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deercc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. deercc or dil.ie/15024
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: dē-ĕrcc, dĕ-ărcc, desercc, deserc, deirc, desseirc, dércc, dérc, deṡerc, deṡercc, dearc, dearcc, deerc, degserc, deṡerc, dearc, deärc, dérc, déaircci, desercc, deseirc, desercc, deserc, desseirc, dérc, déirc, déirce, deiṡeirci, déirc, dearc, deṡercc, deerc, déirc, dérca, deircinda, deircinna, Deercc

n ā, f. Christian cpd. of 2 día + sercc. O.-Ir. Probably dē-ĕrcc, dĕ-ărcc (beside d-hercc), with shortening of dé- in hiatus; dé- only in Wb. 5 d 18 . Usually written desercc, deserc (19 instances); dearc n s., Wb. 33 d 6 . deirc d s., Wb. 25 a 36 . desseirc, ib. 23 b 1 .—Mid.-Ir. Monosyllabic dércc, dérc—the common spelling. Frequently even in comparatively late MSS also spelled deṡerc, deṡercc (SR. AU A.D. 1498 . PH pass. &c.), and dearc, dearcc ( Thes. ii 318. 33 ; 332. 38 . PH pass.). Rarer spellings: deerc ( Fél. Ep. 389 v.l. SR 724 ). degserc Mon. Tall. 159. 1 , through confusion with deg- = dag. The constant lack of accent in deṡerc, dearc seems to suggest a disyllabic deärc beside monos. dérc (but déseirce, TFrag. A.D. 908 . déaircci, Trip. 62. 9 ). In PH there is not a single instance of the accent being written with the -ea- form.

DISYLLABIC: manodtechtaid deseirc, Fél. Ep. 389 . mó cech ṁbríg ar deṡeirc ṅdil, SR 7511 ; ib. 724 ( 6819 ambiguous). MS. Mat. 616. 15 .

MONOSYLLABIC: SR 2176 . ZCP viii 199. 21 ; 215. 5 .

INFLEXION: Regular stem in ā. Noteworthy is the a s. desercc, Wb. 12 b 27 (but deseircc, 10 c 1 , deseirc, 14 d 22 ), and the d s. desercc, 5 d 15 , deserc, 25 b 7 (but deseircc 9 a 23 , desseirc, 23 b 1 ), both modelled on the inflexion of the consonantal stems (traig n. a. d s.).—g s. Oir. always -erc(c)e. Mid.-Ir. n s. dérc and déirc ( PH 315. 5910 . Lib. Flav. 33 b 1. 11 . Lec. 335 d 30 . Donl.). g s. déirce; deiṡeirci, Rawl. 70 a 18 . a s. déirc and dearc ( PH 5792 . 5927 . 6140 ), deṡercc, deerc ( Fél. Ep. 389 v.l.). d s. déirc.—pl. dérca, ZCP viii 215. 5 . deircinda, Lib. Flav. ii 14 a 2. 21 . deircinna, ib. ZCP vi 25. 1 .—MOD. n s. only déirc (déirce, Don. and parts of Con.). g s. déirce (`and déarca,' Dinneen ). pl. déirceacha, W.K. Sc. déircean.

I Orig. love of God , i.e. (a) God's love to man and (b) man's love of God (serc Dé) and his neighbour, commanded as the fulfilling of the Law ( car do chomnesam amal notchara fén, PH 5837 ).— Deercc represents caritas of the Vulgate (Gk. ἀγάπη). As the frequent addition of Dé (deercc Dé) shews, the sense of de- was no longer apparent.

(a) God's love to man: deserc Dé dil, SR 6819 . ar do deirc ar do thrócaire, 2176 (of God); 7511 . atlochomar buidi do Dia ara deircc, Ériu iii 2. 2 . tabair ar deirc tuismed éigin dam a Dhé, 3 B 22, 40 b 12 . rosgail in Comde tre dermaire a derci a deghmáine don cinedh daenda, Lib. Flav. 28 b 2. 35 .—Possibly a transferred use of (b).

(b) charity, i.e. man's love of God (caritas .i. sercc immircide do Dia, Wb. 12 b 26 ) and his neighbour ( desercc Dé ┐ comnessaim, Wb. 23 b 1 . serc Dé ┐ in choimnessaim, PH 4605 ). In the Glosses constantly transl. caritas, occasionally also dilectio ( Wb. 33 d 6 ; cf. PH 5875 ). Only in this sense in the Glosses.— ó imbud a deserce (sic leg.)...ba galar dó galar cáich, Cambr. 37 d . gním desercce, Wb. 6 d 3 . crábud cen desercc, 12 b 27 . conroib deserc leu fri cách, 26 d 22 . ní torban na áe mani bǽ desercc, 12 b 33 (= mine rab dearcc accum, PH 5909 ); further 5 d 18 . 9 a 23 . 12 b 35 . 14 d 22 . 16 c 4 , 10 . 23 c 8 . 25 a 21 , 36 . 28 a 22 . Ml. 128 d 9 .—latitudo caritatis .i. forleithi na deiṡeirce, Laud 610, 41 b . andud ┐ elscud déaircci, Trip. 62. 9 . sechem derce, ZCP iii 29. 34 . sualaig na deirce uirtus caritatis PH 5929 . isé techtus in deirc intí charus in cara i nDia ┐ in námait ar Dhia, ib. 5799 . intí nach fil i ndéirc ní fil side i ṅDia uair is ainm do Dia dearc, 5908 . ib. 5790 , 5808 , 5906 . Dércc is the fourth of the `sualchai erechdai triasa roichend cech fírén dochum nime' PH 6852 , cf. 5908 .—deerc brátharde caritas fraternitatis: bad fuairrech cách fri alaile ón desercc bráthardi, Wb. 5 d 15 . 10 c 1 . 25 b 7 . 33 d 6 ; superseded by bráthairse in Mid.-Ir.— deerc ocus trócaire: lucht na deirce ┐ na t., FA § 1 . RC iv 254. 2 f.b. (LU). Lec. 335 d 30 . SR 724 . —topor deerce a fount of charity, of persons: t. na deṡerci ┐ na cennsa (of Mac Magnusa) AU A.D. 1498 . t. eagna ┐ d.¤ , AFM ii 1024. 3 f.b. tobar finn fírdéirce (of Christ) ZCP viii 199. 21 .—cenn deerce head of charity: c. déseirce ┐ gach sualcha (of Cormac bishop of Cashel) TFrag. 214. 9 .—lestra deerce vessels of charity, modelled on the vasa misericordiae of Romans ix 23 : ropadh maith lem lestru deircce do dáil, MS. Mat. 616. 15 .

II Benevolence to the poor, charitableness, alms-giving . Closely related to I (b), cf. esp.: manodtechtaid deseirc... bói sund bochtán frisṁbad dénti, Fél. Ep. 389 . cia dobera duine na déirc (pro dilectione Dei) a uili indmas do bochtaib, PH 5875 . caraid in déirc intí charus in comnessom, 5906 . co ndenad Brigit deirc móir dend airliud, Thes. ii 332. 35 , 38 . déirc .i. oibre na trócaire, Donlevy 194. 19 . Frequently joined to troscadh and urnaigh, ib. xiv 3 ; 194. 15 ; 310. 6 . The various kinds of dércc are enumerated PH 5815 sq. and Donlevy 194. 2289 .

III In a concrete sense alms (to the poor or to the Church); often pl. Synon. almsu. dérca re deiblénaib...do thabairt uadh, ZCP viii 215. 5 . doberedh dercinna do deblénaibh Dé, vi 25. 1 (15th century). deircinda, Lib. Flav. ii 14 a 2. 21 . an dream chailleas ar na marbhaibh og congbháil a ndéirce aca féin gan a tabhairt don eaglais nó do bhochtaibh, TSh. 130. 6 ; 175. 2 f.b. —Closely related to II, cf.: dogabh deirc uathadh mar gach mbocht eile, Lib. Flav. 35 a 1. 5 . nach roibhe do bhethai accu acht an deirc dogeibhedh Eoin óna crístadaibh, 33 b 1. 11 . dérca (┐ diamra Crist), LB 135 a 24 , is a mistake for deccra. For dércc in the concr. sense PH uses almsu. MOD. tabhair déirc dom; díol déirce an object of charity or pity (also Sc.). is mór an nuidhe (nuiṁe, with nasal vowel) déirce éisin (= is mór an truagh gan déirc thabhairt dó); Blasket. nuidhe déirce iseadh é, Sc. mo dhéirc ort give me alms, Manx jeirk.

1 fo, fa, fá

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 fo, fa, fá or dil.ie/22333
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: fo, fó, fu, fa, ba, bá, ba, fá, fao, faoi, fa, ba, fa, fa, faoi, fua, foa, fo, fó, f, fo, fó, fá, fon(d), fón, fónd, foind, fóa, fun, fan, fona, fosnaib, foum, fóm, fúm, fúm, fóm, fout, fūd, fút, —d, fót, —d, fád, fo, foa, fua, foí, fóe, foei, fáe, fou, foú, fó, foa, fáe, foe, fai, fua, fáe, faoi, fa, faoi, faoi, foí, fúe, fóe, foithi, fóthi, foithe, fuithe, fúithe, fáoithi, fúithe, fóithe, faoithe, fúinn, fōin, fōind, fúnn, fúinn, fóinn, faoinn, fuibhsi, faoibh, fúibh, fóibh, faoibh, fóthu, fúthu, fūthu, fōthu, fōtha, fūtha, fútha, fóthib, fōthib, fóthib, foíthib, foithib, fūthaibh, fuithibh, —uí—, fúthaibh, fúthuibh, faoithibh, fóm, fom, bám, fám, fot, fót, fád, foa, fóa, fána, fo, fo, fóar, fo, fánar, fo, foa, fona, fana, fána, foum, f., Fo-

(leniting) prep. with acc. and dat. Forms : fo Wb. 5b3 . 9c31 . Ml. 14d4 . 27d7 . 28c12 . Sg. 140a4 . 153b6 . Acr. 8b1 . BCr. 31c5 . SR 1596 . LU 1928 . 2970 . 4764 . 6615 . LB 67b14 . 171b16 . 201a20 . fó, LU 3806 . 6498 . 6899 . 10792 . 10779 . LB 54a50 . 244b25 . fu, Ml. 63b4 . 67c2 . 77b11 . 94a2 . BCr. 18d2 . fa, LL 177b45 . LB 41b53 . 162b16 . 165b10 . ba, bá, 243a36 . ba, Maund. 237 . fá, LU 9132 . (cf. secht cneslénti [sic leg.] ... bítís bá thétaib ... hi cústul fri gelcnes dó LU 6413 ). fao, Fl. Earls 70.30 . faoi, RSClára 6a . fa (fá, ba) is frequent in Mid. Ir. and is the regular form in Early Mod Ir. (fáoi, fa fhior sin, IGT, Introd. § 73 . ata m'ḟalluing ... fa ḟior o beith faoi IGT, 24 P 8, 190 ), see exx. below. With nasal. rel. part.: fua, Ml. 35a9 ; b16 . 38c3 . 45a3 . Fél. Prol. 86 (fa v.l.). foa, Ml. 59d7 . Marco P. 16 . fo, Ml. 35b18 . Marco P. 136 . fó (ro) 18 . f, TSh. 7542 . Mid. Ir. fo, fó, fá. With art. fon(d), Ml. 35a9 . 53b9 . 36b16 . Sg. 14b1 . 73b3 . Fél. Oct. 15 . LU 3100 . 8461 . fón, LU 1508 . 1797 . 8214 . MacCongl. 103.3 . fónd, LU 6092 . LL 71b1 . foind, LU 6099 . fóa n— (neut.) 8240 . fun, Ml. 65c9 . fan IGT, 24 P 8, 190 . Ó Héodhusa 68 . pl. fona. Incorrectly fosnaib, LL 63bx ( TBC-LL¹ 1020 ).

With pron. suff.: 1 sg. foum (gl. íssum) Hy vi 4 Comm. fóm, LL 82b30 . fúm, ACL iii 236 § 6 . TSh. 4226 . fúm, fóm IGT, 24 P 8, 193 .

2 sg. fout, SR 1734 (monos.). fót, 835 . LU 2815 . fūd ZCP vi 283.21 . fút, —d; fót, —d IGT, 24 P 8, 193 . fád TD 10.20 .

3 s. m. n., acc. fo, Ml. 37a14 . foa, LU 8849 . fua, 8525 . foí, 2011 . fóo, TBC-I² 1283 . fóu, Trip. 130.6 . LB 191b58 (fói). fóe, LL 62b21 . 80a41 . foei LB 7b44 . fáe, Lat. Lives 46.10 . dat. (not distinguished in Mid. Ir.) fou, Ml. 38c3 . 64a10 . 98c10 . Bodl. Dinds. s.v. prull (foe Y). foú, Ml. 35b16 . fó, LU 1483 ( foo, 5620 is possibly acc. pl.). Trip. 222.6 . foa (fóu E) 240.14 . fáe, CCath. 1214 . foe, MacCongl. 89.15 . fai, Lism. L. 1666 . fua, LU 6424 . TBC-LL¹ 3378 . fáe (sin), CCath. 1477 . faoi, IGT, Introd. § 73 . ata m'ḟalluing ... fa ḟior o beith faoi , IGT 24 P 8, 190 . faoi, Ó Héodhusa 68 .

3 s. f. foí, LU 6214 . ? fúe, 7121 ( BDD 80 ). fóe (diss.), Imr. Brain § 6 (ref. to inis). foithi, Trip. 8.10 . Marco P. 16 . Lism. L. 50 . fóthi, LL 59.49 ; 267b27 . foithe, MacCongl. 122.32 . Lism. L. 2220 . fuithe, Acall. 2756 . fúithe, TSh. 1679 . fáoithi, IGT, Decl. ex. 432 . fúithe, fóithe, faoithe IGT, 24 P 8, 193 .

1 pl. found TBC-I¹ 3578 . fúinn, Maund. 157 . TSh. 8033 . fōin, fōind, ACL iii 235 § 28 (: ōir). 237 § 23 (cōir). fúnn, fúinn, fóinn, faoinn IGT, 24 P 8, 193 .

2 pl. fuibhsi, Acall. 2173 . faoibh, Studies 1921, 74 . Luc. Fid. 366.6 . fúibh, fóibh, faoibh IGT, 24 P 8, 193 .

3 pl. acc. fou, Ml. 42 b 7 . fóthu, LL 63b21 . 85a24 . fúthu, Fianaig. 94.17 . fūthu, CCath. 2445 (as dat. 1889 ). fōthu (as dat.) 3032 . 3189 . 4718 . fōtha, 4834 . 5208 . fūtha (as dat.) Maund. 157 . fútha, TSh. 1164 . dat. fóthib, LU 1889 . LL 95b43 . fōthib (as acc.) 62b33 . fóthib, 222a23 ( TTr. 363 ). foíthib (as acc.) LU 6166 . ? foithib (: soithib), Metr. Dinds. iv 86.76 . fūthaibh (as acc.) Marco P. 91 . fuithibh (—uí—?) 100 . fúthaibh, TSh. 2270 (as acc. 2374 ). fúthuibh, faoithibh IGT, 24 P 8, 193 .

With poss. 1 sg. fóm, LL 113b28 . LB 161bx . fom, LB 6a19 . 191a9 . bám, 179a42 . fám, FDG 287 . TSh. 2145 . 2 sg. fot, LL 259b24 ; 32 . fót, LU 3903 . 6090 . LL 259b36 . fád, TSh. 7867 , - 74 . 3 s. foa, Wb. 32c13 . LU 10653 . 10661 . 10910 . fóa, 5596 . LB 192b29 . fána, Keat. ii 6299 . TSh. 1576 . 4216 . fo (axail) BDD 148 U (foo Y). fo (smacht) LB 178b54 .

1 pl. fóar, Wb. 9a1 . LB 172b3 . fo ar, LB 171b37 . fánar, TSh. 5591 (verse).

2 pl. fo bar, Wb. 23d11 .

3 pl. foa, LU 6781 . fona, BCC p. 396.23 . fana, FDG 409 . fána, TSh., 3067 .

I Of local relations.

(a) under, beneath: used more extensively than the corresponding Engl. prep., as the Irish idiom, in speaking of two things one above another prefers to say that B is under A rather than that A is over B: foum (gl. íssum) Hy vi 4 Comm. bieit a namait fo a chosaib som under his feet Wb. 32c13 . a tabairt fu chossa `their being put under foot' Ml. 67c2 . lecca derca fo chossaib, LU 2424 . asin tiprait boí fón drochat, 1797 . co n-accatar fón muir fóthib annís dúine, 1889 . gabais in mnaí foa lethoxail took the woman under his arm 10910 . atnaig C. foí thrusts him under it 5233 . da lurgain lomchaela fae, Thr. Ir. Gl. 36 (Corm. s.v. prull). do chuir a lámh chlé faoi chum éirghe dó, Comp. CC 81.10 . léigcitt a nglūine fútha they kneel down Maund. 77 . gabais ... a chois foí, LU 1503 (`took him by the leg' MU 51 ). co mmema do fergara fót 6099 . ro thescsat a leth-iscait ... foei, PH 554 . mani má in talam fúe, BDD 80 . mana maidi in talam found, TBC-I¹ 3578 . in cloch no geissed fo chosaib cach ríg nogeibedh Hérinn, Dinds.. i § 13 = BB 350a18 . in tan ticedh ri Eirenn fuirre, do ghéised in lecc fái, Acall. 7999 . ro hecrait áine ┐ urluachair fóthu, TBC-LL¹ 998 . mairg cois isa bond fa mbris woe to the foot under whose sole it breaks ACL iii 237 § 21 . atá fó cach duma .l. fer, LU 2873 . a lec na righ ... fút atát cuirp na tri Tadg, Ériu ii 166.30 . líc ... foa n-adnaicthe na gennte, Marco P. 16 . in ail fó ro hadnachta a sin, 18 . fo Loch Echach, LU 2970 . fo dílind, Ériu iv 130.17 . docuaidh se fai an abhainn ... ┐ nir eirich se no gor baithed e, BCC § 149 . (cf. no thogfaind mo chlíu | ma úir, LU 9856 . ge fía dig fa húir, 9859 ). luid fo thalmain, Fél. May 20 . a chor fo thalmain to bury PH 664 . mar fhágbhaid fá úir é, TSh. 970 . droichet fo ngabhait longa under which ships pass Marco P. 136 . fo gréin (nim) under sun (heaven) i.e. alive; in the world: nisfil fo grein fairind ... basid feiliu, ACL iii 297z . gan coimmeas ris fon g. ... acht tusa he has no equal in the world but thee Duan. F. ii 324 § 25 . ní fil fo nim ní ... na dingned, LU 3911 ( SCC 42 ). teglach fo teglach ind ḟir | ni fil fo n., AU 894 . gan neach 'na n-aghoidh fo neimh no one in the world against them Duan. F. ii 164 § 35 . dona daoinibh fá neamh, TSh. 2088 (= sub caelo ... hominibus Actus iv 12 ). Esp. in sense of carrying, supporting: droichet ..., xxx. uaithne fulaing fai, Marco P. 97 . beir let licc ... fot suidi, SR 1593 . is amlaid ... atá in rígsudi ... co cethri colomnaib foi, LU 2006 ( FA 7 ). cen fúndamit fái PH 7816 . tū ag folang fóin supporting us beneath ACL iii 235.28 . ech ... foa suidiu, LU 10661 . tri eich derga foa suidib, BDD 30 (foithib, Eg. fosuidib DE). gerrán Patraic foa (fóu, Eg.) P.'s nag was carrying it (of a load) Trip. 240.14 . na dá ech filet fón charput, LU 8590 . secht carpait ... ┐ ceithri heich dēc fūithibh, ZCP vii 300.12 . fuaim nechraide fó ríg the sound of steeds under a king's chariot BDD 50 . fuaim carbaid fo rígh, BNnÉ 183.11 . in carpat fil fónd ócláig, TBC-LL¹ 1815 . carbad ... bhias faoi ... rothadha fan charbad, Ó Héodhusa 68 . in sdét robúi fae Sir G. ZCP vi 56.32 . ber mul ... fud `have under thee a ... mule' 283.21 . confacatar in fer mbecc ... ┐ luingin creduma foi in a skiff of bronze RC vi 183.4 . in cholcid boí foí the bed he was on LU 10478 . nirbo gnáth in corthe út fo enaib that pillar was not wont to have birds on it LL 121b34 ( RC iii 181 ). ech ... ina laige fo eri, PH 5846 . baile a laighfedh an damh fon ccarpat, BNnÉ 32.1 . arna loscedsi ... in fer nobiad fóthi that it should not burn the man who carried it (of a magic spear) MU² 741 ( LL 267b27 ). tuc gobal ... fo a cinnu stuck their heads on a fork Dinds. 144 . do rad C. a carpat fo leabhraibh Beraich loaded his chariot with B.'s books BNnÉ 31 y . asail berar fa lointibh la gach n-aen `asses laden with provisions are taken' Marco P. 20 . mac in chruittiri fón cruit, Ériu ix 49 § 30 . fer fo bhíudh ... aroile fo lionn, Hugh Roe² 11.26 (f. 6b) . focheirded id n-óir immi | nád bāded fairge foa that the sea might not drown him while he wore it Metr. Dinds. iii 104.23 . éicne ... is é fuillechta fo mil dressed with honey TBFr. § 23 . cuiridh fo shalann é pickle it BNnÉ 74.8 . tuirtín fá luaith (= subcinericium panem) TSh. 4926 . do chorpán fo chrú covered with gore ML 110.13 ( ML² 1455 ). cona brugaib fo blāth flowering meadows SR 379 . boí [Mag Breg] fó a lí ┐ fó bláth cach datha LU 10792 . finemhain fo torud, ZCP v 24 § 2 . gort nach bi fa barr that bears no crops ACL iii 236 § 5 . clúana ... fá sgingbheirt reóidh `meadows wrapped in a cloak of ice' Ó Heódhusa, Studies 1921, 419 . dolluid in curach fo séol trena mocoll under sail LU 1928 . laoidheang fa lán seóil under full sail TD 20.30 . do bhí an domhan fa dhall chiach 7.33 . cotlud dó fón sāith sin, LU 3451 ( SCC 23 ). in ghein fil fat bruindi in thy womb RC vi 175.55 . i taig fó glas, LU 4764 . fuaratar in carcair fon iadhad doratsat forri, PH 3696 . in carcair do beth fon ṅdúnad cetna, 3698 . Cf. a mbeit[h] i mbuaile fo iadhu an oidhche (of cows), Laws iv 96.24 . corbo ecen clar fo dlutad uasu, BB 390b1 . bheith geimhlighthe fá ghéibheann ghrás nDé, TSh. 2201 . docuaid C. fana corp fen san aiér in his own body BCC § 149 . an tan ... nach féadann ... an biadh ... do chongbháil fána chlí cannot retain his food TSh. 1575 . comēt dam mo chride ... ni raib miscais foë let there be no hatred in it ZCP vi 259 § 6 . dosrat fo chlaidiub put them to the sword SR 4148 . ce atagtha fo claideb, Ériu ii 122.21 . dochuaidh Pol fo cloidhem BB 10a3 ( MacCarthy 284 ). luidh fo lannaib fell by blades BB 50b29 ( MacCarthy 422 ). tair fón claideb come under the sword (in token of submission) LU 9659 ( ZCP iii 212 ). cárna samaisci do indarggain fo thál ┐ béuil, TBFr. § 19 . Often loosely used to denote an inferior position: tobert C. a lue ... co mboí a n-imdorus isin tenlug fó, LU 1483 ( MU² 964 , `the door fell down before him' MU 51 ). suidid fo glún Conchobair (i.e. at C.'s feet ?) LU 5206 . ro slecht fo chossaib Mártain at M.'s feet RC ii 400.16 . PH 1335 . tarrustar ... fo chossa G., 1372 . fo chosaib Gamaliél ... ro alt [Pól], 1649 . co mbí fo chrund bethad, LU 1356 . bud iomdha ... mairbh fa ríoghnaibh roisgḟliucha `many will be the wet-eyed queens over their dead' TD 16.71 . do-chuaidh Ionas ... fá chrann, TSh. 2477 . an tan bhíos ... fá láimh chlí Dé on God's left hand 9891 . angcaire ... do léigean fúthaibh, 2374 . fo choimm: see 1 coim. fo chomair: see comair.

(b) of direction towards, into, through: a naslui grién foa fuined `when the sun goes away to its setting' BCr. 33b18 . doluid fon caillid (= ad silvam) Lat. Lives 85 ( dochuaid isin caill, Hy v 61 Comm. ). gur ling an t-each uaidh fán gcoill, TSh. 1001 . ralotar fón fid, CRR 37 . nach tan nosbert eolchaire fo rian roglass whenever homesickness brought them on the sea Anecd. i 69.1 . amair raga sa ... asan curach fo thir RC xiv 60.24 . docuaidh ... roime fon tír, ZCP vi 51.9 . dochuiremar an long fo tír isin oilén, BNnÉ 49.35 . tunda fina do cur fo tir cast on shore Ann. Conn. 1310 § 10 . dús in táir cobair Ulad foo, LU 5620 . buailis fá lár a chorp to the ground TSh. 5586 . ro léig fo lár a ḟoghuil ... ┐ ro an acumsa `abandoned' Fianaig. 76.8 . Cf. roínfid fuil féne fo don, LU 6615 . teiched ... fo fhoithrib, Marco P. 55 . do theich fo sliabh C., CCC 79.1 . ni lamhann drochspirat techt fa tech i mbí, Maund. 15 (c ?). teid fan ceol in the direction of the music ZCP v 501 (cf. II j). tolotatar fon fes came to the feast RC xiii 223.50 . cromait ... fan cath bend to the (i.e. engage in) battle ZCP viii 224 . Cf. cuir aris fao cluasa do chroidhi da eisteacht = ad iterum audiendum aures cordis accommoda Instructio 119.28 . tigid fád lorg = sub tua vestigia TSh. 7867 . Cf. celebrait ... na ocht trath oc molad ... in Coimded co claischétol aircaingel oc tíachtain foí (the birds) sing the hours in praise of the Lord with the quire of the archangels accompanying it LU 2011 ( FA 7 ). do-beir láim fo undertakes, attempts (see lám).

(c) esp. of impact, collision, attack: benaid foo LU 4874 . benaid fona maccu, 4885 . buain fútha meddling with them (?) Ériu v 71.6 . (see benaid, búain). tarlaic urchur fuithib, RC v 199.11 (see do-léci). ac tabairt sádaid do crann a tsleigi fuithe, Acall. 2756 . buailtear an long fá charraig against a rock TSh. 3759 . do-bheir craos-ruathar ... fútha makes a hungry onslaught on them 1164 . téit (imm-soí, etc.) f. turns on, attacks: cobair cethra foa tiagat coin alltai helping cattle attacked by wolves Ériu ii 210.2 . teit [in béist] fo thrédu Gargan ┐ ro marb dímór dib, PH 7227 . amail teit ség fa mindtu, MR 70.16 = FDG 627 . do chu[a]idh fúthu ┐ tríthu, Fianaig. 94.17 . ná deach faoibh fréamh ar ndoibheart ` assail ' Eoghan R. Mhac an Bhaird, Studies 1921, 74 . imsoí foíthib ┐ marbthus íat, LU 6166 . imsói fothu, Metr. Dinds. iii 258.29 . maitti a ndírím fó araill, LU 6667 (`their forces rush at each other' Faraday, Faraday, 96 ). no co roicher (ndeachar v.l.) fo longphort fer nÉ., CCC 94.16 . eirgidh fo palas in rígh `attack' Fier. 131 . amhail choin ... do sgaoilfidhe fá shluaghaibh, TSh. 3122 . ionsoighidh foithib ... amhuil faolcoin fo chaorchaib, Hugh Roe 226.9 (f. 60a) . lingid ... fótha dá n-óirleach, Keat. i 204.31 . co ngreis a choin fona clerchiu, Lism. L. 276 . lecidh in rí na griba futhaibh, Marco P. 91 . lór do chur cháich fa chéile enough to set all at variance TD 6.2 .

(d) throughout, over, gen. of motion: ducuaid inducbal cruche Crist fun domun, Ml. 65c9 . fon domun for cech leth (gl. longe lateque) 53b9 . seinter lat ... cornn ... | co roa a glōir fo secht nime, SR 1368 . teid ... do iarraid a legis fon doman, RC xii 326.22 . ro closs fon ṁbith, Fél. Oct. 15 . dorónad coindmed na filed ... fo Érind, LU 360 . rocluinter ... a nggáir fón firmimint, 2199 . forodalta Conaille fo hÉrinn, ZCP viii 330.29 . roscuir ... a munter ... fon Eoraip sent his people all over Europe PH 267 . rosfuid Dia Michel fo na secht nimib, MacCarthy 68.9 ( LB 112bx ). co clos fona crichaib comfoicsibh, CCath. 1428 . fodlaidh baill an maic ... fo naemaib hErenn distributes the limbs ... amongst the saints BColm. 92.13 . co clos fosnaib tuathaib uili, TBC-LL¹ 1020 . scél scáilter fa chách amongst all CRR 54 . a clú ica irrdercugud fo cech popol, CCath. 333 . do bhrúcht Loch Con fa thír over the land Keat. i p. 162 . In : do himdergadh go mōr fa ghnúis ... na hingine a deep blush came over Ériu v 84.14 , fa replaces imm ; cf. ro himdergad imon ceand, RC xxiv 64 § 26 , and see (f) below. Cf. amal arrograd descad fo bairgin, Wb. 9b13 . laibhín ... faoi leaven mixed with it TSh. 8982 . foillech di menadaich fa bargen, Ériu vii 140.15 (` leg. for,' Ed.).

(e) on: .lll. mac fo chathaírib airgdidib, BDD 105 Y. Cf. faidhit din claraigh uasa mbarcuibh ... ni chuirid pic forro, acht ola ┐ cailc ┐ cnaib do mhingerred tritha, ┐ a cur fuithib (`with this they pay their ships'), Marco P. 145 .

(f) about, around (contamination of IMM , see also II l et seq. below): sciathrach scéith do gabáil fó brágit round his neck CRR 17 . gab craidhi spideoigi ... ┐ cuir fa braigid an ti ... take a robin's heart and hang it round the neck of ..., Rosa Angl. 234.7 . do cuiretar coroin fa chenn, Maund. 16 . craicind ... leoman ba cathbar[r] ma [fo, Eg.] cendaib on their heads TTebe 2672 . slabhra ... fána chom, Keat. ii 6299 (= moa bragit, Rawl. 81a15 . ima b., YBL 127a25 ). do gabh crios fa a colainn, ZCP i 62 § 45 . an bhfuil sróll ... fána chneas?, TSh. 4216 . fá bhrághaid, 7549 . duine fá mbíd an dá ghéibheann úd, 7542 . coróin fána cheann, 40 . fa (um, v.l.) dhruim píasda | filltir slíasda flatha Fáil, IGT, Decl. ex. 1226 . Hence hard by, near (?): ro marbsad lucht dā eathar fan Suca, RC xviii 188.32 (Tig.). Cf. dodechad ... dot chursu fan lind, TBC-LL¹ 3420 = mon lind, TBC-I¹ 2628 , where under is possibly the meaning. maidm ... do tabairt do Ch. fo Beol Atha S. for Conallchaib, Ann. Conn. 1359 § 3 (= oc Áth S., FM).

II Of fig. and abstract relations,

(a) under ; dofucfa ... na mbia fo menmain a chéli cena falsigud o briathraib, LU 2665 . Cf ailithre idan ... ticc co menicc fo menmain, ACL iii 321 § 1 . is messi ... dorat fó menmain Ailella do seircsiu put love of thee into A's heart LU 10779 (= for , Ériu xii 170. 15 ). Especially with words denoting appearance, state, condition, manner, attendant circumstances, classification : dath ... fo chosmailius saphirr like sapphire Ml. 84d4 . dolega ... fo chosmailius dilenn, 62b20 . conrotacht ... a tech ... fó chosmailius na Cráebrúadi, LU 8045 . fon óenchummi in one way Sg. 14b1 . is cuma nóblighthea bai ┐ eillti fon aenchumai cach dia ré linn, Cóir Anm. 26 . dotháet ass fón cumma sin, LU 6496 . fon cruth sa, 3539 ( SCC 29 ). atcessa iat ... fon cruth sin, LU 8770 ( FB 57 ). co n-ebairt fón n-innasa so that he spake thus LU 2317 (cf. sections g, j below). esergi in ciniuda dóennai fon n-innas sa, 2720 . fóa n-innas cetna in the same manner 8240 ( FB 18 ). LU 9095 ( FB 84 ). fon innas cétna, LU 8797 ( FB 60 ). fon n-innus sin, Marco P. 85 . nodslaid fón alt cétna beat him in the same way LU 3288 ( SCC 8 ). secht mbliadnai di fond alt sin in that condition LL 280a23 ( SG 415 ). a mbatar ... fon samail sin thus LU 3301 ( SCC 10 ). dorónad grianán ... fo chomardus imdaí Conchobair as high as LU 8062 ( FB 3 ). fo deilb diabuil in the form of a demon SR 1739 . slabrada ... fo deilb natrach, LU 2174 ( FA 25 ). imad ... lecc lógmar innte fo chuma grene ┐ ésca, LB 138b19 . fo feib, SR 375 . fo clith secretly 1281 . co mbatar blíadain fo chleith, Metr. Dinds. iii 390.79 . fo gné sub specie: fo gné bairgine, PH 5183 . fo bithphianaib, SR 1740 . fo déraib in tears Fél. Ep. 174 . Prol. 24 . sínset fo brón ... cosin crích `pursued their way in ... grief' Metr. Dinds. iii 390.73 . luid C. fo luinni úad in indignation LU 6021 . caland fa scīs a weary body ACL iii 237 § 26 . gan duine fo fhodord dibh `without one of them murmuring' BS 108 § 54 . siu nobeth fo athis rather than be disgraced LU 2932 . bía fónd anim sin thou shalt carry that blemish 6092 . bánbéim na fagaib feith fo saoth .i. fo tinnes, O'D. 826 ( H 3.17, 590 - 1 ). beth fa essanóir, PH 7387 . robúi B. fa anoir, ZCP vi 296.7 . cath ... ó a mbeid Gaoidhil fo mheabhoil, Duan. F. ii 160 . dolluid A. dochum a thíri fó chōri ┐ óentaid fri U., LU 1551 . scarsat ... fo ṡīdh ┐ chaenchomhrac, Marco P. 151. 156 . bheith ag luiṅgseóireacht arthraigh ... fá phioráideacht in piracy TSh. 2165 . bretnas ... cona ecor dé ór fo ṡnīm plaited Anecd. i 61 § 91 (= co mbrephnib óir LU 1809 ). fa áis na maighden `of the age' Maund. 253 . nech ... fu grad epscoip of the rank of a bishop Ériu vii 140.1 . fa marbhdataid ! mortifiyed RSClára 91a . dí laogh fona dathaibh uccat of those colors BNnÉ 10.27 . arrubert bith ann ... fo glēre lesaigt[h]i bíd ┐ cormae, BColm. 84.5 . níl an flaitheas so faoi ghluas acht moving Corp. Astron. 36.15 . eter comslechtaib na cethri sen find fichet fu aen fochanat in unison(?) Rawl. 106b29 (cf. Rev. iv 4 , 10 ). a lan do laechaib ... fa oengnim ┐ oengaisced fris fein equal in exploits ... to himself MR 80.11 = FDG 733 . da mbeth fuath duine ... am chride, ┐ bás d'fhagbail fái-sin cen aithrige were hatred of anyone in my heart, and I died thus, unrepentant PH 7488 (but this may belong to section j, q.v.). Cf. fo réim on a course (?) BDD 50 (sic leg.? Cf. dochuaid int en ... for foluamain fon reim sin, Aen. 1133 ). fo ogi oiffrinn `at completeness of offering' ACC 93 (= LU 994 ).

(b) of grammatical function, in Glosses (a particular application of preceding): is fo huath[ud] ... a n-institutae `institutae' is in the singular Ml. 42b12 . is ainm naimsire hisunt ... ciasu menciu fu dobrethir it is more frequent adverbially 67a4 . is fo infinit dutiagar ... á mmanifestare (the word) `manifestare' is construed as an infinitive 101c6 , 7 . cid fo gním cid fo chésath dotiagar actively ... passively Wb. 6a29 . is fo foxlaid dutiagtar `they are construed ablatively' Ml. 106c3 . fo diultad as a negative Laws iv 68.29 Comm. Corm. Y 407 . ni fú indidit ata `irascemini' sunt ... acht is for imchomarc ata `in affirmation ... in interrogation' Ml. 20b13 . fo neutur in the neuter Sg. 90b 5 , 6 .

(c) of meaning underlying: inni bess fon fogur sin the sense which is under that sound Wb. 12d5 . a folad foṡuidigther fond ṡun `the substance put under the word' Sg. 73b3 . fun trop són (gl. sub hac figure discribitur) Ml. 66a4 . muna cíall shiobhuil bhíos fúthaibh unless they are used with the sense of motion (of certain prepositions) IGT, Introd. § 72 . Cf. ni thuigim an fliuchadh sin, achd munab braiseach ... as mian leis do thuigsin faoí, Rule of Tallaght § 87 . briathar fá n-ab iontuigthe nach cóir, etc. from which we may infer Eochairsg. 9.20 .

(d) under, subject to: fun inuilligud (gl. sub tutione) Ml. 30b23 . fu Moysi under Moses (as ruler) 63b4 . dos-&mdot;béra fo chumachte in maicc, Wb. 13b30 . ni fó ar máam ataid, 9a1 . condumfel fo mám pectho, 3c38 . ni rabatar ... riam fo recht fetarlicce , Wb. 19d11 . bíd Sattan ... fót cumachtu, PH 3937 . biait fót ... airbri imdai archaṅgel, SR 835 . Pilait fua ro chés ar Fíada, Fél. Prol. 86 . ingreim na nIúdaide fó Antoich under (the reign of) A. PH 5499 . níor dúnadh dorus leasa | fa Bhéac `in the reign of B.' TD 32.39 . co mbet Cristaighi fa Idhalaib an uair sin mar attatt Idhail fútha-san aníu, Maund. 237 . úa na rígh ... bhios fo shiol na Saxanach, Duan. F. ii 166.42 . an lā ... dobēra cāch fuibh ┐ sibh os cāch, CCath. 5059 . do ocaib ... biti fo anmchairtes under spiritual direction Mon. Tall. § 71 . slechtais ... fo ogreir Maolruaoin prostrated himself in complete submission to M. (under the absolute will of) § 77 . fo míscaid bretheman brátha, LU 2289 ( FA 34 ). fo chis do Magnus fil si under tribute to M. Marco P. 3 . fo mhamus M. fuil si subject to M. 4 . na ... righ fil fo mamus Naim, 54 . cuiris M. faa smacht he, 99 . dorad iathu E. ... fo smacht flaithiusa Muman, RC xxiv 186.7 . gur chuir faoi forgla an domhain subdued TD 13.40 . na daine éadtroma ... do chonnmhail fa shilens an chlaustra = in claustro sub disciplina Instructio 201.17 . co fuilitt fa plánét Ṡáduirnn under (the rule of) Saturn Maund. 141 . ar mbeith dhuit fá leigheas = sub medicamento TSh. 8190 . mairg atá fá theas na teineadh, 6416 (cit.). ré mbeith don phobal I. fá éagcomhlann, 6103 .

Téit fo submits to, undergoes; assumes: in tan diagmani fo baithis. Wb. 3a15 . tect fo smachtu rechto, 19d11 . intí téte fo recht n-imdibi, 20a12 . dochóid Ísu fo reacht n-imdibe, PH 5652 . in tan teit oen ... fo gradaib in choimded takes holy orders 7157 . mane tē fó láim n-epscoip iar mbathus unless he is confirmed Ériu i 218.24 (see lám). fo-ácaib fo leaves at the discretion (mercy) of: do fágadh in faidhchi folum faī, ZCP vi 31.2 . forḟacaib [in mac] isinn inadsin fo na hethaidib left ... there exposed to the birds RC xxiv 190 § 2 . fágbhaim fá bhreathnughadh gach aonduine, cia is córa ... ?, TSh. 5002 (see fácbáil, fo-ácaib). fag gach aindligheadh ... fa dheithidi ... in bhreitheamhan, Instructio 200.22 . lectir fu mes nDe it is left to God's judgment Ériu vii 158.35 .

(e) under (a name, head, rubric, etc.): fond oinfailsigud (gl. sub eodem ... argumento) Ml. 36b16 . arroét Iosep ... Muire ... fo anmum chomaime under the name of wife PH 6917 . gab fon aithne-si gach lá saire include under this commandment 7372 . atā cech uli ... fon aithne-si every ... is included under this commandment 7542 . atā bán aithne-si ... cech ní 7609 . ní háirmighther Éire ... fan clíma ard Ireland is not counted as belonging to Maund. 157 . fo [o]en aicciund adfiadar `it [a compound] is pronounced under a single accent' Sg. 74b8 . Cf. dosbert fobairt bidbad fó bidbadaib foraib, LU 6498 (`the attack of an enemy among enemies' Faraday, Faraday 92 ). Here seem to belong: ba fou fachart[at]arsom, Ml. 64a10 . is fáei iarom latharsat légnide na mBretan innísin (introducing an explanation), Thr. Ir. Gl. 9 (Cormac s.v. cruimther. Y has instead: is fair iarom rolaset).

(f) under = less than; inferior to: faoi áois iomchubhaidh `before sufficient age' RSClára 6a . an t-aonmhadh lá déag ... faoi nó ós a chionn the eleventh day or thereabouts Corp. Astron. 4.12 . gion go raibhe créatúir san gcruinne fá aingeal budh uaisle, TSh. 1100 . ba hē amāin faoi Dia dusratt in Edāill ... fo chuing chreidmhe, Fl. Earls 100.14 . faoí Dia acht in guibernoir ni himda persa ... is fessach 70.30 .

(g) according to, in accordance with , an extension of (d) and (e) above; in Glosses gen. in combination with vbs. GAIBID and DO-BEIR: fon cheill fuandrogab in faith in the sense in which the prophet has uttered it Ml. 38c3 . cid fosodi[n] nogabad D. .i. foní fuantuic P., 35a9 . is fosodin rogabad 35b10 . bed foú nogabtis ... foní fuatabarr ib. 16 , 18 . as sain ind fiugor fuandrogab in faith ┐ ind rún fuantaibret in suuischelaichthi, 45a3 . is fo dobertar inna anman fonna inni fordi[n]grat names are given in accordance with the qualities they signify 37a14 . fo sin in that case, in accordance with that Ml. 42c24 , 46c14 , Sg. 106a5 . is foa ... dothét cech pennain ... fo meit an pectha every penance is determined by the magnitude of the sin RC xv 487y . pennith fon cinaid, Ériu vii 158.2 . gu cumaid a ndeghghnima fon n-etargna sin, Lism. L. 4612 . do suidhigedh na sluaig fo med i [ = a] n-uaisli, Fianaig. 56.1 . mani fochlither a bruth ... fóa réir fodein unless his ardor be attended to according to his own pleasure LU 8622 ( FB 46 ). direnar leithdire ... fo suire cacha feda according to the rank of each tree Laws iv 168.21 . dīre cāich fo miad `according to his dignity' i 40.13 . fothud ... do cechtar da lina fo miad, ii 378.5 . daithin na dáime fana miad ┐ fana ngrad, FDG 409 = MR 50z . doronsat iomarbaigh ... fa ccumang according to their ability Leb. Gab.(i) i 248.25 . fam dhícheall to the best of my power A. Ó Dálaigh x 2 . fá a ngníomrad mestar mic rígh, O'Gr. Cat. 358.5 . fuaratar fona mian í itir tess ┐ fhuacht as they liked it BCC p. 396.23 . Cf. in lucht dara betha a colann fo na míanaib do frestal, PH 7463 . rotheichset fo nertaib bāgh by dint of courage (?) RC x 54. 2 v.l. ( ICM xxi ). Here, perhaps: to-tēt meas fo aimseara, BDD 28 Y (fó U), expl. by: téid an breitheamhnas ris an aimsir, O'Cl. s.v. meas (8) .

(h) like, corresponding to (extension of preceding. Cf. fo bēsad fir trebuir `after the manner of a prudent man' Wb. 29d23 . fo béesad fir téte do chath, 9a3 ): ni thainicc riam tegluch fóo ┐ nicon riccfo co brath, IT iii 238.111 . orguin fón orguin dorat dún, BDD 48 (.i. mar an argain, Stowe; lit. in proportion to i.e. in requital of (?)cf. (q)). robad orgain fo araile in sin, 66 U (fon aile Y. ba argain már a chéle hí, Stowe). ni fail mac rig ... fo Ceallach, AU 894 (poem). ni taircell Eriu ... fer fo Mael ... Muru, 886 (= mar AFM 884 ). flaith fial fo rig nAilbine as generous as AFM 845 . fo Choin Culaind comchosmail, LU 8454 ( FB 30 = for, Eg.; fri, Voss.). teaghlach fo theaglach an ḟir ni fil, AFM 890 = AU 894 . fón bfleadhughadh út doronabair abhus forbia mu fhleadhssa tall daibh like the feasting you have enjoyed here Marco P. 12 .

(i) with numerals as multiplicative (an early use, perhaps orig. implying motion, ZCP viii 33 - 34 ): fo dí twice Wb. 24b22 . Ml. 46a21 . a úaig dil fo dí doubly dear LU 9977 ( PRIA iii 538 ). dammidethar fá dí, LU 9132 ( FB 88 ). a óen fo deich ten times one BCr. 31c5 . fo thrí, Wb. 17d4 . rogabsat ... forro fo thrí in n-insi, LU 221 . blegon inna mbo fo thri Hy v 32 . dorónsat fa thrí, LU 193 . fo aen a mbliadain once a year Laws iv 350.19 Comm. Cluain maic N. do argain fo thri ... fecht o Sil nA. ┐ fo dó hó Callraidhi, RC xvii 390.25 . AU 1050 . resíu goires in coilech fa dó, PH 3196 . a sé fo chethair four times six LL 181b28 ( Arch. Hib. ii 48 ). a chairdis Crist fó secht his seven-times gossip RC xviii 14.19 . With compar.: aidbliu fo míle, LU 2003 . soillsi fo secht oltas grian, FA 10 LB (= soillsithir ... andá LU 2029 ). mó fá dheich ten times more IGT, Decl. ex. 1027 . With co (later also co ba, co ma): confitebimur du ebert cu fudi twice Ml. 94a2 . co fo ṡecht, LL 209b46 ( Ériu vii 220 ). ro loisc Life co ba ṡecht, ACL iii 304 § 4 . tri cēd ... co ma thri thrice three hundred Fen. 354 . mo bhennacht gomá secht go Breifneachaibh, BNnÉ 267.7 . gid scriptuir bes go ma secht | in cech cill, Anecd. ii 38.1 .

(j) at, by (of occasion, conjuncture, etc. on or at which something happens, orig. perhaps an extension of (d) above): is fo forṅgartaid tra fosin dutiagar á manifestare ... is fo infinit dutiagar fu[n] dul so the (word) `manifestare' is construed as an imperative in that case [ = under that interpretation] ... as an infinitive in this case Ml. 101c6 - 7 . dochuamar i nEigeipt fo chuiriud Foraind at Pharaoh's invitation Ériu iv 140.21 . ar a gabail fo lige fo eirge for singing it at lying down and rising Lib. Hymn. i 46.17 ; 5.30 . lá lodmar fo gairm in ríg at the king's call LL 206b4 ( RC vii 290.6 ). tiucfa se fa guth an cluic at the sound of the bell BCC § 220 . is fad thúarasgbhailsi tanag (= on hearing of thy fame) Ériu v 98.31 . tancadar fir Erenn fo thasc in rig (i.e. on the report of the king's death), Dinds. 136 . in duine ticced fón n-égem, LU 1908 . egis in gilla. doroich Loegaire fua, LU 8525 ( FB 38 ). eighthi in muccid, co tanic tuath in da Maine fae, BDD 20 . Cf. ro héged immumsa ... tanacaisiu fon égim, ScM. 11 . fo sodain, fo sin usually means by that time but occasionally at (with) that: íachtais in gilla—tic C. fo sodain, LU 8537 , LU 8546 ( FB 39 , 40 ). ro scáich noínnin Ulad fo sodain by that time LU 5899 . dolluid E. immach fo sodain, 8242 . tic F. fó sodain, 5645 . dochuadar amach fái sin, RC xxiii 424.11 . tainic dereadh in lai fae sin, CCath. 2416 . rucsad forro fai sin, Ann. Conn. 1270 § 7 . dorochair D. fóisede by that time RC xvi 280.16 ( Dinds. 161 ).

(k) during: fiu and fo domnach `rested there throughout Sunday' Trip. 156.19 ( fó d., Trip.² 1825 ). Trip. 182.21 ( Trip.² 2143 ). fiusam fo domnach ann, Trip. 174.7 ( Trip.² 2025 ).

(l) Of approximate time of an occurrence, at, about (cf. imm): fó athgin [taite v.l.] in erruigh ar chinn by the return of spring CCath. 169 . C. do ēcc ... fo fel Lurint, Ann. Conn. 1243 § 8 (cf. F. ... d'ecc im feil Martain ib. § 7 ). sluagad ... la maccaib rig C. ... fo fel Muri, 1249 § 9 . fo fel cros doronadh ALC ii 116 = Ann. Conn. 1405 § 15 . fá'n Nodloig-si, Ériu v 54.9 . na hanmunna tecuit fo dhomhnach a hifern on Sundays RC xiv 48.19 . an tan fa ticfa, Fianaig. 74.9 . dochuaidh ... fo ṡamhain ar cciontt hi ccenn Gall `went to the English the ensuing Allhallowtide' AFM v 1622.6 . ón am far scríobh Caesarius , Keat. i p. 48.14 . ón tráth fá dtánaig tar muir, TD 2.58 . an uair fa dtigthí ar Ibh Táil whenever ... were mentioned 3.48 . fá aimsir chinnte by a certain time TSh. p. 160 . ón tráth fár dhearbh lais as soon as he was certain 2800 . Of space: ro ḟorcongair forra celcc do inneall fá mhile do Ṡlicceach `within a mile of Sligo' AFM vi 1978.3 (see f above). Similarly in expressions like: fo dered, fo deod, fo dechtsa, etc. (see 1 deired, dead, fecht): go fuighedh bās fa cend tri la within three days BCC § 257 . muna bfacchadh fios ... faoi chenn bliaghna, Ériu iv 51.18 . Cf. first cit. under (f), above.

N.B.—In most of the exx. in the follg. sections FO (FA, FÁ etc.) replaces imm.

(m) after words denoting cause or reason, in rel. construction with vb.; cia hádbar fa filet oc iarraid ... ? why are they seeking ... ? PH 2761 . cid imár adair Ísu, ┐ cid fa tuc anoir do ?, 2611 . adbar bá ṅdlegar a sechna, 7435 . issé adhbur fa ndernatar ..., Maund. 10 . is dona hadhbharuibh as mó fár chuir Ronán one of the chief reasons for which R. put Ériu v 74.17 . is é fath fa tangamar, ZCP vi 50z . crét fá tancabar ?, PH 2924 . crét an fáth fa ndentar sin ? RC xxix 124.12 . ni ḟuarais maith ... far mholta dhuit ... iad for which they should be praised by thee ZCP viii 219 § 10 . an dara hadhbhar fár fhuiling Dia ... another reason why God allowed ... TSh. 3513 . an treas fáth fár thuit Ádhamh 3527 . With cop.: is é fáth fána doilghe this is the reason why 1132 . ciodh fár chóra ... ?, Keat. ii 936 .

(n) in respect of, as regards: is iad so mogha fíre Fergusa fo neart ┐ fo ghniomhradh, Ériu viii 136.16 . i gcuibhreann na mbó fán bhféar `feeding on grass with cattle' TSh. 3464 . fear mar Ghuaire fá dhúais d'ógaibh, Keat. Poems 211 . Esp. after adj.: réidh fá mhaoin lavish of 526 . brugh fa fial fá bhiadhaibh, 861 . líonmhar ... fá dhaoinibh populous Keat. ii 937 . as bhuaine fa bhuanfholuibh, 23 F 16, 195 (`in respect of long-enduring kindreds' O'Gr. Cat. 399 ). In asyntactical constr.: fan seanchas chuirim chugaibh, congbhaidh é `as to the facts I bring forward' Content. xxi 6 . About, concerning: bá thómos a thigi thancabair `about the measure of his house' (Hennessy) MU² 855 ( LL 268b17 ). iar saruccadh Ruadain do Diarmait fa Aedh nG. after D. had insulted R. in the matter of A. BNnÉ 88.18 . cogadh ... fa chrích ... bhFáil fógrais É., TD 18.25 . damsa ceart ... | fon gcloidheamsin `grant justice ... about that sword' Duan. F. ii 132 § 28 . an bhreath ... rug Solamh ... fán gcloinn, TD 2.48 . mun ní fá dtairge a theagosg in anything in which thou attemptest to instruct him 15.51 . mór d'ulc ... do-righneadh fa (um v.l.) cheann an chnuic, 4.1 (see 1 cenn). síodh fan gcrann peace (i.e. forgiveness) for the spear Dán Dé iv 9 . súil Gaoidheal ruibh fad ríoghadh TD 10.31 . go dtug sé ... tuarastal do thaoiseach ... fá thoidheacht a reward for coming TSh. 259 . Esp. after words denoting mental action or emotion: cen chuimni fon ēc without thought of death ACL iii 239.16 . eagla ... fá thuitim, TSh. 3520 . fonn ... fá bhás d'fhagháil, 6059 . débhóision ... fána naomhaibh ┐ fa thaisibh na naomh, Ó Héodhusa 144x . amharus ... fa ḟiadh gConnacht doubt about TD 21.42 . budh ainfesach clēirigh fana fēiltiph fīre, ZCP x 50.14 . ní baránta inchreidthe é fa righ Lochlann do bheith, etc., it is not a credible guarantee that ... Keat. i p. 46 . After a number of vbs. (most of which are also used with IMM), e.g. of entreating, commanding, permitting, refusing, promising, preventing, of object of entreaty, etc.: roguid in coimdid bá indechad forsin errig, PH 792 . guidhim sibhsi fa guidhe ar mo shon fa mo leiccen mar so I entreat you to pray for me that I may be left as I am BNnÉ 67.6 . guidhes Dia ... fan documal sin do fortacht, RC xii 332.21 . do ghuidhsiod ... Dia fá gan eisean do mharthain that he might not live Keat. iii 2138 . impidhe do chur ar an rígh fá shaordháil do thabhairt dó, TSh. 4496 . tucc C. aonta fa theacht agreed to come Anecd. iii 2.17 . cead do thabhairt do L. fa chúanairt forba ... d'ḟaghail to allow L. to obtain Ériu v 78.28 . glend nach érthar nech fa coinnmedh where no one is refused entertainment BNnÉ 131.15 . díol farbh' éartha gach aoighe a payment which should be denied every guest TD 10.14 . is e Colum Cille bai 'na slanaigecht fona techt ... doridisi C. was security for his return RC xxiv 62 § 23 . muna dtugadh móid don rígh fá bheith díleas dhó, Keat. ii 5220 . rothairmisc tra in scel sin fa Polinices dul prevented P. from going TTebe 2767 (= imm, see do-airmesca). Of mocking: oc fanamut fa Ísu, PH 2864 (= imm). do fhochuitbiud fói (= immi) 3328 . dorindetar móran fonamhaitt fói, Maund. 15 . ag gāire fan ḟéin laughing at the fian CF 723 . occ gáiribh futha, BNnÉ 76.35 . ag fochuidmheadh fana seanchadhaibh, Keat. i 50.2 . Cf. focherdat in macrad gāir foa, LU 8849 . On account of: dobermáit glóir do Dia fá éistecht riut, Ériu ii 146 § 165 = RC xxiv 384.23 . éirghe amach i n-aghaidh a dtighearna fa n-a chíos féin d'iarraidh orra, Maguires of F. § 25 . Here perhaps: t'enech d'ácbáil fo bíad, LU 4353 . Of purpose, aim: trosccadh ... do dhenamh frisin cCoimdedh fa shoirbheachadh doibh that they might prosper BNnÉ 51x . créd do dhénmais fa dhul tar an sruth what we should do to cross the stream 49 . a llāma sínti fon dhiubhracad extended for shooting CCath. 5564 .

(o) along with, including (= imm): tucad ár forro fa mac Maic U. ┐ im A. Hua M. including the son of Mac U. and A. RC xviii 189.12 (Tig.). tucc coecait each fa ech ngorm, ZCP viii 221.5 . do loisgedh céad ech ... fa eachuibh an airdríogha, Ériu i 24.134 . tucadur i raibe do braighdibh ann leó, fa mac [U]i R. all the hostages including the son of Ua R. AU ii 488.5 . tuccadur a mbai do braigdib ... leo fo mac .h. R., Ann. Conn. 1348 § 6 . cuit do galloclaechaib .h. C. do marbad doib fan Constapla .i. fa Mac R., 1342 § 3 . ... dar marbad seser mac rig fo Chorbmac .h. nE., 1365 § 4 .

(p) after vbs. of swearing, asseverating, etc. of that by which oath, etc., is made (cf. 1 tar, dar BV); perhaps an extension of (d) above. tongu-sa fom [bam, tar, dar v.l.] chumachta, Ériu ii 196.18 . nech dothoing ethech fo cetharlebrai soscelai vii 156.20 . luigimsea bam arm, v 72.11 . ind lec ... cech oen dogní luga ṅ-eithig foithi who swears falsely by it Trip. 8.10 ( Trip.² 87 ). in luige thuccad fó ainmm Dia, PH 7636 . luige ... ba chnedaib Crist by the wounds of Christ 7324 . tug ... a minna fon aendia, ZCP vi 34.17 . dobheirim briathar ... fam chloidhemh, Ériu i 26.146 . doberimsi fam bréithir gomadh ..., ZCP x 277.34 . dobiur-sa fám gaisced ... nach FDG 287 . gúidim tú fon Día da creididh ┐ fat faistedh I adjure thee by Fier. 40 .

(q) in distributive sense with numbers (perhaps orig. in return for, cf. section h): dobheredh P. tri bhuille fan aónbhuille dhó would give three blows for every one he got Ériu v 182.334 . da bheim ... fo gach aoínbhéim, Duan. F. i 69.29 . biaidh an ghealach comhartha ar a haghaidh fo gach deich dá mbia san uimhir sin the moon will be advanced one sign for each tenth of that number Corp. Astron. 108z .

III Various idioms.

(a)

(1) ATÁ ... FÚM I intend: ... ní fhuil | fúm acht inneal ar olcaibh I aim at nought but sin A. Ó Dálaigh xxxix 13 . más faoisidin bliadhna atá fúd do dénomh, Mac Aingil 151.13 . ris in drochrūn doui fuí, Ériu v 98.8 . do bhríogh nach raibhe faoi an ceathramhadh ... do leigheas because He did not intend TSh. 1524 . Cf. do bhí a bhara faoi fēin díoghaltas do dhéanamh he intended, purposed 6085 (see 2 bara). an t-ógan agá mbí drochfhuadar faoi who is bent on evil 5316 .

(2) ATÁ FO is liable for (?) in tan is innlaeg berar in bo amach is hegen beith fuithe no co mbere laeg isin aige rogellad, O'Curry 653 ; 1100 (< H 3.18, 316 ; 446 ) = masa indlaeg ... is egean beith fuithe, O'Curry 689 (< H 3.18, 334 ). Cf. madh fo rāith dara ... beither, O'Curry 1100 . in inbaidh ... bīthar fo rāith a hinnlaoghais ib.

DO-ICC FO

(1) impugns: tecor fo coruib na druingi seo the contracts of the group are impugned Laws v 184.23 (see do-icc).

(2) is decided upon by: tainic fái a mhainistir ... d'fagbail he decided to leave ( RC xxv 396.31 . tainig fothaib a denam, Fen. 348z .

DO-TÉT FO: ní taīt Dia fo t[h]airngere conid-chumscaiged `God does not come under a promise that He should alter it' Ml. 109a5 . CUIRID ... FO (NECH) incites: an pecadh sin ... do cur faoi to incite him to that sin BCC § 223 . an merughadh sin do cuir an diabul fúd ib. CUIRIM FUM I settle down: iar gcur fúm i gclúidh, Ó Bruad. ii 248 . DO-BEIR ... FO ...: daringni da nathraig ... eittecha ┐ dorat foluamain fóthib for ammus lasoin made two serpents ... winged, and sent them fluttering towards Jason LL 222a23 ( TTr. 363 ). Cf. scarsit fóu ┐ L. `they parted from (?) him and L.' Trip. 130.6 ( Trip.² 1492 ).

(b) the form with 3 s. pron. suff. fó, foí (fáoi) occurs as adv. in some expressions: cid fó cid for ... bem[m]e whether we be beneath or above Snedg. u. Mac R § 7 ( YBL 12a10 ). ó tét grian fáe when the sun sets Maund. 246 . iar ndol don ghréin fáoi `after the setting of the sun' RSClára 15a . tré dhul fé do ghréin a bheatha, Ó Bruad. ii 242 . coirt darach do berbadh ... go ndeach a trian faoi till it is reduced (in bulk) by a third 23 K 42, 332.10 . amail dogentais in mbeirt | co mbad foe Hériu ardneirt Ireland should be subject (to them) Ériu iv 110.2 . mór míad dorad damsa in rí, | dom ríar dorad fiadha faoi he subjugated lands (?) ACL iii 304.22 . Here perhaps : ro thairc ferand fō (: gó), LL 147a35 (`that has won good land' PRIA iii 551 ). cath slebe Fúait ria Fergal dosfanair fói, Arch. Hib. ii 60 § 25 = LL 182bz . Cf. foí.

(c) fá mar as (of manner) : fá mar adeir an file, TSh. 2837 . fá mar dho níd na cearrbhaig ... go meinic, Ó Héodhusa 156 . Later also fé mar. See immar. See now Celtica ix 126 .

IV Fo enters into a number of stereotyped advbl. phrases, each of which will be found under the second constituent : see bíth (-in), commar, dáig(-in), deó(i)d, dered, leth, 1 sech, tharsna.

V Fo- enters into composition

(a) with vbs. as preverb, see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 295 , Thurn. Hdb. § 829 , Sjoestedt-Jonval, Études Celt. iii 219 ff . In some Middle-Irish MSS it is wrongly substituted for other preverbs, see Ériu xiv 129 ff .

(b) with nouns and adjs. as prefix generally either with diminutive sense (with adj. = rather, somewhat , (e.g. fogel), q.v. or that of subordination. Sometimes defining position (e.g. fochóel, q.v.). Hence fo .i. bec nó derōil, O'Dav. 981 .

ro-saig

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ro-saig or dil.ie/35557
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: rosaig, roig, róig, róich, rosagat, rosegat, roichet, roiched, rosaiged, roched, roichtis, rososs, ros, rús, rūs, rosaís, ró-d-sá, rosso, rosá, roa, ró, riae, rrossid, rrosset, roiset, riasat, conroissinn, rosasad, rosassad, rosaissed, rossed, roisedh, nachas-rostís, rosius, rius, rís, roseis, róis, rosía, rosiass, rría, ró, rosesium, rosesaid-si, rasesset, roisset, roseisead, rosessed, nis-roissed, rosiacht, rosiach, roächt, rocht, riacht, rosíachtatar, ruactar, rosegar, rosechar, roagar, rostir, roṡochta, rochtain, riachtain, rosoichi-siu, rosoich, roisiur, roiser, roa, ria, ria, ria, roa, rua, rua, rúa-sa, rosiacht, riacht, rofuacht, ruacht, ruachtus, rochtus, roachtas

v enclitic stem roich-, s-subj. and fut., t-pret. pres. 3 s. rosaig, BCr. 32c1 . ni roig , 33b9 , cf. Ml. 39c7 . nad róig , SR 512 . ce róich , Sg. 26a11 . 3 pl. rosagat, LU 2150 , 8866 ( FA 22 , FB 66 ). rosegat, LU 7739 ( BDD 130 ). nad roichet , 8149 ( FB 11 ). imp. 3 s. roiched, TBC-LL¹ 533 . impf. 3 s. rosaiged, LL 248b52 ( TBFr. 82 ). conna roched , LU 3261 ( SCC 5 ). 3 pl. conna roichtis , Hy. i Pref. ( Thes. ii 298.9 ). subj. pr. 1 s. rososs, Anecd. i 74.9 . co ros , SR 1271 . da rús , Acall. 5171 . dá rūs , Irish Texts ii 71.2 . 2 s. rosaís, BCr. 41a2 . 3 s. ró-d-sá, LU 4841 (= ra-d-sia, TBC-I¹ 351 , really a fut.). rosso, SR 6123 . rosá, Ériu vii 154.31 . co roa , SR 1368 , cf. 6371 , 8108 , Laws iv 336.14 , PH 1694 . cu ró , PH 6798 . co riae , SR 1600 . 2 pl. co rrossid , TBC-LL¹ 1486 . 3 pl. co rrosset , 1155 . co roiset , SR 4281 . ni riasat , ZCP x 347.12 . subj. impf. 1 s. conroissinn, Wb. 26d17 . 3 s. rosasad, LU 4844 ( TBC-I¹ 354 ). rosassad, LU 9184 ( FB 91 ). rosaissed, LL 250a46 (TBFr.). raṡossed; na rossed , TBC-LL¹ 6076 (na roisedh v.l.). 3 pl. nachas-rostís, LL 238a16 . fut. 1 s. rosius, LL 193b36 ( Metr. Dinds. iv 330.19 , used for subj.). cf. nit rius , LU 10906 = nít rís , Ériu xii 184 . 2 s. roseis, Lism. L. 2067 . ni róis , Thes. ii 290.13 ( Sg. 229 ). 3 s. rosía, LU 7243 ( BDD 90 ). rosiass (rel.), ACL iii 326.22 . co rría , LU 9978 . ni ró , LL 108a42 ( RC xiv 404.16 ). 1 pl. rosesium, PH 8070 . 2 pl. rosesaid-si, LU 1850 ( RC ix 494 ). 3 pl. rasesset, TBC-LL¹ 4982 (perh. subj.). ní roisset , Ml. 74a11 . Cond. 3 s. roseisead, Laws ii 370 z . rosessed, ZCP iii 249.20 (Toch. Em.). raseised, TBC-LL¹ 850 . nis-roissed, Ml. 39c34 . pret. 3 s. rosiacht, Ml. 55d2 . SR 2099 , 2528 . rosiach (metri gratiá), 5673 . co roächt , 6446 , cf. LU 3756 . co rocht , SR 3106 , 5872 , 6043 . co riacht ( monos.), 2760 , 6408 , LU 8402 (scribe H). 3 pl. rosíachtatar, LU 8570 ( FB 43 ). SR 4033 . co roachtatar, Hy. iv Pref. ( Thes. ii 323.8 ). co ruactar , SR 3540 . Pass. pres. s. rosegar, Ml. 14c19 . rosechar, Hib. Min. 11.352 . roagar (= roṡagar), ZCP iii 453. 14 . subj. pr. s. mani rostir , Mon. Tall. 27 . ? pret. pl. roṡochta, SR 2135 . Vn. rochtain, later also riachtain.

Mid. Ir. development:

(a) in pres. and impf. indic. the stem rosoich- (due to influence of encl. roich-) occurs: 2 s. pr. rosoichi-siu, LU 8149 . 3 s. rosoich, 10034 . SR 435 .

(b) in subj. the stem rois- is generally used (somet. with depon. endings in 1 and 2 s., roisiur, roiser). The orig. prot. form for subj. and fut. 3 s. was roa; later fut. ria (influence of rosia), and then ria becomes the common form for both.

(c) in future, the 3 s. ria continues in use in early Mod.Ir. poetry. The forms roa, rua also survive as fut.: ni rua , Irish Texts i 58 y . 1 s. ni rúa-sa , BNnÉ 295.6 .

(d) in pret. the 3 s. forms rosiacht, riacht continue in use throughout the Mid.Ir. period, supplemented by other analogical forms: cf. reacht .i. riacht .i. táinicc, O'Cl. rofuacht, Metr. Dinds. iii 122.24 . co ruacht , 172.79 . BNnÉ 294.11 . 1 s. ruachtus, MacCongl. 87.27 . co rochtus , Ériu iv 140.15 . pass. pret. roachtas, Ériu iii 136.14 .

The encl. stem roich- (in late MSS. oft. written roith-) is commonly used as a simple vb. in late Mid.Ir., with s-pret. formed from the stems ruacht-, rocht-, riacht-. See 2 reich.

In general sense reaches, comes to, arrives , intrans. and trans.

I Intrans.

(a) in lit. sense: rosiacht corrici nem a trocaire his mercy reached to heaven , Ml. 55d2 . noco ría nech dib ... | co crich Cannan none of them shall reach Caanan , SR 4729 . do thig in ríg acht co rua provided he reaches the king's house , Ériu vii 222.12 . muinter Íaa . . . rosiaa doc[h]um nime, ZCP xii 394.25 . rososim-ne i n-oenló co hEgipt, LB 142a34 . o thiass for cel rososs for nem when I die, may I go to heaven , Anecd. i 74 § 222 . dia seichmis . . . do dhān | roseismis slān co Dīa, ZCP vi 266 § 8 . rosiachtattar slán . . . co Luimnech, Cog. 38.16 . go ruachtattar for rēidh an ruaidh slēibhe, AFM vi 1916.4 . éisdeacht . . . re glór nach ró a fhios go grian `to listen to anything of which he has no deep knowledge', Content. xviii 91 . In impers. constr.: in tan rosiacht cusna dála dédenchu do when he reached his last moments , PH 6602 . pass. impers. innus nach roither [= roichther] chuicci acht d'oén-leth, Maund. 70 . in tan rosoichter ar mullach in tṡleibhe, CCath. 1213 . acht co roistir isin chath, CF 762 . Absol. arrives : ba dorcha . . . an tan rosīachtadur, BColm. 54.19 .

In sense extends . with advl. acc. (of space or time): an rosiacht a radarc, RC xxv 30.10 . issi in faithchi techta . . . ni rosaig guth cluicc as far as the sound of a bell is heard , Laws iv 194.2 . an rosaig bo . . . for ingilt, rosaigh in bech oc tecclamad a thoraid (= the bee takes the same time to gather its produce as the cow takes for grazing), 164.8 . The limit may be expressed by a clause: rossaig meit ┐ binde a ngotha conad airde gothuib, Ériu ii 130 z . Impers. folld. by DE: rosaig do meit in derchainte . . . connā cumcat ainm De do labra so great is the despair , 134 § 111 , cf. § 112 - § 16 , and p. 120 § 58 . Cf. the similar constr. atá de.

(b) rosaig . . . dom comes (falls) to me (as a share, due, turn, duty, etc.): semonn a ngai ┐ dornclai a cloidim . . . rusia limsai doip `I will supply them with rivets', RC xii 88 § 101 . rosoith . . . dā bā dēc don subdeochain the subdeacon gets twelve cows (as his eneclann), ZCP ix 171 § 3 . rosia maine imdha duib fuirri ye shall have abundant treasure (in exchange) for it , Marco P. 18 . acht rosó comand ┐ baithius do anmain chāich provided the soul of each gets communion and baptism , Ériu i 220 § 13 . gach la rosoiched dó ingaire na laegh every day that it fell to him to herd the calves , Lism. L. 1966 . cuirit . . . crannchor etorra . . . cipé dibh dia roisedh dul, BNnÉ 96 § 1 . impers. rosoich iarom co praind ┐ co tomaltus dóib, FB 72 . Cf. in tan rosia agaib co dul asin longphort when ye come to leave the camp , CCath. 5172 .

(c) rosaig lim(m) (folld. by vn.) I succeed (in doing), accomplish: rosiacht leo . . . in col . . . do denam, PH 142 . o rosiacht . . . la Césair gleo[d] cecha les, CCath. 1626 . ro triall . . . a dibrucud ┐ ni riacht les, TTebe 2492 . go roichfeadh leis ríoghacht Chonnacht do bhuain amach dhó, Keat. iii 840 . ro roichedh la hordaibh riagalta . . . a gcūrsa aiffrenn . . . do dēnomh the Regular Orders were able to perform their course of masses , Fl. Earls 56.6 . Cf. gan m'ōid 'na croich dā rīa rium if I persevere in not heeding his cross (?), ACL iii 236 § 11 . Similarly with ó: acht nach roich . . . uaim a bhfaisnéis uile I cannot recount it all , Content. xv 75 . ní riacht úaide tarraing an mhóir-shleighe, ML 88.22 . do rachadh ad'ceann . . . is ní roicfeadh uait imteacht you could not have escaped , Duan. F. ii 182.4 .

(d) comes to an end, is finished : ō rosiact . . . int immon do gabáil, Trip. 384.2 . ruire nad ró `who will not pass away (?)', RC xx 146 x (ACC Introd.). bídh imuigh . . . cu roa in ceileabhrad `till the celebration be over', Lism. L. 1374 . riasiu rosiacht a sílad ro ḟás in buain before the sowing was finished , LB 64a1 ( Three Hom. 68.27 ).

II Trans.

(a) in lit. sense: rosaigi . . . dommain lestair sinks to the bottom of the vessel , Mon. Tall. 74 . tic amach . . . ┐ rosoich in aith, Fél. 12.28 . `In roich . . . bur crich in sliabh thall tair?' . . . `Ni roich' ar siat. `Rosia iar cein', ar P. does your territory reach (extend to) yon mountain? Lism. L. 1832 . rosagat . . . tech nGarmna, FB 66 . nā tabrad a druim fria Ríg | ná ría an tír atāgastar `let him not buy the land which he has dreaded (i.e. Hell)', BColm. 100.20 ( lest he reach the land ?). ní ría a ainim ifern, Trip. 118.2 (fut.). nach clérech nád-airlégfa . . . ní roa a anim nem, Ériu ii 202.13 . nā denaid cathugud . . . no co rosti tachur na Tebi till you reach the fight , TTebe 2576 . Cf. PH 2413 . fada lea Rīg co rūacht nem, ZCP vii 303 y . cu riachtsat adlucud Cangigu till they came to C.'s tomb , Marco P. 118 . go ro riachtsat Sancta M., Fl. Earls 186.28 . co rochtus . . . Inis nG., Ériu iv 140.15 . With obj. pers.: nim-ria olcc no evil shall come to me , KMMisc. 255.8 . no go roissiur mac De, BCC § 373 . no co roisir in Minaduir, ZCP iv 239.33 (2 s.). go roichedh in sacart altora gusin gcloich é (sic leg.) till the altar-priest . . . should overtake him , Fl. Earls 142.26 .

co roa (ró, ria) `till (one) reaches = as far as, up to (cf. co rrici): ferfaid gless snecta fort . . . co roa gluine, Anecd. iii 39.10 . táet . . . co ria medon in maigi, TBC-I¹ 1469 . co rría cend na hērci till the eric-fine is complete , Corm. Y 209 (clithar sēt) = co rí, LB. is dilis uile có ro log cumaile as far as the value of a `cumal' , Laws iv 26.4 . atá an Ethoip sair co ró an fásach mór, Maund. 235 . gidh mór do maith . . . doronuis co ró so up to this (time ), ZCP vi 67.9 . d'ár luaidheamar go ró so, Keat. i 146.17 . Similarly with pres. ind.: ruibér . . . chēimniges . . . go roich Pairis, Fl. Earls 26.29 . go roich deóigh na n-aimser, Duan. F. i 66 z . go reich an orsainn, Ir. Monthly 1919 2.9 . ó a ghlúin go roiche a modharn from his knee to his ankle , Duan. F. ii 4 § 12 .

(b) comes up to, attains (a certain standard): fo bioath [= fó biad] . . . ma rosaigh a broth an rosaig a blas good is the food if its broth is equal to its taste , RC xii 86 § 91 . ni fairgéba-su . . . comlond a áesa ródsá co trían that can equal him as far as a third , LU 4841 = rad-sia, TBC-I¹ 351 . con-roissinn cutrummus friss that I might attain equality with him , Wb. 26d17 . ni rabi di bantroctaib . . . rasessad cutrummus fria saíre, LL 231a36 (TTr.). noco ta[inic] i talmain . . . ni rosossed cosmailius dia blas, Ériu ii 118 § 54 . ní fhuil náemh . . . rosoisedh coimhfherta fri Berach, BNnÉ 35.1 . delbad Fainne, . . . ní roacht rígna ná rí, SCC 34 ( LU 3756 ). ni roacht-side . . . cutrummi frie-si im hordon ┐ im erdarcus, TTr.² 489 .

(c) attains to = gets, acquires : is tre ḟīr flaitheman rosaig cech dān . . . mind suithe, ZCP xi 93 § 24 . coro rosind mo ṡaith for t'acaldaim-siu that I might get my fill of discourse with thee , Mon. Tall. 25 . cen co roosa in ingin, Dinds. 126 ( RC xvi 78 ). is aire na rotcet [= roichet] som acht leth-enecland na filed (of the bards), IT iii 6.5 . ni rabi . . . do rígaib Herend rasossed in chumachta rosiacht Labraid, LL 311b14 . hit dī airig dēsa . . . rosaig cach rí there are two `airig d.' for each king , ZCP v 499 § 5 . is tri chaingnímu rosegar . . . ind hires foirbthe, Ml. 14c19 , cf. Hib. Min. 11.352 .

With vn. as obj. can, is able to, cf. mor sreth séis, | nad róig tuirim no aisneis which cannot be counted (lit. attains not to counting ), SR 512 . ní nad roichet Ulaid uli, rosoichi-siu th'óenur what all the Ulstermen cannot do, thou canst do alone , FB 11 . dús in roised marbad Cáic if he could kill Cacus , TTr.² 45 . mani roistis dígail fair, Ériu iv 26 z . nī roacht neach . . . comacallaim fair, ii 20 z . gort . . . nach roich a robáil a field that cannot be harried , Content. xxv 12 . damhna ríoghradh nocha roich | a ngníomhradh chalma do chleith, Ir. Monthly 1919 398.9 . pass. ni roachuir a chobuir there is no help for him , RC iii 345.4 . nipa rochian . . . co roastar immathigid etronn so that mutual visiting may be possible , Trip. 176.5 . ní roachtas greim fair, Ériu iii 136.14 . ord bertha . . . mani rostir isind dardaoin, dognither día háoine if it cannot be done on Thursday. Mon. Tall. 27 .