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attá

Cite this: eDIL s.v. attá or dil.ie/4927
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: attá, Fil, fil, faeilfit, fil, fil, atóo, attó, attóo, ató, -táu, -ttóo, -tó, atái, atái, -tái, adta, ata, at, atáa, attáa, ataa, att, -tá, -ta, -táa, -dathar, ataam, attaam, ataid, ataaith, ataaid, ataad, -taid, ataat, ataat, -tat, -taat, tathum, tathut, táithi, táthus, táthunn, taithiunn, tathuib, tás, fil, fil, feil, fel, fail, fil, file, fel, fele, feil, fail, biuu, -bíu, -bí, biith, biid, bíid, -bii, -bí, robīi, -rubi, -rubai, -ruba, bíis, biís, bis, bís, bithir, bither, -bither, -rubthar, bímmi, -biam, bimme, biit, bíit, robiat, -biat, -bíat, -rubat, bíte, -bíinn, -biinn, -bíid, -bíth, -bid, -bith, bithe, -bímmis, -bitis, -bítis, b, bíth, bíith, bíid, biid, bíd, bithom, biid, bith, biat, beo, beu, -béo, bee, b, -bee, robhe, beith, beid, bed, beth, -b, -bée, bethum-sa, rob, robe, rubé, rob, robbé, -roib, bess, bes, bethir, bether, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -bem, -robam, beithe, bethe, -beith, -beid, -robith, beit, rubet, be(i)t, -bet, -robat, bete, -beind, -beinn, -betha, nobed, nobeth, -bed, -beth, -robad, -rabad, -bethe, -bemmis, -beimmis, -bemis, -bethe, -betis, -[ro]ibtis, bia, bie, bieid, bied, -bia, -bia, -bia, -bía, bethiumm, bethib, bias, bies, beithir, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -biam, -piam, bethe, bethi, -bied, -bieid, biet, bieit, biet, -biat, -bíet, bete, beite, nombeinn, nobiad, -bíad, nobemmis, nobetis, b, -bá, bói, bái, -bói, boie, boithius, boíthi, baísu, both(a)e, botha, -both(a), bamar, bámar, -baid, bātir, -batar, batar, rob, -roba, -raba, rob, robói, rambái, robui, -robae, -robe, -rabae, romboth, rombod, -rabad, robámmar, -robammar, rubaid, -robaid, robatar, robbátar, -rabatar, -robatar, -rabtar, buith, buithi, atáu, atú, itu, it, atú, ataim, -t, -tái, -toi, taoi, -t, atá, attá, ata, at, atáthar, dáthar, atass, -das, itám, tám, ataum, ataim, atamaoit, atámaoid, atám, -taum, -dtám, atathai, atathi, atáithi, -táithi, -dathai, -taidh, itāt, atáit, ataut, táid, -táit, itat, atat, fil, -fhile, -fhuile, -fuili, -ḟoili, -ḟuile, fail, fail, fuil, -fail, -fuil, -uil, -ḟil, -ḟuil, -ḟoil, fil, fail, fail, filter, -fuiltear, fuilemm, -failmet, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, -bhḟuilti, failet, filet, fuilet, -failet, -filet, -fileat, -fuilet, -fuilid, failet, failet, fuilet, filet, bim, bím, -bím, -ruibim, -bi, bíd, bíd, -bí, -bíonn, -bind, bídh, -b, bither, -bithar, bímit, bídmaid, bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, bíth, bīd, -bíat, -bít, -bíd, bit, bít, bhínn, nobīth, robíth, bhíodh, bhíoth, bithi, -bithi, bithea, naboitis, nobīdis, beitis, bitis, bhítís, bhídís, bír, b, bīdh, bíodh, bíoth, bíom, bíthe, bídh, bidhí, bíod, ber, uér, beor, bheith, bur, -rabor, -rabhus, rabasa, bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, bé, beir, -rab(a)i, -rabha, -rabhair, -mbéis, -beis(se), -rabais, beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, beth, -b, -raib, -rab, -raibhe, rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, bess, beas, bethur, beme, bemmit, bemait, -bém, -beam, -ruibem, -rabum, bheam, rabham, bethi, rabthai, beit, -bet, -beat, -rabat, -rabut, -rabhait, -rabhaid, -rabheid, beinn, rabainn, beithi, beithe, bethe, beitheá, beith, nobith, mbeadh, -mbeath, -rabad, -bethe, -bette, rabtha, mbiadh, nobeitis, nobeidis, mbeith, bíat, biat, biad, bhead, bed, bét, bett, -biu, -bhiú, biad, -bi, bía, biae, biaidh, bía, -bía, bethair, bied, biaid, biáid, -bia, bíes, bés, bes, bess, bhias, biass, beither, beithir, bemit, bemait, -bem(ni, beimíd, -biam, -biaim(ne), -ben, bethi, beitte, bete, -bed, biait, biat, beit, beiti, beti, betit, beidid, -bīat, beidíd, beid, -bíad, no-béind, dobeind, do beinn, -beinn, bheitheá, biadh, -bied, bífad, rot-fiadh, biath, bhiadh, bethe, bheidīs, ro-bádus, bhádhus, bhí, -rabus, -rabhas, -rabadhus, bá, -raba, bádhus, -rabadhas, basa, bhádhuis, bhí, -rabadais, -rabhais, bhádhuis, -rabhadhuis, bae, bóe, baei, búi, -bae, -buí, robai, robae, robói, bí, robuidh, bí, bhói, bhaoi, -rubai, -roibe, -roibi, -roba, -raba, -raibhe, -rabha, -robha, bí, -raibi, baí, -rabha, -rabhustair, boí, bāi, būi, bae, buí, baí, boí, both, rombatha, robās, rombas, robás, -rabus, rabas, -bádus, -bás, bás, bas, -rabas, bas, bhás, bāmur, bámar, bhámair, -rabamar, robabair, -babhair, robadbair, bhábhair, -rabhuir, -rabhabhair, bādar, -bátir, badar, bádar, bídur, -rabadar, -rabhadair, baisit, -rabhsad, bátar, bátar, bheith, beitte

(ad-tá) subst. vb. is . The distinction betw. subst. vb. and copula is in the first place syntactical, and cases are found where there is no distinction of form. Cf. the type, common in ACC: boe sab he was a leader, ACC 26 . See further below, and the discussion by Bergin, Ériu xii 208 - 211 (cia taísiu, cia bé, etc.), who refers to cases like: is uera pictura ro bai sin, Thes. ii 6.32 as emphatic. See also Ériu xvi 46 , GOI 475 . For nimtha laám, Wb. 12a21 , nímptha fírion, 8d24 (copula ?) see GOI 487 . Note also the form of the pron. in (later): matait tall iat, Laws iv 86.8 Comm. , atá ar conair é, ACL iii 216.z . bí N. eices cecinit, RC xvii 175.14 is perh. a mistake. In follg. use of subst. vb. perh. due to infl. of Latin: mar nobéind athair doib = pater eram pauperum, PH 6107 . ata in innsci ordugud etc. = oratio est. . ., Auraic. 591 .

Apart from the ordinary indic. pres. all forms of subst. vb. are from a root beginning with b-. In indic. pres. the stem tá (in absol. position attá) is used in non-rel. sentences without conj. particle, after conj. particles with inf. pron. dat. and when the conj. particle consists of a preposition and rel. (s)a n-. Absolute inflexion of tá- is found in oldaas, indaas, etc. than (is), in meaning is angry, and with follg. suff. pron. The uninflected form fil (with accus.) is used after conj. particles where no dat. inf. pron. is present, in leniting rel. clauses and often in answers to questions containing subst. vb., and in archaic texts in absol. position in meaning there is . For fuller details see GOI 476 - 483 and exx. below. See also Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 419 ff. , Strachan, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899, 1 - 82 , Ó Máille, Ériu vi 1 ff. , Études Celt. xxxiv 143-44 . Forms of gaibid, do-coissin, díchsnigidir and 1 ad-cumaing also have the force of the subst. vb. in certain uses, see separate entries.

Note further that attá is usual after hóre (see Wb. 19a19 , 22d14 and compare GOI § 781 ) and occurs later after amal ( LU 7072 , Laws iii 90.18 ). Fil is somet. found in sense there is in mid. Ir.: fail crois d'ór in cach dorus, SR 361 . TBC-I¹ 2561 . Note also: fil derg it is red, Marco P. 173 .

The use of accus. after fil continues into the classical period, see IGT Introd. § 129 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 92 - 93 . A few exx. of forms other than fil with accus. occur: ni raibi deilb, TTr.² 1664 , ní raibi . . . mhnái , 370 , ní bhiadh mnaoi, Ó Bruad. ii 252.z (with assonance). Note also with inf. pron. rosṁbai inna tass, SR 5107 . ? nim tha maith . . . do chath fri firu, LU 3343 ( SCC 13 ). From the mid. Ir. period on fil takes personal endings except in 3 s., and occurs occasionally as an independent verb: faeilfit (fut. 3 pl. absol.), Caithr. Thoirdh. 120.26 . In rel. function attá is found side by side with fil from an early period: is heiside attá hi S., Trip.² 534 , a lucht atá istig, RC vii 298.131 , the form fil finally disappearing in this use.

In mid. Ir. fil occurs for earlier -tá with dat. inf. pron.: nichar fail tlacht, SR 1560 , ni-s-fil biad, PH 1310 . Also in rel. clause after prep.: bale hi fail, LU 7516 , fors fil, Imr. Brain 43 (see also Strachan, Stories fr. Táin 3rd ed. p. 1 note).

The consuet. pres. 1 s. conj. -bíu has in classical Ir. the force of a future: biad ní biú, IGT Verbs § 7 , see also TBC-LL¹ 882 , Acall. 6179 , Duan. F. i 43.4 .

Early forms (for fuller lists see Strachan loc. cit.). Indic. pres. 1 s. atóo, Wb. 12a21 . attó, 21c19 . attóo, 26d8 . ató, 26d17 . -táu, 32a10 , -ttóo, 17d24 , -tó, Ml. 92b8 . 2 s. atái, Wb. 5b27 . atái, Ml. 110d15 (sic MS, see Ériu xiv 30 ). -tái, 5b38 . 3 s. adta, Laws v 390.10 (see ZCP xxv 247 ). ata, Wb. 13c26 , at, 27a11 , atáa, 6a19 , attáa, 32a6 , ataa, 26b31 , att, 4b11 . -tá, 31c7 , -ta, 2b12 , -táa, 13a35 . Impers. -dathar (see GOI 477 - 478 ), Wb. 21c9 . 1 pl. ataam, Wb. 15a13 , attaam, 32a28 . 2 pl. ataid, Wb. 4a4 , ataaith, 20b16 , ataaid, 23c28 , ataad, 22d14 . -taid, 19d26 . 3 pl. ataat (trisyll.), Blathm. 471 . ataat, Ml. 55d11 , 37a10 . -tat, 42b10 . -taat, Sg. 71b3 .

With suff. pron. tathum, Metr. Dinds. iv 284.3 . tathut, Fél. July 24 . táithi (tathai, v.l.), Críth G. 197 . táthus, Fél. Feb. 5 . táthunn, Prol. 217. taithiunn, Thes. ii 293.19 . tathuib, Rawl. 88b51 .

For rel. s. without preverb (taas, tás) see atás, indaas, 4 ol.

The form fil, etc. As conj. form: fil, Wb. 16b9 , Ml. 92a8 , Sg. 193b7 . feil, Wb. 24c4 . Ml. 60b2 . fel, Wb. 3c38 , Ml. 27d10 . fail, 44b10-11 , Sg. 32a1 . As rel.: fil, Ml. 121c8 , file Wb. 23a5 , Ml. 51d11 , Sg. 151b7 . fel, Wb. 4c1 , fele, Ml. 93c7 . feil, Wb. 33b18 . fail, BCr. 18c4 .

Consuet. pres. 1 s. biuu, Wb. 16d8 . -bíu, 20a3 . 2 s. -bí, Ml. 135d1 . ACL iii 312 § 4 . 3 s. biith, Wb. 29a26 . biid, 4d33 . bíid, Sg. 150b4 . -bii, Wb. 28b25 , -bí, Ml. 103c3 . With ro: robīi, TBC-I¹ 1730 . -rubi, Wb. 11c17 , -rubai, Ml. 20d4 , Sg. 7b3 . -ruba, 3b28 . Rel. bíis, Wb. 13a12 . biís, 28b28 . bis, Ml. 61a33 . bís, Sg. 140b2 . Impers. bithir, Ml. 56b15 . rel. bither, 108b4 , -bither, 100c21 . -rubthar, cited GOI § 784 . OIPG 69 . 1 pl. bímmi, Ml. 15a4 . -biam, Wb. 16a8 . Rel. bimme, Wb. 12c11 . 3 pl. biit, Wb. 29a28 . bíit, Sg. 217a1 . robiat, 138a5 . -biat, Ml. 59d7 . -bíat, Sg. 148a4 . -rubat, 138a5 . Rel. bíte, Wb. 9d28 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. -bíinn, Ml. 108b1 , -biinn, 58d9 . 3 s. -bíid, LU 5080 (see Ériu xvii 121 ), -bíth, Sg. 148b6 . -bid, Ml. 33a5 . -bith, Vita Br. 12 . Impers. no bithe , CCath. 3971 . 1 pl. -bímmis, cited GOI § 785 . 3 pl. -bitis, Ml. 86d6 . -bítis, Sg. 5a15 .

Ipv. 2 s. b, TBC-I¹ 2391 . 3 s. bíth, Wb. 10a8 , 25 , bíith, 8d9 , bíid, 5d33 , biid, Ml. 74d3 . bíd, Wb. 3a14 . With suff. pron. bithom, Fél. Ep. 404 n.17 . 2 pl. biid, Wb. 23c11a . bith, 22b26 . 3 pl. biat, Ml. 51d13 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. beo, Wb. 23b41 . beu, Ml. 53b8 . -béo, Fél. Prol. 273 . 2 s. bee, cited OIPG 70 and see GOI 482 . b, ZCP viii 311.z (see xxiv 122 ). -bee (perh. absol.), ZCP vii 494 (Enchir. Aug.). -bē, Fing. R. 82 . With ro: robhe (restored as ro-bé), Blathm. 92 § 9 . 3 s. beith, Ml. 108a11 . beid, Wb. 14c23 . bed, 3c10 . beth, Thes. ii 245.34 (Cambr. Hom.). -bǽ, Wb. 22b14 . -b, Sg. 29b14 . -bée, Wb. 12c43 . With suff. pron. bethum-sa, Fél. Ep. 384 n.14 . With ro: rob, Wb. 5d30 , robe, 18c4 , rubé, Ml. 20d4 , rob, Wb. 28a23 , robbé, Sg. 169a1 . -roib, Wb. 16c24 , Ml. 118c5 . Rel. bess, Wb. 5d14 . bes, Ml. 77d3 . Impers. bethir, Wb. 5d33 . rel. bether, Ml. 107d8 . -bether, Wb. 10a18 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 31c11 . beimmi, 19a16 . -bem, 24a10 . -robam, 26c10 . 2 pl. beithe, Wb. 18b16 . bethe, 24b13 . -beith, Ml. 46a10 . -beid, Wb. 27c9 . With ro: -robith, Wb. 26a28 . 3 pl. beit, Wb. 10b5 . rubet, 26a23 . ro be(i)t , Vita Br. 35 . -bet, Wb. 9d27 . -robat, 11d9 . Rel. bete, Wb. 10c22 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. -beind, TBC-I¹ 1856 . -beinn cited GOI § 787 . 2 s. -betha, Wb. 4c24 . 3 s. nobed, Wb. 3b10 . nobeth, Ml. 27b1 . -bed, Wb. 9d1 . -beth, Ml. 88b15 . -robad, Wb. 17a13 . -rabad, 34a4 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . 1 pl. -bemmis, Wb. 9a3 . -beimmis, 29d23 . -bemis, Vita Br. 23 . 2 pl. -bethe, Wb. 9c20 . 3 pl. -betis, Sg. 138a9 . -[ro]ibtis, Wb. 28a1 .

Fut. 1 s. bia, Ml. 137b7 . 2 s. bie, cited GOI § 788 , OIPG 70 . 3 s. bieid, Wb. 4d6 . bied, 14c1 . -bia, 5d35 . -bia (disyll.), Blathm. 572 . -bia and -bía, GOI § 788 . With suff. pron. bethiumm. Ériu xiii 20.6 . bethib, ZCP viii 316.5 (see xxix 174 ). Rel. bias, Wb. 23b38 . bies, Ériu iii 102 § 32 . Impers. beithir, TBFr. 248 . -bether, MacCongl. 61.4 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 9c10 . beimmi, 21b7 . -biam, 15a1 . -piam, 30b17 . 2 pl. bethe, cited GOI § 788 . bethi, Trip.² 1589 . -bied, Wb. 9a21 . -bieid, 26d26 . 3 pl. biet (disyll.), Blathm. 472 . bieit, Wb. 4c40 . biet, 9d27 , Sg. 198b6 (also bíet, GOI § 788 ). -biat, 9c28 . -bíet, 40b14 . Rel. bete, Wb. 13c26 . beite, 4c40 .

Condit. 1 s. nombeinn, Ml. 59a22 . 3 s. nobiad, Ml. 32d5 . -bíad, Wb. 9d1 . 1 pl. nobemmis, Ml. 134b3 . 3 pl. nobetis, Ml. 100c7 .

Pret. 1 s. b, LU 9407 . 2 s. -bá, cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 , see perf. 2 s. below. 3 s. bói, Wb. 31c18 . bái, 27a16 . -bói, 17d17 , Ml. 78a4 . Rel. boie, Thes. ii 242.11 (Ardm.). boīe (MS. ba), Ériu xvi 46.10 (see n. 0 and Celtica vi 223 ). boíë (MS. baoí), Ériu xxvi 67, 85 . Cf. cech nóeb bói, fil, bías, Fél. Ep. 289 (where six sylls. required). With suff. pron. boithus, IT i 137.8 = boithius, 21 . boíthi, Sc.M² 3 . ? baísu, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 37.5 . Impers. *both(a)e, postulated GOI § 789 , botha, TBC-I¹ 1572 . -both(a), Vita Br. 33 . 1 pl. bamar, SR 1558 . bámar, 3286 , Imr. Brain i 48.5 . 2 pl. -baid (baïd ?), cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 . 3 pl. bātir, TBC-I¹ 217 . -batar, Ml. 55c2 . Rel. batar, Ml. 123b5 . See GOI § 789 .

Perf. 1 s. rob, Wb. 28a9 . -roba, Ml. 44c4 . -raba, TBC-I¹ 3068 . 2 s. rob, LL 14442 . 3 s. robói, Wb. 5c10 . rambái, 2c13 . robui, Ml. 93c3 . -robae, Ml. 41a5 , -robe, Wb. 18d7 , -rabae, Ml. 28d3 . Impers. romboth, Wb. 19a9 . rombod, 5b31 . -rabad, Ériu iv 146.4 . 1 pl. robámmar, Wb. 20d12 . -robammar, Ml. 105b16 . 2 pl. rubaid, Wb. 3b19 . -robaid, Ml. 46a8 . 3 pl. robatar, Wb. 24c5 . robbátar, Sg. 57b1 . -rabatar, Ml. 100c11 . -robatar, Sg. 45b1 . -rabtar, Ml. 37a16 .

Vn. buith.

Vbl. of necess. buithi.

Later forms (see also Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish, Ériu vi 1 ff. ; Mulchrone, Verbalformen der Vita Tripartita, ZCP xvi 440 ; Falconer, Verbal System of LU Táin, Ériu xvii 116 ; Strachan, Verbal System of SR, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1895, 1 - 76 ; O Daly, Verbal System of LL Táin, Ériu xiv 80 ; Mac Eoin, Verbalsystem von Togail Troi, ZCP xxviii 125 ; Sommerfelt, Le système verbal dans In Cath Catharda, RC xxxviii 41 ; Nuner, Verbal System of the Agallamh na Senórach, ZCP xxvii 272 ; PH Glossary; Lloyd, Impersonal passive forms of the Irish substantive verb, Ériu i 49 ff. ; TD Introd. lxxv ; IGT Verbs § 7 ).

Indic. pres. 1 s. atáu, Trip.² 1412 . atú, 2578 . itu, SR 1187 . it, TBC-LL¹ 434 . atú, IGT Verbs § 7 . ataim, Fier. 14 . -t, Acall. 4516 . 2 s. -tái, SR 3102 . -toi, TBC-I¹ 937 . taoi, TD 15.48 . cia doaisiu mac?, RC xxvi 30 § 128 . 3 s. -t, Trip.² 744 . atá, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. attá, Trip.² 534 , ata, SR 7708 etc., at, Acall. 429 . Impers. atáthar, TBC-LL¹ 3316 . dáthar (: máthar), IGT Verbs ex. 99 . atass, Ériu iv 114 § 17 (:as). -das (: as), IGT Verbs ex. 104 . 1 pl. itám, SR 1727 . tám, 3493 . ataum, PH 1556 . ataim, TBC-LL¹ 874 . atamaoit, TBC St. 121 . atámaoid, atám, IGT Verbs § 7 . -taum, PH 1506 . -dtám (: ár), IGT Verbs ex. 111 . 2 pl. atathai, PH 2734 . atathi, 597 . atáithi (: fáithi), IGT Verbs ex. 105 . -táithi (: sáithi), ex. 96 . -dathai, Alex. 190 . -taidh, Ériu ii 118 § 53 . 3 pl. itāt, TBC-I¹ 3132 . atáit, CCath. 1215 . ataut, PH 1064 . táid, TD 8.5 . -táit, CCath. 1701 . Rel. itat, Trip.² 882 , atat, SR 7949 . For later forms in meaning than (is) see atás, indaas, 4 ol. See also II (d) below and daas.

The form fil. 1 s. ni ḟuilim, ni ḟoilim, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. -fhile, PH 8116 . -fhuile, 3335 , -fuili, Acall. 3217 . -ḟoili, -ḟuile, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. fail, TBC-I¹ 60 , SR 353 etc. ro fail , TBC-LL¹ 263 , fuil, 3072 . -fail, Trip.² 2764 , -fuil, 872 , -uil, PH 3181 , -ḟil, Acall. 3709 . -ḟuil, -ḟoil, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. fil, Trip.² 842 , fail, SR 392 , no fail , 933 . With impers. ending: filter, MacCongl. 31.25 . -fuiltear, TD 2.42 . 1 pl. ra fuilemm , TBC-LL¹ 2971 . -failmet, SR 6320 , -ḟuilmíd, Acall. 5101 . -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. -bhḟuilti, Acall. 962 . 3 pl. failet, SR 345 . filet, 477 . fuilet, TBC-LL¹ 4739 . -failet, Trip.² 1119 . -filet, TBC-I¹ 1848 , -fileat, CCath. 1270 . -fuilet, 427 . -fuilid, TD 7.23 . Rel. failet, SR 400 . ra failet , TBC-LL¹ 5225 . fuilet, 4709 . filet, PH 435 . See also do-fil.

Consuet. pres. 1 s. bim, PH 6393 . bím, -bím, IGT Verbs § 7 . ? -ruibim, SG 373.29 . 2 s. -bi, SR 2035 . bí, ní bí, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bíd, TBC-I¹ 1453 (LU). biid, SR 4537 . bíd, 4588 . -bí, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bíonn, TD 22.12 . -bind, RC xlix 37.13 . bídh, -b, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bither, PH 7441 . -bithar, Laws iv 234.2 Comm. 1 pl. bímit, Acall. 886 . bídmaid, 5481 . bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bíth, Acall. 6139 . 3 pl. bīd, TBC-I¹ 1075 (bít, LU). -bíat, TTr.² 330 . -bít, PH 4189 , -bíd, TD 5.5 . Rel. bit (= bíït), SR 7259 . bít, TBC-LL¹ 1320 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. do bhínn , TD 23.7 . 3 s. nobīth, TBC-I¹ 593 (nobíid, LU cited above). robíth, TBC-I¹ 1903 (LU). do bhíodh , TD 14.23 . do bhíoth , 26.12 . Impers. bithi, Auraic. 5286 = -bithi, RC xx 150.y (ACC Pref.). no bithea , Acall. 156 . 3 pl. naboitis, TBC-I¹ 855 LU (nobitís, Y). nobīdis, 3621 (Y). bítís, 1898 (LU). no beitis , LL 407a27 . ro bitis , PH 1957 . do bhítís , Acall. 830 . do bhídís , TD 15.18 . Rel. tri cnuasa bítís ann, Acall. 455 .

Ipv. 1 s. bír (: gním), IGT Verbs ex. 94 . 2 s. b, Parrth. Anma 3871 . 3 s. bīdh, ZCP vi 271.z . bíodh, TD 16.2 . bíoth, 17.1 . 1 pl. bíom, Dán Dé xiv 17 . 2 pl. bíthe (: -chíthe), IGT Verbs ex. 95 . bídh, ex. 109 . bidhí, Luc. Fid. 3430 . 3 pl. bíod, TD 16.19 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. ber, SG 172.15 . uér, Ériu ii 92.9 . beor, v 222.46 . bheith mé, TD 8.9 . -ra bur , TBC-LL¹ 1112 . -rabor, ZCP xii 401.30 . ? -rabhus, ZCP v 523.27 = rabasa, Ériu xii 144.12 (TE). -rabar, ZCP iii 32.37 . bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bé, SR 1607 . beir, BNnÉ 288.29 . Acall. 592 . -rab(a)i, BDD² p. 80 . -rabha, Irish Texts iv 75 § 16 . -rabhair, Fing. R. p. 13 note 86 . -mbéis (: Céis), IGT Verbs ex. 100 . -beis(se) (: meise), Dán Dé xiv 20 . -rabais, Fing. R. 86 , BDD² 363 (see ZCP xxvii 75-8 ). beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. beth, TBC-I¹ 270 (beith, v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 101 . -b, TBC-I¹ 1671 . -raib, Trip.² 2753 . -rab, TBC-I¹ 1430 . -raibhe, Parrth. Anma 2616 . rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bess, TBC-I¹ 1104 (beis, Y). beas, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bethur, Laws ii 36.20 Comm. 1 pl. beme, Snedg. u. Mac R 9.14 . bemmit, TBC-LL¹ 2137 . bemait, Acall. 5478 . -bém, CCath. 1124 . -beam (: leam), Dán Dé xii 10 . -ruibem, SR 5540 . -rabum, PH 7899 . bheam, rabham, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 1233 . rabthai, PH 1977 . 3 pl. beit, Trip.² 1653 . -bet, TBC-I¹ 1053 . -beat, Lism. L. 4702 . -rabat, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. -rabut, PH 994 . -rabhait, BNnÉ 269.4 . -rabhaid, Parrth. Anma 2836 . -rabheid, RC xxix 136 § 51 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. do beinn , do rabainn , IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. no beithi , Trip.² 2972 . no beithe , 2983 = no bethe , Trip. 252.21 . do beitheá , TD 1.44 . 3 s. no beith , Trip.² 2967 . nobith, TBC-I¹ 3543 . dá mbeadh , TD 29.6 . -mbeath, IGT Verbs ex. 97 . -rabad, RC iii 184.24 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . -bette, Metr. Dinds. iii 382.19 . rabtha, TBC-LL¹ (C) 1675 . 1 pl. dá mbiadh sinn, TD 28.25 . 3 pl. nobeitis, SR 7855 . nobeidis, TBC-I¹ 3557 . dá mbeith siad, TD 26.36 .

Fut. (see Bergin, Ériu ii 46-8 ) 1 s. bíat, TTr.² 89 . biat, PH 1244 . biad (bíatt v.l.), CCath. 5137 . bhead, Parrth. Anma 6378 . bed, ZCP vi 41.10 . bét, 69.2 . bett, BNnÉ 52 § 42 . -biu, TBC-LL¹ 882 . -bhiú, Dán Dé xiv 20 . biad, -bi, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bía, Trip.² 1593 . biae, SR 1599 . -bíai, BNnÉ 291 § 2 . biaidh tú, TD 1.26 . bía, -bía, IGT Verbs § 7 . bethair, ZCP ii 225.4 . 3 s. bied, LU 10362 . biaid, Trip.² 1071 . biáid, TBC-I¹ 169 (LU). biaidh, -bia, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bíes, Trip.² 2671 . bés, CCath. 300 , bes, 657 . bess, PH 4666 . bhias, TD 3.50 . do biass , L. Chl. S. 1 . Impers. beither, Acall. 5259 . beithir, ZCP x 415.11 . 1 pl. bemit, LU 9753 , PH 1501 . bemait, CCath. 1467 . -bem(ni, LU 9753 . beimíd, -biam, IGT Verbs § 7 . -biaim(ne) (: siairni), ex. 108 . ? -ben, BCC 396.19 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 3083 . beitte (: eiti) (beththi, bete v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 102 . -bed, Trip.² 1590 . 3 pl. biait, Trip.² 2665 , TBC-I¹ 2057 (beite, LU). biat, Trip.² 1288 . beit, TBC-I¹ 80 . beiti, TBC-I¹ 2078 . beti, SR 8157 . betit, SR 853 . TBC-LL¹ 246 , TTr.² 760 . beidid, ZCP x 338 § 1 . -bīat, TBC-I¹ 1132 . beidíd síad, BCC 290.12 . beid, -bíad, IGT Verbs § 7 .

Condit. 1 s. no-béind, PH 6107 . dobeind, 7489 . do beinn, -beinn, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. do bheitheá , TD 19.13 . 3 s. no biadh , CCath. 3754 . -bied, TBC-I¹ 504 . ro bífad , TBC-LL¹ 5112 . rot-fiadh, IT iii 320.4 ( Cóir Anm. 70 ). do biath (: sgiath), IGT Verbs ex. 97 . do bhiadh , TD 2.54 . Impers. no bethe , TTr.² 533 . 3 pl. do bheidīs , Parrth. Anma 5227 .

Pret. and perf. 1 s. ro-bádus, PH 699 . do bhádhus , TD 23.6 . do bhí mé, 5 . -rabus, Acall. 7913 . -rabhas, 1584 . -rabadhus, 356 . do bá , -raba; do bádhus , -rabadhas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do basa ( : bádusa; proscribed form), ex. 103 . 2 s. ro bhádhuis , CCath. 553 . do bhí tú, TD 28.6 . -rabadais, PH 3725. 8121 . -rabhais, Acall. 123 . do bhádhuis , -rabhadhuis, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bae, SR 7608 . bóe, 6265 . baei, BDD² 127 . búi, CCath. 95 . -bae, SR 4975 . -buí, Trip.² 1505 . robai, SR 2229 , robae, 2262 . robói, PH 2572 . ro bí , CCath. 1302 . robuidh, Ériu iii 198 § 22 . do bí , CCath. 278 . do bhói , Acall. 58 . do bhaoi (: draoi), Dán Dé xii 22 . -rubai, SR 1241 . -roibe, BDD² 498 , -roibi, 1393 . -roba, 251 . -raba, 1533 . -raibhe, TD 2.25 . -rabha, 8.36 . -robha, 1 . do bí , -raibi, do baí , -rabha, IGT Verbs § 7 . With depon. ending -rabhustair, BNnÉ 322 § 31 . Rel. boí, Trip.² 626 . bāi, TBC-I¹ 1277 . būi, 630 . ro bae , Trip.² 288 . ro buí , BDD² 287 . ro baí , 1451 . ro boí , 1517 . Impers. both, Trip.² 2264 . rombatha, Ériu ii 20 § 3 (-a added later). -rabad, iv 146.4. robās, TBC-I¹ 2147 . rombas, SR 7564 , robás, TTr.² 151 . -rabus, Trip.² 54 . rabas, Laws iv 212.22 Comm. , -bádus, MacCongl. 43.22 . -bás, 61.3 . do bás , do bas , -rabas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do bas (: as), ex. 98 . do bhás (: fhás), Dán Dé xxvi 9 . 1 pl. bāmur, TBC-I¹ 399 . do bámar , Acall. 1283 . do bhámair (: Ádhaimh), Dán Dé xv 17 . -rabamar, TBC-I¹ 2495 . 2 pl. robabair, Anecd. ii 14.9 . -babhair, Blathm. 23 (see notes ). robadbair, TBC-I¹ 2502 . do bhábhair , TD 22a.1 . -rabhuir, Acall. 114 . -rabhabhair, TD 22a.2 . 3 pl. bādar, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bátir, TTr.² 1308 . ro badar , CCath. 573 n. ro bádar , Acall. 75 . do bídur , 5942 . -rabadar, TBC-I¹ 3108 . -rabhadair, TD 26.10 . ro baisit , O'Dav. 728 . -rabhsad, TD 16.21 . Rel. bátar, Trip.² 591 . BDD² 505 . ro bátar , 543 . Vn. an bheith , IGT Verbs § 7 . Vbl. of necess. beitte, TD 28.30 .

Cf. cenmothá, íarmothá, óthá.

Used in meaning is in a large variety of contexts. Normally replaced by copula (see 1 is) in certain fixed syntactical patterns (classification, identification, etc.), and when used in these cases exceptional (see above and II below).

I Expressing existence.

(a) Used absolutely is, exists, there is, etc.: ata in coimdiu gl. Dominus in cælo sedis eius, Ml. 30b27 . nabad hed a méit nádmbǽ `let it not be only that it is not' gl. nec nominetur in uobís, Wb. 22b14 . ní fil aimsir nad mbed ref. to fuit et est semper, Ml. 17a15 . ní torménmar-ni ara mbetis in gnimai sin gl. præter spem nostram, etc., 115b1 . ni fil chumtubairt gl. indubitabilia, etc., Sg. 154b2 . ma nubed `if it existed', 31b21 . ro baoi siomh re tuisdinsiú `he existed', Blathm. 632 . as e as soithcerndomh fil, 773 . ma rombe is maith if it is, it is well, Laws iv 2.14 Comm. ni rabi uair . . . nad ro bai `there was no hour . . . that He existed not', Ériu ii 106 § 16 . a cin for athair .i. uair na bí mac, Laws iv 240.16 Comm. Columb [ro]baoi, Columb bīaas, ZCP viii 198 § 20 . tar ēis a mic . . . / nī raba acht dā aenbliadain `was alive only two years', Ériu iii 198 § 24 . as a rad ata a nadmaim cin co be by saying there is a covenant though there is not, Laws iv 52.30 Comm. ni tha . . . ní a ngeimre in winter there is nothing, 90.1 (with petrified inf. pron. 3 s. n. in dat. sense?). ní bía terca bíd there will not be a scarcity of food, BColm. 52.5 . bid dno maith, ┐ ni bi derrscugud de `yet there is good, and nothing to surpass it', Auraic. 703 . is tré ómun bíid serc, Ériu i 195.1 . céin beti neóil im gréin ngil, Metr. Dinds. ii 38.z . i céin raibh nemh is talamh as long as . . . endure, BNnÉ 314 § 8 . bai cocad mor etarro, RC xxiv 186 § 19 . In phrase (acht) atá ní (chena) but, moreover, see 1 ní (e).

In periphrasis when emphasis on some element other than the verb is required: bieid nach dréct diib hícfider, Wb. 4d6 . bieid bes ferr de, 32a13 . do budh cusmail rit co robuis uair ecin, ┐ co n[d]ingenta rét feramail `that thou wert once such an one that thou couldst . . .', ZCP vi 87.13 . ba-sa tan / nī folabrainn ilach gamh, Ériu ii 95 § 3 . ata[a]t .iii. cáini nad chumgat comarbai do chumscuchud, Ériu xvii 68 § 9 ( Laws iv 210 ). Note further: atāit teora brīathra / ata lōgmaire for nim, ZCP vii 312 § 25 .

With words expressing time: bieid aimser nad creitfider, Wb. 28c14 . aidchi robuī `one night', Ériu ii 222.25 . fecht robai `once', Mon. Tall. 147.2 (§ 52) . biaidh uair 's . . . a time will come when, Dán Dé vii 31 .

Introducing a statement: cia beith ara rogba bóairechas riasíu ropo chúairddulchach though it be that he assume, Críth G. 67 . dá mbeith fós go mbiadh an Fhraingc comh líonmhar ┐ adeir seisean `granted that', Keat. ii 933 . má tá go seachnoid síol Éibhir . . ., TD 29.7 . ci(d), gi(d) bé whatever, whoever (see Ériu xii 210 ): ria flaithaib, .i. rias na flaithib, cibe flaithe iat `whatever chieftains they be', Laws iv 154.17 . gidh bé lá cheannghar an chairt, Dán Dé xiv 17 . cidh bé do bhean díbh an dúthaigh, DDána 26.1 . bíd (ipv. 3 s.) co n- although: admhuim . . . mo pheactha . . . bīodh gomadh é mo mhīan a bhfolach though I should wish to hide them, Parrth. Anma 4625 . bīodh nach gcaoifithea go spesialta fá gach peacadh though you might not weep specially for each sin, Mac Aingil 235 . bíth gur gheallas . . . though I promised, Ó Bruad. ii 212 § xiv . In constr. manibed x ní bíad y were it not for x y would not be, see má II (b).

(b) The subst. vb. is usual with predicates consisting of adverbial phrases of all kinds (prep. and noun, adjj. and nouns used adverbially, etc.) and thus enters into a large and varied corpus of idioms. A select list follows. Reference should in all cases also be made to the nouns, adjj., adverbs and prepositions concerned.

With CO: atáthar sund chucut your adversary is approaching, LL 10300 ( TBC-LL¹ 3316 ).

With CO N-: atúsa com thegluch there is myself and my household troop, TBC-LL¹ 437 .

With DI: im chaingin robui de muintir Tamlachti friss `about a business that arose between the monastery of Tallaght and him', Mon. Tall. 157.7 (§ 72) . masu de chlaind Echdach aird / atāi, ZCP xi 108 § 1 . ní bia debaid . . . de, Ériu iv 108 § 69 . Of materials: an crann dobí na sesam ... dobí sé do cepresus was a (lit. of) cupressus, Maund. 9 . In phrase a.¤ di such is: roboi du meit a pecthae `so great were their sins', Ml. 98c6 . má beth tra do hūaite ind āessa gráid `if the ordained folk be too few', Ériu i 220 § 13 .

With DO: biid do anmmaim cathrach `(Samnis) is as the name of the city', Sg. 104b5 . nád robatar suin do ṡlund in dúildetad inchoisget `there were not words (enough) to signify . . .', 45b1 . manusbeth tenga dia relad `if (the sun) had a tongue', Ériu ii 126 § 81 . ata eric a fogla do dul a ruradh o duine, Laws iv 50.5 Comm. Expressing possession, etc.: con roib core dúib fri cách so that you may be at peace with all men, Wb. 26b30 . in fochricc file do i nnim, 29b29 . cach ngrád asid n-ísliu bíid dó i céilsini, Críth G. 374 . robi timna in ríg don Comdhe, RC xviii 182.5 . nico mbái dó acht bás there was nothing for him but death, Vita Br. 32 . fecht robúi damsae domchaomnacuir `once it happened to me', Mon. Tall. 144.7 (§ 45) . atá damhsa ris an dáimh / gan ísliughadh neith dá gcáil it is my duty in regard to the sages not to belittle . . ., Content. xiv 8 .

With FOR (later AR): as ṅdath glas roboi forsind sl[é]ib the mountain was green, Ml. 84d4 . cech dath is maith ré neach bid forro, RC vi 183.9 . cēin beó ar in mbith mbuide, Ériu ii 92.16 . nocha cuinnghim bethaid mbí / ōtú ar sīth mo Rīgh amuigh since I am outside the palace of my king(?), ZCP vii 301 § 10 . scríbend menmman .i. robbói for a inndṡliucht-som `it had been in his mind', Sg. 178b4 . in sét atá form aire on which I am intent, Ériu vi 115 § 6 . a mhacnas orm gidh eadh raibh though I greatly desire to do so, Dán Dé xix 6 .

With FRI: nobiad fri femen `it would be (used) with the feminine', Sg. 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them', 215a5 . ni humhal robabair rim cen erghe rónn you were not submissive to me, Anecd. ii 14.9 . ba [mait]h ro mboth friu they were well treated, TBFr. 145 . is throit ra bass risin fer út that man was quickly dispatched, TBC-LL¹ 2986 ( LL 10035 ).

With I: is hi tuaisciurt slebe sióin ata in chathir, Ml. 67d8 . ataam ar ndiis i cuimriug, Wb. 32a28 . is and . . . bieid finis, 13b29 . is sunt bia-sa i n-eilithri, Ml. 137b7 . nach dú i mbí isnaib salmaib iustitia, 109a2 . bēti a scēla illāidib, ZCP iii 37.32 . dēna torba airm i mbī, vii 311 § 9 . ro-bas i lurg an madma la clannaibh Néill the Clanna N. pursued the rout, xiv 234.16 . adh bes fiu da trian na samuisce atá isín focreic, issed ata isin fogail doníther ris na ferandaib cétna i fuacht an geimridh `a calf which is worth two thirds of the `samhaisc'-heifer which is paid for the rent, it is it that is paid for the trespass', Laws iv 92.16 Comm. cínta do niad na cethra . . . leth a mbia ina nairlim isedh bias ina tairsci `half of that fine which lies for their `airlim'-trespass . . .', 74.8 Comm. cod a midídar ruire trachta ┐ raite? Nin; co rabadar ocht nurcora dec and do fhleascach, 138.4 Comm. ní bhíadh na ghoin é d'oighedh / toil Dé muna deónaighedh His wound would not be enough to cause His death, IGT Decl. ex. 378 . Common in form with suff. pron. 3 s. n. ma beith nech and tra labrathar ilbélre if there be anyone, etc., Wb. 13a4 . ar atá brithem and cenut-su `a judge is there apart from thee', 6b25 . ataat alaaili interiecta and it coitchena do cach ceniul, Sg. 10a1 . attaad teora bliadna and. Niconcomracamar díoblíonaib `it is three years since we two had intercourse', Mon. Tall. 134.26 (§ 21) . For phr. cid fil and trá see trá. In idiom tá sé i n-a fhear he is a man (see Dillon, ZCP xvii 307 ff. ): is amlaid . . . atá in rigsudi sin inna chathaír chumtachta, LU 2005 ( FA 7 ). cidead bes ina bibdaid `even though he be a caitiff', Ériu v 22.20 . gu raibhe 'na cholum ghel, Acall. 1080 . ce raib se i n-a fhír, PH 7324 . do bí 'n-a mnaí grádaig ac Find, Acall. 2018 . do rígh gion go rabhthá id mhac, DDána 91.15 . Note also: tuc . . . aithne gurbh e righ Eirenn do bí ann that it was in fact the king, Ériu iii 152 § 6 . ro innis do gur 'uo he Isu ro ui ann, RC xii 344.15 .

With IMM: ni baitir, ni loisctir cein beit immo `he is not drowned or burnt as long as they are on him', RC vi 183.8 .

With LA: gan bheith le Dia is ann bhus aithreach if we are not on God's side, Dán Dé x 27 . Expressing possession and related ideas: is lib atá a rogu, Wb. 9a23 . is derb lium attá latsu gl. certus sum autem quod et in té, 29d14 . ainmm ninchoisc cenéuil issed file la laitnóri, Sg. 30b8 . is airi nobíth digaimm leo ante ρ. sin, 9b10 . ni fil bríg laisiom hisind accobar sin `he considers that such desire is no great matter,' Mon. Tall. 151.13 (§ 62) . is dé atá lem, fobíth, etc. this is why I think so (of an assertion), TTr.² 343 . itá a rīgan la cach ríg sund, TBC-I¹ 190 . fail leis secht nimi, SR 629 . ar ní ḟil acht oenlám lim, LL 14150 .

With ó: báoi alaile anchoire antuaid o sláne `there was a certain anchorite from Slane in the North', Mon. Tall. 159.8 (§ 77) . cech lennánacht fil isin domvn is úadhi atá originates with her, TTr.² 370 . Bressal Ó Tressaig ō' tāit / Hī Tressaig `. . . from whom are sprung', Ériu ii 50 § 7 . ni fil[et] o neoch ┐ ni filter uaidibh `they are not derived from anything, and nothing is derived from them', Auraic. 1507 .

With OC: ar notéighed dīa sathairn init co mbídh oc Cnocc Droma Coblai, ZCP viii 106.29 = Trip.² 2858 . ma no bith . . . mo c[h]laideb acom if I had my sword, TBC-I¹ 3543 . co rabat aidmi oc cech altōir . . ., Ériu i 219 § 9 . in ti ac na biat ba, Laws iv 36.10 Comm. in fhil biad ocaib sund? PH 6709 . ná raibh agad ar n-éra `refuse me not', Studies 1918, 99 § 16 . In impers. constr. cindas atathar occat? how are affairs with thee? RC xxvi 368.9 . a.¤ y oc x x has the power to do y: ní bhía . . . ag boigṡín / mo chor tar creich Phádraigín, Ériu ix 163 § 7 .

With adverbs and adv. phrases: céin bett abus `while they are here below', BColm. 98.28 . ní rubai nach cruth ailiu `it cannot be otherwise', Sg. 7b3 . ataat ám in chrut sin, 140b1 . hóre nád robe Tit ar mo chiunn, Wb. 14d29 . na muindtire bís id choimidecht `of the monks that live with thee', Mon. Tall. 128.8 (§ 3) . dá rabh mé ar éanmhagh is í, Dán Dé ix 12 . is bether go hīsiul de, ZCP x 51.6 . bidh co mín michuir ret c[h]airdibh, vi 272 § 3 . is samlaid insin robói a flaithemnacht indibsi, Ml. 18a8 . nī hamlaid beitid na nāimh . . ., ZCP xiii 9.26 . dobadus co subhach rompa, KMMisc. 319.27 . léig mar atāit tall, ZCP viii 202.4 . trath atusa sund, TBC-LL¹ 2379 . ionmhuin uan nar fhás ó mhnaoi / do bhás go truagh ar a thí, Dán Dé xxvi 9 . Note also: dá mbem a-moigh `if we win forth', Ériu ix 162 § 2 . With interrogatives: ceth leth atā E., TBC-I¹ 376 . can ata? whence is it? Hib. Min. 8.270 . cāit atā do t[h]igerna?, TBC-I¹ 789 . ciatā inso?, ZCP viii 311.13 . a Findtain, arse, ┐ Éri cía gabad ca rabad inde? `where have things been therein?' Ériu iv 146 § 23 .

(c) Used with inf. and suff. pron. to express possession. With inf. pron.: rosmbia a lóg `they shall have payment for it', Wb. 5d35 . ind indocbál no-b-tá in futuro, 14c16 . ro-n-da-biad cech maith, Ml. 33b13 . rombia-sa la dia . . . a day will come for me when, Vita Br. 12 . roborbē (roburbe v.l.) which is yours, Cáin Ad. 27 . nīmthat asnai I have no ribs, TBC-I¹ 2871 . gell cóic sét di neoch rodmbí `of whatever he has', Críth G. 283 and n. uair nach tá tír dia fhulung fri re napuidh because he has no land to support him (?), Laws iv 30.19 Comm. rom be nem may I have heaven, Snedg. u. Mac R 14 § 76 . Femen intan rombai rí . . . when it had a king, RC xvii 148.19 . cia luag nomtha?, SR 1165 . rombí lethbairgen, Anecd. i 73 § 211 . atbert Cathair nimthasa ní dhuit I have nothing to give you, LL 386b22 . Note also: nintha do imtecht liumm `I have (lit. we have) no news', RC xiii 222.20 . With cumang (or similar word) and prep. DO has the power to: nímtha cumachtæ ṅdo, Ml. 140b7 . ní-s-ta som . . . cumang domm orcuin-se, 60d3 . nísmbói didiu do chumacc a mmbo do imain they hadn't the strength to, Vita Br. 24 . sáerthar lat in domnach cech cumang rotbé (rodbe, rotbia, v.ll.) dó `with all your might', Ériu ii 204 § 22 . nícom thása cumang dia tabair[t], TBFr. 302 . apraind nachimbai-si nert do theacht cucu alas that I had not strength . . ., TBC-I¹ 3439 . Used independently is able: nīmt[h]a a dechmad d'indisin / nech doní do maith `I cannot tell a tithe of all the good he does', BColm. 70.6 . nimta-sa sin . . . uair da caithius mo dan re sciathaib Ulad I cannot do that . . ., Ériu v 72.8 . Note also: ango dano for Ingcél adfía basa lecht bas briscium `peradventure I shall be the frailest corpse', BDD 102h ( RC xxii 211 ) = at-mbia basa lecht bas brisceam, BDD² 716 (leg. ro-t-bia?).

With suffixed pron. taithiunn . . . / ni fris tarddam ar n-áthius `we have . . . something to which to apply our acuteness', Thes. ii 293.19 . táithi caire umai he has a bronze cauldron, Críth G. 197 . tathum rūn, TBC-I¹ 848 . bethib sūirsi lim-sa dano ye will enjoy freedom with me, ZCP viii 316.5 . tathat lim logh do áes, logh do sinnsire thou hast with me = I accord thee, xii 365.13 . baíthium anfud mílach mend, LU 3018 . tathuib comram, Rawl. 88b51 . tathum o día praind, Anecd. i 64 § 120 . tāthud ochtar la suidiu / airm hi fail a crōlighe `thou wilt find eight men . . .', Fianaig. 12 § 16 . tathai eolus maith, ZCP vii 310 § 1 . tatos subhae `they have happiness', Blathm. 82 . Pleonastically: tathai erouidh . . . bithbron `Herod . . . has eternal sorrow', 83 .

(d) In nasalising rel. clauses to denote has something the matter, is ailing: ced das in ben maith? `what ails the good woman?', Thes. ii 329.48 . cidh tás do sūil, a clērich? what is the matter with your eye? RC xxvii 280 § 35 . Oengus mac in Dagdai hisiurcc di bliadan. Cid tas or Bodb, RC iii 345.9 . ra[fh]etur sa . . . an daas ind ingen what is wrong with the girl, Vita Br. 5 . ni fetarsa cid no-tó I do not know what is the matter with me, ZCP viii 176.5 . cid no-taí? Sc.M² 3 . roḟetarsa a n-attath[a]i. Ni taam ni or Cano, Anecd. i 9.25 ( SCano 293 ). cid tāthaí, a maccu? . . . oc imresain atām . . ., Ériu viii 157.16 . ni confetatarsin cid rombui hissennath, RC iii 344.10 . dia ḟis cid robái (rombui, v.l.) grían to find out what was the matter with the sun, Ériu iv 140.13 .

With prep. DO feels (inimically) towards, is angry with, worries: propter incredulitatem fracti sunt .i. cani airi .i. badochu lem són is [hed] romboth doib that is the fault found with them, Wb. 5b31 . cren dímsa m'ingin . . . Cid dathir di? . . . Is dichmarcach what cause of annoyance has she given? Vita Br. 13 . fiarfaig Conchobar scēla dō. —Cidh tāi di ṡodain? ol Bricriu why do you bother with it? ZCP v 502.15 . cadai-siu duind?, TTebe 424 . In good sense treats in a special manner: ca tāthar dúin do domnach des / sech gach laithi lāndiles? `why do we hold Sunday above . . .?' Ériu iii 143 § 7 . With added prep.: cidh 'ma bfuile dam? ZCP x 10.11 . ná bí réd chathrachaibh dhúinn `talk not to us of your forts', Content. vi 31 . See further s.v. daas. Frequ. in class. verse in phrase gá dtá, dás (acht) what is the use? in short. Either gá dtá or gá tá may be used to suit alliteration, see Ir. Syll. Poetry 86 . fogus orchra don éigsi / gá ttás cur ré coiméidsi `how can she be saved?' Studies 1923, 421 § 1 . gá dás luadh imdheachta an ḟir? `what need to recount', TD 13.40 . gá dás mé dá mīrbuile / acht sé d'fás ó ÓghMuire, IGT Decl. ex. 200 . gá dtám? —acht torchuir bu dheas in short, TD 3.10 . With follg. prep.: gá dtám ris . . . / acht meise féin foidhidneach, TD 3.41 . ga dtú ris, a rí L.? / ort chuirim mo chomuirghe, 30.12 . ní bhiú ris acht, Dán Dé vi 31 . ní fhuilim dó, xi 30 .

(e) With words indicating number, quantity in sense of accompanied by, having: bí[i]th a th[a]urchreicc cóic ṡétaib, Críth G. 71 . baei Conairi a ceithri cairpthig il-Lifiu, BDD 12 (a cethror cairpdech, v.l.). itó-sa lín do gona, TBC-LL¹ 434 . denam d'ḟiadach na muice in lín Feinde atámait, Acall. 2223 . atáthaoi líon a n-ithte, Keat. iii 4439 . atú-sa caegait fer, MR 248.17 . Later: bed-sa ┐ mili ridiri maraen rium ad diaig, ZCP vi 41.9 .

II Expressing state, condition, kind, etc. with pred. consisting of noun, pron. or adj. (usage more usual with copula, see introd. section above).

(a) With noun pred.: boe sab suithe cech dind, ACC 26 ( RC xx 168 ). boe saegul sneid, 24 . boe dind oc libur leigdocht, 27 . biait betha airchind they will be chieftains of the world, Rawl. 125b9 . With subj. standing between the vb. and pred.: atá dia atach ṅ-dún-ni ais dethrebo God is a refuge to us the people of the two tribes, Ml. 66d1 . bói Fíachnae Lurga athair Mongáin, Imr. Brain 42.1 . Cf. Sg. 20b3 .

(b) With adj. pred.: boe seim sáth, ACC 25 . biat slana, SR 4167 (copula?). feib atam nocht, 1347 (copula?). bía slan, LU 3344 ( SCC 13 ). Cf. habe . . . (.i. sana sis .i. slán bee), Enchir. Aug. 82a ( ZCP vii 484 ). dlegar doibsium na be lobtaigh cor ( ar dlegar doibsium na bed lobthaig cor, O'Dav. 1191 ) (Atk. in Glossary emends to be[t]), Laws iv 54.10. atámait ainmfesach, RC xxiv 371.7 . bítíss meth (leg. methi, ed.) occ tinntúd, IT iii 235.z . co filim garbliath i rricht, LU 1272 . ro boísium imnedach i tossuch a bethad, LL 7305 . ro-bádus-[s]a dronnach, PH 2788 . céin beorsa beó as long as I am alive, Ériu v 222.46 . is follus co fuilti eaclach, Fier. 69 . maith dīghōltar ant andlocht / bethar taoblom tarrnocht trūagh folk will be, ZCP xii 395.23 . With subj. betw. vb. and pred.: is trissa ndede sin biid duine slán et fírian, Wb. 4d33 . amal mbís tegdís fás [amm]edón ┐ scópthe gl. sicut domus uacans et scopata, Tur. 14 ( Thes. i 485.23 ). arrobói a rígthech lán de rígaib, Imr. Brain 1 . amal no beithi féin béo and, Trip.² 2972 . co mbatar na hádnaicti óbéla, PH 676 . bis an puls tonnmur lethan, Rosa Angl. 272.8 . oir dobi se crodha do laim ┐ mor do mét, Fier. 2 .

(c) With part. as pred. Immediately follg. vb. (see GOI 475-6 ; OIPG 147 ): amal nombemmis érchóilti gl. tanquam morti destinatos, Wb. 9a3 . biid ersoilcthi ar chiunn for ríg `be ye opened before your king' (of doors), Ml. 46a7 . co rabais (rabhdais, v.l.) marbtha mudaigthi, TTebe 854 . With subj. standing between vb. and pred.: ataat mesai Dǽ nephchomtetarrachti the judgements of God are incomprehensible, Ml. 55d11 . céin nombetis inna saigtea tuidmithi inna feuil `as long as the arrows were fixed in his flesh', Ml. 58a9 . órobatar ind liss dúntai, Imr. Brain 1 . co ra-bi in uli demnaigecht fomamaigthi dó, PH 2796 .

(d) In sentences where the vb. stands in a nasalising rel. clause and refers to a pred. expressed in the principal clause: is faittech rond-boi som, Ml. 21d4 . ni ba cian mbias in pecthach, 56c22 . fer . . . nadip romar bed a sommæ a man . . . whose wealth should not be too great, Thes. ii 241.9 . is-gáibthech atátur i-sin-magh sin, RC xxiv 378.12 . is trog robas isin chotlad sin, Ériu v 34.z . ní cás duid madh diomdhach raibh / grása Dé . . ., Dán Dé xix 22 . [is] slán do bhaoi an brat-sain, xii 22 .

(e) In the type of sentence where the description constitutes an independent sentence with copula: ego sum uermis et non homo .i. atāim-si conad cruim mē ┐ nāch duine, Corm. Y 211 . ro boi Victor co mbo ḟortachtaigthid do Pátraic, ACL iii 10 § 8 = Trip.² 217 . unus non est . . . .i. nochon fhil int aen co mbad airim, acht ata conidh fotha airim, Auraic. 689 . dom dóigh . . . robadhuis uair ecin ┐ roba díl anora tú `it seems to me . . . that there was once a time when thou wert worthy of honour', ZCP vi 99.5 .

cen

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cen or dil.ie/8581
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: cin, can, gen, gin, gan, chen, cen suidib, cen(a)e, cena, cenut, c(h)enae, cenuib, cenaib, c(h)ene, c(h)ena(e), ceni, cheana, cenae, cenco

later cin, can, gen, gin, gan (usual modern form). Prep. with accus., leniting. See GOI 111 , 273 , 501 . chen, Sg. 75a1 , 78b2 , 147b3 (so also chen(a)e (see below) regularly in Sg. as against c- in Wb. and Ml., see Thes. ii 154 ). With dat. cen suidib, Ml. 20d3 , and cf. cenaib with 3 pl. suff. pron. below. With accus. in class. lang.: a bheith gan bhú (: chlú), O'R. Poems 252 . In later Vn. constructions of the type: gan an bás . . . do dhol, TSh. 2703 takes noun in nom. (`takes art. + noun in the form of nom., as verbs do', TSh. Gloss.). See TD 3.15 and note. Duan. F. iii s.v. gan.

For usage of late MSS. in matter of follg. lenition see Aithd. D. s.v. gan. cuiridh `gan' séimhioghadh, gion go ttuigthear do gháoidheilg ┐ gion go habuirthear (sic) d'ogham é, IGT Introd. § 7 . In class. lang. does not prefix t to ṡ, §§ 67 , 70 . Note alliteration in: mé gan ṡeise ó ṡain a-nall, DDána 77.3 , gan ḟolta gan imreasainn, 70.16 .

With suff. pron. in O.Ir. only (apart from 3 s. cen(a)e, cena, for which see below), and rare even here with no forms occurring for 1 s. and pl. 2 s. cenut, Wb. 6b25 . 3 s. m. and n. c(h)enae. 2 pl. cenuib, Wb. 9c2 . 3 pl. cenaib, Ml. 20d4 . Later with follg. indep. pron. (in 3 pers. é, í, iat).

Orig. on this side of (see GOI 501 , Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 197 ), hence apart from, besides etc. (see I(a) and III below). The usual meaning at all stages of the language is without, deprived of, not having, -less. Freq. with follg. Vn. with which, in its verbal function, it serves as neg. particle (see II).

I

(a) apart from, besides, except : atá brithem and cenutsu gl. omnes enim stabimus ante tribunal Dei, Wb. 6b25 . atá brithem lasuidib cenuib-si gl. Deus iudicabit, 9c2 . tāthut bith[ḟ]laith . . . / cen a tír i fail do rúaim apart from, Hail Brigit 26 . cé atchetha óinchairptech / . . . / fil mór d'echaib . . . / cen suidi (-e, v.l.) nad aicci-siu besides him, Imr. Brain 39 . ni ettis nech cena domanches except in the case of, LU 3488 ( SCC 26 ). i n-atconnarc . . . / bes atcoad cena slúag in the absence of his army(?), 3323 ( SCC 11 ). cen airitin a cobsen `short of receiving his confession', Mon. Tall. 147.30 .

(b) without, not having, -less (of things, objects, persons): buith cenchlaind, Ml. 23d12 . buith cen chomaccomla, 28d6 . buid cen sétchi, Wb. 10a17 . cen intertpersin, Sg. 161a4 . ni farcbad nech cen dire la Fēne, BCrólige 56 . ro sai cen usci `returned without water', RC xxiv 198.11 . nī anab gan é fēin, Fianaig. 80.4 . bheith don Bhanbha gan bhuachail, TD 10.19 . cin cennaib, cin tsúilib, Maund. 174 .

(c) With noun as in (b) and follg. prep. indicating position, accompaniment, possession: cennech n indib són `without anyone in them', Ml. 131d7 . cenchaille fora ciunn, Wb. 11c9 . cengutai ṅetarru, Sg. 7a4 . cen chonsin re n-os , 105b5 . cenbriathra leo, 215a6 . cona rabi aithles . . . cen mac i n-inad a athar, MU² 133 . gan cheó ortha acht aghaidh each, TD 11.12 .

(d) With abstracts (incl. vnn.): cennach n-astud, Ml. 15a15 . cen fodrúbu gl. sine deflexionum moris, 22a6 . cennach n-indlach gl. sine ulla interruptione, 32a1 . centosach cenforcenn, 110d15 . cen chumsanad gl. sine intermisione, Wb. 25c23 . trechosc conacarbi cenchinta, 27c6 . cen ḟortacht indanmma aili (with subj. gen.), Sg. 30a2 . eitir codlad ┐ cen cotlatt `whether he be asleep or awake', Mon. Tall. 152.4 . dia lleictir can imcoimet `if (such women) be let go without guarding', BCrólige 37 . In sense of unimpaired by, untroubled by etc. see LU 2294 - 99 ( FA 35 ). cen nach tairmesc netir, Hib. Min. 9.279 . bás . . . cen bethaid, PH 4320 . tilid Éirinn gan ainimh, TD 10.11 . 'n-a adhbar rīg gan [fh]resabra, ML² 30 . gan í without it (umhla), RSClára 158a . gan iad, 104b . gan amhrus undoubtedly , Párl. na mB. 6 . gan mhoill immediately , 164 .

(e) With fis: cen fius scél uáibsi `without tidings from you', Wb. 25a5 . cenfius dúib, 25c4 . cen ḟis cen airḟis, Anecd. i 3.8 ( SCano 50 ). cen a fis doibsom `without their knowledge', Mon. Tall. 146.31 . gan fhios do féin unknown to himself, unwittingly , Párl. na mB. 1385 . gurab gan fhios do ionnsuidh Samson na Filistínigh unexpectedly , TSh. 767 .

(f) Freq. in verse in chevilles and quasi-adj. phrases: ind fir cen uaill, Blathm. 13 . slóig Íssu cen escur, Fél. Prol. 63 . regmi cen nach díchiul, 291 . ceithre fedha, fāth gin gheis . . . , ZCP viii 107.10 . slōg ōss a ucht cen nach socht, 108.15 .

(g) With abstr. and follg. preposition: cen fortacht nachaili oco, Ml. 53a9 . cenfochraic n dam gl. infructuosse, 91b5 . cenchol, fair, 93d1 . nā bī gan gart at gnīomh nglē, ZCP viii 109.9 . cen smacht ríg forro, LU 3441 ( SCC 21 ). ó dho bhí tuigse . . . ag an duine . . . ┐ gan í anois aige, TSh. 2909 . dia mbeth gan do righe la C. acht na nai righa . . . `if C. had no realm save . . . ', ZCP i 402.19 .

II In a variety of constructions with vnn.

(a) With Vn. with verbal force, the whole phrase having the value of an adj. or adv.: nísechmalfam ní and centadal, Ml. 25a3 . canim[ebol] lib ambuid [li]b cenprecept doib ref. to ignorantiam enim Dei quidam habent, Wb. 13c17 . it cairigthi inmaicsi et intuistidi cendethidin dissi `when they do not take care of her', 28d22 . cen tairmthecht opersin dialaili gl. intransitiuum, Sg. 189a7 . uar rombi ind fit . . . cin cumscugud, Mon. Tall. 147.14 . téora bliadna doib . . . cen teacht as, Anecd. i 11.24 ( SCano 356 ). fada an treimhse ataid re a chois / gan tocht dá dtíribh, TD 4.38 . soinend no doinend na haimsire do bidh gan techt, BCC 416.18 . fá h-ár gan áireamh it was a slaughter incalculable, ML 130.24 .

(b) With Vn. and obj. gen.: cenaéitsecht gl. non . . . audire, Ml. 21b11 . batrom foraib són centíchtain átíre fadesin they were distressed at not reaching their own land, 34d12 . cen foraithmet ananmae . . . dam gl. ut etiam uocabula eorum obliuioni tradam, 37c13 . cen a chomallad gl. sub Lege (fuerunt), 76a15 . cid atobaich cendílgud cech ancridi gl. quare non magis iniuriam accipistis? Wb. 9c20 . cena aetarcne riam gl. sine praeiudicio, 29a20 . cenacomol naich aili do gl. `ipse' quoque in tertia persona per se, Sg. 197b17 . cen imcabáil . . . cum nobis do epirt, 203a8 . cia beith cen (gin, MS) gabáil n-orbai, Críth G. 69 . cen a coisecrad `without being reconsecrated', Mon. Tall. 153.15 . ō ro-gabus gāi im láim nad-raba cen guin duini I have never failed to slay a man, Sc.M² 16 . bi gan a thabairt do not swear it (an oath), PH 7343 . gan oba gliadh, TD 26.40 .

(c) With follg. noun or pron. and prep. DO with Vn. (for case of noun in later lang. see above): foilsigthi feisin cen ainm dothórmuch fris `without the addition of a noun to it', Sg. 211a8 . ma ro látar ce[n] ní do ḟacbáil leo, Ériu xvii 66 § 4 . afuine . . . / cenachnáma dobrissiud, SR 3904 . in fer nār c[h]otail énoidchi ríam gan maithes Gall da innluccud da dúintib, ZCP viii 111.13 . ata recht ocaind .i. cen luige do thabairt, PH 2684 . can T. . . . do thegmail dó, TTebe 987 . gan é d'áireamh oramsa, TD 14.9 . Similarly, without vn.: trágh. ráth . . . , inann ┐ so sís acht gan so sís do bainindscne except that the following are not feminine, IGT Decl. § 38 . gan mé aniogh san mhín mhaighrigh since I am not(?), Studies 1921, 568 § 23 . With follg. acht in sense of except that, only , etc.: gan acht coibhche . . . do dháil di `provided he gave her a marriage-portion', Keat. ii 4642 . gan é acht i naois óiglenaib still of tender years, O'Gr. Cat. 381.13 . gan acht neart aoidheadh orra, Content. xxx 26 . do-ghéubha tú sail ad tshúil féin 's gan achd brodh a súil Pharaon only a mote, Mac Aingil 904 .

In a number of exx. in the early lang., and with increasing frequency in the later, the clause introduced by cen assumes the character of a nominal clause functioning as the subject or object of a verb, as a case governed by a preposition, and occasionally even as a genitive depending on a noun. For class. lang. see the analysis in TSh. s.v. gan.

(d) As subject of a verb: isingir lem cenchretim dúib, Wb. 4b28 . isaithiss doibsom cid anísiu .i. cenprecept dondaís anfiss their failure to preach . . . discredits them, 13b11 . cen buith i bar ṅgnáissi / is mór fodom-glúassi, Fél. Ep. 375 . ba imned la F. cen acallaim na ingine F. was anxious to speak with the girl, TBFr. 155 . fonascar fair can tudecht, LU 5943 . mad dia m-beith at cumang, a ben, ol C., in ghein fil fat bruindi gan a breith có abhárach, RC vi 175 § 55 . ba dogessib conculainn cenadall fulachta diachathim, iii 176.17 . ba col cen a choemna not to protect him, Gorm. March 15 . ata is-in recht cen mnái do gabail i fhiadnaise, PH 2794 . nár dhamhsa gan dol red chois, TD 14.32 . an cóir gan síodh d'fhagháil uadh? Aithd. D. 63.5 . is truag duind gan E. acar n-imdidin, Stair Erc. 745 .

(e) As object: fobithin adrimet som deit su armelacht cen arṅ ditin ni `not to protect us', Ml. 129d22 . madh ro achtaigh cín ar, ┐ rohairedh, Laws iv 132.25 . fonaiscid C. forrosom cen curadmir do chosnam, LU 9025 ( FB 77 ). na lécob d'Ultaib cen taidecht lim, MU² 182 . foracaib . . . can a n-uilc do dígail dóib, LU 3117 (see Duan. F. iii 8 - 9 ). cid fodera . . . cen Crist do-t furtacht-su?, PH 738 . asbert an file fris cen ní don bradan do tomailt, RC v 201.23 . gan chrích Néill fút ná fulaing, TD 6.16 . do cheannuigh Dia . . . / gan mo bheith i mbrugh Ifeirn, Dán Dé v 45 . mar do chonn-cadar cliatha na Cruithnigh gan iad féin líon cathuighthe ris that they were not strong enough to fight him, Keat. ii 1779 . orduighmid . . . gan labhairt dona Sethrachaibh `that the Sisters keepe silence', RSClára 102b .

(f) With vbs. of forgetting, preventing , etc. the prep. merely reinforces the meaning of the main verb: arnabé anfochell leu cenatlugud buide diasoirad so that they may not neglect to return thanks, Ml. 117b7 . cenasechim gl. uestigia relinquere, Sg. 30a20 . rothairmisc . . . in scel sin fa P. . . . gan sid re brathair, TTebe 2767 . a Bhē-binn, bean ar do mac / gan mhnāi trīallfas dó tochmarc, ZCP xiii 167.1 . léigfeamaoid dínn . . . gan teacht tarsa, TSh. 294 `which we shall avoid treating of', Gloss. tug i ndearmad gan maith na n-Éireannach do mhaoidheamh he has forgotten to, Keat. i 56.25 . nīr dhermait . . . in doirseóir gan in custam d'iarraidh ┐ d'fagáil `the keeper did not neglect demanding and receiving it', Fl. Earls 90.5 . Cf. Ml. 25a3 cited under (a).

(g) As case governed by prep.: tré gan rabhadh do chur dho through failing to warn him, Content. xvi 71 . fá gan fearthuinn do dheanadh, Donlevy 440.30 . déinig faire . . . chum gan tuitim a ttemptásion so as not to enter into temptation, Párl. na mB. 789 . maille ré gan é d'fhaigsin, TSh. 6387 .

(h) As gen.: d'easbaidh gan an creideamh do bheith aca because they have no faith, TSh. 4784 (where gan merely reinforces meaning of easbhaidh). The phrase introduced by gan is technically gen. also in: rún do ghlacadh gan tuitim to resolve not to fall, Donlevy 448.19 .

III With suff. pron. 3 s. m. n. c(h)ene, c(h)ena(e), ceni, cheana (usual mod. form). On O.Ir. cene, cenae see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 346 . In class. verse may be stressed or unstressed, Aithd. D. 25.19n.

(a) In more or less literal sense in addition to it, without him or it, besides, apart from this. As shown by occas. exx. of cenae referring to f. or pl. nouns the word had even in O.Ir. begun to have the force of an indep. adv. besides, in addition, moreover, anyway . In literal sense: huare is lán chiall indib chenae gl. uerba non egent casu, Sg. 140b3 . ní laimtis cena they dared not omit to do it, Sc.M² 20 , cf. ní étaim-sea chena I cannot help it (gan a dheanamh, v.l.), TBC-LL¹ 6080 . cía nocarainn cách chenae besides him, Liad. and Cuir. 24.21 . nícon bíad cenae, 24 `without him . . . it will not live', Murphy Lyrics 35.10 . ceni beth nach aili isin tig cenae acht hé a oenur, BDD² 1086 `any other save he', Gloss. ní fuil aurlabraidi . . . leo chenae besides him, MU² 986 .

(b) In more general sense: cenitormastar homéit istrom cenae ho aicniud in any case, Ml. 20a20 . bamór fechtae cenae `there were many times besides', 39a3 . legi enim Dei non est subiecta (of sapientia carnis) .i. atá dethiden fuiri cene `besides', Wb. 3d34 . barafie dúib darígente cene cenimmormus nachmór, 11d5 . apronomen asberr eiusdem ┐ cach pronomen dono chene `besides', Sg. 203b1 . os me chene am faelid `I too', Thes. ii 293.25 . at-béla chenaeo (sic), BDD² 1438 `in any case', Gloss. sáeilim nem cena I am looking forward to heaven as it is, BColm. 68.22 .

Following f. and pl. nouns: ni reccar ales dano epistle uáibsi arrofitemmar cene `without it' (ref. to epistil, f.), Wb. 15a5 . runsluinfemni didiu cene fanisin (ref. to epistolis), 15a4 . etar fileda ┐ áis ṅdénma sairse chenae `and other artists', Sg. 212a11 . atethatár eóin damsa chena other birds will be caught for me, LU 3276 ( SCC 7 ). ní lamhat eonu na fiadhmhilu cena beth for an sliab sin `nor other wild animals', ZCP i 254.6 .

(c) Hence of actions and states of being already, previously : nírecat . . . les tintuda . . . ataat iltintudai leu cene, Ml. 3a14 . tanice-side céne `He hath come already', Wb. 4d26 . adib eolaig and cene, 33c19 . ar biid iouis cene nominatiuo , Sg. 99a3 . ar ní thucad dó chena hí, LU 3168 . ag feoilgherradh in ridiri ata marbh chena, Stair Erc. 758 . cheana `alwaies' (= hitherto, Ed.), RSClára 81a . ? Cf. cheana no archeana .i. o sin amach, O'Cl.

(d) More vaguely as adv. of asseveration moreover, indeed, of a truth, then, so (see PH, TSh.): ni réid chene, Sg. 238b1 . saībse, céni, i m-bith chē, Imr. Brain 45 `moreover', Murphy Lyrics 39.13 . ní boí isin bith frisa samailte chena there was indeed nothing with which it could be compared, LU 3378 ( SCC 16 ). ceist cena . . . cid as áil dúib?, MU² 332 . ó racuala in maith cena, cid ar ná cechlaind in saith?, Airne F. 237 . cia airm itá do thigerna-su chena ale?, TBC-LL¹ 1418 . ní fitir in challech nach do fhoigdi chena tánic in giIla that it was not simply to beg the servant came, Ériu i 132.81 . leicem as ar n imram . . . acht in chonair beras ar curach sind cheana, YBL 87a44 . nocha lám chena ná cos / do géba, O'Gr. Cat. 367.17 . an chloch cheana . . . on the other hand, TSh. 64 . gidhedh chena, BCC 124.30 . With ocus at beg. of sentence: ┐ chena bid lat ┐ lad chlaind co brath in rigi, RC xxiv 200.14 . ┐ cena ni . . . , TTebe 4293 . V. freq. with prec. acht: acht chena is . . . , LU 3914 ( SCC 43 ). acht chena ro-diultais etc., PH 601 . acht cheana do ghabhadar etc., Párl. na mB. 3947 . acht atā ni cena moreover, ZCP viii 111.14 .

Cf. archena, olchena.

IV Freq. with follg. co as conjunction without that, though . . . not, in some uses replacing O.Ir. ceni. Not found in O. Ir. glosses. See Phil. Soc. Trans. 290 § 56 . cenco is perh. rather to be explained from *ceni-co, O'Rahilly, Celtica ix 113 - 34 . In class. Ir. gion etc. go (see DDána), which appar. no longer felt as containing the prep. cen (gan). Form somet. influenced by cían (céin), q.v.

(a) without that, apart from the case that, because of the fact that not (with indic. and subj.): bid messu dúib . . . céin co tísaid lim it will be the worse for you if you do not come with me, LU 8082 ( FB 6 ). ní eicsind uile cenco cumhsanaind icca aisneis ria mbrath I could not relate it all short of keeping at it till doomsday, Ériu ii 136 § 120 . gén cu taibre ar hanmuin / let a talmain nisbera short of giving it (worldly goods?) for your soul, 228.17 . cumma lem etir / cen co tīas ilLaighnib I care not at all if I go not into L., ZCP viii 110.8 . cóir, cen co beth biad ocut `right then is it that food should fail thee', PH 1312 . nír bó toil do A. sin, gen gur triall la hI. do Roimh A. was unwilling not to go with I. to Rome, BNnÉ 4.25 .

Usually though . . . not.

(b) With indic. Rare in older lang.: cenco n-acatár though they did not see (her), LU 10010 . cín co fetar cia tu though I don't know who you are, RC v 200 § 15 . achd gin gur fheith iad, DDána 3.29 . comhla gen go bī (sic leg.) rem baeis, ACL iii 236 § 9 . gion gur chomhmaoidh sin though she boasted not of it, Dán Dé ii 5 . gion go ttuigthear do gháoidheilg ┐ gion go habuirthear d'ogham é, IGT Introd. 5.1 . gin co fuil, CF² 585 . cin co híbhitt na Serrisdínig fín, Maund. 61 . gin cur chaith . . . caithfet-sa `though no one has eaten', Ériu iii 158 § 10 . génco faicidhisi é, RC xxiv 371.26 . gion go ffaicfit mo chorp . . . docífitt m'fiorta ┐ mo miorbuile, BNnÉ 267 § 235 (fut. replacing subj.?). Cf. gion go bhfaicfear (-cthear, v.l. ). Dán Dé v 35 .

(c) With subj.: acht ropom airdricse, maith lim cen co bend būan acht ōenlāa even though I should live only one day, TBC-I¹ 572 . cen cop mōr mo thuasa, Mór M. 6 . cen co pat comṡáeglaig, Airne F. 19 . cenco n-essara though you eat not, Sc.M² 3 . as a rad ata a nadmaim cin co be saying untruthfully that it is . . . , Laws iv 52.30 . cian combat lia iar n-umir though they be not more in number, Rawl. 70b22 . ra raidsebair cenco tucaind ar áis doberaind ar écin that I would take it willy-nilly, LL 7685 ( TBC-LL¹ 150 ). cia fogabad cenco fagbad whether he got it or not, 7328 . cen co dernad, CRR 18 . cinco dernadais na Masilecdha do maith . . . acht . . . if the M. did no other good than . . . , CCath. 1751 . gion go dtí riomsa . . . / Dia do dhearmad, Dán Dé xxv 9 . do rígh gion go rabhtha id mhac even wert thou not a king's son, DDána 91.15 .

Occas. with loss of negative sense: gion go mbiadh gnúis gheanamhail . . . ag fear na ceilge though the deceiver should have. . . , TSh. 8965 (see Vocab.). atá ár sáith d'íoc againn gin gurab deired dúinn féin taréis na deithbire so `though immediately upon termination of this quarrel we ourselves too made an end', Caithr. Thoirdh. 119.24 .

cosmail(ig)id(ir)

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cosmail(ig)id(ir) or dil.ie/12608

Forms: cosmailigim, cosmailigiud, cosmailigthe

v (cosmail) likens, compares, resembles : cosmailigeddar gl. comparari, Sg. 56b11 . cenodchosmailigetar hicumscugud aiccend `though they are alike in changing accents', 212b2 . acosmiligmmer dv́li ecsamli gl. ad diuersa referre, 211a14 . cosmaligun (leg. -im) gl. aequo, ZCP xxi 281.11 cosmailigim gl. simulatur, similio, Lib. Hymn. 7 gl. 3 . cotarodelc ┐ roscosmailigestar frisna duli huaisli gl. sicut montes Dei, Ml. 55d8 . fri-a cosmailend in scriptúir na hainmhidea bréna, PH 7674 . ní raibi . . . mhnai nochos-mailiged fría im deilb who could bear comparison with her, TTr.² 488 . cosmhailtear ris an gcolam, PBocht 11.11 . Note also: amail ro cosmailegead do reir coir in feinechais gl. con-beara . . . a cosmaileas, O'Curry 1907 (23 P 3, 23(21)d).

Vn. cosmailigiud. Part. cosmailigthe gl. exequatum, Ml. 107c3 .

dochor

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dochor or dil.ie/17372

Forms: dochar, dochur

n Later dochar, dochur, o, m. (cor)

I Disadvantage, hurt, loss, injury, misery . Often in opposition to sochor: dogníu sochor cach thrúaig, dogníu d.¤ cach thriúin, IT i 325.13 . file nach dron dechraighfes sochur, dochur, dílmaine drēcht cech tīre thic, ZCP iv 237.22 . gér mhór na sochair iad sin fa mhó na duaidh ┐ na dochair do bí ar Fionn, SG 258.9 . ni lughuide uís moran dochair orra . . . oir bi tinnius ionnta fen, 3 C 19, 112 vb 10 . slicht Itha fhuilngeas dochar, | dóibh as córa cathughadh, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 354.21 . méid na ndochar fuaramar the greatness of our misfortunes, AU iv 146 . nochor ba ghníom dochair dorochair oc Laignib, SG 375.40 . tuctha iatsom fo dochar ┐ dóire, LB 131b35 . da breth . . . leo i ndairi ┐ i ndochur, TTebe 2154 . dofhuabair dochar do chur for a mhnái to injure his wife, Ériu iii 168.3 . gach dochar ┐ gach díth dár himreadh leat every harm and destruction, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 42.5 . is a himut taeb as dochar he it is injurious in many respects, ZCP i 258 § 24 . celmaine dochuir do beith dó an omen of evil to him, 370 § 68. (legal maxim) dofúaslaic fír cech ndochar truth solves every difficulty, Tec. Corm. 56 n. 34 . fuair mor do dhuad ┐ do dochar, TTebe 27 . go ndochar cengail ┐ cuibrighthe fair severely bound and fettered, AFM iii 646.3 . síordhaidheacht na sar-dhochar . . . do bheith ann (viz. in hell), TSh. 6573 . ré dochar do dhéanamh (= ad nocendum), 7534 . cliath a gcosnaimh ar dhochar a námhad, Keat. Poems 464 . mo dhochar cléibhse my anguish of heart, O'Gr. Cat. 582.33 . do dhochar dhub nach dechaid | greim do bhiadh bhó ina mballaib owing to black misery, 439.14 = dhóchais, TD 44.2 . bean do ní mo dhochor woman who causes my misery, Gadelica 242.105 . ní tharraidh Sésair mar soin | don Eoraip fiach a dhochair the payment of his trouble (?), 3 C 12, 241.8 . rugass gan dochar saegalta I gave birth without human pain, Fl. Earls 116.20 . níor léig Día dhó dochar do dhéanamh dhamh, Gen. xxxi 7 . do mharbhus duine óg chum mo dhochair féin I have slain a young man to my hurt, iv 23 .

Note also: rí nar chuir dochar ar dhuais `the king who grudged not a gift', A. Ó Dálaigh v 5 . ní tráth cóir dá ndiultadh dhamh | ní dhiultabh dhóibh tréd dhochar (`owing to your churlishness'), Content. viii 14 .

II In Laws unfair or disadvantageous contract (see Féil. Mhic Néill 158 ): cis lir chuir dochuisin? Nī. A do: sochar ┐ docor, Laws iii 4.6 (docor .i. diubarta, Comm.). dochar ar a findathar gaith dogniat, randtair an diupairt i nde, 6.24 . astad caich ina sochur ┐ ina dochur, 14.2 . imfuich (he impugns) cach ndochur . . . nimfuich cach sochur, 56.20 . co ber breith for dochuru ?, O'D. 1552 ( H 5.15 1a ). fordo-tuigithur docoruib who burdens it with unfavourable contracts (of land), ZCP xiv 373 . is dlighthighe do neoch cor ceilsine ná gach cor ┐ ní cóir d.¤ do ghairm dhe, O'Gr. Cat. 98 .

Note also: araile dochur roboí ó Loígairib ar ind eclais ` tribute ', Misc. Arch. Soc. 142.3 . ? molt feissi cet-dochuir, O'Curry 880 ( H 3.18 394a ). ? is damnughadh do féin itheas ┐ ibheas gan dochar do chorp an Tighearna, Eochairsg. 74.17 (= non dijudicans corpus Domini, 1 Corinth. xi 29 ). Cf. 1 dechor.

? eisced

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? eisced or dil.ie/19853

n loan, concession (?): odhar .i. eisci[d] no aontu, O'Dav. 1303 , cf. 1 eiscid. saigid feich an aicditar o mnai (.i. indsaigid na fiacha ar ar hugad eisced, no ar ar ucadh togaidhi o mhnai), Laws v 308.24 . Cf. iv 34.23 : 58.8 . and see 1 eiscid.

grís

Cite this: eDIL s.v. grís or dil.ie/26675
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: grís, gríss, grís

n ā, f. m. and f. in Mod. Ir. grís (= gríos) f., IGT Decl. § 39 . gríss (with slender -s-) f., ib. § 14 . grís (= gríos) m., ib. § 38 .

I heat, fire, embers, hot ashes: tene taidlech co ngris goirthi ... na macc mbethad, Trip. i 256.23 . hi tellach ... coratgori a grīss `that its embers may warm thee,' MacCongl. 95.26 . crābud in buirb co n-indmus | los diūit, nit goire a grīs `the piety of the wealthy churl is a flame without fire, whose embers warm thee not,' ZCP vii 311 § 16 . Of the heat of the sun: ó gríis imurcrach na gréine, RC xxiv 378.10 . Of the searing of fetters: roscacht i ngrísaib gemlig | fri tri mísaib mór-gemrid, Metr. Dinds. iii 370.55 . Of the burning of fever: gríss bronngalair glanas broinn, Triads 224 . go gcaomhnann sí grís gan mhúchadh ar feadh bliadhna, TSh. 385 . fá ghrís ndeirg `under lurid glow,' O'Gr. Cat. 451.11. Mac Aodha aighne go dtreoir | gríos oireas dfhuacht fhear n-aineoil `a fire fitted [to warm] the coldness of ignorant men,' Content. xxv 10 . a ghluine mar néimh nuaighrís, Dánta Gr. 16.68 . luaith-ghrís ashes: m'inginí is gruag fa luaith-ghrís d'fhágain, ZCP v 212.298 .

II Fig. glow, ardour, valour, passion: clanda Cēin co ngrís, KMMisc. 266.15 . Of Colum C.: ūasal a grīss (: chíss), ACL iii 217.24 . o rofersat a ṅgriss ṅglain | a ndíss ocan-imressain, SR 1881 . ri cen grain, cen gris, cen greiss, 2561 . a pl. cen grissa, ba cain intṡluaig, 3959 . Of the Ark of the Covenant: robai ann fo gris grada | secht mís ..., 5423 . grís ghrádha Dé ┐ na comharsan, TSh. 1707 . ó ghrís an chreidimh, ó ghrádh lasamhain, Parrth. Anma 331.12 . an tshacramuint ... do bheith na béoghrís gacha subhailce dham, ib. 381.15 . re digail an grisa n-imdergtha doberar air a n-a mhnai , Laws v 298.2 Comm. co ro bhethaidhsiot béoghrís a sengomh doridhisi a ttús samhraidh na bliadhna so they requickened the ancient flame of their hatred, AFM vi 2054.2 (an. 1598). gris a crisi. crisis graece, iudicium latine , O'Mulc. 664 . In phr. fo grís aglow, alive (?): nī bía fo griis ... acht noí mís dar m'hēsse-se you will be only nine months ... alive after me, SR (Adam and Eve) 96.2047 ​​. hed beit 'mo-le fo grīs grinn | a ndīs do chorp is t'anim, SR (Adam and Eve) 52.1435 . ? As epithet ardent: re Domnall nglonnmar ngris, Celt. Rev. iv 216.30 .

Compds. ¤ainech adj. with ruddy face, TBC-I¹ 3186 . ¤bhéilín a rosy little mouth, ITS xvii 213.158 . ¤beó: Murchadh ... grisbheó gan bhádhadh `a burning coal,' AFM v 1636.7 (an. 1570). ¤goradh burning heat: tré ghoimh an ghríos-ghortha, TSh. 4071 . ¤leaca a rosy cheek, ITS xvii 120.225 . ¤maileach with shining mail: gormluireach grismaileach, CF 475 . ¤nim glowing virulence: íslig ... | grísnimh anfuid th'intinne, O'Gr. Cat. 457.12 . ¤taitnem burning glow, brilliancy: grístaitnem na narm nglanórda, TBC-I¹ 1777 . gristaitnem ┐ taidlenach na tuag ┐ na claidem, CCath. 5881 . re gristaitnem ┐ re gleordealradh na greini, ib. 4986 . ¤taitnemach burning, glowing: la ruithen na greine griostaithneamhaighi, FDG 255 (note). san ghrianán ... ghríos-taitneamhach úd na glóire, TSh. 2714 . ¤te: tar muir ngríste nguasachtaigh `over the raging, perilous sea,' Studies 1921, 75 § 16 .

imm-tét

Cite this: eDIL s.v. imm-tét or dil.ie/27940
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: immthigid, imatīagsa, imthigi, imthéit, n-imthet, imme[t]ét, himthíagar, imtiagam, imthiagat, immetiagat, imthegind, imteged, immátheged, imtiagmais, imtheigmís, immathegtís, imthigid, imté, immath, n-imthiasam, imthesid, imrega, imrega, imregat, imluid, imlodmar, immelotar, amluidset, imruláith, immruldatar, im-rul[l]atar, imrulatdar, imrulaiseat, immandeochatar, immthigid, im(i)gid, imighter, imdhigmet-ne, imighsi, imdhedh, imdigem, imthigmit, imthiger, imeochad, n-imtheochad, imthigfe-su, nimeochuir, non-imtigfe, imeochaidh, imdeogus, no-imdigfed, imeochad, imtighis, imighis, ro-imdig, d'imgimair, ro-imdichset, ro-imthigset, ro-imthigsetar, imthighedar

v Mid. Ir. immthigid i. indic. pres. s. 1 rel. imatīagsa, TBC-I¹ 659. s. 2 imthigi, LU 3541. s. 3 imthéit, 3831 . nád n-imthet , Críth G. 536. rel. imme[t]ét, Ml. 45c9 . pass. ní himthíagar , Ériu ii 208 § 28. p. 1 imtiagam, Wb. 6a30 . p. 3 imthiagat, TBC-LL¹ 426. rel. immetiagat, Ml. 45c9 . impf. s. 1 imthegind, SR 1337. s. 3 imteged, Laws i 72.11 Comm. rel. immátheged, LU 9309. p. 1 imtiagmais, TBC-I¹ 2657. imtheigmís, TBC-LL¹ 3540. p. 3 rel. immathegtís, LL 290a11 . ipv. p. 2 imthigid, IT i 75.2 . subj. pres. s. 3 imté, Tec. Corm. § 33.12 . rel. immath, Ériu ii 208 § 29. p. 1 dia n-imthiasam , Ml. 46c20 . p. 2 ni imthesid , Wb. 22c4 . fut. s. 2 imrega, Trip.² 1277. s. 3 imrega, Anecd. i 13.11 . p. 3 imregat, TBC-I¹ 79. pret. s. 3 imluid, Imr. Brain § 2. p. 1 imlodmar, Metr. Dinds. iii 204.49 . p. 3 rel. immelotar, Thes. ii 242.15 . amluidset, RC xv 294.4 . With ro : s. 3 imruláith, LU 8575 (FB). imrulaid, SR 7605. p. 3 nicon immruldatar , Thes. i 488.27 im-rul[l]atar, Sc.M² § 6. imrulatdar (sic leg.), SR 3441. imrulaiseat, CCath. 2653. immandeochatar, LU 9246.

As simple vb. immthigid, later reduced to im(i)gid : indic. pres. pass. pl. imighter, Ériu iii 164 § 20. p. 1 imdhigmet-ne, PH 6810. ipv. s. 2 imighsi, Ériu iii 170 § 20. s. 3 imdhedh, Mac Aingil 465.14 . p. 1 imdigem, PH 3072. imthigmit, Mer. Uil. 204. subj. pres. s 1 imthiger, MacCongl. 55.20 . fut. s. 1 imeochad, RC xix 36.12 . co n-imtheochad , SG 85.25 . s. 2 imthigfe-su, PH 4845. a nimeochuir , O'Gr. Cat. 312.z . s. 3 non-imtigfe, RC xxvii 302.5 . ní imeochaidh , Donlevy xxi 16 . rel. imdeogus, Acall. 5461. sec. fut. s. 3 no-imdigfed, Aisl. Tond. 93.17 . do imeochad , Maund. § 198. pret. s. 3 imtighis, Ériu iii 164 § 18. imighis, 156.3 . ro-imdig, PH 1641. p. 1 d'imgimair, JRSAI ii 360.9 . p. 3 ro-imdichset, Aisl. Tond. 96.16 . ro-imthigset, Sc.M² R § 6 . ro-imthigsetar, IT i 73.11 . ro imthighedar , ML² 1929.

I intrans.

(a) goes around, goes about, travels, sets forth, comes, goes (in general sense) : hore is fri de imtiagam `since it is by day that we travel,' Wb. 6a30 . is samlaid insin imme[t]ét leusom int ais lósc `it is thus the blind walk with them,' Ml. 45c9 . ité immelotar immuaneclis fu thrí, Thes. ii 242.15 . atáa mí nád n-imthet rí acht cethrur, Críth G. 536. fer imthéit co n-eri `a man who travels with a load,' Ériu ii 204.15 . nech ... immetet ann frí less n-oli one ... who goes about for the advantage of another, Anecd. iii 23.9 . is amlaid imthēged Medb ┐ leth int slōig impe, TBC-I¹ 862. is ē tricius ┐ āttius imoroget, dāig is chucaind imthigit, 2554 . ri secht nimi ... imrulaid etronn ... fri ré tri bliadan trichat, SR 7735. tucht imruláith in Líath Macha ... fón charput dar fot chóicid Concobair, LU 8575 (FB). in t-sligi mór sa imthéit sechond gia leth imthéit which goes by us, TBC-LL¹ 1143. ocus grian gel cid imthet ?, SR 7916. ni caraim in uisci n-duabais | imteit (leg. imeteit) seoch toebh m'arais, AU i 352.2 . na-ṅgeib-sium eill nári cu n-imthig athach leo, MU² 672. imteged leo fo muirib he used to travel about with them under the sea, Laws i 72.11 Comm. imthesidsi isin matain i mbarach dia saigid, LU 5963. imrulatdar, garbaib gelt | iar tirib amraib Egept they set forth through the wonderful lands of Egypt, SR 3441. imrulaidhset meic Miledh do gabail in Inbear Slaine, Leb. Gab.(i) 250.12 . tabair ascaid m-bicc dam rēsiú imthiger, MacCongl. 55.20 . im-rulaid remi Cú Chulainn i tremdírgi na sliged, MU² 53. do imgedh roime as a haitle `then he proceeded on his way,' Celt. Rev. iv 18.10 . imthigfe-su for nathrachaib thou wilt walk on, PH 4845. imluid Rúadh dar luing amach `R. went out over the ship's side,' RC xv 294.5 . is e ro-imdig cosaib tirmaib darsin muir, PH 1641. is minicc ro imged se ar muin an luicc, Stair Erc. 1979. ro imigset inn aidchi sin co matin `they marched that night until morning,' Cog. 78.10 . tar ceann go n-imgheann léna ghoin ar fud an fhásaigh, TSh. 2517.

(b) goes away, departs: `ab eo,' didiu, `úad' immthíag, Hib. Min. 36.z . ro-imdichset co ndimdo et tuirrsi, Aisl. Tond. 96.16 . dá n-anuind do-chuadus d'ég ┐ dá n-imthiger táinic mo sáegal, Comp. CC 96.25 . ma do imid nírab soraid dō in raga rug, CCellaig 114. imidh uaim go foill, BNnÉ 210 n. 1 . imdhedh go tigh na bpian let him depart, Mac Aingil 465.14 . imgem sul éirgius lucht in baile, SG 243.16 . imthigid ass ... uair moni digsid ass innocht no-bor-mairfither imbárach, IT i 75.2 . do ceilebair doib ┐ roimígh uatha, RC x 183.11 . roimtigsed a n-élod a n-urtosach na haidchi, TTebe 4613 . imthighidh, a dhream mhalluighthe, san teinidh shíordhaidhe ite maledicti, TSh. 6558. na grása luaimneacha do thigeas agus imthigheas `the transitory graces which come and go,' Donlevy 208.20 . Fig. passes away, is lost: mairidh an litir ┐ imghídhidh an chuimhne, ML 182.16 .

(c) Fig. proceeds, walks (of manner of life) : dia n-imthiasam iar timnaib ind rechto, Ml. 46c20 . ni imthesid cen imdéicsin `ye shall not walk without circumspection,' Wb. 22c4 . in tíí ... nach fégann ... sét na sualach. ┐ nách immthigend dia reirr-sin, PH 4668. co n-imthiget i toil Dé, 7119 . in popul ... nach imthiged iarsin etargnu spirutalla, 4595 .

(d) imm-tét ... for (ar) befalls, happens: cech eigen catha ... imdeogus ortsa, Acall. 5461 v.l. día cabuir ó cach decair do imeochad orra, Maund. § 198. cred do imdigh ar a mhnai no ar a cloind, BCC 266.28 . in dímiadh sin ro imdig for a rig, MR 30.2 . do tuic an righan ... gur imidh fordol eigin druidhechta fuirri, Stair Erc. 65. is cosmhuil ribh-se ... | gur imthigh ní éigin ort, Dánta Gr. 11.11 . an gcuala Alba ... | ar imthigh air fan abhluinn, Aithd. D. 53. 9 . Used absol. : do imdigh gach ní da ndubairt C.C., BCC 268.38 . in domnach imrulaid in esergi choimdeta, LB 203b27 .

(e) imm-tét ... fri has to do with, deals with: chum nach n-imtheochadh re mion-chonntas móimintidhe do-ghní sí úsáid don mbliadhain do orduigh Julius Caesar `that she might not have to deal with (lit. in order not to go with) the minute reckoning of moments ...,' Corp. Astron. 8.27 . gibé ris (i.e. the world) gach aimsir imgheas, Hackett xlii 123.

(f) Metaph. usages

(i) changes, varies: imtiagad breatha ilbruige, glossed : at saine bretha forsna bruigi, Laws v 466.15 , 470.3 Comm. ar imtiagait breth (? leg. bretha) aimsera .i. is eimh teit an brethemhnus fo aimsir cana no cairde, O'Curry 1615 (< 23 Q 6, p. 6a-b ).

(ii) is lost, is done for: muna fóire Semus gu luath d'imgimair `we are lost,' JRSAI ii 360.9 . mas e Dia adeir ... cait a n-abair é ? murab é acht duine, do imigh tu you have lost your case, you are done for, Luc. Fid. 323.3 .

(iii) dies: d'imthigh Maghnus Prióir Atha Luain gan lorg `died without issue,' Hy Maine 166.24 . Also with acc. bás (see sect. II infra.) : cia sa hoiged ┐ bás as deach a n-immtheid rig, Alex. 56. Cf. sul n-imghead d'éag, Hackett xliv 34.

II With acc.

(a) circumambulates, travels on, traverses: flesc for dib ṅgablaib lasin conair immetiagat `along the way they go,' Ml. 45c9 . nicon immruldatar cosa doine riam lar srotha iordanein, Thes. i 488.27 (Tur.). bid latt cech ní imrega everything which thou shalt traverse shall be thine, Trip.² 1277. nach ní immathegtís co cend .uii. mbliadan ní ássad arbur ... trít, RC xiii 448 § 36. atcondarccaissiu ... indus imatíagsa in lind, TBC-I¹ 659. atát gillai dún is' taig imrul[l]atar in cocrích, Sc.M² § 6. cid menic imthigi in síd, LU 3541. ro-imthig an loch cen eathar, BColm. 102.14 . mar ḟandaill imtheít muir, TBC-LL¹ 1301. ba he med na seicce co n-im[th]ighdis daíne ┐ índile locha Erenn uile, RC xviii 181.18 . gach duine do imeóchad an cuan sin, ZCP xi 116.3 . ro imgedur ilimud do marannaibh garbha, Stair Erc. 1524.

(b) goes about in the sense of encloses: do forgeis dó aní imaragha a charbat do neoch bu mellach lais do Laighnibh, Anecd. i 44.24 . in mét ferainn imteitt srut[h] Tibir, CCath. 3471. issin ross imtheit Boind, CRR 38.14 . includes: ar ecnairc ind uli sceptra immidechaid da (=do) shoscela, Ir. Lit. p. 43 n. 20 . See also under imm-ticc.

(c) goes round protectingly, guards: baei cú occa no-imthiged Laigniu uili, Sc.M² § 1 R . roboí tan ... ba messe immátheged, LU 9309. nech ... imdoraegae caill ┐ mag remib ... ind agaid for namhot, Ériu viii 172.10 . a thuir imthéit Gaedel gnáth `o tower that ever guarded the Gael,' Metr. Dinds. iii 100.2 . cotomimthegat lūirecha uile leasa uadh, ZCP vi 258.5 .

lámdae

Cite this: eDIL s.v. lámdae or dil.ie/29531

Forms: lám(d)aige, lámdha, lámdhaighe

n (lám). Also lám(d)aige. lámdha, lámdhaighe (ón stuaim) f., IGT Decl. § 3 (44.12) . handiwork, manual skill : buaid lamdai (.i. ngresa) (of smiths), Lism. L. 2934 . cach dan dognīat lāmhae is cerd dongairther .i. lāmdae, O'Mulc. 222 . etarlam .i. l.¤ dognī an goba cēin mbis iarnd i tinid, 475. eter cruth ┐ cheill ┐ lamhdha, BB 258a11 . Freq. of needlework, etc., bad dech lámdai di ingenaib herend, LU 10188. co ndruni lamda ┐ lamthorud, 3910 ( SCC 26 ). cen lamda deg-mná deimne `without handiwork of true-born dame', Metr. Dinds. iv 332.31 . do lamda prim mna . . . do lamda a cartaighe . . . do lamda a dormaine, Laws ii 400. 13 - 15 Comm . anecmhuing lamdo dognid an ingen clumsiness, ZCP xiii 262.22 . lucht a lámhdhaighe, DDána 83.16 . re béalaibh bhan lámhdhaidhe, 114.31 = IGT Decl. ex. 185 . lámdha in domain acon mhnái / imirt óir aircid gan ghaí, Acall. 672.

liïd

Cite this: eDIL s.v. liïd or dil.ie/30216

Forms: líud, líthe

v later with stem líd-, líg-, líth-, lí-. Vn. líud, part. líthe. IGT Verbs § 37 . Charges, accuses, imputes to.

I In constr. with FOR.

(a) liimse forrusom díltud esséirge Crist I accuse them of denying Christ's resurrection, Wb. 13b18 . límmi for Dia ní nád deirgéni, 13b17 . líit fornn a épirt, 2a13 . ni liim for suide `I do not make Him responsible', 10a1 . fer for a llither forcraid netraid `a man who is accused of excess of lust', BCrólige 29 . fer fora liter go, Laws i 198.13 Comm . mad innraic lidhis ar eisinnraic, O'Curry 285 ( H 3.18, 157 ). cinnti leis nach é an tí for a líann dorinne an cin, O'Curry 2490 ( Eg. 88, 40a ). ni lia for sochlacha sargnima .i. ni ro lí siú for na deghlaochaib, ib. cene . . . buí G. . . . occondísin líthe bine fora mnái (lithe, lítear, vll.), Corm. Bodl. 24 (s.v. nescóit). líthe foir fomus, Ériu xviii 24 § 42 . do thempul Ierusalem ro líset sum for Isu sin do ráda, PH 3147 . na breca duba lifess Demun form, LB 240b41 . is fairre uile liess da eurndail do bheith fuoirre he claims that it is the whole of it (i.e. alphabet) which is divided in two, Auraic. 3385 . frisin cair ┐ frisin míclu liít in senadh forain, CCath. 5068 . in rannán dogniatsom / . . . is form-sa duslíat-som: / for coin líter cech ndíbhe, ZCP vii 268 § 1 . do líadh oruinn olc Umhuill we were accused of wreaking the destruction of U., O'R. Poems 2500 . mac nach lem, liter orm-sa `is fathered upon me', BCC 353 ( ZCP viii 561 § 1 ). Note also: is clann díreach lithior lais `is attributed to him(?)' (Gloss.), O'R. Poems 3023 . uair nocha lit[h]eir olc uad since no accusation of evil is made by him, ACL iii 308 § 32.

(b) Of illicit sexual intercourse (cf. Corm. Bodl. 24 cited above): líter fair ben Chrínraidh he is accused of violating the wife of C., Cóir Anm. 142 . Mac Giallcada . . . ar ar-líeadh Uaine aluind, ZCP xiii 221.12 . do lígadh a ben roime sin air, Celt. Rev. iv 18. Hence promises in marriage : líthear ort . . . / caor do mhianaigh Mogha Méid / sona an liamhain dod leithéid, DDána 97.9 . Of a prince and his territory: líthear é ar Cruachain Connacht, O'R. Poems 1078. Cf. ná lí Teamraigh ar ó dTáil, IGT Verbs ex. 356.

II With direct obj.: accuses, (in certain contexts) accuses of sexual crime: a gillu Connacht nad liu / for trommacht, Sc.M² 21a , perhaps a mere poetic inversion of the more usual construction described above (but see Gloss.). ná lí do mhnái co finnair, Acall. 582 . da curtar in tadamus fo cluais na mna liter, admaigi a fir uile, Celtica ii 80.339 . arc rolith (.i. corp rolen) he accused (i.e. subdued?) the body, ZCP v 486 § 8 (B. na f.). do líedh an gadaighe 'san gniomh sin, BNnÉ 238.24 . Cf. mádh luidhi líthear-somh / i n-gnímhaibh geimhlibh `if they are charged on oath with deeds (deserving of) fetters', Leb. Cert. 140.3 (but for luidhi read perhaps líud; líud, BB). roliad si iarum a Colcain, Anecd. i 7.12 = a[r] C[h]., SCano 210 (see n. 0 ).

mac(c)samla

Cite this: eDIL s.v. mac(c)samla or dil.ie/31220

Forms: mac(c)asamla, macasamlaid

subst. indecl. Acc. to Meyer, Misc. Hib. p. 32 (Univ. Illinois 1916) = mac + g.s. of fem. noun 1 samla, a son of likeness; not a true compd. as shown by the unlenited s; in poetry samla counts as a distinct word (: tarla, ZCP iii 23.29 ; tharga, TFerbe 65 3; alliterates with s, SR 5367 , 7007 ); see also Stern, ZCP iv 185. Marstrander, Bidrag p. 40 , believes it a compd. of O.N. maki (older Eng. make `mate') with Ir. samail, see also RC xii 461. Later often mac(c)asamla (Stowe variant in TBC-LL¹ 612 , 648 , 875 ); macasamlaid, Laws v 244.20 Comm.

An equal, match, the like (of), with gen. or poss. pron. (generally but not exclusively of persons). m.¤ Solman . . . ni frith do rigaib talman, SR 7007. noco tarla dam cose | m.¤ na crichi-se, ZCP iii 23.29 . ni tharla rumm . . . da [= do] m.¤ galaib gliad, TBC-LL¹ 4053. ni ḟaca a m.¤ ríam ar déne, Fianaig. 78.29 . in méit doronsat ar n-aithrecha . . . denum-ne a choibes ┐ a m.¤ , PH 120. díomsach d'ár mac samhlai-ne smuaineadh . . . ort-sa it is presumption for one like me, Dánta Gr. xxxiii 21 . mórán dom mhacasamhla a measg mo chinidh, Galatians i 14. daghēnadh a macasamhla isin firmamint would cause a like effect, ITS xiv 68.11 . Folld. by prep.: a macsamhla sin d'onoir, Fl. Earls 188.29 . an tí . . . do bhi gan maca samhla dhó ar an. talamh, TSh. 2814. Often in apposition to a preceding noun: co ragad méla a m.¤ fort a like disgrace, TBC-LL¹ 648 , cf. 612 . oirchis don tshenoir . . . uair ro bai seanoir a m.¤ agut fen, Aen. 3195. ni acumar duine do macsámla, PH 3915. ní raibi isin domun mhnaí a maccasamla, TTr.² 371 . nocha bhfaca fear . . . teagh a maca samhla sin, TD 11.4 .

1 mér

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 mér or dil.ie/31983
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: mér, meraib, meóir, meór, méra, mér

n o, m., n d. in da mér , Thes. ii 249.11 (Sg. Incant.). d p. meraib, 245.37 (Cambr. Hom). mér o, m., IGT Dec. § 61 , g s. meóir, d s. meór, n a p. na méra (but: trí méra is meóir énlámha, ex. 1472 ), g p. mér.

A digit, finger ; m.¤ coise a toe. mer laime, gl. digitus, Ir. Gl. 465. mer coisi, gl. articulus, 466 . na mera, gl. digitos, Gild. Lor. 167. dona .x. meraib, ib. 169 . remithir dóit láma neich aile cach mér día méraib, FB 91. ar barr gach meoir da meraibh, CF 213. cona méur (= digito), Lat. Lives 29. domrimart . . . co n-óenmeór isin richis, LU 9453. in gai ro bai for a meor, Aen. 2131. secht meóir cechtar a dá choss. secht meóir cechtar a dá lám, LU 6550 = TBC-I¹ 2034 , TBC-LL¹ 2723. ro in[ṡ]orchaigset a chúic meúir in mag, Trip. 126.11 = a chuicc mer, Lat. Lives 17. a tri mēir in Dūileamain . . . atāt ōs mo mullach, ZCP xiii 179.12 . is bec naro chomraicset mera a choss (of two opposing hosts), TFerbe 329 . cumad mera na cos amuil mera na lam, Laws iii 350.14 . forácaib folliucht a mer forsan ailig, PH 6353. ata slícht a meor indti, BCC § 122. Used as measure: tri duirnn ┐ da mer a fada, RC xviii 32.30 , cf. AFM ii 996.10 . tri meir a tiget, Laws ii 238.16 . cia tiget na saille? Tri meoir, LB 260b19 . Cf. O'Dav. 807. gurab écen m.¤ dot mūnad ind-airecd may a finger be needed to point thee out in the assembly (= mayst thou be an object of scorn), Fél. 96.15 (cf. Lat. monstrare digito). gurab eiccin meur fair . . . inn aireacht dia mūnadh, BNnÉ 305 § 19. múinidh sé le n-a mhéuruibh (of a graceless person), Proverbs vi 13. cuir do mher id bheul, Luc. Fid. 388.3 (a sign of discomfiture, cf. colloquial Eng. `put your finger in your eye'). Specifically of the thumb : gabais iarom a mér ina bēolu, RC xxv 344 § 1 (cf. dobert Finn a hordain ina bēolo, RC xxv 348 § 4 ). meilid smit ind aue iter a dā mer, Corm. Y § 149 .

ingen ar méraib `the nail on the fingers', legal term denoting the lowest division of `fine' or family-group , Laws iv 282.19 ; 286.1 . ranntair óthá athair . . . for cúlo ┐ frithrusc a frithisi coruici ingen-ar-méraibh, Ériu i 215.17 . co hua ┐ iarmu . . . co ingin ar meraib, vii 166.14 .

Compds. With adj. follg., with — fingers, — fingered: ¤chrom(m) crooked-fingered ; as sobriquet: Eogan Mérchrom a quo Cenél Mérchroim, ZCP viii 328.31 , cf. LL 347c44 . ¤ḟota long-fingered (-toed): cuilen merfota, IT iii 72 § 29. ¤gel: on mnaoi mérghil, ZCP viii 109 § 8. ¤ṡeng slender-fingered , freq. epithet of noble persons: Mercuur merseng, BB 412a14 . in méirṡeang mín, ZCP viii 229.14 . ingen Máine mérṡeing, Metr. Dinds. iv 4. don mhnai mhéirshing, SG 68.41 . días méirseng, Ériu ii 164.7 .

In Mod.Ir. such compds. are occas. formed with meór-, meóir-: meoradhbhaill, Ó Bruad. iii 48 § 10 v.l. meoirliosta ` hand-sluggish ', 92.7 .

reidirech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. reidirech or dil.ie/34948

adj o,ā. lawful, lawfully entitled ? in Laws Comm. as gloss on rechtaid: ba rachtaigh criche .i. ba reidirech isi ar in crich, Laws iv 18.4 Comm. is rechtaid dilgeda ben cach briugad .i. is redhirech do mhnai gach briughudh adballugudh neich da chach, v 386.16 , 23 .

ro-finnadar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ro-finnadar or dil.ie/35431
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: fo-retar, rud-finnadar, rofinnathar, finnatar, finta, fintai, finna, finnad, finnamár, findamar, findam, finnaid, finnatar, findat, fessur, fíasur, ḟessarur-sa, rofésser, rofessir, confeser, confeiser, fesser, fesara, con-festar, festar, rofessadar, fessara, fiastar, fiastar, fiasara, rufessin, n[i]confessin, fessaind, rofesta-su, festa-su, raḟesed, ro-das-fessad, rofessad, nin-fessed, fesed, rofesmais, fesmais, rufeste, festais, rofessur-sa, essur, rufiastar, fiastar, rofestar, rofessammar, rofessid, rofessatar, rofetar, rafetar, fetar-sa, fetor-sa, etar-sa, ḟetur, do-fetar, fetar, fetar-su, fetar, fetar-su, fetura-sa, rofitir, ro-ind-fiteir, fitir, rofitemmar, -fitemmar, rofetamar, rafetammár, -fetammar, -fetammár, rofitid, rafitid-si, rofitis, rofitetar, -fitetar, rafetatar, -fetatar, etetár, rafetar, -fintar, rofinnatar, rufessar, fessar, rofestar, festur, co festar, festa, fessta, rofess, rofes, fess, rofessa, fessa, fessa, fissi, fis, -finnub-sa, fhindub-sa, -findfam, [ḟ]indfaind-sa, findfad, fo-r-indfad, find, fhinnsat, finnachtain, finnad, -fetar, fetrais, Rofetar, fetadur, ḟedarais, rofhetabar, rosfetabair, rofhitirset, -fhitirset, fesbaide, fesfaide, Rofinnadar, finnaid, rofind, Rofess, fetamar, eadamar

v (Mid.Ir. finnaid) finds out, discovers . In O.Ir. a depon.; three different stems are used in conjugation: (1) finn- `discover', in imper., indic. pres. and imperf. (2) fes(s)-, fias- in subj., fut. and cond., also pass. pret. and gerundive. (3) fit-, fet- in pret. act. with force of pres. `know'. For -fitir see ZCP xv 204 ; Norsk tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap iv 426 ; Indogermanische Forschungen xxxix 220 . For the form fo-retar see Ériu xii 222 ; for forms without ro- in answering a question see ibid. 219 .

O.Ir. and early Mid.Ir. forms: pres. 3 s. rud-finnadar, Ml. 46c24 . rofinnathar, LL 152b7 (= rofinnadar, Metr. Dinds. iii 448.107 ). 3 pl. nad finnatar , Ml. 99b10 . imp. 2 s. finta, LL 251a18 . TBC-LL¹ 199 , 649 . fintai, LU 7572 ( BDD 110 ). finna, LU 5400 . 3 s. finnad, Wb. 29a17 . SR 1691 . 1 pl. finnamár, LU 9212 ( FB 94 ). findamar, Ériu ii 102.1 . findam, TBC-I¹ 2361 . 2 pl. finnaid, LU 4750 . TBC-LL¹ 728 . 3 pl. finnatar, LU 3476 ( SCC 25 ). findat, ZCP v 23.27 . subj. pres. 1 s. co fessur , SR 2883 . TBC-LL¹ 1399 . acht co fíasur , LU 3373 ( SCC 16 ). Cf. cia bo ḟessarur-sa (sic), LB 68b2 ( PH 5911 ). 2 s. rofésser, Fél. Feb. 4 ; dian fésser, Oct. 24 (: crésen, créssen). rofessir, Laws iv 340.3 . confeser, Wb. 29a22 . confeiser, Sg. 209b30 . co fesser , SR 1327 , 6113 . co fesara , PH 1813 , 6645 . 3 s. con-festar, Wb. 12c38 . 28d11 . Ml. 51b10 . arin festar , LU 3509 ( SCC 27 ). rofessadar, Rawl. 80b26 ( ZCP iii 24.2 ). dia fessara , LL 285b49 ( KMMisc. 208.12 ). nad fiastar , Wb. 22d3 , is a fut. form, cf. na fiastar , Laws v 462.18 , and: nach fiasara , Leb. Cert. 234.22 . subj. impf. 1 s. rufessin, Ml. 59b1 . n[i]confessin, 117d4 . dia fessaind , TBC-LL¹ 932 . 2 s. rofesta-su, Wb. 10a10 . dia festa-su , CRR 4 ( LL 171a37 ). 3 s. raḟesed, Sg. 148a6 . ro-das-fessad, SR 562 (: meth). rofessad, TBC-LL¹ 1766 . amal nin-fessed , Wb. 16a2 . cini fesed , Thes. i 3.39 . 1 pl. rofesmais, LU 6760 ( BDD 28 ). co fesmais , 7069 ( BDD 73 ). 2 pl. rufeste, Wb. 9c8 . 3 pl. co festais , LU 1833 . TBC-LL¹ 62 . fut. 1 s. rofessur-sa, Wb. 9a21 . ro essur , IT ii1 179.157 . 3 s. rufiastar, Ml. 111c13 . ni fiastar , Wb. 12d18 . rofestar, 12d27 . 1 pl. rofessammar, SR 1265 . 2 pl. rofessid, Wb. 7d6 . 3 pl. rofessatar, Ml. 69b1 . pret. pres. 1 s. rofetar, Wb. 16d7 . LU 1285 . rafetar, TBC-LL¹ 60 . ni fetar-sa , Wb. 28c10 . ni fetor-sa , Thes. ii 241.10 ( Ardm. 18a1 ). nad etar-sa , LL 265b35 ( MU 26.26 ). nochon ḟetur , LU 4761 . do-fetar, Anecd. v 2.11 . fetar (in reply), Ériu xii 219 . 2 s. in fetar-su , IT ii1 179.156 . nad fetar , TBC-LL¹ 930 . nach fetar-su , PH 1374 . nach fetura-sa , 719 ? 1 s.). 3 s. rofitir, Wb. 24d5 . SR 2029 . amal rundfitir, Ml. 140c10 . lasse ro-ind-fiteir , ZCP vii 481.27 ( Enchir. Aug. 74b ). ni fitir , Wb. 26d14 . 1 pl. rofitemmar, Wb. 6c16 . 12c5 . 14b19 . -fitemmar, 12c6 . 16a29 . Sg. 32b5 . rofetamar, Trip. 42.11 . LU 5650 . TBC-LL¹ 1235 . rafetammár, LU 4973 . -fetammar, Ml. 37a10 . TBC-LL¹ 8 . -fetammár, LU 1779 . 2 pl. rofitid, Wb. 7d6 . rafitid-si, 18b9 . rofitis, 6a18 . 14c12 . (= rofitid-si). 3 pl. rofitetar, 23b12 . -fitetar, 27a11 . Ml. 95a12 . rafetatar, 54b14 . -fetatar, 96b2 . Cf. ni etetár , Wb. 21d1 . rafetar, 28c12 . Pass. pres. s. -fintar, Sg. 200b13 . Ml. 30a3 . pl. rofinnatar, Wb. 29a28 , 30 . subj pres. s. rufessar, Ml. 24d17 . dia fessar , 24d14 . Mid.Ir. rofestar, SM Facs. 33a1 ( Laws ii 272.12 ). cu festur , Laws ii 6.29 Comm. co festar, PH 7645 . subj. impf. con festa , Sg. 26b8 . co fessta , IT i 118.10 . pret. pres. s. rofess, Wb. 23b9 . rofes, Ml. 80b11 . nad fess , 80b10 (see also 1 fes(s)). pl. rofessa, Lib. Hymn. i 38.34 . nach fessa , 33 . ní fessa , Fél. Prol. 76 . part. necess. fissi, Thes. ii 308.18 . Vn. fis (O.Ir. fius) q.v.

In Mid.Ir. the vb. undergoes a twofold development:

(1) finn- ` find out ' develops subj., fut. and pret. forms act. and pass.: fut. 1 s. -finnub-sa, TBC-LL¹ 5759 . ni fhindub-sa , PH 2017 . 1 pl. -findfam, LL 268b39 ( MU 44.27 ). cond. 1 s. no [ḟ]indfaind-sa , PH 20 . 3 s. na findfad , 2012 . Cf. fo-r-indfad, LL 264a18 , 19 ( MU 16.9 , 11 ). ? pret. 3 s. ro find , BB 16b20 . 3 pl. niro fhinnsat , Marco P. 60 . vn. finnachtain, finnad.

(2) The subj. and fut. forms with fes- survive and are associated with the pret. in the sense ` know '. In pret. pres. 1 s. -fetar continues in use down to modern times, but analogous forms are used in other persons: in fetrais . . .? Rofetar ┐ ro fetadur fir Eirenn, Acall. 7608 , 7610 . ma do ḟedarais (2 s.), TBC-LL¹ p. 221 n. 2 . rofhetabar (2 pl.), PH 1710 . rosfetabair, Metr. Dinds. iii 280.54 . rofhitirset, Fl. Earls 10.22 . -fhitirset, 62.21 . 114.16 . fesbaide, LL 195a25 = fesfaide, Metr. Dinds. iii 118. 105 , is a spurious fut. form (2 pl.).

A. Rofinnadar, finnaid.

(a) finds out, discovers, learns = Lat. cognoscit, often implying effort or investigation, esp. in imper.; folld. by acc., dependent question or clause with or without conj. In Glosses the pres. finn-, is used with force of a consuetudinal pres. or in general statements, Thurn. ZCP v 19 . In older texts the subj. and fut. forms in fes- are used in above sense. in línn rofitir a peccad finnad a ccúrsagad let as many as know their sins [come to] know their reprimanding , Wb. 29a17 . biit alaili and rofinnatar a pecthe rosíu docói grád forru whose sins are found out , 29a28 . ni taibri grád for nech confeser a inrucus, ib. 22 . mad ail duit co fesser olcc if thou wouldst learn what evil is , SR 1327 . ārim cech sluaig . . . ni fail nech rodasfessed who could find it out , 562 . ara feiser cenn rig for aithech that thou mayest be able to tell (when) a king's head (is) on a plebeian , Laws iii 106.4 . ragat acht co fiasur in n-airm atá provided I can find out where she is , SCC 16 . dia fessmais indni not-fóirfed, foghébta linn, IT i 122.21 . ro-finnathar a mathair-som inní sein discovers , ZCP viii 311.2 . ni fetar, olsi, cid dernad de. Finta-su em, ol A. find out! LL 251a18 ( TBFr. 295 ). finta-ssu dún in tecam fo nā tecam, TBC-LL¹ 199 . ar co festa-su damsa cia airm, etc., 1728 . findtae dun coich in choland find out for us whose body it is , Corm. Y 1018 . finna dam indiu Meidb ┐ Fergus (= keep an eye on M. & F. for me), LU 5400 . finta lat in mór in marbad, RC xiii 84.23 . finnta lat cid thacras Déicc, PH 1041 . fionnta libh cia doroine, etc., BNnÉ 34.29 . a ēigsi . . . in findtai nō in feadabair | cidh ma tugsat can you find out or do you know , BB 42b48 = in fagbaid no in fetabair, LL 211a39 . findamar uait do ainm let us hear your name , Ériu ii 102.1 . fionnam uait mar do íocais, TD 14.8 .

(b) the sense ` find out ' is not distinct from that of `knows' in forms with fes-: amal ninfessed cách as though no one knew us (gl. ignoti), Wb. 16a2 . can rufesta-su íccfe in mnái (= unde scis), 10a10 . ni ḟetar . . . dia fessaind conbeind na fatchius if I had known , TBC-LL¹ 932 . ni fili nad fiastar sé hernaili déc na filidechta he is no poet who does not know , ZCP vi 262.23 . dá bhfeasadh . . . cá huair do thiocfadh, TSh. 2244 (= si sciret, Matthew xxiv 43 ).

(c) hence the development of new forms from finn- in the sense ` find out ': cacha finnub-sa de . . . innisfithir duit-siu, TBC-LL¹ 5759 . finnubh . . . an crích bús fhearr dhibh, RC xliii 64 § 64 . ná lí do mhnái co finnair do not accuse your wife until you find out (her guilt) , Acall. 582 . doberthar chucom-so nech rodfinnfa do ghalur (= who will diagnose), IT i 122.3 . cia forindfad dún ca crích ina fuilem?, LL 264a18 ( MU 16.9 ). tri focuil for braich . . . co finntar a blas, Laws ii 242.12 .

(a) pret. pres. knows (gen. in sense of Lat. scire = is aware of, seldom is acquainted with): is becc rofitemmar-ni i rrúnaib Dǽe, Wb. 12c5 . is moo rofhitir Dia rúine na ṅdoine andaas rofhetatar fén, PH 5126 . rofhetar-sa at aiprisce na doíne, 1425 . in fetar cid ruc . . .? Nicon fetar dost thou know . . .? I know not , IT ii1 178.135 . in fetair-seo cia fath . . .? Nād edar-sa, TBC-I¹ 2222 , cf. TBC-LL¹ 2987 , 4251 . fer ná fetar claind no cenel dó of whom I know not his family nor his race , IT i 127.30 . ní ḟedabair an lá no an uair, RC xxv 388.18 .

(b) with force of pret. knew (common in Mid.Ir., esp. in 3d pers.): nachatfedir . . . atc[h]uitig fa thri he swore thrice that he knew thee not , ZCP x 47.13 . ni fhetar olc remisin I knew not evil until then , LB 111a42 ( MacCarthy 56.1 ), cf. SR 1335 . raḟitir co taetsad, TBC-LL¹ 3720 . ní fidir cuin doricfad a les, Ériu iii 154.13 .

(c) the pret. rofind is occas. similarly used: Findia .i. nech do ḟind Dia, Fél.² cxlvii ( Sep. 28 ). nír fhinnsad nār iad sloigh na criche, Marco P. 150 . nir fhionnsat cia cúil . . . iona rabhsad na curpa, BNnÉ 184.22 . ro find [Pátraic] combad si [Ard Macha] budh cenn . . . d'eccailsibh Erenn, AFM i 142.12 .

C. Rofess

(a) is known (perf. pres.): rofess i taig cáich, Wb. 23b9 . rocluinter in fogur ┐ ni fess cia rāide, IT i 144.11 . innahi nach fessa . . . na hi rofessa (= quae latent . . . quae leguntur), Lib. Hymn. i 38.33 , 34 .

(b) with force of pret. was known : is ed durumenatar-som nad fess in gním they thought the deed was not known , Ml. 80b10 . ba ceist mór la hUltu náconfes céle for a selb that she was not known to have a husband , IT i 139.10 . rofes o Día do Senán andí-sin that was (made) known to S. , ZCP iii 222.8 . Common in parenthesis or cheville: corbat rí rofes i ndiaid Cormaic, LL 147a17 ( PRIA iii 548 ). ropo derg th'ḟaebur, rofess, | i mBeluch, RC xx 11 § 12 . The neg. ní fess was later analysed as noun with cop., see 1 fes(s).

D. Idiomatic uses:

(a) with AR (FOR) of pers. finds out (knows) against (to the discredit of): cor . . . ara findtar a saithed whose fraud is discovered , Laws iii 6.19 . elodhuch ar a finnathar one found out to be a fugitive , 60.1 . ná fionnadh a hathair fuirre that her father might not find out (her guilt) , TFrag. 30.2 . rofes forsin fher-sin in gním, PH 948 = ō dafes, ZCP xiv 153.3 (YBL). aoinneach . . . ar a bhfionntaoi claonadh seanchusa do dhéanamh, Keat. iii 511 .

(b) of connubial intercourse: mac mná nad festar céle who knows no spouse (of the Virgin Mary), Imr. Brain § 26 . ben nad fessed [sic leg.] nech do feraib hErend ríam, IT i 119.29 (LU). ni fetar ┐ ni fhindub-sa ferscál, PH 2017 . dias inghean nar fhionn fear, Gen. xix 8 .

(c) doubtful: rofind . . . Dia suan . . . i nAdam, BB 16b20 = immisit . . . soporem in A. , Gen. ii 21 (leg. rofóid ?).

E. Some late exx.:

(a) in fidir tú ? do you know ? Acall. 753 . an bhféidir tú . . .?, ZCP iv 404.4 ; 412.17 . ni fhéidir . . . acht ro-fhéadar liom I do not know . . . but I do know , 412.19 . cf. an fitir lat ?, Snedg. u. Mac R 12.6

(b) 1 pl. pret. fetamar has given rise to the adv. eadamar surely, certainly , see TD ii p. 200 , Desíd. p. 304 : e. nach diúltfa sibh, Content. xvi 104 . eadamair eistfidhear linn, Dánta Gr. xvii 11 .