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1 alt

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 alt or dil.ie/3016
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: a., alta, altæ, altu, alta, ailt, a.

n Orig. u, m.? ( cech a.¤ , Ml. 44d2 , but ald n-airge, ACL iii 293.z , cech n-a.¤ ┐ cech n-ága, TTr.² 492 and pass.). g p. -altæ, Corm. Y 41 , alta, RC xv 487 § 1 = altæ, Ériu xix 58 § 1 . Note also a p. altu, Fél. Ep. 323 (alta, v.l.). Later with g s. alta and ailt, n p. id., g p. a.¤ , IGT Decl. § 96 .

I

(a) joint, articulation (in human beings and animals): don a.¤ gl. jugulum, Gild. Lor. 69 gl. 201 . a.¤ día altaib = iunctura membrorum (of a serpent), Aisl. Tond. 109 § 4 . rolaad cach a.¤ asa choir dam gl. ita totus resolutus sum, Ml. 44d2 . mér airindí bīs ina aonar isin a.¤ i mbī, Corm. Y 890 . robīth Cūchulaind co ndec[h]aid a altaib dō so that his joints were dislocated, TBC-I¹ 2962 . For a different use with verbs see below. cach mball ┐ cach n-a.¤ ┐ cach n-ind ┐ cach n-āge, LU 6445 (TBC). lamh airgíd . . . edír mér ┐ a.¤ , BB 32b40 . tri halta atat isin meor, PH 6837 . cen tescud alta na feithe, Laws v 488.5 Comm. ar a.¤ a dhroma, RC xxix 138 § 56 . d'altaibh in droma, Rosa Angl. 98.19 . do benadh a throigh on a.¤ amach do mhac U., AFM vi 1884.15 . an deaslámh do dhol dá ha.¤ , DDána 21a. 22 . Fig. no gur sguch mh'annsa dha ha.¤ `till my heart left its wonted place', Ériu ix 6.55 . cíoch rér tairngeadh a fhíoch dá a.¤ , PBocht 2.4 . Cf. TBC-I¹ 2962 cited above. Occas. perh. limb: an dara dairt . . . / feoil is ailt ar a hionchuibh flesh and limbs are entrusted to it (of an arrow), DDána 78.13 . gan ghoin ag Dia ní fhoil aon-a.¤ / is lia ná soin daonnacht Dé, Dán Dé x 12 , cf. Keating's use of alt, goin below. Note also: chomhdhubh re gúal gach n-ailt dhe o bhonn go a bhathus, RC xxix 114.10 .

(b) Extended applications. Of the socket of a weapon: co tarrla [in sleg] ina ha.¤ . . . féin, Acall. 4905 . ro lingiustar in lann . . . as a altaib ┐ as a imdornnchur, MR 300.9 . Of some part of a sword: da claidim deg co n-altaib, BB 280b15 . tucustar tri tren beimenna do cruadaltaib in claidim `hard knobs', MR 300.24 . Note also: co n-a.¤ imrind, Arch. Hib. ii 61 § 37 . Of curls in hair: i n-earla na n-a.¤ , DDána 91.30 (of a hero).

II In literary contexts.

(a) Used by Keating (Keat., TSh.) of a subdivision of a book (leabhar), with further subdivision goin punctum, see guin, and cf. Dán Dé x 12 cited above. Perh. also in: mé dot ath-ghoin san a.¤-sa, Content. xxiv 4 (`now').

(b) Of the division between the syllables of words: indleas do dhialt . . . air ni fil a.¤ and i.e. it is improper to apply the name of any polysyllable (`recomarc', etc.) to a `dialt' (monosyllable), inasmuch as there is no a.¤ (juncture) in it, it is a unit, Auraic. 779 , 3582 . a.¤ ┐ dialt ┐ recomarc, O'Dav. 428 . a.¤ in anma prosta in re n-aimsire bis eter in da shillaib a inni, Auraic. 830 . in gne no in cenel int a.¤? Is cenel ecin, ar itat tri gnee fai .i. a.¤ saerda ┐ a.¤ aicenta ┐ a.¤ co feser, 890 . cate esse alta? . . . in toe tengadh fil don filid a[c] ceimniughudh don litir for araili mad a.¤ saerda no don sillaib for araili mad a.¤ aicenta artificial division (within a syllable), natural division (between syllables), 909 .

(c) metre (type of composition?): cia ha.¤ dona seacht n-altaib ind aircetail, Auraic. 925 . domiditer alta uad fri alta duine, 1237 . alta uad, IT iii 128.2 . co fesear cia ha.¤ huad, 3 . ca ha.¤ don maoin nachar mēin? (.i. ca haiste don eladain nachar foghlaim?) (B. na f.), ZCP v 489 § 10 . is dīlsiu don a.¤ airc[h]etail īsiu, Corm. Y 41 . do ṡluind na n-ilaltæ, ib. a.¤ .i. aircetail, O'Dav. 6 . ae a.¤ , 160 . co n-a ollaltaib cen ail (of poets), LL 18266 ( SG 84.44 ).

III Abstract applications.

(a) juncture, point (of time, etc.): ra ha.¤ na h-uaire sin, CRR 18 § 12 . a.¤ in lai sin `this very day', CCath. 5110 . i na.¤ in inaidh-sea `the nick or juncture of this place', 502 (see O'Cl. in (c) below). rob indethbir a gabail do láim a.¤ na huaire sin, O'D. 1588 (H 5.15, 8a).

(b) shape, form: an choill aig eirghe ina ha.¤ féin, BNnÉ 159 § 14 . in n-óige ailt in completeness of form, RC xxxvii 348 § 57 . Cf. Colmán . . . / la hógi a.¤ légend `with perfection of high studies', Fél. Sept. 26 . Luacair ard i toethsat fir / fuithi ata a.¤ in buanfir, Fen. 374.14 . ?tug an tAthair na a.¤ féin / a mhac (`in His stead'), A. Ó Dálaigh viii 3 .

(c) kind, sort: cia haltt delbi, PH 440 . cía ha.¤ con etir, Mer. Uil. 282 . cia ha.¤ dáine cia n-anmand, TFerbe 564 . cia ha.¤ airgne agat?, Metr. Dinds. iv 212.40 . ? ni ha.¤ coindircle maith do denam fria n-aen duin ┐ olc fri cach, YBL 168a14 . a.¤ .i. leithéid. in a.¤ an ionaidhsi .i. a leithéid an ionaidhsi, O'Cl.

(d) state, condition, circumstance: iarom bá halacht in ben / ropo mára.¤ airmiten, LU 4312 . ? nirbu mall marb-a.¤ don mnái, Metr. Dinds. iii 50.23 (` death-dirge '). gillai Chonnacht co caími / dáini ra troma.¤ truagi, TFerbe 626 . lén-a.¤ `sorry plight', Misc. Hag. Hib. 28 § 42 . ? a a.¤ a olcc / a chacht a chorp, IT iii 84 § 75 . Perh. also: créad do ghéandais san a.¤ (: falt) úd `in that case', PBocht 13.41 . Hence in phr. i n-a.¤ with gen. in a position to, able to: ná tathaoir T. / 's gan é i n-a.¤ bhur n-agallmha `as he cannot answer you', Content. iv l . ó taoi-se i n-a.¤ mh'agallmha, v l. gan é i n-a.¤ a agallmha it was impossible to speak to him(?), DDána 100.25 .

(e) way, manner: atat tri altai leusom for ind gabail i.e. they have three ways of chanting the psalms, Mon. Tall. 140.28 (§ 33) . noco n-a.¤ dōib taurcbāil a coss do neachtar de seach araile it is not their way (of two who always kept in step), TBC-I¹ 3312 . a.¤ mog mo coire (.i. is ē so gnīmrad mo coire), Anecd. v 23.5 . is ucht ra mórdílind a.¤ neich mar sein i trad-sa `action of anyone', CRR 40 . is essarcain cind fri hallib a.¤ neich mar sain, 42 . Freq. with prep. FO: nod slaid fón a.¤ cétna in the same manner, LU 3287 ( SCC 8 ). fond a.¤ sin, LL 280a23 ( SG 415.16 ). Also in phr. as cech a.¤ : cóir áli riu as cach a.¤ , LL 374c60 . fuaradar eg as cach a.¤ , MacCarthy 434 § 4 . But see: a Muire, mo bennacht ort | as cech n-alt 'O Mary, my blessing on thee in every part' Ériu xix 13 § 1 . ? a.¤ dár séan an binnse bláth `this brilliant Bench (sc. of justice) hath been our welfare's hinge', Ó Bruad. ii 276.20 .

Very common in chevilles: a.¤ cen imresain, SR 6038 . a.¤ co mbuadhaib, Anecd. i 73 § 215 . ald n-airge, ACL iii 293.z . drong tria a.¤ , IT i 78.31 . cen altu áig, Metr. Dinds. iv 98.91 . aichre a.¤ , Rawl. 148a3 .

Compds. ¤-bisech: th'earla bhíos ag breith ailtbhisigh increasing in length (?), DDána 114.6 . ¤-chaín: mānāis leathanglas fordūal altchāin uindsenn, TBC-I¹ 3346 `on a fair shaft of ash', Faraday. ¤-cháem: dfoghadhaibh altchaémha uinnsionn beautiful ash-handled javelins, AFM vi 2130.4 . ¤-chóir: aenmac altc[h]ōir, RC xxxvii 348 § 60 . ¤-géimnech: alt-gheimnech a n-a. `cracking of their joints', MR 256.20 . ¤-gorm: cloidhme altgorma, CF 880 . ¤-lethan: Echaid a. big-limbed, Fen. 28.22 .

foróil, furóil, fuláir

Cite this: eDIL s.v. foróil, furóil, fuláir or dil.ie/23830

 

Forms: foróil, foráil, furáil, furáil, foróil, fuláir, fuláir, foláir, faláir, furáil, foráil, faráil, fulára

n i, n. ? later f. (lin- `flow' ? Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 566 comparing `deróil.' But Meyer brings the latter < de-ro-fóil, Wortk. 176 . In Mid. Ir. foróil gives way to foráil, furáil, etc. possibly through influence of eráil (q.v.) which in its turn becomes furáil (cf. erail, apparently = foróil, LU 3974 ) by metathesis fuláir. Forms without f- are permitted in classical verse: fuláir foláir faláir furáil foráil faráil (guthaidhe leis orra), IGT, Decl. § 149 . Also IGT III 69 (as abstr. of vb. Cf. ar fuláir, ex. 608 ). g s. méd na fulára ib. Abundance, superabundance, excess; advantage ; forail .i. iomarcaidh, O'Cl. (cf. Trip. 194 cited below). abs. or folld. by part. gen or DI, and as pred. with cop.: in mór .i. in furóil is it much ? i.e., is it too much ? Wb. 10d10 .

(a) with gen.: furóil serce, Wb. 14d30 . furail saethar SR 3887 . atbath [Ladru] do furail banaich, ITS xxxv 188.4 . Fen. 14.9 = d'forail banaigh, Leb. Gab.(i) i 14 . ? ni biad furail nach coicid forru no province should prevail over them Trip. 194.11 (2276) , glossed .i. imarcraid, ACL iii 26.12 [ = eráil (q.v.) ?]. Cf. nach fil eclai in ḟoráil slataige foirn, LB 233b53 (ḟ and -e dotted above and underneath).

(b) with DI: a f.¤ bess lib dinaib anib (gl. uestra habundantia) Wb. 16c22 .

(c) follg. subst. in apposition, in excess (of something else): ni tharat neachtar de fuil furail for a chele neither of them drew more blood than the other IT ii 183.242 . na biad fer furail di chlaind nechtar de sech araile the posterity of neither would exceed that of the other by one man Rawl. 149b10 = BB 174a16 . ni geilead mil dib mír foroil seach araile, Ed. Dinds. ( Folklore iv 487 ) = imfurail, BB 403a8 = Dinds. 98 ). aimser furail seach in cumair (in etym. definition of forsail `long quantity') Auraic. 1574 = 4804 (cf. di[ṡ]ail ... .i. nemfurail, 1576 = 4805 ). noco berad orm ... cluchi erail ar fidchill, LU 3974 ( SCC 45 ).

(d) With cop., generally in neg. sent.: cosc inna coimded ... ar náp f.¤ a cumachte fora mogaib excessive Wb. 27c16 . ni fuluair [sic] a fil ann dib there are not too many of them IT ii2 192.85 (ni forcraid v.l.). atbertatar ... nar furáil mathi Ulad uile ic tomailt na fledi sin would not be too many LL 262a5 ( MU² 32 ). ní furáil saí no ollam ... dia ḟursonnad `needful is the help of sage or bard' Metr. Dinds. iii 382 . nir furail no imforcraidh staraide cacha cineda ... d'ordugud gnim-scelradh in oencat[h]a, CCath. 4406 . In later lang., NÍ FURÁIL (FULÁIR) is necessary, incumbent: taom nár fhoráil that had to be Dán Dé xii 18 . nar bh'foráil an troscadh, Keat. iii 3467 . do bhríogh go mbí críoch ... ar aní, ní foláir a bheith críochnuighthe tráth éigin, TSh. 3153 . With play on double meaning: ní budh fhoráil | ciall ar éigin d'fhoráil ort sense should be enjoined on thee Dán Dé xix 11 ; similar use in iii 18 , vii 9 .

NÍ F.¤ DOM it is not too much for me; I need, have a right to ; (with vn.) I may as well, I ought: nirb ḟurail di láeg a bó, CRR 5 ( LL 171b5 ). níorb furail duitsi Éire uile agad, Ériu viii 135.3 . ni forail duit-se cumal inn o Fh. F. should at least compensate you for it RC xliii 14 § 7 . ní ba furail dó flaitheas ... dá bfuíghbheadh he was worthy of any chieftainship he might obtain AFM v 1608.6 . ni furáil daibh guidhe lat, BNnÉ 231.5 . ní faráil d'ar seise sin | meise d'fhagháil i n-aisgidh, Dán Dé iv 5 . a chairdeas ... ní budh fhuláir dom inntinn `my heart requires His friendship' xxi 7 . nír ḟoláir deit | do chin d'fágháil don éiric `it is due to thee' Miscell. Celt. Soc. 364.17 (leg. ḟaláir). do Chloinn Ch. níorbh ḟuláir ar n-aisgeadha `Clann C. must needs favour us' TD 14.22 . ní ḟoláir don uile dhuine bheith ollamh, TSh. 130 .

IS F.¤ LIM I deem it too much, excessive , generally with neg. (ní f.¤ lim, later often = I deem it proper, fit ): ba foróil leu a ndorigni C. .i. da macdalta ind ríg do goin, etc., LU 5279 . ba forail laissiumh ┐ ba fairbrigh inn sin (viz. a claim to suzerainty) `he deemed it extravagant' AFM iii 366.19 . nír bo furáil leiss in comlín sin do thotim leiss, LU 6494 = TBC-LL¹ 2635 (nir fulair St). ni forail lind corop sī ceta thē, LU 8824 ( FB 62 ). nirb urail lim lom cró ... issin mbél tacras sin LL 264b40 ( MU² 369 ). TBC-LL¹ 131 . ni furail linn la co n-oidhchi we do not think ... too long CF 325 . ni furail lium flaithess De d'fagail ar mo deghgnimhartha fen, BCC § 336 . ní furáil leo beith ac ól ... feth an láei, Maund. 123 . ni furail le Dia gach aon do thabhairt na dioluidheachta so God requires every one to pay Luc. Fid. 45.6 . geall Eirionn ... niorb fulair re Coin cCulaind, ZCP ii 342.22 . ní fuláir leis bheith na bhreitheamh he will needs be a judge Gen. xix 9 .

Cf. eráil, 1 furáin.

nechtar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. nechtar or dil.ie/33020

 

Forms: nechtar

pron. one of two, either (= Lat. alteruter), folld. by part. gen. or prep. DE. In O.Ir. treated as neut. ( Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 392 , ii 64 ), cf. expression nechtar n-ái (in which, however, the n- appears fixed, see Sg. 37b18 quoted below). Sometimes treated as o-st., but also invariable.

Folld. by gen. of noun: co nechtar inna dese-si to either of these twain, Ml. 42a7 . nechtar na dā idan . . . .i. idu serci ┐ idu eóit, IT i 122.23 (LU) = n.¤ dā ní, ib. 7 (Eg.). ní ro gluais in mac nechtar a dā chois, Ériu i 118 § 11. nechtar dá neche, CCath. 1008 (n.¤ do na nechi v.l.). In legal texts, nechtar dá lína one of the two parties (concerned in a transaction): cin folluga do nechtur da lina, Laws ii 72.9 , cf. 312.23 , 318.6 . g s. cor nechtar da lina the contract made by either party, 356 z .

Folld. by gen. of pron.: ni ain nechtar n-áii he will not protect either of them, Wb. 25d14 . ó nechtar n-ái, gl. a neutro, Sg. 37b18 . ni techta nechtar n-ae urtechta neither party is entitled, Laws ii 406.20 . ni dergene nectar n-ai olc fri anali [leg. arali]. ZCP iv 46.21 = nechtar de, TBFr. 420. nechtar fathar, IT i 336.13 (see below).

With DE, esp. in stereotyped expression n.¤ de one of the two (de = prep.+neut. s. pron.): ni rubi nechtar de cen alail neither of them (sc. man and woman) can be without the other, Wb. 11c17 . Cf. Ml. 35d24 ; 42b2 (n.¤ dae). is nectar de, gl. vel Terentius vel Cicero, Sg. 27b6 , cf. 173b6 . ni bá la nechtar de, FB 73 = ni ba la nechtar fathar neither of you shall have it, Eg. ( IT i 336.13 ). conná cumaic nechtar de cobair araile, ZCP viii 314.32 .

Used as quasi-adv.: roga duit . . . a n-imtheclamad no a n-imscothad nechtar de (= you shall have your choice either of gathering or of cutting them), TBC-LL¹ 1407. láech aile for áth dō-som nō nechtar de longphort do gabail d'ḟeraib hErend (to send) another warrior to the ford to (fight) him or alternatively . . ., 1785 .

In Mid.Ir. the pl. pron. is also used with DE: ni thibre nechtar dib-so a chuid fen, PH 7590. turbada . . . ar neachtar dib, Laws ii 304.28 Comm. ni thucc M. nechtar dib doib, Ann. Conn. 1235 § 11.

Nechtar de comes to be looked on as a single word and is somet. folld. by a part. gen. or DE, as in follg. exx. from Laws Comm.: ac nechtar de in da nannad [leg. in da n-imad] either of the two parties, Laws ii 318.18 ; similarly 358.15 , 366.14 (where for: in da naimad, read: in da n-imad). do n.¤ de don lanamain for either of the married couple, ii 360.24 . ma ta n.¤ de dib aice if he has either of them, 332.3 , cf. 406.27 , iii 210.14 .

In class. Ir. also with prep. oc (ic): dā aingel . . . long thúissi a laimh nechtair aca, Fl. Earls 234.38 . neachtar acu sin, ITS xiv 58.3 .