Tall. 137.20 . Note also: dī-cechlacēin is diultad, alaill is aidbliugud, Corm. Y 418 . nach céin (with neg. vb.) any long while: arna bether ocu nach cein, Mon. Tall. 164.17 (§ 89) . ní beind nach céin i ndamnad, KMMisc. 212.11 . See also 1 nach. Various: atat connarc cein `long ago', Blathm. 102 § 38 (if not céin = féin, cf. tá chéin, for M. Milscothach silence a while(?), BDD² 447 ). is cīan mór hūadh ō dac[h]ótar mo chíghi-si i ndīsca, Cáin Ad. 8 . cian mór uadh `long ago', CCath. 4067 . ro-haidnaiced is cian uad `long ago', PH 657 . do foillsighed dó c.¤ suil do thicfed long before he was due, BNnÉ 328.22 .

For céin mair (with céin used as preverb, GOI 241 ) see maraid. Note further: cein do mhair, Blathm. 207 and n. to 825 . canais moir, 34 , see n. to 133 . can mair in clercin `long life to the little cleric', Ériu v 236.74 . cēnmair Ulltaib, TBC-I¹ 3424 = bochin Ultu, TBC-LL¹ 5748 . bo chinmaír rissa ṅ-gebat, 5707 = cen mair, TBC St. 4709 . Cf. nī gcēinmair doraa an māin (.i. ní mogenar dochonnaic an eladha), ZCP v 488 § 7 (B. na f.). céin mair seems to have influenced céin móir in later language occasionally giving céin máir (see below).

With CO: co céin móir for a long time, LU 5230 ( TBC-I¹ 752 ).

With DI from of yore, long; from afar : ba di chein `from of yore', Blathm. 98 . do-arrchet di chéin no mbiad adrad dǽ la genti gl. sicut scriptum est, Wb. 6d8 . o Adam co dilind dein / in chet-aimser daib dichen, Lec. 30 vb10 . is do chéin gid so afar, TBC-LL¹ 4689 . can dodeachaig? . . . ní do chein, YBL 174a40 . boi . . . Petur i cómitecht Ísu do chéin, PH 3135 . do chéin mair anall, 7046 (see céin mair above). do ch.¤ nó do c[h]omhfhogus `from far or near', Duan. F. ii 62 § 12 . Also in pl.: robadar cethtri cridiscél liom-sæ de chianaib `I have long had four darling wishes', Mon. Tall. 136.20 . As quasi-adj.: sen-briathar do chéin `from of old', Celtica iv 10.41 . Tuatha De Danann dochein, Lec. 58a10 = BB 31a41 . ar ṡeirc ind óclaích . . . di chéin, LL 31153 ( TTr. 336 ).

With ÍAR: in chaingnímai aili is iar ceín rofinnatar after some time, Wb. 29a30 . iar cein, PH 1024 . iar cein shortly, Aisl. Tond. 105 § 3 . íar cēin móir, BColm. 70.18 . iar ccein máir iarsin, BNnÉ 90.24 (see céin mair above). iar ceín mair, BB 18a49 . iar sin iar cenmair, Ériu viii 174.33 . iar cen mair do Th. . . . co faca, Aisl. Tond. 106 § 5 . ier cēin mhāir `a long time ago', Fl. Earls 208.30 . Note also: cu-du-boing cein (.i. iar cein) comarba curu, Bürgschaft 21.4 (for féin ?).

With I N-. For variety of forms cf. rachad a ccéin ┐ a ccíana ┐ a ccíanuibh, Bard. Synt. Tr. 26.19 . indtan noteigdis i céin `when they went a long distance', Mon. Tall. 129.21 . taig drochcarad hi céin (proverbial saying), BDD² 58 . fer bis a cein, Anecd. i 15.1 ( SCano 501 ). dā ndeachaid Congal a ccéin, ZCP viii 109.1 . seisrech . . . a toigheacht a gcianaibh cuige, BNnÉ 186.26 . i gcéin 's i ngar, 51.14 . Note also: rolaus cian i cein / ardo charait i mbrón , LL 18615 . As quasi-adj.: créd agaibh aoidhigh a gcéin `from afar', Studies 1924, 241 § 1 . Rarely of time: ní tualaing ionchoisiod i ccéin i gcuimhne for long, Ériu xiii 29.11 . With ocus: imb i céin fa i n-accus beo-sa, Wb. 23b41 . i ceín ┐ i n-ocus, Thes. ii 356.20 (Hy. vii). cid i cein, cid a focus, Laws i 240.17 Comm.

With ó. ó chéin from of old, long ago : iarsindi ro-n-an hua céin di aisndis dun popul gl. tam longum `after he had ceased a while', Ml. 126b1 . F . . . . atbath ó céin, Trip.² 1513 `long ago', Trip. 133 . is mé ro baeglaiged ó chéin, LU 3921 ( SCC 44 ). Bretain o chéin rodochumdaigset the B. had built it long before, Anecd. iii 70.2 . ós é sin ó chéin ar nós `our ancient custom', Content. xxviii 71 . [Críst] roncuinnig ō chēin chain, ZCP iii 18.27 . o chein mair anall, PH 3422 . ó chíanaibh just now, lately, already: fotdāilfind a nilparttib ō chīanaib acht nīpad Fergus (C.C. to Etarcomal), TBC-I¹ 1198 . mac na trí curad at-rubart a (= ó) chíanaib, MU² 679 . ticbatis Herind o chianaib they would have reached Ireland a while ago, Snedg. u. Mac R 13.9 . leis an íairmbérla adubhart ó chíanuibh just now, IGT Introd. 30.18 . Used as quasi-adj. recent, just mentioned : int urchar o chianaib `the cast just now', TTebe 2087 . is don drochgaidhilg o c[h]ianaibh é above mentioned(?), IGT Metr. Faults287 § 130 . gach re cuidechta a cianaib every other company mentioned, BCC 384.21 .

As n. pr. m. tochomladh Céin a Caisil, Anecd. ii 46.18 . See also Corp. Gen.

III As conjunction

(a) (in) céin (later also i céin , géin ), céine (for) as long as, since, when . Folld. by nasalizing rel. clause in O. Ir. (see GOI 553 ) and in later language also with follg. rel. clause (see Duan. F. iii 44 n.l . ). cein mbith oc ic, Blathm. 39 . cein ba dibh amhatair `since His mother was of them', 103 . ceín rongabus i carcair `so long as I am in prison', Wb. 23b18 . cene ṁ bether in hac uita , Ml. 107d8 . cene conmesarsa olseseom ┐ céne connoither mo thimnasa `as long as I shall give rules . . . and as long as my injunctions are observed', Mon. Tall. 129.29 . cen bai Cormac beo, Ériu xvi 84.101 . céne (cean a, MS.) forcomédaidh fírinni, 65.21 . céin mbete i llucc irnaigdi / céne mbess coic fíal findbalc, iii 104 § 34 . i céin ra búi seom aice-sain, TBC-LL¹ 2956 = an ccein, TBC St. 2564 . hi céin bae Issau ic triall dont ṡeilcg, Celtica iv 8.20 . in cen bes coir dib, Laws i 136.10 Comm. i céin raibh nemh is talamh while heaven and earth last, BNnÉ 314 § 8 . in cein do bas arin cuirt `while this assembly was in session', Ann. Conn. 1228.5 . in gein ronbuí 'na bethaidh, Duan. F. i 55.8 (`a pseudo-archaism', iii 44). géin bhus beo, Content. ii 42 . ? Cf. cen bad buidech, Metr. Dinds. iii 192.35 (leg. céin, Corrig.).

(b) céin co until: cein conid ris `till I reach him', Blathm. 102 § 42 . an frim céin córda sille, LU 3807 ( SCC 37 ). céin co tí . . . don chath, 5872 ( TBC-I¹ 1403 ).? ní béra demon díb nech / cen corop (leg. cor'p) óg nó aithrigech `while they are perfect', BColm. 52.7 . céin co n-ebar in fín nua imalle frib (words of Christ at Last Supper), PH 2995 . céin go dtarrastair .i. no go dtarla, O'Cl. gen gar muig rempu till they won the victory, BNnÉ 310.12 . Exceptionally with art.: in céin co roiscc in ceilebrad, Grail 1790 , ? Cf. cen co tola, Fing. R. 181 (see n.).

COMPDS. With nouns: iar ccianaois, AFM ii 640.12 . cienaimser ria n-a thōgbāil, Fl. Earls 110.15 . a chisde na gcianbhann lúidh (to a prince), DDána 79.27 `O thou who art skilled in the old valour feats', Ir. Monthly 1921, 247 . ? Colla Uais uas chianbla chain, LL 15753 . tochombaig Ciannacht cianbruige, Laws iv 8.17 `C. has recovered distant lands', Celtica vi 227.5 . i cind chían-chóicthigis, TBC-LL¹ 2050 (as two words LL 9331 and so also at 22815 ). ní ro chumaingsiot a chianchosnamh fris in lion sloigh, AFM vi 2026.9 . bud fata bas chianchuman, LL 7822 ( TBC-LL¹ 294 ). co crich cinnte . . . cein-eisergi caich, MR 264.5 . a gcáoile ┐ a ccíaneitche, Ériu v 80.12 . hí cíanfoccus at some little distance, BDD² 626 . dála . . . catha chianfhoghla, DDána 83.8 . clogat . . . cianḟulaing, MR xiv 21 . ar gcabhra i gciainimneadh, Aithd. D. 76.8 . cichsot cēnmuir `shall advance to the distant sea', Ériu xvi 146.7 .

With adjj.: isin set cianfotta, BB 240b15 . tellach dá dechmad / cíanramar `long and solid(?)', Celtica vi 221. 11 ( Laws iv 4.18 ) = cennramar, O'Curry 846 ( H 3.18, 384b ). With adjj. derived from nouns: seanoir cianaosda, MR 42.6 . sein leabar cianáosta, Gorm. p. xviii . a chloidhiomh . . . cianainignech destroying far and wide, MR xiv 24 . clanna cianairgnecha Cuirc, Caithr. CC 81 . do Macc cían clothach `far-renowned', BDD 157 . rosc corrglas cianradarcach, BB 427a36 . níor bhó cianṡaoghlach somh iar ngairm tighearna de, AFM vi 1996.9 . do bhuidhin chuirthe ciainsiublaigh, AFM vi 2318.7 . deaghmhac cian-teasdach Conchubhair far-famed, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 177.w . an chloch cian tuinigte `enormous', AFM vi 2012.11 . ben bhocht chumhthach chíantuirseach, Ériu v 80.5 .

1 cumal

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cumal or dil.ie/13806
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: cumaile, cumle, cumail, cumhal, comhail

n ā, f. g s. us. cumaile; cumle, Ériu iii 135.3 . a p. cumail (= handmaids), Gen. xxxiii 2 . cumhal (ó thrí cíallaibh) f., IGT Decl. § 12 . comhail (n du.), Eochairsg. 86.35 .

(a) female slave, bondwoman; later woman-in-waiting; servant, maid: c.¤ .i. cum mola .i. ben bīs fri bleith mbrōn, ar is ē mod frisa mbītis cumala dōera riasíu dorōntais muilind, Corm. Y 324 . cacht .i. c.¤ .i. bantraill, O'Mulc. 265 . cumala caínógat a ngnímu, Críth G. 485 . bla cumaile lec ┐ losat, Laws iii 274.18 . mug, c.¤ cimid (in list of seven things incapable of being given in fief), v 222.2 . do dechaidh co a cumhula, Blathm. 213 . da chumail, ┐ ocht ndoerammuis, RC xx 140.29 (ACC). hi foxal do moga, do chumaile, O'D. 73 ( H 3.17, 63 ). atconnairc c.¤ ele he (i.e. Peter), PH 3183 . cumhal Chríost (of Mary at annunciation), PBocht 9.2 . mac do chumhaile, Exodus xxiii 12 . ro ghabh a heirred cumuili, Caithr. CC 29 . co[n]a comail coimidechta maid-in-waiting , RC vi 184.21 . bert D. . . . Brigit dia reicc . . . do cumail fognuma, Vita Br. 13 .

(b) Name of a variable unit of value; generally fixed at three milch cows (see Thurn., ZCP xiv 341 ; Críth G. pp. 81 - 2 ) or equivalent to thirty-five acres of land Ériu xlix 27 , xxii 84 n. 10 , but note the follg. variations: teora cumala . . . .i. secht mba in gach c.¤ dib, O'Curry 1829 ( 23 Q 6, 47 b ). c.¤ sé mbó ┐ leth eneclainne isin crolighe cumaile, ┐ is í in c.¤ smachta metha ┐ c.¤ techtaighthe, O'D. 833 ( H 3.17, 595 ). c.¤ fichi(t) seoit . . . Leth-cumul, dech seoit, ZCP xiv 368.10 - 11 . cutruma c.¤ cana Padraicc ┐ c.¤ cana Cormaic . . . uair ni fuil isin c.¤ is mo acud acht ocht mba . . . c.¤ eladnach hí . . . .i. c.¤ do thabairt ar boin ar fichit, O'Curry 577 - 8 ( H 3.18, 278 ). bo ar fichit . . . do lulacubh, cunute sin secht cumulu urruduis, Laws ii 134.15 Comm. is mó c.¤ cana no c.¤ urraduis, Cóic Con. 50 § 97 H. an c.¤ sin is ar cethraime .vii. cumala ata, O'Curry 2577 ( Eg. 88, (49)d ) (of c.¤ aintestais. See aintestas). c.¤ ocht mba smacht nemdénma in gairi, O'D. 934 ( H 3.17, 658c ). is for cumail deich set conamas in c.¤ sin la Feine, Laws v 400.23 - 24 . cumala beca dibside, di uingi go le[th] cach cumaile, acht aon ch.¤ tri nuinge, O'Curry 962 ( H 3.18, 415 ). tucsad sgreball cumaili gacha tuaithi . . . .i. tri ba, Irish Texts iii 4.31 . Cf. ech c.¤ x. set . . . ech c.¤ trichat set horse worth 10 séts, Laws v 414.22 , 24 .

(c) Less specifically: ríthæ intech sin fri C. . . . ar chumil n-arggit, Thes. ii 240.2 (Ardm.). tri .vii. c.¤ , LU 5589 (TBC). ocht cumala a eneclann (of a `rí buiden'), Críth G. 469 . ba gabálta i cumail é (of ram) `the equivalent of a c.', TBC-LL² 63 . carpat trí secht c.¤ , 97 . in cocholl . . . / cemad fhiū trī secht c.¤ , MacCongl. 111.4 . carpat cethre cumala (sic), TFrag. 44.14 . .uii. cumala . . . .i. colg déd ┐ eó-ch.¤ (.i. dealg) ┐ sgíath-ch.¤ ┐ cris-ch.¤ ┐ brat-ch.¤ etc. `c.¤ of brooches, a c. of shields', Ériu xvi 67.113 - 5 . .x. cumala bana .i. di argat nó findruine, ii 4.10 . forgu cumaile c.¤ airgit, O'Curry 578 ( H 3.18, 287 ). de chumalaibh airggididibaon dan .i. ni thed na aill inn acht airgget, 472 ( 247 ). caéca eoch n-ændátha . . . a carbad cumhaile, ZCP xiii 175.19 . Cf. .uii. ancellas redere, Trip.² 2495 . See 3 airer, etc.), crólige, máithre, senorba, 1 tír.

(d) In wider sense of fine, mulct, compensation : c.¤ .i. éraic, O' Lec. Gl. 372 . M 186 . dia do chumail am chinaid `as sufficient fine for my offence', Metr. Dinds. iii 62.106 . cia file ar ccumhaluibh dlighidh?, Ériu xiii 18.4 . go ceithre sédoibh a cumhuile curp, 22.28 . do chuinghidh a cana ┐ a chumhaile, RC xliii 44.20 . c.¤ cís ┐ cáin, Leb. Cert.² 1644 . d'iarraidh chumail[e] Airt, RC xliii 26.7 . is greim cumaile pennaiti gabas a cur for muir no dul go eclais, O'Curry 2251 ( Eg. 88, 18(19)c ). c.¤ .v. seoit x, 246 ( H 3.18, 141 ). icfad sí cumalo a mac ro marbadh, Ériu viii 175.4 . c.¤ inn o Fh., RC xliii 14.11 . ic iarair na c.¤ i ndiguin a brathar, RC xx 140.24 (ACC). asrenar c.¤ cana cach fecht `a cumal prescribed by law(?)', O'Dav. 744 . créacht gan chumhail `a wound entailing no fine', Aithd. D. 74.4 .

In prep. phr. i cumail, i cumalaib in recompense for, as penalty for: uinnsiu . . . hi c.¤ do céile cōeca sleg, ZCP xiii 175.24 . ná sir cert a cumhail deilgi, IGT Decl. ex. 1237 . ro iarr si umla fort-sa a cumail in gníma sin, Grail 2232 . a gcumhoil ó othar fhuair / a thochmharc le tuloigh mBriain, O'Hara 2575 . co tuc da .xx. déc bó . . . i cumalaib meic C., Ann. Inisf. 246.4 .

1 día n-

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 día n- or dil.ie/15846
Last Revised: 2019

 

(later dá n-) conj.

(a) with pret. when: dia luid Duaid for longais tri glenn I. dambidc Semei di chlochaib, Ml. 68c4 . Ml. 52 . P. dia mbói i llobrai | ad-cobra dul do Machi, Hy. ii 45 . rí romol Semeon . . . | dia mbái icon glanaltóir, SR 7558 . rí rosaer Petur . . . dia lluid co Crist, 7395 . diarluid He. fectas do sruth I. luid in sruth for cúl, 7145 . Sucait a ainm o thustidib, Cothraigi dia mbai ic fognam do cethrur, Trip.² 204 = IT i 17 . is annsin conbocht fīr fer fairsom a llāsin, dia lotar in cōicer cucaisom fon oenme, TBC-I¹ 1739 . da mbamar ic S. . . . is amaraen imriaghmais, 2654 ( TBC-LL¹ 3465 , 3529 ). danamthuc M. robam céle comadas, LU 3971 ( SCC 45 ). romid do chach díb a chert dia | mbatar (= mar badar, BB 42a20 ) 'con tṡelgairecht, LL 14b7 . rofaillsiged do A. . . . día ro escomla a anim asa churp . . . ┐ día rucad dochum richid, FA 3 (LU). nirbo chian do Ch. dia mbaí and co facca . . . na longa, CRR § 11 . na mucca diamtar dóine `the swine, when they were men', Metr. Dinds. iii 386 . dia mbatar i nEmuin . . . daimtis cert, ZCP viii 218 . dorúmenair co mba Dia dia fhacca in spirut noem do thuidecht fair, PH 4790 . is é thug tríocha creach a B. dia raibhe . . . ag imluadh cogaidh, Keat. ii 4294 .

(b) With subj. if. neg. mani, earlier dina, dena, Ériu xx 229 . With pres. subj.: ní lour in bendachad dia mmaldachae, ní lour dano in nebmaldachad mani bendachae, Wb. 5d23 . dia mbemmi hi combás bemmi i comindocbáil, 24a10 . for ṅgnimrada diamat glain . . . do berthar nem . . . do chach, SR 1461 . is col duin dia foirglem, Fél. Ep. 98 . foircis dliged . . . dianad bē feineachas; muna bē feineachas tellais, Laws iv 18 . dia cloadarsom indí sin . . . ní fil ní . . . na dénat, Mon. Tall. § 26 . dia mbat rī bit rīghcerdach, ACL iii 314 . dia ructar ar mna daera uáinn biait ar mna soera for brointib ┐ bemi cin blicht ma ructar ar mbai blechtai uán, ZCP ix 148 ( TBC-I¹ 1129 ). diamsat fissid . . . ro- pad mithig duit eirge, TFerbe 352 . mad iat do charait bes and . . . da mbad iat, bar C., rapad lugaiti bar n-eneclannsi, CRR § 11 . dia ngaba mh' ḟorcetul-sa . . . notuaslaicfind . . . ┐ biat ri, Anecd. iii 74.12 . da fagair na móra finna . . . tabair iat, ZCP viii 113 . dia fhélltair form' fiachaib filid dia n-aīr if I am cheated of my dues, let poets satirize them, MacCongl. 45.y . da n-icat mo screpulsa . . . guidimsi mo Tigherna nachastí nach plaigh, Anecd. ii 34 . da raib accumsa a fis . . . do gebasu, Acall. 6294 . dá rabh ocumsa . . . sin do ghébthar, 80 . dia n-accara nech cen etach, tabair etach dó, PH 4960 . caithfidh bheith creachach . . . | dá raibh duine dasachtach, TD 20.6 . With neg. dina, dena: on do fiur adbaill, dena ro nastar tasicc fair 'a loan to a man who [subsequently] dies unless [its] return have been bound on him' Laws v 370.6 , Ériu xx 229 . feraid insci dina rochar arra 'he makes a statement if the consideration cannot be declared (?)' O'Dav. § 887 , Ériu xx 230 . ni aighne dinad aenaighe[d]ar for aein ai 'he is no [proper] advocate if he does not unite on one of them' ZCP xii 364 , Ériu xx 230 . dina derlaiter (? leg. derlathar) dil 'if it cannot be removed' Bretha 42 § 32 , Ériu xx 230 . dona bi (? leg. dina bē) iarair 'if there be no [previous] claim' Bretha 46 § 37 , Ériu xx 230 . Neg. with infix. pronoun: dinach | dime deithbiri 'unless justification shelter him' Laws iii 536.31 , Ériu xx 230 . donnach bē (? leg. mbē) asa tormastar sēoit d(h)ō cheana 'unless he have [something] else out of which séoit are increased for him (i.e. by which his property is increased) ' Ir. Recht 73 , Ériu xx 230 . dinach gell guaissi (? leg. -guasa) i n-anma (? leg. ainmne) ail, Bretha 36 § 23 , Ériu xx 231 . diani chel 'that I do not hide it' Celtica xv 33 § 8 . With past subj.: robad bethu dom dianchomalninn, Wb. 3c28 . dia mbad athirge dognéth . . . dodilgfitis do . . . a chinta, SR 1409 . dia mbeindse for mo nirt, ni tóethsitís in macrad, TBC-I¹ 1856 . diamtís Ulaid nobetis immalle frimsa ní fuléṅgtha in cath, TFerbe 396 . día mbeth dóine . . . istaig . . . dogénut écnach, MacCongl. 49.7 . da mad tol duib no-indfaind-sea bar ceist were it agreeable to you, I should . . ., PH 19 . atraigsetar ferg Ḟoraind friu dia torsed for cúlu, Ériu iv 142 . gá luagh dobérad sibh dham . . . dá tucaind bhur bhḟir féin cuguib?, Acall. 976 . dia mairedh . . . ní léigfedh mé, Duan. F. i 82 . dā sirinn a meic . . . ar an laochraid rem lá dofūicfedis tes 'gom thoigh, ZCP viii 219 . do bheinn ós chionn chríche F. . . . dá maradh M., TD 25.42 . dá dteagmhadh long . . . i n-imlibh cuain . . . T. do ní do niort nach oirbhearnach í ag imtheacht, 7.27 . dá bhféadthaoi a rádha ris . . . ní ḟuil ní d'adhbhar aige if one might say it to him . . . he hath no reason for it, 8.32 .

Freq. tautologically with ma(d): mad da mbeth i mbrōn . . . pennit in manach . . . for uisciu ┐ bairgin, Ériu vii 172 . imchian etarru . . . moalle | mad dia fégthar fírinne, Metr. Dinds. iii 168 . mad dia marbthar M. . . . atresat curaid, TFerbe 370 . 377 . mad dia ngabad rigi . . . isi bean nobiad aicce, Anecd. i 10.11 . intī taraill gait | nocha n-ālaind duit mad dia fagba a dín if any man has committed theft it is not honorable for you if he get shelter, KMMisc. 274 . LL 148b39 . in tan ba fíren in rí nobid in fót fo chaemchlí mad dia raded gói . . . suas dochured a foescal, LL 204a26 . . . . madh dia ndeni-siu forru . . . am erlumsa (sic leg. or for siu leg. sin?) if you will obey them . . . I am ready, BNnÉ 304 . Note also: is bec cid dia fesstar a chenél his descent will hardly be known at all, RC xxiv 176 .

doglus

Cite this: eDIL s.v. doglus or dil.ie/17746

 

x .i. droc[h]soillsi iarsinní dobeir nech in cuma ┐ in mbrōn for a sūilib, O'Mulc. 340 . See glus, soglus.

dubae

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dubae or dil.ie/18993
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: dubai, dubu, ndubai, dubai, duba(e)

n [orig. io, n. Cf. Hogan, CRR p. 183 ] (dub) n s. dubæ n-aithirge 'melancholy of repentance' Ériu xxiii 26.43 . g s. in dubai Ml. 110c9 ; Fél. Ep. 377 . d s. dubu dermar, FA § 16 ( LU 2099 ); co ndubai , SR 8298 . a s. dubai, ZCP xii 234 . Later duba(e) f.

Gloom, heaviness, grief . gl. maeror, Ml. 110c9 . for cai ┐ dubai, Ériu xii 144 § 4 (TE). duba dian ┐ toirse, SR 8166 . co nduba ┐ co torsi, Todd Nenn. 72 . co mbrón ┐ dubu dermar, FA § 16 (duba, LB). ba duba dermair frisin imper . . . in mirbuil sin, LB 236a29 . duba ┐ torrsi thromm dona genntib, PH 307 . cen brón, cen duba, cen bás, Imr. Brain § 10 . is domna dér co nduba, LL 194a4 . luc ifernnach . . . is ann do[g]nīn-si dubha, ZCP iii 34 . adbar dubha ┐ dobroin, CCath. 4389 . rob iomdha dubha ┐ dogailsi robhaoi seachnón a longport, AFM vi 2288 . ag eighiumh ┐ ag dubha dermair mourning, sorrowing , RC xiv 52 . bai d'a dith duine ag dubha, BB 59a19 .

See duibe.

fo-ceird

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fo-ceird or dil.ie/22405
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: focertiti, fotcicher, nimchicher, -cuirethar, -la, focress, focreasa, fosci[u]rtsa, focheirt, fodosceirdi, foscerdi, foceirt, faceird, focheird, foceird, focertam, fuchertat, focherdat, focerdat, foscerdded, focherded, fochertitís, focerdaitis, fuscerdam, foncerddam, foceirr, foceirr, facherred, focher[r]ad, fochichur, —foíchur, -cichiur, focicherr, fotcicher, chiuchra, —foicher, focichret, foscichret, fasciugrat, fochichred, —foichred, fochart, focairt, fochartatár, fachartar, focertar, fochertar, fomcertor, focerddar, fucertar, focerdatar, fócerddetar, focherte, focertha, focicherthar, focichertar, —foic[h]ert[h]ar, fochichritar, focres, focress, fochress, focreas, focressa, rochres, rochress, do creasadh, bhacresa, facheirdset, —ar, focherdsat, fochertsat, —cuirethar, —cuiretar, cuirthe, cuire, cure, cuirid, —coirther, —corathar, —corad, —corastar, —corthe, —coirthi, —lá, láim, —raltais, —ral, —rol, —rolur, —ralór, laa, laa, —rala, láis, —rabhais, lam, —roláid, rrálat, rolat, lád, —roltis, róiltis, roláosa, rolaus, rodalláus, rollais, laa, ralasom, láeside, —ralae, corralai, láoi, rālastar, lasid, —ralsid, laset, —rolsat, —ralsat, —ralsatar, lafithir, cuirfithir, coraltar, —ralatar, coralta, rolaad, rollaad, rolathe, roláithea, —lathe, —latha, rolaitea, rosaralta, ralta, F., dofuarat

prototonic forms of this verb are found only in the fut. ( ni focertiti , CCath. 2830 is late, and phonetically irregular. Cf. fotcicher ... nimchicher, cited below, II (a)), in other tenses they are supplied by -cuirethar and -la; the —ro— forms are regularly from -lá both in pres. and past tenses. Cf. focress (.i. rolaad), Hy v 48 ; 72 ; 79 . focreasa .i. rocurid, Lec. Gl. 87 .

Forms: A ind. pres. 1 s. fosci[u]rtsa, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1859, 196 (< H 3.18, 75b ). 2 s. rel. focheirt (gl. seminas) Wb. 13c21 . fodosceirdi; foscerdi, LB 219a19 ; 26 . 3 s. foceirt, Wb. 32c11 . Trip.² 904 . faceird, Ml. 94c8 . focheird, LU 8848 . foceird, O'Mulc. 527 . 1 pl. focertam, Wb. 15b4 . 3 pl. (rel.) fuchertat, Ml. 93a25 . focherdat, LU 8848 . focerdat, O'Mulc. 527 . imperf. 3 s. foscerdded, Rawl. 113a1 . focherded LU 5005 . 3 pl. (rel.) fochertitís, LU 7031 ( BDD 67 ; focerdaitis Y). imperat. 1 pl. fuscerdam, Wb. 34a2 ( Ériu xi 136 ). foncerddam, LL 283a19 . subj. pres. 2 s. foceirr Wb. 13c24 . 3 s. foceirr, Laws v 320x . past 3 s. facherred Ml. 124b3 . focher[r]ad, Corm. Y 323 . fut. 1 s. fochichur LU 5761 (= —iur, TBC-I¹ 1290 ). —foíchur, LL 251b20 ( TBFr. § 24 ). -cichiur, BDC 112.138 . 3 s. focicherr, Ml. 87d6 . fotcicher, LL 147a22 . fo chiuchra , LU 4583 . —foicher, TBC-I¹ 706 (= —focher, LU 5184 ). 3 pl. focichret, RC xxvi 38 § 201 . LU 4462 . foscichret, LL 289b7 - 8 . Cf. fasciugrat, LL 119b26 (rhet.). sec. fut. 3 s. fochichred, LU 5291 . —foichred, 6822 ( BDD 38 ). pret. 1 s. fochart, LU 10987 . 3 s. focairt, TBC-I¹ 3656 . LU 3279 . Ériu ii 33.14 , 15 . 3 pl. fochartatár, LU 1735 ( RC ix 480 : Cf. fachartar, Ml. 64a10 ). Pass. pres. s. focertar, Thes. ii 249.10 . fochertar, LU 5018 (= focherddar, TBC-I¹ 529 . fomcertor, ZCP xv 301§4 . focerddar, Sg. 71a19 . fucertar Wb. 34a2 . pl. focerdatar, Ml. 96c11 . fócerddetar, TBC-LL¹ 6145 . imperf. s. focherte, LL 106b34 . subj. past s. focertha, BDD 85 D (focerta UY). fut. s. focicherthar, LU 7129 ( BDD 81 ). focichertar, IT ii 178.137 . —foic[h]ert[h]ar, ZCP xii 235.16 . pl. fochichritar, SR 8324 . pret. s. focres, Ann. Inisf. 2b8 . focress, Hy v 48 ; 72 ; 79 . LU 4618 . fochress, 7060 ( BDD 72 ; focreas Y). pl. focressa, LU 6924 ( BDD 54 ). The pret. pass. rochres, LL 77b19 ( TBC-LL¹ 2586 ), rochress, LU 6439 . do creasadh, Acall. (Leabh. ó Laimhsgr.) ii 73.25 . bhacresa, H 3.17 ; Eg. ( TBC-LL¹ p. 367 ) is by Windisch referred to this verb.

Analogical forms: pret. 3 pl. facheirdset, —ar, TBC-LL¹ 3630 . 3712 . focherdsat, TBC-LL¹ p. 895 n. 11 . fochertsat, Hugh Roe 166.12 (f. 44b) .

B From —cuirethar: ind. pres. 3 pl. —cuiretar, BCr. 32b11 . imperat. 2 s. cuirthe, Ml. 56c5 . cuire, BCr. 32c11 . LU 10821 . IGT, Decl. ex. 460 . cure, LU 4784 . LL 279b17 . 2 pl. cuirid, Wb. 27b11 . subj. pres. 2 s. —coirther, Wb. 10a21 . 3 s. —corathar, Ml. 68b9 . ZCP xi 84.32 (= coradar, LL 294a1 ). past 3 s. —corad, LU 4724 . Metr. Dinds. iv 132.17 . pret. 3 s. —corastar, Ml. 39a3 . LU 4919 . LL 117b34 . TBFr. § 20 . Pass. past subj. s. —corthe, LU 4762 (—coirthe, Eg., —coirthi Y).

C From —lá: ind. pres. 1 s. níro láim , LU 4774 . (?) imperf. pl. 3 —raltais, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 41 § 31 . subj. pres. 1 s. —ral Wb. 7a4 . —rol, LL 251a39 . —rolur, LU 5225 . —ralór, 6875 . 3 s. ro laa , 4740 . mani laa , 4766 . —rala, Wb. 11b21 . Cf. coro láis , LU 1378 (a later -s- formation, like 2 sg. —rabhais ?). 1 pl. coro lam , LU 3781 . 2 pl. —roláid, LU 6874 . 3 pl. co rrálat , LU 6725 ( BDD 21 ; co rolat Y). past subj. 3 s. coro lád , LU 4616 . 3 pl. —roltis, TBC-I¹ 808 = róiltis, LU 5283 . ind. perf. 1 s. roláosa, 4791 ( Pedersen Vgl. Gr., ii 499 , takes this as pres.). rolaus, LL 147a41 . rodalláus, 249b40 . 2 sg. rollais, 251b14 . 3 s. ro laa , Sg. 75a4 . ralasom, Tur. 80 . ro láeside , LU 2928 . —ralae, Ml. 90c17 . corralai, LL 260b14 . ro láoi , IGT, Introd. § 4 . rālastar (: at-āgastar `feared') ACC 56 Comm. 2 pl. ro lasid , Wb. 15d1 . —ralsid, 15a1 . 3 pl. ro laset , Thes. ii 343.43 . roláiset, LU 7032 . —rolsat, Ml. 16d2 . —ralsat, Rawl. 164a48 . —ralsatar, Metr. Dinds. iv 144 . Pass.: fut. lafithir, BDD 81 Eg ( RC xxii 179 n. 13 ; cf. cuirfithir ib. n. 14 ). pres. subj. s. coraltar, LL 269a16 . pl. —ralatar, Laws iv 206.14 . past s. coralta, ScM. § 5 (corolatha; co ro lathea v.l.). perf. ind. s. rolaad, Wb. 13d9 . Sg. 153b6 . rollaad, Ml. 29c1 (second a over line). 44d2 . YBL 212b39 . cor laud, LB 60b31 . pl. rolathe, Rawl. 73b31 . roláithea, Fél. Prol. 41 (—láithe, —lathe, —latha v.l.). rolaitea, Fél.² clvii 7 . Cf. rosaralta (= frisa ralta ?), Ériu viii 156.22 . Vn. 1 cor, q.v.

I

(a) sets, puts, places (with FOR, I N-, IMM, etc.): focertar ... it bois is laid on thy palm Thes. ii 249.10 . fuchertat a laim íarna cúl who put their hand behind their back Ml. 93a25 . focairt dī lāim ima bráigit embraces him ZCP viii 311.14 . foceirtt lamae fair lays hands upon him Mon. Tall. § 66 . ní for fírduine rolaset a ṅgona `inflicted their wounds' (ref. to: in fer fordacorsatar | goíta, Hy v 66 ), Thes. ii 343y . benaid ... a cethri cinnu díb ┐ focheird for ceth[e]ora benna na gabla, LU 4799 . focherd in láech ... lossa ┐ lubi íci ... i cnedaib ... Con C. applies 6341 . focherdat i ndabaig; ... in dabach aile in ro lád, 5201 . is aire sein rolathe na da mac for Tibir, Rawl. 73b31 . fodosceirdi ... it beolu na mírenda `these morsels thou must put in thy mouth' MacCongl. 97z . focheird cach fer a brat immáraile, LU 7542 ( BDD 107 ). focheird fáthi n-imbi, LU 5748 . foruapratar ... in cathraig co ro lasat faithe fiangaiscid impe, Anecd. ii 54 § 16 . dolluid nél solas imme co corustar a beolu for talmain , LB 146a19 . alterutro .i. ní alteroutro ... issechtar rolaa a dilledchi ní immedón `'tis outside he has put (exposuit) its declinability, not in the middle [i.e. not `altero utro'] Sg. 75a4 . ni du choscrad in tempuil storidi ralasom `that He has put it' Tur. 80 (or does this belong to II? Cf. III). Iar mac N. ro láoi íarmbérla san nGaoidhilg, IGT, Introd. § 4 . ro láiset láma do, ┐ ron ergabsat, PH 3101 . Cf. frim gruad corcra ma chora | dom ruacht bochta fombera, Auraic. 5342 (`auch wenn ich Purpur auf meine Wange bringe' Thurn., ZCP xvii 292 ). F.¤ FOR AIRD displays, exhibits: na clesrada ... focheird Fer d. bar aird, TBC-LL¹ 3748 (= tuc St). 3757 (= cuiris a n-airde St). Cf. rolaiset na lama co lanard risna lannaib raised their hands aloft with the blades (?) Ériu viii 44.35 . plants, sows: mad grainne cruithnechte foceirr, Wb. 13c24 . conasrolaside (conid roláas v.l.; leg. condarolaside) isna hinadaib in robo dóig leis a nn-ás, Ériu iv 150 § 29 . ro-hairedh in mag ┐ rolaad sil cruithnechta ann, YBL 212b39 (= Ériu v 114 ). Of pitching (a tent), throwing up (a pile, mound), erecting, etc.: focress a phupall ... for Ailill, LU 4618 (= do A., TBC-LL¹ 390 ). focherdat a puiple icond áth sin, LU 5524 . do creasadh a phuball for an aird-rí, Acall. (Leabh. ó Laimhsgr.) ii 73.25 . card ... fochertitis in tan ba n-orgain. carnd roláiset ... in tan sin they used to make a cairn ... (etc.) BDD 67 ( LU 7031 ). focherte a ḟert ┐ a lecht ┐ a lie, LL 106b34 ( Ériu iv 26 ). rolad a fert ┐ a llia la C., Ériu v 213.122 . tairsiu ... coraltar mo ḟertsa latt, LL 269a16 ( ZCP iii 3 ; coro altar, coro claidter v.l.). focres a fert ann, Ann. Inisf. 2b8 . ro ladh a lia ┐ a lecht ... ar Muig Rein, Fen. 140.1 . tri liic ... Conall C. roda lā `placed them' Ériu viii 156.29 . cuma damh ... cibe focher trillsi treph raises wicker dwellings CS 610 = RC xvii 168 (Tig.), Bruchst. i § 90 (see trilis). For: rolād trā a gāir guba ┐ a ḟert ┐ a lia, Ériu i 120 § 13 , cf. (h).

(b) throws, casts, often of missiles: sís fucertar cech ingor suas fuscerdam ni, Wb. 34a2 . corralsat sis anchoram, Thes. ii 328.41 ( Hy v Comm. ) = co ro laiset sís a n-ingir, IT i 39 (< LB 82 marg. inf.). amal focerdatar saichtea for naimtea, Ml. 96c11 . focherd ... G. saigit forsin anmunna, PH 6304 . fochairt a chroísig forro, LU 3281 . fogabatside in n-id focheird [focheard TBC2] Cú C. ... Fír ol F. Cu C. rodla, 4732 ; 4741 . ní théssid secce conda rala nech úaib co n-áenláim, 4809 . bágais Cu C. ... fochichred cloich as a thábaill forru, 5291 . nochon ḟetur ... ní frisi corthe in t-id `I know not ... anything for which the withe should have been thrown' LU 4762 . fucaird L. liic talma dō `cast a sling-stone at him' RC xii 100 § 135 . fochartatár íarom bunsaig ... isa leth i mbátár na finna, LU 1736 . focherded a líathróit ┐ focherded a loirg ina díaid, 5005 . cía focerta míach ... fora mulluch `though a sackful ... were flung on his crown' 6821 ( BDD 38 ). f¤ saile spits : fo-cresa saile (MS saili) ... i n-einech dúilemon 'the face of the Creator was spat upon', Blathm. 191 ​. focheird a saili forsin n-ailig = projecit Lat. Lives 57 . fochairt [a luathred] i n-alt in maro, LU 1725 . Cf. fo[ci]chiur (?) an īch issan sāile I will throw the salmon Anecd. i 73 § 207 (= nan-cuirer, v.l. ruscurius, RC x 88.11 ). ro láithea for bíastaib `they have been cast to wild beasts' Fél. Prol. 41 . With cognate acc., or advb.: fochichursa aurchor dait, LU 5761 . tuc som a láim fon deil cliss dó ┐ focheird rout n-urchair úad TBC-LL¹ 1270 . focairt imroll missed his aim LU 3279 . ni focertiti imroll les, CCath. 2830 . F.¤ IMMUDU, IMMACH throws away, loses: is cor roda lláus immudu it is a cast wherewith I cast it away, i.e. I have lost it TBFr. § 13 . fon-rollassat immach a lloeg they lost her calf Irish Texts i 7 § 24 . frithe ... sleibe, da trian do fir fodngaib ┐ aentrian ... do neoch foceirr amach, Laws v 320x . F.¤ CRANNCHOR (CRANN), F.¤ AR C. casts lots: rollaad crannchur foir, Ml. 29c1 . focres crandchor forro dús cía díb lasa ragtha i tossoch, LU 6879 ( BDD 47 ; —creasa Y). co rolaset chrandchor inter se, Thes. ii 328.41 ( Hy v Comm = co ro laiset sortem, LB 82 marg. inf.). roláiset cranncur cia dib dia roised in flaithius ar tus, D IV 2, 77 [71]rb10 . focerdar crann eturru dus cia de beres ..., Laws iv 172.9 . focerdat crann iman agh mbeo dus ci ..., 102.11 . co rolaa ar crandchar and cia dia teccema a coimet, YBL 156a23 . See crann and crannchor. Cf. berar mucc ┐ ag ... dóib, ┐ apar friu a mmunter féin da n-irgnam dóib. foscichret i crandchor, RC xiii 444w ( LL 289b8 ).

(c) casts down, overthrows: dobeirsi dí láim friu ... conda ral[a] fón ṅglend pitched them into the valley LL 279b20 ( SG 414 ). Cf. doriacht Cethern ... acus focress in dunad ┐ in longphort foraib ┐ noṅgonand cach imme, TBC-LL¹ 4261 (= fosnobairside iarum tresin dūnad ┐ gontaiseom sochaidi, TBC-I¹ 2761 ). F. TAR CEND upsets, prostrates: is mór ríg ralā dar cend, Hail Brigit § 20 . atnagat a ṅgol ... co corastar na daíni ... tar cend, TBFr. § 20 . ro láiset ... a tech tar a cend, LU 1507 ( MU² 1003 ). Cf. fosceird dar a cend ┐ sí marb she falls down dead LL 117a29 (= RC viii 62 ). Cf. II for constr. Fig. is e ro lá dar cend ar forcetulne PH 1686 .

(d) F.¤ A, DE throws off, expels; drops, sheds: rolaad cech alt as a choir dam (gl. totus resolutus sum a campage membrorum) Ml. 44d2 . amal foceirt nech a aetach de Wb. 32c11 . foceirt a chocal de throws off his cowl Trip.² 904 . focertam fíal diínn, Wb. 15b4 . cuirid díib in nere se (gl. deponite ... de) 27b11 . (of a bull:) fochéird de na tri .l. mac nobitís oc cluchiu fair, LU 5330 . .xx. fer focherd de expelled 5819 . foceird a athair mac ingor a horba (.i. ada cuirid ... as in fearand), Laws iii 52.17 . faceird dia aicniud drives him from his nature (gl. perturbat) Ml. 94c8 . focicher don nirt i ttá `will hurl him from the power in which he is' BNnÉ 307 § 29 . is and roláset na bae a n-adarca díb LL 166a18 (= oralsat, BB 408a44 . con rallsat, Dinds. 123 ). cor lasat a n-adarca `till they cast their horns' Dinds. 16 . (cf. and sin ro chuirset na búair a mbenda, Metr. Dinds. iv 224 ). See also (e). is and rola C. in cennidi dia chinn, ScM. 15 . do láoi don chróisigh a ceann | gearr do bháoi an cróisin gan chrann, IGT, Decl. ex. 577 . F.¤ TAR: focheird úir da luib taris (of a bull ploughing up the earth with its hooves) TBC-LL¹ 1490 . Similarly: fócerddetar in n-úir thairsiu 6145 .

(e) puts forth, emits, sends out: focertar fíadain leó are sent with them LU 8869 ( FB 66 ). na rre ... focerdat in bech saithe `when the bees send out a swarm' Laws iv 172.13 (glossed: i cuirid beich ... uaithib). focherdsat na draoithe gaotha draoidhechta ina ndéoidh, Leb. Gab.(i) i 254z . do neoch fo-cheard doman de `all that earth brings forth' Ir. Review 1912, 248 . an dā each ... rolasett fa sech ri sliab, BColm. 90.4 . rolaad gairm escaire for naomaib hErenn `a call was made on' 54.21 . cuire huait, BCr. 32c11 (gl. tolle opp. to adde). Cf. di[a]ndrala huait CXVIII dofuarat latt ... (gl. tolle Kalendas, remanent CXX) Bvi 74 (`subjektlos,' hence 3 s., Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 499 ). gur láoi ioth, KMMisc. 168 § 5 .

Cf. focress di grán, mass a méin (om. comma and render: its ore was sent from a goodly grain ?), Metr. Dinds. iii 120.16 .

(f) launches (a boat): rolaisead a curach for muir, RC xxvi 136 § 8 . Cf. focerd a luing ... sech Eirinn soir `steered his vessel' Lism. L. 252 .

(g) In various figurative senses corresponding to above: ní rolsat som cumachtae ṅDé diib did not cast off the power of God Ml. 16d2 . focertar side ... hi selbad ind fir sin `is thrown into the possession of' 30c3 . i n-oena focerddar ┐ dofuasailgther cach áram (gl. omnes numeri ex [singulari] componuntur) Sg. 71a19 . is illeith Duid ... focert a n-ugturras refers (ascribes) their authorship to D. Hib. Min. 4. 131 . nach breth dobeirthe co Conn, foscerdded Conn cucisum, Caratnia § 1 . ro lá gach oman de, Leb. Gab.(i) i 198y . cach eccomnart ... romfarraid ... ro laas dīm fom cumhang, BNnÉ 301.2 . raráid A. ná curfed P. de in n-athis ... coro ralad tria chath ... do denam fri Grécu, LL 228a34 ( TTr. 818 ). in feil bis for luan focertar for mairt the feast ... is transferred to Tuesday LB 9b46 ( Rule of Tallaght § 10 ). o atraracht Crist a bás rolaad in cháisc iarom for dómnach was transferred to Sunday KMMisc. 146.5 . abbair fris, ní corathar a ḟlaith eter rindi gaí, ZCP xi 84.1 . foncerddam il-leth ar Tigernai let us entrust ourselves to our Lord LL 283a19 . Lism. L. viii . nícon béosa fot chumachta-su bas ire diandum roib forsa rol mo greis, TBFr. § 22 (`if I have anyone under whose protection I may put myself' Ériu xi 94 ). Cf. forollat for do greiss that have come [? put themselves ?] under thy protection Ériu viii 173.18 . See Mary Byrne, Ériu xi 94 ff . rolāsett each an dru[i]th ... for greis in aesa imthruimm, BColm. 90.5 . Cf. rotog ... gach dechnebar dib a menmarc do naemuib E., ┐ rolaiset fora muinteras ... ┐ rolaiset forro ainecrus a n-indtige ┐ a n-imtechta co toirsitis E., Lism. L. 2073 . do neoch doraega ┐ ro laí ina muinteras, LU 1393 (cf. II below). rolaite for coindmed cach naidchi they were quartered out every night YBL 209b46 ( Ériu v 236 ). focerd a n-oman cach tuaith `it casts every tribe into dread' Fianaig. 12 § 19 . ma cuaird focheird a toimsi it is measured by the circumference SR 169 = ima cuairt ... focert a tomus, Laws i 28.25 . rolasid súil torunn you have taken our measure Wb. 15d1 . 15a1 . ní ro láim súil toraib isind fid `I cannot cast my eye over them' (i.e. cannot see them all together) LU 4774 . tíagait ... co rolsat súil tairsiu ┐ ba dírim leó in slúag, 3782 ( SCC 35 ). Cf. o ralathur suil dar cach, Ériu ii 229 § 8 . focheird airdmius forsin lorg makes an estimate of LU 4788 . roláosa ... fomus forsa nī sin, 4791 . Mael S. ... focheird síth ima sen-mag `spreads peace' Metr. Dinds. i 44 . With DO of person: offers, grants (to): cid dam focerdta roga | nogegainn mo choimthoga if I were given my choice ZCP vi 267 § 11 . focres rogu do Mug Ruith do thírib Muman viii 314.19 . ro lád roga dóib, LU 8720 ( FB 54 ). With FOR of pers. lays, imposes (on); bestows (on): rolā cāin forsna clanna, Hy i 52 ( Thes. ii 306 ). cáin Patraic ... fucres for cach claind, Trip. 214.1 (2518) . turfochruic flathu foceird for doim `which he grants to an indigent person' (one of the seven bestowals not recoverable by distraint) Laws v 264.16 . rolá bricht forru cast a spell over them Metr. Dinds. iii 388.27 . F.¤ COMAIRLI takes counsel; plans: focres comairli ic lucht na cathrach cidh dogentais, CCath. 920 . focressá comairle léo cinnus dogendais ..., 130 . Cf. focresa cro comairle ┐ cindti comraid ac macaib S. Ériu viii 56.9 . F.¤ COR, CUAIRT turns, twists, makes a stir; goes round; visits; searches: nocon foicher cor dia chind riut will not turn his head towards thee TBC-I¹ 706 (= focher, LU 5184 ). na curid cor díb do not stir LL 259b20 ( IT i 67 ). focheird C. cor n-íach n-eirred de, LU 9119 ( FB 87 ). focerd Fergus cor conidralai for tech mbecc, IT i 144.4 (= do lá F. cuairt, ZCP v 501 . Cf. luid C. ┐ B. du chur cúarta fofúaratár óentech, LU 10579 ). focherd a suilchor issin tig casts a glance ib. IT i 144.16 (= foceird luathchor dá sūil isin tigh, ZCP v 501 ). oral cúairt fuiribsi that I may visit you Wb. 7a4 . asbert M. ... ar a n-indled a noi carpti dí coro lád cor isin dúnud, LU 4616 . regmai coro lam cor imón slúag, 3781 . ro lá curu in gaeth ... im Inber ..., Otia ii 82 . coro lá cor immán rigthech, LU 8381 ( FB 25 ). luid ... corralai cor imma techsom, LL 260b14 ( IT i 74 ). fochichret cuaird in domuin will go round SR 8088 . cia leith focheird a chainchuaird, 1198 . rolá cúairt hÉrend fo thrí `he made the circuit of Erin thrice' Metr. Dinds. i 16.30 . Cf. fochress cach cúaird imm alaile don díbeirg fri éitsecht in scéoil arranged themselves in concentric circles LU 7060 ( BDD 72 ). See 1 cor, 1 cúairt. focheird cor tra do menmannaib araile cid foruair, etc., the minds of some are exercised by the question, what caused LB 212a66 ( Alex. 1014 ). F.¤ COR makes a contract or agreement: cor focerdcar [sic] seach aga fine `a covenant made without the knowledge of the chief' Laws iv 60.12 . cor foceird baeth fri gaeth, iii 6.19 . dā cor focerdaiter fri hechlacha, iv 58.24 Comm . nach cor ... focerdtar for aes forngaire, ZCP xiii 23.23 ( Bürgschaft 11 § 37 ). inge secht n-uasalchuru nadat asu do thaithbiuch neochma rolatar [sic leg., ZCP xvi 271 ], Laws iv 210.2 . fo bith nand asu dichenglad cor mbel inneochma ralatar, 206.14 . coro-lasat a curu bliadain fri D., Dinds. 22 = BB 363a6 . With ellipse (cf. i): flaith foceird fri anflaith, Laws v 358.7 (expld. in Comm. p. 360 as one who accepts stock from an unlawful or extern chieftain). Cf. focerd fri flaith n-eachtrunn, ii 286.5 Comm . Similarly: focerd a mainche fri eagluis (= makes a contract of service with? See mainche) iii 68.5 . Eochaid mac O. focheird cuindlic [ = cuindilc] ┐ a hocht brathair E. and his eight brothers make a pact Anecd. iii 61.15 . focartatar coindi[l]c ib. 30 . ┐ focheird a ḟoesam ┐ a oentaid fris, Fél. 132.25 (see fáes(s)am). cach cor ... cach idnucul focertur forsna urgurtuib sa (.i. cuirither resin lucht ro urgairustur dligedh cunnrud do denum), Laws ii 290 ( ZCP xiv 376 ). Cf. is mōr ríg frisrala cor currech Corpri ... `whom the Curragh of C. has overthrown' [? to whom ... has plighted itself] Hail Brigit § 16 . F.¤ BEDG makes a leap, jumps, springs: focheird bedg cuce springs at him LL 260a41 ( IT i 72.19 ). rola Cu Ch. bedg de tresin mbudin, LU 1517 ( MU² 1015 ). focherdat in miolcoin bedg i mBrei, TBFr. § 5 . focheird Cu Ch. tri bidcu ina ndíaid, LU 5795 . See bedg, and cf. do-cuirethar. Cf. ni fuailfed focheird inti | luaithred M. `no motion in it made the ashes of M.' Metr. Dinds. ii 62.5 . F.¤ SCÍS rests: arrallsat scis a tig rig, YBL 13a21 ( Snedg. u. Mac R p. 12 ). Cf. lotar hi tír do chor a scísi, Trip.² 376 .

(h) of sounds, noises: utters, makes; raises (a shout, cry): focherdat ... gāir foa cheer him LU 8849 ( FB 64 ). focheird osnaid sighs LL 371a8 . ro lasat gáir mesca 259b15 ( IT i 67 ). biasta ... fochichret gaire garga SR 8060 . focherd srainn snores BS § 27.1 . focerd ilach cheers Laws i 244.6 Comm. focertitis ualla mora ┐ grithghairi `uttered great yells and howls' RC xiv 46.2 . baili i ralsat Gaill grithgair, Rawl. 164a48 = ait i rrollsat G. crithgair, LL 185a44 ( Arch. Hib. ii 85 ). roláadh gáir móir and, TTr.² 1640 . dia ralsatar fíanna faíd `raised a cry' Metr. Dinds. iv 144 . focheird fáid ... cloc bind, Auraic. 5131 . foceird fit ... frissin n-escmogin hisses at O'Mulc. 527 . Cf. for braigtib rig foceird feit (of a sword) LU 1042 ( ACC 101 ) = LU 9673 ( ZCP iii 214 ). fochartatar a ndord n-impi, LU 7850 ( BDD 141 ). a ngloim ro lásat na tri .l. curach oc tuidecht hi tír (the noise they made) LU 6935 ( BDD 55 ). Here perhaps f.¤ grith: (of weapons on a rack:) ro lásat grith co mbátár for lár in tige, LU 6936 ( BDD 55 ). (of swords, etc. tossed by a juggler:) fochartatár grith immi co mbátar for lár in tige, LU 7560 , 7568 ( BDD 109 , 110 ). foceird armgrith mór a rrígthech the house clattered (?) LU 8203 ( FB 15 ). (of a regiment:) an armgrith rolāsad oc teacht ind rēimme, TBC-I¹ 3221 . fochertar armgrith mór leo .i. mac sethar ind ríg do folmaisiu a báis, LU 5018 . rola Temair tri crithu [leg. grithu ?] di ┐ rolaiset na sluaigh ... ┐ roláset primdingnai Erenn uile, Anecd. ii 7.19 . Cf. f.¤ dírna, below, III.

(i) performs, executes, wages: f.¤ cath, etc.: fochartatar ... an [leg. na] coin cocluiche `the hounds had a coursing-match' RC xii 72 § 43 . secht catha raláe ma thīr, LL 44b33 (= ro ládh mun tir, 380b41 ). desin rolád ... in cath for fál F. `hence was fought ... the battle at the fence of F.' Metr. Dinds. iii 346.97 . gur laoi is Oilill cath Cláraigh GF, Ir. Monthly 1919, 168 . With FOR of defeated side: in cath ... rolá for leith Chuind, Metr. Dinds. iii 200.17 . With FRI of opponent: co róiltis glied fris, LU 5283 . Cf. anaid sund ... conid rolursa frisin fer n-ucut till I tackle that man LU 5225 . mad comáes nod corad fris `had it been his match in age who opposed him' Metr. Dinds. iv 132. 17 . DO: focerd gliaidh do Aen. 2505 . Cf. focichret for collaib coin congala, RC xxvi 38 § 201 . co rrálat a ndíbeirg for firu Alpan, LU 6725 (`that they may wreak their rapine on the men of A.', Stokes, BDD 21 ). co rrólsat a ndibeirg lais, LU 6729 ( BDD 22 ). f.¤ ár (with gen. of obj.) slaughters; overthrows in battle: fochiuchra for tiugára, LU 4583 (= con curfe, TBC-LL¹ 290 ). focerddat a n-ár ┐ marbait in ríg, LL 242b5 ( TTr. 1910 ). cor muidh for Gallaib ┐ cur ládh a n-ár, RC xvii 351.20 (Tig.). co rolládh a n-ár etir ergabail ┐ marbadh, 355.26 (Tig.). rosceastar sliabh nEthna sruaim tened ... gu ro lae ar daini ┐ cethra ann, CCath. 854 . co ráemid for Gúari corro lad ár cend and LU 9605 . focerdded ār ceann and, BB 428b29 . Cf. co rolad ár mór dib and, Ann. Inisf. 19a14 (988) .

II Used to take the place of an intrans. vb. of motion.

(a) in older lang. in impers. constr., often with inf. pron. obj. (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 310 ff .): facheirt in alios sonos `it puts itself [ = passes] into other sounds' Sg. 4b6 . fosceird dar a cend ┐ sí marb she falls down dead LL 117a29 (cited above, I c). This is evidently the same construction as that in: arnach corathar immoth ... dia seirc that he may not become stupefied from love of them Ml. 68b9 . Cf. dia corastar Saul foir isin nuaim i mboí when S. chanced upon him Ml. 39a3 . bec nacham ralae i nderchoíniud I almost despaired 90c17 . (Cf. becc náchimrala húathbás, BDD 87 Y, where DEU omit becc). ni foichred cnoi díb for lár not one nut would fall LU 7329 ( BDD 97 ; ni rossed cnú díb lár, Eg.). focerd F. cor conidralai for tech mbecc ann, IT i 144.5 . foscerd iarsin i n-araile indsi `they land' RC x 72 (foscairt v.l.). foscerd do inis they come to an island Anecd. i 56 § 45 ; fosceirt, 59 § 74 . dochuamar a tir sunna, ronla a nuaim in Ciclopdai `we landed here and went into the Cyclops cave' Aen. 154 . is and rolasi co Cathbath, LL 259b26 . YBL 109b37 ( IT i 68 ; rolaad sí, Eg.). foscerd ... imonsech fo c[h]osmailess luathrinde they are whirled round (of three opposing sea-currents) Corm. Y 323 . nosuighfedh cid Erind focher[r]ad ind, ib. fotcicher i súan | nimchicher i súan thou wilt fall asleep. I will not LL 147a22 ( PRIA iii 548 ). nach duine rodacuala son foscerded i cess, LL 126a18 . focerd E. i ces a ben do eludh `it grieved E. that his wife had eloped' Ériu xii 188.7 . foscichreth uili i ndāssacht, Ériu ii 136.1 . amal snechtae fosceird i robāne `which is cast into great whiteness' 130 § 99 . fosceird iar sen a muir naill, YBL 6b45 (= focheirdat ass iar sein hi mmuir n-aill LU 1887 ; see section b below). foscerdsom ína cotludh they fall asleep YBL 5a21 = fochairt inna cotlud, LU 1801 . Cf. srethius fair ... in slig conid rallá ina chomsudiu, LU 5148 . rolá didiu i socht ... Mac D. Mac D. became silent ScM. 3 . roslá i socht na hUlto, 9 (= rolá socht mór forra R). focherd A. i serg de A. falls into a wasting sickness LU 10730 (TÉ). ge robatar longphorta slog in domain i n-athfoccus don tigh sin ni rolae tigerna in tige i snimh ... uair ni rabattar ... innmassa occo, CCath. 3337 . is ann sin ro láa [rogabsat; ro ba v.l.] curudha ... for tocbháil a fedhma catha, CCath. 2016 (cf. section c). Cf. ni rola imroll mo urchur cussindiu, LU 3281 .

Exceptionally to express completion of action: ic coistecht fris dóib uile coro láis in tasfénad sin do dénam, LU 1378 (= con roisc, LL 280b32 , corroisc, YBL 120b25 ). Cf. rolāi dí had achieved ' Fianaig. 46 § 9 .

(b) Somet. with reflex. inf. pron.: foscerdat inna buidne form ranks LU 4684 , cf. ro lasat i ndrungo ... ┐ buidne, BB 414b10 . Cf. TBC-I² 246 n. 211 .

(c) hence as intrans. vb. denoting indefinite motion (though some of the following may be corruptions really belonging to section a). lit. and fig.: is and fochichersom ar gním n-aithergaib [sic leg.] `he will resort to' BDD 102 c , (cf. CCath. 2016 cited in section a). focicher crú tria chnessaib blood will burst through skin (?`ich werde Blut ... springen lassen' Wi.) TFerbe 648 . focertat i suan co cenn tri la fall asleep RC xiv 46.17 (cf. YBL 5a21 cited in section a). focherddat Ulaid chuci, LL 124a25 ( Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 6 ). focerd C. a magh mor a aenur `C. found himself on' [went in to ?] IT iii 195.3 . focherd i tracht romra comes to (= anchors in) Anecd. ii 15 § 8 . focerd in long i roibi S. ┐ lenaid for carraic ` struck ' Aen. 1010 . focairt chos in Duind C, ar adairc a chele alighted TBC-I¹ 3656 . focaird forsin cuanlocht na mac tíre came upon the wolf-pack ZCP viii 310.40 . Cf. ar chribais il-leirg ... daceird [focheird v.l.] [my dog] comes upon a pig (?) IT i 162.4 ( LL 208a12 ). fochard and Morrigan ... do tascc an catha `proceeded to proclaim' RC xii 108 § 166 .

Cf. rolaus cian i cein | ar do charait i mbrōn , LL 147a41 ( PRIA iii 548 . Supply cuairt ?).

III In the following idiomatic constructions

(a) with AR (cf. II): ni áil dúib á iarfigid arna rala for cubus áiri lest it distress your conscience Wb. 11b21 (Thes. takes `for' as prep., comparing: act ni roib ní for cocubus, 30a16 ). focerd a chubus som ar tomailt torith na muindtiri `he exercised his conscience about eating the produce' Mon. Tall. 77 . ni ralá do cless n-airiut cosinnocht never troubled (?) thee LU 7562 ( BDD 109 ). ní arná corad mo chiall | arna fordulu no tíag it is not that my mind heeds not the strayings (= that I am not acting intentionally ?) LU 4724 . Michél ... focheird mo menma airi `M. ... my mind is set on him' Ériu ii 92.6 .

(b) In the following the vb. seems transitive: focairddsi menmain for in gilla set her heart on RC xxv 346 § 2 . ní foíchiursa mo menmain for óclach n-aile, TBFr. § 24 . ro láeside menmain fora macsom, LU 2928 . Cf. ráthaigis E. aní sin ┐ focheird a menmain airi she considered it (= was puzzled by it ?) LU 10743 .

(c) focerd dano menma in coca thairis cur bhá slan a sechtmain the cook forgot him (?) till a week passed Lism. L. 1997 .

(d) f.¤ for weighs on, grieves, vexes: na cuirid fortsu sin ... uair fogebum uili in t-olc sin grieve not for that BB 445a37 ( Mer. Uil. 10 ). ralágh [prob. for ro-lá] ... cumha a banchéle for an ríg coma ... imeslān é, ZCP xiii 197.12 . bai aenfer ... fornar laessat na cumscaigthi mora sin `whom those great commotions did not affect' CCath. 1086 . atcuas doséin a mhac do epilt. rolá fair go mór go mbaí hi siurcc, AFM vi 2218.20 . (of rain:) ba moa rolá for muintir Uí D. na frossa ferthana ... inás for ṡlógh an Gh., 2034.2 . ar a mhēd rolā fair gan a ṡlogh dia tharrachtain, Hugh Roe 252.29 (67b) .

ba fou fachart[at]arsom it was for that that they applied(?) it Ml. 64a10 . Cf. ni du choscrad in tempuil storidi ralasom `it is not of the destruction of the ... temple that he has put it (gl. non id ille dixit quod illi dicunt Comm. on Marco P. xiv 58 ) Tur. 80 . ba dō fachairtsam son, ar nicontissed aridisse, RC xi 444.3 (= ba do focerdsom anni sen for Coin C. fodeig arna contissed ..., ZCP iii 247.1 ). (Expl. of cruimther as transl. of premther:) in Bretain ... it ē dorintaiset ┐ is anni as premter dorintaiset. is fair iarom rolaset legnidhe na mB. annīsin: amail is lomm, etc. Corm. Y 211 (= is fáei ... latharsat LB; is foi ... rolasat HM. O'Don., Corm. Tr., renders LB `accordingly the literati of the B. explained it'). ni cian rollā for dāla did not long delay (?) SR 7651 .

(e) f.¤ dírna di = scares (?): fochérd dírna mór din tslóg co luid Medb día chosc, LU 4685 . atracht in slōg uile ara chind ┐ rola dirmae din chath imbi oc teacht isin telaig TBC-I¹ 3288 = ro lá dírna dina cathaib ┐ dina sluagaib ac déscid in láich sin, TBC-LL¹ 5391 . See Hermathena 1931 p. 4 , and cf. f.¤ grith I (h) above.

fris-ócaib

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fris-ócaib or dil.ie/24377

 

Forms: frissocbus

v (for prototonic forms cf. -fresgaib) gets up, mounts, ascends: frisócbat ... as sin na pecdaig co mbrón ... na fíréoin iarom co subu, LU 2099 ( FA 16 ). is and sin frisócbat mna Connacht forsna buidne ┐ fordringtis mná firu do descin crotha Con C., LU 6565 ( TBC-I¹ 2051 ). pret. dobiur fót ... fom chossaib ┐ frissocbus fair for muir, RC ix 494 . laithe ... frisrócaib ar Fíada (i.e. Ascension Day), Fél. May 5 . frisrócaib in gal ... i n-erbruinnib na láech, TTr.² 859 . With acc. of destination: frisrócaib nem, Fél. Oct. 24 . frisrocabsat ríge, Jan. 16. Cf. frisóccabhsad .i. freascrabhsad .i. do eirigheadar suas, O'Cl.

grindell

Cite this: eDIL s.v. grindell or dil.ie/26659

 

Forms: grinnell

n o, m. IGT Decl. § 11.

I the bed of a sea or lake, gravel: gur lá ... in grian ┐ in gainemhain ┐ in grinneall in átha, TBC-LL¹ p. 317 n. 1 . co grian ┐ co grinnell an glanmara, CF 349 . dá cuirthi cleitech étrom indti ní léigfed sí ... [co grinnell , Eg.] íatt, ZCP ii 52.20 ( Maund. 92 ). Do-ragha grinneal a ngleó | ní heó linneadh tana thú, IGT Decl. ex. 468 (also 2121 ). grinneal (: filleadh), DDána 93.38 . co fagann fuachaisi doimne duba innus nac faicter grinneall tar eis, Ir. Astr. Tr. 40.10 . sruth Iordain ... | a gcrinnioll do nocht an mhuir, Ó Héodhusa 250.7 . do conncus grinnioll na fairge, 2 Samuel xxii 16 . ó ghrinnioll an tsrotha, Isaiah xxvii 12.

II bedrock, foundation, floor, bottom: cor' geltadar fér ... co grian ┐ co grindell ┐ co leccoib loma, Acall. 2803 n . tri heillti ... ní faccait ní ar in faithci ... gan ithe co grian ┐ co grindell, ib. 7134 . conair ... teid co lugu na pian co grinell iffirn, Aen. 1395 . ar ghrinneall na deirce at the bottom of the pit, TSh. 579 . go bhfuaduighthear go grian ┐ go grinneall an ghruaim-thighe sin iad, ib. 6645 . atáim ceangailte i láib an ghrinnill `in limo profundi,' ib. 4187 . glan an bhuidhean do bhí id ghrinneall (of a monastery), DDána 122.15 . óltar linn go grinnioll do shláinte, ITS xvii 110.16 .

III Fig. deatach díomusa ... ag éirghe a grinneall chroidhe an díomsaigh, TSh. 7938 . léim do bhreith ... go grinneall na glóire síordhaidhe, ib. 556 . grinnioll grádha a foundation of love, Ó Bruad. i 92.9 . i mbrón go grinneall an imnidh íochtraigh in the deepest depths of sorrow, Hackett xxxix 52.

IV terror, trembling (?): condocorustar i ngrith ocus a ngrinneld do mullach in tighe, Anecd. ii 54.2 . condusrala i ngrith ocus uaman ocus grindell, ib. 61.5 .

íarum, íarom, íaram

Cite this: eDIL s.v. íarum, íarom, íaram or dil.ie/27092

 

(íar+pron. 3 s. n.) adv. In earlier texts usually a temporal adverb. Cf. íarma

1 Referring to past time, thereupon, thereafter, then, afterwards; referring to future time, thereafter, hereafter: dognésu maith frissom et bid maidsom i.¤ `thou shouldst do good to him, and he will be good afterwards,' Wb. 5d39 . biit alaili and rofinnatar a pecthe rosíu (leg. resiu, Edd.) docói grád forru alaili is i.¤ rofinnatar, 29a28 . sanctificarium robu du thabernacuil robu ainm son arthuus templo i.¤ `sanctificarium; it was a name for the Tabernacle at first, Templo afterwards,' Ml. 100b12 . intan dorolaig dia do inn uaill dorigni roícad i.¤ he was healed then, 50d15 . intan tét a laithe dichiunn ... dotét i.¤ imthanu aidche tarahaesi `when the day passes away ... then comes the alternation of night after it,' 21c3 . slechdais-som iarom statim `instantly thereupon he bowed,' Mon. Tall. 130.18 . combed tuaslucud do muindtir ar na tri soldomnaib cenibed i.¤ na riam, 129.28 . nicon arroet i.¤ duine etir after that he refused to receive anyone at all, 135.21 . nogebed pater statim iar neirgi ┐ is i.¤ tindscanad a gabail, 140.12 . nipa menic dogentar fris i.¤ `will not often be made thereafter,' 148.28 . bendacht for cech nduine | ardalégfa íaram ` hereafter ,' Fél. Ep. 216. canaid cét salm ... Foaid for leicc luim i.¤ , Thes. ii 315.6 . dobert i.¤ aircinnecht nime do Lucifer `He afterwards gave ...,' Laws i 26.19 Comm. nach dune do rata a gell, ocus focoissle i.¤ i cain no chairdde `and it was afterwards taken away ...,' v 422.1 . luid in ben úadib íarom `thereupon the woman went from them,' Imr. Brain § 31. `taīt issin less!' Lotar ī.¤ uili isin mbruidin with that they went, ScM. § 5.6 . is í.¤ cona[ccrad Fró]ech issa tech, TBFr. 147. tuc dam cond[a] accatar ind óic. Rot biasu í.¤ you shall have it (back) afterwards, 294 . nibo chían iarom co n-accatar, LU 3273. dorat iarom Cu Chulaind triamnai (sic leg., see ZCP xix 353 ) dia turcbáil ┐ foremmid. Ro riastrad immi íarom iar sudi, 8396 - 7 . aidche bá sáime ... fúaratar ríam na híaram, TBC-LL¹ 5008. in t-apstal do thuarcain o shúnd ar tus ┐ a fhennad i.¤ ┐ a díchendad o chloideb fa-deóid, PH 2141. rochretset anallana ┐ cretfit i.¤ hi Crist `who have believed heretofore and who will hereafter believe in Christ,' 1416 . lotar soir as a haithle do Chorcobhaiscind ... ┐ iaramh go hInis, AFM vi 2106.z .

2 Lost to a great extent, particularly in later texts, its temporal sense, becoming a mere connecting particle,

(a) then, so, accordingly, now : búi alaile anchore .... Mór i.¤ a sáothar, Mon. Tall. 141.2 . airet bés i.¤ a cutrumesi do súg inda curpsom, 150.39 . is dilis i.¤ do deman in fled sin `such a feast is forfeited to the demon,' Laws iii 24.11 . būi īarom oc creim [creimhe] ┐ grotha et reliqua. Asbeart īarom fri Greth ... now he was ... then he said ..., Corm. Y 690. tēt lim ī.¤ ┐ bendachfad dún ... `come with me then and I will bless ...,' BColm. 62.26 . do-tuit dul la hIngcél dochum a thíri. Lotar í.¤ dochum nAlban so they went ..., BDD² 426. ónní í.¤ ros-gab míad ... íad since, then, they were seized with pride, 204 . atá iarom ┐ cathaír glas airgdidi foa sudiu for lár in tige oc sirchoí so he is with a grey silvery chair under him, LU 7517. is é seo iarom forcetul no gnáthaiged A., 2255 . cach óen íarom fil i tír ina náeb is cómfocus dó estecht inna ceól now everyone who is in the land of the saints ..., 1975 . lett-su do roga gascid ... indiu ... Tiagam iaram...bar ar claidbib tromma ..., TBC-LL¹ 3698. a bráithriu inmaine i.¤ ... santaigid in dearc do dénam, PH 5927. atá sibh iaramh ar bhfagháil bháis `mortui enim estis,' TSh. 8707.

(b) In asseveration, verily, indeed: ┐ isí i.¤, ar Fintan, mo buime-sea, in indsi-sea itáthai-si .i. hÉri and this indeed is my foster-mother ..., Ériu iv 128.19 . is adbul íarom ┐ is ingnad fria innisin sudigud inna catrach sin, LU 2074. is iomdha iaramh ardfhlaith ..., TSh. 5947. sochaide i.¤ ... ro-fhódmatar ingreim `in truth, many ... have suffered persecution,' PH 1620. boi i.¤ menma fherrda i n-écosc banda aicce she had indeed a manly spirit ..., 6612 . cia meit i.¤ atai, a Isu how great art Thou indeed!, 171 .

(c) Introducing a contrast, but, however: gaibther i.¤ ar in econn logh fiach do roille `but the adult without sense is distrained for the amount of the debt which he incurs,' Laws ii 46.22 . frisócbat íarom as sin na pecdaig co mbrón ... Na fíreóin íarom co subu ..., LU 2099 - 2100 . is mor glanrúin na croiche i.¤, ol Andrias, dia fesara-su he great, however, is ..., PH 2379. o mboi i.¤ cu forpthi isna gnimu-sin `but when he was perfect ...,' 689 . do forbairt Aedh ... an dunadh ... ┐ ro memhaidh for Aedh n-iaramh but however A. was defeated, AU i 370.5 . soitheach thrá do dhéanamh go n-onóir ┐ soitheach iaramh go n-aithis `... aliud vero in contumeliam,' TSh. 903.

imm-sói

Cite this: eDIL s.v. imm-sói or dil.ie/27928
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: immesoisiu, imsāi, imsoi, im-suí, imsoidi, immesoither, imsoat, imdasuat, imsoadh, imsaitis, nimparrá, nachnimparrae, nimpád, impob, imsoifitis, imid-rae, impo, imorroiset, impaithi, impáid, impáidid, impádaid, impóid, impóidid, impódaid, impaíd, impaigid, impoidid, impos, impas, impoghas, impoit, impait, impabas, impóbas, impaifes, impóidhfidher, iompábhainn, n-impoighidis, n-impádhbaidis, impáis, iompoidis, impáidis, impodais, impaidh, impaiseat, ro-impóset, impaidhseat, impátar, impoatar, imsāi, ro-impod

v indic. pres. s. 2 rel. immesoisiu gl. conuerteris, Ml. 111a6 . s. 3 imsāi, TBC-I¹ 581. imsoi, LU 8880. im-suí, BDD² 140. With suffix. pron. imsoidi, SR 2121. pass. rel. immesoither, Ml. 61a26 . `p. 3 imsoat, SR 1013. imdasuat, BDD² 143. impf. s 3 imsoadh, RC ix 470.9 . p. 3 imsaitis, SR 1125. subj. pres. s 1 with ro : co nimparrá , TBC-I¹ 24 (an analogical formation, see Ériu viii 126 ). nachnimparrae, Corm. Y 756. subj. past s. 3 connach nimpád , Ml. 122a14 . fut. s. 1 ní impob , ZCP i 134.23 . sec. fut. pass. pl. imsoifitis, Ériu ii 142 § 157. pret. and perf. s. 3 imid-rae, BDD² 501. nochor impo , Ir. MSS. Ser. 178.12 . p. 3 imorroiset, AU i 434.14 .

Verb. necess.: bed impaithi gl. convertando, Ml. 125a8 .

Later impáid, impáidid, impádaid, impóid, impóidid, impódaid : indic. pres. s. 1 impáim-si, ITS Sub. xxvi 84 § 12 . s. 3 impaíd, LU 2114. impaigid, Laws iv 56.18 Comm. impoidid, Ir. Astr. Tr. 42.20 . rel. impos, Laws v 268.25 Comm. impas, 438.1 Comm. impoghas, Stair Erc., 1927 . p. 3 impoit, Laws v 132.15 Comm. impait, Ann. Conn. 1296 § 4. fut. s. 3 rel. impabas, Fél. 76.10 . impóbas, BColm. 66.5 . impaifes, TTr.² 979. pass. impóidhfidher, BNnÉ 123 § 73. sec. fut. s. 3 nach iompábhainn , Aithd. D. 14 § 10. p. 3 go n-impoighidis , Donlevy 90.6 . pass. co n-impádhbaidis , Maund. § 55. pret. s. 3 impáis, TBC-LL¹ 201. iompoidis, 1435 v.l. impáidis, BNnÉ 236 § 160. impodais, IT ii2 131.244 . ro impaidh , Stair Erc. 1713. p. 3 impaiseat, D IV 2, 63rb30 . ro-impóset, PH 3770. ro impaidhseat , AFM ii 1068.12 . ra impátar , TBC-LL¹ 6064. impoatar, RC xviii 268.24 (Tigh.).

I trans. turns round, moves, drives: in dæni immesoither dærgud `the swiftness wherewith a bed is turned,' Ml. 61a26 . imsāi (imsói, LU) int ara ... a carpat fōsom, TBC-I¹ 581. gibe impabas hí fo trí, Fél. 76.10 . imsoe (v.l. dointái) reme na sluagu a Modha, TBC-LL¹ 2815. (sóebchore) impaíd immá cuaird anmand inna pecthach, LU 2114 (FA). imsuíthear in chomlai fri cech ndorus día mbí in gaeth, BDD² 283. roimpai in lestar iarsin ┐ dorochair ass in neim he turned over the vessel, Lat. Lives 9.6 . na himpam in curach acht bíd a erais reme, RC x 52.11 . impáidis a bachla ... fo tri túaith[bél] ina ttimceall, BNnÉ 236 § 160. d'fhéachuin graifne each n-áluinn | leath m'aighthe ní iompábhainn, ITS xl 232.23 . d'impó Cú Ch. a aiged arís ar Emhain, Comp. CC 97.4 . ro-impóset a n-aigthi fri nem, PH 3770. iompaigh chuige an [giall] oile, Matthew v 39. iompa thort `turn over [the page],' O'Gr. Cat. 631 n. 1 . Fig. changes: umsai .i. impaigheadh cach menmain, O'Curry 1907 (< 23 P 3, fo. 23(21)d ).

II In intrans. or semi-reflexive sense with and without infix. pron.

(a) turns round, revolves, rotates:

(i) with infix. pron. : connach nimpád `so that he could not turn himself,' Ml. 122a14 . bithir og a foraire ar nachn-imparrae ┐ nach toirmescae neach so that he may not turn round, Corm. Y 756. imasai ar tuaithbel fo thri fair he revolves, Ériu v 122.2 . manid talam imid-rae `unless it is the earth which has turned round,' BDD² 501 (but LU has immid-róe .i. ro-bris, RC xxii 54 § 56 ). immesoid (?) macuairt in grianbruth etracht sin, Ériu ii 100 § 6. immesoi Ruadán ... ┐ geogoin Goibninn, RC xii 94.25 .

(ii) Without infix. pron. : immesoisiu gl. [quae nullo labore] conuerteris, Ml. 111a6 . imsoi deisell ocus do-thoet ina frithlurg, Trip.² 411. (firmimint) immon talmain ... | imsoi on trath co araile, SR 284. cloc bec bis for cinn in muil | uirri impas in mol, Laws i 140.19 Comm. imsoi cusna húathaib ┐ nos cerband; LU 8880 (FB). imsoadh ina crocend, RC ix 470.9 . imsái cách díb dochum a chéli attacks , IT iii 510.673 . im iomdhaidh nach iompábhainn, Aithd. D. 14.10 .

(iii) With suffix. pron. : imsoidi Eua iarsain | do descain anman Adaim, SR 2121.

(b) turns about, goes, returns:

(i) with infix. pron. : immasói in Mac n-Óc for slict Fuamnaige, IT i 132.14 . doluid Patricc ... or muir immesoí de sut sind tracht, Trip.² 903. dorairngired dó Findabair do t[h]abairt dō ┐ immásōi úadib iarsudiu, TBC-I¹ 1478. timnaiss cauch dib celiubrad di alaili ┐ imdisoat go Alpi they go to A., ZCP iii 247.20 . ima-saí a charpat ┐ a arai co mbaí oc Áth Cliath, BDD² 135. gaibid ... a gaisced ┐ imasai isin chath, TBC-LL¹ p. 863 n. 3 . imdasoad immach iarsin `she used to return out after that,' RC viii 150.16 .

(ii) Without infix. pron. : imsaí ina ndegaidh comdar scítha ind eich, BDD² 137. imsoi as Fergus ar sligi cet loech, TBC-LL¹ p. 872 n. 4 . imsóiset rempu i Sliab Fúait, 1315 . imsaitis for deis | ... | cach dib día adbai co glan, SR 1125. impais co hEspoc Eirc `reversus est ad Ercum,' Lat. Lives 107.4 . cu raimpaset na daim otha sin cusan inad a mbui B., 79.7 . doairig Naeisi sin ┐ impodais ara cenn, AU i 434.14 . imsoi ... con luid for (leg. fon ?) Loch Rudraide, Laws i 74.3 Comm. ag imsoi dia eol .i. agh impos conicce in baile as a tuccad hi `a cow which returns by its knowledge,' v 268.18 , .25 Comm. ma do chuaid i n-ailithre ┐ ro impo esti aris, 124.10 Comm. imsáe reme docum na hEtáile, CCath. 385. impobsa co fesar imthusa in ridiri, D IV 2, 67ra27 . do chuir techta dochum Meic Diarmata ... ┐ impait-sin isin tir lasna techtaib sin, Ann. Conn. 1296 § 4. imsaoi Niall cona Ghallaibh ... dia ttighibh, AFM vi 2226.1 . ro impogh Ercuil for culu ... don cathraigh, Stair Erc. 1356. impuide duinn a fritheing na conuire we must turn back ?, ZCP vi 292.z .

Fig.: achtaigim ... co na himpatur hí for culud d'fine erluma `I decree ... that it be not returned' (of an abbacy), Laws iii 78.8 Comm. acht iompam don sgeol ro thionsgnamar, TFrag. 230.14 . rogeall ... nach impobad isna peccadhaibh cedna doridhisi, D IV 2, 70va20 . immpa co lluath co Dia, PH 236. d'impó sén ┐ soladh uain don toisc so, Comp. CC 99.4 . iompóigh ód fheirg bhuirb, Exodus xxxii 12.

III converts, changes:

(a) trans. bed impaithi .i. a doiri hi soiri gl. convertando, Ml. 125a8 . conidnimpaith bron no [ḟ]āilte, Anecd. v 24.14 . cislir fodhla fil forsan mbrōn imidhsūi (.i. impōs é), ib. 16 . imsoifitis iffirn i ligbotha ┐ i taitnemh richidh `they would be turned into radiances and into the lustre of heaven,' Ériu ii 142 § 157. mara nderna ar Tigerna a cétmírbuil an uair do impádh sé an t-uisci a fín, Maund. § 105. cionnas iompoighthear an tarán agus an fíon a bhfuil agus a bhfeoil Chríosd ?, Donlevy 242.z .

(b) intrans. changes, becomes: impoidid se a naduir na talman `it adopts (lit. changes into ) the nature of the earth,' Ir. Astr. Tr. 42.20 . tipra ... imshoi ildatha fri haimsir cach en-laithi `a well ... which turns to many colours,' Ériu ii 112 § 36.

(c) in theological sense converts:

(i) intrans. do-chí an sciúrsa do-chí an cló | sí don iúlsa nír impó, IGT Decl. ex. 53. adúbradur ... co n-impádhbaidis morán do Serrisdinechaib ... do cum creidmi tritt an mirbuil sin `many Saracens ... should be turned to belief,' Maund. § 55. amhuil do ghuidheas an eagluis ortha ... ionnas go niompóighidís, Donlevy 90.6 .

(ii) trans. do iompō sē na Lumbardaig ... a ccreidium chomhlāin na heclaisi, ZCP xiii 184.2 . gurbh e Eōin do impo iat ō arrait ┐ ō ṡechrān, ib. 14 . pass. ? ro-impod sochaide do Romanchaib fo eris ┐ cretim, PH 287.

IV revokes, annuls, abrogates, reverses (a contract, etc.; generally glosses do-intaí) : do innthai flaith ocus fine .i. uair impaigid in flaith ocus in eclais ocus in fine cach cunnrad, iv 56.8 Comm. cuir nach tindtai in t-athair um a mac .i. nocha n-imponn in t-athair um a mac iatt `the father does not reverse them as regards the son,' Laws v 286.9 Comm. atait tri cuir tindtai mac beo-athar .i. impas mac in athar bi im a athair, 438.1 Comm. do intaiter in chair sin .i. impothar in cor sin, 384.4 .12 Comm. as na tindtaigtear .i. as na himpaither ar cul he, 500.17 Comm. ? To this : suith na hathgabala .i. impait na athgabala in ni hisin im a hanad i laim cintaig, Laws i 98.21 Comm.

V With prepositions.

(a) with FOR, AR turns against, revolts against: imda-suat fair co ngaíb `they turn upon him with spears,' BDD § 13. antí díb so impóbas oram-sae, BColm. 66.5 . ro impá form Finnachta | ní bad airdide a fhine, SG 388.37 . as tridsin do impoatar Ulltaigh ... airsium, RC xviii 268.24 (Tigh.). galar do gabail Muirchertaig ... cor' imposat fir Erenn air, 33.15 . cebe minca ro impodh in toici ríamh ar in Róimh, CCath. 512. do impa for a thigerna `he rebelled against his liege-lord,' Marco P. § 64. cid iat ard-maithe Erenn uile do impobadh ar h-ua n-Ainmirech, MR 148.10 . in tan impoghas in sen orum `when fortune turns against me,' Stair Erc. 1927.

(b) with FO attacks, turns upon: imsói fóithib ... ┐ marbthus iat a cethri firu déac, TBC-I¹ 1681. immsóe in Dond Cualngi fa mnáib ... tíri Cualngi, TBC-LL¹ 6201. imma-sái Conchobar iarsin fo slúag Geirg sechnón in dunaid, IT iii 480.245 . imsói fothu, feochar ngal, | Cú na cath is na comram, Metr. Dinds. iii 258.29 . imasai-sium fuithibh-sium ocus trascraid morfesir dib, RC v 199 § 10. dobert a moghadhu ... leis ┐ imsae futhu, CCath. 2445.

(c) with FRI turns against, attacks: is and-sin imsóe Cuchulaind friu ┐ ra gab bar a slaide ... co ros cuir úad na n-ágib minta, TBC-LL¹ 2977. imsoe Cuchulaind friu-som ┐ eiscis a da cend déc díb, 2911 . imsoítis a claidib fríu in tan dognítis gúchomram `their swords used to turn against them when they would make a false contest,' SCC² § 2 (= LU 3235 ). impais in anim fris-in corp ┐ ercid a ferg fria, PH 8219. frit fein impaifes sin ule, TTr.² 979. roimpo a sen ... ris na Gallaib `their good luck turned against the foreigners,' Cog. 116.2 . roimpaised a eich ris fochetoir da ithi `his horses turned upon him forthwith to eat him,' TTebe 2382 .

1 núall

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 núall or dil.ie/33338
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: nuall, nuall, nnúall, núall, nuall, nuaill, nualla, núal, núaill, núaill, nualléigmhi

n o, n. and m. n s. in nuall , Ml. 51c9 , 67b19 ; but: nuall n-ecmacht, Laws v 358.4 ; (with art. ?) a nnúall , Fél. Dec. 28 (by Stokes taken as 3 pl. poss. pron.), cf. an núall-sa, ib. Ep. 163 =a nuall-sa, LB, Laud. g s. in nuaill , Acall. 7280. a p. nualla, LU 2242 ( FA 31 ). g p. núal, LU 9937. For: mo dó núaill `my two cries', ACC 5 ( RC xx 156 ) read with LU 518 : mo donúaill. In Mod.Ir. fem. n s. núaill, Job iv 10 , cf. ac nuall moir, TTebe 3374 (nuallguabha v.l., prob. nuallghuba is right reading), and compd. rathnuaill.

(a) a loud noise in wide sense, whether articulate or inarticulate, harmonious or discordant, sudden or continuous; gen. of noise made by human beings, esp. a concourse of people, but also of natural sounds; in pl. in distributive sense shouts, cries, acclamations, etc. is in nuall dongniat ho ru maith fora naimtea remib, gl. clamor ille militum . . . hostibus fugatis, Ml. 51c9 . nual debtha, Rawl. 106b36 . in nuall dani in sluag im Temair, Cog. 124.27 . nuall ┐ séselbhe na slógh, CCath. 663. nuall na stocc, 3129 . Of joyful sounds: amal guth crot carait nuall (of the heavenly hosts), SR 609. airdric a nnúall suthain . . . cantae . . . in maccáin ó Bethil, Fél. Dec. 28. nuall faelti, LU 2468 ( RC iv 256.4 ). is besad leusom in nuall inna fáilte ho lamaib (consuetudo est in laudatoriis clamationibus etiam manu plaudere), Ml. 67b19 . sluaigh aingeal . . . go núallaibh múisecdha, BNnÉ 273 z . Of mourning: atchluin Cu Ch. íarum in mbrón . . . `Cisi núal so?' for Cu Ch., LU 10438 (Toch. Emere). ferait . . . nualla trúaga torsecha, SCC 31. doronsat nuall ┐ toirrsi, Acall. 3404. nuall .i. gul, O'Cl. Of speech : nuall mbriathar (an outcome of `ira'), ZCP iii 26.31 = Ériu vii 164 x . nuall ┐ immad erlabrai do dénum i n-uair ernaigthe (i.e. loud and verbose prayers), PH 7855. siansa, gáir, núall, éigheamh, Eg. Gl. 537. Of natural sounds: d'énaib . . . oc núall ┐ oc labra mór, RC ix 492.17 ( LU 1835 ). núaill an leomhain roaring , Job iv 10 . nuall dermór toraind, SR 612. co cloisind, núall ri táeb reilcci, fúam na fairrge the voice of the sea thundering outside the churchyard, ZCP v 496 § 4. Eas Ruaid heret aiges núall as long as Assaroe resounds, Ériu iv 150.27 . ard a nuall aiges [in tond] im Choire da Ruad, Anecd. i 12.25 . is bind . . . nuall a sroth, BCC 282.16 .

Common in chevilles, prob. in sense utterance, proclamation, cf. nuall gan ghaoi .i. rádh gan bhréag, O'Cl. nuall cen cleith, SR 2617 , cf. ZCP vi 263 § 7. n.¤ cen lén, SR 6827. n.¤ gan gheis, Lism. L. 1286 = O'Gr. Cat. 625.3 (`a lawful petition'). ba nual co nem, ZCP viii 119.8 . nuall cuimnech, x 347.10 . nuallaib adblib, LL 36b1 . núalaib nél, SR 5805.

In Auraic. 5964 : cend ar nuaill (a species of Ogham in which the names of the letters were transposed) we should perhaps read: c. ara naill one end on the other, see ZCP xvii 302 .

(b) in prosody, name of a class of metrical compositions (including various species of `rathnuaill'): fínít dona nuallaibh, IT iii 93.3 (end of a section).

Cf. 3 úall.

COMPDS.

(a) with noun: ¤cuma state of sorrow and lamentation, Acall. 3988. ¤éigem: pl. nualléigmhi ` outcries ', CCath. 5631. ¤fhoghar, TSh. 6686. ¤gáir, TTebe 1301 . na nuallgartha doronsat . . . a cainedh Gyi, ZCP vi 85.26 ¤gol (gul): nuallghul (= planctus), TSh. 6430. nuallghol, Keat. Poems 672 , 1427 . Isaiah v 29 , lii 5 . ¤grith: nuallgrith na roth (of chariot-wheels), TBC-LL¹ 3311. ¤guba: ferait ind eóin nuallguba dermar, FA 33. co nuallguba ṅdermáir, PH 8201. occ lámchomart ┐ occ nualguba, TTr.² 1576. CCath. 2229. doghníd nuallghubha (= ululant), TSh. 4390. pl. nuallguba mora, ZCP x 412.20 . ro fhiadhfraidh créd d’ime uirre asa ndernaigh an nuallghudhadh dermhār sin, ZCP xxxiii 129 § 2 . ¤guth: pl. gaire truagha ┐ nuallghotha mora, Lism. L. 3636 . ¤organ: nuallorgan sidhe (of fairy music), Acall. 4620.

(b) with adj., prob. in sense loud, resounding or famed: ¤borr: hua Neit in nirt núallbuirr, LL 169a36 . ¤brethach: Niam Nera Nuallbrethaig of famous judgements (?), Anecd. ii 53.8 . Cf. a nemídh nuaillbreathaighe, IT iii 90.1 . gleo . . . neimnech nualdubach, LL 408a44 = TTr. 2226. tir ilcheolach . . . nuallfhaeiltech, Lism. L. 3858 . ¤gnáth: comérig, a Neri nuallgnaith `rufgewohnter N.' (i.e. of constant fame), ZCP xi 80 § 2 . mo Nére nuallgnaid ` eloquent ', O'Gr. Cat. 143.34 = nuallgnaidhe, 144.32 . grad núalnar náebdind, SR 6026.

Cite this: eDIL s.v. sí or dil.ie/37356

 

Forms: í, issi, issi, sí, is, s, sī

pron. 3 s. f., later also í. Lenites in O. and Early Mid.Ir.: issí thol dée . . . anísiu, Wb. 5c22 . is sí chíall, Ml. 94b17 . cisi chiall bís indib, Sg. 217a2 . is sí ḟlaith mucleithe insin, Críth G. 350 . is sí thorrach, IT i 67.4 ( LMU 1 ).

In O.Ir. Glosses, etc., with indic. pres. s. 3 of cop.: issi, Thes. ii 247.1 (Cam.). issí, Wb. 5c22 . Sg. 211a1 . issi, Ml. 45c9 . is sí , Wb. 28d24 . is, 4d18 . Thes. ii 227.32 ( PCr. 59a ). Absolute: s, Sg. 165b3 . sī, Thes. ii 348.4 ( Hy. v ).

The form í, hí first occurs in Early Mid.Ir.: conna hacced nech leo hí, IT i 74.8 ( LMU 11 ). nocharb í ind attrúag imnocht, Sc.M² § 22a . co raib hi isind achad ina ḟíadnaisi, Sc.M² § R 10 .

With emph. and anaphoric pronouns: is hí sin an cuíced bhruigen . . ., Sc.M², § R 1 . is hisin tra ingen iss coiri . . ., IT i 120.10 . ba sí sin tra adaig ro dálsat . . ., LU 9083 ( FB 83 ). sí sin aichni dobiur-sa forru, TBC-LL¹ 1247 . cathair i sidhe co n-ilimud n-oir, Stair Erc. 1224 . coimedadh si í fein co maith, 2451 .

No emphatic form occurs in O.Ir. Glosses; later: sis(s)i, sise, issi; Mod.Ir. sisi, sise: Brí Leth etárru: sisi i nDruim Chéu . . . heisom fris anair, Trip.² 992 . `dlegtair' or sisi `samaisci móra . . .', IT i 72.16 ( LMU 9 ). `ni pam slán-sa ám' or issi, IT i 72.1 ( LMU 7 ). armad sissi a ṡiur-sium cona hingenruid, IT i 144.32 . ol sise, BDD² 546 . ceist ol sisi cia th'ainmsiu, LU 10774 (TE). misi i nÉrind fós | sisi (isi, v.l.) hÉri fás, Ériu iv 130.x . `dá ndearnta sin' ar sise, TD 20.26 . atpert sisi, Stair Erc. 523 .

For usage cf. 1 é, 2 í.

I Immediately follg. copula: issí in bánmartre du duiniu intain scaras ar Dea fri cach réet caris, Thes. ii 247.1 (Cam.). is tol dǽ forchanat et ni sí dongníat, Wb. 30c12 . issí rún ind forcill-sin no pridchim-se, 28b7 . issí dano in chiall hísin araḟocladar som quando dicit . . ., Sg. 209b26 . is sí ḟlaith mucleithe insin, Críth G. 350 . is sí in bríg uile | serc mór . . ., Fél. Prol. 147 . bid sí ben bías im ḟarrad-sa, IT i 71.6 ( LMU 6 ). corop si cetathe . . . ria mnáib, LU 8825 ( FB 62 ). ba hí eóchain de ilenaib ilerda . . . atchondaic-sium, TBC-LL¹ 5068 . is sí an chúirtse . . . | uaimh an leomhain, TD 16.42 .

II With the interrogative: cesí, cisi, císí: cid chenél nó cesí aram `what is the gender or what the number', Sg. 197b3 . cisi chiall bís indib, 217a2 . co n-eperthae cia aiccent ┐ cisi aimser derb thechtas, 26a6 . císí suillse mór sucut?, BDD² 591 . cisi airm hi tá Labraid?, LU 3620 (H).

III With is, ocus and acht: Muire ógh is í re n-iodhnaibh, DDána 17.6 . ┐ sí ar snámh, IGT Decl. ex. 501 . is sí sobhúalta, ex. 1282 . ni bhí ag gach gabháil dar gheabh, | acht sí d'ḟagháil ar éigean, TD 17.4 . ┐ si co mbron ┐ co mímenmoin, Stair Erc. 1168 . ┐ í ard, TSh. 55 .

IV Independent: sí feisine it itself (viz. the letter l), Sg. 165b3 .

V As subject of copula: ar n[o]corb álic duitsiu hí, LU 4020 . sí ar ḟéagain dob éagsamhail `curious was it when considered', TD 15.30 . ógh do bhí gan iomdhaidh í, DDána 17.6 . dobudh uathbhásach . . . ré faigsin í, TSh. 55 .

VI As object of trans. vb.: taghaim í dom anacal, DDána 1.14 . cor cuir a mainistir caillech ndub . . . hi, Stair Erc. 889 .

VII As subject of passive vb.: sí le héigean go n-aghar | ni héidear . . ., TD 17.3 . do posadh ris í asa haithli, Stair Erc. 1141 . Cf. ni héidear í d'átaghadh, TD 17.3 .

VIII As subject of active vb.: rug báire ar gach aonlocht hí, DDána 32.5 . tháinig sí, 17.6 . gé bheith sí ar an slighidh móir, TD 7.25 . gur thruaill si a chorp uili, Stair Erc. 2509 . coimedadh si í fein co maith, 2451 .

IX Acc. after prep.: eidir sī ┐ in Rōimh, Fl. Earls 96.2 .

X As nominative with ol (see GOI § 408 , § 825 ): is midlachda no taí ol si, LU 8776 ( FB 58 ). `mórgním donringénsam' ol sí, TBFr. 138 .

soillse

Cite this: eDIL s.v. soillse or dil.ie/38344
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: soilse, soillsi

n , f. (solus) O.Ir. soilse.

(a) brightness, light : léos .i. soillsi, Corm. Y 827 . sūil quasi sol, ar is treithi atā soillsi do duine. suilsi ab eo quod est sūil, 1129 . lux .i. solsse, ZCP viii 173.18 . lumen .i. s.¤ , Ir. Gl. 998 . hóre ammi maicc lai et soilse, Wb. 25c6 . ó soilsi deachte Crist `by the brightness of Christ's Godhead', 26a17 . is dǽ int soilse `the light is God's', Ml. 140c5 . cia beith soilse isind lau ní soilse do neuch bís i mbrón , 108a11 . du deicsin soilse dǽ `to see the light of God', 56a17 . dond fritobairt maill fritataibret na dorche don ṡoilsi `from the slow opposition with which the darkness opposes itself to the light', Sg. 183b3 . co cenn blīadne bái soillse, Thes. ii 319.6 ( Hy. ii ). sossaid Aingel co soillsib, SR 533 . combad coitchenn a suillsi don tegluch, LU 9199 ( FB 92 ). ba hairecna . . . in tsuillse mór sin, BDD² 589 . ba lór suilse isind rígthaigh a cumtach fil forna tinnib, 772 . se sinistri . . . do thaithnemh soillsi treithib, Laws i 28 x Comm . ni sorche suilse ind ítharni, ZCP viii 175.19 . ní bhí s.¤ i dteinidh ifrinn, TSh. 6172 . a riochd aingil na soillsi, Desid. 4061 . athair na soillsedh, Mac Aingil 12.12 . re soillsi an lai, TTebe 3929 . lear soillsiodh saighnēan neimhneach 'the multitude of flashes of deadly lightning', Celtica xxvi 102 § 31 . Attrib. g s.: de lubib soillsi airthir bethad, TBC-LL¹ 3734 . sutrall soillsi a shining candle, Ériu i 39 § 8 .

(b) a light, lamp : comba soilse siu sicut Christus lux est , Wb. 22c3 . tarrastair int ṡoillsi dil (of the sun), SR 5109 . do chuir Murchadh s.¤ dá lasadh dhóibh, PCT 346 . do dhéana tú a seacht soillsibh sin `thou shalt make seven lamps thereof', Exodus xxv 37 . an té do rinne soillsighe móra (i.e. the heavenly bodies), Psalms cxxxvi 7 .

(c) Fig. light, illumination: a lumine ueritatis .i. ó soilsi etarcni dé, Wb. 1b18 . co tartad sollsi eolais ┐ irse do Thomas, PH 6771 . do thabhairt shoillsi don chuid dar ndúthaigh nách tuigeand theangtha eile, Desid. 23 . madtha soillsi fhiadhan ┐ tsencaidh agat, O'Curry 444 ( H 3.18, 238b ).

tan, tain

Cite this: eDIL s.v. tan, tain or dil.ie/40004

 

Forms: —n, tain, thain, tain, andand, dan, tain, tan, tanaib, tan, —nd, —nn, tand, tand, dann, tann, indand, tan, tan

n [ā ?],f. (nach th.¤ , III (e), cech th.¤ (g)). But with m. pron. is hé t.¤ , TBFr. 157 (see Gloss.). an tan-sain gá dtámaid ris, DDána 20.24 . Orig. form not clear, the word occurring, in old exx., only in conj. and adv. phrases. Apart from the phrases iar tain (III (k)) and do thain (III (j)), where the d s. in palatal —n is regular, the form tain is found only in the Glosses : ? d s. nach thain , Ml. 32b7 , 39a23 . ? a s. in tain , Wb. 4a27 (cf. andand, Mon. Tall. 152.23 etc. an dan , DDána 106.8 etc.). alaili tain , Sg. 222b1a . in tan , Wb. 33d10 , Sg. 190b3 , Tur. 60.106 . See Thurn. Hdb. § 156 , Études Celt. iii 102 . d p. iar tanaib , see III(l). The usual form passim is tan. Also with final —nd, —nn : an tand , Mon. Tall. 148.22 . in tand , BDD² 1496 . in dann (: ann), IGT Decl. ex. 281 (so frequently in syll. verse. But tann : sal, PBocht 12.8 ). taun, Ériu ii 95 § 6 (but : damh ?). ZCP iii 451.14 .

I time, while, point of time : an t.¤-sain gá dtámaid ris that occasion I am referring to, DDána 20.24 . fá gar liomsa do bhí an t.¤ , Measgra D. 44.11 . ? mitan .i. miaimser, O'Mulc. 824.

Most frequently, however, in conj. and adv. phrases :

II In conj. phrases usually temporal, but also somet. causal, final, and conditional. With foll. rel. clause (in O. Ir. usually with relative —n—). Cf. indand imbaoi, Mon. Tall. 162.14 .

(a) tan.

(i) when, whenever . With subj. : t.¤ tiastae when (-ever) they come, Fél. Ep. 470 . t.¤ tissaid, SR 3501 . With indic. : t.¤ nad bi, SR 1199 . t.¤ bīs, ACL iii 307 § 17 . t.¤ atchess | Crimthan, Hail Brigit § 7 . t.¤ ragat when I shall go, ZCP vi 266 § 11 . Cf. is hé t.¤ dolluidsi ón, TBFr. 157 .

(ii) Causal seeing that, since : t.¤ is d'oencraunn ... | nad leic duib ni do thormailt seeing that there is one tree He does not allow you to eat of, SR 1247 . cia is tslúag ná digni m'amles | t.¤ is tussu rogni inse ?, 6147 . t.¤ na taibret dia n-aire na piana, Ériu iii 29 § 2.

(b) in tain, in tan.

(i) when, whenever . With subj. : in tain bes ninunn accobor lenn, Wb. 4a27 . in t.¤ nád nacastar, 25b28 . ind dand dondecmised when this happened to him, Mon. Tall. 143.6 . With indic. pres. : in tain nombíu, Wb. 20a3 . in tain téte, 9a3 . in tain diagmani, 3a15 . in t.¤ arallegthar a briathar, 9b3 . in t.¤ mbíte cen tuisliu, Sg. 220b1 . ind t.¤ mbís, Mon. Tall. 132.29 . in t.¤ as n-áil dó whenever he likes, BDD² 850 . comadh ann no beth fīr dé uadha in t.¤ na fadhuibh fīr daoine in the case in which, Laws iv 294.24 Comm. an t.¤ ríoghthar neach, TD 7.4 . With pret. and perf. : in tain rombói, Wb. 2c5 . in tain ronmoitsem, 17a13 . in t.¤ dorolaig, Ml. 50d15 . in t.¤ dobreth, Thes. ii 308.17 . in t.¤ ronánicc a leass, 348.2 . in t.¤ luid, SR 7658 . in t.¤ ro scáig, BDD² 1089 . a thriath an tann do shéan, DDána 39.7 . an tann far thochail [sí] thú, Dán Dé iii 26 . With impf. : ind t.¤ noteigdis, Mon. Tall. 129.17 . With fut. : in tain ronicfea, Wb. 14a25 . in t.¤ doregasu, TBFr. 348 . an tann nach bia, Dán Dé x 27.

(ii) until, before : nīcon-dam C. ... leth-éill a bróci do bein de, in t.¤ bói oc tidnocul a beōil ... dona hublaib did not wait for the lace of one shoe to be untied before he began to help himself to the apples, MacCongl. 47.9 . nír cian do ann in t.¤ tainicc A., Stair Erc. 1202 . ní riacht le C. an tsleg do tharraing an t.¤ do sháidhetar ..., ML² 1246 . ní mōr comhnaighthe do righneadur ... in t.¤ tánagdar, Cín Lae Ó Meall. 12.9 .

(iii) Causal since, seeing that : ni hansa do nách aili for mbrethugud ... in t.¤ na hantai fo cocertad M. ┐ A. it is difficult for another to judge you seeing ye abide not by the decision of M. and A., LU 9003 ( FB 75 ). in t.¤ tra is iat na marb-duile ... ro-chóiset a ṅdúilemain ... is in mor-mo is coru do na beoaib ... a chóined, PH 3368 . in t.¤ nad ḟúair ... eill fair, RC iii 184.29 . an t.¤ nachar fhéad, Gadelica 127.563 . Cf. MR 62.2 .

(iv) Final that : cia maith fil for do cheilesiu ... in t.¤ doberandsi mo chaire dó that I should give him my cauldron, FDG 417 . Cf. cia maith fogniat, in t.¤ moltair sech cách, TBC-LL¹ 415.

(v) Conditional if : cid in t.¤ ná torsed Forand chucu even if Pharaoh should not return to them, Ériu iv 142.7 . maddis fir mōra na hindsi asa taed donīstais conmeltais ar grīan in t.¤ is mac bec dogní in airbert ucut if the grown men of the island whence he comes should come to us they would grind us to dust if a small boy is capable of that performance, Ériu i 114 § 3 . ? Here also : in t.¤ astoidet .ix. ngraidh nimhe ... ┐ in t.¤ bas giliu in grian ... oldaas innossa, soillsighfid tairsib sin uile etrachta gnuisi ind Righ, ii 142 § 155 .

(c) nach tan whenever : nach t.¤ ronecat a les, Ml. 58d5 . nach t.¤ atraig ┐ ... nach dand suides, Mon. Tall. 140.19 . nách t.¤ tosnaidle súil ind ríg, LU 7829 (BDD). Cf. longud gibē t.¤ tairi, ZCP vii 297.3 .

(d) ón t.¤ since : ón tann theasdá `now that he is not with them,' Aithd. D. 6.34 . ón tann tárraidh, TD 17.64 .

III In adv. phrases.

(a) tan of old, once : roraid Gád fri Dauid t.¤ , SR 6853 . is and atá Túathal t.¤ `from of old,' Metr. Dinds. iv 206.49 . robói t.¤ tall issin tig `meanwhile' (?), iii 326.42 .

(b) tan ... tan (aile) ... sometimes ... sometimes : rochathaigsetar fri Bretnu ... t.¤ ba leo. T. aile ba forro, LU 223 . t.¤ do bhínn mar aon is Niall | ... | t.¤ do bhínn mar aon is Corc, Content. i 9.

(c) tan ann now and again, sometimes : t.¤ ann tuccad staic dīb co beōlu in rīg, MacCongl. 101.z . t.¤ ann, is í a ben gáeil fen phósas, PH 7790 . t.¤ ann ... t.¤ aile sometimes ... sometimes , 3995 . t.¤ ann ... feacht aili, Lism. L. 700 - 713 .

(d) (ro) buí tan once .

(i) With foll. rel. clause : dobí t.¤ ba coll-chaill, Metr. Dinds. i 2.17 . ro boí t.¤ rop inmain lim, LU 3962 ( SCC 45 ).

(ii) As independent adverbial phrase : rí rosáer Eoin bai t.¤ , SR 7401 . ropa chliamain ro bái th.¤ | do ríg Themra, SG 367.33 . for a ccomhfhuilidhibh ro bhaoí t.¤ on their one-time kinsmen (?), AFM vi 2254.4 .

(e) nach thain, than at any time, at some time or other : nach thain gl. quando, Ml. 39a23 . cip é gellas dít nach th.¤ `en tout temps,' Études Celt. iii 99.12 . cia no trebaind sund nach th.¤ , RC xiv 410.16 .

(f) alaili tain gl. quando, Sg. 222b1a .

(g) (in) cech than at all times, constantly : snim ocus saethar cech th.¤ , SR 1455 . Mac Dé, Dia deoda cech th.¤ , 7569 . láiset gair cáine cach th.¤ , Metr. Dinds. iii 50.33 . is bennachta in cach th.¤ , SR 2167 . nach cuala tu in cach t.¤ , TBC-LL¹ 2353 . fer sochair soim in cach th.¤ , ZCP viii 120.2 .

(h) in tan sin then : LU 3458 ( SCC 24 ). tunc oblati sunt ... .i. in t.¤ sin atdopartha, ZCP viii 173.z . Stair Erc. 1050.

(i) in tan-sa at this time, now : ba h-imper is-in Róim ... in t.¤-sa, PH 360 . id chonchlann an tannsa ó tám ` now ,' Content. ix 1 . an dannsa, Aithd. D. 73.2 .

(j) do thain suddenly, immediately : gabais fearg mor Cairnech do thaín, Todd Nenn. 182.12 . gabais do thain ar Aedh comrac `immediately took upon himself to fight him,' 15 .

(k) iar tain afterwards, then : gl. `post' praepositio, Sg. 220b5 . Tur. 85 a . ri rodelb dluma iar tain, SR 37 . da ni iarum aithrechus iar dain, Laws iii 12.14 . marb E. iardain, RC xxiv 176.6 . brath in Righ atrae iar tain, Ériu iii 196 § 20.

(l) iar tanaib afterwards, then : in tress-ainm dó iar tanaib `in after days,' Metr. Dinds. iii 308.69 . luid ... iar tanaib, Todd Nenn. 234.105 . co roélaisead ... a hEspáin iar tanaib isan indsi-se, Ériu iv 142.14 . xii 154.6 .

(m) ré tan for a time : caoimhchletha do clódh ré t.¤ | daoirchetha ón mbrón dá mbáthadh, Gleanings from Irish manuscripts 14 § 1.