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Cite this: eDIL s.v. neimed or
Last Revised: 2019


Forms: nemthe, nemid, nemhid, -nemiud, nemid, nemthiu, neimthiu, neimed, senneimedh, Nemed, nemed, nemedh, nemed, Nemed, Nimeth

n o, m. orig. s, n.? occas. treated as neut. in law texts; the gender is m. when denoting a person or animal (male or female) and n. when denoting an abstract notion (e.g. 'sacredness' or 'privelege') or a place, Bechbretha 107-8 , ZCP xlv 100 , but see CMCS viii 48 . cf. coa nemthe nert, LU 3480 (g s.? `to the protection of the shrine', ZCP xv 188 § 15 ). g s. ind nemid , Trip. 240.19 = in nemhid , ib. 4 . d s. -nemiud, LL 227a20 . n p. nemid, Laws v 14.12 . a p. nemthiu, LU 9786. neimthiu, Laws i 260.17 . neimed (o, m.), IGT Dec. § 11. 20 .

I The orig. sense is prob. that of a consecrated place, = Gaulish νεμητον (cf. Αὐγουστο-νέμετον Ptolemy's name for mod. Clermont Ferrand; see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 37 , RC xxiii 138 ), which prob. represents an indigenous word used of sacred groves; cf. de sacris silvarum quas nimidas vocant , Du Cange s.v. nimida (< Conc. Liptini A.D. 743 ), which seems to represent an orig. fem. It is sometimes not possible to distinguish the sense 'sacred place, sanctuary' from 'privilege', Bechbretha 107 . In Irish lit. a sanctuary : nemed gl. sacellum '(small) sacred place' Sg. 13 b 1 . atnaig tar fót crúach i n-ardnemed dia díte, di-eim ar díantólae slúaig 'he brings him away over gory sod into a high sanctuary for his protection, which protects [him] from the swift tide of a [hostile] throng' Críth G. 53 . nemed gl. asilum 'a place of refuge' Ériu lv 9 ; in early Christian lit. prob. a small chapel or oratory (or else the spot on which such stood), freq. in connexion with `cell'. conid Dún a sen-nemed, LU 754 (of Downpatrick, the burial-place of Colum Cille) = RC xx 178 § 44 (`senior church') = senneimedh, BCC § 374 ; perh. for sén-n.¤ auspicious holy spot, i.e. the place of his resurrection. ní ra cráid chill nā nemed, RC xiii 84 § 98 ( LL 303b39 ). nemed cille no duin, Laws iv 214.4 (glossed .i. in releg cemetery, ib. 24 ; cf. LU 754 above ). neimhedh naemainglech (of Cluain Cesáin), Acall. 500. neimedh Sináin, ZCP x 12 § 7 (seems = tempall S., ib.). can comarci . . . do cill no do nemead, Cog. 152.3 . ro cumdaigedh leis ceallaca dhais Erenn ┐ a neimhedha, 138.21 . nior fhagbhadar Lochlannaigh naomh nó neimheadh no ceall uasal . . . gan argain, Ériu i 80.12 . Content. vi 196. cin chadus do chill nā do nemedaib, Ann. Conn. 1236 § 16. ? nipsa cell cin chlocc . . . nipsa haí cin imditin, nipsa neimeth cin imfochaidh, Anecd. ii 60.5 ; cf. nemeadh cin imfochaid (sign of degenerate times), ZCP ix 168.22 .

pn Prob. in this sense in place-names: Nemed, Trip. 240.19 (place where there was a `neimed'). a Nemud slebe Fúait, TBC-LL¹ 5355 = o nemiud, TBC-I¹ 3298. i nNemiud, Metr. Dinds. iv 166.55 (also in Sliab Fuait). Cf. termond na fían . . . im rēid airthir Nemid nāir, LU 4148.

II Secondary meanings, arising prob. from the immunities or honour attached to a consecrated spot.

(a) sacredness ; privileges or insignia (belonging to a profession, rank, etc.), status, dignity: nemeth .i. nem iath .i. i n-as dír d'eclais, Corm. Y 962. nemaith .i. a n-as dir d'ogaib, 963 ( = nemáith, Corm. p. 31 ). nemuath .i. a n-as dir d'filedaib, 964 : all three exx. are etym. glosses on `neimed' acc. to its various applications; similarly O'Mulc. 830 fg. (There may have been a techn. term nemiath; cf. Anecd. ii 74 y : crodh neich nat ba neoit nim [nem v.l.] iath, from a judgement pronounced by `filid' and `brethemain' = the property of a person who is not niggardly towards the Church?.) ro ordaigset fir Herend a nemthiu and sin .i. cloc ┐ salm do eclais. Gēill do rigaib. Trefoclae techtae do filedaib. Aithgabáil do fennethaib, LU 9786 = RC vi 165.9 , Trip. 564.33 (`privileges' in both places). cia nemed as uaisle fil i talmain? Nemed n-ecalsa. Cia nemed is uaisliu fil a n-ecluis? Nemed n-espuic: is e espuc as uaisliu dibside easbuc ecalsa [sic leg.] Petair, H 3.18, p. 17a ( O'Curry 46 ). Colum ar chennsa . . . fri neimhedh eccalsa ┐ ealadhan, 2296.26 .

Possibly in this sense in chevilles: for nem noebda niab nemed , SR 7135 (g p.? or n s. in sense I?). naemda nemedh , Anecd. i 61 § 93. mét nemed , Ériu iv 106.6 . acht ní sóeras nemed de 'except that which sacredness increases of it' Bechbretha 58 .

(b) closely connected with preceding sense, and not always to be distinguished from it, is that of a person (or class of persons) possessing legal status or privileges ; acc. to MacNeill, MacNeill, Law of status 273 n. 1 , a generic term for every person having the franchise of the Féini (but the word seems to be sometimes employed collectively of an entire class); used with much latitude of application, somet. (chiefly in the compd. uasaln.¤ ) of the highest dignitaries, king, bishop, head of the `filid', somet. (esp. in the Uraicecht Becc in Laws v , a late text) of handicraftsmen or master-workers; see ZCP xv 262 - 3 and cf. Corm. Y 962 - 964 quoted above. atat do [ = dá] neimhid do-cuisin for talmuin, saeirnemead ┐ daerneimeadh. Ite saer-nemead filead and .i. ecalsi, flatha, filidh, feine. Daerneimead imorro, aes gacha dāna olchena. Is aire ada daernemead aes cacha dāna, fobith is do shaernemthib fognait. Acht i[s] saer cid cach creanus a suiri dia dán, Laws v 14.1 fg. ; i.e. the free `neimid' comprised churchmen, rulers, `filid' and `féini', the subject `neimid' handicraftsmen, but the latter could purchase franchise by their art. ni tuath gin tri saorneimthibh samaigter, eclais, flaith, file, Eg. 88 f. 20b ( O'Curry 2272 ). admestar díre cōir cach graid do ṡoernemthib ┐ doernemthib, ZCP xi 95 § 52 ; cf. dire .i. di-errethe do nimt[h]ib ara n-uaisligitaid, Corm. Y 417 = nemthib , Corm. p. 15 (i.e. `díre' is not paid by `neimid' on account of their rank). gúala nemid filed `the coffer of a privileged poet', Triads 255 . mórad nemed `exalting privileged persons', Tec. Corm. § 1.16 . nā ben ra cellaib nemid !, LL 141 m. sup. nib dulta duit da thig | ar enech noím no nemid, LB 277a12 . a chombrāithre naom ┐ neimhedh his brother saints and churchmen (?), Anecd. iii 2.4 . cach dán a nemed, ACL iii 226 ( Aib. Cuigni 14 ; expld. `to every art its practiser', ZCP xvii 49 , but perh. = a). neimheadh gach dán da ndernta, Metr. Gl. 28 § 43 (where n. seems equated with the handicraft, etc. itself), cf. neimheadh .i. gach dán no gach ealadha, O'Cl. There is a distinction between nemed Dé 'a person privileged from God' (i.e. a cleric) and nemed duini 'a person privileged from man' (i.e. a king, poet etc.), Bechbretha § 39 (notes) .

A law-tract freq. alluded to was the Bretha Neimed, which contained among other things rulings of the `filid' on technical points and was included in the curriculum of the `cana' or poet of the fourth year; see IT iii 36 § 18 (Bretha Nemídh) and Auraic. 1298. isna Brethaib Nemed, Corm. Y 142 , 143 = Nemid, Corm. p. 7.

(c) a halidom; any valued article (property, etc.)? consuitter fir ┐ dliged imaille for neimiudh truth (proof) and right are founded on `neimed', Laws v 8.14 ; by Thurneysen, Cóic Con. p. 12 , transld. Heiligtum and expld. as someth. sacred; from the sequel it appears that the `neimed' for judgements of the church was the Scripture, for those of the `fili' rules of law (roscada) and for those of the `flaith' rules, maxims or precedents and testimonies. Cf. O'Dav. 1175 : lam fo nemiath .i. . . . lam fora mindib. nach nemedh do gait `the stealing of an article of little value' (? of great value), Laws iii 394.13 . in cintach in neim-neime do gabail de riana nimhe, a neimhe riana ferunn, H 3.17 c. 132 ( O'D. 160 ), i.e. non-`neimed' property was to be confiscated before `neimed' property, the latter before land. Of cattle : ro suidiged son la Feine hi comdire fria huasalneimthiu cethra, Laws iv 198 z , cf. 200.3 , 19 . ni gaibhtiur nimhe cethra i n-athgabail, H 3.17 c. 131 ( O'D. 159 ). nemeth bó, O'Mulc. 830 e .

(d) in special sense of landed property, any land owned by a nemed-person, esp. glebe-land: neimheadh .i. neamhiath .i. talamh as dlightheach d'eaglais, O'Cl. teampall . . . do forbhadh lasan epscop . . . ┐ neimheadh .i. talamh ecclusda do órdughadh dhó `glebe-land', AFM ii 1082.21 . ? nir dhíon ar an ccaptin . . . neimhedh naoimh nā filed, fiodh nā foithirghlend, v 1788.12 (transld. `sanctuary'). fer médaigthe neimhedh eccailsi ┐ ealadhan who augmented the property of church and science, vi 1908.8 (tr. `an exalter of sanctuaries'). ro croithset neimheadh an naoimh ┐ an innsi uile `glebe-land', Hugh Roe 92.2 (f. 24b) , of Tory Isl. blessed by Colum C. gan indradh no orgain neimheadh eccailsi ná eladhan, 190 z (f. 51a) . ? screpul gach teineadh cin tart | do neimeadh coicidh Connacht, Lism. L. 4780 (tr. `the chapel').

pn Nemed occurs as name of the leader of the Fir Bolg in the Book of Invasions = Nimeth, Gildas Hist. Brit. § 13 ( ZCP x 155 ); also N.¤ mac Sraibchind, see LL 129b14 . Possibly the same word as the above, see Van Hamel, ZCP x 183.

tobach, tabach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. tobach, tabach or


n o, m. vn. of do-boing. Original meaning probably act of cutting, reaping, removing (see do-boing) ; cf. fordascid Cormac dano ic topagsin urluachra, RC xxv 35.22 .

(a) act of levying, enforcing (fines, contracts, etc.): oc tobuch a císa, LU 10435 . co airm i fail ac tobuch a chisa, CRR § 7 . atait secht tobaig a tuaith naco ndlegat dire na fiacha, Laws v 178.1 . cach tobaig a train, iii 316.x . coemachtu tobaig dligtig, 240.12 Comm. do-fet aurfocra cach n-athgaba[i]l(a) la Féine, inge ma[d] do nemthib no ma[d] for nemthib; to-fet troscud a t.¤ saide, ZCP xv 261 § 1 = Laws i 112.14 . is remtectacu lium troscad orraside na t.¤ athgabala dib, Laws i 114.7 Comm. noco teit dar cuitidh tobaig na criche, iii 218.22 Comm. cor tobuig forced contract , v 214.x . cor tobaig (sic leg. MS. tobad) .i. etechta, .i. ni nad nascar etir, ut dicitur in loingsech morieris nisi dediris, O'Curry 838 ( H 3.18, 382b ). do t.¤ ind nadma ro naisc, Laws i 138.25 Comm. conicfad t.¤ a fiach o mudh aile, v 256.22 Comm. tri ruighlis ollamhan filidh .i. ... t.¤ do tuathaib, O'D. 1196 ( H 2.15A, 79b ). ropat laxa a thobaig, Tec. Corm. § 6.48 . áes tobaig ` tax-gatherers ,' Ériu ii 210 § 33 . maor tabhaigh na Tríonóide, Dán Dé xiv 5 . brughaidh fri doimhiadh do dhioghoilt monab tualoing ttabhoigh, ZCP x 278.6 . acra, tobuch frithir fíach | écnach, écraite, anríad, Metr. Dinds. iii 18.221 . an cïs aíngid ētrocar sin boī acu ica thabhach, RC x 185.z . robói do tressi a thigernais ┐ do thenne a thabaig so severely did he exact tribute, ZCP xiii 196.15 . beith ua rigi ┐ ua rigsmacht in rig ac buileam ... ┐ ua tamach ┐ ua tomaitteam in rig araill, TTebe 231 . flaithi re fosugad ┐ maithi re mughugad ┐ treoin re tap[h]ach, ML² 1191 . do thuigestair C. nār t[h]rēn tabaigh a aicme ar cairdib clainni S., 1758 . atā aniudh ag tabach ēaruca ar an bfear ros mharuh hē, Feis Tighe Chonáin 231 . Aed mac Toirrdelbaig do thecht istir ┐ braigdi Connacht do thabach do, Ann. Conn. 1351.3 . oc tabach slog-socraite collecting , LB 153b49 . ag tabhach a thighearnais forra, AFM iv 862.17 . Of Doomsday: maor Dé bhí nocha buidheach | sé ag fuireach go dtí an tobhach, Dán Dé vii 30 . lá an tobhaigh, xvii 13 . fád chóir féin uainn do thabhach `to exact Thy due from us,' Ó Bruad. ii 122 § xliii . do t.¤ in tiri ocus na cumaile a tuaid, Laws i 74.25 Comm. olc an gaol do shíol Shuibhne | tabhach Fódla féarghuirme, TD 26.42 . Of the amount levied: trian eineaclainn, trian tabhaigh | trian cána chláir Fhearadhaigh, TD 9.13 . ┐ ni raibi baili ... cen gnathbuana, na tuath cin tabach, Ann. Conn. 1310.6 . cinuid sin do nach dlegar cis no cain no t.¤ no geill, Cog. 54.6 .

(b) act of rescuing: do thabhach mh'anma a hIofarann, Dán Dé xxv 64 . adubhradur co rachduis do thabhach mna rí na Sisaile, Stair Erc. 706 . sluaigedh mor ... do thabach Briain ar hUa Raighilligh, AU iii 254.6 . Emann mac Riocaird a Burc do gabhail a meabhail lá Bairédachaibh ┐ a thabhach go haitheasach dia braithribh fein, AFM iv 1150.21 .

(c) act of seeking, demanding, wresting: fuil Crist do thabach dia clannaib di-a n-eisi `for their descendants after them to pay for the blood of Christ,' PH 3286 . ni i n-Affraic ... atu accut tobuch no accat tinnenus `am I importuning thee,' CCath. 3303 . beantar teinte a taobhaibh cloch | rém bualadh ná bí ag tobhach, Content. viii § 12 . do thobhach breitheamhnuis, Exodus xxiii 2.