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ar-fet

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ar-fet or dil.ie/4109
Last Revised: 2019

v (*ar-fed-)

precedes, takes precedence of: fer midboth . . . im[m]ustoing i ndiad nach aili aridfe(i)t i llugu, Críth G. 42 . airecht fodesin . . . antengtaid ardafeth, ZCP xii 360.11 . fuaidreadh a tig a muireach fadéisin ar do feith co righ .i. atairges é co tech in righ he precedes him, O'D. 641 (H 3.17, 476). ? fer arfeidh solaid fri ais eslind (rhet.), Ériu xii 182 § 12 ( LU 10886 ). ? ar-fedat findeoraid (?fir-, Plummer MS notes) inu fuachtana, O'Curry 2139 ( Eg. 88, 1(2)c ). In follg. exx. seems = feidid, q.v.: ? arfeadhur in dicinn dithma on tatma co raile is brought, is led(?), Laws ii 16.20 .i. athtairgithur, 22 Comm. do tuit athgabail . . . a faithce ar fedur in dicinn dithma, 18.1 (cf. ar fenar innd chun dithma, 124.1 ). See aircestar, aircsither, do-airchestar.

cách

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cách or dil.ie/7529
Last Revised: 2019

pron. the one, each, everyone, all, etc. gen. cáich, later also cáig ( chách, Párl. na mB. 985 , 1038 v.l.). IGT Decl. § 64 . Takes sg. vb., in later lang. either sg. or pl. (see PH 1053 , 1426 , DDána, Aithd. D.). As antecedent of rel. clause often with prec. art. in. Note also: cith anidan ind c.¤ `though all (who bring it) be impure', Mon. Tall. 160.2 . don c[h]ach sin to each of those(?), Laws iv 196.22 Comm. Unstressed form cach (separate entry). See GOI 310 - 11 ; O'Brien, Ir. Hist. Stud. i 351 .

(a) In general sense (the) one, each one, everyone, all, all others, the rest : do Duaid sech c.¤ , Ml. 36c11 . diglae for cach, 37c21 . hua ch.¤ , 56b45 . dibochtai chaich, 61a9 . dulogaid do ch.¤ `ye forgive everyone', 65a10 . it huaisliu c.¤ gl. transcendis, 108d2 . dénum maith fri c.¤ gl. operemur bonum ad omnes, Wb. 20c17 . precept do c.¤ gl. Grecis et Barbaris, sapientibus et insipientibus debitor sum, 1b8 . a n-imdibe adchi c.¤ , 2a2 . doberat maldact in for c.¤ , 2a23 . is dílmain la c.¤ ar n-orcun-ni, 4b23 . is sain dán cáich, 5d5 . nertad ch.¤ `let him encourage everyone', 5d11 . a n-as maith la c.¤ dénad gl. unusquisque, 6b18 . taiccéra c.¤ dará chen fessin gl. unusquisque nostrum, 6b28 . ícce caích tri iriss gl. dies salutis, 15d24 . ni fiad ch.¤ gl. seorsum his . . . , 18d8 . i taig ríg amal . . . i taig cáich, gl. in ceteris omnibus, 23b9 . condid diib ro gab c.¤ deissemrecht gl. omnibus credentibus, 24c14 . nad soiriu cach `is not nobler than anyone (else)', Sg. 161b10 . cáich auuair `every man's in turn', Thes. ii 235.15 . is cāich a hūair a n-āros so, ZCP viii 312.3 . sluind dó ri cāch brēthir, beir dó ri cāch brēthir, xi 80.22 . ma fri cinta caich fadesin gabur athgabail `of the person himself', Laws ii 100.8 . amra! amra! ol c.¤ they all said, TBFr. 290 . lí súla cáich, LU 8319 ( FB 23 ). ropo thír cāich ala n-úair it belonged to others, Hail Brigit 2 . i ndíaid cāich after everyone else, BColm. 94.28 . nach síoth broide cheanglaid c.¤ , DDána 3.9 . mór do ch.¤ do chuaidh, PBocht 5.41 `much of the world', notes. c.¤ `thy foes', Aithd. D. 20.23 . nachar scríobh neach oile do c.¤ `none of the others', Keat. iii 441 . gibē ele do ch.¤ `of the rest', RSClára 134b . ní fiú éin-ní c.¤ = nihil prosunt caetera, TSh. 9402 . fear mar chach an ordinary man, Luc. Fid. 5060 , Dánta Gr. 34.24 . fonn . . . a cc.¤ eile dhá mholadh to be fond of being praised by others, Desid. 765 . arnach dechsad fo cāch inro triallsat `that it might not get about', Grail 3356 . luid L. dano cumma cháich with the rest, Fing. R. 339 . a ccumma chaigh, Hugh Roe² 10.9 .

(b) In sequence cách . . . alaile the one . . . the other, one another, each other : c.¤ fri alaile gl. inuicem, Wb. 1c1 ; 5d15 , 21d12 , 22b9 . is ball c.¤ dialailiu gl. alter altirius, 5d4 . con rochra c.¤ alaile gl. in alterutrum, 6d1 . forcanad c.¤ alaile gl. loquentes uobismet ipsís in salmis, 22c8 . ó ch.¤ dialailiu, Críth G. 9 . cotnerig cach díb diaraili rose up against each other (of three warriors), LU 8993 ( FB 74 ). With céile: natiubrad c.¤ a chéle gl. inuicem, Wb. 9d20 . celebrais c.¤ dia-cheile díb, RC iii 180.5 .

(c) With follg. prep. DI, ó in partitive sense: ní tucai c.¤ dib belrae alaili gl. nulla gens, Ml. 42c7 . cach díb i ndiad alaili gl. ut semen eius continua successione regnaret, 42b5 . c.¤ díob, Mon. Tall. 132.14 . c.¤ úaib contra alium gl. inuicem, Wb. 25a34 . tuitfidh c.¤ uaibh you will all fall, DDána 10.2 . See cach I (d).

(d) With follg. emphasizing word: cach uile, LB 132b11 . re cach etir `with the rest', Cog. 168.13 . do fen . . . ┐ do chach archena, TTebe 1500 .

(e) With follg. rel. clause he (who) (see O'Brien, loc. cit., Bergin, OIPG 208 ) everyone (who), all (who) (the sg. and distributive senses cannot in all cases be distinguished with certainty): aineclann cháich as a aí of the owner (of a mill), Críth G. 240 . bennacht for cach ó tuctha on him who has given it, Vita Br. 27 . bennacht . . . for cach donancamar, Anecd. i 11.19 ( SCano 350 ). ba calma cach isa cend `valorous was he', Ériu v 244.205 . c.¤ thanic and (in cách, v.l.) he who is there, TBC-LL¹ 5290 . In sense of everyone, all : ó ch.¤ nád fil and gl. quicunque sunt fratres, Wb. 24b30 . sech c.¤ fodglein olchene `beyond all others who learn it', Ml. 37b12 . c.¤ rodgab `every one who has sung it', Thes. ii 349.8 (Hy. ii). do-bebae do-beba . . . cāch boī cāch bias, ZCP xi 85 § 37 . mairg c.¤ roda-ortsom, Fél. Prol. 57 .

(f) With preceding article in singular sense: ni thucci in c.¤ rod chluinethar he that hears it, Wb. 12c46 (see OIPG 208 ). in cāch dosfuc do bethu, Thes. ii 316.4 (Hy. ii). menmain (accus.) iond caich dia n-aisnedtar, Mon. Tall. 127.19 . in cach ferus na fuili he who inflicts, BCrólige 58 n.1 . cosin c.¤ no charim. Fél. Ep. 50 . fo bíth . . . in cháich o tudchad, LU 3431 ( SCC 20 ). mo-ngenar do'n chach do-s-gní, PH 8423 . gach cara . . . / loiteas an c.¤ nos carond `who injures his lover', O'Hara 1270 . croidheadha an cháich léghfeas, Desid. 120 . In sense of everyone, all : in c.¤ dobeir . . . frisin c.¤ diatabir `every one' (he who ?), Sg. 188a31 . in c.¤ gl. omnis . . . qui . . . , Ml. 43a1 . ní lat in c.¤ forsa mmitter, Wb. 6b22 everyone ? (perh. he who , Bergin, OIPG 208 ). tri hiris in cháich cretes, 2b11 . for in cach is rig `against every king', Laws iv 52.12 . dígde ind caich rocradis `to beseech pardon of everyone thou hast offended', Mon. Tall. 141.25 . Pl. sense seems intended in: is foirbthe in c.¤ diaro scribad et ni ecen acairigud ref. to omnibus sanctis, Wb. 23a10 . don chach frisambí immalde de aos sruith `in regard to such elderly people as live with him', Mon. Tall. 152.23 . ag díubhrugud in cháich boí annsa tor, Cóir Anm. 146 . So also: robtar foiltigh remibh an c.¤ baoi fora ccind, Hugh Roe² 50.9 .

(g) In phr. ar ch.¤ , a ch.¤ , sa ch.¤ in general, on the whole : truagh sa ch.¤ an comhorrtha `what a sad portent', O'Hara 1588 . ? aonrāith a gc.¤ do choigleas, Butler Poems 930 `of all dwellings the one I have chosen', Gloss. Usually with comparatives indicating successive increases in the quality denoted by the adj. (Engl. bigger and bigger, the bigger): trummu á peccad ar ch.¤ nachmod formberat `their sin is heavier and heavier as they increase', Ml. 71c1 . combat foirbthiu ar ch.¤ for ṅgnímae `more and more perfect', Wb. 13d29 . ní ba messu ar ch.¤ a ngné, Metr. Dinds. ii 22.56 . is ferr a chāch it is better than ever, Bruchst. i 62 § 141 . iss messa a cach ar cach ló, IT i 121.23 ( TE 7 Eg.). ní ba mó ach.¤ óṡeo immach ever greater, Metr. Dinds. iii 46.83 . ni bot scithæ acach at all, RC xii 82 § 80 . fuaire a ch.¤ a-taoi fám chionn ever colder. Dánta Gr. 86.8 . With omission in writing of unstressed a: iss assu 'ch.¤ lind, MacCongl. 103.18 . budh truime ch.¤ ar gcodladh, Dán Dé xvii 6 . núidhe ch.¤ , PBocht 1.38 . With sa: ní mo ní lugu sa chach hí it is neither bigger nor smaller, BB 262b19 . fa ferr sa c.¤ do bi sí an uair sin féin it grew better and better from that very time, ITS xvi 56.18 . teirce sa c.¤ mo charuid, KMMisc. 358.9 . móide sa c.¤ do chuntas, A. Ó Dálaigh xl 7 . nī lugha-sa-chāch nō `not less than', Fl. Earls 70.8 . ní lughaide-sa-chāch roimeglaighset `nevertheless', 30.31 .

? teccait āigid, fācboit ail, / saigit go glain nGāidil ngil / nocha chumai cāch is cách / dia ferta-sa an fāth, a fir, ZCP xii 292.10 .

1 cenn

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cenn or dil.ie/8622
Last Revised: 2020

Forms: cend, ch., cenna, ciunn, cinn, cenda, cinnu, cind, cind, cinnu, cionn, ceann, cionn, cionn, ceinn

n o, n., later m. n p. cend, LU 9385 . ? a p. ch.¤ , Sg. 54a11 . n a p. usually cenna. On d s. ciunn, cinn see GOI 177 . For masc. infl. in pl. cf. a p. cenda, TBC-I¹ 483 = cinnu, LU 4970 . n p. cind, FA 22 LB. cind `chiefs', Laws v 440.23 . a p. cinnu, LL 8132 . In later lang. both cionn (O. Ir. ciunn) and ceann occur in d s. (see Donl., Párl. na mB.), the former mainly in fixed prepositional expressions (ós cionn , etc.). a s. cionn, Beatha S. F. 2567 . g s. ceinn, Párl. na mB. 535 , n p. Keat. i 196.15 . IGT Decl. § 65 .

Note also: for ar ceinn, Vita Br. 24 . in ch.¤ cleasach . . . Tesifóne, MR 168.6 . iar ndenamh creiche chinne maghair (n. loc.), AFM iv 1356.6 .

I The human head, head of an animal .

1 cend a uerbo graeco .i. gennome (γίνομαι) .i. nascor, O'Mulc. 217 . donchind gl. capiti, Gild. Lor. 102 . du-uic in foiltne i ndiad in chínn, Ml. 84c24 . mani roima fora c.¤ ní mema forsna bullu, 89c11 . beim a cinn fri cloich, 139c3 . ammi corp do Crist et is c.¤ som duunni, Wb. 5d2 . airmitiu féid in chinn, 7d14 . cen chaille fora ciunn, 11c9 . in boill dó ass ón chiunn, 22a17 . adart foch., Sg. 198a10 . dim chinn, Blathm. 95 § 17 . oc folcad chinn a athar, Vita Br. 15 . airecc cinn Iohannis, Fél. Feb. 27 . contt cēill ciunn curp in sense, reason, head and body , ZCP vi 258.10 . rochromsat a ccinnu, ZCP xiv 234.5 . imruidbed mo tenga as mo chind, Ériu ii 102 § 9 . madit a shuili inna cinn, 122 § 61 . amhuil chinn ina bhalluibh, Luc. Fid. 3454 . Of a head of hair: ceinn-fhionna (sic) do bhíodh ar fhearaibh Éireann re n-a linn `white heads', Keat. i 196.15 (see cenann).

2 In phrase with follg. gen. forming n. pr.: Coirpri Cind cait Cathead , Cóir Anm. 241 . C.¤ Fáelad Wolfhead , see Corp. Gen. 541 - 2 . Cend Ghegain, IT iii 101 § 183 . Finguine mac Laeghaire Cenngégain, Cog. 18 (see also s.v. cinnchucán). Eochaidh cendmhairc Horsehead , Miscell. Celt. Soc. 6.8 . da ingin dec ailella cind nathrach Snakehead , Rawl. 134b18 .

3 Of the head cut off in battle: fris-cithsead far cenna díb, BDD² 869 . tri laíchcind . . . im chend do chétmeic, LL 13149 (Sc.M2). co fargaibhset xl c.¤ lais, AFM i 498.2 . So in phr. ár c.¤ = ár: co fargaibset ár cend aicce, LL 2536 . cor' ben a ngabala dib ┐ ár cend leo, RC xvii 354.4 .

4 Attrib. g s.: na heónu / cosna ceólu cinn-sin (sic leg.) shrill notes, Metr. Dinds. iv 214.68 . Cf. gotha cinn . . . ag báinealtoin, Ir. Syll. Poetry 71 § 5 . See Études Celt. iv 397 . iter chosa cinn ┐ cos[a] tóna front legs , Thr. Ir. Gl. 26 . nocha bán-bhéim acht cneadh chinn head-wound, serious wound , Miscell. Celt. Soc. 162.9 . ? secht ccumala cinn, Ériu xiii 22.24 . gilla cinn eich gl. auriga, Ir. Gl. 17 . laicce chinn, RSClára 4a . go mbeith rith chinn ré fānaidh aco ar gach n-aon eile would completely outdistance, would utterly rout(?), Párl. na mB. 99 .

Vendryes, Études Celt. iv 397 , cites BDD² 886 and We. parallels in support of a meaning mouth.

5 In various idiomatic phrases: ro héige in ben nert a cind at the top of her voice, SR 3215 . conā fāgad inad a chind for bith that he might find no abiding-place, TBC-I¹ 2214 . o cionn co fonn from tip to toe, Blathm. 152 . nom-loiscc eter chend is choiss completely , Ériu vii 223 § 34 . dia cennaib ┐ cosaib utterly, entirely , LB 115b42 . bein cinn fri hald `striking a head against a cliff' (of wasted labour), RC xii 96 § 127 . co ro benad a tech dia chind `unroofed his house', RC xxiv 46 § 4 . roloiscedh . . . a ndúin . . . ina cendaibh, Ériu v 158.215 . a ndiaidh a gcinn headlong , Donlevy xviii 25 . an ceann fá dhruim head first (coffin lowered into grave), Dán Dé xxix 7 . co mbiat cend ar díb cendaib (of a fierce battle), TTr.² 907 . ar ba `c.¤ i mbolg' . . . do ṡil Adhuimh were in complete ignorance, Ériu ii 98 § 1 = ba-c.¤ a-coim, RC xxiv 369.6 , cf. Études Celt. vi 201 . cend i cotlud a peaceful death(?), Ériu ii 118 § 54 . ? ní bheinn teann ar chlíabh a cill / sní bhíadh mo cheann a cuigind, IGT Decl. ex. 1400 . c.¤ a ngabal `head in fork' (bad behaviour in a horse), Laws iii 180.18 Comm. c.¤ i láp see láp. c.¤ i, fo muine see 1 muine. ? fír, ol Óengus, Fergas cend fo raithin, Trip.² 1495 .

6 Of a single animal, etc.: do mac Loigsiu pa mōr ngō / ar in āincend an cēt mbō, ACL iii 2.12 . Note also: aon bhuaidhreadh amháin . . . an dara ceann, De Imit. 29.23 . ? robii cosnom im oenchend `there may be strife about one head' (Faraday), TBC-I¹ 1730 .

7 Various: ceann cait owl , Párl. na mB. 1452 . go dul tar ceannaibh cuan, Measgra D. 48.8 ` billow, breaker ', Gloss.

8 In various idioms with prec. vb.: ni mo tarrthus cend furre no forin gaeth `it was no more possible to get hold of her than of the wind', Aen. 649 . do-fócaib c.¤ appears see do-fócaib (D 269.36 ff.). ? immicurtis iarum cenna sechaiseom darsi ṅGairb sair ┐ siar eter Laigniu ┐ Ossairge, LL 36728 . tug a ch.¤ a n-inisle iomagallaimhe orra `entered into converse', ITS v 112.17 . no indsaiged in Troianda . . . congebead cend in Grecdai ┐ no indsaiged in Grecda . . . co ngebid cend in Tr. ┐ combdis cind ar cind, BB 435b22 .

9 Of buildings roof: ni rabi cenn for tempul Fidnacha in tan-sin, Ann. Conn. 1244.5 . c.¤ co claradh oir for tor dibh, Marco P. 117 . c.¤ Frangcach `a ribbed vault, a groined roof ' (Meyer Contribb.), AU iii 161.8 . don chend luaidhe boí for tempall an bhaile, AFM vi 1956.16 . Note also: roclúdadh na lestra fóa ccennuibh covers, tops , Ériu xiii 24.22 .

II End, end-point, termination.

10 In concrete applications: c.¤ cridi gl. uiscus, uisceris, Sg. 111b5 . nóe cend nine tips(?), LU 9835 . achind dochnama, IT iii 103.19 . a-cinn a-cruibh, RC xxiv 377.1 , .3 . cennæ na ngái, Liad. and Cuir. 12.9 . ceand muilind `the head of a mill', Ériu xvii 70 § 12 gl. 3 ( Laws iv 214.29 Comm. ). laim re ceand in droichid, Ériu xvii 72 § 13 gl. 10 . comrad chindcherchailli, TBC-LL¹ 3 . mó ná cliab co cendaib dés ` sheaves ', Metr. Dinds. iv 138.81 . do bhalad cinn én coinnle, RC xxiv 383.33 . dealg do chennaib óigsgech, IGT Decl. ex. 1082 . Metr. aisde cind tṡinte, IGT Metr. Faults §§ 48 , 49 . co casbairn chinn truim, Decl.ex. 623 (see cenntromm).

11 Of territories: a tá isin chionnsa thes (of a hill), SG 118.10 . isin c.¤ ba nesa dó don tír, AFM vi 2056.19 . i cind Maige Dála at the end of Magh Dala, Ériu i 132.74 . Of journeys: a gceann uidhe their objective, O'Hara 1241 . ceann bhar gcoimhleanga, DDána 74.56 . is iomdha slighe . . . / 's a ceann go magh nimh a-nonn, Dán Dé xxiii 4 .

12 Abstract applications: ceann m'aradhna ná léig lim let me not hold mine own bridle, IGT Decl. ex. 311 . sa chionn cunntuis in the account, Fl. Earls 90.13 . ní ricfa c.¤ scéoil úainne tar tech not a whisper of it will get out of this house, TTr.² 1796 . Of time: ar c.¤ fri c.¤ Enair `our end against the head of January' (i.e. 31 Dec. and 1 Jan.), Fél. Ep. 8 . c.¤ do shaoghail, BNnÉ 293 § 12 v.l. For sa cheann cháol etc. see cáel. do cheann don dáil `what you shall get in this affair', Content. xxvii 15 .

13 Of the end or completion of an affair, etc.: foruirmed c.¤ forsnaib cotarsnaib gl. aduersa nostra . . . constant inpleta, Ml. 74c20 . ni tucthar c.¤ essib gl. genelogís interminatís, Wb. 27d22 . oc tabairt chind for airimmeirt sluaigh ┐ shochaidhi, TTr.² 310 ( LL 400b10 ). cend ┐ forcenn air sin that's enough of that(?), Acall. 5361 . ní bia cend for th'ermitin `there shall be no limit to thy dignity', Celtica iv 16.180 .

III Of persons, chief, head person, leader.

14 Legal: nad cennaib coirib comallat, ZCP xiv 379 § 43 `cond . . . den voll Geschäftsfähigen. Die andern haben einen cond als c. `Haupt' über sich, der sie `unterstüzt', für sie in ihren Sachen spricht, etc. ', 380 . rí bunaid cach cinn, Críth G. 447 `caput, head of family, individual', Vocab. fortét cech c.¤ ba tressa(i) inní bes étressa, 474 . c.¤ caich iar nduinib i fine besid sruithe, ZCP xiv 369 § 31 ( Laws ii 278.21 ). cend cartus a memar a chief who rejects his tenant, Laws v 164.19 Comm. dlegaid cind cuindreach `the chiefs are bound to rectify', 440.23 . cach cind (sic MS) a chonrach, ACL iii 227.31 .

15 In non-legal contexts: cend do ḟeraib Herenn Patraic, Thes. ii 326.32 (Hy. iv gl.). for bélaib a cind ┐ a tigernad, Alex. 274 . M. . . . fa chend ar clēirchib, ZCP viii 120.5 . na cinn clāena cin crābud `the wicked, impious chiefs', Ériu iii 30 § 8 . a cheann féin `his Master', PBocht 11.20 .

16 With follg. noun in gen. indicating category of persons: c.¤ bocht almoner (?), AU ii 32.4 . c.¤ cáid caillech n-Érenn, Fél. Feb. 1 . cend degban is deorad, SG 64.35 . c.¤ fedna see fedan. c.¤ fine head of family or clan: lochdach an Róisdeach achd ón chionn fhine, IGT Decl. 7.14 . da ch.¤ fhine ina ionad, AFM iv 1146.16 . i ndioghail a ccind ḟine, iii 404.z . i ndegaid in chinn manach the abbot, Ériu iii 100 § 25c . c.¤ in réclessa, Ríocht na Midhe viii 15 . c.¤ sluag fer Fáil, Trip.² 1793 v.l. Cf. also: is cend daim for dartoid [.i.] mōrpersan for becphopul, O'Mulc. 753 .

17 With follg. gen. of abstr.: c.¤ athchomairc see athchomarc. ar gceann bāidhei-ne an bhean our chief love (of Mary), Dán Dé ii 29 . cend cathaigthe as chalma ro bai do Leith Mogha battle-leader , RC xviii 11.24 . a Chind, coisc na crích (a chind coisc ?), Ériu vii 221 § 22 . c.¤ comairle cuindrig muintire fri comairle comneirt, ‘a “head of counsel” who controls the household with advice of equal strength’, CL 240.3 . nach ben forsa-mbe c.¤ comuirle, ZCP xiv 375 § 38 . cenn comuirle ┐ adchomairc fer mBregh n-uile, 'chief counsellor and consultant of the men of all Brega', AU² 374.6 . in fer ba húasle ┐ ba mó rath issin túaith iss e ba cend comairle do chách, LL 118 . co tech ar cind comairle, ‘to our counsellor’s house’, Éigse vii 77 §11 . cend crabaid ermoir Erenn paragon of piety, RC xxvi 362.2 . gan chend cundraid na comairle rempo, LL 12344 (TBC). uair robesin cend gaili . . . sluaig, Cog. 194. 29 . c.¤ ecna . . . iartair domain, CS 320.9 . c.¤ cech erais, Fél. Apr. 23 . in bandea ingen Terrae cend scaílti scél in betha chief disseminator of news, LL 31001 (TTr.). a chend sochair slúaig Ulad chief benefactor, MU² 58 . In follg. perh. headquarters, centre : uail (= bhail) itā ceand in cogaidh, ZCP viii 115.18 . baili i mbai cend ídlachta ┐ druídechta na Héirenn, Trip.² 431 . flaitheas Dé is ceann chomhsanta dhúinne, Eochairsg. 98.25 ( end, goal ?).

IV Used in a wide variety of adverbial and prepositional phrases.

18 cinn at the end of (see 33, 40, 52) (ciunn, cinn, dative without preposition, GOI 537 ): cinn rehe gl. secundum hoc tempus, Wb. 4c11 . cinn blíadnae at the end of a year, Fél. Sept. 17 . cind .ix. mís, LU 1662 . cind in tres laí, 7977 (BDD). cind cethri ndíni `at the end of four genera- tions', Arch. Hib. ii 48 § 1 . cind mile bliadan, Ériu ii 132 § 109 .

19 In phr. cinn chomair: nó huachiunn chomair gl. e rigione `or, from before', Ml. 119a9 (`von dem Anfang der Richtung', Ped. KZ xxxv 435 ). fri re mis cind comar, AU ii 88.x . Usually of place (see 28, 31): cinn chomair gl. contra (solem), BCr. 33c17 . for in phurt cind chomair dó `opposite to him', RC xiv 406.1 ( LL 12675 ). cind comair frissin ṁbeist n-amnais, LL 398b18 = cinnchomair, TTr.² 148 . i cinncomair friu opposite them, CCath. 5561 . ro badhusa cind comraic riusom, Acall. 6795 . Cf. i comair chind airtherthuascertaig, LL 3865 = hi comardus cind, etc., RC xv 283 § 29 .

Usually with prec. prep. In the follg. sections the arrangement is according to the preceding preposition, with which an adverbial in addition to a prepositional phrase is frequently formed. In a number of cases meanings under various prepositions coincide.

With A.

20 In sense of ós ciunn (60): asa chind guarding him, Metr. Dinds. iv 358.94 . ata M. . . . asa mo chind-sa oc fúr m'anma, PH 806 . batar a cind na cathrach who were over the city, 2488 . In diff. sense: as a cheann féin `of his own Head' (of his own accord), Donlevy 330.16 . The follg. are obscure (leg. ar for as in one or more of the exx. ?): cen ascur sáitha asa chiunn `without remission of tribulation from His presence(?)' (in store for him ?), Wb. 25d16 . conid ari rogabad al-lam a pardus dochum gortæ ┐ bochtæ . . . ┐ bais ┐ hifirn asa cind `thenceforth', Ériu vii 164 § 8 . ? gidh bé do cuir asa chionn `it matters not whom he drove from his head' (Notes), Duan. F. i 32.20 . Perh. in literal sense: in t-ēolus-[s]a rádi rimm, / ferr duit nā cloisti as do chínn, ZCP xiii 3 § 2 .

With AR (see also 42).

21 ar chenn with vbs. of motion towards, in the direction of, to meet (see 39, 45): ceni esǽrsitis in choirp ara c.¤ `to meet them', Ml. 15c8 . condaáerset do failti ar ch.¤ a rríg to welcome their King, 46a12 . ara cénn gl. occurrentes, 60d5 . do-luid in biail arithissi ar ch.¤ inna samthige came back to the handle, Tur. 131 . techt ar ch.¤ Crist, Wb. 25d25 . co toracht Emain Macha ar cend Conchobair, LU 8073 ( FB 4 ). ní-s-cuirfind techta ar dho chend-sa, PH 450 . canat biet in alltair / ar ch.¤ clocáin don phroindtig at the sound of the refectory bell, Ériu iii 102 § 28 . gearr go dtiocfa teachtaire / . . . / ar do cheann, DDána 56.1 . docuaidh . . . arcinn na conuire a ticcidh aran sliabh `went to the road', ZCP vi 56.8 . Cf. airg ┐ áird-leasdair . . . do chomdhlúthúghadh ar cheann na céd aimsire do thairrngir D. . . . dhóib `against', ML 6.25 .

22 Of going to meet in battle: ara chend dait a Fergus, LU 6698 . rotbīa F. . . . ar ndul ar c[h]end ind ḟir ucut, TBC-I¹ 1247 (LU).

23 In sense of going or coming for, to fetch someth.: is ar ch.¤ focheda dodechommar `to meet suffering', Wb. 25a12 . tecat ar ch.¤ in chon co sochruid to fetch the hound, Sc.M² 4 . dula uaimm ar do chend-su to fetch you, PH 446 . teacht ar ceand cind duine isinn ārmuig, RC xxiv 58 § 18 . in lind ara tánac c.¤ the water for which thou camest, Ériu iv 106.7 . ? ochd bhféinnidhe as ḟearr a n-ágh / ar ceann t'éindighi d'fúarán, IGT Decl. ex. 1333 . socraiti do dol . . . ar cend artraige dochum Domnaill, Ann. Conn. 1248.5 . Note also: do lleblaing int écne ara chend (ref. to ordnasc f.), TBFr. 208 , cf. Meyer Contribb., Fraech p. 35 .

24 In meanings of tar c.¤ (66-70) (confusion of prepp.): cuirtha cumtaige ara cend `buildings were overthrown', KMMisc. 152.62 . ar cinn a chesta ┐ a caingne, Anecd. i 42.9 . tagra . . . do thagras ar cheann Mumhan on behalf of, Content. xviii 12 .

25 ar chiunn of time in the future, afterwards, later : frisnaccai archiunn gl. ad aliquam rem, Ml. 53b23 . artha ciúnn són gl. in posteram, 132a3 (see note). ar chinn gl. adhuc, Wb. 2a9 . archiunn . . . diéis gl. siue ante seu retro, BCr. 31b4 - 5 . ar oman imtormaich ina pecad ar chiund future sins, Ériu xix 58 § 6 . in maith iar cind future good, LU 9889 (for ar ch.¤ ?). rogabsat flaith ar chiund from then on, ZCP viii 313.21 . doairchaintis . . . anno bíth ar chind dóib, Trip.² 327 . ? mod airchiund di lubair a disposition ready for work(?), Rawl. B 512, 40c (Plummer MS. notes).

26 ar chiunn as quasi-adj. of points of time next, following, ensuing (in later lang. somet. with (i)ar in this use): san aidhchi ar chínd, BB 39b6 . co belltaine ar cind, BColm. 92.2 . an bliadhain ar ccionn, Leb. Gab.(i) 56.4 . isin laithe ar ccind, 146.2 . In later lang. also as prep. with poss. in this sense: go medhōn oidhche buī ar a gcionn, Fl. Earls 8.20 . go Bealltaine ar a gcionn till the following May, Keat. ii 3137 . See 38 .

27 ar chiunn in textual reff. below, in what follows; later, following : forsin canoin ar chiunn `on the following Scripture passage', Ml. 54c34 . trachtad . . . forsa nouit ar chiunn `on nouit that follows', 64a7 . in testimin ar chiunn `the following text', 104b3 . titul in dligid ar chinn, Wb. 10a12 . ata ní ar chiunn, Sg. 39b10 .

28 ar chiunn in front of, before (see 19): córus dúne ríg . . . ar chi[u]nn a thúaithe, Críth G. 566 `vis-à-vis', Vocab. bui siom oc huamim ara cind `before her', Mon. Tall. 149.18 . co nacca ara chind in fer, TBC-I¹ 448 . Cf. muir ara cendaib, in nem huasa ṁbennaib, 3006 . amail nobeith beo ar a chind as if he were alive in front of him, ACL iii 5.5 .

29 ar chiunn awaiting, ready for, in anticipation of (someone or someth. arriving): biid ersoilcthi ar chiunn for ríg gl. eliuamini, portae aeternales, Ml. 46a7 . ni farnic-sede nach maid ara chiun isin domun, Wb. 2a21 . ar ar ciunn-[n]i `against our coming', 25a33 . anais ar cionn antsluaigh `waited for', Blathm. 102 § 41 . co fuaratar a cele isind apdaine ara cind `on their arrival', Mon. Tall. 162.30 . aínínbuidh na fuair acht triur ar a chinn thall isin fíne (of a man who has joined or rejoined the tribe from outside), Laws iv 294.26 Comm. ar cinn ṡamraid at the arrival of summer, ZCP vii 310 § 8 . dá rabh a Rí na glóire / . . . / do mhaor ar chionn na coinnmhe / liom if Thy steward receive the company, Dán Dé xiv 11 . ar cinn chamhárach before daybreak, IGT Decl. ex. 1195 . ar cinn in lae, Fier. 135 . With petrified masc. poss.: arna beith ar a chind `in her way', RC xi 452.2 , cf. Meyer Contribb.

30 ar chiunn of time in store for (see 51): a fil ar mo chiunn gl. ad destinatum, Wb. 24a15 . cén bes fine ar a cinn as long as he has descendants, Laws iv 240.19 Comm. a n-airchend fil ar ar cinn the destiny which awaits us, Ériu i 68.12 . fuair Poimp bas ┐ fuair cidh Cesair ara cind afterwards, CCath. 8308 .

31 ci(u)nn ar chi(u)nn face to face, at grips (see 19, 54): atraig cach fer di alailiu . . . co m-bátar cind ar chind is taig, IT i 67 (LMU). fíal tened ┐ fíal d'aigriud . . . cind ar cind, LU 2067 ( FA 14 , cf. RC xxvi 148 § 27 ). inn-uair dobímmis cind ar chind, RC vii 302.1 . as and baoi Laogh ┐ a brathoir ciond ar ciond, ZCP x 295.27 . cind ar cind fri Dunchad, Ériu v 242.153 .

With co.

32 co c.¤ to the end, to completion (see 43): berthi leiss co c.¤ gl. perficiet, Wb. 23a19 . ní dernad in cnocc co c.¤ , Metr. Dinds. iii 44.79 . is co cend in cuidbiud the mockery has come to a head, Ériu i 118 § 10 . Cheville: céim co cend, Metr. Dinds. iv 26.9 .

33 co c.¤ with nouns indicating periods of time till the end of, for the duration of (see 18, 40, 52): co c.¤ blīadne, Thes. ii 319 ( Hy. ii 56 ). co c.¤ cairdi, Críth G. 366 . co cend trédenuis, PH 1859 . go ceann cóig n-aimsear, DDána 6.9 . go ceatra ceand[a] raithi `for four quarter-years', Magauran 804 . Note also: in fer co cind a chéli, MU² 991 `against', Gloss.

With DI and/or DO.

34 di chennaib of poetical composition appar. extemporaneously (see however Thurn. cited below and compare aisnēis do c[h]ennaib a chnāmae, Corm. Y 756 , which may point to a ritualistic procedure of some kind): canad do chennaibh, Ériu xiii 17.5 . ailges do ceanduibh, O'D. 2208 (Nero A vii, 144a). dligedh do feghar saor daor do chennaibh, Ériu xiii 25.30 = fedhair .i. dorenar, ut est dliged dofedhar sóer, dóer dochennaib .i. continuo , O'Dav. 828 . do . . . suid filed for-can di c[h]ennaib `von (seinen Knochen-) Enden', ZCP xvi 175 § 4 ( Laws i 40 , co ndenand rand can smuainedh, 42 Comm. ). is dochennaib . . . ro trial Dallán a duain do denum `extempore', RC xx 122.z (ACC). Also in phr. díchetal di chennaib, see díchetal. cetal do chendaib (a metre), IT iii 61 § 123 . See Ériu xlviii 45 .

35 intan tét a laithe di chiunn `passes away', Ml. 21c3 .

36 di and/or do chiunn in return for, for the sake of, instead of, on condition of, because of, for , etc. (see 68): do chinn a mbíd, SR 3406 . do c[h]inn loghaidh `in return for remission of tribute', Ériu xvii 22 § 16 . dúais do chionn chomáoine a quid pro quo , KMMisc. 346.28 . sgēl do chinn chummaéine, Anecd. i 36.3 . dia chind an tsréin in return for the bridle, BColm. 38 § 40 . nech . . . do cathugud di chend Crist for, PH 789 . do tairgeadh bó aile dí da cind, Imr. Brain 58.30 . berair-siu mac díachinn in its place, Cóir Anm. 133 . do chinn mo claidhem fen instead of my own sword, Fier. 60 . ragtais dia chind i comrac on his behalf, Metr. Dinds. iii 446.88 . do chionn a seachna `on condition of' (notes), Dán Dé x 12 . ró-mhór fuaramar d'a chionn too much we have got from it, Ériu i 96 § 52 . do chionn ubhaill, DDána 26.6 . do chionn an tshaoghail do thréigean through abandoning, Beatha S. F. 748 . dá chionn on that account, TSh. 1942 . do cind ced cennaighechta do denum in order to get leave, ZCP vi 90.15 . ar ngellad a marbtha d'Ulliam Burc do chind luaigi in consideration of, Ann. Conn. 1310.5 .

37 Of soliciting or having intercourse with a woman in spite of or unknown to her husband, etc. (see 70): comrac frim dot chind-so, Fing. R. 114 `in disregard of', Vocab. ben-side Ch. . . . co rustoirrchestar E. do chind a cēile, Corp. Gen. 139.x . a breth di-a chind (another man's wife), PH 833 . luid . . . F. . . . do thochmarc a mnā do chind Oilella, Fianaig. 6.16 . docomraiced-som fria mnaib aili dia cind si in disregard of her, ZCP i 104.10 .

38 Various: cia ruslā dia c[h]ind . . . T. . . . is he rosla(n) dar a chend, ZCP xiii 7.24 . conom thí de chind chúarda till it is my turn(?), LU 6699 ( TBC-I¹ 2158 ). ar chuir dá ceann all he added to it(?) (cf. 48), DDána 91.14 . ó Inid go Cáisg dá gcionn till the following Easter (see 26), Aithd. D. 75.18 . ? nior cuir dha chionn do bhí ag Fionn, Duan. F. i 32.20 .

With FO.

39 fo ch.¤ towards, against, for (see 21, 45): teacht fam cheann `(to) attack me', Content. xviii 1 . éirghid fo cend mo c[h]reiche they go for my booty, ZCP viii 226.22 . Note also: gabh fád cheann mo chonmharccsa `take upon thee my quarrel(?)', Studies 1924, 243 § 12 .

40 Of time within, during (see 18, 33, 52): fo ch.¤ aimsire giorra at the end of a short time, Ériu v 188.456 . fo c.¤ begain aimsiri, Stair Erc. 258 . fo chionn dā lō go n-oidhche, Fl. Earls 10.16 .

41 fo ch.¤ (less freq. chiunn) about, concerning, with regard to, for the sake of, etc. (see 59): ? craed aderum focheann, YBL 149a4 . fuaire a chách a-taoi fám chionn towards me, Dánta Gr. 86.8 . fa a gcionn because of them, DDána 25a1 . déna . . . fá ch.¤ oirbire t'filedh `to thy poet's objurgation make concession', O'Gr. Cat. 402.20 . mar go bhfuair duadh ┐ doghruing fá a ceann `on her account', Keat. ii 2342 . ? alaind a dath / fa ceand na cuach, IGT Metr. Faults§ 68 .

With FOR.

42 for c.¤ , ciunn. Usually = ar ch.¤ , chiunn (21 ff.): an do lotar for cend conaire, Vita Br. 40 `as they were proceeding on their way', Ir. Hist. Stud. i 132 . dochuaid fóncaillid forcend chonnaid for firewood, RC ii 396 § 33 . ro-fhóidestar P. . . . gilla turusa for cend Ísu, PH 2602 . for bar cind, LU 8388 ( FB 26 ). doluid D. for cuinn (leg. ciunn) a sethar do ḟailte frie, Rawl. 134b1 . co tarrla in muir ina clár comréidh . . . for cinn in catha, CCath. 1927 . for a g-ceann awaiting them, ML 44.22 . gusin dia dardaoin buī dō for cionn `until the Thursday following', Fl. Earls 258.4 . Perh. for orig. tar c.¤ (68 ff.) in: du gabail rigi for ch.¤ á athar `in his father's stead', Ml. 44d29 . cach adaltrach do-t[h]et for ceand cetmuintire, Stud. in E. Ir. Law 49 (`in spite of', note p. 50) ( Laws ii 384.1 ). do accallaim Grigair for cend uird ┐ riagla, LU 3095 (fo ch.¤ ?).

With I.

43 beirid, do-beir i cinn finishes, completes (see 32): doberar opair i cind and sain, LL 32264 ( TTr. 1452 ). maine berthar i cinn, 400b18 . ? focal nāchar thuill a gciond (: rinn), ZCP viii 223.x .

44 do-tuit etc. ina ch.¤ falls down, topples (see 67): a toitim ina chend dorisi, TTebe 1669 . ag tuitim ina ccenduibh do bhedis colamhuin . . . na cathrach, Ériu iv 56.18 .

45 i c.¤ in contexts implying motion (us. with prec. vb.) to, in the direction of, towards, against (see 21, 39): na torcair nemh inna ccent `on them', Blathm. 68 . lotir remib hi cend in Brogo, LU 10575 . co torracht C. i c.¤ in droichit cucu, CCath. 1283 . ben sund i cend for máthar, Metr. Dinds. iii 6.55 . dorat . . . / Conall i cend Chonculaind matched C. against C., Metr. Dinds. iii 446.96 . ro cuired cach i ceann araili dona Romanchaib, CCath. 3159 . an uair chuirid i n-a chionn when they oppose him, DDána 96.33 . connsuine . . . do rachadh na cheann, mur atá so: slat ┐ dearg, slaitearg sin which would be assimilated to it, IGT Introd. 10.2 . do tuit an torc a cend a choss fell forward, BCC 324.30 .

46 i c.¤ with prec. vb. of motion and follg. Vn. etc. in g s. implying beginning or undertaking of an action: o dochotar . . . i c.¤ taispenta ind immuin do G., Lib. Hymn. 63.40 . do chuadar i cend a retha took to their heels, MR 318.4 . notheiged-som ┐ a gilla a cend bleogain na bo, Ériu v 34.22 . ná ragaind i ceand catha ina agaid, FDG² 465 . dochuaid i cend in sceoil (d'innisin, v.l.) `she went ahead with the tale', TTebe 1833 . T. . . . do dol a c.¤ oilithri, Ann. Conn. 1307.18 . lotar . . . i cend séta, TBC-LL¹ 451 . Note also: ra érig in fili ┐ do chúaid i n-a cend ┐ issed ro ráid, LL 39018 ( SG 385.34 `went to work'; `came to them', Stokes, RC xiii 107 ).

47 i c.¤, ciunn in addition to (see 63): foghellta ┐ bleth do dul ina ceand `shall be added', Laws iv 130.27 Comm. Matha a cind Crist ro scrib a shoscéla together with, LB 153a64 . ag flaith Li do chím 'na cheann / ní do gach tír 'na thimcheall also, Ériu v 64.15 . a cc.¤ gach sgéil eile dar innis doibh, Rel. Celt. ii 196.32 . a c.¤ a roibhi aigi, ZCP vi 51.10 . na c.¤ sin in addition, Maund. 15 . hi cc.¤ a chéle together, Hugh Roe² 40.13 .

48 cuirid i c.¤ adds to (see 38): cindus do-chuirfed tuilled i n-a chend, PH 7730 . cuir 'na ceand, O'Gr. Cat. 311.9 . teine do cur a ceann teineadh making bad worse, 23 P 10 ³, 15a30 . Note also: ni fuair Fergus ríam ni do cuirfe a cend Modha do marbadh do Dubthach `anything to compare with the slaughter of M. by D.', Celt. Rev. ii 116.x .

49 i c.¤ in preference to: am cheann do chomóradh 'was given preferential treatment over me', Ériu lxiv 162 § 1.7​​​ . S. . . . do chor i tticcernus . . . hi ccend Ch., AFM iii 360.16 . taisech do denam doib do mac M. . . . ina c.¤ , Ann. Conn. 1262.9 .

50 i ciunn at the head of for purpose of leading: m'anam-sa a Dhé mar budh dall / sé 's an chalann-sa 'n-a cionn, Dán Dé xxiii 13 . bi 'n-a cinn = ducas eum, Smaointe B. Chr. 1050 .

51 i ciunn in store for, destined (see 30): a-tá lá cúirte 'n-ar gcionn, DDána 23.29 . a uilc i gcionn gach chiontaigh his wrongdoings await every sinner (for punishment), Dán Dé vii 15 . i gc.¤ gach baíth a baegul, MR 286.21 . go bhfuil an bás . . . i gcionn gach aoin, TSh. 99 .

52 i ciunn of time at the end of (see 18, 33, 40): a cínd da bliadna onaímsir-si two years ago, RC x 186.1 . hi cind tredenais, ACL iii 309.10 . a cc.¤ a fhichet bliadhna da aois in the twentieth year of his age, Rel. Celt. ii 196.7 . a ccionn trí lá, Desid. 6345 .

53 Various: i mbun na gabla ro boí hi ciund tened over against, LU 9194 ( FB 92 ). a cheann i cind tened, ZCP i 464.33 . gach aon a gceann a dhíre ┐ a dhúthchasa féin in possession of, ML 102.14 . mac S. a cind arrad at the head of nobles, Ériu v 244.194 . in cís d'ícc a cind chruid, LB 133b56 `in respect of', Todd Lect. vi 40.6 .

c.¤ i c.¤ (ceann a cceann is an exception to the rule that the same word may not be used more than once in a line, Bard. Synt. Tr. 24.36 ). ? ceann a ceann, .c. o an doilgheas, 55.24 . Also cionn a ccionn (: fionn), 25.1 .

54 c.¤ i c.¤ = ci(u)nn ar chi(u)nn (31): misi do cur c.¤ i cc.¤ / as Cuchulainn, TBC-LL¹ 3151 . cuirid c.¤ hi c.¤ , Fianaig. 60.27 . is and sin . . . do rancadar Leth Cuind ┐ Laigin ceand i cend, RC xxiv 50 § 10 . go g-cómhraiceam ceann a g-ceann, ML 82.25 .

55 c.¤ i c.¤ together; simultaneously : Conchabor, Aedh cend a cend `head to head' (of kings buried together), Ériu ii 166.47 . cia leitir sin c.¤ a c.¤ / dognīad lethfod is lethtenn, ZCP xii 295.8 . nocor thathaigh ceann i c.¤ / na cuic cuicidh na hEirenn, xi 43 § 31 . cred dorad tu c.¤ a c.¤ / a comhaitreab na catcend?, KMMisc. 315.16 . trí Cormaic theas ceann i gceann / im an seang, DDána 91.33 . do dortsed fair cend i cend (of attackers), Ann. Conn. 1405.15 .

56 c.¤ i c.¤ successively (see Aithd. D. Vocab.): gan a ccloistecht cend i ccend / gabhāla airdrīogh [n]Ērenn, ZCP viii 218.30 . fiss gach catha c.¤ a ceand, Anecd. i 29 § 35 . rob ionchuir é, ceann a cceann / is inghean airdrīgh Éireand point by point, KMMisc. 356.7 .

With IMM.

57 is fachain dá gcar um cheann to make them change their attitude(?), DDána 67.4 . (taken by Ed. as i and mo).

58 imm ch.¤ about, around : tarrassaid inn irgal im chend Connacht, LL 12308 (TBC). doiri crannrabhan mad cheann round thee, Magauran 436 . ní ráidhte um cheann gcomhóla during a drinking-bout, O'Hara 146 . radharc um cheann a calaidh `the sight of its shores' (Gloss.), Measgra D. 52.35 .

59 imm ch.¤ about, concerning, with regard to (see 41): rola B. . . . / ilach im cheand Feargaile (perh. in semi-literal sense), RC xxiv 54 § 14 . imcheand cach formaid bai etarru `for all the ill-feeling', Ériu ii 178.16 . an-scél . . . im-c.¤ deilbe . . . in-domain, RC xxiv 369.5 . t'fhearg . . . um cheann do chloinne, DDána 10.22 . um cheann craos-óil in the matter of, TSh. 7446 .

With ós (see 20).

60 ós chiunn (on as cionn beside ós chionn see Desid. p. xxxv ). In more or less literal sense: in tituil robói huas ciunn Crist isin chroich over Christ's head, Ml. 74b1 . ōs chinn sanct-Brigte, Thes. ii 329.2 ( Hy. v 15 ). Over, above: baí . . . ben . . . oc airiuc dont ṡluág os a cind, LL 259b15 . Cuncha cnoc os cind Life, ZCP xi 41 § 1 . nochtais . . . in claidheab os cind na hingeine, RC vi 175.30 . ós chionn mo leabhráin studying, Content. ii 14 . ōs a ch.¤ , Fl. Earls 66.15 .

61 With prec. vb. of motion: tānic . . . ōs ceann N. made for, Celtica i 116.118 . téighim ós chionn a chosnaimh I undertake to defend it, Content. xxi 12 .

62 in control of, in charge of: os chionn Bhanbha, Content. xxx 26 . sdiobhard ós ceann mhórāin maoine, Mac Aingil 568 . ōs cionn in cholāiste, Fl. Earls 68.25 .

63 over and above, in addition to (see 47): ós c.¤ fhichit each, AFM iv 1134.28 . faoi nó ós a chionn `or thereabouts', Corp. Astron. 4.12 . ōs a ch.¤ sin `besides', Fl. Earls 90.15 .

64 Note also: bun ós cionn `upside down', Psalms cxlvi 9 . más bun os cionn atá sé `if he haue any auersion', RSClára 155a . For fuller treatment see 1 bun.

65 With ré: ria cind tri trath in three days, RC xvii 386.2 .

With TAR (see also 24, 42).

66 fo-ceird etc. tar c.¤ (somet. with possess. before c.¤ ) overthrows, upsets, turns upside down : in cor tar c.¤ gl. euersio, Ml. 36d23 . gl. euertando, 72b12 . tochur tar c.¤ , Críth G. 233 . ro lá in slúag . . . tara cend, LU 9760 . fochichret in Trói dar cend, TTr.² 389 . ro-chuir cend dar cend . . . miassa na monotóri, PH 4392 . is e ro-lá dar cend ar forcetul-ne subverted, 1686 . See fo-ceird. Cf. dos-curedar tara cend 'she collapses', CMMucr. 50 § 43 .

67 With do-tuit (see 44): co torchratar . . . dara c.¤ hi suan, ZCP iii 6 § 20 .

68 tar c.¤ on behalf of, for the sake of, in return for, in lieu of, because of, for, etc. (see 36): dufiastar tara c.¤-som `punishment will be inflicted for them', Ml. 27c4 . deich tarm ch.¤ `take vengeance for me', 72d11 . no oircthe . . . tar c.¤ a p[ecthae] ind aile `for its sins', Tur. 110c . taiccéra cách dará chen fessin gl. pro sé, Wb. 6b28 . oc irbáig dar far c.¤-si gl. de uobis, 16d8 . ? mo ort do gabál darm ch.¤ `that my rank should be taken for me', 23b18 . a setig . . . do pennait tar a cend fadesin ┐ dara cendsom on her own behalf and his, Mon. Tall. 163.18 . dar cend na cāna in return for, Cáin Ad. 25 . ciata glinni con-daigi dar cend frithaisceda?, MU² 65 . do foglaim na Tāna rucc in sái rōmānach a hArdmacha dar cend in cuilmin, ACL iii 5.31 . na feicheamna dara tecait cend, Laws iv 60.18 Comm. tarc.¤ gabhála aigi ┐ tacra tar a ch.¤ pleading in his behalf, CCath. 535 . díol tar ceann a chomaoineadh, Content. ix 25 . tar ceann do chloinne, Dán Dé xxviii 29 .

69 in spite of, in violation of; notwithstanding : ba holc lais dith Fergail darceand a shida, RC xxiv 64 § 25 . tar c.¤ Conoill, Duan. F. i 84.8 . tar a cheann sin nevertheless , Desid. 3220 .

70 Of begetting offspring by a woman in spite of or unknown to her husband (see 37): trī meic Medba fri Fergus dar c.¤ nAilella, Corp. Gen. 279.1933 . mac ruc don Dagda . . . / dar cend ḟir na síde, Metr. Dinds. iii 30.75 . is e doroine in toirrcis sin fria dar c.¤ Cathbaid, RC vi 175.51 .

71 As conj. tar c.¤ go notwithstanding the fact that, although : tar ceann go n-abair an Chóir Anmann gur . . . ní mheasaim gurab . . . , Keat. ii 2344 . tar cheann go n-anann tú feadh do bheathadh san olc, Mac Aingil 1040 . tar ceann gur shaoil . . . notwithstanding the fact that, TSh. 541 . tar cheann go bhfuil mórán etc. even though there are . . . , Párl. na mB. 461 .

Compds. (general composition-form in early lang. cenn-. Later also cinn- and ceinn- before palatals).

With nouns.

72 In dvandva-compds. (see Wortk. 130 ): bidh suī lēigind co cendanim head and soul, ACL iii 231.22 . cend-chossach head and feet (of cooked animal), Ériu iv 124 § 2 .

73 With c.¤ qualifying second member: cu nach fácbadh claidem ar cennadairt, Acall. 1632 = SG 129. 29 `pillow' ( -adart, BLism. 212 rb13) . Fig. cennadart fona fertaib inso, Thes. ii 332.27 ( Hy. v 23 gl .). Of a person: O'M. a cceann adhart, Top. Poems 58.18 . oenball dia curp nó da cendagaid `countenance', CCath. 4700 . gráin catha ar mo cheannaghaidh (sic leg.), Content. xxiii 15 . tria cendairde no tria cendísli doníther in taidbhriudh anuasan, O'D. 908 (H. 3.17, 649) = O'Curry 2164 ( Eg. 88, 4(5)d ) (see O'Gr. Cat. 139 ). cennait muilind `the head (site) of a mill', Ériu xvii 76.10 . cennáit `head residence', AFM v 2082.2 . ? Cf. an chríoch nó an cionnaidh is dúthaigh dhó, TSh. 1775 (chianáit, v.l., Gloss.). ar Chrīst ar cennabaid chief lord, ZCP viii 214.6 . do ghabh clogat . . . fa n-a cheann-bhaithios `head', MR xiv 21 . ¤barr see cen(n)barr. ¤bécc see cennbécc. ¤bert see ceinnbeirt. cennbhile oir na n-ardriog (a prince), LL 394.8 . bheith dheit ad chinnbhile ós coill, O'Gr. Cat. 381.22 . súdh ceannbhracha `malt liquor', O'Hara 4076 . in Cennc[h]at[h]ach ina laimh .i. a bachall, Lism. L. 3103 . ¤chléithe = cenn: scothais a chenn clēithi de, ZCP viii 117 § 12 . ní chuirthear ceannchnaipe óir ar phaidrín mhaide, Mac Aingil 1041 `Pater Noster bead(?)', Gloss. lom[r]aid a cendchongraim din mnái headdress, Hib. Min. 77.9 . ceann cosnamach comegin C. `violent groans', MR 260.6 (leg. ¤osnadach ?). for cenn-cumhdach a choroine ` head-covering ', Misc. Hag. Hib. 43 § 62 . capitolauium .i. cenddīunach, Corm. Y 296 . cend-drong filed fó fírda, Metr. Dinds. i 36.93 . inceindetan gl. gigram, Gild. Lor. 82 . donchendfiacail gl. capitali, 134 . ¤ḟochrus see cennḟochrus. cenngalor (in marg. dolor capitis), Wb. 17b25 . Vita Br. 28 . dia ro h-icad don cheann-galar, YBL 174b23 . ? ni tormaig ni fora notrus . . . a cendgelt, Ériu xii 40 § 51 ; 'tonsure' ZCP xlii 48 . caeca echlosc orda co cendimlaib airgid, IT ii2 191.14 (cennpairtib, v.l.) `end knobs'? Plummer MS notes. ¤ísle see cendairde. ¤lá see cennlá. ¤liter capital letter. Usually metaph. of persons and things: cinn-litre ceall `the capitals of the churches', Content. xv 30 , cf. xviii 73 . dún iona cáir cinnlitre, Ériu v 60.4 . ceinnlitir siodha ┐ coccaidh `arbiter', AFM iv 976.3 . snímcha cendmaisse `head- dress', Tec. Corm. xvi 84 . cendmaisse laime glove, Acall. 5971 v.l. ¤míl name of an ornament: coíca acrann . . . co cendmílaib, TBFr. 31 . fuath . . . [na] cendmila tucsat a coscar catha, Aen. 1563 . Of persons: Ísa Críst . . . in cennmíl cumdachta, ZCP viii 204.34 . ní ba cendmíl muinntiri / nech nach fulaing a hécnach, iv 468 § 17 . a fírchlethe a chendmullaig, LU 6475 . brat tlachtgorm corcarrda hi cennfait impe (i.e. thrown over her head?) (cennḟait, MS), TBC-I¹ 2791 . cendpaite imma cenna `fillets', RC ix 484 n.5 . cinnréallna `stars of first magnitude', Ó Bruad. iii 14.7 . cend-róit `highway', CRR 28 . (Auricula Muris) ceinn-sgethrach do ghenam dhe, ┐ glanaidh an inchinn o na salcar, 23 K 42, 367.5 (see sceithrech). fá cheannsmacht, Oss. iv 274.24 . ` paitric' cennsrián, Metr. Gl. 19 `headstall', Plummer MS notes. dotuit ar a cenntruime topheaviness, O'Dav. 200 . cenntruime .i. gin collad, O'Curry 2598 ( Eg. 88, 50(51)d ). cend-urra a slánaigthe `Captain', Heb. ii 10 .

With adjectives.

74 C. chendalaind, ZCP xi 41 § 5 . cendard cassetnach, IT iii 246.80 . dá ech . . . cendbeca, LU 9257 . na dá chendbricc 'the two piebald-headed ones' TBC-LL² 1086 . cnā ceand-buidhi, ZCP v 22 § 16 . tre cnoccuibh corra cenncæla, ZCP vi 290.22 . ic imbirt fidchilli .i. na Cendchaeme (as subst.), LL 8350 (TBC). ingena cendálli cendchassa curly-headed, 31382 (TTr.). do innsaighi cnuic cennchuirr, ZCP vi 60.12 . cendchrom torsech, LL 12064 (TBC). ¤étig freq. as n. pr., see Corp. Gen. etc. trian a scéith chendfhada comdhualaig, ZCP xiii 211.11 . ar coiciud cendḟind Connacht, LL 3224 . See cenann. cheillínill / ceandfolaim, IT iii 92 § 139 . an fer cendgarb, i 273.29 ( FB 40 Eg.). cairrge ceann-gharbha, ML 34.4 . cranngal cheinngér, IGT Decl. ex. 905 . Eoghan an airm cheannghlais, DDána 99.40 . ar taisbenad a craisigi cenn-guirme catha, MR 196.5 . ¤grúcánach see grúcánach. a muinter . . . cendísel Corccaige `hang-head', MacCongl. 29.22 . arocul becc . . . cendisel low-pitched, Todd Lect. vi 42.2 ( LB 134a35 ). laech caem cendlethan, LL 11824 (TBC). cofacca . . . in deilb . . . cennléith, Ériu iv 102.12 . ocbud . . . chendmas, Anecd. i 60.88 . a dhá chraoisigh ceann-reamhra, ML 112.21 . ar ná ba cennscoilte `lest you get your head broken', Tec. Corm. 38.26 . Cuirrín Cheannsholuis, ML 32.18 . dia sephaind céis cenntoll céol, ZCP iii 7.2 . ¤tromm see cenntromm.

Rarely with verbs:

75 ceannlasfaidh a cró coirrshleagh (of warriors), Aithd. D. 16.28 . gu cennlúbdais na clocha na caolsoighdi the stones turned the points of the arrows, Caithr. Thoirdh. 113.6 .

Freq. as second element in compds.

76 See GOI 219 (nochtchenn, ardchenn). Freq. in this use in form -genn, see GOI 87 , O'Rahilly, Ériu xiii 140 . See cloicenn, cromcenn, corrcenn, 1 dícenn, táilgenn, tollcend (1 toll). Note further: crothid conchend catha ceirp, LU 3629 ( SCC 31 , see note in SC2). teiti tair fo thalmain trell / i nEgiptacthaib láncend (the Nile), LL 16325 . m. Fiachach Uanchind, Corp. Gen. 88.7 . Baccan mac Brain meic Eircc hUbulchind, Rawl. 126b43 .

77 Very freq. in nn. loc., see Hog. Onom.

cóir

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cóir or dil.ie/10380
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: co(a)ïr, cooir, cáir, cocorib, cáir, -a, -e

adj i Orig. co(a)ïr ( coair: doaib, Fél. Ep. 432 (coir MSS), cooir, SR 1102 ). Later often cáir (see Bard. Synt. Tr. cited below). See OIPG 20 .

1 In physical sense even, well-proportioned, straight : mná córi, LU 3887 ( SCC 40 ). fer c.¤ cutrumma, LL 11917 (TBC). a dá malaig chóiri, BDD² 853 . do grúadaib córaib, Ériu iii 100 § 25c . mani dirgisiu corop c.¤ unless you right it (a leaning house), LU 8394 ( FB 27 ). lenti . . . cori, Cog. 160.y . in cruindi cōir, ZCP viii 114 § 1 .

2 proper, correct, right; suitable, fitting, just : int ord coir, Ml. 29a6 . tara cricha corai, 51d3 . a siansu corai (a p.), 94c3 . taithesc coir, Wb. 27c29 . ? cocorib gl. congruentibus (uerbis), Enchir. Aug. 81a ( ZCP vii 483 ). ríasind trath c.¤ , Mon. Tall. 131.19 . cách 'na cert c.¤ , ZCP viii 200.4 . a comairci cāir, BColm. 88.24 . cauraid cára (: rodána), Rawl. 158.17 . is anima as choair hi sunt a. is the correct form, Ml. 130c10 . ba hed ón ba ch.¤ , Wb. 10b9 . ar ni c.¤ in fotha utmall, Sg. 4b3 . ind pennit bes ch.¤ fort-su `the penance that is meet for thee', Mon. Tall. 130.23 . damadh c.¤ é if it was right (a grammatical procedure), IGT Introd. 29.33 . bés nī bat cōrai just (of persons), ZCP viii 318.32 . Legal: teora tomalta ata chórai, Críth G. 502 . flaith ciniuil coir, Laws ii 202.24 . a mama core, BCrólige 43 . eallach déne cóire, Ériu xiii 18.16 . With n. pr. in voc. a mmo ch.¤ Cathaīr, Fing. R. 484 . a Ch. chóra (: chróda), CRR 26.y (ch.¤ , 4.11).

3 is c.¤ with follg. verbal or vn. clause: is coir a tuic i ndiad á prosperum , Ml. 84c19 . is coir a thabairt doib (sc. tributa), Wb. 6a21 . ni coir descad pectho do buith i sollumun, 9b13 . ba coir ce na chomalnithe you ought to fulfil it, 13a33 . is c.¤ apronomen diainchosc, Sg. 208a4 . is cōir cīa noderba it is fitting that you should confirm it, ZCP viii 108.9 . gan caoineadh na gcorp is cáir, Ó Bruad. ii 122.9 . c.¤ with semi-adverbial force: mé Eba . . . c.¤ is me dochóidh 'sa crand `by rights 'tis I that should have gone upon the cross', Ériu iii 148 § 1 . cáir do-chuaidh na chomhoideacht fittingly , DDána 73.21 . c.¤ do ghabh T. ré dtaoibh, Content. iv 44 . Cf. is coir do marbhus, Stair Erc. 2215 . See compds. with vbs. With added DO: ni coir do neuch rosacht ronícad Duaid one should not hesitate, Ml. 18d20 . doadbadar híc as coir do chách guide dée lia chéle, Wb. 7a13 . ba coir dúibsi cia doberthe testas dinni you should bear witness, 15d8a . amal as coir domsa gl. sicut est mihi iustum, Wb. 23a21 . c.¤ dhó dol 'n-ar sealbha, Dán Dé viii 17 . With LA: ní coair leu a denum gl. minus dignum est, Ml. 48a8 . issed is choir lais . . . inda sacairt doellad . . . arna tiagsad fo graid nepscuip in his opinion erring priests should not become bishops, Mon. Tall. 134.11 .

4 Compar. and superl. ba coru tra bid adnuntiabit no beth híc a. is the better form here, Ml. 45b14 . conid córu suiscélaigthi da rád fris quam fáith, Trip.² 12 . eirg do Themraig . . . Is córu deit, BDD² 149 . nech dar córa creidemain (with intensive force?), BNnÉ 227 § 130 . cára almsa lem anmuinn, Hackett li 16 . coraite a taithmech `it is all the more proper', Ériu xvii 66.19 . go madh córaide dhó sin do dhéanamh `that he might the more easily do this', Keat. ii 3495 . ba sí . . . as córam, BDD² 41 .

5 Adv. co c.¤ gl. effecax, Ml. 69d12 . go c.¤ properly , Celtica i 95.238 . Without co: ferr co mbad chōir nogabtha | comarbus in Rīg, ACL iii 316 § 45 , CMCS i 50 . ? cōic bliadna cethrachat cōir, Arch. Hib. ii 85 § 46 .

As subst. i, f. (in older lang. often with nasalisation of follg. vowel; n., Críth Gabl.). c.¤ , cáir f., IGT Decl. § 42 (g s. -a, -e). Only c.¤ (as against cáir) correct in verse in phrases ar c.¤ , c.¤ gháoithe, Bard. Synt. Tr. 5.29 . Freq. with k- inflection in later lang.

6 rightness, justness, propriety; that which is right or proper; right, due, justice : ro laad cech alt asa choir dam gl. totus resolutus sum, Ml. 44d2 . find cach c.¤ , ACL iii 229.126 . cona tochmaghad a choir cirt, Ériu xiii 17.16 . do ná gaibhter a coir chirt, 31.5 . coir iar n-ecoir, Laws i 254.12 . do reir cora, v 62.33 Comm. do reir coir, 132.10 Comm. ma dognethea a choïr if you did right, ZCP vii 498.7 . fa cheart córa mo bhaile, KMMisc. 56.11 . a coraigh ┐ a n-egoraigh, Hy Maine 161.3 . fer . . . congbala corach for in popul `maintaining the law', PH 2578 . fagháil na cóire, IGT Decl. ex. 1166 . ag cosnamh a gcórach, 1170 . ar an córaidh right (in their teaching), Mac Aingil 6696 . más í a ch.¤ for that is fitting (chev.), SG 390.6 . ar son . . . na cōra, Beatha S. F. 356 . dí maithtear c.¤ na cána the full amount(?), A. Ó Dálaigh vii 8 . an ch.¤ the correct (weight), TSh. 3636 . atorra sin atá in ch.¤ `between them is the golden mean', SG 242.7 . Cóir Anmann `Fitness of Names' (title of tract), IT iii . In phr. tar in cóir: maoin tar an ccóir 'more wealth than you should have', Ériu lxiii 56 § 30 .

7 See also s. córanna. In sense of claim, due, tribute; hence recompense, compensation, penalty, retribution, punishment (partic. in relig. class. verse): ba mor a chair ┐ a chonach, YBL 159b15 . gan coir as O. . . . ar son mairt do gait T. O. not to be held liable for(?), Trans. RIA xv 19 . do ch.¤ aca nī anfodh, O'R. Poems 2254 `what is justly yours', Gloss. da ndernum cáir if I claim my due, Ériu iv 220.17 . ata coir fer talman air ┐ ní fail a coir ar aennech acu, Stair Erc. 702 . gurab orra sin amháin bhíos a ch.¤ (of death), TSh. 754 (`power, authority', Gloss.). do gheabhadh sé c.¤ it ḟeirg `will bring on you punishment', Content. xix 6 . sgaoil do ch.¤ an chíghshéala `lessen the just claim', A. Ó Dálaigh xxxi 7 `requital for', Gloss. c.¤ ghuine Dé the price to be paid for, Aithd. D. 64.25 . na lean c.¤ meidhe an mheasa, Dán Dé vii 16 . maithiomh cóire m'anma `the offences of (claims against) my soul' (notes), LBranach 3616 .

8 Freq. with follg. gen. correctness, correct form (of); proper (legal) arrangement (for); procedure, device, means (of doing someth.): tre cōir bæguil ar demhan a chance of catching the devil napping, Irish Texts i 42.z . coir n-urnadhma `das Ordnungsmassige' (`hier ist es vornehmlich materiell zu verstehen'), Stud. in E. Ir. Law 109 . nídamcuirfe ar ch.¤ cháirde `reduce me to terms of postponement' SG 111.44 . inna coir chétmuinterasa as an accredited c.¤ , Críth G. 200 . dún iona cáir cinnlitre `a fort as it were a capital letter', Ériu v 60.4 . c.¤ clann a chúil arrangement of locks, Magauran 906 . co na hirmaised coir a dhenma the right method of making it, Anecd. ii 7.3 . ní hí an choir égára is fherr unfair method(?), Rel. Celt. ii 291.10 . c.¤ gaíthe favourable wind: techt la reith choir gaithe `with an unfavourable wind', Ml. 126a5 (leg. la frithchóir gáithe ? note). dorala coir gaethi dóib, LL 1654 . coir na gaithi, Ériu v 156.179 . So also: robu ḟearr in choir dunn co S. inas co hE. etir risin gaeth sin, BB 459a39 . coir seolta, 450a20 . c.¤ gáoidhilge correct pronunciation, IGT Introd. 14.z . dēni cōir ṅgaiscid frim fight fair, TBC-I¹ 1289 . c.¤ n-imdegla means of defence, LL 8437 (TBC). tri chōir nindlaig ┐ imc[h]osāidi in order to create division and strife, TBC-I¹ 2237 . c.¤ irnigde `the right way of prayer', Wb. 4a27 . hi coir lanamnusa `in a proper union, BCrólige 56 . coir molta .i. molad laech do forlaéch, BB 301b46 . c.¤ ortagraiph (sic leg.), Corm. 8 s.v. Cormac = ordagraiffe cōir, Corm. Y 204 . tre ch.¤ séisi `skilful arrangement', ZCP i 64 § 81 . coir cach troiscthe `das ist ordnungsmässig bei jedem Fasten', xv 262.1 . c.¤ tuarastail a fair recompense, Metr. Dinds. iii 352.54 . Perh. with ellipse of noun in: dochansaidhe c.¤ , Ériu xiii 42.17 . canaid c.¤ / coscrach cridemail, LU 8694 ( FB 52 ) (perh. adv.). With adj.: c.¤ tessaide `a febrile (pestilence)', Ann. Inisf. 1093. 10 . See athchomarc, athgabáil, cethrochair, comrád etc.

9 In prep. phrases (see Celtica i 349 and comair): ar ch.¤ choróine in the form of, Dán Dé xx 21 . ? fótha ar c.¤ troda, IGT Decl. ex. 1049 . do coir a coinghilla `by right of', Laws i 266.7 . dá coir near it, BCC 51 . ó nach fuil comhghar dhar gc.¤ (: seanóir), Ériu i 16.15 . cunnig dam mnaí menmnag móir / bess ria c.¤ mo theglaich thúaid, LL 29524 `who can watch over', Ériu vii 232 . re c.¤ mara (: dóibh) beside, LBranach 778 . re coir a cheilebartha `for the purpose of', MR 300.12 . a gc.¤ feadhma ready for, LBranach 6246 . a c.¤ (ar ch.¤, v.l.) druidealta ar dorchacht like, IGT Decl. ex. 672 . tiagait . . . A. ┐ S. a coir a seda co sruth A., Aen. 1311 . tangattar i cc.¤ thurasa d'fios a ttíre fén on a journey, BNnÉ 12.10 . Cf. iar coir Parduis towards P., SR 1180 .

10 In adv. phrases: ní thaudchaid a brú for c.¤ never recovered, LU 6078 (TBC). a thabairt fór c.¤ , PH 2128 . co ná rabhadar rechta nó cinnti senaidh ar coir occo `were rightly with them', CCath. 251 . nī bīat rīg is nī bīat suïdh for a coïr as they should be, ZCP viii 195.12 . fon c.¤ cetna in the same way, Rawl. 87a48 . cona facbatís cnáim . . . i c.¤ re cheli, LB 154a61 . gan clērca iar cōir `without proper clergy', Ériu xviii 60 § 12 . co no fil iar n-a choir, PH 4239 .

11 Compds. With nouns: coir aisneis, Laws i 80.27 Comm. a chóirchloch `o chiselled stone', O'Gr. Cat. 492.33 . i gcóirchuibhreann, DDána 20.24 . coirdírgi, BDD² 31 . coirseis gl. corus, Laws i 132.3 Comm. With adj.: cúinge an chreidimh chóirshlighthigh, Ó Bruad. iii 80.24 . With vb. cairemain .i. is coir-fuaiprid (etymol. gl.), Laws v 106.21 Comm. cōir fūaigt[h]er, Corm. Y 340 (crūach). Perh. as conj. Part. in: nad coir canad do chennaibh, Ériu xiii 17.5 (= c.¤- chanat ?). niba hegna nad coir coiccerta canoin, 31.13 .

dead

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dead or dil.ie/14812
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: deud, dead, deoid, diaid, diud, deoaid, diud, dead, diaid, diaid, diaid, dead, dead, deád, deod, deogh, diad, deid, dead, i ndead, dé, déid, deoidh, -deóidh, -deóigh, diad, díad, ndiad, ndiag, diat, diaid, díaid, diáid, diaig, diaigh, diud, díud, diúdh, diuid, diuidh, diúidh, deud, déud, diaid, deugh, deod, deód, deódh, deodh, déod, deog, deut, déu, deo, dé, deid, déidh, -déidh, -déigh, deoid, déoid, deóid, deóid, deoaid, deoig, diud, díud, diú, diae, dead-, deod-, déod-, deog-, ded-, Dead, diad., Dead, dofeid

n o, n. and ā, f. Neuter gender proved by Sg. 162 a 7 : ní cumscichther dead nindib, and Ériu iii 100 § 22 : diad naidche (Rule of Ailbe). In the 9th century still disyllabic, in the latter half of the 10th century monosyllabic. In early Mid.-Ir. poetry occasionally disyllabic to meet the requirements of the metre.—The ā-inflexion dates back to the Wb. glosses (13 d 9 ; cf. Sg. 212 a 13 ). fo hírdiuid (: triuin), SR 3984 .

DISYLLABIC: deud, Fél. Prol. 220 . dead, LL 135 a 24 (poem ascribed to Mael Muire Othna †887). deoid, Reicne Fothaid Chanainne (late 9th century), Fianaig. 16. 18 . diaid, Thes. ii 340. 3 (Broccán's Hymn). dead, SR 2829 . diud, ib. 3087 . Rawl. 46 a . deoaid, Gorm. Feb. 24 (Mid.-Ir.). diaid, FB § 71 (ambiguous).

MONOSYLLABIC: diud, SR 1568 . dead, LU 51 b 41 (poem ascribed to Cinaed Ua Hartacáin †975). diad (v.l. ded), Rule of Ailbe (10th century), Ériu iii 100 § 22 . diaid ZCP iii 22. 31 (poem from A.D. 982, ascribed to MacCosse). diaid, LL 143 a 41 (poem ascribed to Gilla in Chomded, 12th century). diaid, LL 144 a 48 (poem ascribed to Gilla in Choimded Ua Cormaic, 12th century). Cf. further diaid, Acall. 2508. 3369 . ZCP v 24 § 11 , viii 114. 11 . déidh ZCP iv 237. 16 . dead, ib. iii 19. 36 , all poems in Mid.-Ir. language.

RHYMES: deäd: gleäd, SR 2829 . deäd: gleëd, LL 135 a 24 . diüd: triür, Rawl. 46 a . diüd: biüd, SR 3087 ; but monosyllabic diud: biud, SR 1568 . deöig: gleöad (gleoaid, leg.), Anecd. i 47 st 1 (YBL). Monosyll. diaid: gliaid, LL 144 a 48 . ZCP vi 269 . st 11 . diaid: riad SR 595 . : criaid, ZCP vi 266 § 11 = 3 C 13, 558. 7 . deoid: ceol, LL 146 a 26 . deóid: eóil, Cog. 54. 18 ; 3 C 13, 558. 1 . deóigh: aieóir, ib. 591. 6 . deoidh: móir, Ech. Am. Móir 578 . déidh: éill, ib. 112 .

INFLEXION (for mod. forms cf. also II a, d, e below): n s. (a) dead, Sg. 162 a 7 . LL 135 a 24 . ZCP iii 19. 36 . deád LU 51 b 41 . deod, Lec. Gl. 432 . deogh, C I 2, fo. 30 b . (b) diad, Ériu iii 100 § 22 . —g s. deid, BB 330 a 41 . —a s. (a) dead, SR 2829 . LL 245 b 24 . TBC-LL¹ 1225 Y. i ndead, Wb. 11 a 17 . AU A.D. 772 . Sg. 1 a 5 . 11 b 4 . 18 b 2 . 77 a 9 . dé, O'Curry Trs. déid: deig, FDG 376 . déid, ZCP iv 237. 16 and common in mod. poetry. deod: deog, Ériu ii 174. 12 ; co deo[d] = mod. go deo. deoid, Fianaig. 16. 18 . deoidh, Ech. Am. Móir 578 . Mod. -deóidh, -deóigh. (b) diad, Ml. 23 c 16 . 119 a 4 . Laws iv 366. 1 . díad, Mon. Tall. 139 . 20 . i ndiad , Ml. 17 c 6 . 20 b 4 . 22 a 8 . 35 b 23 . 35 d 11 . 40 c 2 . 42 b 5 . 45 b 3 - 4 , 9 . 48 b 9 . 50 c 5 . 53 c 14 . 63 a 7 . 65 a 12 . 65 b 5 . 75 c 8 . 89 a 8 . 103 b 11 . 91 d 7 . 100 c 2 . 111 c 9 . 127 a 12a . Tur. 131 . Mon. Tall. 131. 15 . i ndiag , Laws i 22. 26 . diat (before s): inna d. sen, Anecd. iii 50. 1 v.l.— diaid, Thes. ii 340. 3 . LL 143 a 41 . 144 a 48 . LB 231 a 3 . FB §§ 65 , 70 , 71 . TBC-LL¹ 695 . 893 . 1000 . 1030 . Laws i 152. 1 f.b. ; v 480. 23 . RC xxiv 180. 20 ; xxix 220 . ZCP iii 22. 31 . Acall. 2175 . 2508 . 2567 . 3369 . 3407 . 3866 . 4069 . 4533 . 4610 . 5397 . 6044 . Cog. 154. 10 . MacCarthy 126. 0 . CCath. 69. 3401 . Fianaig. 54. 5 . PH pass. díaid, Ériu i 120 § 13 . BB 415 b 21 . diáid, FB § 70 . SCC § 20 , § 46 . FA § 31 . TBC-LL¹ 923 . LL 242 a 40 . diaig, Laws i 22. 13 sq. ZCP i 372. 24 ; v 24 § 11 ; viii 114. 11 . RC v 200 § 14 . diaigh, RC xviii 292. 15 . TBC-LL¹ 686 v.l. &c. diud: díud, Trip. 124. 18 . diúdh, AFM v 2036. 12 . diuid: diuidh, ib. 1926. 5 f.b. diúidh, i 290. 5 f.b.d s. (a) deud, Wb. 3 b 28 . 13 b 3 . Thes. ii 44. 10 . Sg. 9 b 21 . 93 b 8 . Mon. Tall. 138. 14 . LL 249 b 27 . déud, Fél. Prol. 220 (v.l. diaid). deugh, RC xiv 453. 2 f.b. deod: deód, FB § 83 , § 90 , 91 . IT i 257. 2 . LU 112 b 4 . LL 126 a 1 . deódh, AFM v 1748. 9 . deodh, ib. vi 1428. 2 . déod, Corm. 34. 6 f.b. deog, RC xii 64. 22 ; xiii 28. 19 . deut, Thes. ii 44. 10 . déu, Mon. Tall. 129. 5 . deo, LL 220 b 31 . Laws v 196. 13 . TTr. 26 . dé, TBC-LL¹ 1488 Y. deid, Wb. 13 d 9 . Sg. 212 a 13 . déidh, Ech. Am. Móir 112 . -déidh, -déigh, mod. poetry. deoid: CCC § 5 Eg. Mon. Tall. 140. 29 . Laws i 26. 10 ; ii 134. 15 ; iii 130. 22 . LL 146 a 26 . IT i 100. 19 . ZCP iii 36. 1 . RC xxiv 174. 10 ; 200. 18 . MacCarthy 68 . 12 . PH pass. déoid, TBC-LL¹ 1897 . deóid (sic), Cog. 54. 18 . deóid, ScM. § 12 . FA § 3 , § 22 . Ériu iii 137. 48 . PH pass. deoaid, Gorm. Febr. 24 (disyllabic). deoig Mon. Tall. 135. 18 , 153. 22 . Laws v 172. 2 f.b. Anecd. i 47 st 1 (YBL). deoigh, ZCP vi 78. 24 . Laws ii 40. 7 f.b. Cog. 40. 16 &c. (b) diud, Ml. 29 a 8 . 40 a 15 . BCr. 18 d 1 . Thes. ii 44. 15 . SR 3087 (: biüd), 1568 (monosyll.). Rawl. 46 a (: triür). Trip. 72. 3 . RC xxiv 147. 12 . díud, Trip. 124. 18 . diú, Mon. Tall. 138. 29 . diae, Laws v 368. 11 .—COMPS. dead- RC xxv 28. 3 . deod-, déod-, MacCarthy 280. 5 . AFM iv 778. 4 . deog-, MacCarthy 302. 19 . ded-, v. dedól.

Dead as an independent word was becoming obsolete at the beginning of the Mid.-Ir. period, and words like deired, cenn, and forcenn took its place. It was preserved, however, in prepositional phrases; but the o-inflexion gave way to the ā-inflexion, which latter seems as old as the Wb glosses (see above). The acc. sg. remained intact in the phrase co deod = mod. go deo. The change from the o- to the a- inflexion was facilitated by the parallel phrase i ndigaid (i ndegaid) which in Mid.-Ir., apart from the slender -d, was bound to fall together with diad. Mid.-Ir. i ndiaid, then, seems a contamination of Oir. i ndiad and i ndígaid; both render Lat. proinde ( .i. i ndígaid sin, Ml. 71 b 11 ; .i. i ndiad sin, Ml. 65 a 12 , 75 c 8 ; .i. inna diad, ib. 63 a 7 ); corresponding to Sg. 77 a 9 : mac i ndead a athar, Wb. 30 b 14 has: maic i ndegaid a nathre. Mid.-Ir. has i ndegaid (i ndegaid a athar, MacCarthy 282 , 11 f.b. ) and i ndiaid; but there is no trace of a Mid.-Ir. i ndígaid. In a phrase like the following: táinic in rechtaire i ndíaid in áil the steward came to get the fork RC xxix 220. 7 , díaid should be traced to Oir. dígaid rather than to diad.

ORIGIN: Dead, i.e. †de-vedo-, is a cpd. of prep. de, as the interchange dead: diad (cf. degaid: dígaid) shows, and an old vn. of †de-ved leads off or out, the opposite of †to-ved leads on, Oir. dofeid. For †de-fed cf. do-díat (i.e. †dí-ved-s-t) translating Lat. inducat Ml. 35 c 30 (dum-dísed diducet ib. 78 b 18 , dan-diat deducit eum Sg. 77 a 4 ), and interchanging with de-, as in dead: dusn-deraid (†de-ro-fáid) transl. eduxit, Ml. 99 b 13 . Cf. dered `end,' orig. vn. of †de-reth-. Thus tuus and dead spring from one and the same root. To fedid as the root of dead also point the adjectives didenach, dedenach, probably derivatives from a vn. †diden (cf. air-diden, tu-diden), cf. fedan, deidine.—Stokes' derivation, Sprachschatz 144 , is wrong.

I End, conclusion, utmost limit , as the opposite to tuus or tossach, usually referring to time or serial order. deod .i. deired, Lec. Gl. 432 . deogh .i. deradh, C I 2, fo. 30 b . ó thossach co déidh, ZCP iv 237. 16 . ó thossuch co dead, LL 245 b 24 . ó thús co deig, FDG 376 . diud at the end of: diud noichtich, BCr. 18 d 1 .

(a) dead aidche the end of the night: dofil deoidh na haidchi, Fianaig. 16. 18 . iarméirge cert la sruithi diad naidchi tossach laithi, Ériu iii 100 § 22 . d s. deud aidche at the end of the night: laithe nand atraig deud aidche (v.l. diud a., RC xxiv 147. 12 ) LL 249 b 27 .

(b) dead lái the end of the day, the evening : ria ndeód lái, FB § 90 . ré ndeo lái, LL 220 b 31 . TTr. 261. 321 (ndéo). a mbátar and co deód lái co tráth na faire, FB § 83 . rorádi a ara friss imm díud lái, Trip. 124. 18 . d s. deud lái at the end of the day, at eventide : tic Find don ḟuarboith déod lái, Corm. 34. 6 f.b. tapair na trí scitle si deog læi do Chridenbél, RC xii 64. 22 . amal robátar and tráth nóna deód lái, FB § 91 . LU 112 b 4 . trath nóna deog lái, RC xiii 28. 19 . taisbenad inna flede deód lái, FB § 91 . LL 126 a 1 . deugh lói, RC xiv 453. 2 f.b. arcesi scís a láma diud lái, Trip. 72. 3 . ind sailm aurnaigi déu lái the evening psalms of prayer Mon. Tall. 129. 5 . ic crosfigil diú laoi, ib. 138. 29 . Also in the FM in archaizing language: lodar ó Áth Seanaigh deodhlaoí, v 1428. 2 . doluidh deódhlaoí láiṁ re Sionainn, ib. 1748. 9 .—For diae, Laws v 368. 11 : diae inn laei aircendai at the end of the appointed day, read diud.

(c) dead bliadnae the end of a year, d.¤ fogmair the end of the autumn. Arch. in FM: co diúidh teora mbliadhan, AFM i 290. 5 f.b. go diuidh mbliadhna, vi 1926. 5 f.b. ní roionnsaigh cechtar nae díobh aroile go diúdh foghṁair, ib. 2036. 12 .

(d) dead in domain the end of the world: co tici dead in domuin, ZCP iii 19. 36 . rosuigidead na cána so ó thosach domain co diaig to the end (`go deo'), Laws v 480. 23 . indiu déud domain (v.l. diaid), Fél. Prol. 220 .

(e) the end of life: Issac fri dead náissi: glead gníma glangáisse, SR 2829 .

(f) the end of a numeral series: ocht ṁbliadna déc... acht fil co diaid in míle, ZCP iii 22 st 36 .

(g) the conclusion of a book, a psalm, a chapter , &c.: hua sunt conrici diad in tsailm from here to the end of the psalm Ml. 119 a 4 . hi tosuch in tsailm...┐ ised dano tadbat inna diud, ib. 40 a 15 . ó `dixi custodiam' co díad (sc. of the psalm) Mon. Tall. 139. 20 . corrici diat[h], ib. 139. 25 . crónic ...inti medon ┐ tossach ┐ dead, LL 135 a 24 .

(h) grammatically: Auslaut, the end of a word, as opposed to tossach `Anlaut'; transl. Lat. finis: in principio mouentur .i. ní cumscichther dead nindib, Sg. 162 a 7 .

(i) FIG. ní thoracht Cormac déad na fírinni rodfír, LU 51 b 41 .

(k) IDIOM. ó thús diaid from the beginning to the end: adfiadat a scéla ó tús díaíd dó, BB 415 b 21 . ó thúis deireadh is still usual (W.K.).

II PREP. PHRASES.

A Prep. governing the accusative.

(a) co dead frequent in the phrase ó thús co d.¤ , v. above I, c, d, f, g; esp. co deod (originally the d s.), mod. go deo (in all districts), like choidhche, go héag, go bráth of future time, to the end, always : beidh sé gan ṁaith go deo he will be no good any more. sin é an buachaill gan eagla go deo (W.K.). faire go deó rú!, Midnight court 418 . Most frequently with a negative = never: ní thiocfaidh sé taobh liom go deo airíst; ní ḟéadfainn é go deo; ní bheidh sé agut go deo (W.K.). For Aran cf. Finck ii 86 .—co dé .i. co bráth, O'Curry Trs.

(b) fri dead, v. I e.

(c) fo diad last, after verba movendi: in ordine secunda ponuntur .i. inna hí batar buthi ar thuus dusrale fo diad, Ml. 23 c 16 .

(d) i ndead, i ndiad ; Mid.-Ir. i ndiaid (rarely i ndeod, Ériu ii 174. 12 ). Eclipsis abandoned in Mid.-Ir. Cf. Acall. 2567 . YBL 179 b 3 . FB § 71 . In Mod.-Ir. a great variety of forms: i ndiaidh in all districts except the north (where as in Scotland déidh is used). In Kerry the following forms are heard: i ndiaig (-g from -idh), i ndeoig; i ndia, i ndeo' (i ndeodhadh), esp. before the particle san: na dhia san, but na dhiaig sin; i ndéig (na dhéig sin), na dhé' san. Very frequent is na dheabhaig sin (na dheabha san) thereafter, perhaps a contamination of i ndeoig and i ndeaghaig (still in use). Don. déidh is by Quiggin Dial. Don. § 162 traced to Oir. dead, degaid.

(α) of serial order, after, following after. Often synonymous or interchanging with i ndegaid. Corresponding to Lat. sequens, consequens: sequenti uocali .i. i ndead in deoguir bís sin chétna sillaib, Sg. 18 b 2 . de spiritali consequenti eos petra .i. a nail inna ndead, Wb. 11 a 17 . turbae quae sequebantur: na buidne robátar ina dhiaid, PH 4625 . 4575 ( ib. 4383 i ndegaid in the same phrase). Opposed to Lat. praecedens and pronominal cpds. with ré n-: praecedenti, gl. buithe inna diad, Ml. 35 b 23 . dá charpat rempe díb ┐ dá charpat na diaid following her (sc. Medb) TBC-LL¹ 695 ; same phrase Acall. 3866 . —is i ndiad et dixisti' dutiagat `come after Ml. 111 c 9 . bó i ndiaid (v.l. i ndíad) ind lóig, Thes. ii 340. 3 . beith i ndiaid to follow Laws i 152. 1 f.b. —MOD. ní hé sin tá uaim ach an ceann na dhiaig sin airíst the one immediately following (of a chapter in a book).

(β) after, in succession to; often translating Lat. successio, post. Type: macc i ndead a athar, Sg. 77 a 9 . Synon. i ndegaid. cen macc i ndeog a athar for Érinn co bráth, Ériu ii 174. 12 (v.l. a ndiaid, Rawl.); but: maic i ndegaid a nathre, Wb. 30 b 14 . in baile seo do fognum dó ┐ dá muintir ina diaid, Acall. 5397 . Iugaine a ndiaid Eirimoin, ib. 2567 . 2508 . Acall. 4969 . Cf. Laws i 22. 13 sq. , 26 . successionem generis .i. inna diad, Ml. 127 a 12a .— is airi asindet som donaib huaislib i ndiad inna nísel, Ml. 40 c 20 . léic foraindi ┐ forár maccu inár ṅdiaid a fuil ┐ a dígal PH 2947 . atruacht Gamut a ndiaig I., ZCP viii 114. 11 .— Often opposed to remi: coná bói remut nách hi[d] diaid ríg bas eolchu indái, PH 3968 . 3970 . roiṁe ┐ i ndiaidh bídh, Donlevy 392. 6 ; 120. 3 ; iv 21 ; i nd. a bháis, ib. 27. 19 — ardor solis...deirmess mór inna dead following on it AU A.D. 772 . post illos, gl. i ndead inna ní sin, Sg. 1 a 5 .

cách i nd. alaili one after the other (= diaid i ndiaid, μ): continua successione .i. cách díb i ndiad alaili, Ml. 42 b 5 . 72 b 27 . nosdíbairg na trí coecta snáthat cách i ndiaid araili díb, FB 65 . d. araili id.: berid secht cluichi diaig aroili RC v 200 § 14 . —Cf. mod. cách i ndiaidh a chéile.

(γ) with 3 sg. poss. pron. and the demonstr. particle sin = thereafter, thereupon ; often synonymous with iarum, iarsin, annsin. i ndiad sin, transl. proinde, Ml. 65 a 12 . 75 c 8 (synon. i ndigaid sin, gl. proinde, Ml. 71 b 11 ); transl. etiam, Ml. 20 b 7 (wrongly corrected by the editors to inna d. s.).—Cf. the mod. Sc. an déigh sin, an déigh so afterwards. inna diad, transl. proinde, Ml. 63 a 7 . Mid.-Ir. na diaid, na d.¤ sin. inda diaid, Mon. Tall. 131. 12 . inda diad sin, ib. 131. 15 . atchúala ina diáid guth ind aingil, FA § 31 . doberthea a chlann co Brian ina diaid afterwards RC xxiv 180. 20 . roeirgedar maccáim re hescradaib...┐ rodíanscáilit lind do chách ina diaid sin, Acall. 4610 . ina diaid thereupon PH 857 . 1144 . 2890 . Donlevy vii 26 ; xviii 10 ; 270. 7 . go haithghearr na dhiaidh shortly after ib. 456. 21 . trí míosa na dhiáigh sin three months after Bedel Gen. xxxviii 24 . mór chian na dhiaigh sin, OCL 20. 1 .—Very frequent in mod. lang.: tamall na dhiaigh sin shortly after.

(δ) i ndead, inna dead, idiomatically as a term of reference = below, further on, referring to something more explicitly defined in what follows. i ndead: duo possuit necessaria, gl. asbeir i ndiad which he mentions further on Ml. 50 c 5 . ib. 45 b 9 . duplicis salutis auctor Ezechiae fuit Deus .i. a nasbeir i ndiad as he says below ib. 48 b 9 . Here also Ml. 35 d 11 : iste inquam &c. .i. i ndiad , and 103 b 11 : nihil inquam &c. , gl. i ndiad , where indiad by Sarauw, ZCP iv 86 , and Stokes, Thes. i 717 a , is wrongly explained as a verbal form translating Lat. inquam; in both instances the glossator omitted the usual `asbeir,' as it might be understood from the Lat. inquam to which he added his gloss. inna dead; as the parallel phrases im d.¤ , inár nd.¤ show, inna contains the 3 sg. m. (f.): issed són desimrechtaigedar som namma inna dead it is this which he exemplifies below Sg. 11 b 4 . imchomarc insin huile ┐ ishǽ a thuassulcud in comthod talmaidech asber inna diad .i. prohibe &c. , Ml. 53 c 14 . ib. 22 a 8 . 65 b 5 . 89 a 8 . 100 c 2 . inna ndiad immediately after Ml. 91 d 7 , where the plural refers to `dispensationes.' With following sís: issí in míimbert asbeir inna diad sís, Ml. 17 c 6 . ib. 45 b 3 .—neut. do réir mar cuirthear síos é na dhiaidh so (i.e. in the following chapter), Donlevy 392. 7 . it dead, orig. after you (viz. the reader), i.e. below: conad impi sein tarla etarru ar marbad Hectair itiáid, LL 272 a 40 . TTr. 1900 . More usually the 1 sg. or pl. is employed: im dead, inár ndead: amal atá inár ndiaidh, MacCarthy 126 o . IT iii 69 § 17 . mar indeósus in scél inár ndiaidh as the story will tell afterwards CCath. 69 . —Cf. also Donlevy xxi 1 f.b. : an teagasc Crísduighe si nár ndiaidh. —The phrase is still in use.—Synon. inár ndegaid, diár néis ( Sg. 195 a 2 ).

(ε) after verba movendi, after , denoting the aim or object of many verbs, syn. i ndegaid, i nindsaigid. dol (techt, &c.) i nd. to follow: luid in mac bec na ndíaid dia nimdibe, TBC-LL¹ 923 . dolotar i nd. Atharni, YBL 179 b 3 . tibra itá i Loch Con...téit na diaig intan tráiges, ZCP v 24 § 11 . ragaid Líban it diáid, SCC § 20 . tángadur cách ina diaid, Acall. 2175 . marcsluaigh...ag dul nár ndiaigh OCL 25. 12 . an tí rénar toil teacht im dhiaidh se diúltadh é féin, TSh. 222. 25 . to approach : ag dol i nd. deiridh decaying , a common phrase = ag d. chum deiridh, W.K. follow with intent to overtake, pursue : go dtigidh tóir id dhéidh, Ech. Am. 112 . ac teacht le fíochniṁ ina ndeoidh, ib. 578 . rith i nd. to run after: nobered rith báise na ndiaid, TBC-LL¹ 893 . ceangailte do neithib saoghalta ┐ ag rioth na ndiaidh, Donlevy x 2 . gabáil i nd. to pursue : gabmáidne uile a ndiaid ind óclaig, Acall. 6044 . dorónsat airbirt tenn a ndiaid a comalta, ib. 3407 . rolebling léim ina diaid sum, FB 70 . cur i nd. to send against (or to): rocuired D. ndiaid (= i nd.) na muinter día narcain, Cog. 154. 10 . docuiredh teachta uatha ina dhiaidh, OCT 54.21 . ag drud na ndéoigh approaching them 3 C 13, 591. 6 . to throw after: docer a samthig inna diad, Tur. 131 . focerd ceirtle ana ndiaidh, RC x 68. 7 . to call, shout after: doriugart Georgi a ndiaid na míled, PH 1335 . Cf. Sc. chuir misi nan déidh mo ghlaodh, Macd. 325 b .

(ζ) buith i nd.¤ (a) with a personal subject: to be after, i.e. to seek, to look for, try to get, pursue. bái sium a ndiaidh a athardha he persevered in his endeavours to recover his patrimony AFM vi 2094. 5 . in lucht marbta ro bai ina n-diaidh-siumh, CCath. 5763 . 5768 . dḟosgail sé é is thóig sé leis an rud a raibh sé na dhiaidh which he was looking for Súil Uí Dhubhda 4. 19 . is mian leis bheith a ndiagh a thoile, Ériu v 128 § 27 . Cf. táinic...a ndiaidh an áil to get the fork RC xxix 220 . —(b) with neuter subj. to be left, spared: sgriosag an tír is níl na ndiaig acht flíoch is fiadhaile Midnight court 79 .

(η) with verbs like slaodaim, tarraigim, stracaim I drag or trail after me: siubhail nó stracfad san lathaig am dhiag, Midnight court 134 . —Synon. i ndegaid, TBC-LL¹ 1924 .

(θ) after in the foll. phrases: as marb uile Fianna...olc atú a ndiaid na ríg rán, Acall. 3369 . co cend trí lá nícon reilgthe láig dia mbúaib ina diaid, Ériu i 120 § 13 (`to commemorate him,' Meyer). nach dleaghair do neach cuṁa do dhéanaṁ i ndiaidh an tí théidh uaidh, TSh. 238. 16 . tá sé anuaigneach i ndiaidh a ṁic (W.K.).—Synon. i ndegaid.

(ι) behind : féach id dhiaigh, transl. respice post te, TSh. 15. 2 ; very common after fácbaid to leave something behind one: dfág sé an raṁan na dhiaidh he left the spade behind him (W.K.). Numerous exx. Finck ii 81 .

(κ) since : leo so dorinneadh na cinidheacha annsa doṁan a ndiaigh na díleann, Bedel Gen. x 32 .

(λ) with vb. ` bind': to bind or fix sth. to a thing in motion , as a ship or a chariot. noscengland Cuchulainn Ercoil i ndiáid a charpait leis, FB § 70 . cenglathar err trén tnúthach i nd. erri óencharpait, ib. 71 . ceanglaidhidh an toiléan sin (sc. Éire)...a ndiaigh bhur long, OCT 9.4 .

(μ) idioms: diaid i ndiaid one after another = cách i ndiaid alaili (d, β). Of persons and actions: ré nói ríg déc diaid i ndiaid in continuous succession LL 144 a 48 . amal rachansam cech cert diaid i ndiaid, ib. 143 a 41 . a rígha ┐ a thóisigh diaigh a ndiaigh forin leith sin doréir a ndualgus, ZCP i 372. 24 . tángatur in fían...muin ar ṁuin ┐ druim ar dhruim ┐ d. i nd. da innsaige, Fianaig. 54. 5 . re tri lá d. a nd. for three successive days CCath. 3401 . dá chreich diaigh a ndiaigh la gallaib for muintir Sercacháin RC xviii 292. 15 . rochuir in dá chroich diaid i ndiaid forin marb, LB 231 a 3 . a bhara fa gach aon aca bás dḟulang diaidh i ndhiaidh, TSh. 4.21 . san aois féin lé ngadtar bríogha an chuirp d. i nd. go gcuireann an bás fa ghréim fa dheóigh é, ib. 67. 7 . na ndeighḟer ndiongmála lás ro hernaidhmeadh í diaidh i ndiadh, AFM vi 2048. 15 . baí an tíarla ac dol i ndaoinib d. i nd. gaining more and more people to his side ib. vi 2082. 14 . ib. 2234. 15 . naoi ccéd bliadhain deóigh a ndeóigh, 3 C 13, 558. 1 . ib. 368. 15 .—In sp. l. superseded by diaid ar ndiaid or i nd. ar nd.: do cailleadh iad go léir i ndiaidh ar ndiaidh (or d. i. nd.), W.K. do thuiteadar go léir i nd. ar nd. na gcodladh, Éinín órdha 2. 7 . Syn. cenn i cenn, druim ar druim.

i ndiaidh a chinn, i nd. mo chinn, &c. A modern idiom = headlong : do thuit sé a ndiaidh a chinn, Tor. Dh. Oss. 87 n. 3 . an taos óg aibriosc do theilgean a ndiaidh a gcinn a mbealach a mbasgaidhthe, Donlevy xviii 25 . ag imtheacht i ndiaidh a chinn without thinking, without reflecting, W.K.—dochunnaic ar tús ar dorus ifirn croinntighi ┐ na pecthaid aga píanadh inntu ┐ drem díbh aga crochadh a ndiaidh a coss (hung by their feet) ┐ dream eile a ndiaidh a láṁ ┐ drem ele a ndiaidh a folt ┐ dream a ndiaidh a teangthadh ┐ drem ele [a n]diaidh a raigthidh, Lib. Flav. ii 38 vo b 15 . an tráth dochaithfinn an tsleagh...a ndiaidh a buna (sic leg.) is a hurloinn, Brooke and R. 268. 15 - 16 .

dul i nd. a láime, mod. idiom, to go to the bad Dinneen.

na dhiaidh sin is uile, mod. idiom (also Sc.), all the same: d'imthig sé ródhianach ach na dh. s. i. u. do bhuail an tiasc leis. Also na dheabha san is uile ; cf. Manx na ili, ny yeih nevertheless. Syn. marsin féin.—Cf. e ζ.

B Prep. governing the dative.

(e) fo deud, fo diud ; Mid.-Ir. fo deoid. Mod. : fé dheoig, fé dheoig sin, fé dheo'san (fé dheabha san, see d above), W.K. synon. fé deireadh.—Translates `in fine' Sg. 9 b 21 . quasi sterquilinium in fine perdetur : trascérthar fa deóid amal salchar, PH 6063 .

(α) at last, in the end, ultimately , subsequent to all else in occurrence (but ina diad subsequent to what immediately precedes). Often, as the final link in a series of events, introduced by ar thuus, and continued by iarum, iarsin, iartain, ina diaid, &c. Opp. ar thuus, hi tuus : roét som sochaidi hi tús róslá úad uli fo deoig, Mon. Tall. 135. 18 . ar tús...iartain...fa deo, Laws v 196. 13 . cael dóib ar thús in drochet lethan imurro fo deóid, FA §§ 22 , 23 . co gránna ar tús ┐ álaind fa deoid, RC xxiv 200. 18 . dot ṡroigled for tús...┐ dot chrochad fa deoid, PH 2851 . ar tús...fa deóid, ib. 2142 . MOD. ar dtúis (a dtúis)...fé dheoigh.— ní fuair ní do biud...fo diud acht lubai in talman, SR 1568 . fo diud, ib. 3087 . ructha fo diud...a triur i mBabilóin, Rawl. 46 a . crosfigild iarum fa deud, Mon. Tall. 138. 14 . a cétul uli fa deoid, ib. 140. 29 . is and dothuit fo deoid, Laws ii 124. 15 . is éicean dó in ferann dḟácbáil fo deoid, iii 130. 22 . a ferunn rena braighe a braighe fo deoigh last of all, ii 40. 7 f.b. v 172. 2 f.b. fo deoaid in degbuaid, Gorm. Febr. 24 . a natberi sin fo déoid what you said last TBC-LL¹ 1897 . loinges O. ┐ loinges L. ┐ loinges na hingine Ruaide fa dheoigh, Cog. 40. 16 . ScM. § 12 . silled ┐ comrád iarum tadall na tam iarsin in gním fén (adultery) fa deoid, PH 7809 . nonbéra fa deoid do aittreb na flatha nemda, ib. 5358 . ib. 4297 . 4201 . 1679 . 1916 . 2656 . 6651 . 7221 . toibéchar fair co díchondirclech fa deoid ó Dia, ib. 4113 . an cholann do chur i nuaim úrghránna...do dheanaṁ talṁan dí fa dheóigh, TSh. 32. 28 ; ib. 67. 8 ; 222. 13 . fa dheóigh damnughud síorruidhe, Donlevy 148. 24 . dofuair bás fá dheoidh a gc&rdot;ann na croiche, ib. 32. 24 ; 364. 5 . neaṁaithrighe fá dheoidh final impenitence, one of the sins against the Holy Ghost, ib. 176. 15 ; 180. 3 , 17 .

(β) at last, at length , in a weakened sense, sometimes interchanging with iarsin thereupon . Often hardly distinguishable from (α). rofaillsiged dano fó deóid do Adamnán &c. (v.l. iarsin LB) FA § 3 . fortamlaigid in leoman fo deoid (v.l. andsein) forsin triur aili, RC xxiv 174. 10 . rolen in cullach ┐ dorug air fo deoigh, ZCP vi 78. 24 . iarsin dodechudsa fa deoid cor ṡuides i fiadnaise in dúileman, MacCarthy 68. 12 . Mon. Tall. 153. 22 . CCC § 5 Eg. IT i 100. 19 . nocon ḟuaratar cinaid oc Ísu...fa deoid dodechatar ann dá ghuforglige, PH 3144 .

(γ) for the last time, of order: conid hé sin marb rotaithbeógad fo deoid i nÉirind the last dead man restored to life ZCP iii 36. 1 .

(δ) last, i.e. at the end, in the rear . praeposterans .i. aní ba buthi ar thuus do thochur fo diud, Ml. 29 a 8 . anas suthin immurgu ished rolaad fo deid, Wb. 13 d 9 ... ar thús...isin luc tánaisi...isin tres luc...fáth airic imorro fa deoid is placed last Laws i 26. 10 . mo chland do dul hi cath ┐ hi crích ría cách ┐ do bith fo deóid oc tuidecht essi, Expuls. 48 .

(ε) finally , indicating the last point or conclusion of a discourse, &c. ced ed tra fo deud. amal foruigensid do peccad fognid do fírinni, Wb. 3 b 28 . fá dheóig mo dhear -bhráithreacha bíghídhe láidir sa dTighearna, Ephesians vi 10 .

(ζ) mod. idiom fé dheoidh sin is uile, a strengthened fé dheoidh : bhí sé a bfaid na ṡeasaṁ suas ach thuit sé f. d. s. i. u. but at last he fell, W.K. Synon. fé dheireadh thiar thall. Cf. d μ.

(η) mod. air ndiaidh in what follows, below : na coinghill air a labhramuid air ndiaidh the conditions we are going to speak of Donlevy 332. 14 . isan miontṡaothar so ar nd., ib. x 1 f.b .—diaid ar nd., v. d μ.

(θ) mod. as diaidh : do snaidhmeadh sí le cúigear as diaidh a chéile she was married to five men in succession (W.K.).

III Cpds. dead-blegon o, n. Last milking , opp. cét-b. : a cétblegon i llestar for leith a ṅdeadblegon i llestar naile, RC xxv 28. 3 . LL 271 a 10 . dead-ḟlaith i, m. f. Last prince or ruler (cf. déden-rí): Cleopatra... deogflaith Greg, MacCarthy 302. 19 . deodhḟlaith cheneóil Duacháin, AFM iv 778. 4 . — Cf. ded-ḟlaithus BB 11 b 32 . MacCarthy 292 g . dedól, q.v. air-dead, air-diden, q.v. ? dāl de dālaib dedarbe 'one of the encounters at the final breach' Celtica xxi 201.22 .

MOD. see I k, II a, d, e, ζ, η, θ. Sc. déidh, deóidh, deodh (air dheodh otherwise, else ).

1 degaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 degaid or dil.ie/15058

Forms: degid, degaid, digaid, dĭgaid, degaid, digaid, degaid, deguid, dedaid, dedaig, degaig, degaich, dega, deagha, dheagh, ndagaid, negaid

adj i, a s. in i ndegaid n-, nom. prep. with gen. Old vn. of †do-saig (cf. con-dïeig) seeks, searches , and regularly developed from †dí-ṡagid > deägid > degaid. Never †dechaid (cf. fochaid). — degid only Acr. 10 c 3 . degaid, Wb. 30 b 14 . Sg. 5 a 2 . 7 a 4 . 7 b 1 , 6 . 26 b 7 . 101 b 1 . Tur. 74 . Thes. ii 357. 14 . The form digaid only in Mil (where degaid does not occur): Ml. 71 b 11 . 78 c 14 . 81 c 3 . 111 a 5 . 138 c 18 ; probably dĭgaid (otherwise Thurn. Hdb. 458 ). For the interchange degaid: digaid, cf. dead: 1 díad, which latter form, like digaid, in Oir. only occurs in Mil (and once in Tur). As to the confusion of degaid, digaid with dead, diaid, see dead under Inflexion.

ECLIPSES a following stressed syllable: i ndegaid nÍsu, Tur. 74 . i ndegaid ṅguttae, Sg. 5 a 2 . i nd.¤ ṅDé, 101 b 1 . —Only Oir.

ASPIRATION only Mid.-Ir. (cf. i ndiaid). a nd.¤ Chelestíni BB 10 a 32 . a nd.¤ chlainde Morna, Acall. 2817 . —Cf. SR 6042 . SG 67. 20 . ZCP viii 115. 15 .

MID.-IR. SPELLINGS: degaid, deguid, dedaid ( TBC-LL¹ 2187 Y), dedaig ( TBC-LL¹ 400 Y; FDG 340 ), degaig ( TBC-LL¹ 1558 Y), degaich ( Lec. 353 a 47 ), dega ( Laws iii 40. 2 , 4 ). na deagha sin, Lib. Flav. ii 7 a 1. 8 f.b. ina dheagh sin, 8 a 1. 6 (hardly for dead). i ndagaid , Todd Nenn. 48. 1 (confusion of i nd.¤ with i nagaid). PHONET. a negaid , ZCP viii 115.15 . Cog. 164. 8 .

MOD.-IR. i ndeaghaidh, frequent in poetry and also heard in the spoken language. Cf. Quiggin Dial. Don. § 162 and dead II A (d). For deabhaidh, v. ib.

Originally in search of. Of serial and temporal order, synon. with i ndiaid ( i ndigaid, Ml. 78 c 14 = i ndiad , 42 b 5 , 72 b 27 . i nd.¤ .i. i ndiad , Cog. 164. 8 ). Translates Lat. post, Sg. 101 b 1 . Tur. 74 . proinde, Ml. 71 b 11 . Refers to Lat. sequens, Sg. 7 b 6 . subsequens, 7 b 1 . successio, Ml. 78 c 14 . Acr. 10 c 3 . — The original sense is still apparent in a phrase like the foll.: conadh aṁlaidh sin fuair (sc. in chaillech) bás i nd.¤ Suibhne in the pursuit of S., BS 82. 13 .

(a) loc. after, behind; of serial order after, following after (cf. dead II A (d α)).post deum .i. i nd.¤ ṅDé next to God Sg. 101 b 1 . i noensillaib disi ┐ in gute inna degaid, 7 b 1 . ib. 5 a 2 . 7 b 6 . dogéntais drúid tinchetla na ndegaid arná fétaitis tichtain arís, LL 13 a 34 . darónad cipi oenchatha do gallaib ... ┐ tucad ina negaid (sic) sen é .i. i ndiad na nanmargach, Cog. 164. 8 . ib. 82. 7 . vii mba ina ndeághaidh sin following them ML 4. 14 . robtis do chethramthain scáilte ricfaidis dochum in dúnaid i ndegaid do charpait TBC-LL¹ 1184Y. rasrengad i nd.¤ a ech ┐ a charpait, TBC-LL¹ 1924 (cf. dead II (d η)).—Often opp. to remi: vi sluaig rempi...vi sluaig na degaid, SR 4876 . Críst reum Críst im degaid, Thes. ii 357. 14 . PH 4383 . — after, in succession to (cf. dead II (d β)): maic i ndegaid a nathre, Wb. 30 b 14 . rogab in ríge a ndeadhaidh a athar, BB 9 b 46 . ib. 7 a 46 . 9 b 38 . 10 a 32 . TFrag. 16. 18 ; 50. 19 ; 96. 9 . cech ... i nd.¤ alaili (alaile f.) one after another = cech...i ndiad alaili (cf. dead II d β). continua successione .i. cech rí i ndigaid alaili, Ml. 78 c 14 . Acr. 10 c 3 . Sg. 7 a 4 . cech lathi i ndigaid alaili, Ml. 111 a 5 , cf. lá i nd.¤ alaili, LU 130 a 37 . degaid i ndegaid = diaid i ndiaid: mas dega i ndega, Laws iii 408. 21 .

(b) of temporal order: after, following immediately on. is gnáth lie i naibnib i ndigaid flechud mór, Ml. 81 c 3 . mí rempi ┐ dechmaid ina deghaidh, Laws i 198. 3 f.b. bó ...rogaod a ndeghaidh a daim, TFrag. 36. 3 f.b. foraindi ┐ forár maccaib inár ṅdegaid, PH 2731 .

i nd.¤ sin proinde Ml. 71 b 11 . Cf. i ndiad sin (dead II d γ). ina d.¤ sin thereafter, then , very common in Mir. ina d.¤ sin táinic Conall assin baile amach, Acall. 2711 . ib. 3075 . 3089 . 3234 . 3240 . 3334 . guibhe (i.e. guidh) na dheadhaidh sin cu dlúithdeifirech, Lib. Flav. 23 a 1. 15 . ML 66. 11 . inda degaid sin, 3 B 23, 17 a 11 f.b. na deaghai sin, Lib. Flav. ii 7 a 1. 8 f.b. ina dheagh sin, ii 8 a 1. 6 (or = i ndead). MOD. na dheagha' san, na dheaghaig sin; cf. na dheabhaigh sin ( GJ viii 208 ). ina d.¤ (often referring to a preceding subst.) id., Laws iii 40. 2 . Lec. 353 a 47 . ní dernad remi ná na degaid (sic leg.) mirbail bud mó, PH 32 . BS § 70. 4 . SG 21. 23 .

ina chertdegaid directly afterwards: na ch., MR 200 . 18 . LL 130 a 26 .

(c) after verba movendi, after, to, denoting the aim or object , cf. dead II (d ε). Synon. i ndiaid, occasionally also i ndáil ( i ndegaid catha, Acall. 3440 = i ndáil catha, TTr. 1841 ). dol i nd.¤ like dol i ndiaid: dula dó i nd.¤ in tsluaig SR 3998 . foruirecht...cen dul i nd.¤ Dauid, 6042 . Laws ii 64. 6 . ac dul a nd.¤ catha to go to the battle Acall. 3440 . — ragatsa...inbar nd.¤ , BDD § 12 Eg. tiagait i nd.¤ Diarmada co Teamraig, SG 67. 20 . Snedg. u. Mac R 31. 23 . Laws i 220. 19 . to follow with a hostile intention, pursue. Transl. Lat. insequi: doluid in sindach slán fón caillid ┐ slóg Laigen etir echu ┐ chona inna d.¤ equitibus insequentibus Lat. Lives 85. 15 . Acall. 2817 (= ar slichtlorg, 2777 ). Todd Nenn. 48. 1 .—tic i nd.¤ comes for; also comes in pursuit of. in ned tic ... i nd.¤ a tairb, LL 174 b 11 = CRR 30. 7 . Laws i 104. 15 . doriachtadar...go Róim a nd.¤ Grigair, ZCP viii 115. 15 . TBC-LL¹ 2187 Y. TFrag. 166. 7 ; 172. 21 .—fugiat post Iesum .i. i nd.¤ nÍsu, Tur. 74 .—lingid i nd.¤ jumps after: lingidsom i ndedaig a nónbair, TBC-LL¹ 400 Y. roling sí...ina dh.¤ , BS § 41 .—foceird i nd.¤ throws after: focheirt...in sleig i ndegaig Firbáith, TBC-LL¹ 1558 Y.—Further in ellipt. sentences: fis i nd.¤ mo vii mac send for my seven sons FDG 340 .

(d) beith i nd.¤ to follow or come after , loc. and tempor. Cf. beith i ndiad , dead II (d ζ). `quoniam &c.' do buith i nd.¤ cech ferso, Ml. 138 c 18 . atá lá i nd.¤ alaili, LU 130 a 37 ( TE § 12 ). cid in dirram slóig ... rofail itegaid, LL 174 b 28 . an giolla baoi na dh.¤ , TFrag. 224. 2 . to be born from, descend from: ní ḟuil daṁ at dh.¤ si gan xx ben, BS 78. 2 f.b. to be in charge of (cattle): in comlín bias ina nd.¤ , Laws iv 156. 25 . Also to pursue , RC xvi 407. 5 .

(e) inár ndegaid as a term of reference below, farther on, hereafter = inár ndiad , v. dead II (d δ). mar adéram nár nd.¤ , Laws i 140. 14 . in biad so adérum inár ndedhaigh, ib. ii 234. 12 .

(f) in an idiom. sense after , referring to a departed person. Synon. i ndiaid, v. dead II d θ. Ísu dofuair bás ┐ atát na haspail ac canamain an ciúil so ana degaid, 3 B 22, 67 a 10 . mór ṁban dagéna uch ach i nd.¤ na rouallach, TFerbe 617 . is bethu imaudu [mo bethu] i ndeadaig mo chon, TBC-LL¹ 533 Y. budh henar dhuinn na nd.¤ , Rel. Celt. i 129 . —Cf. also: lelgadar eich Chonchulaind in núr corrice na clocha i ndegaid ind ḟeuir, TBC-LL¹ 249 Y.

drong

Cite this: eDIL s.v. drong or dil.ie/18811

Forms: d., d., drong, druing, drung, drong, druing, drungu, druing, drong, drond, drond[a, dronda

n o, m. in O.Ir. and usually in Mid.Ir. (note also n s. d.¤ n-ingen, d.¤ ngilla cert, SR 6279 ; but: in drong , Sg. 159b5 ). Later ā, f. g s. druing, SR 1227 , 1434 , 2619 etc. d s. drung, 249 , 633 , 855 , etc. a s. drong, 1289 . n p. druing, 8284 ; Fél. Ep. 285 . a p. drungu, Hy. iv 3 ; Fél. Ep. 232 . As ā, f. fiad cach druing dēin, SR 4519 . v s. a drong noeb, Fél. Ep. 401 . Occas. also drond: drond[a, RC xiv 404 § 10 . ? dronda, IT iii 98 § 162 .

Indefinite number of individuals grouped together for some purpose, band, crowd , usually of persons (refers to a more compact and precise number than drem(m)): d.¤ .i. imat, O'Dav. 727 ; Lec. Gl. 62 . cach d.¤ imma rig, TBC-LL¹ 458 . cach d.¤ immá deglaech, cach buiden imma taesech, LL 220b38 ( TTr. 266 ). riched co n-ilhur a d.¤ , SR 341 . tigerna os cech drung, 855 . táet nech ammuig ó nach druing, 3911 . do dilgenn a nd.¤ ndalach, a mban, a mac (of Israelites), 5737 . slúaig sil Adaim, aidbli druing, 2673 , cf. 889 . druing cen crabad ar mo cinn, Trip.² 1316 . im Fer nDiad na nd.¤ , TBC-I¹ 2381 . do Crist na nd.¤ , Anecd. ii 26 § 3 . oenta[id] in druing dindgil, Gorm. May 10 . dom dín ar cech ndruing, KMMisc. 255.9 . atrachtsat dronga écraibdecha i n-agaid Pilip, PH 2547 . éirghit siat 'na tri drongaib, RC xxiv 379.15 . ba ri for drungu domain, Lec. 46b30 . do fhágaibh dronga ag coimhéad na críche, Keat. iii 5397 . Commonly folld. by partitive gen. or DE: sech drungu (dhrunga, v.l.) demne (with gloss .i. sech buidne), Hy. iv 3 . la drongaib (drunga, LB) na ndemna, FA § 31 . d.¤ árchaingel nime im Michél, Fél. Ep. 233 . rotgíallsat druing na fían find, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 20.9 . Brian . . . adrochar le druing nDanar, ZCP viii 120 § 5 . d.¤ d'arbrib angel, SR 791 . d.¤ mor dia miledu armtha lais, PH 848 . roráid fria droing do doinib, 3359 . Of things: in d.¤ briatharde persine tanise the verbal group of the second person, Sg. 159b5 . tria drungo drona dagdrēcht, ZCP xii 246 § 18 . aithne ar dhrongaibh do ceartuibh Gaoidhilgi, IGT Introd. § 2 (2.7) . daronusa doib d.¤ bind bairdne abundance of bardic poetry, Auraic. 5250 = droing mbind, 5247 . saildrong willow-brake (?), 5521 . Of a class or category: atat da droing for ainglib, YBL 169b12 . fó coruib na druingi seo contracts of this class, Laws v 184.23 Comm. do scuibhéaraibh ┐ do lucht bogha ┐ da gach ndruing ré gaiscidh, Keat. iii 5230 . don dá dhroing . . . do chloinn Bhanbha (of two political parties), Keat. Poems 1019 . ag so na sé dronga do Leith Cuinn mar atáid Dál gCuinn, Dál gCéin, etc., ITS xv 13.8 ( Keat. iv ). cia do na trí drongaibh peacthach, TSh. 1515 . na hocht dronga beannaighthe (specified in the Beatitudes), Ó Héodhusa 227.8 . nocon fhaca don droing banda a comālaind womankind , RC xxiii 396 § 2 . don druing daonda mankind , SG 260.12 . an d.¤ maol do ghéill don ccrábhadh (i.e. the clergy), ZCP i 142.4 .

Folld. by partitive DE some of: Ere oll . . . atfeda d.¤ dia dálaibh, Leb. Gab.(i) 92.19 . ma's fír do dhroing dona fileadaib, Lec. 243a1 . Absolutely: ata d.¤ aca rāda có roibi mac aili oc Erc some say , 239d22 . drong . . . drong some . . . others: cuimhnighid d.¤ air charbaduibh ┐ d.¤ aile air eachuibh, Psalms xx 7 . Note also: mar bhís a ndán do dhroing dul when it is the destiny of people to die, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 150.23 . Folld. by rel. clause those who: nach tuc as acht d.¤ do dligh those who deserved it, Ériu iv 118.27 . mar an druing théid síos annsa pholl, Proverbs i 12 . Iábal . . . athair na druinge gá mbí áirnéis of such as have cattle, Gen. iv 20 . a dhrong is caraid damh (= amici mei, Job xix 21 ), TSh. 3918 .

Compds. with adjj.: ó Drobáis drong-adbail of the mighty throngs, Ériu iv 152 § 33 . ¤ḟoirtil strong in retainers, Keat. Poems 793 . With nouns: ardrí for drongaltaib den `strong hosts' (divers degrees and conditions?), ZCP ix 466.3 . ¤buiden: dā drongbuidhin móra, Acall. 4651 . drongbuidhen deghshluaigh, AFM v 1740.14 . Keat. iii 5271 . ? drongdige (gen.?), Metr. Dinds. ii 30.66 . drongdirma, CCath. 4482 ; Hugh Roe 202.19 . ¤ḟolt: ni dighna d. gan dol | rigraidh Connacht ar creidem the thick-haired kings of Connacht (?), Fen. 242.21 .

escomlúd

Cite this: eDIL s.v. escomlúd or dil.ie/20464

u, m. (vn. of as-comlai) going forth, a departure; going, migration: escomlud Longíni | dond ríg-ḟlaith, Fél. Oct. 23 . e.¤ Saturnín the departure (i.e. death) May 2 . ar in n-escomlúd (gl. ob migrationem) Ml. 61a14 . iarsind escumlúd ǽrfotu (gl. post tam longum degressum) 126b1 . ho escuml(u)d .i. do intinscitul in gnimo (gl. ingressu) 15a3 . ic escómlad di (= don anmain) as in churp, PH 8139 . atchiter na hanmand iar n-escumluth a corpaib, Ériu ii 106.27 . YBL 161a5 (escomlug). cech slúag oc escomlód asa longaib, TTr.² 918 . g s. i ndiad ind escumluda hi tempul (referring to ingrediebar templum), Ml. 62b1 . laa n-escomlaithe, O'Mulc. 445 . ria n-uair a escomlaite before his departure ZCP xii 373.35 .

1 fer

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 fer or dil.ie/21665
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: fer, fear, fir, fer, fear, fir, fiur, fior, fir, firu, fira, fiora, fer, feraib, fearaib, firu, fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fer, Fir, Ḟir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, Fir, fer, ferchrechta, ferdrai, ferghlonna, ḟermeic, fermaicc, fermogh

n o, m. n s. fer, Sg. 190b3 , Wb. 10b23 , 11c17 , 22c9 . fear, IGT, Introd. § 151 . v s. fir, Wb. 10a10 . a s. fer, 9d16 ; 31 . 10a3 ; 9 . fear, IGT, Introd. § 75 . g s. fir, Wb. 13a12 . LU 3453 . 7085 IGT, Decl. § 65 . d s. fiur, Wb. 3c8 . 10b22 . 22c9 . Ml. 34d6 . Sg. 66a6 . (in MSS of the Mid. Ir. period often spelt fir: LU 8722 . Hib. Min. 14.472 . PH pass. IGT. Decl. § 65 . Early Mod. fior, IGT, Introd. § 73 . §81 . Keat. iii 2535 . TSh. pass. ) n p. fir, Wb. 22c10 . IGT, Decl. § 65 . a p. firu, Sg. 28a6 . LU 7529 . fira, YBL 123ay . IGT, Decl. § 65 . fiora, IGT, Introd. § 78 , § 151 . BNnÉ 104.36 . TSh. 7248 . g p. fer LU 7084 . d p. feraib, Wb. 12d40 . LU 7524 . fearaib, IGT, Decl. § 65 . (feir n s. Wb. 13a6 , a s. 13a20 , g p. 22c10 is merely an odd spelling).

(a) a man (as opp. to a woman): gl. mas Sg. 156b3 ; gl. vir Ir. Gl. 395 . f.¤ a uiro , O'Mulc. 519 . is e in duine cómlan in f.¤ ┐ in ben, PH 5720 . corp na mna no in fhir, 7425 . eter fhir ┐ mnai, 564 . iter mnai ┐ firu 2796 . bása mac la maccu; ba fer la firu, LU 9336 . in n-uair ropo thressiu flaith firu when ale proved stronger than men (acc. for dat.) LL 173a29 ( CRR 13 ). dorochair coíca láech lais ┐ dorochair f.¤ cach ḟir dia muntir a man for each man (i.e. the same number) TFerbe 675 . regaid f.¤ dar f.¤ ScM. § 15 . edhbrais é féin, fioru, macca, mna do Dhia BNnÉ 292.33 . notmuirfider fein feraib macaib mnaibh, Ériu v 154. 133 . cu ro aīnitis uile feraib maccaib mnaib PH 6309 . Used of Deity: F.¤ cotnic brath, MacCarthy 24.16 . don fhir do cum neam ┐ talma[i]n, ZCP vi 87.15 . a Fhir na ndúl, Dán Dé xxix 30 .

Often taking the place of a pronoun: faith cach f.¤ dinaib feraib hí siu each of these men was a prophet Wb. 12d40 . etarcertar oinfer in chrudsin (gl. unus interpretatur) 13a6 . is f.¤ a ddiis one out of two (explaining Lat. uter) Sg. 75b7 . gabaid cach f.¤ díb rind a claidib ..., LU 7089 . da brathair ... f.¤ díb for Temraig ┐ f.¤ for Lagnib one of them ... the other TBC-LL¹ 50 . f.¤ is deichnemor diop eleven of them Fl. Earls 96.24 . ocht rígh 's ceithre fichid fear eighty-eight kings TD 7.49 .

(b) a husband (opp. to ben `wife'): a f.¤ dligid her lawful husband Wb. 3c7 . do fiur indligid, 3c8 . mad co techt di co fer `if it comes to her going to a husband' 9d32 . dorat Hiruath grád di, intan ba beo a f.¤ fen, PH 832 . tuccastair a mac fein cuíce d'fir as husband MacCarthy 288.22 . aoighe mná nach mair a fear, TD 11.32 . Possibly in this sense in poetry folld. by gen. of place-name in addressing a chief e.g. a ḟir Eithne, TD 1.45 (see note), but cf. end of (c).

(c) freq. folld. by a gen. of definition or description: Find f.¤ Umaill (= Umall's son) Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 14.8 (cf. Aenfer Aife, Ériu i 124 ). co f.¤ ṅDe the man of God PH 1363 . fir nime ┐ soscela Crist (i.e. churchmen ) Laws iv 210.7 .

f.¤ fine a tribesman, relative (within a certain degree) ii 282.7 . f.¤ fiadhnaisi rígh one entitled to be in the king's presence Acall. 2362 . f.¤ gualann righ one entitled to sit beside the king 2361 . f.¤ leptha ríg a king's bedfellow 7752 . f.¤ lethlamha rígh (expl. of patric = patricius), CCath. 63 . f.¤ lāime `perpetrator' (operator) Laws i 244.1 Comm. With abstr. noun: is tú f.¤ aurbága fil la Ultu, LU 8147 ( FB 11 ). f.¤ comtha a companion PH 2630 . v s. a fir chumtha, KMMisc. 242 . rem fear cadaigh ┐ cumainn my confederate and comrade TBC-LL¹ 3115 St. f.¤ comlainn cet a match for a hundred 3883 St. f.¤ in braith the traitor PH 5131 . f.¤ éicne a man of violence 7600 . f.¤ na sáinnte the covetous man 7727 . Esp. to denote an occupation or calling (often in stereotyped phrases, the pl. being formed by áes or lucht): f.¤ tige sáet [ = sét] (gl. arcarius) Wb. 7c9 . fear aire a watchman Kirk s. fīs ( Eg. Gl. 299 ). f.¤ altrama a fosterer , see Laws ii 184.14 . f.¤ bleithe miller (?); grinder (?): saer ┐ fer bleithi ┐ fer muilind, CIH i 287.2 . fear bratuighe a standard-bearer AFM vi 2272.4 . Isaiah x 18 . f.¤ baile visionary: ba síd fir buile, Celtica xix 40 § 1 . f.¤ cerdda a craftsman RC xxvi 44.2 . f.¤ dána a poet CRR 30 . fear dlighidh lawyer Titus iii 13 . f.¤ eclasa churchman Laws v 132.4 . f.¤ fiadaig a hunter Fianaig. 56.31 . f.¤ fognama serving-man Laws ii 390z . f.¤ forcsi spy LU 5404 . fear friotuil, mînighte `an Interpreter ' Kirk ( Eg. Gl. 278 ). f.¤ grād a man in orders Laws v 132.4 . f.¤ inaid a deputy; d'fior ionaid a bprionnsa, AFM vi 2116.16 . f.¤ léighinn a professor , one of the six officers of a monastery ZCP iv 234 . coibnius hi fer léighinn ib. ` lector ' AU 1034 , 1040 , 1042 , etc. f¤ muilinn miller: saer ┐ fer bleithi ┐ fer muilind, CIH i 287.2 . f.¤ uird rainne dispenser, butler TBC-LL¹ 134 . f.¤ spirdo (spirto ?) diviner ( ZCP xxvii 65 ): imaicci fer spirdo laim Chuirc, Anecd. iii 57.17 . f.¤ suic ploughman Laws i 194.26 . f.¤ suirge a lover RC xxxii 134 . fer tecuisc a teacher , one of the six officers of a monastery ZCP iv 234 . f.¤ tige a husbandman, house-holder: fear tighe (synon. with túathannach), Kirk s.v. criadhaire ( Eg. Gl. 111 ). fear an tighe host TD 12.8 . is cóir dona fearaib tighe ... a mbeangáin do scathadh husbandmen Corp. Astron. 46.20 . f.¤ tíre a landowner : dotét fer tíre co fíadnaib lais ... for tí inna mbech 'the owner of the land comes in pursuit of the bees accompanied by witnesses', Bechbretha 189 (e)​ . Folld. by vn. phrase: f.¤ brithe lésboiri a candle-bearer, acolyte Wb. 25d3 . f.¤ dénma bairgine (gl. pistor) Sg. 184b3 . do fir fert[h]ana na cneidhe the inflicter of the wound Laws iii 368.5 . fear a furtochta her deliverer TD 1.39 . fear tabhartha an dlighe lawgiver Numbers xxi 18 . In sense of owner, possessor: ig fir in craind ... ig fir na mbeach, Laws iv 188 Comm. Cf. Fer baile na gcerd .i. Maoilre Búrc; Fer baile úi Bharra .i. Séfrún, Caithr. Thoirdh. i 161 .

(d) in pl. folld. by gen. of place, inhabitants: fir betho, Ml. 16c5 . di feraib Herend nach di feraib betha BDD 94 . rí fer Fáil, LU 2811 . tar cenn fer in betha, Fél. Ep. 414 . fir domain, PH 1074 . fir in airthair ... fir in tuaiscirt, 5381 . f.¤ in tside men of the sídhe, elves BDD 3 . fir hÉrenn, Hy ii 52 , cf. TBC-LL¹ 499 ; 659 . cethra fer nAlban IT i 74.2 . la firu Herend fri firu Alban, BDD 106 . fir Ulad IT i 138.1 . fir Saxan, TD 16.2 . Commonly used to form tribal names (often applied to territory as well as people, the word fir being inflected), e.g. Fir Bolg, Fir Domnand. Fir Galeoin, Fir Manach, etc.; Fir Ól n-écmacht. See Hog. Onom. s.v. Fir; Rawl. Index.

(e) transf. of things or animals; f.¤ fidchilli chessman LU 9073 ( FB 82 ). cindas gontar ind fir ? how are the men taken ? (at chess) Ériu v 32.19 . Of a drinking-horn: f.¤ uaine, corn do bhí ac Finn ... f.¤ tuillidh corn Glais, Acall. 151 ; 154 . Of a bird: f.¤ fann ... focain aird ucht, RC v 202.10 . rinn binn buide fir duib druin, Murphy Lyrics 6 § 6 . céola fer mbrundederg forglan, Ériu xxii 51 , cf. Murphy Lyrics 16 § 24 . ecal fer | fann fet, Ériu xxii 43 § 14 . Of a fish: cend fir tuinde (glossed caput piscis) Hib. Min. 47.19 . Cf. fer tuinn[e] .i. brattan a salmon O'Dav. 1014 . Exceptionally of animals to denote sex: ar geig on fir torrach in banēn, Hy Maine 103 vb24 . bainéan ... ┐ dias ḟear a hen-bird and two cocks TD 15.26 . In the name of a bird , see eiden(n). Humorously applied to butter, ib. 37.6 .

(f) in gramm., person: cētfear illda sumus .i. atamait first person plural Auraic. 307 = ceudpersa, 2675 .

(g) With follg. gen. or adj., forming n.pr. e.g. Fer báeth: LU 6024 . i ndegaid Fir Baíth, 6025 . voc. a Fir Baith, 6023 . As name of a horse, Acall. 271 . F.¤ bend (`man of horns' ? See Heldensage 94 ), gen. Fir bend, TBC-LL¹ 2149 . 2164 . F. caille (`man of the forest,' cf. Lat. Sylvanus, Silvaticus) BDD 39 . voc. a Fir chaille, 110 . ¤cetharraid: gen. Fir cetharraid, Rawl. 144a30 , 162d44 . F.¤ coctha (see cocad): gen. Fir choctha, Rawl. 159b35 . F.¤ corb, Fianaig. 12.13 . gen. Fir chorb, Rawl. 128b33 . d'Fior corb mac Modha Cuirb, AFM A.M. 4727 . F.¤ da chrích: Fer da chrích, Trip. 520. 8 ; 542.30 ; AU 767 . Rawl. 146f43 . gen. Fir da crich, AU 746 . Rawl. 127b45 . Fer dá liach, Rawl. 149a43 . F.¤ dét (cf. Lat. Dentatus): do Fir dét, TBC-LL¹ 2147 . F. diad (`man of smoke') TBC-I¹ 2215 . TBC-LL¹ 3004 etc. ra Fer ṅdiad , 3231 . 3979 . gen. Fir diad, LU 6707 . TBC-I¹ 2210 . TBC-LL¹ 3217 . voc. a Ḟir diad, 3111 . F.¤ febe. (cf. feb) gen. Fir Febe, TBC-I¹ 159 = Fir aba, TBC-LL¹ 393 . F.¤ filed (see fili), Rawl. 156b2 . gen. Fir ḟiled, ib. 3 . Lism. L. p. 342.1 . F.¤ glan, gen. Fir glain, Rawl. 158.40 . F.¤ gráid: Fer graidh ri Caisil, AU 960 = Fer graidh mac Cléirigh, AFM 958 ; 959 . Cf. Fer Graid mac Ailgenain (a king of Munster) ZCP xix 94.1 (Synchr.). F.¤ le (lé): BDD 9 (om. LU) cf. BDD² p. 73 . F.¤ lí, Fianaig. 68.28 . gen. Fir lí, 74.22 . F.¤ Lugdach (`son of Lugaid' ?): gen. Fir Lugdach, Rawl. 119a23 . F.¤ mara (`m. of the sea'), gen. sil Fir mara, Rawl. 130b12 . F.¤ mór gen. Fir moir, RC xvi 135 ( Dinds. 131 ). F.¤ raith: gen. Fir raith, Rawl. 144a31 ; cf. Fir roith, 119a26 . F.¤ rogain, RC xv 421 . BDD 46 . F.¤ rogein, 9 . voc. a Fir; Rogain, 66 ( LU 7006 ). gen. Fir rogain, BDD 79 . F.¤ taí, Fianaig. 68.27 . gen. Fir tái, 70.19 . Fir thái, 70.26 . F.¤ Techet: gen. Fir Thechet, Rawl. 158.40 . See Rawl. Index .

Compds.

(1) to denote sex, fer is prefixed to the name of an animal or to a nomen agentis which may be used of both sexes; rarely with a subst. exclusively masc. in application, e.g. fermac;

(2) with adjectival force = pertaining to a man or men, intended for a man, manly , etc.

fer-amus a mercenary: feramus, Rawl. 113a9 ( ZCP xv 310 ). fer-amus no ban-amus ` man-servant ' Ériu ii 204.22 . ¤bolcum draught for a man: cethri fichit ferbolcumm as much as eighty men will drink MacCongl. 101.7 . ¤bratán: in fear-bradan, Hy Maine 103vb13 . ¤chara a male friend CCath. 1137 . ¤chend a man's head TBC-I¹ 1453 . ¤chland: eitir ferchloinn fhinn `the fair children of men' (or of Finn ?) BS 24.17 . ¤choic a man-cook ACL iii 241 § 7 . ¤chol sodomy Ériu vii 144.16 . ¤chrécht a wound: pl. na ferchrechta , Fianaig. 94.5 . ¤chubat, ¤chumat a man's length: fercubat fir, Trip.² 2992 . fercumat, LU 5858 . See separate article below. ? ¤chur a warrior, champion: fearchur .i. curaidh no gaisgeadhach feardha, O'Cl. ¤dál: dá céad feindidh ferdhála `of manly encounter' Duan. F. i 90.28 . ¤dam a bull Laws iv 100.21 Comm. ¤dord: canaid ... f. do contuli friss, LU 6312 ( TBC-I¹ 1810 ). ¤dorn a man's fist Ériu iv 32.3 . As measure: med ferdor ceachtar n-ai YBL 118a40 . tri ferdhuirnn ar airdi three hands in height Maund. 186 . ¤druí a druid: n du. dá ferdrai , RC xliii 24.7 . ¤ech a stallion: in feirech ┐ in baineach, Acall. 256 . ¤échtus a manly attack Laws i 64.13 (see ZCP xviii 102 ). ¤fuine baking or kneading done for a man: damna teora mbairgen ferfuine ┐ a sé do banfuine, Laws ii 176.18 Comm. cf. iv 116.6 . v 30.23 . ¤gaiscedach warrior: cona seisser ... bangaiscedach ┐ cona seisser ... fergaiscedach, Acall. 5128 . ¤gal valorous man (?): in forba fergalach (fergal, v.l.) foltgarb, RC xxiv 192 § 3 , Cín Chille Cúile 86 . ¤gein male descendant : feirghein deimin deimnigim, Leb. Cert.² 156.13 . ¤ glac a man's hand, grasp: (as measure): cainnel cethri ferglac, Cáin Ad. § 2 . ag teora fer-glacc, MacCongl. 3.14 . ¤glond a manly exploit , pl. ferghlonna, MR 264.7 . ¤gním a man's act; a brave deed: (of Cú Chulainn :) is áes ingini macdacht ... ┐ ní thángatár a fergníma beus, LU 4851 . ben cédmuinterais ... ar as i bfeirghniomha gaibhther, Ériu xiii 31.30 . cf. ara fen fergnima (apparently = gníma a fir), O'Mulc. 327 ( Ériu xi 217.1 ). tri fergnima Conaild, Fél. 70.35 . fri coibled fergním, LU 10268 , cf. ZCP iii 235.2 . Hence adj. fergnímach manly in action: cóic ingena ... bátar fergnímaig forthriúin, Metr. Dinds. iii 88 . ¤gnúis a man's face: nā bānaiter fergnúsi, LU 8426 ( FB 29 ). ¤insce, ¤innsgne masculine gender: ferinnsci lasin nGaidel .i. mascul ... lasin Laitneoir, Auraic. 521 . ainm feirinnsgne IGT, Introd. § 157 . ¤`a man's day,' a day lucky for men: tri ferlae .i. dardáin, áine, domnach, Triads 217 . ¤lám a man's arm, hand (as measure): fot ferlama da crund, CCath. 5604 . ¤leó a lion PH 3439 . ferléo ┐ bainleo BNnÉ 84.27 . ¤les(s) a man's thigh (?): feraid fodil di ferlessaib ar óenathib Ulad strews warriors' limbs (?) LU 6122 ( TBC-I¹ p. 61 n. 7 ). ¤mac a male child: cach f.¤ arosloice broind a mathar, Laws iii 38.8 . v s. a ḟermeic (of a hound), Acall. 5578 . n p. fermaicc, Fél. Nov. 5 . cf. fearmhaic .i. fir neartmhara, O'Cl. ¤míl a male animal: cach fermil (.i. cach mil fearda), Laws iii 38.11 . ¤mug a male slave: fermogh, Acall. 7222 . noenbar banmhogad ┐ triar fermhogad, 954 . caoca fermhogh, BS 104.31 . ¤óclach a warrior: fertraig feroclaig, LU 8400 ( FB 27 ). sliasait ferócclaich, CCath. 191 . gérsat calma na ferogláigh, Acall. 40 . ¤thincur the property brought by a man when marrying: ben for fertincur, fer for bantincur, Laws ii 356.7 . lanamnus mná for ferthinucur, 380.23 ( SM Facs. 42b ). See Stud. in E. Ir. Law 83 ; 126 . ¤thraig a man's foot (as measure): fertraig LU 8400 ( FB 27 ). comla ... i mbatár tri fertraigid dia tiget, LU 1443 ( MU² 915 ). tricha ferrthraiged, LL 265b28 ( MU² 508 ). tricha fertraighed, ZCP viii 545.30 . se fichit fertraigh RC xliii 80 § 82 . ¤thraigthech a foot-soldier: ic fosugud na ferthraigthech, Ériu viii 38.28 . See also ferbolg, —chú, —chubat, —chuitred, —doman, —gnia, —scál.

1 fodbaigid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 fodbaigid or dil.ie/22577

Forms: ḟadbaig, fodbugud

v g (1 fodb) strips, despoils, plunders (O, IMM, rarely DI, of) esp. of stripping the slain: fadbaig Fer ṅdiad ┐ ben a erriud ┐ a étgud de !, TBC-LL¹ 4060 . pret. ra ḟadbaig F. ṅd. 4062 . [co t]orchair leis A ┐ foghbhaidhis an fer ZCP xiii 175.13 . co ros-marb ... ┐ co rosfodbaig im étach, TTr.² 1012 . ro fadbaigid leis na consalu o ētgu rigda `was stripped of his royal robes by the consuls' Todd Todd Nenn. 70 (= rofodhbhaidheadh ... d'étiudh, BB 207b22 ). fadhbhaidhthear e o naire na hoghachta = pudor aufertur virginitatis Instructio 137.9 . ro ḟádbaig aittrebtaig Slébi Túir pillaged Alex. 425 . do faobhuighedh é ┐ fágbhadh ann sin (of a soldier slain in a skirmish), Rel. Celt. ii 198.28 . Vn. fodbugud.

Cf. fodbaid.

1 gráin

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 gráin or dil.ie/26495

n f. IGT Decl. § 14.

(a) awfulness : i ndiad inna fersae hi tadbadar a graín fo chosmailius inna ríg talmandae after the verses in which His awfulness is shown, Ml. 40c22 . cachla fers and di adhuath ┐ gráin, ib. 40c16 . ar gráin ┐ ar ecla ┐ ar úamun Conculaind, TBC-LL¹ 1608 . cainiu di ḟlaithib in domuin ... eter urud ┐ gráin, ib. 5172 . soid a grád ┐ a gráin for cūlu, ZCP xi 86 § 45 . grāin lium do loscud m'anma, ACL iii 245 § 33 . do chur graine ┐ geinedechta is in n-gilla, MR 178.5 . grāin ríg cōigcid for fer a inaitt dogrēs `every successor of his should be dreaded like the king of a province,' BColm. 88.8 .

(b) loathsomeness, an object of loathing or horror : ri úathgráin mo gnusi, LU 10276 . grāin cach āenfir iarna ēc, ACL iii 239 § 23 . ba grain tra a tuarascbail na cailligi `loathsome, in sooth, was the hag's appearance,' RC xxiv 196.z . is ar gráin in pheccaid-sin docuired aithne ar leith fair, PH 7767 . tancatar da nathraigh chucu ... co ngrain n-adhuathmair, Aen. 487 . in gráin atchess duit arm' gnúis, Ériu iv 106.3 . gráin catha ar mo cheann-aghaidh the fearsomeness of battle, Content. xxiii 15.

(c) terror, horror : grāin graece pauor interpretatur , O'Mulc. 630 . tromda int erfuath ┐ is mōr in grāin donucsad forru, TBC-I¹ 3197 . romain ar grāin garganfod, Otia ii 83 § 10 . fa mba tre fochaid co ngrāin, ZCP x 46 § 11 . rosgab grain ┐ eclai iat, PH 975 . rom-dhealb grain ┐ egla ┐ omon, Aen. 532 . a Ghoill go ngráin, Celt. Rev. x 139.12 . abradh fris co na tardad (viz. the ghost of Fergus) gráin na hirḟūath leis ina dochum, ACL iii 5.8 . g.¤ re horror at : fer is mo gráin do gabhuir | a ló n-áig re n-urcharuib `the one who is found most terrified at shots on the day of slaughter,' Ériu iv 214 § 11 . is móidi a gráin re a ngothaib `his horror at their censures is all the greater,' ib. 216 § 13 . cia an duine ... nach géabhadh gráin rompa iar na gclos ? (= quis ... talia sciens non contremiscat), TSh. 6752 ; 8553 . curaidh gan ghrāin re nguasocht, DDána 102.2 .

Compd. ba búan-léir gairbe grán-áig `famous ... the fierceness of the horrid fight,' Metr. Dinds. ii 46.24 .

(d) loathing, aversion : an lucht leis nach gráin ... na truaigh do fhodhbhadh ┐ do chrechad, RC xxv 392.21 . With prep. ar : o tharla in gráin-si er in adaltras, PH 7794 . lán do dhēistin ┐ do ghráin ar ainmhianaibh eisionnraca na hóige, TSh. 8555 . a ghráin ar an bpecadh (of the Deity), Parrth. Anma 85.16 . bíodh gráin agaibh ar an olc, Romans xii 9 . fionghal ná feall | ná ní ar a mbeith grainc ná gráin, Dánta Gr. 4.10 . gaibid gráin re0 (later le) repulsion seizes ... at : rosgab crith ┐ grain re gnúis diabuil, MacCarthy 66.16 . a duine nād gabad grāin | re nduine ar scarad re scēim, ACL iii 237 § 14 . gráin ag gabháil an dairbh dháoil | le hanáil t'airm, a Amhlaíbh, IGT Decl. ex. 1921.

i

Cite this: eDIL s.v. i or dil.ie/26891
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: isin, isint, isind, isind, sind, issa, is, sa, isteampull, ansan, isnaib, isnaib, isna, ands[n]a, annsna, issinn, isa, issa, is, isin, insa, ionnsa, sa, isna, annsa, istech, istig, immach, immaig, indium, innium, ionnam, iondam, indiut, inniut, iniud, ionnod, ionnat, inneat, and, ant, and, ann, annt, indi, hindae, indti, inde, inti, inte, ind, inn, inte, innte, indiunn, indiun-ni, annainn, indib, innibh, ionnaibh -se, indib, indeb, intib, innta, ionnta, annta, intiu, inntu, ionntadh, im, inna, inná, innar, inar, 'nar, i bar, hi far, in far, ina, inna, ana, ann, i, i, san, i, ann

nasalising prep., folld. by dat. and acc. Usually written i or í when eclipsis is shown : i nÍsu, Wb. 3b6 . i ngiun, 4d33 . í n-éutt, 6b2 . i nneurt, 6d11 . i ndegaid, 30b14 . i mbiam, Ml. 21c3 . i ndia, 29d5 . i mbí, Tur. 9. i n-oénṡillaib, Sg. 120b2 . i llathiu, Thes. ii 319.2 ; but cf. hi n-iriss, Wb. 10b28 . hi rrecht, Ml. 54c2 . hi llaim, 96d6 . hi ndóiri, 125a9 . hi rriucht, Tur. 85. hi mbítis, Sg. 5a15 . hi ndilsi, 28a4 . hi mbrethir ... hi ngním, Thes. ii 253.11 . hi nDruim, 260.21 . hi mbrot, 290.9 . When eclipsis is not shown, most freq. written hi or hí : hi noibad, Wb. 3b31 . hi rect, 3d14 . hí crist, 4d21 . hi far n-irnigdib, 7a12 . hí flid, 9b14 . hi tosuch, Ml. 2a6 . hí tintud, 2a15 . hi rogabad, 24d14 . hí libur, 16c10 . hi cairptib, 43d3 . hi far crichaib, 115b10 . hi fers, Sg. 6b23 . hi roṡoithe, 73a11 . hí frecndairc, 204a5 . hi rogénair, Thes. ii 291.11 ; but : í cach thír, Wb. 1a3 . i corpu, 2b5 . í rúnaib, 2b10 . i tuil dée, 5c20 . (no exx. available of this from Ml.). i persin n-aili, Sg. 189a8 . i fogur, 6b1 . í titul, PCr. 15a3 . i comus, Thes. ii 244.30 (Camb.). In Ml. and Tur., frequently written inn before vowels : inna diad, Ml. 17c6 . inn aithchi dorchi, 30a4 . inn echaib, 43d3 . innar neurt, 43d3 . inn ecin, Tur. 134. In Wb. freq. inn before proclitic beginning with vowel : innar leid, 4b11 . inna chridiu, 10b20 . inna corp `in their body', 11d11 . inn aláil, 12a10 . In Mid. and Early Mod. Ir. i n- is often written a n- : a n-inad, PH 203. a persainn, 7577 . a sendataid, 3977 . a ngaire, BNnÉ 168.10 . a bus, SG 135.6 . cáit ambí in fer sin, 135.36 . a mmedón, TBFr. 103.

With article :

(a) dat. sg. isin chrud sin, Wb. 8b10 . isint senmim, 13d18 . isind óin uáir, 25b16 . isind laithiu, Ml. 21c3 . sind ló, TBC-LL¹ 444. issa baile-seo, Acall. 3360. is tir, BNnÉ 301.15 . is' taig, ScM. § 6.12 . is tig, BDD² 525. is’ tilaig, ITS l 38.13 . is tulaig, LL ii 13336 . is dorus, i 7318 . is tṡenchoss, iii 21254 . is treairiut 'in the three periods' UR 114 § 24 . 'sa dorus, Feis Tighe Chonáin 75. isteampull 'in the temple', Stair Nic. 32.602. Cf. 28.524 (v.l.) . ansan ūair-sein, Ériu iv 178 § 31. pl. isnaib fochidib, Wb. 14b19 . isnaib innib, Ml. 28a7 . isnaib sechtaib, Críth G. 303. isna airigthib, TBC-LL¹ 3552. ands[n]a... dúilib, O'Gr. Cat. 233.23. annsna righaibh, CF 922.

(b) acc. sg. issinn aíar, Wb. 25b24 . isa n-indarbae, Ml. 23c8 . issa suthin, 21d4 . is' tech, ScM. § 15.2 . isa tech, TBFr. 124. isa ndún, Trip.² 1464. isin ngnimrad, BCrólige § 37 n. 1 . insa curach, Feis Tighe Chonáin 920. ionnsa bhfiadh, 1173 . 'sa mboin, Fianaig. 72.18 . pl. isna bithu, Wb. 4c4 . isna lucu, Ml. 23d23 .

Distinction between dat. and acc. lost : annsa chéill, TSh. 3219. annsa gcéill, 2532 . neimhsheadh do thabhairt san tsaoghal, 339 . nach raibhe seadh san saoghal aice, 1866 . The distinction remained however in istech, istig ; immach, immaig, qq.v.

With pron. suff. ; s. 1 indium, Wb. 8d26 . Ml. 74d7 . innium, TBC-LL¹ 4382. ionnam, iondam, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1912 , 410 . s. 2 indiut, Ml. 106c15 . inniut, TBC-LL¹ 4350. iniud, TTebe 3673 . ionnod, TD 40 § 2. ionnat, DDána 2 § 11. inneat, 68 § 38 (: mbreac). s. 3 dat. m. + n. and, Wb. 1a5 . Ml. 45d15 . Sg. 3b5 . ant, Ml. 48c29 . and, Críth G. 100. ann, ML² 45. BDD² 91. annt, ZCP vii 481.29 (Enchir. Aug.). f. indi, Ml. 21c3 . Sg. 18a3 . Críth G. 105. BDD² 745. Laws iv 112.9 . hindae, BDD² 513. indti, 661 . inde, Laws iv 112.10 . inti, TBC-LL¹ 5211. TBFr. 200. inte, BDD² 498. acc. m. + n. ind, Ml. 22b1 . Críth G. 93. BDD² 196. Laws iv 136.x Comm. inn, 250. 5 Comm. f. inte, Sg. 6a6 . Críth G. 219. innte, DDána 1 § 9. pl. 1 indiunn, Wb. 5d18 . indiun-ni, Ml. 44d3 . annainn, Luc. Fid. 225.x . pl. 2 indib, Wb. 14c18 . Ml. 122c3 . innibh, DDána 68 § 23. ionnaibh -se (: fionnsoillse), 122 § 12. pl. 3 dat. indib, Ml. 30c17 . Sg. 216b4 . BDD² 475. indeb, 1468 . intib, TBC-LL¹ 174. TBFr. 35. innta, ML² 75. ionnta, DDána 122 § 17. annta, Luc. Fid. 285.10 . acc. intiu, Ml. 21a8 . Sg. 7a10 . inntu (for dat.), Ériu iii 160.24 . ionntadh, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1065.

With poss. : s. 1 im hulcc-sa, Wb. 2a8 . im chuimriug, 30a5 . iom giolla, TBC-LL¹ 5662 (St.). am f[h]ochair, ML² 774. am chlaidim, TTebe 1309 . s. 2 it senmathir, Wb. 29d11 . id ḟlaith, BDD² 178. id chémanduib, ML² 1654. at rēimennuib, 1655 . ad ruire, 1450 . it olcaibh, Studies 1933, 310 § 27 . s. 3 m+n. inna suidiu, Wb. 13a12 . inna thechtu, 13a28 . inda sesam, Mon. Tall. 129.13 . inna chumbu, Críth G. 111. ina suide, ScM. § 10.10 . 'na adhbar rīg, ML² 30. f. inná loc, Sg. 17a5 . pl. 1 innar leid, Wb. 4b11 . inar n-óccaibh, BS 112.18 . 'nar mbél-ne, Ériu iv 118 § 37. ionur ttríar, RC xxix 112 § 7. pl. 2 i bar tolaib, Wb. 3b8 . hi far selbad-si, 8d26 . in far n-Ultaib, TBC-LL¹ 1636. i bar (v.ll. in for, in bur) ngnáis-si, Fél. Ep. 375. i nbhar láimh, DDána 100 § 5 ; but cf. 'nar lámhaibh `in manibus vestris', TSh. 8579. pl. 3 ina ndúm, TBFr. 244. inna mbrucc, BDD² 1282. ana n-usci, Maund. § 136.5 .

With rel. : before a rel. i n- is not folld. by the demonstrative particle a n- as is the case with the other prepp., but is folld. directly by the verb which it eclipses : i mbiam, Ml. 21c3 . ind aimser hi rogabad, 24d14 . i mbí, Tur. 9. hi mbítis, Sg. 5a15 . indat sláin, Ml. 76a6 . aní i táa cuntubart libsi `that as to which there is doubt among you', Wb. 13a35 . intí i mbíi in spirut, 8b10 . arná torthaiset isnaib sechtaib hi tuitet enech cáich, Críth G. 303. i mbí toirm cech thempuil, Fél. May 10. cairm indom-acca ?, ScM. § 11.5 . triasand láim a mbaí an scíath, BDD² 1511. i mbiat smachta ni biat caiche ; i mbiat caiche ni biat smachta `where the requisites commanded by law are observed there are no penalties ...,' Laws iv 70.3 . cā háit a bfuil an fear feasa, Feis Tighe Chonáin 811. In Mod. Ir. on the analogy of the other prepp. i n- came sometimes to be folld. by the demonstr. particle: tuar neith ina dtú tacha | bheith gan bhú ..., Dán Dé vii 3. cath ... inar' thuitetar sochaidhi, RC xvii 377.22 . an dara halt 'na gcuirthear i gcéill ..., TSh. p. 13. (cf. san áit i bhfuil do thriall, TSh. 7137 ). an ait ann ar hiomchuibhthe an urnaighthe do dheanamh in which it were fittest, Luc. Fid. 73.1 . In Mod. Ir. also, i n-+ro frequently appears as ar : a thruaill chriadh-sa ar cuireadh mé, Dán Dé xi 4. áit ar marbhadh C., Keat. iii 2545. In the O. Ir. glosses the form of the prep. before ro was (h)i. Later in came to be used : irrufollnastar, Wb. 13b29 . hi roba, Ml. 62a13 . hi roṡoithe, Sg. 73a11 ; but : in ro lád, TBFr. 307. With neg. rel. : ainmnetach ret ... cride rig nime in nach dortai in doman ... i fudomnuibh pian `in that He doth not ...', Ériu ii 118 § 56. in gach uile ní 'snach cuirthear lá `in quibus dies non ponitur', TSh. 5175. trí neithe ... is nach raibhe an Tighearna, 9859 .

Before cach, cech : in glosses (h)i, later somet. in : i cach réit, Wb. 20c11 . hi cach ceniul, Sg. 2a2 . in cech úair, Fél. Dec. 29. in cach coiri, ScM. § 1.12 . in cech áis, PH 7115. in cach thrāth, Hail Brigit § 11. in gach errach, Fen. 286.x . in gach aon-duine, TSh. 2545. in gach en focal, BCC 436.29 . Occasionally is : is gach sochar, TSh. 798.

I Place .

A. Folld. in O.Ir. by dat.

1 Denoting place where (in both abstract and concrete meanings) :

(a) in : i mballaib caích `in everyone's members', Wb. 13d27 . attósa i sslabrid, 23a2 . i bar tolaib marbdib `in your mortal desires', 3b8 . Of an author's works : i nAmbaucu `in Habakkuk', 19b17 . amal donairchet hí fáithib et rofiugrad i rrect et amal asnindedar i ssoscélu, 13a36 . amal bid hi frecndairc no beth `as though he were present', Ml. 24c15 . i n-óen ṡosuth ṡillabe `in one position of a syllable', Sg. 7a3 . air thechtaid cach gutae a guth n-indi, 18a3 . comdire cach fri aroile i nnos chana `every person has equal dīre with another in cāin regulation', BCrólige § 5 . ni lugae mbis ind menme hisin cheill `the thought is no less occupied with the meaning', Mon. Tall. 142.23 . dam ocus tinne in cach coiri, ScM. § 1.12 . secht ndoruis isin bruidin, ib. 11 . bíann n-erbbad impu a mmedón, TBFr. 103. secht mílchoin i slabradaib argait, 33 . ar robōi Fergus fēin isin gliaid sin, ACL iii 5.7 . co facbath fuillecht ┐ eis (.i. lorg) a cos isin cloich, 10.12 . in raibhe i fāistine nó i ttaircetal accaibh ..., RC xxvii 294 § 58. nocho roibe dath nad beith inntib, xxiv 144.5 . uaitne dib i ndath snechta ┐ araile a ndath fhola, D IV 2, fo. 42c14 . adeir Auicenna go ndéntur céd comshuidigud na ndáine ands[n]a ceithri dúilib `that the primary composition of men is of the four elements', O'Gr. Cat. 233.23. go ndingnaid ... foslongport im chellaib `will besiege my churches', BCC 156.7 . a mac bec fein ina laim `leading her little boy by the hand,' Celt. Rev. viii 296.17 . Denoting the possession by anyone of certain qualities or characteristics : furrthain ó gCais san choghnach the chief is sufficient to succour the seed of Cas, IGT Decl. ex. 1125. ní ḟoil ionnod acht ionann `thou art exactly similar,' TD 40 § 2. ionnus gu mbiadh innta an righe do sdiurad `that they may know how to govern the kingdom,' Ériu v 132 § 67. ní raibhe ionnta acht buannadha do ríoghaibh Éireann `they were nothing more than ...,' Keat. ii 5079.

(b) among : a comgraidh isin tuaith `their equals in rank among the laity', BCrólige § 4 n. 3 . fuair a chrochad hi Parthib `met his crucifixion among the Parthians,' Ériu iii 196 § 12. easáonta ... na ndáoineadh ... ina bfuil sé `among whom he is,' v 92.9 .

(c) at, on, upon : hí flid Crist `at Christ's feast', Wb. 9b14 . huare is hi tilchaib ardaib no bitis, Ml. 14a9 . menme isind aurnaigti `mind fixed on prayer,' Mon. Tall. 151.19 . i mmulluch Usnig, Ériu iv 152.15 . Domhnall ... do bhualadh ... do chloidheamh i mbun ordóige, i 102 § 63 . dortad donnfala do shiltin as in aeer i cennaib na curad on to the warriors' heads, viii 26.15 . ro-an a chenn i fertais in charpait, ScM. § 19.7 . robenta corne ina cendaib `tonsures were shorn on their heads,' BColm. 26.6 . a mbun Cart[h]i na nGīall `at the foot of the pillar-stone ...', 72.20 . gelscíath co túagmílaib argait inti, TBC-LL¹ 5211. gemel crūaid i (v.ll. ar, um) coiss a hard fetter on the foot, KMMisc. 270 § 43. i n-erblib ech at the tails of horses, Fen. 66.4 . súil i gcuid mo chomhursan, A. Ó Dálaigh xxviii 5. o smuaintighib ... na mairtirech a crechtaib Crisd `thinking on the wounds', BCC 4.17 . ro baí ballán ... isan adart `on the pillow', Ir. Review 1912, 248 § 7 . i n-imiul in baile on the edge of the town, RC xxvii 292.10 . i mbruach alltorach in tsrotha, CCath. 459. atci buidin moir chuici isin drochat bui tarsin sruth, FDG 715. is file [i] gcois ma-raon ris ` on foot ,' A. Ó Dálaigh lv 5. an chroch ... do Chríosd ... 'gá chrochadh innte, Dán Dé xx 22. is aibind duit, a thuir, ... is aibinn in radarc fuil innud (to a tower), ZCP vi 26.31 . cuirid láimh i seizes : co nachar' lamh nech... lamh do chur ann durst lay hand upon him, RC xix 288 § 225. cuiris lámh i Mochuda ┐ tug ... as an mainistir amach é, Keat. iii 1948.

2 Denoting state or condition in which : hor bi accobur láe nebud dó i nnoidenacht `that he should not be in infancy', Wb. 24d11 . isind inducbáil sin `in that glory', 4c40 . i lláni etargni `in the fulness of knowledge,' 24c6 . ind fir bíis inna suidiu `who is sitting', 13a12 . bíid cach gnim inna thechtu `in its proper order', 13a28 . inna imned-sin i mbiam isind laithiu, Ml. 21c3 . in i comsuidigud fa hi comasndís bíit `in composition or in apposition', Sg. 217a1 . i bar ngnáis-si `in your company', Fél. Ep. 375. dol asa eol a richtaib con `to stray in wolf-shapes', BCrólige § 32 n. 13 . cach ['la] gabal i ssuidiu araile hi sesam `every [other] division is sung sitting, the next standing', Mon. Tall. 140.4 . conna-ētai focul fort chenn i córai properly , ScM. § 14.7 . ataat inna mbrucc in a state of dejection, BDD² 1282. tusu ad c[h]ollad, ACL iii 234 § 6. minub ina duthracht bes if it be not with good will, Ériu v 20.y . is é timairg for cech eclais co raib a durrthech ┐ a relec hi nglaine `to have its oratory and its burial-ground purified', i 219 § 6 . fororbart a cland-side ... co mbatar i mmílib so that they were thousands, LL 649 . tainic ... i n-uaite ṡloig `with a small company', Fen. 144.y . do bhī in Pelagius sin ... a nāemthacht foirbthe ┐ a mbethaid inmolta, ZCP xiii 179.21 . batar a n-itaid ┐ i tart mor, RC xxiv 196.11 . bai sidhe hi cocadh fri Find, xiii 7.z . in duine nach biadh isnna dubhailchibh marbhthacha, Études Celt. i 78.15 . ro bo cinti crīch i mbethaid i n-imḟogus dóib `certain end of life' (taking place of the more usualgen.), Fianaig. 92.29 . a thabairt i rricht feola aili `in the guise of other flesh', TTebe 1861 . bu gairid bía ad bethaid risna cathaib, 1030 . ar bhfaicsin Críost i gcruth bháis, DDána 16 § 5. cor fhoscail C. C. a suile ... ┐ e 'sa mbas `and he dying', BCC 414.3 . gach mac ... | dá raibhe i n-aois an airdríogh, Studies 1934, 90 § 22 . 'san luas na ttreigfitt as quickly as , BNnÉ 148.25 .

With poss. before certain vnn. : comtha ... ad lenamain, Prolegomena 27 n. 2 . an tṡlat oile 'na adrad the other youth worshipping him, ZCP viii 563 § 28. ion bhur lenmhuin, ML² 331. as-bert fria ina sloindiud `as he named himself (?)', BDD² 47.

3 Denoting manner in which : by means of, through, by : direnar hi comdire ... fri grada ecalsa `is paid for by equal dīre with the church grades', BCrólige § 7. nad airnaidet a tir ina frithfoltaib coirib `who does not sustain his land by performing the proper corresponding duties', § 16. ailid cac otrus a arag hi coraib bel `every sick-maintenance entails its binding by contracts', § 55. i mbommannaib arberad bith ind lítain a cuid uli `he used to consume all his portion of porridge in morsels', Mon. Tall. 135.9 . Cairbre ... do mharbhadh i bhfeill by treachery, Ériu i 101 § 55. forbhfáiltigter : an radhorc a ndath uaine, an t-eistecht a bhfoghor éttrom `gratification is afforded: to the sight, by the colour of green ; to the hearing, by a `light' sound', O'Gr. Cat. 277.27. rofersum failti friu ina n-anmannaib uadéin by their own names, D IV 2, fo. 45c5 .

4 Apposition.

A noun in apposition may be preceded by the prep. i n- (governing dat.) + poss. This was a development of the older use of the dat. without prep., e.g. is bés dúibsi far n-Ultaib, ScM. § 9.4 . ro bámarni .xu. feraib ┐ ar cúic súili déc desa do chaechad dó, BDD² 1130 and note. Hence with prep. : dúinni nar nUltaib, LU 4637. is bés dúibsi in far n-Ultaib, LL 112by . cid ma ta in mhorc[h]oinne seo acaibh in bhar nGeistedhaibh why have ye, Gesteda, ..., Ériu v 148.56 . dobudh nár dhúinn ionur ttríar Ulltach `to us three Ultonians', RC xxix 112 § 7. ní iomdha dhúnn i n-ar ndaoinibh `not many of us men ...', Dán Dé xii 1. do bhríogh gurab ennádúir amháin dhiadha gan roinn atá ionnta na ttriúr, Ó Héodhusa 25.5.

5 In predicates

(i) with subst. verb : itā mo chorp 'na c[h]amra, ACL iii 239 § 34. 'na bidbuid no go mbí fear until a man is an enemy, Ériu iv 212 § 2. dia mbadh mo chomairli-si do gneithi ann ... is 'na chath no biadh, Leb. Gab.(i) 252.23 . do bī 'n-a adhbar rīg, ML² 30. Feidhlimid mac Toirdelbaig ... ina Húa Conchubuir `... was the Húa Conchobair', Maund. 6. tét sé a comlaidir sin ... co mbí sé 'na uiscci mhilis .xx. míle 'sa fairrcci móir (of the Danube), 7 . is dearbh go bhfuilim-se im dhuine shomharbhtha, TSh. 143.

(ii) with other verbs : tanic in mac i n-a aenur, RC v 199 § 6. doberad ingen prinnsa da muindtir fein dam ina mnái, Maund. 47. tanac-sa im baidb buaidertha `I came a troubled ghost', TTebe 1899 . tarla ... an mac ... 'n-a dhalta foghluma ag Ciarán ar tí bheith 'n-a mhanach, Keat. iii 826.

6 After verbs of dividing, changing, putting, ending, etc. somet. folld. by dat. (but see infra B. 4) : trí traigid .x. a [a]ircha[e] ara rorandathar bés a thige indi, Críth G. 105. i nniarcomrucc ... forcenda ollbairdne, IT iii 11.2 . do-roinded a chorp i cethri blogaib, PH 1856. rocúmscaig i ndelbaib brechtnaib, 1740 . gur claechló an t-ór ina ghran ... eorna, BNnÉ 233.9 . timarcad i llige chro `after he has been forced into blood-lying', BCrólige § 1 n. 1 . aca cur hi cís ┐ a foghnam dermar, ZCP xi 65.10 . do c[h]uiredur insna reachtuibh-si mē, Feis Tighe Chonáin 437. nár chuirthe seadh sna sealbhaibh saoghalta, TSh. 364.

7 Various abstract meanings.

in the matter of, in respect to, in regard to : adib éolig and `ye are knowing therein,' Wb. 26b12 . cosmili fri Adam ngnímaib et accobraib, 13d12 . aní i táa cuntubart libsi `that as to which there is doubt among you', 13a35 . ar nebmóidem hi magistrib `our not boasting as to masters', 8d26 . i ndiad nach aili aridfe(i)t i llugu over whom he takes precedence in swearing, Críth G. 42. annsom i n-otrus la Fēne `most difficult in regard to nursing', BCrólige § 15. brithem eola(i) i mbiadaib `a judge who is knowledgeable about refections', § 31. ni fil bríg laisiom hisind accobar sin `he considers that such desire is no great matter', Mon. Tall. 151.13 . rosuidiged cutramas eneclainde ... isna bechaib `equal honor-price was fixed for the bees', Laws iv 200.8 Comm. i pendit ind áosae galrich `in the case of penance laid on sickly persons,' Mon. Tall. 146.27 . indat mebhair-siu ... isna airigthib gascid, TBC-LL¹ 3552. nīmda cuimcech-sa hi suidiu I am not capable of that, ZCP viii 310.11 . do agra Fechín isin saer `to expostulate with F. about the wright', RC xii 346 § 39. a n-abar ann dámadh fíor if what is said in this regard be true, Dán Dé xxvi 17. gurab eigin don liaigh éolus do bheith aige i naduir na heaslainte-si, 23 K 42, 186.3 .

according to : nach fer ... folongar i fenechus `who is being maintained according to native law', BCrólige § 22. rocoraidhid ... cách fo gradaib ┐ i ndanaib ┐ a ndligemnus `everyone was seated according to rank, profession and lawful claim', Ériu v 234.35 . a fīraicned screptra ┐ chuibsi according to the true nature of scripture and conscience, i 214.6 . adeir N. 'na ugdaras fēin on his own authority, ZCP xiii 181.20 .

instead of, in compensation for : inni uil do chach ... i crolige bais d'fertain air `that which is due to each for inflicting a mortal blood-lying upon him', BCrólige § 1 n. 6 . eiric in gac gruaid iarna brisidh `wergild for every cheek after it has been broken', § 64 n. 1 . cidh bias isin beoguin `for the life-wound', Laws iv 232.21 . in bur cintaib for your crimes, Anecd. i 44.2 . is olc an t-íc dhamh thu annsna righaibh... do thuit leat a poor compensation for the kings, CF 922. déirc sin (sic leg.) saint `almsgiving instead of greed', Dán Dé xxiv 9. beag an éaraic iarrfa id ghuin, DDána 30 § 16.

in contrast with, as against : is étrum in digal i mméit in pectho `the punishment is light for the greatness of the sin', Ml. 126b6 .

for the purpose of, with a view to : d'imcoimet na mna doberar isin ngnimrad `who is given to do the work', BCrólige § 37 n. 1 . a ndilgud chinad, PH 2993. i comartha dilguda, 3117 . i ndíoghail a athar in revenge for his father, Ériu i 101 § 56. rogabus ben ar eicin. Cid indaragbais ? why did you seize her ?, ZCP xii 362.18 . cf. bat becda fri becdataid, i ndēntar do thol that your will may be done, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 18 § 8.4 . bat tó fri tó[i], i n-étsider aisnēis, ib. 6 .

In expressing the specific extent by which one thing exceeds or falls short of another : to the extent of : corop máa i n-óenṡillaib in comparit, Sg. 40b7 . a nnád foirpret i n-oenṡillaib `when they do not increase by one syllable', 48b5 . teora cethramdin huare aequinocht indid mailliu a tuile ar cach óen laithiu `by which the flood is slower day by day', Thes. ii 14.35 (Bcr.). a coic indid óa (of the moon) `by which it is less', 20.41 . mad i ndib n-uarib deac nammá bas laigu cach mí ..., 10.4 .

8 ann 3 s. dat. m. and n. form of i + pron.

Freq. to be translated there, therein : bid [prec]eptóir cách and `every one will be a teacher there', Wb. 13a13 . maní bé est ánd tuas ┐ mad argumento bes ant, Ml. 14d1 . issed inso nád chumaing ara-n-ísar and ` 'tis this which cannot be found there', Sg. 209b13 . robatar indsin (rectius and-) etir da tráth din ló, RC iii 184.28 . teid Conán onn (=ann), Duan. F. i 67.29 . feirinnsgne sáoi ┐ flaith : an sáoi, an flaith as cóir ann, IGT Introd. 9.7 .

Used predicatively

(i) with subst. verb expressing existence and in identification clauses : ma beith nech and tra labrathar ilbélre `if there be anyone who speaks many languages', Wb. 13a4 . tuc an ingin aithne gurbh 'e righ Eirenn do bí ann, Ériu iii 152 § 6. rofiarfaig Fechin don rigain scéla in claim ┐ ro innis do gur 'uo he Isu ro ui ann, RC xii 344.15 . is é droch-nós do mhothaigh do bheith ann, TSh. 359.

(ii) with other verbs : fagham saor ann dá mbudh eol let me find an artificer who would know, Dán Dé ix 24. is tú thug na haibhne ann | 'sna maighre ar fhud na habhann, vi 38 .

Used pleonastically :

(i) with clauses introduced by áit : Cath Bhealaigh Féile ... áit ar thuit iomad do Mhuimhneachaibh ... ann, Keat. iii 2338.

(ii) anticipating a follg. adv. or adverbial phrase : is and rogab ar tús tes it began in the south, RC xvii 416.24 . is and ata mo chumachta comlai[n]d am chlaidim, TTebe 1309 . is ann batar dá dhuirb isin uisci there were two worms in the water, RC vi 175.44 . = is amlaid: is and ro boí Cu Chulaind iar mbéim dei a lened ┐ in snechta immi, LU 5856 . is and ra buí Finnachta oc imbirt ḟidchilli, LL v 39060 . is ann buí-seom: oc sním irchomail fo Grip, SCano 238 . ? atá ann = atá amlaid, Celtica xii 190 : atá and iarom conid hé ainm in cnuic Forgemen, LU 5830 .

(iii) in a rel. clause expressing identity : as é as faoisidin ann, gerán tuirsech doní an pecach, Mac Aingil 165.10 . is eadh is treas bás ann .i. bás na péine, TSh. 1948. Contrast : issí poetica licentia and tormach inna á , Sg. 31b12 .

B. Folld. in O.Ir. by acc.

1 Denoting place whither : i nníulu `into the clouds', Wb. 25b23 . tri dul isna lucu arda, Ml. 23d23 . dulluid Pátricc o Themuir hi crích Laigen, Thes. ii 241.5 (Ardm.). aratesed b isin sillaib tánaisi `that b should pass into the second syllable,' Sg. 21b9 . corop si cetathe ... hi tech n-óil that she go first, LU 8825. tecmaltar a insce dó hi teora bríathra his statement is gathered into three words, Críth G. 40. a guin inna dí chúlaid, 538 . snáidsiunn in sab slúagach | i sossad n-ard n-óiblech `into the high sparkling station,' Fél. Sept. 21. arna tailctis isa ndún, Trip.² 1464. do ḟeitheam a long ... as ┐ ind `to watch his vessels (going) out and (coming) in,' RC xvi 142.6 . cloictheach ... ┐ eoin duba diairme índ ┐ as `passing into and out of it,' xvii 394.32 . ar dhol ionnsa bhfiadh, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1173. gan dul isin mbelach mbodhba sin, ML² 337. éirg i férmaig Taillten tall, Ériu iv 106.2 . a chroch dhearg i ndeachaidh Íosa, DDána 2 § 15. dat. for acc.: arna digsed i nUlltaib, Ériu viii 175.3 . rachaidh i sosadh aingeal, TSh. 801. téidheadh isteach i bpurgadóir Phádraic, Keat. i 48.65 . ná heirg i slánaibh síotha, TD 15 § 45.

2 Denoting state into which : ar cor hi far selbad-si `into your possession', Wb. 8d26 . dotháod som im muindterus ndé, Mon. Tall. 134.31 . ros-lá i socht na h-Ulto, ScM. § 9.1 . is inna réir tíagait `they submit to him', BDD² 791. dol ina troid `go to fight him', Duan. F. i 79.3 . go ndeach mo chorp i gcaoile, Dán Dé vii 23. do chuaidh i dtarbha don tsagart (of a prayer), L. Cl. A. B., 20.12 . Apparently folld. by dat. : co ndechaidh i muinighin Brighte (? or read mBrighte), RC xxvii 292.y . docuadur a millsi brīathar ┐ a cāine comrāidh re chéile, ZCP vi 105.9 .

3 After words denoting hope, trust, belief, respect, liking, attention, etc., and their opposites: ní intiu fadesin dorecachtar `it was not in themselves they hoped', Ml. 53b11 . do neuch no-dn-eirbea ind `that shall trust in Him', 51b10 . tri chretim i n-Ísu `through belief in Jesus', Wb. 3c2 . gan cás at anam agad `not to care for thy soul', Ériu viii 195 § 4. tuigther dhún ... gurub faill tug 'nar tegmáil `that he has neglected our quarrel', iv 216 § 17 . ni raibh cadhas aige i gcill no i dtuaith `he recked naught of ...,' ZCP iv 398.5 . a menma indeḟeithmech dogrés i nDia, RC ii 400 § 42. in midochus dobi acu annsa tor do cosnum, xix 282 § 212 . uair is iniud ata mo tairisi ┐ ni ha caruit cumachtaig ele, TTebe 3673 . san tsúil ... ná cuir suim (dat.), DDána 8 § 5. déin trocaire orainn do réir ar ndochais ionnad, Parrth. Anma 9.2 . d'egla go ccuirfidhe amharas na bhas, Ó Héodhusa 63.8. dimbríogh do thabhairt san uile ní, TSh. 343. dúil ag duine i gcraos ┐ i ndrúis, 396 .

4 After verbs of changing, putting, dividing, ending the acc. is more common (but see supra A. 6) : cona tintuuth i mbélre n-aill `with their translation into another language', Wb. 13a1 . in tan domberam ar menmain intiu co lleir `when we give our mind to them diligently', Ml. 21a8 . fodailter i cóic libru `is divided into five books', Hib. Min. 46. forceinnfitis anmmann inte `nouns would be ended in it', Sg. 6a6 . co ro-deglad a ndeich renda, PH 1212. gurb i luaithreadh do claochlódhthaoi é, TSh. 300. do chuir sin do thuicsin innti curbé Gaibriel aingil ticced do labairt ris `made her understand ...', Maund. § 126. i n-am cruais dá cur im chúis `will be brought against me in my day of trial', Studies 1933, 140 § 12 .

5 Various abstract meanings.

for, on account of : nimbia durata ind `he will have nothing to give for it', Ml. 57a13 . connabáe níi indid n-ingaba á chocubus `for which his conscience may reprehend him', Wb. 11d8 . i ngabál (sic) lóge `for taking pay', 16d4 . bó i ndéicsin [n-]ind for looking into it, Críth G. 211. ca hindeochad do-bérad in rí forru ind (in punishment) for it, BDD² 196. do-gníth in chomairle hísin ┐ do-bertatar glindi ind di síu ┐ anall on both sides securities were given for it, 421 . esrócartha isan ngním sin | seasca lanamna, Snedg. u. Mac R 12 § 50. dobértar dā boin 'sa mboin ┐ dā cháirigh 'sa gcāeirig, Fianaig. 72.18 . doté(i)t aitire ar ḟer feras in fuil i córus [n-]othrusa, i mboin (`an aitire goes surety for the man who inflicts the wound for [his due observance of] the rule of sick-maintenance, [i.e.] for a cow [as penalty for non-observance ?]', tr. Ériu xii 83.26 ), Críth G. 53. ainmnetach ret ... cride ... rig nime i nnach dortai in doman ... fudomnuibh pian `in that He doth not ...', Ériu ii 118 § 56. Contrast : tucc buidechus do Día in a tindlaicibh, ZCP xi 128.26 .

Cf. indid Niall ... ro malart since it is N. ..., AU i 438.26 . faelid-sem ... hi nglen luch inna gerchrub, Thes. ii 293.24 ( SP ii ). indid Alend is dún fás, Hail Brigit § 14. inid mo athair ... ortabairsi, BDD² 737. olc i n-a ndligend bás d'fhagbail `for which he deserves', PH 2719.

as (see GOI §249.2 ) : tabeir i taurchreicc céile as a fief for a client, Críth G. 252. fáccaib in .vii. maid mboin ... i fochraic in tíre as payment for the land, 94 . gebtit iudei i n-apid, Wb. 26a8 . dobreatha i n-asgaidh dhó as a gift, TBC-LL¹ p. 367 n. 6 . i llóg a batsi `in payment of his baptism', BColm. 10.17 . dia ndechadh ... iom giolla fo[glamma] i n-Espain `als Lehrling', TBC-LL¹ 5662 (Stowe). ar is īatt robói ana farrad ann a fían a saert[h]a `as his protecting fian', BColm. 94.8 . a screbull a todúsc[th]e as fee for bringing him back to life, ACL iii 226.2 (= i screpall, RC xxvi 370.27 ). gur marbhadh é féin 'na éiric, Ériu i 102 § 63. go dtug Brian fáinne óir ... i n-almsain ar altóir Árda Macha, 82.3 . i comhardha na mīrbaile in token of the miracle, RC xxvii 300.14 . ro íarr a n-impidhe `as a request', Fl. Earls 50.23 . co tarttsat a mbú ... i lón sloigh día n-amhsaibh `as provisions', Hugh Roe 68.14 . dat. i forciull ar cainte `as a testimony of', PH 1576. a n-eisimplair ogachta na hi Muire, D IV 2, fo. 45c37 .

II Time.

1 With nouns of time : (a) with dat. to express point of time, (b) with acc. to express duration.

(a) isind óin uáir, Wb. 25b16 . hi cach láo, 4b21 . hi tossuch, 5c16 . i n-aimsir in tindnacuil-sin, Ml. 55c1 . i n-aínib ┐ domnachaib ┐ chorgasaib, Críth G. 145. isin blíadain, Fél. Prol. 281. fíach n-aidci lúoin do tabairt isind Sathurn, Mon. Tall. 137.3 . isin laithiu i rrogénair, BDD² 111. a láoibh áille `on fine days', Ériu ix 168 § 44. lim congébat sind ló baga, TBC-LL¹ 444. i n-aimsir thēchtai at the prescribed time, Ériu i 218.22 . a[n] nemlabhuirt a n-aimseraibh airithe, v 130 § 47 . i ló an mheasa `on Judgment Day', Dán Dé x 6. re sidi ... ngaithi inn a[i]msir gairb, TTebe 2403 . i ndeireadh bheatha, TSh. 885.

(b) is dia bendachthe isna bithu `He is God, blessed for ever', Wb. 4c4 . ní tremfeidliget immurgu issa suthin `(they) do not endure for ever,' Ml. 21d4 . i flaith Conaire in the course of C.'s reign, BDD² 229.

*1 (With verb) when : inraptar lán[a] a c[h]óic blíadna 'when he was five years old' TBC-I² 537 . hi nglen luch 'when a mouse sticks' Murphy Lyrics 2 § 6 . hi tucu cheist 'when I understand … a problem' ibid . imsa naídiu 'when I was a child' 86 § 5 . imbu macán when He was a small boy Blathm. 90 § 1 . inde-cluinethar ... inden-aici 'when he hears it ... when he sees it' AM 18 § 59 . i mbi 'when it is' CIH ii 529.20 , Pagan Past and Christian Present 26 . Succat a ainm i tubrad 'Succat (was) his name when he was carried off' Thes. ii 308.18 , Ériu lvi 41 n. 58 . 2 ann = then, in that case :

in tan mbís diabol n-airech désa lais is and is aire désa dia n-eper[r] ..., Críth G. 258. is and is rí(g) in tan dodnimmchellat dréchta[i] gíalna[i], 569 . ar fochraic tucustar duine a fearunn ann-sin, Laws iv 136.7 Comm. is and dixit in ben thereupon , ScM. § 3.4 . in tan ro ngabsat na curaig tír, is and robuí Mac Cécht oc béim tened i mBruidin Dá Derga, BDD² 479. is ann sin trá do-luid Conaire íar Slighi Chúalann, 429 . ba forpthi, anōraigthe a lá-sa ar na mirbuilib imdaib-si forcóemnacair and, Ériu ii 196 § 14. cuirid daeine úaisle comurtha ... ara n-aighthib, óir ann is dóig léo fein co ra bíattis uáisle 'sa doman `for then they think ...', Maund. § 158.

Pleonastically after nouns denoting time, when these are used adverbially :

do-luid feachtus n-ann dar aenach mBreg Léith `once upon a time', BDD² 2. a mbūi-seom laa n-and for Bendaib Bairchi one day, Ériu ii 22.5 . luid C. fecht n-aen ann do accalldaim in ríg, RC vi 175.52 .

III With nouns denoting occasion or circumstance : i cach caingin `in every dealing', Wb. 25b5 . isin tsenmim dedenach `in the last call', 13d18 . ar mu sémi-se ... isnaib fochaidib, Ml. 22d1 . foghlaim ad lenph when thou art a child, Ériu v 134 § 82. co mbo ḟortachtaigthid do Pátraic ┐ co mbo dítnith in cach guasacht ┐ co mbo comdídnad iarsna saethraib, ACL iii 10.13 .

IV Frequently forming prepositional and adverbial phrases, e.g. i n-agaid against, opposed to : gē mōr do shluaguibh ... biadh ionn bur n-aghaidh, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1907. armad treisiti a nert ind aghaid a namhat, Ériu viii 174.15 .

i cend

(a) against : do scáin in comla 'na cend `the door burst in towards them', Ériu iv 118 § 28. nach tuigit a nguasacht no go tecat lucht innill na sás-sin i n-a cend, PH 7739. coimēirghi na cōig cōigedach i n-a c[h]enn, ML² 1136. ná digis t'aenur | i cenn ríg Temra, SG 365.10 .

(b) as well as, in addition to : cech cúmsanad hi cend a chele, PH 3647. do-chuirfed tuilled i n-a chend, 7730 . cion Eabha i n-aghaidh an Dúilimh | doirbh téarnamh ó théid 'na cheann `when others are added to it', Dán Dé iii 16 .

i cinn at the end of : hi cind nói mblíadan, Ériu iv 94 § 12. conarba luga hí hi cind mis oltás orcc cránai, PH 7210. hi cind Ruis Omna `at the head of ...', BColm. 82.19 . i ndead after : i ndead innanísin, Sg. 1a5 . regad i nbar ndīaid, TBC-I¹ 509. amal atberum i n-ar ndiaid, PH 63. i ndegaid after : cech consain i ndegaid araile, Sg. 7a4 . foraindi ┐ for ar maccaib i n-ar ndegaid, PH 2731. i ndochum towards : ronfáid ... i ndochum n-Iffirn, SR 1856. i ndorus in front of : for-ránaicc ... a ndorus a lis, BDD² 1514. i ndorus do thige, ScM. § 11.5 . ro cing Poimp indorus a pupaill for in eac[h] sin, CCath. 4738. i ndorus Ierusalem, ACL ii 144.22 . suidis Cáilte ar in carn i ndorus in dúin, SG 139.10 . i fochair along with, in the company of : is it fhochair-siu bed-sa, CCellaig 789. am f[h]ochair, ML² 774. i fus here : in slog biid i fus, SR 4537. in tan nad bi Adam hi fos, 1193 . fad gairit bias Cáilte ibhus, SG 139.x . Somet. of this world as opposed to next : na da bethaid iarsa fhognann (MS. ḟogh-) cech iresech i-fhos (MS. i ḟos), PH 3547. do nirt a shúalach i-fhus (leg. i ḟus) i nnert a fhochraice forórda ┐ a bethad suthaine thall, 4674 . i lleth with, in the company of : ní-terpi illed nach áili `thou dost not trust thyself with anyone else', Wb. 1d10 . hóre attá innar leid `because He is with us', 4b11 . Colmān ... im leth `by my side', BColm. 94.23 . dire so fuil i leth inneic is dir do biadh along with what is due ..., BCrólige § 17 n. 4 . i leth fri in regard to, with : batar ... i nilar comperta i lleith re mnaibh ilarda `in many unions with several women', BCrólige § 57 n. 7 . is cinntech i leth fri Dia ┐ ecinntech i leth fria dainib `finite to God, infinite to men' (of the number of the angels). PH 6218. cen co derntar gabail ... i lleth friu `though an attack be not made.in regard to them', BCrólige § 37 n. 2 . iss ed fodera in comrorcu sin dam il-leth frit-sa that caused me to doubt you, MacCongl. 57.6 . i tossuch at the beginning : i tossoc[h] ná epistle, Wb. 14b2 . i tosach nach lae, CCath. 3807. adv. a n-as irchride is hed doralad hi tossuch, Wb. 13d8 . i tús at the beginning : indroet som sochaidi hi tús `at first he had received many', Mon. Tall. 135.17 . i suidiu then, thereat : ro-boí buille dar áo i suidiu, ScM. § 18.4 .

ísel

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ísel or dil.ie/29112
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: isliu, ísliu, íslem, íseal, íseall

adj o, ā (in pl. as i). Compar. isliu, Wb. 4b25 . ísliu, Thes. ii 22.35 (Bcr.). Superl. íslem, Ériu ii 202 § 20. Subst. íseal íseall, IGT Decl. § 53.8 .

I

(a) Of size or position, low, of low stature, low-lying ; as subst. (freq. in pl.), a low-lying place, a hollow, the depths: īsil .i. tīs fil, Corm. Y 775. īsel .i. īs-aill, ar nī erbarad a n-īsil muna bē ard ocae, 738 . hua ísiul gl. ab inferno, Ml. 69b8 . donaib íslib gl. ad inferna, 27b2 . inna fortechtai .i. inna ísli ┐ inna cobsaidi gl. depresa (camporum), 81c15 . isin mórchuthe n-í.¤ (i.e. Hell), Thes. ii 317.1 ( Hy. ii ). i n-ísiul gl. in deiectu, 11.39 (Bcr.). isli gl. demersa, ib. ísli doibsom in fecht-sa innahí ruptar ardda dunnai `low to them now ...,' 11.41 (Bcr.). sírid in rindide n-uile ó hisul co huasal `the whole zodiac from low to high,' 22.40 (ib.). rí in hislib, ri in arddaib, SR 7630. ard a medón isli im a dá n-imechtar, LU 2149. nach tan bus n-íslem cech bendchopur Arad Mora is and bas ardam a chongbáil-sium ┐ a bendchopur, Ériu ii 202 § 20. mo slīabh árd ós gach íseall, ZCP viii 221 § 44. Bri mag n-í.¤ ... mag innā biat slēbe ardae, acht talam cumbair í.¤ , O'Mulc. 154. a n-īslib ┐ a n-etrigib na talman, ML² 37. ar ní is ísli ní ḟeacfa | na trí trínsi in túaiscearta, IGT Decl. ex. 1592. fer i.¤ tailc tarbda, TTebe 2557 . hi nglendaib ísle na Galile, PH 4474. biaidh na cnuic níosa thorthaighe iná na hísle, Corp. Astron. 206.9 . Isell Ciarain `name of a church at Clonmacnoise,' CS p. 302.5 and n. 0

Frequent as the second element of a compd. : mac do Samuél chendísel `the Low-headed ,' Fél.² lxxxv 12. amhail theid sruth ... tar chladhaibh clachisli ` low-stoned ,' CF 808. ní bu leithísel in mam `the yoke was not down on one side,' Thes. ii 341.2 (Hy. v). ina dumaduib smūid-lethna smáil-ísle smūrluaithrig, ML² 1178. ar na glenn-s[h]ūilib geil-derga gruadhlaig-ísli very hollow-cheeked . 1589 .

(b) Of sound, low, deep: guth i.¤ cruaid leis, BB 496b28 . traethait na ciulu isli na ciuil arda .i. stocairecht no cornairecht, 327b33 . re séisibh ísle ... oirfidech, MR 110.z . an osnaidh ísill, IGT Decl. ex. 399. Of palatal vowels: eadhadh, iodhadh ceann i gceann | agus éabhadh .eó. íseall 'e, i together with palatal eó', Celtica xxvii 62 § 17 . na trí heamhanchuill ísle 'the three palatal graphs beginning with a', Celtica xxvii 63 § 19 . See also ísle.

(c) Of colour, pale (?) : da mbía in fual is e isi[l] ina dat `remissa in colore,' Rosa Angl. 186.14 .

(d) Of number : ós aniú as ísle a dtionóil `the number is lowest,' Content. xxii 11.

(e) As grammat. epithet, used of the short form of pl. of a noun which has more than one pl. form : gach focal bhíos d'úathadh ┐ d'iollradh, séimh as cóir a ainm ísiol iollraidh a ndíaigh an áirimh, mur so : trí bhile, ... ┐ lom as cóir a ainm ard iollraidh ... mur so : trí bileadha, IGT Introd. 8.21 .

In advbl. phrase, ós ísel, ós ísiol secretly, in secret: tig Naoise ós ísiol a ndaíl [D.], IT ii2 111.42 . go ttainic fora menmain imteacht a hErinn os íseal, BNnÉ i 207.29 . guth oram ... ós íseal ris an ollamh, Studies 1924, 87 § 19 . claon do dhearc uirre os íseal, TD 1 § 12. dorala iomacallamh ós ísiol etir é ┐ drong d'esccairdibh U., AFM vi 1956.y . do chúaidh ... do chum na solluman, ní hós aird acht ... ós íseal, John vii 10. an ti ithiomráidheas ós íseal a chomharsa, TSh. 7277. labhair go réig is glaodhaig go híosal, Midnight court 905 ( ZCP v 228 ).

II Metaph. lowly, humble, mean, of low degree: a ngrád as isliu oldate angil gl. Principatus, Wb. 4b25 . air dom-muinfide bed n-í.¤ intí dia `for that God would have been thought to be mean,' Ml. 40c17 . foillsigthir as n-í.¤ in doinacht iar n-aicniud, 25c5 . is airi asindet som donaib huaislib i ndiad inna n-í.¤ , 40c20 . huand eregim hísil gl. humili conquestione, 63d13 . i.¤ fri art `lowly towards the high,' Thes. ii 235.15 . Cf. Celtica viii 58.5 . cit móir ríg in domain | ...it uaisliu | amsáin ísil Íssu `Jesu's lowly soldiers,' Fél. 152. cíat ísliu fíad dainib | ... bit áird úas dind ḟlatha, 153 . [as] ndiabul taurchrecce in gráid as ísliu t[a]urchreic in gráid as ardu, Críth G. 112. nach grad bes issle araile, is fair fortongar ; nach grad bes uaisle araile, is e fortoing araill, Laws v 460.16 . secht cumula do eagluis uasail, ocus let secht cumul do eagluis ísil `an humble church,' iii 70.12 Comm. is coitceann índsin itir iseal ocus uasal `both to plebeian and noble,' iv 26.2 Comm. on grad uasal cusin grad n-isil, amail ata ollam, ansruth ... foclac, v 26.16 Comm. re foluibh ísli fhuinn Luighdheach `low-born families,' Studies 1919, 73 § 4 . breith íseal ni fhuiléangadh `he will be satisfied with no mean ambition,' Aithd. D. 20 § 3. ráinig mise ar an miotal badh hísle, Keat. Poems 659. do rochtain ... an bhoicht ┐ an tsaidhbhir, an uasail ┐ an ísil, TSh. 361. Of quality : cuibrech is isliu anas ` worse ,' Laws iii 498.10 Comm.

Compds. ? ¤shellach : issil selbt (leg. íssel-sellach `kurzsichtig,' Thurn.), Thes. ii 236.13 . ¤nemed a nemed of low rank, lower dignitary: i mun (leg. mbun) craind uasal-neimid ... i mbun craínd isil-nemidh, Laws iv 182.17 and 184.1 Comm.

láthar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. láthar or dil.ie/29631

Forms: láither, láithir, láthair, láithri, laithri, láithrea

n o, n. (cf. Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 45 ). Later láither ā, f., láithir, láthair k, f. IGT Decl. § 162 , § 163 , § 185 . n p. láithri, IGT Decl. ex. 2033 . laithri, Fen. 328.16 (perh. orig. a p. láithrea). See Blathm. 23 n .

I Arrangement, disposition : a lathar sin gl. dispositio creaturarum, Ml. 42b16 . Often of arrangement, interpretation, etc. of a text: is ferr lesom a lathar-sa gl. vel certe ita (of an alternative explanation), 44b17 . follintar assa chanoin fria lathar `thus it is supplied . . . for its disposition' (of a passage in a text), 123a10 . idilcnigthir ecna ┐ latar na psalmb, Hib. Min. 8.246 . caecdach .i. canas salma solabra secht fichit for a deich iar lathar ┐ ebert, O'D. 920 ( H 3.17, 654 ). lathar n-aigniusa `the arrangement of a pleading', Laws v 100.z Comm. = O'Dav. 1147 . lathar .i. indeall, O'Dav. 1192. As vn. oc lathur thestimin `arranging', Sg. 154a1 . is amne as cóir a l.¤ gl. sic vult accipi, Ml. 114a9 .

Of mental characteristics: nochon olc a l.¤ som / can descin cirt ná dligid, Metr. Dinds. ii 8.87 . Libir ind láthair lond-braiss `quick and eager of mood', 66.6 . Liamuin láthair láin `perfect of temper', iii 74.93 . Herccad in máthair rosmill / co feib láthair in cech amm of excellent disposition, 84.10 . tiucfa macu dochum domhuin / co feib láthair, ZCP viii 196 § 21. ba gilla cair co feib lathair, Anecd. i 51 § 9 . dul do dígail a máthar / romídair tri mór-l.¤ `in his proud heart', Metr. Dinds. iv 32.34 .

Of divine providence: is tre lathar Dáe són dano `appointment', Wb. 25c11 . dont lathur diasndísiu robói hirúnaib inna deacte oc tuiste dúile hitossuch unutterable design, 5c16 . nadrobae remdeicsiu na lathar Dae dia dulib `dispensation', Ml. 20b2 . lathar nDáe di dóinib, 51c11 . it hé inna llathar asbeir inna ndiad gl. dispensationes, 91d7 . aní as arcanum dund lathar fil la Dia `purpose', 103d27 . Cf. l.¤ .i. gach ciall inchleithe, O'Cl.

Pejoratively machination, wiles : arna dich cách assa dligud i n-adaltras tri lathar demuin through the plan of the devil (`influence'), Wb. 9d24 . cocrait 'na mbrāthreib a brath / diallathreib conā ragad though brothers they conspire to betray him that he might not escape their machinations, SR 3132 . slatra in lathar / indmaiss brāthar / do creic aire, Anecd. i 72.195 . ?lathar col combat col cend frit ṁbráth ṁbrichi (rhet.), LL 287a20 .

II Vigour, energy, power : tre l.¤ in spirito gl subministrationem, Wb. 23b26 . ar demni ind aicnid ┐ lúthige ind láthair, LU 9142 ( FB 88 ). dian farslaic Dia tria l.¤ / do lámaib a derbráthar, SR 7319 . fer n-og co luth ┐ co l-lathar `vigour', Aen. 1087 . ucra lathair `decay of vigour', RC v 203.z . gan uireasbhaidh . . . leime na lathair, MR 318.23 . ro dibdad a nert . . . narbo tulaing lathir nā luaigilla hé, Grail 1828 . l.¤ iona laochaibh, ML 48.26 . cen nert cen lāthar energy, Otia iii 48.5 . ar ttriur brathar . . . / maith ar lathar imon sluagh, Irish Texts iii 9.21 . ag sin daoip bás Caoilte / . . . a ndeireadh a lathoir `in the last days of his vigour', Duan. F. ii 174§4. With lúth: ar luth ┐ lathor, Ériu viii 177.24 . mo lúth ┐ mo l.¤ , Comp. CC 82.17 . ind aimsir do bádusa im luth ┐ im lathar, Acall. 4416 . caillid a lúth ┐ a l.¤ , TSh. 546. In other phrases: lucht láthair, Todd Nenn. 134.54 . Colgo, Conall, ba lucht lathair `men of energy', RC xlvii 308.2 . Cf. ōtconnarc Osgur . . . in láthair lāech ┐ con ┐ fer dothuit lesin muicc `the number . . . that had fallen', Fianaig. 64.28 . In phr. cen l.¤ ferdae without male agency (of virgin birth): compert maic Dé i m-broind Muire óige cen l.¤ ferdai `without man's presence', Ériu ii 198.16 . Ísa Crīst do geinemhain ō Muire . . . cen lathar ferrda, ZCP vi 84.9 . cen díth nóige . . . cen lathair fherrda, LB 251b23 . Cf. ni fuair bean a dingbala riam acht cuit[r?]ed Medba re met a lathair ferda (of Fergus mac Róig), H 2.15A, 228b37 (leaf now in YBL but not in facs. See Abbott-Gwynn p. 100 ) sexual vigour (glossed .i. biach in O'Curry's MS. Dict.). See Ériu iv 26 § 13. As cheville: láthur ferda, LL 6425 `in manly actions', MS. Mat. 482.

?in dorus ele . . . ┐ lathar leccchloiche fair `the weight of a flagstone on it', Mer. Uil. 226.

III Place, position : slíab Lecga an láthair iarsin, / fri fáthaib is fri fogail `the next spot' (or in meaning II?), Metr. Dinds. iii 110.17 . tangattar . . . go lathair a écca, BNnÉ 273.34 . is tú as ríoghan . . . / lér líonadh gach l.¤ , IGT Decl. ex. 2036 . etargna indláthair aimserdi point of time, ZCP viii 176.23 . go ndearntaoi láthair logmhór do shoicheadh ós cionn a ghlún dó ┐ cuirthí innte é `a large pit', Keat. ii 5198 . leath-mharbh ar an láthair, TSh. 2584 . san lathair so, Cín Lae Ó Meall. 45.28 . suidhe a dTulaigh na dTrí bFear / budh í a Lughaidh do láithear, IGT Decl. ex. 2034. Cf. rodhalbestar for alailiu indlautar (leg. l.¤) concealed the place from the other by magic, ZCP viii 104.11 .

(b) In military sense: ro comruicsit ar in lathair sin, TBC-LL¹ 3896 . trotach [airecht]a, ┐ deabthach laithrech, Acall. 6707. daine imda ele do lot arin lathair-sin, Ann. Conn. 1256.6 . gurro trasccrait ilmhile . . . for in lat[h]air sin leo, CCath. 5837 . at laechda bar laích ar lathir in battle, LL 239a8 ( TTr. 1642 ). go raibh an láthair fúinn féin till we win the fight, PBocht 14.36 . do locatar láithir do chongmáil dá cathsluaghaib `to maintain the field', Caithr. Thoirdh. 80.3 . faire do chur ar láthair (láithreach, v.l.) nó ar ionad an ármhaigh `site', Keat. i 202.22 . do lingeadh an láthair the field was won, Hackett² xliii 150. Fighting-space: do reidiged laithir fairsing imbualta d'on laechraid (i.e. for a duel), Celt. Rev. iv 118.28 . do léicceadh lathair fairsing . . . isin iorghuil sin dhóib, ITS v 186.22 .

Freq. with attrib. gen.: for láthir na debtha, TTr.² 1030. co lathair an morcatha, CCath. 3399 . ar láthair comluind, Ériu iv 222 § 39 . libh lāthair catha, O'R. Poems 3614 . leac láithreach na troda thú, IGT Decl. ex. 2032 . buaidh láithreach gaiscidh, Keat. ii 3070 . más libh láthair an iomairg `field of battle', Content. xii 8 . ro suidh gach lāech ina láthair licthi `shooting-site', Fianaig. 64.7 . as a láithrechaib léicthe `slipping stations', SG 264.33 . beirnd curad, ┐ latair miled (of slaughter wrought by warrior), Cog. 188.23 . lathir miled, 194.20 . Cf. is agi ro bai lathair ┐ coscur in catha `victory', Ann. Conn. 1311.9 .

IV Very freq. in chevilles: lathar n-amra, LL 4984 . l.¤ n-án `noble design', Metr. Dinds. iv 8.3 . lathar ndein, SR 5861. lathar ṅdil, LL 205a21 . láthair ṅdoiṅg, Metr. Dinds. iii 108.77 . lathar féile, LL 4938 . láthur ferda, LL 6425 . lāthur ngell, ZCP xii 245 § 14 . scela Bresail Bregamain / do Lagnib lathar foníal `a cloudy region', ZCP xxiv 142 § 46 ( LL 6336 ). ní lathar lesc, LL 17732 . nói mbliadna dond ingin-sin / i mBrí Léith, l.¤ nena `with the spirit of a handmaid', Metr. Dinds. ii 2.12 .

V In adv. and quasi-adj. phrases. for (ar) l.¤ Of place: do'n tí na fil er lathair present, PH 7688 . is ann sin tháinig Leabharcham aran l.¤ mara raibh Cú Chulainn, Comp. CC 78.3 . Of time immediately : co m-bái marb ar in lathir, RC vii 302 § 192 . co raibh dall ar in láthar, SG 27.2 . adrochair M. fen ar in lathair sin, RC xvii 138.19 (Tig. = statim, AU 548 = fo chédo[i]r, AFM 538 ). gur thuit a neál air an láthair iair ttréigion iomaid fola do, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 40.24 . ar in lathair sin `on that same time', Leb. Cert. 204.z . ar an lathair, ITS xxix 198.22 . Note also: ar lathair in laithe sin `on that very day', MR 120.27 . ar óenláthair together: ar aon lathair, Cog. 206.12 . fir Éireann ar aon láthair `assembled', Keat. iii 987. do-icc co l.¤ : tángatar cúic mic Uirgrend go lāthair `came upon the scene', Fianaig. 98.6 . ó thanic Osgur co lāthair `to the spot', 66.2 . tanic dano ín leoghan co lathair, Études Celt. i 91.12 . gach feindidh da ttigeadh a lathair, Duan. F. ii 370 § 3 . iar tiacht a muindtiri co haenlathair risin impir, ZCP vi 40.26 . urmhór an tsluaigh ar dteacht ar aon-láthair ris, TSh. 1071 . do láthair at once: do láthair iar ngabháil creidimh, O'Gr. Cat. 51.5 . luathaid cach lib do lathair, Irish Texts ii 61 § 38 . do cuaid doraith leis a marbad (.i. doraid do lathair a marbad), ACL iii 14.23 . do éirigh Lugaid co láechdána leómanda don l.¤ sin, Comp. CC 110.1 . Also at hand, present : comhtha séd isíad do láthair / locaidh tú go techt ar áth, L. Cl. A. B. 223.97 . do neoch nach raibhe do lathair díbh, BNnÉ 273 § 246 . Cf. gan bhréig ná locht do láthair, / gnáthaigh a dtéid ort [d'fhiachaibh], PBocht 3.38 (`failing of vigour'). Cf. 1 láithrech.

In prep. phrases with gen.: do chuiredar fios ar A. . . . go láthair na comhuirle `A. was invited before the council', Rel. Celt. ii 180.33 . In pl.: dá leana go láithribh Cuinn back to C., L. Cl. A. B., 63.117 . do l.¤ l. in(to) the presence of: d'eagla . . . go mbeartaoi do láthair an dlíghe é `should be brought to justice', ZCP iv 398.27 . iar ndul . . . do lathair Aodha, AFM iii 228.1 . ná cuir do chomaoin bréige / do láthair mo leithéide, Content. x 5 . doní caoi da láthair, Keat. ii 5944. Folld. by vn. phrase present at: bí si . . . im fhochair i n-aimsir m'eitseachta . . . ┐ do lathair m'adhnaicthi, BNnÉ 267. 19 . gach aon . . . bīss do lāthair a ttaispēnta present when they are displayed, Fl. Earls 216.8 . bheith do láthair thorraimh na marbh, TSh. 5556 . do láthair an trátha sin at that time, Maguires of F. 12 . i l.¤ in(to) the presence of: ní fhúicfidhear do leachtsa ionár lathairne, ML 112.31 . do-chúadar a lathair éga, Duan. F. ii 380.41 . táinig . . . i láthair Sholaimh, TD 2.177 . im láthair-se, Keat. ii 6354 . 'na láthair, TSh. 10335 . a lathair dhaóine móra, Proverbs xviii 16. Note also: bheith ar láthair na dtrí dtairngeadh to witness the three nails (of the Crucifixion), PBocht 4.45 .

In nn. loc., see Hog. Onom.

maeth, moeth

Cite this: eDIL s.v. maeth, moeth or dil.ie/31263
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: moíth, moithiu, maeth, muíthṡlatta

adj o, ā. O.Ir. moíth. Soft, tender, yielding (of substance or texture, also in fig. sense): gl. tener, Ml. 87b11 , lēvem, 87b13b . compar. moithiu, gl. molliorem, Sg. 16a3 . maeth, gl. tener, Ir. Gl. 394. maoth .i. mō is mēth, Corm. Y 926. [m]aeth .i. bocc no tlaith no binn, O'Dav. 1205. In physical sense: inna ingnea mmoitha, gl. tenerae ungulae, Ml. 87b11 . glabrio .i. moit ł nephulach, Études Celt. xi 115 (Paris Latin 10290 15 b 15) . do chriss duillech mæth, TBC-LL¹ 4072. folt mæth, Ériu iii 152 § 5 . in cháer comraig nār lanmaeth (of a projectile), ZCP v 504 y . meas maeth soft ripe fruit, viii 202.14 . tarb mæth ` sleek ', Metr. Dinds. iv 338. Of sound: muiti .i. mifothai no maitha soft , Auraic. 467. Cf. O'Dav. 1205 above. Of persons, tender, delicate , often denoting immaturity or youth: minores .i. inn aes moith ┐ anfoirbthe, Ml. 45b17 . is ro-mǽth maccaem a ṡamla sain, TBC-LL¹ 2084. a maccáin maeith!, LL 34a6 . go bhfuilid na leinimh maoth, Gen. xxxiii 13. druim fri mna mætha mine, ZCP vi 264 § 9. In fig. sense: is moíth a forcital (i.e. suited for unripe or weak understandings), Wb. 19c1 . inna forcital moitha, gl. rudimenta, Ml. 47d12 . bá-sa maéth fri maíthi compliant, yielding (?), LU 9334 , cf. Tec. Corm. § 30.9 . superl. gurab é an croidhe colnaidhe is maotha ┐ is sochma, TSh. 10506. In depreciatory sense, physical and moral, flaccid, weak, nerveless: in Fraech . . . nachar moeth arm a n-imgoin `his weapon was not feeble in the fray', Metr. Dinds. iii 356. maeth mo chreasa-sa feeble my loins, BS 94.22 . ar ngleó . . . nir maeth, Cog. 64.3 . don Chriosdaidhe óg bhíos maoth beig-nertmhar, Ó Héodhusa 195.

As subst. of that which is soft: puls .i. soib ł ithi ł moet, Études Celt. xi 114 (Paris Latin 10290 15 b 8) . mæth bo-shaille `tender corned-beef', MacCongl. 61.28 . rasiacht Medb mæth n-araig bar Fer ndiad im chomlond, TBC-LL¹ 3163 , cf. 3166 , 3236 , 3239 ; `den sanften (Zwang) einer Bindung', Wind.; a friendly compact? perh. a technical term. Cartilage (?) or some other soft part of the body: cor bean māeth na cluaisi de co roibi in chluas lomm cen māethān fuirri, Corp. Gen. 190 n. g-g (Lec.). coro slecht uile fiadhu co raem[d]etar tul a n-etan ┐ maetha hi srona 'they all prostrated themselves before him, so that the tops of their foreheads and the gristle of their noses ... broke', RDinds. § 85 (p. 35) .

Freq. in compds.

(a) with subst.: maothainder a tender woman, BS 48.14 . ben mæthainech soft-featured , TBC-I¹ 2789. ¤celt a soft mantle ; as npr. m.: mac Móethcelt, LL 352d36 = Meucelt, BB 223a21 ; see Wortk. § 16. ¤ceo: tréig do mhaoithchiaig `quit thy dejected melancholy', O'Gr. Cat. 457.9. ¤cleth: condlig a chomarba . . . miach moethchleithe la muic find, LL 199b45 ( young osiers ? or some kind of esculent plant ?). ¤cride: maothchroidhe na maighdine soft heart, tenderness , PBocht 77 § 38. lá ar ndaorthaine . . . ní ham maothchroidhe (= repentance ), Ir. Monthly 1930, 515.21 . ¤cuilén a young whelp ; of a boy: imbert moithchulióin, LU 5701 = moithchuiliun, TBC-I¹ 1227. ¤glith ` soft ore (?)', O'Dav. 800. ¤greth: trés na maige moithgretho ` gentle-voiced ', Imr. Brain § 8 (maethgnatha v.l.). ¤íchtar: fri moethichtur a medoin (i.e. soft part of the abdomen), TBC-LL¹ 2566. dar mæthichtar a mæthimlenn, TBC-I¹ 2336. ¤imliu navel or abdomen , see preceding. ¤lám: (as adj.) duthracht fir maíthláim meirb soft-handed , LL 146b12 ( PRIA iii 540 § 6 ). ¤maccaem: TBC-LL¹ 1249. comrama máethmacaím, LU 10277. ¤óclach a youth: moíthócclach, Trip. 52.27 . móethóclach, BDD 99. SCC 23. mǽthóclǽch, TBC-I¹ 1464. dias mæthóclách, TBC-LL¹ 5368. oclach ┐ moethoclach ┐ senoir man, youth and greybeard (of the three Magi), PH 7113. ¤óclachas youths (coll.), BLism. 110ra9 . ¤ruided: co mbai a maethruidead tria hagaid delicate flush, YBL 164a10 . ¤slat a tender twig or sapling: pl. muíthṡlatta , LL 34b2 . maethṡlat a stripling , MR 294.13 . ¤slucad bech ` soft swallowing of bees ' (a trespass committed by hens), Laws iv 116.10 Comm. ¤sról(l): inar maithsroill, Acall. 5374 , 7415 . hi B. na meirgedh maothsróil, BNnÉ 284.10 . ¤tráth: co m. eirgi the genial morn, TFerbe 392 .

(b) with adj. forming dwanda-compds., or with adj. derived from subst. ¤álaind: meic míni maethalli, LL 225a5 ( TTr. 568 ). do bláthaib maoth-áille, TSh. 4207. ¤bog-gel: Bebinn an chneis maothbuiggil, ZCP xiii 19.4 . ¤buide: folt maethbuidhi, BB 427a46 . ¤cnesach soft-skinned , Auraic. 3090. ¤cóir soft and straight , of arms, BDD 2. ¤corcra: laoch maothc. fresh-complexioned (?), ZCP x 279.12 . ¤gel: batar moethgelu a dha gúaluinn, IT i 120.2 . BDD 1. ¤gorm: do mhioll mhaothghurm (of a bruise or swelling), AFM v 1678.13 . ¤ingnech : maíthingnech 'soft-nailed (one who is not accustomed to manual labour)' Ériu lviii 8 § 1 . ¤mas(s): tlacht mín m., Anecd. i 68 § 162. ¤slemon: muc mín maethṡlemun mara sleek and slippery , LL 235b12 ( TTr. 1373 ).

nél

Cite this: eDIL s.v. nél or dil.ie/33060
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: nél, nél, neóil, níul, néol, niuil, néoil, níulu, néolu, nél, néll, néalta

n o, m. (orig. neut.?) n s. in nél , Ml. 83a4 . á nél , 82d11 (`its cloud', Thes.; acc. to Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 53 § 397 á = neut. art.). g s. (Mid. Ir.) niúil, neóil. d s. níul, SR 8030 ; Mid.Ir. also néol (neól). n p. niuil, Ml. 120d11 ; Mid.Ir. also néoil, LL 230b5 . a p. níulu, Wb. 25b23 . SR 8108. LU 8584. néolu, LU 1703. g p. inna nél , Ml. 108c9 , cf. 144d4 . SR 5805. In Mid.Ir. the form néll is common (already in LU). néull (g s. -iúi-, -eói-, d s. -iú-, -eó-), IGT Dec. § 75 (nél, néll v.l.). Mod.Ir. pl. often néalta.

(a) a cloud ; gl. nubes, Wb. 25b23 , Ml. 108c9 , 120d11 . nēl quasi uēl a nomine uēlum, ar is fial ē etruinde ┐ grēin, Corm. Y 989. nell, gl. nebulae, Ir. Gl. 337. nel derg teintide, SR 8025. ticfa fleochud . . . asind níul dorcha, 8030 . ní thaudchaid nél dar gréin, BDD 66. columa niúil, PH 1714. nel .i. solus, ut est co tuitet nemhe niuil truim `a heavy cloud's poisons', O'Dav. 1281 (gloss due to misunderstanding, cf. nél solus a bright cloud, TBC-LL¹ 5860 ). céin beti neóil im gréin, Metr. Dinds. ii 38.48 . co tangadur néoill deirid láe, Acall. 7291. co roa niulu nime, SR 8108. cia rosia . . . co neolu nime, PH 6063. amail niullu fleochuidh, CCath. 5665. a fil do lindaib isin domun, etir niula ┐ srotha ┐ aibhne, Ériu ii 134 § 112. re funiud nell na nona, TBC-I¹ 1778 ( LU 6280 ), cf. Acall. 10. a moich-néll na maidne the early morning mists, AFM vi 2102.11 . néall na hoidhche, Keat. Poems 1556. neóill thiugha an aiéir, 2 Samuel xxii 12. neulla tiugha, Job xxii 14 . an tsíon is teó i neóllaibh, Hackett xxi 29 .

pn rí nél king of (the) clouds , common epithet of Deity , cf. Fél. May 11 , Aug. 27 , Ep. 398. immon ríg os nélaib, ib. Prol. 22 , cf. Ep. 566. a mmo Choimdiu néll!, ACL iii 293 y .

In wider sense: ro thatin in slog aingel . . . co mbatar ina niúl gel imme, PH 7239. fó troim-nell teineadh, AFM vi 1964. 24 . fig. dom dhíon ar nélaibh na plágh, Ériu iv 236.6 (perh. in sense b).

Occas. used apparently of complexion or expression of countenance: cf. mar Ḟer ṅdiad nél ndatha, TBC-LL¹ 4023 (F. von der Wolkenfarbe, Wind., an allusion to the pallor of death; but possibly a play on the meaning of the name Fer d., cf. the npr. Fernéll, 4891 ). sgaíledh néll ngeal do grúaidheadh, IGT Dec. ex. 1237. corp tana truagh | nemhglan a nél, Irish Texts i p. 26 § 12 . néal seirce 'na silleadh, A. Ó Dálaigh x 5.

(b) a swoon, faintness, stupor (freq. in pl.): dos-fánic nél . . . co tarmairt héc, SR 1687 = tanic nell chuice, LB 112b28 . darochair nél ┐ tam ┐ tassi bar Coinculaind, TBC-LL¹ 3968 = tuitis taimhnell for C., St. co torchair ┐ coro laig nél fair, LL 328b49 . atrochratar . . . i nnélaib ┐ i tassib, LL 265b22 = MU 26.14 ; cf. Acall. 6601. téid L. i néall swoons, Keat. ii 4544 . dororchair C. a nel . . . duscid C. asa nel, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 38.6 , 7 . ro eirigh S. asa niull, BS 158.1 . ro eirigh asa neoll, ZCP vi 27.4 . atrachtatar . . . asa nellaib, RC xiii 7.11 . ? 'san domnach ruc Muire in mac Crist co nellaib ar midnacht, Ériu iii 144 § 15 (perh. in lit. sense). dochuaidh a n-eaxdasis [= exstasis] .i. a néul spioradálta, Mac Aingil 330.9 . go ndeachaidh sí a néalaibh báis, Oss. iv 162.14 . tromnella tiugba[i]s, MR 190.9 . nell troch ┐ fordergadh fola the stupor of those about to die, ZCP xiii 220.14 . néll naíden, Irish Texts ii 53 § 25 , see noídiu. bid n.¤ do Nár, ní ba nert, | tíachtain chucum-sa dar cert weakness (defeat), Metr. Dinds. iv 48.85 .

(b 2) a vision, dream: néall fir choirr ós cionn Tomáis, | néall maighre ós mhac na flatha 'a vision of a hunch-back over Thomas; the vision of a salmon over the lord’s son' Celtica xviii 142 § 25 . gan togra a-noir agad neoll 'no claim to keep thee in the West … is made by thy dream' Aithd. D. 15 § 12 .

(c) in B. na filed, sea: co torracht Coirbri tar nell, ZCP viii 103.4 = dar muir, Ériu ii 186.23 .

Compds. ¤bendacht: beandacht nime, nélbendacht, ZCP viii 560.6 . ¤bruig: fri nelbruig (i.e. heaven), LL 123a2 . ¤ceo: co neillchiachaib nimi cloud-mists, LL 230b5 ( TTr. 978 ). ¤cith: mar gréinghail an néillcheatha (light) shower, Keat. Poems 296 (cf. cithnél s.v. 1 cith). ¤gal `cloud-strife', cloud-rack: tromnélghal dorcha dubhcíach, CCath. 470 , cf. 3817 . trom-nellgala dluithi doburda duibciach, 4420 . ¤glaine: Loch Néil cona nélglaine `cloudy brightness', Metr. Dinds. iii 406.30 . With adj.: do nim nell-solus of bright clouds, BB 243a19 ; cf. TBC-LL¹ 5860 where n. solus is prob. not a compd.

úasal

Cite this: eDIL s.v. úasal or dil.ie/42796
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: ūassal, uasal, huasil, huasail, úaisliu, húaisliu, huaisliu, huaislimem, uasal, huaisle, huaisli, uasalathair, úasalathraig, huasalfichire, huasalgabáltaid, huasallieig, huasalsacart, huasalterchomrictid

(in pl. as -i- stem) adj. and subst.

adj I o-ā high, lofty ; metaph. noble, honourable : ūassal .i. ūassa fil, Corm. Y 1276 . uasal .i. oirrdric, Lec. Gl. 23 . altus .i. uasal a laidin sin, 235 . is ind athig huasil .i. moir (gl. sublime) `in a high wind,' Ml. 57c12 . huasil (gl. summa), 56a10 . huasail (gl. summates), Sg. 200b2 . frisna duli huaisli `to the high elements,' Ml. 55d8 . Of persons : Germán martir úasal, Fél. Feb. 4 . ri huasal, SR 565.832 . slúag Euagair úasail, Fél. Apr. 3 . athair Iohain uasail Babtaist, SR 7458 . fri hapstal n-ūasal, Corm. Y 1224 . ar in flaithius suthain na da apstal uasli, PH 1627 . Of places : ós Egeipt uasail, SR. 3380 . Ri rothidnacht do chlainn Chaim | in n-Affraic n-uasail, 2658 . Mellán Inse húasle, Fél. Feb. 7 . frisrócaib nem ṅ-uasal he ascended to high heaven, Oct. 24 . Of things : etha aird osil of tall noble corn, AM 73.19 . ind arc huasal, SR 4905 . batar i cachtaib ... | fo smachtaib huaislib Ioséiph, 3162 . Of jewels : le a chloich n-uasoil, `with his precious stone,' TD 22a40 . atáid soimhianuighthe tar ór ┐ tar chlochaibh uaisle, TSh. 10684 . ináid na clocha ūaisle, Proverbs iii 15 . Metaph. : genfedit teora gemma uaisle ... uaib, Trip. 462.16 . Of a tale : atá sgéal uasal eile | agam ar an aithreighe, A. Ó Dálaigh li 13 .

Contr. with ísel : sírid in rindide ṅ-uile ó hisul co huasal, BCr. 33d3 . d'eidirdeliughadh onóra gach aoin ... otha íseal go hu.¤ , AFM i 44.1 . o a fomhámaighthibh o tha u.¤ co híseal, 116y . o u.¤, o isal, Ir. Lit. 14.22 . bid ú.¤ cid ísel, Tec. Corm. § 31.30 . d'fhearaibh Uladh idir íseal agus u.¤ , ITS xxiv 136.28 . ní bfhuilid siad ísiol ná u.¤ (of decayed nobility, PCT 901 . Lordly, haughty (?) : do bhí sé uasal d'uaislibh fíre, do bhí re a thaoibh sin d'íslibh íseal, Keat. Poems 771 . Generous (?) : Ua Ruairc do b'u.¤ le deóruidhibh `who behaved nobly to,' O'Rah. xxii 46 .

Compar. : bad úaisliu cách lialaile oldaas fessin, Wb. 23c15 . is úaisliu cach céitbuid córe, 24b4 . úaisliu són, 19d21 . do eim ... in clī innī besid nīsle, do emar som ōnni besad n-ūaisliu, Corm. Y 275 . uaisliu doib Dia, SR 5852 . húaisliu (gl. eminentior), BCr. 33d9 . is huaisliu cech duil a ndaratad don doinacht `is above every creature,' Ml. 25a1 . it huaisliu cách `Thou art higher than all,' 108d2 (gl. transcendis). at huaisliu oldate nime (gl. celsiorem) 126c9 . is huaisliu a folud saidi ... oldatae in doini `nobler,' 112b20 . huaisliu (gl. sublimior), 32a15 . (gl. sublimioribus) 116a10 . (gl. superior) 71b13 ; (gl. superioris), 32a17 ; (gl. superiore), 49a21 ; (gl. superiores), 113c9 . uasliu cech rád `nobler than any saying,' Ériu ix 46 § 13 ( LL 147b26 ). uaisliu in cend innāit na buill, 48 § 24 . uaisli lē a clann re Cathlán, Irish Texts ii 3 § 15 . is ro uáisle na ór, 1 Peter i 7 . Adv. : indhuaisliu oldáte cedair leuain `more loftily than,' Ml. 48c21 .

Superl. : huare it hé ata huáislem ánd, Ml. 116a11 . huaislimem (gl. altissimum), 28d14 . huaislium rígaib rígda gein, | rí rogenair i mBetheil, SR 7521 . gnim as úaisliu, Fél. Oct. 23 . a Christ as uaisliu, ib. Ep. 319 . is siad féin is uaisle d'ḟuil, TD 17.21 .

n II Subst.

(a) a lofty place : dind .i. cnoc nó uasal nó aibind, Lec. Gl. 83 . is bennachda in t-íí tanic chucaind i n-anmaim in Choimded, ┐ no-n-slanaig is-na huaislib, PH 4386 . Gloir do Dia is-na huaislib `Gloria in excelsis Deo', 4788 . Of incense : ... uair athascnaid a de-side ... i n-uaislib nime, 7020 .

(b) a noble : uasal d'aibigh ó ríghthibh é, O'Rah. xi 17 . fem. an uasal mhaordha, xxxiv 110 . nách raibhe R. acht 'na uasal `a [private] gentleman,' AFM v 1726.16 . pl. na huaisle , TSh. 71 . uaisli ocus ard-mhaithi Erenn, MR 140.3 . droṅg d. d'arbrib aṅgel | na n-uasal, na n-archaṅgel, SR 792 . drong d'uaislibh F., AFM ii 1022.13 . colcaid ... .i. coimēd cādusa ī, ar is la hūaislib bīs, Corm. Y 341 . mó do sceile ég an ḟir | iná céd eili d'úaislib, IGT, Decl. ex. 60 .

See also u.¤ ┐ ísel, above under I.

As npr. f. : Uasal oen-gel, ben Ḟaelain, Metr. Dinds. iv 342.31 . U.¤ ingen Subni, v 144 ( LL 169b marg. inf. ). mors hUaisle filiae Suibni, AU 642 =bass Uasle, etc., RC xvii 186 (Tig.).

(c) Of things : inna huaisli (gl. summa), Ml. 48b7 . is airi asindet som donaib huaislib i ndiad inna n-ísel, 40c20 .

Compds. : úasal-athair m. a patriarch : uasalathair (gl. patriarcha), Ir. Gl. 13 . is Cathair is uasalathair do ṡaerclannaib Lagen ` ancestor ,' RC xx 418.3 . pl. úasalathraig ┐ fáde, LU 1990 ( FA 6 ). Húasalathraig, fáithi, Fél. Ep. 13 . drong fáithe ..., proféta ..., uasalathraig guidme, ib. 243 . i n-ernaigthib hūasalathrach, Thes. ii 355.8 . i n-oentaid úasalathrach, LU 2489 . dilig dam cach cin romgab | ar fairinn na n-húasalathar, SR 7812 . a Isu ... a chrid-serc uasal-aithrech, Ir. Lit. 40.8 ( ¤athrach v.l.). adhnacal inna n-uasalaithrech .i. Adhamh ┐ Abraham ┐ Iacop, Maund. 51 . a cosmailecht cheneoil ... na n-uasalaithrech, MR 116.7 . do húasalathrachaib et fáthib et apstalib, Wb. 30d1 . ¤bráthair noble kinsman : o aimsir bhar n-uasal-brathar, MR 126.14 . ¤chaín gentle and noble : airdrigan uasalchain, Ériu v 146.16 . ¤dechon m. an archdeacon : Trip. 104.25 . ¤eclais : go huasail-eclais S. Iulio `great church,' Fl. Earls 132y . ¤espoc : Cellach comurba Padraic, uasaleaspoc Erenn, RC xviii 52.4 . ¤fích : cusin (n-ua)sal(fích) (gl. ad Areopagum Acts xvii 19 ), Thes. i 497 ( Ardm. 182a2 ). ¤fíchire : huasalfichire (gl. Areopagita, Acts xvii 34 ), Thes. i 497 ( Ardm. 182b2 ). ¤gabáltaid `high-holder' : huasalgabáltaid (gl. arquitenens), Sg. 24a9 . ¤grád high orders : nach epscop dobeir ūasalgrada for nech nā bí tūalaing [a] n-airberta, Ériu i 218 § 3 . Rule of Tallaght § 59 . toitim fo uasal-grad, § 38 . ¤inntlechtach : ier n-a gabāil go glic uassail-inntlechtach (of a besieged city), `with ability' Fl. Earls 30.23 . ¤lieig : huasallieig principal physician (gl. archiater), BCr. 35a1 . ¤martīr : mar uassal-martīr, Fl. Earls 206y . ¤mór noble and great : Almu uassalmór, Acall. 3365 . ¤nóemtha : an sēpēl uassal-naomhtha, Fl. Earls 146.13 . ¤peinntélad : ierna uassal-peinntēladh nobly painted , 178.3 . ¤sacart archpriest, high priest : huasalsacart he, Trip. 8.5 . Calpuirnd ainm a athar .i. uasalsacart, ACL iii 8 § 3 . Arón ... | ba huasalsacart húasaib, SR 4910 . a chethri maicc ... | Aron ind huasalsacairt, 4902 . a uasalsagairt na huile dul ( O High-priest of all creation ), Ir. Lit. 2.30 . ¤terchomrictid ruler of a synagogue : huasalterchomrictid (gl. archisynagogus) Thes. i 497 . ¤techtaire chief messenger : ind Archaiṅgil ... | ithé na uasaltechtaire, SR 692 . ¤toirrchess : gur glacus ... in t-uassal-toirrchess, Fl. Earls 116.16 . ¤tres a noble battle MR 94.12 .