Search Results

Your search returned 21 result(s).

ar-meil

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ar-meil or dil.ie/4203

v (meilid): cuit i mmuiliunn co n-airmil a muintir which grinds for his people, Críth G. 155 . muilenn—a chuit i suidiu conid n-airmil which grinds for him, 192 .

búalta

Cite this: eDIL s.v. búalta or dil.ie/7261

n cf. 1 búaile. dung, ordure: ro lá b.¤ meit cind bó / ar ómon mo ruanadó, LU 9677 ( ZCP iii 214.10 ). Note also: magairlín meidhireach, meil na mbualtaibh (mbualta, mbualthach, mbuailte, v.ll.) (prescribed in love-charms), ZCP v 213.341 (Midn. Court).

coimliscid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. coimliscid or dil.ie/10244

v do choimlisg an phoimp . . . leis an onóir has mingled , Trompa na bhF. 4437 . Vn. arna gcoimleasc . . . do phoimp = meslé, 2752 (ccumasg, v.l.). Conflation of coimil (con-meil ) and coimeasg? Gloss.

commailt

Cite this: eDIL s.v. commailt or dil.ie/11488
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: comailt, coimeilt

vn. of con-meil . comailt coimeilt .c. (cumailt cuimilt .l.) f., IGT Decl. § 42 . comailt coimilt .c. (cumuilt cuimilt .l.), Verbs § 46 . act of crushing, grinding, rubbing : oighe choimealta na gclogad / an cloidhemhsa ag C., IGT Decl. ex. 1194 . le comailt na mball (way of curing hiccup), O'Gr. Cat. 193.33 . dentar . . . coimilta na mball foirimillach, 215.32 .

In phr. do-beir c.¤ for crushes, rubs : dabered díanchommilt fair etera rigthib `he would crush him quickly', TBC-LL² 3923 . on foillgiud .i. on chomailt doberdis . . . forsna claro, Auraic. 1756 . Cf. ni ba comailt for serblind `a grinding of oats(?)', Hib. Min. 71.5 . With follg. prep. in sense rubbing, touching with; applying to: oca chomailt co cloich, O'Mulc. 420 . pota nua ar coimilt ghloine de coated with glaze, O'Gr. Cat. 209.35 . ar gcoinsiasa atá ar n-a gcumailt d'fuil Iosa Criosd `sprinkled', Carswell 122.9 . sug in lossa do cuimilt fæthi, Auraic. 5572 . cuimilt riú . . . / ní fiú th'aighneas `to deal with them', Content. xxii 20 . cuimeilt ré himeall a éuduigh = touch, Mk. vi 56 . salann do chomeilt imme, PH 1144 . dlighid co minic in draint do coimilt le mer, Irish Texts v 46 § 30 . See commlith.

con-meil

Cite this: eDIL s.v. con-meil or dil.ie/12210
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: coimlid, cuimlid, comlaid, commailt

v (* com-mel-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 577 ) later coimlid, cuimlid, comlaid. IGT Verbs § 46 . rubs (together), grinds; attacks, consumes, destroys : cuimil, bean, Eg. Gl. 201 . C. . . . c.¤ morgala performs great feats of valour, LL 13470 . gabaid eter a dí láim ┐ cotmeil, LU 6075 (TBC). cutanméla mulend múadmraich will grind us (fig.), LU 8697 ( FB 52 ). conmelat namait Nīallmaige, RC xxvi 36 § 182 . tuc D. cach lus n-íce conammalt (with perf. -ad-) ar T.S. and he grated them, Dinds. 108 . conmeltar he it will be used up, BLism. 164va32 ( SG 324.9 ). coimleadh an corp he must rub, Reg. San. 21.9 . coimeolaidh a sron, 23 K 42 347.2 0.

With prepp. toficfat Ulaid . . . ┐ coto[b]mélat ar múr ┐ grían, LU 5558 `will grind you to earth and gravel', Faraday 47 . conmel eter mo lamaib hé, LU 6711 (TBC). cotnomalt eter a di bois, 9072 . cotamfoltsa, 9408 . commail uilchi smerthain dam-sa latt rub on, LU 5757 = comail, TBC-I¹ 1286 . tabar . . . fuil laeig . . . dam coro commilter dam, LL 38612 (Bórama). conamailt (conamelt, v.l.) saill . . . foa, Corm. Y 883 (76.11) . cotmeil foraib `flings herself upon them', Cymmr. xiv 120 § 20 . conmelt foroib he attacked them, TBC-I¹ 2887 . con-melfi (sic leg.) dorni fri détu, MacCongl. 95.20 . comail dom dhéad do bhas bhán, DDána 42.22 . ? nach dech fa choillidh an cin / do choimil ech re himeal, IGT Verbs ex. 416 . ná cumail ruind don't touch me(?), ex. 409 . chuimlios re ceannairg = that meddles with strife, Proverbs xxvi 17 . comlis in mil ┐ in salann in cach staic iar n-urd `rubbed . . . into', MacCongl. 63.11 . ? srīan frit c[h]ridi crūaidh cumail, ZCP vi 264 § 5 . ? mar do commiltea i corcair, IT iii 246.104 . ní . . . 'na ccuimlionn sé a theanga (of a goat), Párl. na mB. 1529 . coimlet ... toes imot chend, Trip. 458.21 . diar fumalt (.i. diar chommil) cacc na mbó 'moa chend, LL 22495 ( inna chend, Ériu ii 22.2 ). antan chrathas, & choimhleas an Spiorad naomh ar gconsiasne les an fhuil choisraca sin = aspergit 'sprinkles', Adtimchiol 328b7 .

Vn. commailt.

daire, doire

Cite this: eDIL s.v. daire, doire or dil.ie/14268
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: dairiu, dairib, doirib, doireadha, doire, doiridhe

n io, probably neuter.

I An oak-wood. d s. dairiu, Thes. ii 238 pass. (Arm.). intan tiagair fora hiarair na cille isin daire, Fél. 130. 7 . co rabi daire torthech i niarthar Maige Mache ┐ ni bái riam daire bid torthechu, LL 169 a 55 . (na mucca) oc saigid in daire, ib. 169 b 1 . dollotar nammucca fo bolud in daire, ib. 169 b 2 . ruaddaire romór bar lár machaire, ib. 176 a 10 . doss donnbaile deghdaire, ib. 385 b 13 . meas daire air gach coill, ITS iii 22. 8 . d pl. dairib, LL 156 b 16 . 157 a 3 . doirib, Acall. 345 . —LOC. Onomast. FM Ind. Loc. co nDairiu Mór co nDairiu Medóin co nDairiu Fidas co nDairiu Méil , Ardm. 17 a 2 ( Thes. ii 238. 11 . Trip. 338. 11 ). i nEchdromma Dairiu, Fél. May 7 . Daire Echdromma, ib. 130. 6 . Daire Bruchas Derrybruchais Rawl. 92 a 18 . Domnall Daire, MacCarthy 430. 10 .

II A grove, thicket : masa dairi feda feirn as chaill chairn 'a grove of alder' MU2 426 , Études Celt. xxv 125 . fritha a diamraib a doirib ó siabraib ó sídaigib, LL 155 b 38 . ger dlúithi na dæredha ZCP v 22. 1 . gur ba saṁalta ré doire doisleathan deaghdhlúith, CRR p. 86. 7 . adciad doire dosach diogainn, AFM vi 19. 20 , 26 . doire lomthiugh, ML 84. 21 . eoin a doirib díamaire, Acall. 732 . daire coille a wooded grove OCT 13 § 16 . pl. doireadha, ib. 17 . Of apple trees: inis ┐ doire aluinn dabluibh cubra innti. Sruth tre lar in doire, RC xiv 42. 12 . barrghar in doiri, ib. 14 . Of nettles: baile fás folamh...┐ doireadha neannta ann, Atlantis iv 144. 33 . OCL 29 . A thicket, a den (resort of animals): cuife doire pruchlais garadh cúas, Eg. Gl. 138 ( ACL iii 150 ). fuathas cúas doire tuinidh[e], ib. 318 .

III Metaph. a dense cluster, a dense mass

(a) of weapons: slegdaire slindgér na ngái, TTr. 1447 , cf. TTr.² 890 . doiri dia narmaibh uasa cennuibh, Lism. L. 3250 . co facatar na muighe lánu do scellbolccaib scieth ┐ do dairibh slegh, CCath. 3532 . C IV 3, 8 a 2 . 7 . co facatar na dairedha dlúithi dígainne ic dírged dá saigid, CCath. 4935 . rotóccbait dairedha dígainne do slegaibh slipta, ib. 5345 . tógbhaid doireadha doinnghéara dá sleaghaibh loinneardha CRR 82. 1 . cu ndoiri slegh, ZCP i 366. 19 .

(b) of warriors: tángadar rompa ina ndoiredib...┐ ina mbuidnib, Celt. Rev. ii 306 . rocheimnighsiot...ina ndoiredhaibh dlúithe doscaoilte, AFM vi 2060. 27 .

(c) of verse and poetry: eol dam i ndairib dréchta, Rawl. 88 a 20 . i n[d]airib dána, IT iii 106. 10 .

MOD. doire, m. pl. doiridhe.

dénmas

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dénmas or dil.ie/15464

n u, later o, m. (dénum) IGT Decl. § 27 .

(a) build, shape, form: a roga dealba ┐ denmasa fair, Fen. 18 . co mbuaidh crotha ┐ caemdhenmusa, ZCP vi 27 . co mbuadh ndeilbhe ┐ go ndenamhas, i 124 .

(b) act of making or producing, formation: iar nemcaemachtain denmusa i n-a ndligid when it had been impossible to build them up properly (of fences), Laws v 270.22 Comm. tes . . . is cuis denmhusa don fionnfadh heat is the cause of the growth of hair, 3 C 19, 53rb3 . isi seo uindimint an gilcaidh do reir mu dhenmasa fein according to my own preparation, 23 P 10, 64a29 . lán do dhéanmhus . . . ann féin, Desid. 2599 ` affectation ', Gloss., q.v. As quasi-verbal noun in sense of dénum: bói ac denmus (denmuus , MS.) a légind, MacCongl. 9 . lucht dénmhusa bine buirb, IGT Decl. ex. 4 . Act of proving: ro-bōe ic dēnmus chundrada, ZCP xv 345 § 35 .

(c) Various. Concrete, that which is made, a structure, building, etc.: fri loscud in dúine ┐ in denmusa olchena, Dinds. 27 ( RC xv 327 ). Gramm. construction, function: as iad sin a denmusa do reir laidni (of Lat. quid used as pron. and adv.), Laws v 4 . d.¤ neith practical effect or result: an chéid-déanmhas neith do thiocfadh ón fhíréantacht úd .i. an réasún do ghiall do Dhia, TSh. 2891 . chúig déanmais neith, 2887 . Hence as gramm. term, finite form of a vb. connected with an abstr. noun (a concrete action as opposed to an abstract idea): dícheal (on dearmad), `ní dhíchél' a dhénmhus neith, IGT Introd. § 63 . mleith, meil ┐ do mheil a ndenmhus neith, § 66 ; cf. §§ 151 - 5 . persana oibrigthi gan d.¤ neith iad (of foghal and similar vnn.), Verbs § 83 .

do-meil

Cite this: eDIL s.v. do-meil or dil.ie/18087
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: tomil, -thoimled, do-m-meil, du-melam, d-a-melat, dorromiul, tormal, d-a-romle, doroimle, -toroimle, tormala, -thormalat, d-a-melad, thoimled, doromlad, do-s-melmais, domeltis, -tomel, -thoiméla, doromult, tormult, dus-ro-mailt, dorumalt, tormailt, doromaltatar, toml-, toiml-, tomel-, toiml-, tormal-, rothormala, toimél-, doróimless, doromel, tarmaltad, tormalt-, tomailt

v (* to-mel-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 577 ). Ipv. 2 s. tomil, Wb. 6c7 . 3 s. -thoimled, 11b18 . Indic. pres. 3 s. rel. do-m-meil , 6c7 . 1 pl. du-melam, 13c12 . 3 pl. d-a-melat, 10c3 . Subj. pres. 1 s. dorromiul, LL 285b38 . arna tormal , Ml. 119b6 . 2 s. d-a-romle, FB § 62 . doroimle, § 17 . 3 s. -toroimle, Laws ii 374.11 . cia tormala , 342.3 . 3 pl. -thormalat, ZCP xiii 28 § 4 . Impf. 3 s. d-a-melad, Wb. 10d3 . nach thoimled , 11b18 . doromlad, Ml. 36a29 . 1 pl. do-s-melmais, Ml. 111b15 . 3 pl. domeltis, Wb. 10c3 . Fut. 1 s. -tomel, LL 285b38 . 3 s. -thoiméla, FDG² 8.229 . Perf. 1 s. doromult, Corm. s.v. fogamur . ní tormult , Wb. 18a10 . 3 s. dus-ro-mailt, IT i 109.4 . dorumalt, SR 2909 . dia tormailt , 2804 . co tormalt, 6171 . 3 pl. doromaltatar, PH 5109 . In Mid.Ir. often treated as simple vb., stem toml-, toiml- (somet. tóiml- in LB); subj. tomel-, toiml-, tormal- ( co rothormala , PH 5080 ); fut. toimél-; s.-pret. (by back-formation 1 s. doróimless, Fél.² cxl gl. Sept. 8 . 3 s. doromel, MacCongl. 7.3 ). ná tarmaltad , LU 4281 , is perh. a pret. pass. formed from stem tormalt-.

Vn. tomailt (see also tormailt).

Spends, consumes, uses up: quia luna tomel diem solis 'since it is the moon which consumes the solar day' Ériu lvii 13-14 (Munich Computus) . toimhéla .i. caithfidh, O'Cl.

(a) Esp. of food eats: edo .i. domeilim, Corm. Y 774 . edo toimlim, 619 . léic uait inna biada milsi et tomil innahí siu dommeil do chenél, Wb. 6c7 . ce dumelmis cech tuari, 10c21 . tomail in séire, SR 2905 . gebid in mbairgin-sea ┐ tómlid hi, PH 2989 . cip é thóimles bairgin in choimded, 5342 . toiméldait . . . corp ┐ fuil in choimded, 2998 . mine thomhlidh m'fuil 's mo c[h]orp, RC xxxvii 345 § 7 . atbél-sa . . . mani tomliur in lus sin, Trip.² 2349 . rotbia fiss uilc ┐ maithiusa acht co tomli aen uball don chrund, MacCarthy iii 52.25 . ceand cach mbíd int iesc, ar do tomail Isu é, Corm. Y 736 . toimleth in ingen (= bibebat), Lat. Lives 68.8 . ni thoimlit fín tria bithu, Marco P. 175 . feoil ┐ bainni notomuiltea leo, 36 . co tormolaind mo lór dona lendaib somillsi, MacCongl. 83.11 . nír thóimless mír no banna, 23.23 . lansoer in sealb domelar fer ┐ arbur; letsaor int sealb na tomelar acht fer no arbur nama the grass and corn of which is used for pasture or food, Laws iv 20.24 Comm. bundsacha . . . do chur os na lothraib asa tomlitis na coerig a cuitig, LB 114a24 . immalle dathómlitís a próind, RC ii 392 § 22 . co tormalaind praind, Metr. Dinds. iii 390 . is annsin domeilti feis Temrach, RC xv 283 § 26 . doroimliur in fleid dot méis may I partake of, ZCP i 497.11 . an bord dia rothomail in Slanaightheoir in suiper deigenach, Fl. Earls 200.10 . ind fhairend rotomlithea ó biastaib, RC xxv 236 § 6 . Used absolutely: nir thomail ┐ nír suan C. co matain, FB § 57 . ní choitél, ní thoimél, MacCongl. 61.25 . in clar ar ar thomail Naem Muiri, YBL 169a50 . rothomailset comdar doithenaich, RC xxiv 196.10 . Ruminates: na raip domela[t] na ba . . . na ruip na toimela[t] na capuill . . ., O'D. 585 ( H 3.17 446 ).

(b) Of time: ar ná tormal mo saigul n-uile i ndóiri that I may not spend my whole life, Ml. 119b6 . is amlaid domel Conchobar a fhlaith: a trian ind lái oc decsain, etc., TBC-I¹ 369 . toimlid for rē mar cach sruith, SR 4739 . dorumalt Moysi . . . ann tres raind a aimsire, 3783 . collá dot daim . . . uaire doromailt do ré thou hast spent thy time (thy time is up), LL 246a8 . co tormalta di bliadain ar míle (co rochateá, LU), Imr. Brain ii 286.35 . conadh amlaid sin domhelit a mbethaidh, Marco P. 183 . nin-toiméla leth a sháiguil he will not live out half his days, ZCP xii 236 § 55 . romarastair C. co tormail .ix. ndine a nÉrinn he outlived nine generations, IT iii 193 . co tomaltus (co tormalt, co rormalt-sa, v.l.) na cenéla sin uli, Imr. Brain ii 292.3 .

(c) Of clothing: ní tormult . . . for n-étach, Wb. 18a10 . techta fuillema gill étaig fognama . . . domelar cach dia of the working-dress that is worn every day, Laws v 398.1 . domelair tlacht cen corcair let us wear, ZCP xiii 278.21 .

(d) In various applications makes use of, enjoys, exercises: maisse dóine nístoimled of men's wealth he used not to partake, Hy. ii 5 (glossed nís-caithed). dorumalt Dauid . . . a horddan, a hairechass, SR 6989 . doroimle banrígnacht úas bantrocht Ulad mayst thou enjoy . . . the sovranty of queenship, FB § 17 . doromla Banba mbarrbricc he shall enjoy (i.e. possess) B., LL 4513 . ba cōir cen co tomled E. in ferand it was right that E. should not possess the land, 1539 . ma ratocad damsa as me domelad and argat-sa it is I who should use, Anecd. i 5.18 . cia tormala dia fuillium though he consume somewhat of its interest, Laws v 520.3 ( .i. cid gu n-a somuine caithes e, 12 Comm.) ( Ir. Recht 66 § 9 ). rige dorumaltsa .l. mbliadan I have enjoyed (exercised) kingship, RC xxv 24 § 4 . toimled . . . ord saer na sacerdóte let him exercise, SR 4487 . ro toimli breith na físi se mayst thou experience (the fulfilment of) the interpretation of this vision, RC xv 429 § 6 . mairg dorumalt a n-imned dorumalt-sa who has experienced (taken) the trouble I have, FB § 88 . da mbeth . . . ingen ar chóicait acum dobertha duit-siu co tormalta ben díb that thou mightst have (enjoy) one of them for thy wife, RC xiii 38 § 4 . ni thomel-sa mo mnai, D IV 2, 53va33 . cachtsus rosacht ind rígain | . . . | úair ná tarmaltad a suth | co tarmartad a lécud since no offspring from her had been enjoyed (?), LU 4281 ( SG 84.18 ). gein bad chumma fri Cormac, | a Dé, in tormalt domun? has the world known any offspring like C.? Metr. Dinds. i 36.112 (`hath the world devoured'? cf. follg. section).

(e) Occas. with specific sense of wears out, wastes, consumes (but this perh. *dī-mel-, CMMucr. 119 n. 370 ; cf. dímelte): cia dosroimli aes ┐ fognam though age and service may have wasted them (of cattle), Laws ii 316.18 ; 314.36 Comm. domail a déda frisin ngai it wears out (?) its teeth (of a bear), CCath. 3668 (or from meilid grinds).

? eolairg

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? eolairg or dil.ie/20160

n atchonnarc and nar...c cethern claidebrúad con meil morgala as a eolairg ard, LL 116a46 .

fo-meil

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fo-meil or dil.ie/23211

Forms: foimli, fumalt

v I Uses up, consumes: 3 s. pres. subj. co ro foimli an tir sin `until he has spent that land' Laws v 244.20 Comm.

II Rubs (as if = con-meil ) pret. - perf. diar fumalt (.i. diar chommil) cacc na mbó mo a chend, LL 169b48 = dia rofumalt don bochur in cenn, Dinds. 53 ( im cend, BB 378a32 ).

Vn. fomeilt, q.v.

fomeilt

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fomeilt or dil.ie/23212

n i (vn. of fo-meil ) using, making use of: is dīlis dō cuiti frīthe ┐ a foimailt a waif-share and the use of it Laws v 324.2 Comm. ? fomeilt fri creic `wearing before selling' 486.20 (i.e. trying on ?). foimeilt in ferainn `use of the land' iv 258.1 Comm . fomuilt na mna a n-agaigh fomelta na coibce enjoying ii 296.23 (= fomeilt ib. 26 ). ar fomailt indligid na flatha forna ceilib (gl. on: fursmalta flatha), v 188.1 Comm , tri haithne co fomailt, Triads 87 (i.e. three things which if left as deposits will probably be used, to wit, a woman, a horse and salt). dimelta .i. ni fiu a fomailt it is not worth using O'Mulc. 328 . lōg fomalta ` price of use ' Laws v 390.9 . fiach forcraid foimelta for oin fine for excessive use of a loan iii 148.10 , v 282.5 Comm ., a legal formula, used playfully in a scribe's note: [s]in uainn det ... ar óin in spaltra [ = psaltra] ┐ atá óman orm ná dlighfidh tu fiach forcra foimealta dím I fear you can't claim compensation from me for excessive use of it O'Gr. Cat. 129.27 (< Eg. 88, 65b ), see Plummer Colophons p. 6 . caite a sslān na aitire? .i. a fomeilt ┐ a imluath ┐ a gnim ... what constitutes the exemption of an aitire? His attendance (?) and his trouble and his activity ..., Bürgschaft § 67 (Thurn. explains: `Die Vergütung dessen, was er für seine Wartung während der Schuldhaft dem Gläubiger hat zahlen müssen.').

*for-meil

Cite this: eDIL s.v. *for-meil or dil.ie/23771

v (mel- `grind') see -formlus.

-formlus

Cite this: eDIL s.v. -formlus or dil.ie/23779

v (1 s. pret. ?): fom chomruc ... cain f.¤ mo claideb nger, YBL 117b28 = IT ii1 185.283 : `setzte ich mein Schwert' Wind., comparing O'Cl.: fuirmeal .i. cur (see furmiáil). A late pret. 1 s. from *for-meil `wears out' cf. formailt ? But the form is doubtful. Windisch took it to rime with chomrug but the rime is imperfect, and possibly we should read: form lus (see 1 los).

2 fotha

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 fotha or dil.ie/24156

Forms: fotha, fothu

n (same word as 1 fotha ?) charge, feed, full (of a mill, vessel, etc.) ; ration, complement (of food). Here O'Curry (MS Gloss. in RIA) would put intan dorat [Colum Cille] in cét-fota (-ḟoda v.l. LB) isin mulenn, Lib. Hymn. i 63 (Praef. Altus Prosator). ba do géscaib ... f.¤ muilind Mail odrain, Hib. Min. p. 71 (= Fél. 134.17 , AFM 647 , AU 650 ; foda, RC xvii 191 . cf. muilenn Cilli C. ... ni meil nach fota [added above] ingaidi, BB 257a37 (Todd. Todd Nenn. 216 = arbur gaide, H 3.17, c. 727.7 ). xl damh dia fothu, IT 109.2 (= Sc.M² p. 22 ; of Mac Dá thó's pig, cf. `lx gamnach dia biathad' in preceding stanza). .vii. mc ochta cona f.¤ d'iasc ┐ di ēnaib ... complement IT ii 173.8 ( YBL 114b15 ). in cauradmir cona fodaí [fotha, Voss. ; leg. fothu, Thurn l.c. ScM. p. 26 ] di lind, LU 9166 ( FB 90 ). Some of the foregoing may be fig. uses of 1 fotha (a). Transf. of tribute or dues : conid he sin f.¤ Finnchua a Connachtaib `F.'s feed' Lism. L. 3155 (cf. fothad, c). lestar aile tria ḟ.¤ | a medon in morsrotha for its supply' [for a reason ?] ZCP viii 266 § 35 .

See fothad.

fri

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fri or dil.ie/24329
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: frimm, rimm, frim, frím, frium, frimsa, friumsa, frit, fritt, friutt, fritsu, rut, rutt, fris, friss, frissom, f., frie, friae, frise, frie, frinn, rinn, rind, friunn, riund, frind, frinni, raindi, frinnai, frib, frithib, fribsi, friu, friú, friu, friü, frithiu, friithu, friusom, riom, rum, riot, rut, ris, ria, rinn, ruinn, ribh, ruibh, riú, r, frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar, fria, frim, frim, frim, ram, frit, frit, frit, rit, rat, rot, friar, friar, fribar, fribar, fria, fria, fria, re-na, rena, fria, fris(s)a, frisi-, risi-, fris-, ris-, frismbiat, fris-mbruchta, fris, fris, fris, risa, frisin-, frisnid, risnad, ris, fria, frisa, re n-, fria-, re, ra-n-adh, re, re, ré, freisin, FRI

prep. with acc. For etymology see Thurneysen, GOI § 839 , Fraser ZCP viii 37 , J. E. C. Williams, Celtica iii 126 . In later spelling prefixes h- to following initial stressed vowel; does not leníte following consonant (cf. frinna aill, Sg. 45a16 . fri nnach ..., Ml. 75a9 , fri nnech 23c20 ; but fri nech further on in same gloss and regularly elsewhere); the initial s- of the article following fri is preserved. In Middle Irish gradually replaced by the forms RI, RE (already in Ml: oc eregim re Abisolon, 44b4 , cf. fre, 90c27 ); RA (common in some LL texts, see CRR 54 , TBC-LL¹ 499 , 602 , 740 , etc.); rarely RO ( SR 1990 ZCP xiii 204 15 ); FRIA, RIA, RE also common. Hence in Early Mod. Ir. there is occasionally confusion with , RÍA `before', see Bergin's note Stor. Keat. p. xix , and section IX (e) below. Apart from this the latter prep. sometimes replaces FRI after fáilid, fáilte and kindred words (as in Mod. Ir.). On the parallelism of some of the pronominal forms of FRI with those of LA see GOI l.c. (with Translator's n. 178 ). Though FRI still appears in some later texts, especially those of the archaising type, it had become obsolete in the classical language. Its later form (RI, RE) remains down to the end of the Early Mod. period and is recognized by the grammarians as distinct from LE (LA), see IGT, Introd. § 75 , 24 P 8, 194 ( IGT VI , Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ). In the modern spoken lang. it is replaced partly by LE, partly by CHUN (O.-Ir. dochum). For a contrary development cf. Engl. `with,' originally `against,' which has absorbed the functions of A.S. mid `(together) with.'

In development of meaning generally FRI shows a remarkable parallelism with Engl. ` with '; it also agrees with ` against ' in several senses.

Forms: With suff. pron.

sg. 1 frimm St. Paul Codex Thes. ii 298.17 . rimm, IT i 123.24 . frim, SR 1422 , 2049 . LU 5228 . LL 110b26 . frím Ml. 38c19 . frium, Ml. 71b9 . frimsa, Wb. 26d17 . Ml. 33a18 . friumsa, Ml. 127a2a .

2 frit, Wb. 5a31 . 10a29 ; Ml. 103d14 . SR 1425 . fritt LL 93a10 . 249b1 . friutt, PCr. 62b2 (= ḟrit, Sg. 151a3 ). fritsu Ml. 91d8 . 112b8 . rut, SR 2031 IT i 123.15 . rutt, LL 110b27 .

3 m., n. fris, Wb. 14c37 . 15a1 . 22c15 . ACL iii 304 [: [Mael] mis]. (: eisleis). SR 6109. 6317 . ([mēt] anfis) LL 33b21 . friss, Wb. 2c24 . 3c6 . 6a4 . 8a12 . 14d22 ; Ml. 91a21 . frissom Wb. 5d39 .

f.¤ frie, Sg. 72b1 . Ml. 40c15 . 67d15 . friae, 130c9 . Wb. 28a20 . cf. frise, Ml. 74c21 , which Ascoli corrected to frie ( Thes. i 722b ).

pl. 1 frinn, Wb. 4b12 . 17b10 . 19d22 . rinn, Ml. 54a3 . SR 1821 . rind, SR 1905 (: herḟi[o]nd). friunn, Ml. 38d20 . riund TBC-LL¹ 1874 . frind, LL 177b39 . frinni, Wb. 17b32 . 17c5 ; Ml. 32c15 . 93a13 . 106c12 . raindi, BColm. 68.9 . frinnai Ml. 91c9 . 114a8 .

2 frib, Wb. 17b16 . 22d9 . 24d26 . cf. frithib, Ériu iv 162.13 . fribsi, Wb. 14c42 . 17b14 .

3 friu, Wb. 4a10 . 4c37 . 24a4 ; Ml. 54c23 , 72b22 , 110c9 . LL 35a21 (: fiú) friú, Wb. 17b9 . Ml. 74a2 , diss. friu, Hy. V. 54 , cf. friü: at-chiü, ACL iii 294 § 10 ; frithiu, Blathm. 94 § 17 ; friithu, LU 4671 (see further GOI 515 ). friusom, Wb. 20c25 ; Ml. 17c5 , 54c18 ; 26 .

For forms found in later texts see citations below.

In the Early Mod. Grammatical Tracts the forms given are: riom, rum; riot, rut; ris; ria; rinn, ruinn; ribh, ruibh; riú, r, 24 P 8 194 ( Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ).

With following poss. pron.: frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar, fria, e.g. frim ort. Wb. 29d2 . frim peccad, 28a14 . frim foraithmet, Ml. 23d9 ; ram anmain, TBC-LL¹ 3692 (rem St.). frit adrad su, Ml. 136c11 . frit c[h]ele, 70d2 ; frit laim, SR 5854 . rit láim, TBC-LL¹ 3055 . rat láma, 3052 . rot chlaind, SR 2031 . friar corp, Wb. 15c22 . friar fochric, 33a9 ; fribar n-ícc, Wb. 24b3 . fribar pecthu, 13b19 ; fria mbriathra, Wb. 31b30 . In Mid. Ir. the form `fria' is often used for the simple prep., hence occas. fria a = prep. + 3 s. pron. In Early Mod. Ir. 3 s. and pl. form re-na sometimes appears: rena ardnaem, BCC § 12 (see III c below). fria n-a, Fl. Earls 214.4 . Cf. the n- prefixed to poss. after le, ó, tre in Mod. Irish.

With rel. pron.: O. Ir. fris(s)a n ...; Mid. Ir. also frisi-, risi-, fris-, ris-: frismbiat, Sg. 202b3 . fris-mbruchta, Fél. June 21 . fris n-agar, E. 406 . fris-reith, Prolegomena 302 . fris-tarddam, Thes. ii 293.19 . risa n-abar, Acall. 53 , etc. With cop. frisin-, frisnid, risnad ail, LB 257b9 . ris na duthracht 256a44 . fria ndechraiged (= frisa nd.) Sg. 28a14 may be a mistake. In later MSS. the form re n- becomes common: fria-cosmailend, PH 7674 . re ndubairt, 7464 . ra-n-adh KMMisc. 156. 124 . re n-abar, Acall. 1241 , etc. re rāiter, Ériu viii 139.4 . ré raibhe, Keat. ii 4467 , etc.

Composition.

(a) In vn. and prototonic verbal forms, before a vowel, frith-; before a cons. fre-, e.g. frecre, fretech; with syncope of a follg. vowel, fres-, e.g. frescsiu, fresndid, fresndís, fresngabal. In Glosses fri is often used in compos. with a vb. to represent Lat. ob-. Later frith- is used before cons. with or without lenition of following cons.: see frithgnam, frithsét, etc.

(b) In deuterotonic verbal forms fris-; before an infixed pron. in rel. construction frith- or friss-: fritum-chomart-sa (= frith-dum-) Wb. 33a12 ; but friss-idn-oirctis, Ml. 39a20 (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 147 and cf. Strachan's OIPG⁴ ed. Bergin, p. 27 n. 2 ).

SYNOPSIS OF MEANINGS.

N.B.—The classification is perforce somewhat arbitrary as, perhaps in the majority of instances, the meaning could derive from the original sense in I. Cf. J. E. C. Williams Celtica iii 122 ff .

I Of local relations

(a) towards, facing, turned to ;

(b) against (touching; cf. d); alongside, down along, by ;

(c) against (implying violent or hostile action);

(d) next to, at, in contact with (cf. b).

II To express association, along with, beside (both of local and mental relations).

III To express figurative direction

(a) aim, purpose (cf. VI), frequently of function, specific purpose;

(b) after adj. in sense of Lat. gerund or with ad or supine in -u;

(c) to express direction of feelings, behaviour towards (cf. I a);

(d) of prayer, etc. to ;

(e) of opposition to, hostile feeling, attitude towards ;

(f) to express protection, guard, watch against, also limitation, boundary;

(g) in elliptical sentences with these meanings.

IV

(a) after adjs., nouns or verbs expressing resemblance, equality or comparison;

(b) to express difference, distinction from .

V

(a) with respect to, with regard to ;

(b) on account of:

(c) on behalf of ;

(d) according to, in agreement with (cf. II).

VI To denote occasion

(a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. verb or equivalent;

(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on which something takes place.

VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion of .

VIII

(a) to denote agent;

(b) to denote instrument through, by means of .

IX In expressions of time

(a) in O.-Ir. in locatival sense;

(b) to denote period during which something continues or takes place;

(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place;

(d) of point of time;

(e) used for RIA ` before .'

X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs.

A classified list of the instances in Wb is given by Fraser ZCP viii 37 ff .

I Of local relations

(a) towards, facing, turned to: do rosc frisna nemdaib = looking heavenward SR 1604 . a n-aiged fri Dia facing God LU 2048 ( FA 12 . Cf. III c). a lām chlē fri muir the sea on their left SR 4074 (see lám). do cumlaiset for fairgi ┐ dochorsatar aurlunn fri tir, Corm. Bodl. s.v. prull . bai D. 'sa druim fri fraig D. had his back to the door SR 6053 . is amlaid bai in gilla ┐ a druim fria thigerna, TBC-I¹ 2327 (see druim(m)). Ethne ... fria chossa E. (standing) at his feet (i.e. at the foot of the bed) LU 3300 ( SCC 10 ). Carpre ... 's a hucht ra hág, LL 32b49 (see ucht). a druim re dimsachaib, a des fri deiblenaib, ZCP viii 204 § 26 . an let[h] bis rinne don rē the side of the moon turned towards us ITS xiv 90.19 . fri bun cruche at the foot of the gallows Mon. Tall. § 1 . síl nÁdhuimh ... re sáluibh a senathar at the heels of (i.e. following) Ériu iv 118 § 33 . níor chubaidh tigearna ... d'ḟágbáil re caladh on the beach [i.e. when about to land; perh. fig. cf. beirid i gcaladh brings to safety, see 1 calad] viii 139.23 . dā traig .x. ... a [sic leg.] fot fri dún its length towards the stockade (of the internal slope of an earthen rampart) Laws iv 336.23 . dā dúncladh ... ré dá taebh na clasach along both sides of the fosse CCath. 1747 . ní thurcaibh crand ... cét míle fria taebhaibh within a hundred miles from (lit. towards) its sides Marco P. 11 [cf. the temporal use IX (c)]. See also phrases s.v. agad, ais, enech, gnúis, sáil, taeb, ucht.

This use is regular in Old-Ir. in stating relative position: fri Grecia aniar ... fri Etáil anáir west of Greece ... east of Italy Wb. 6d17 . fri Alpai ndesiu (gl. cisalpina) Sg. 217b8 . frie anall ... frie desiu (gl. ultra ... citra) 71b1 , 2 . fri Ath F.D. desiu, TBC-I¹ 2183 . frie anechtair outside it Ml. 40c15 . fri Pardus amuich outside Paradise SR 111 . ra chuala sa fri hEmain andess I heard it (as I was) to the south of Emain LU 5056 . altoir fri dorus antuaid, SR 4261 [cf. la taeb ind rigthaige aniar, LL 3810 (30a) ]. a mmag fris anair the plain in front of him LL 122a33 . co ndechaid [in gai] triana chend ┐ co ro marb nónbur ris aníar behind him 121a21 . frit aniar, LU 4134 . is e a chorp in taitneamach rit anall the shining one opposite thee RC xxiv 60 . Also fig. : foscichret i crandchor ... fáicebthair Lugaid fris anechtair they will cast lots for it... L. will be left out of the chance RC xiii 444x ( LL 289b8 ). See also s.v. lám (fri l.).

It is doubtful whether: i mbae neach fri hopair immuig BB 362a21 (= Dinds. 20 ) is an instance of this construction; the literal meaning here is was anyone at a work outside ? The Rennes `amuig' is perhaps merely a late spelling.

After verb or vn.: tan turcbad E. a di láim fri Coimdid nime, SR 5085 . suidig do da laim fri ... clasp thy hands (in prayer) to ... 1606 . rosecroth a chend frisin slúag brandished his (severed) head at the host LU 5269 . crothad in chind frisin slóg, 5280 . donnochtat a mbruinni fris bared their bosoms to him 5199 . rochoraig fri tenid he arranged [them] before the fire RC xiii 6.21 . roscóraig gnúis fri gnúis (see gnúis) LU 2046 ( FA 12 ).

Cf. tuídhleach ind óir frisin ngréin the glistening of the gold against the sun BDD 1 . crand airgit ris tatin grían LU 3700 ( SCC 33 ).

(b) against (touching), alongside, down along by: doesetar ┐ a nglūne fri talmain, TBC-I¹ 3164 . éc fri hadart death against a pillow i.e. a natural death Lib. Hymn. i 62.72 (see adart). fri etnu dam ... bátár fedmand la firu Herend = [till then] the loads had been harnessed to the foreheads of the oxen LU 10816 (= Ériu xii 178 ). tennait a n-ette fria curpu press their wings against their sides LU 2281 ( FA 33 ). cf. doimmaircet ind eoin a n-ette friu ┐ a cossa can scibud ette ná cosse co tairic in precept the birds fold their wings, etc. LU 1361 . dosnimthasa i llai a broit fri a bruinde `gathered her to his bosom in the fleece of his cloak' Ériu xii 154y . co tard a druim frisin liic leaned his back against the stone LU 3284 ( SCC 8 ). dossleced fria thoeb he let them (i.e. his arms) fall to his sides SR 5091 = no thimoirced a lama fria thoeb, LB 124b29 (cf. LU 1361 above).

In local sense of attached to or pending from: úathroic ... cona cimais do banór fria having a fringe LU 6421 . beilge óir friu golden bits on them TBFr. § 3 . srian ... fria graig, LU 3649 . Cf. srian do thabairt fria thoil to bridle his passion PH 4990 (see srían). Cf. la I (a).

Here perhaps: i ngialnai fri fraigid in hostage-ship at the wall LU 7015 ; 7295 ( BDD 66 ; 94 ). (of the brazen serpent, Numbers xxi 9 :) turgabar fri crann ... uasin [t]slúag fri sirsellad let it be hung on a pole to be gazed at SR 4163 .

Cf. an carracc ard ar cuiretar ... an Tigerna da teilgen ría sís to cast him down from it Maund. 106 . tuitim sioss re beinn an ailt, Fl. Earls 86z .

(c) against (implying violence or hostility; cf. III e): rop saiget húan fri demnai, Hy i 20 . friu conuccaib ind oub, Hy v 54 . conéracht Glaiss Ch. friu the stream C. rose against them (= to bar the way) LU 5362 . Cf. conocbath in carpat fris ... ┐ concligtis ind h[e]ich fris the chariot would tilt up before him and the horses would spring at him Ériu vi 134.21 . bēim a cinn fri cloich, Ml. 139c3 . beim cind fri hall, LL 225b38 (see benaid). esarcain cind fri hallib, 176b33 . aiges (feras) in tond frisin mbruach, Anecd. i 12.19 (21) . cf. FB 44 , see fri. See also phrases with cúl, druim(m), lám).

(d) next to, at: folt dond fri toind a chind, folt croderg iar n-airmedon, LU 2564 . dond fri toind cind, 6542 . lene de sról ... i custul fri gelcnes ... dó, 6296 . léne ... sita fria gelchnes, 1810 . cona luirigh ... ria cnes ... ┐ lethan sciath fria gualaind, Stair Erc. 1243 . In this use frequent with ais, cnes, taeb.

II To express association, along with, beside (of local or mental relations, cf. V d): ní bí friu hi comasndeis it is not with them in apposition Sg. 212a5 . in tan mbís nihelas do .u. fri .g. when u is silent beside g, 6b11 . nobiad fri femen `it would be [used] with the feminine' 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them' 215a5 (cf. biit remsuidigthi ... cen briathra leo ib. 6). See also s.v. comṡuidigud. is tabarthi `bonum est' fri cechtar in da fersa so, Ml. 112d1 . cen tabairt anman trén fríu, 30a9 (see do-beir). ni bai crand dond indsi fri aroile (i.e. the walls were shattered) Anecd. i 2.5 . ar choibnius frisna comaccomla sa, Sg. 203a10 . in oentid fri Crist, Wb. 15a12 . ni ba suair[c] comlepaid no comaentu frissi, TBC-LL¹ 2079 (fris St) In: ni reid bith fris im longud no im ligi, LU 5957 , the meaning may be different; see atá (fri). toeb fri toeb ata in ri is Eocho F. side by side LU 2839 (see taeb). comaitecht re hairdrigh, ZCP viii 116.5 . méraid ra cách a chumne TBC-LL¹ 740 (here perhaps: meraid hua chlaind fri claind Ml. 100b4 ). is frit mo chairde `with Thee is my compact' Fél. Ep. 534 . (see cairde). iar corai fri I. after making a pact with I. SR 5946 . Cf. córe fri Dia, Wb. 2d16 . is core doib fribsi (gl. salutate invicem) 18b19 . bad chore dúib friu, 7b4 ; - 14 (`lit. let it be peace to you towards them' Thes., but the original meaning of córe points to `with' as the sense of the prep. here). Cf. also: biid pax libsi fri cách (gl. cum omnibus hominibus pacem habentes) 5d33 .

Here probably: isi no beired teora pōc fria cach copān ... dō, TBC-I¹ 2218 . Cf. further: hi cocetul fri Eman in unison with Hib. Min. 4.12 . do dlommad E. is A. ... fri gorta, SR 1419 . ara toimlid fri sid sain | toirthi Parduis, 1085 . taed as fri sidh ┐ fri subha `let him go ... in peace and happiness' AFM 979 .

In this sense with verbs of joining, connecting, also occasionally with verbs of motion and in nominal phrases, such as imma llé fri, immaróen fri, see s.v. , óen (cf. Ériu xiv 142 n . ) also cos, taeb.

In: crithnaigset ... immar bocsimin fri sruth the meaning of the prep. is doubtful. curtar a fuigill re sruth ┐ re fairgi `be the remnant cast out to be carried off by the sea-tide' O'Gr. Cat. 182w . Cf. perhaps: Drochet Atha do dhul re sruth `D. was carried away by the flood' ALC i 260.7 , though these may be exx. of the confusion of re (FRI) with le (LA). curcas fri sruth, FB 44 ; `against a stream' Strachan ZCP iii 419 . Cf. Ériu i 194.4 . See 1 téit and la I (d).

Passing into sense in addition to: tris fer friu (gl. te tertium) Sg. 2a5 . cethri chet bliadan ... a noe sechtmogat fri sein, Rawl. 68b31 ( ZCP iii 18 ). Cf. is fri ni dona salmaib dognid a figild, Mon. Tall. § 5 . fris sin moreover, besides , Leb. Gab.(i) i 88.1 . Hugh Roe 114.1 (f. 30b) . Cf. mod. freisin. For a special sense of with see Mon. Tall. cited under V (d).

III To express fig. direction (cf. V a);

(a) aim, purpose, freq. of function, specific purpose: cen nech dim chlaind frim foraithmet to preserve my memory Ml. 23d9 . ce notechtad ilgotha fri inchosc in mrechtraid sin `that it should possess many sounds to express that variety' Sg. 197a11 . ní fris arícht fri slond persine it was not for that it was invented, to signify person ib. (cf. cid arna airecht pronomen ... dia ṡlund, 198b3 ). in bríg frissa ndéntar a saithar sin the value for which that labour is performed Wb. 11a9 . am loor fri cach reit (gl. ego ... dedici, in quibus sum, sufficiens esse) 24b16 . altoir ... | fri loscud n-edpart an altar for burning [ = on which to burn] offerings SR 4162 . dá magh ... do ṡlaidhi ... co rabad do grés fri geilt do ceithrib ┐ fri trebad do daīnib, Ériu xii 150.6 . primepscop ... accu fri huirdned a n-oessa graid, fri coisecrad a n-eclas ┐ fri hanmchairdes do ḟlaithib, etc. Ériu i 218.2 . sechtmoga fer fria cobair to aid them SR 4196 . drong ngilla ... fri timthirecht, 6280 . ra ergitar ... dalemain fri dail, LL 173a27 ( CRR 13 ). mōr salm | fri hindarba plāg-tedmann, BColm. 70.8 . slóged hi crích ... fri indnaide slogid tairse a hosting into a country to delay a hosting (coming) across it Críth G. 511 . fergniae fri forngaire ndoirseo, 591 . In this sense perhaps in: fót fri haltóir, see 1 fót (d). pars de feoil fri foimtin terci as a precaution against scarcity Mon. Tall. § 12 . Here perhaps: dognith Saul intleda ... fri Duaid used to lay snares against D. Ml. 30a3 . techt do Roim ... fri foglaim n-ecnai, Trip.² 241 . roairis re sloind senchasa he remained to relate Ériu iv 152.6 [or remained relating ? See VI (a)]. cid frisi farcbad int id for what end the withe was left LU 4752 (= cid imma ndernad int id, TBC-LL¹ 597 ). cid frisindrolais in cloich why hast thou thrown the stone ? LU 5092 . o tancamair friss `since we have come for it' ( = for that purpose) Fél. 72.24 (cf. inní imo tainic ib. 30 ). co ndernur inní fris tánac LU 4347 . Cf. doluid Saul fri tāirsin David i fus, SR 5959 . lurech imme ... fri cathugud, SR 5757 . treb Leue ... immon eclais fria immarchur, 4883 . docúaidh B. frissan umaloitt sin gusin muilenn `on that service' BNnÉ 26 § 19 . téit féin re toisc ┐ re túrus a crichaib na hEspáine on business CCath. 1806 , cf. do chuaidh gach aon rea dtoisgibh ┐ rea dturasaibh féin, ML 26x (= le tosgaib fein, ML² 347 ). The follg. perhaps are elliptical: the idea represented is anticipating, forestalling: dogniad pars de feoil fre terci do t[h]ecmong = as a provision against the occurrence of scarcity Mon. Tall. § 12 . do na .u. gaiscedaib dec no bitís ... hi tegluch C. fri maidm n-airm no fri gabáil ngasced do neoch LU 5046 . Cf. Fél. Nov. 14 cited VI b.

(b) after adjs. in sense of Lat. gerund with ad or supine in -u: leiscc .i. fri fognam, Wb. 31b23 . conid mesc fria rim so that it is confusing to count it LU 4794 . ba gnim ṅdangen fri himluad, SR 7229 . ingnad fria innisin, LU 2074 ( FA 15 ). adhbal rea n-innisi prodigious to recount ZCP viii 204 § 26 . cenco beth ... and acht C. ba lór fri immarbaig, LL 107a19 ( Ériu iv 28 ). lia iná rúainne ... re n-áireamh, IGT, Decl. ex. 1201 . Cf. atait ... re a ttaispenadh go follus are plainly to be seen Fl. Earls 50.12 . In this use modern Irish has le (LA).

(c) to express direction of feelings; behaviour towards, after nouns or adjs., both of persons and things (cf. I a and V a): conroib deserc leu fri cách, Wb. 26d22 . fáilte fri noíbu, 7b2 (see fáilte). ar formut fribsi, 12c29 (see format and formtech). ropat ḟáilti frimsa, Fél. Dec. 18 (see fáilid). hissel fri hard, sleman fri garb, ZCP iii 447z . anmne fri fochaidi, 449.15 (see ainmne). mailli fri cloc slowness at (answering) the bell ib. 21 . dána fri tōla tromsluaig daring in face of an army SR 5778 . uair ná dernsam huimli fri forngaire, 1854 . ar gart friu for generosity to them ZCP viii 313.12 . créd nach frim atā a maithe ? why is not their bounty bestowed on me ? ACL iii 296 § 38 . ní ar maith friu it is not for their good Wb. 4b37 . ar ulc friu, Ml. 72b22 . tar aesi n-uilc huai[m] se friusom, 74a2 (see also s.v. maith, olc). bad chert do cluchi frim play fair with me LU 5228 . ar ngabáil bāide ... dō rena ardnaem having conceived affection for his high saint BCC § 12 . lére duit frí ríg ngréne ┐ réde fri doíni, Ériu i 193 . is buide linn frib (gl. rogamus vos) Wb. 25a39 (see 2 buide). is maith robai Dia rind, SR 1905 . ní maith ro mbátar frim they have not treated me well LU 4891 . Cf. is maith ro ngabus fritt, TBFr. § 11 . bad faitig frisin foirin sin (gl. observate eos) Wb. 24a23 (see faitech). bid cennuis a gnuis risin lucht ra-nadh (= frisndid) rathmar to whom he is gracious KMMisc. 156.124 . in maith frit menma ind airdríg whether the king is well-disposed to thee SR 6114 . ba fearr di frib menma bar mathar, RC xxiv 56 ( YBL 206a47 ). Cf. is beite duit menma fris `thou must take heed of him' Ériu xii 176.16 . Similarly in expressions like: do-gní maith (trócaire, etc.) fri (see do-gní). nech no comaildfed fir fer frimb uime RC xiii 29.6 .

(d) of prayer, etc. to: irnigde fri Dia, Wb. 4d18 . cf. abstanait fri Dia, PH 4988 . ro throiscset ... fri Dia im a ḟurtacht, 7258 (see troiscid). im aīne fri Dia cora faillsigthi dō ... fasting towards God, that ... might be revealed to him Ériu v 120.12 . Similarly: frit, a rí ..., mo dēr | conom thī ... Mīchēl, SR 2091 . co ndēraib frisin coimdid, PH 6292 . (cf. use with ad-teich). cossoít a thuaithe fri Dia, Wb. 5a23 (see cosaít). Here, perhaps, should come such expressions as the following: ar Christ frit, aithirigh pēin dam, Cáin Ad. 13 . ar do chubus riut, a ingen, crét tuc ort ?, Acall. 6012 . ar bar cubus rib..., crét..., 5476 . ar fir do chubais riut..., 5824 . cf. 4544 . ar t'ḟírinne riutsa, nā furáil, CCath. 1659 .

(e) of hostile feeling, attitude, conduct towards: fri aicned contrary to nature Wb. 2c25 . ba fri aicned ... in talam ... do indluch, Ml. 129d8 . frisin n-uall (gl. adversum inflationem mentis) 68c1 . trifar pecthu fri Dia through your sins against God 115b8 . Common after verbs of opposing, hindering, fighting: hóre nád comeicnigther nech fri toil no one is constrained against [his] will Wb. 28b1 . tuidecht fri toil Dé resistance to God's will 4c23 (see do-tét). cf. o dorala ... | frim thala mac I. | duit ... | niba céle SR 6014 , where opposition seems implied despite the similar phrase cited below under V (d). soud a gnuso fri nech frisa mbi ferc do (gl. ne auertas [faciem tuam] a me Ml. 47d8 (`to turn his countenance from one against whom he cherishes anger' Thes., but surely `fri nech' here must also mean either against ... or towards ... ? See soïd). fergach fris Fíadu, SR 6837 . iar ndebaid do fri Duid, 6994 . na cathaig frim do not contend with me 2877 . ni sirsan do Ch. a n-imned i tá a óenur fri firu Herend not happy for C is the trouble in which he is, alone against the men of E. LU 5995 . Cf. do thoitim fria Cu | ba dirsan sad that thou shouldst fall by [ = fighting against] C. (?) TBC-I¹ 2715 (see also III g). Mairg fris ticfa a ḟerg ... Mairg ticfa re cert, Fen. 200 (see do-icc). ar bruc fris `in displeasure at him' Mon. Tall. § 58 . namthi garga fri sluagh nA., ACL iii 297 § 55 . atat frim hi cotarsnai, SR 1520 . Cf. ni bia th'anim fri fugall | ind ríg hí laithiú brótho, Ériu i 196 § 13a . With adj.: cotarsne fri Dia, Wb. 26a18 . is torcda ┐ is díchéill notaí frim, LU 10831 (= Ériu xii 172 ). is bairnech mo menma frit, LU 10832 (= ib.). is tromda atai rim, RC vi 183.13 . olc roba rim, Ériu v 208.8 (see III c). Here perhaps: tromde ... ro buí frisim ind chaillech oc atach Dé, Mon. Tall. § 7 (= do bhí sí roliosda ar Dh., Rule of Tallaght § 41 ). But cf. VII below.

(f) To express protection, guard, defence, watch against: gabthe dūnad les fris, Ml. 55c1 . inna cathrach conrotacht la Duaid fri Ebustu, 48d27 . múr trén ... fri dóini, fri demnai, Fél. Ep. 152 . tocuiriur etrum ... inna huli nert so fri cech nert n-amnas in ..., Hy vii 49 . cor gabad Sinann friu the Shannon was held (defended) against them RC xviii 10.28 . gébtaít ar tír frind, LU 4634 (see gaibid). iadad Caisil frim eochu the closing of C. to my horses Anecd. iii 63.4 . cóir duit arechus ri siút, TBC-LL¹ 1280 (aire do tabairt fri ... St; see 1 aire). Dia lem fri cech snīomh, Ériu iv 236 . Crist credal fri demnaib, ACL iii 221.12 . dín ... re holcaib, ZCP viii 202.18 . Of limitation, boundary: nā bí crích la nech fri peccad that no one sets a limit to sin Ériu i 218.9 . Cf. samaiges crích fri aidchi, Hy ii 55 , corresp. to contra noctem terminum pones, Ardm. 8a1 . See also s.v. inillius.

(g) In elliptical sentt.: leic ... in fognam, ol se; ni lamaim, ol sī, frisin rigain = I dare not disobey the Queen RC xxiv 192 (but perh. FRI here = because of; see V b ). ro an ... ina aenar ru remained alone to oppose them ZCP vi 56.31 . rofetursa a n-as maith dúib fris I know a good way for you to deal with him LU 5934 . tarmairt mo Dia dil frisin tuaid ... a cor fo leittreib lethglenn = my dear God had well nigh (in His resentment) against them cast them down ... SR 4718 . Cf. lām fri idal to renounce idolatry SR 4845 (see lám).

IV

(a) after adjs. and nouns denoting resemblance or equality (esp. those compounded with com-) and vbs. of resembling or comparing: cosmil fri cethir (gl. animalis) Wb. 8b14 . cutrummus fri Dia, 17c8 . i cutrummus fribsi 17b14 . ɔodernain hi cutrummus frim cheliu `to do like my fellows' PCr. 2a2 . (pariter) fri, Sg. 77a2 . i tomus fri nech Wb. 17b11 . intamail ... fri nech, Ml. 22c1 . cen a chondelg fri nech, Sg. 42a6 . cosmaili tuisil `sui' fri tuisliu `ego' ┐ `tu', 200a12 . (similiter) fri, 203a5 . cf. (eandem significationem habens) .i. fri `cum', 218a1 . diatā oenḟolaid ... frissin Athair, PH 177 . ba cudruma re core mōr é, RC xviii 183 . ni caithedh acht coibeis fri gach manach he used to eat only as much as any other monk BNnÉ 300 § 3 . nir chumma nech ris im chath, Metr. Dinds. iv 344 . ru boí i comré ri Cormac, LL 3796 (30a) . i comhrē ris coeval with him Moling 4 . rogheanair i n-aenuair fria was born at the same time as she BB 406bz (= Dinds. 111 ). Cf. IX (b).

Replacing O. Ir. construction with equative: comdhub fri hec, Thr. Ir. Gl. 36 (prull) = duibidir éc, Corm. Y 1059 . Bodl. comard fri fid, Ériu iv 138.26 . meidithir fria hasal as big as an ass Marco P. 10 . corbo chomfota frisin sroin LU 6472 .

See also verbs and adjs. of comparison, e.g. 1 do-ella, samlaithir, in-samlathar; cosmail, 2 cutrummae, etc.

(b) to express difference, distinction from : frissaní immeraidtis (gl. longe aliud) Ml. 61c12 . sain fri .c. `different to c' Sg. 6b7 . do dechor fri praenomna aili, 28a13 . huare nád deligedar fri praenomen , 28a15 . do dechrugud persine fri alaili, 202a4 . is allail pronomen aní sin fri `sui' (gl. `is' aliud pronomen...) 209b10 . (differentia) fri, 213b15 , gl. contra 214b4 . Cf. nipo choím less frinn He was not dear to Him compared to us (?) Wb. 4b12 [Fraser l.c. suggests this rendering, ZCP viii 41 n . `in our case (?),' Thes.].

See s.v. 1 dechor, dechraigidir, deiligidir and other words of similar meaning.

V

(a) with respect to, with regard to (cf. III c) : is sain fri cath sain fri scor different for battle, different for unyoking (of trumpet-call) Wb. 12c46 . idain fri cach réit faithful as to 31c13 . cen chinaid n-uaim fri nech, Ml. 54d16 (see cin). nach é Dia is ciontach riú is to blame for them TSh. 10499 . as eola fri aidgne ind Athar, Wb. 19d9 . it maithi a arilti frib `He deserves well of you' (`literally good are his merits as to you' Thes.) Wb. 16c11 . airle Dé fri Herind, LL 49b13 ( Hail Brigit § 2 ). .iiii. seóit a dire ... is fechem is fiadnaisi friu `four seds are his `dire'-fine ... he is a suitor and witness for them' (i.e. he is liable to that extent) Laws iv 308.2 ( Críth G. 138 ). is amlaid in t-athair frisin mac ngor; ... nimtha in t-athair frisin mac n-ingor thus the father acts with regard to the dutiful son; ... not so with regard to the undutiful one Laws iii 56. 22 ; z 0 . ba fria as-breth: cruth cách co hÉtaín 'of her was it said, 'every woman is fair till compared with Étaín'' BDD 43-44 , Celtica xv 57 . 'fer hi lorcc so,' ol in fer deginuch fri Nero 'a man is following us,' said the last man with regard to Nera RC x 216.48 . conidh ed isberdís cách fris, Cóir Anm. ii § 150 .

Cf. further: crādiis Ultu fri Cethirnd guin Fécc the slaying of F. imbittered the U. against C., ZCP viii 305.32 . ferdha a cathuibh iat, ar is friu ronnaltadh oc imairecc fria geinnti, Marco P. 189 . ro alt ... ind ingen co digrais fri légend ┐ gaís, LL 279a47 ( SG 413 ). Possibly the last two exx. belong rather to III (a), also : is me is cintach fris ni he is cintach frim, BB 479b14 (see cintach). See also : a lleth fri, s.v. leth.

(b) on account of (cf. VI b) : ro lega in snechta ... fri meit brotha in miled, LU 5858 . ba lond F. friside (-suidi), RC xxvi 12 § ix . saeth mār fri luga dige great distress from [?] lack of drink Fianaig. 12 § 20 . cid mís no bheinn gun ríg thess | ro-fess ná bíad mo scís fris, ACL iii 304.20 . ní ḟaicim-si ... ni rís budh choir t'obadh for which it were right to refuse thee Ériu iii 154.5 . atchess ... na haīble tened ... uasachind re fiuchud na ferge, LU 6466 . ba mertnech Moisi fri hilchaingni ... fri orddugugd cāich fo mām, SR 4542 . batar toirsech fri Moisi, 3886 (in these two exx. fri = oc of prose LB 122a etc.). féimdid sim imt[h]echt fri scíss he cannot go on from weariness BColm. 94.16 . ni ro chotail C. fri himṡním, LB 274a55 . ni faict[h]e ise fri feidm a léiginn she used not be seen because of her duty of study ACL iii 308 VI 13 . Cf. la III a.

(c) on behalf of: aitchitt an C. ris comad he noberad, etc. they beseech the Lord for him that it might be he BColm. 98.15 . dogníther airnaigthi frisin ríg co nambed fot saegail do, MacCongl. 59.23 . ica cantain fria Cianoig chanting (a prayer) for C. ZCP vii 308.7 . Cf. also : ata mo briathar ┐ mo comairghi fria ar Tuatha D., Ériu xii 152.9 . o doratsat briathair fris, CCath. 1236 . in tī bes rí is fris beimmi, ZCP viii 316.3 . See do-beir, gell, and ráith.

(d) according to ; in agreement with, with pers. somet. = in obedience to: ni ni nach breith nā bi fri canoin cumtastar [sic leg.] no judgement is valid that is not framed according to the canon Corm. Y 1224 . cf. manib fri fasach fuirmider, Ériu xii 199.23 . fri mes airechta adrimter, Laws iv 298.25 ( Críth G. 22 ). fri saltair nogebad ... a salmu by the psalter (i.e. with the psalter before him), Mon. Tall. § 39 , cf. ni lugae mbis ind menme hisin cheill dia gabail ind tsailm de memur indas cid fri saltair ib.). fosernd clothri Connacht ... fri senchus ... fri buaid ┐ breatha in conformity with (the claims of) pedigree, with prowess and legal decision ZCP viii 108.10 = Ériu v 234 . bid som iarum fria toil (= they will be able to do as they like) Mon. Tall. § 35 (= go mbid ... aca ara ttoil fein, Rule of Tallaght § 35 ). fri tala ind rig ... domrala I am about the king's business SR 6187 (Rex praecepit mihi 1 Reg. xxi 2 ). cia ro delb fria thuil a ndath who coloured them to please himself (?) SR 7675 . For FRI TOIL in a different sense, see III (e). Cf. nitattorbi fri toil Dé (gl. non omnia expediunt 1 Corinth. x 22 ) `against God's will' Thes., Wb. 11b 17a . Also : ind tí dogní ní do maith fria menmain fadesin ... ar ind bo neoch gabti he who does a good thing in accordance with his own inclination ... should openly proclaim it Mon. Tall. § 21 (= chuirios ní maith ... do dheunamh uaidhe fein, Rule of Tallaght 71 ).

VI

(a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. vb. or equivalent = to be at, engaged in or about to engage in (some occupation, process ; cf. III a) : in tinscanfam .i. in biam fris (gl. incipimus ... commendare ?) Wb. 15a1 . ní uisse do mug Dae buith fri debuid to be at strife 30b26 . cf. ní bethe fria acre, 9c20 . ni piam fri aithirgi, 30b17 . ni biat som fria togais adi (= non fallacia ad quoscumque loquuntur) Ml. 31a17 . cechtar nathar fria saindān `each ... at his special art' Thes. ii 293.14 . feib donrala fri comrad, SR 1214 . indí ... bíte fri tnúith `those that are given to lust' Mon. Tall. § 11 . nebbuith fri éthech not to be lying Ériu ii 64 § 6 . céin bete fri soíthar while they shall be at work Fél. Ep. 298 . in tan natbi fri frestal na n-anmand when he is not attending to LB 110b43 (cf. SR 1199 ). ní mo chean ... tarrla re freastal ... na fairrgi sin, CF 42 . amail do beith se re goibhnecht ríam as if he had always been at smith's work BCC § 92 . na saoithe do bhí re seanchus, Keat. i 74 . cuirim suas don ghrádh, | ní fiú é bheith ris, Dánta Gr. xiv 3 . Cf. boí a ben fri idna in travail LU 105.86 (see 1 idu). Similarly without subst. vb. : nachitochthad fria choscc `let him not wear thee out in admonishing him' Wb. 31d11 . conus tarttsat fria ttoghairm chuca an lucht they set about calling the people Hugh Roe § 8 . Cf. airfitech re tetaib, ACL iii 223.23 (= Keat. ii 5358 ). dias fri cerdacht, SR 190 (perh. III a). dá mbeinn re héagnach `had I purposed to revile' Content. v 7 (cf. le hóradh bhriat[h]ar da mbeinn, Ó Héodhusa 4 ). In class. lang. `re' is used with vn. to express futurity : an chathair atá ré teacht ( = civitatem futuram) TSh. 2751 . i n-oirchill na n-olc bhíos ré tuirling orra, 532 .

(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on or from which something takes place (some of the exx. could be explained as extensions of other uses (cf. V b ; IX a) ; often the construction is elliptical) : gaibed cach a greimm ... | fria brethir in primsacairt, SR 4400 . ba huisse soillse fri éitsecht na noeb at the death Hy ii 60 . Cf. co mbidis i nd-aenmaigin fria n-ég, Corm. Y 1233 (fri héc LB. ria n-ec LL 179b ). fri gein Críst ... tindscan lechsa léri, Fél. Nov. 14 (cf. III a). ro eirgis fri breithir Isu, PH 2780 . ret[h]it daim ... ri dorddan na damgaire, Ériu vii 2 § 1 . phreab as G. risan gair, Ériu i 18.33 . ac cantain cheóil ... fris coteltais Síl Adaim, LL 3305 ( Ériu xiv 156 ).

VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion of (cf. similar use of Lat. apud, and see la) : ni cumdabairt fri Cirine is tre metur Jerome does not doubt Hib. Min. 6.187 . nad maith fri C. ciasperthar ..., 7.235 . frithir frisin mac i n-ebras riss, Ériu vii 225 ( LL 209a16 ). ba bind fri cach na canaind, LU 1301 (`sweet to all was what I said' Imr. Brain ii 298 . But this may be ex. of : canaid fri). bid inmain fria cách a ainm loved of all PH 4299 . ba hingnad mor frisin popul sin, 2959 . ba mo a grad fri Gargán oldait a uli cethra G. loved him more than all his cattle 7178 . Cf. Mon. Tall. § 7 cited under III (e) where the meaning seems different. gurbh annsa ré hEóin Críost ioná ré Peadar Christ was dearer to John than to Peter TSh. 10327 .

VIII

(a) to denote agent (a late use, mostly in texts in artificial style). ar na bennughadh fri sanctuss Silvester consecrated by Fl. Earls 196.19 . laech ... frisimbia mo thiglecht (= who will cause my death) Metr. Dinds. iv 360 (but perh. this is ellipt. and belongs to III (e) ; cf. TBC2 cited there). romarbtha na maithe ... frisna crechairib LB 154a63 . in lucht frisa tucad in digal .i. Uespiam ┐ Titus ib. 16 . Constantiana ... .i. eclas rocúmdaiged fri Constantin 157b48 . Of parenthood : trī meic Medba fri Fergus, Corp. Gen. 279.33 . sē meic do Mīlidh fri Scota ┐ dā mac frisin nEspānaig 'Míl had six sons of Scota, and two sons of the Spanish woman', ITS xliv 64 § 424 . do chomthusmed clainni fri hA. to have children by A., Alex. 512 .

(b) to denote instrument, through, by means of, by dint of (cf. similar uses of Engl. `with') : sénais Brigit fria bachaill with her crozier Hy v 58 T = lia F. fria noebainm ... séntae cech slóg subach by [or at ?] his holy name every happy host was sained Fél. Prol. 99 . ícaid [Tipra C.] gallrae ... fri troscud aici, BColm. 52.15 . argain fri daigid (destroying by fire LL 107a21 ( Ériu iv 28 ), cf. multi nobiles ceciderunt ... fri daigidh ro horta uile, AU 900 (see RIA Dict. s.v. daig). go nach deachaidh neach re siúbhal ... as no one escaped by flight ML 88.31 . re dán nglas ... dán breaghdha do bhréagnachadh with a simple poem to refute an elaborate one Content. vii 13 . ro ēirigh fri nert seoin ┐ solaid, Moling § 4 (possibly = with here cf. dol ar fairrge ... ré cóir na gaoithe = with a favourable wind ML 36z = le ML² 466 . cuir me ... chum seoil ... re cóir ghloin, Measgra D. 48.16 ).

IX In expressions of time :—

(a) in O. Ir. in locatival sense in phrase : fri dē by day, in the day-time Ml. 121d8 . Wb. 6a30 . fri dei, 9a5 , 24d14 , 26b17 . Cf. in gabail fri dei ... in gabail cech ráithi a catch (of fish) daily (?) Trip. 250.14 (2950) . fri díe, Mon. Tall. § 55 . fri haidchi by night Trip. 208.25 (2452) . gl. contra noctem Lat. Lives 18 . re lá, Ériu iii 148 § 3 . arna imbreth ... i n-aidchi cía nosgonad fri dé, LU 5609 .

(b) usually to denote period during which something continues or takes place : 'na fuair frisna secht ṁbliadnaib SR 3394 . fri a n-aimsir in their time Laws iv 210.28 . niro chotail C. frisin ré sin, LU 6337 . fria ré hi fut a saegail for their lifetime SR 5932 . bai cocad mor etarro fri re ciana RC xxiv 186 . batar ... fri re secht la amlaid sin, ACL iii 225.1 . conosrala for sechrán fri re bliadna co lleith, LU 1279 . bá-sa i Tul T. fri ré inna dílenn, Ériu iv 144y . maith graig dorat damh rem lá in my day ACL iii 304.23 . D. ba talchar fria ré in his day Metr. Dinds. ii 40 . dorumaltsa ... m'aimsir fri hamsir Nemid, LU 1276 . nir siubhuil in conuir-so re bliadhain aenridiri for a year past ZCP vi 104 z.

(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place : ni ba marb-sa fri sin I shall not die before that ZCP i 105.4 (co sin v.l.). Cf. also the locative use in Marco P. 11 cited I (a). tanic ... uidi na .xii. mís fri .xii. laa made the twelve months' journey in twelve days LB 139a31 . icuis fri teorai nomaidhe within thrice nine days RC xii 66x . nos ithend ... friha brathad sula in the twinkling of an eye LU 1895 ( RC x 56 ; fri b. v.l.) do imredar ... re trí lá, ┐ ní ruc G. énchluichi rissin, Acall. 1348 .

(d) of point of time ; in some cases approaching VI (b) above. fri dead n-aissi, SR 2829 . in tan nadbi fri húair i fos | frithalmi when he is not here at the hour of attending ... 1199 (cf. LB 110b43 cited under VI (a) above). cech dūil ... rosdelb fri oenuair, SR 7864 (similarly 7234 , 7386 ). grend Muman ... grend Connacht ... ra hóen-úair at the same time Ériu i 130.36 ( LL 46b ). buaidh ... damh fri deiredh mo ṡaoghail, ACL iii 231.1 . ra dered flatha Domnaill, LL 185a48 ( Arch. Hib. ii 85 ) = Rawl. 154a52 . Rí dorat na deich plāga | forthu fri huair combāga, SR 3942 . ? cid fri geld bāis nobeth `though he were at the point of death.' Mon. Tall. § 48 (see gell). re húair nfaicsiona at the time of looking RC xxix 128.13 . fri huair tacrai do ghníma, Ériu ii 228.7 .

(e) in follg. exx. perhaps used for ria before: na buidne ... robatar fria Crist...rofhogain don Choimdid fria tuidecht soscela (= turbae quae praecedebant ... ante evangelium) PH 4573 . dorad som a cuibidil fria mbass made his confession before death RC xviii 53.19 . Cf. co ro muid fri maccu Israel, LB 122b47 = re, YBL 293b40 (corresp. to mebaid remib SR 4765 ).

(f) In later lang., 3 s. ris occurs as adv. bare, exposed, uncovered : mar do leig ris a n-aoinfheacht 'how it left [her] uncovered at once' Duan. F. ii 332 § 9 , Éigse ix 228 . do theilg Ercuill a bhrat de ┐ ro leig a lorg ┐ in croicenn leomainn ro buí re cnes ris, ITS xxxviii 997 (Stair Ercuil) . chonarcadar a ccroicinn go coirtighthi buídhe ris, Smaointe B. Chr. 150 . ó bhí mo chroiceann-sa nochtuighthe síos reis, 160 . cia d’innis doit-se a bheith nochtuighthe síos reis (leis, v.l.), 161 . See also la VI (d), léicid.

X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs (and nouns of cognate meaning with them), e.g., those of speaking, addressing, boasting, complaining, asking, thanking ; meeting, touching, striking, rubbing, grinding ; listening ; waiting, expecting ; entrusting ; co-operating, associating, helping ; visiting ; resembling, comparing, differing ; parting, severing (from) ; doing (something to), acting (towards), giving, distributing, apportioning ; requiting, paying, selling ; refusing, rejecting, denying ; hindering, restricting, opposing, combating, etc. See especially : ad-cosnai, ad-gair, ad-teich, ad-tluichethar (attlugud), aigid, 1 anaid, ar-báigi, as-beir, benaid, beirid, 1 caithid, canaid, 1 cingid, comalnaithir, 1 con-clich, con-delca, con-gní, con-ricc, con-sní, con-túaisi, crenaid, dálaid, dlomaid, do-beir, do-gní, do-icc, do-rogaib, do-slí (tuillem buide fri), do-sluindi (diúltad), do-tét, dúnaid, 2 erbaid, fáiltigid(ir), feraid, fo-gella (2 fuiglid), fo-rig, fris-oirg, fris-tairissethar, fris-taít, gaibid (fris-gaib), gellaid, íadaid, 1 íccaid, imm-beir, imm-fogni, imm-fresna, in-samlathar, in-túaisi (éistid), labraithir (labraid), laigid, 1 ligid, lingid, 1 luigid, meilid (con-meil ), naiscid, ráidid (ol, ar), rannaid, renaid, saethraigidir, scaraid (and compds.), soïd (do-soí), 1 téit, tongaid.

? frigec

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? frigec or dil.ie/24336

Forms: f.

n f.¤ a frico ... frige fris .i. meil fris, O'Mulc. 544 ( = rubbing, grinding ? But gloss may be due to a confused reminiscence of the verse quoted s.v. frige from Metr. Dinds. iv 142 , where frige is the reading of 2 MSS.). See frige.

meilid, melaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. meilid, melaid or dil.ie/31769
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: melim, melid, rat-méla, rat-meliub, meilt, milt, milt, melair, mlith, bleith, meilt, melsedar, meilid, meldai, domelmais, domheilinn

v i, (rarely ā). pres. 1 s. melim, Sg. 57a2 . melid, LL 43a7 . fut. 3 s. rat-méla, TBC-LL¹ 3425 (but 1 s. rat-meliub, 6052 ). pret. 2 s. ro meilt , Hib. Min. 71.4 = ro milt , AU 650. ? 3 s. milt, ZCP viii 308.3 . Pass. pres. s. melair, LU 1760. vn. O.Ir. mlith, Mid.Ir. bleith and meilt. melsedar, Lism. L. 2822 , may be a late 3 pl. pret.

I In general sense grinds, crushes:

(a) of grain, etc.: melim, gl. molo, Sg. 57a2 . in gran meiles in muilend, Hib. Min. 71.7 = AU 650 ; RC xvii 191 (meles). amal meles muilend braich, FB 52. rat-melestar mar miles mulend muadbraich, TBC-LL¹ 3789 , cf. 6052 . dilse mine melar ditmairc, Laws iv 314.14 . melair blethe the meal is ground, Metr. Dinds. iii 96. glac na clocha muilinn ┐ meil min, Isaiah xlvii 2. With transference of obj.: nach bró belar [melair, meltair v.l.] i ndomnach . . . leth n-unga argait for fer noda-mela [nodos-meil v.l.], Ériu ii 204 § 23 . melfead-sa brōin dom lāim fen ag an altoir, Aen. 867 (a misunderstanding of ipsa molā manibusque piis altaria iuxta, Aeneid iv 517 ). (Fig.) an mheabhair . . . nach meileann acht míorath, TSh. 6514.

(b) of weapons, grinds, sharpens: meilid fæbra!, TBC-I¹ 3445 (2 pl. imp.). bai ben and fri bleth arm . . . is i rus-meil gai Ruadain, RC xii 94 § 124. nertlia . . . fria meltís renda ┐ fæbra, MacCongl. 47.17 . ná melta riss . . . acht gaí that only spears should be whetted against it, Metr. Dinds. iv 38 (see note).

(c) of crushing, bruising, a person, cf. TBC-LL¹ 3789 quoted above and 6052 . ro mel ┐ ro cumail C. itir a lamhaibh é, 2247 (St.). ros-mealt ┐ ras-comail, RC xiv 265 § 59. Hence overcomes, destroys: nā rum-meile iarann (a prayer), ZCP x 347 § 25 . immarmus Adáim . . . ro melt maccu na saerchlann, Metr. Dinds. iv 244. ? Saxain mna co ndreamna meldai buar im Temhrai, ZCP x 343.20 (3 pl. pres. rel.)?).

II Used for do-meil :

(a) uses, consumes; esp. of food . dús in ḟuigbithea dún ni no mhelmais anything for us to eat, MacCarthy 62 = domelmais, SR 1564. cornaire, bonnaire . . . ro meltís midmír used to consume the broken bits, Metr. Dinds. i 26. biror ┐ uisce . . . is edh no meiltis, RC xxvi 372.16 . ubla ┐ toirthi . . . no melit, Marco P. 10. ani no geleth no meleth itir feur ┐ uisce (of a cow), Anecd. i 59 (= would utterly consume?). Of clothes: no meilinn léne mbithnúi I used to wear, Otia i 122 § 2 = domheilinn, Ériu vii 240. Of time: co ro melaiter na teora dechmaide until . . . expire, H 3.18 p. 386a-b ( O'Curry 851 ). In wider sense uses, enjoys, has the benefit of: bid la Connachta a slat, | brait cid Mumnig nos-melat though Munstermen enjoy the spoil, Metr. Dinds. iii 308. an tir . . . is tusa nos-melfa, Lism. L. 2268. in ní 'mo ndernais, ní tú ros-mēla, Cog. 92.8 . Freq. in later lang. in optative sent.: a mhic gur mhela t'arma mayst thou [live to ] use thy arms, O'Gr. Cat. 376.4. gur mheala an t-arm-sa, a Éamuinn, TD 19.1 ; cf. IGT Dec. ex. 977. go meala tú an chulaith sin, Maguires of F. § 34. gur mheala an dún, a Dhomhnuill, Gofraidh Fionn vi 59 ( Ir. Monthly 1919 ). ro meala mo mhallacht may he have my curse! IT iii 101 § 171. Cf. also: slegha sealga . . . ionmhuin láim laoigh ros-meile that can use them (?), Duan. F. i 16.26 .

(b) with transference of subj., serves, is of use to? geibh luirigh rot-meala win a corslet to serve thee (?), Acall. 1037. rot-mela sleg th'athar, 4924 .

III With abstr. obj. and FOR of pers. wreaks, inflicts (on); cf. for transition: a muilinn . . . ni bo chomailt far serbainn | [a] ro milt for uibh Cerbhaill it was not the grinding of oats thou didst grind on C.'s descendants, AU 650. nicon-mela in fer-sa a baraind for Ultu shall not wreak his wrath, TBC-I¹ 3596. milt a crūas for comaithchu 'its hardness ground onto its neighbours', Aided Echach 96 §4(c) . arna mela doisi for doíni a digi druis .i. arna himri se meiracht a dighi for na daoine `that the lust of his drink may not inflict madness (?) on men', O'Dav. 163. With obj. omitted: amal melis milchu for mhil as a greyhound falls on a hare (?), Lism. L. 2822 (rhet.).

men, min

Cite this: eDIL s.v. men, min or dil.ie/31926

Forms: mine, min, mean, min, min, men

n O.Ir. gender uncertain, g s. mine; later n s. min, f. (perhaps through influence of min `fine, small'). mean f., IGT Dec. § 165. min, § 14.8 . The final is palatal, the vowel written with i (idat), as distinguished from min `small' written with io (iphin), Auraic. 1294 , 4396 .

(a) flour, meal: men (gl. farina), Sg. 51b7 . an m.¤ meiles in muilind, AU 650 = an grán, Hib. Min. 71.7 . longad serba semide | men, mil, Ériu i 138.19 . descaid do chumasc ar in mein, PH 5077. min eornu . . . min cruithnechtai, Laws ii 150.3 Comm. dilse mine melar forfeiture of the meal that is ground, iv 314.14 . dorat do P. inn airmid mini, Trip. 186.9 . min arba quasi minuitur , Corm. Y 901 (sic leg., arba = g s.). Auraic. 1294. co nderna min cruithnechta dibh, Lism. L. 4183. mean is braich, IGT Dec. ex. 2046. an mhin chomhchroitte (= conspersam farinam), TSh. 7753. meil min!, Isaiah xlvii 2. bairille na mine, 1 Kings xvii 14. is furus fuinedh i n-aici na mine (prov.), SG ii 550 , cf. O'Rahilly, Ir. Prov. § 181. Cf. also: o bias ina min `when it is in the state of meal' (of the dye-plant), Laws ii 420.6 = 'na méin, i 190.1 Comm. mean .i. mín (leg. min?), Lec. Gl. 448 (` smooth ' Stokes).

(b) fine powder, dust: dorigni dé min is luaith, SR 5411. dorigne men ocus luaith do Dagan, LB 128a40 . co nderna min ┐ luaith de, Lat. Lives 61.7 ( LB 27a21 ). co ndernta men ┐ luaith dia ballaib, PH 1241. Cf. Acall. 5585 , Lism. L. p. xxi 13 . min chogna d'ól ar fín powdered horn, O'Gr. Cat. 182.17. min gainme, ZCP x 344.2 .

toimlid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. toimlid or dil.ie/41218

x see do-meil .

tomailt

Cite this: eDIL s.v. tomailt or dil.ie/41363

n ā, f. Vn. of do-meil .

I

(a) act of wearing away, consuming: ic t.¤ a [dé]t frisin cloich `grinding his teeth against the stone,' MacCongl. 47.21 . ní bui t.¤ na uaimm snathati isin inar-sin, PH 2861.

(b) act of consuming food or drink: tri th.¤ neich adobarar doib, Wb. 11b12 . tar hési tomalte inna túare, 11c2 . longad ┐ t.¤ , LU 3226 (SC). ic t.¤ na flede, Thes. ii 335.38 . praind do t.¤ , Mon. Tall. 153.3 . oc t.¤ a feisi, YBL 139a19 . fri t.¤ bid no lenda, BB 497a27 . dorónad ... tegdas chumtachta lais fri frithailem tomalta na flede, LU 8044 ( FB 1 ). gaimred fria tomalta, RC xii 106 § 15.7 . in fhil biad ocaib sund ... biad bud chubaid do th.¤ , PH 6710 . bethadach ... ag tomuilt in fheóir, Études Celt. i 87.28 . tomuilt feola a corgus, Laws iii 62.7 Comm. Intrans.: dochuaid ... dochumm a phelati ... do thomailt, PH 1222 . caitheamh la tuaith, ocus toimilt do eclais, Laws ii 342.12 Comm.

(c) food, comestibles: maith a tomalt (: doromat), ZCP xi 151 § 32 . dorosait Dia a brechtrad forsin domun dia ... tomaltaib; intí mesraiges a thuari ┐ a th.¤ do cach, Alex. 941 . no noisigthe leis ... fri t.¤ i tig Conchobair, Ériu iv 26.21 .

(d) feast: fleagha ┐ tomulta, Ériu iii 4.24 . bíd for tomaltaib, LL 280a3 .

II Legal. act of using: rodbi slan serthoimilt caich di arailiu `der freie Verbrauch,' Stud. in E. Ir. Law 54 § 26 = Laws ii 388.14 . log a tomalta, Laws v 388.27 . ní suíter tuinide ar tomalta tíre itir fine .i. nocha didnither a ferann ar in fine eturra budein cin a taisic cé ro beth neach dib aga t.¤ , O'D. 580 ( H 3.17, 445 ). teora tomalta ata chórai do ríg fora thuaith(a); óenach ┐ dál do chundriug ┐ tochomrach do chrích, Críth G. 502 . batar meic Aeda Slane in tan sin for crich nUlad for tomaltaib .i. da mac Aeda Slane i comflaitheamnas `im Genuss ihrer Königsrechte' (Thurneysen, Z. f. roman. Phil. xliii 389 § 5 ), Anecd. 1 2.24 .

Load More Results