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amrán

Cite this: eDIL s.v. amrán or dil.ie/3203

 

Forms: ambrán

n o, m. (amar) ambrán, PH 889 . singing, song: esnad .i. abhran, O'Dav. 777 . a.¤ sin na mban, Metr. Dinds. ii 30.61 . bind re hÍsu a amran, Gorm. May 9 . feras amran frim dá droch which sings against my two wheels, O'Mulc. 350 ( LL 275a3 ). Prov. is a.¤ ri cruit cen chéis / sinni . . . i.e. we are like a ship without a rudder, LU p. 22 note c ( AFM i 216 ). do-gní a.¤ : ní fiu trompa mar gní sé an t-abrán, O'Gr. Cat. 617.4 . dorinneadar abhrán orm, Psalms lxix 12 . Of poems composed in `amrán' metre (as oppd. to dán díreach): is é an t-abhrán ro fhalaigh / a n-éadáil a n-ealadhain / do sgar an daghdhán re a dhath / abhrán ban ┐ bachlach, Magauran 3664 . léigthear le cách ollaimh Éireann / uatha ar amhrán, TD 34.5 . As vn. act of singing, chanting: nobítís ic ámrán ┐ ic dúchund, TTr.² 1086 . buidne d'anglib . . . bīt ic amrān, BColm. 30.8 .

2 án

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 án or dil.ie/3242
Last Revised: 2013

 

adj o, ā. See O'Rahilly, EIHM 286 ff. Pokorny, Jn. Celt. Stud. i 129 - 130 . I fiery, bright, glowing: saigtea ana gl. sagitas . . . ardentes, Ml. 24c3 . cosind saigit áin, 133a4 . ar licc áin tentidi, TBC-LL¹ 3384 . Appar. also in compd. derc (= derg?)-á.¤ : for licc dercain, RC xi 444.25 . amal sladar iasc mbrec for licc dergáin co sústaib iarind, LU 8655 ( FB 48 ). uaim ifirn áin fiery(?), Ériu ii 229 § 6 . grían á.¤ (or similar phrase) frequ. used of a person: ān grīan grīssach / goires brēoda B., Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 15 . in grían á.¤ (of Moling), Fél. June 17 . lassar gréne áne (of St. Patrick), Mar. 17. Cf. Senac[h] á.¤ mar oebill, Gorm. Feb. 11 . Perh. also: buidne ana do ainglib shining(?), LU 1993 ( FA 6 ). áes án bright (or splendid) folk applied to otherworld people and synonymous with áes síde: aes á.¤ nó sithc[h]aire, O'Dav. 1600 . do brigh go millthighe leisan aois áin (sic) no leisna siodh-bhruighibh gach mac, BNnÉ 164.4 . Cf. poc aosáin `a fairy stroke', RC iv 178 .

In more general sense as eulogistic adj. brilliant, splendid, glorious: an .i. uasal, O'Cl. hān flaith for Temair, Ériu xvi 147.15 . dend Eoganacht áin sin, Fél. Oct. 20 . Ailill á.¤ , TBC-LL¹ 483 . a Emer á.¤ folt-buide, LU 3946 ( SCC 44 ). it āna ind ōic, TBC-I¹ 165 . ni rubaim níth n-erred n-á.¤ , LU 6230 (TBC). gillai óca ána airegda, MU² 74 . co trebur co caomar cembedha ana airccecha, O'D. 2201 ( Nero A vii, 140a ). amais ana immglicca, Alex. 3 . Of a place: Emain á.¤ , LL 7515 . Ailbhe Imligh áin, Cog. 96.27 . Of water: ri c[ria]thras usce n-an n-úar, SR 41 . for in n-ocian n-ucht-lethan n-á.¤ , Auraic. 5353 . Very frequ. as epithet of Ireland: ōs Ēirinn āin, Bruchst. 56 § 125 . Hérend áine, Metr. Dinds. iv 150.8 , etc. Of feats, games: co clessaib ana, TBC-LL¹ 1851 . na cleasa ána iolordha, ITS xxiv 46.34 . bá há.¤ aircech aibind nobítis láith gaile . . . isin tig sin, LU 10131 . Of speech , etc. mad sulbair ┐ mad á.¤ in precept `brilliant', Wb. 8a5 . ba suī, ba ān, ba airdirc, Bruchst. 41 § 7 . ogh-briathra ána, MR 160.7 .

Appar. also swift, speedy (see O'Rahilly loc. cit. and p. 517 ): for a ndíb neachaibh ána udmalla, AFM vi 1920.18 . rogres a eochu ana athloma, TTebe 2862 . fer á.¤ athlamh, TBC-LL¹ 5324 . am tren, am an, am athlum, IT i 141.19 . confacatar na cet[h]a ana imtroma ┐ na casrac[h]a ana imluat[h]a, CCath. 4953 . tucadar cuir ana athluma d'aroile, CF 491 . Hence in glossaries: a.¤ .i. luath ut est airgiu ána .i. it luatha do airrechtain, O'Dav. 13 . a.¤ .i. ésgaid no luath, O'Cl. fir conoencosaibh ana (.i. luatha) (: lāna), Leb. Gab.(i) 52.1 .

Compar. is áiniu dúibsi a n-asbiursa `it is nobler for you what I say', Wb. 5a10 . dírimm bas choímiu ná bess áiniu, TBFr. 47 . ? is edh doberiud bruith isna hōgaib no-gontais ann, comtar aniu iarnauārach, RC xii 94 § 123 . co nād būi i fēin Find [fer] bad áiniu ┐ bad escaidiu ō sain [im]mach `swifter', Four Songs 22.7 .

Superl. is é rí as ánem ┐ as ordnidhem . . . tánic in domun uile, BDD² 1070 . In phrase in tan ba háinem (do) x when x was at the height of his performance, at his best: intan ba hánem dó, BDD 109 . in tan tra ba h-aínium doib beith for sin luindi sin when their anger was at its fiercest, BB 437b26 . an tan ba háinemh dona Gallaibh foran abairt atrubhramor, Hugh Roe 36.11 (fo. 10a) . an tan bá h-aínemh dóibh isuidhe `when they were here making merry', AFM v 1862.17 . Compar. used as superl.: in tráth rop ániu doib oc ól when their feast was at its height, LL 14637 . intan ba haniu flaith Cuirc hi Caisiul, Anecd. iii 59.30 . in tan tra b'aine in gleo sin when that noise was at its height, Aen. 2830 . in tan tra ba h-aine ic tafann na fiadmil, 727 . in tan ba haine do o[c] cathugadh fri lucht na long, BB 419a8 .

Adv. gabait ar a ól co h-á.¤ , LL 207b15 . go hā.¤ , ZCP viii 115 § 28 . nert Erenn ni gab co han, Fen. 64.19 . ? ro gerradh . . . co roan .i. co ro-luath, Leb. Gab.(i) 102 n.2 .

II As subst. glory, splendour, etc. orgin. o, n. ni ain something of splendour, Auraic. 1585 . Aimirgen indse Gáedel / ar n-ór, ar n-á.¤, ar n-óebel `our glory', Ériu iv 136.18 . As o, m. splendid person: gach á.¤ is éigeas, Keat. ii 1752 ( BB 43a 56 ).

Compds. ? ¤-bó: caeca an bó a hO. ` fine cows ', Leb. Cert. 64.1 . ¤-breó bright flame , Fél. June 2 . ¤-chainnel bright torch: da ánchaindil gascid Gaedel, TBC-LL¹ 3771 ( LL 10730 ) = anch., 3769 ( 10729 ). ? ¤-chend: doluid Eocho anchend ed, LL 375a28 (no rhyme). la hEochaid Ānchend, ZCP xi 65 § 16 . ¤-ḟer: bītis āinfir (: fáilid) maille frim glorious men, Ériu ii 95 § 4 . ¤-loise: dā ānloise `splendid flames' (of heroes), TBC-I¹ 3313 . ¤-rí splendid king: Maicc Cairpri, cāine ānrīg, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 18 § 2 . ¤-spirut: án spirut nóeb nert nime `splendid holy spirit', Thes. ii 351.2 (Hy. vi). ? ¤tengthaid clear spokesman: antengtaid ardafeith 'it is a clear spokesman who tends it' Peritia v 88 (k) . ? feithem fri hantenguidh timgair gell comgrad 'attending to the clear spokesman who summons the pledge of those of equal rank' CIH vi 2223.4 , Peritia v 104 .

attá

Cite this: eDIL s.v. attá or dil.ie/4927
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: attá, Fil, fil, faeilfit, fil, fil, atóo, attó, attóo, ató, -táu, -ttóo, -tó, atái, atái, -tái, adta, ata, at, atáa, attáa, ataa, att, -tá, -ta, -táa, -dathar, ataam, attaam, ataid, ataaith, ataaid, ataad, -taid, ataat, ataat, -tat, -taat, tathum, tathut, táithi, táthus, táthunn, taithiunn, tathuib, tás, fil, fil, feil, fel, fail, fil, file, fel, fele, feil, fail, biuu, -bíu, -bí, biith, biid, bíid, -bii, -bí, robīi, -rubi, -rubai, -ruba, bíis, biís, bis, bís, bithir, bither, -bither, -rubthar, bímmi, -biam, bimme, biit, bíit, robiat, -biat, -bíat, -rubat, bíte, -bíinn, -biinn, -bíid, -bíth, -bid, -bith, bithe, -bímmis, -bitis, -bítis, b, bíth, bíith, bíid, biid, bíd, bithom, biid, bith, biat, beo, beu, -béo, bee, b, -bee, robhe, beith, beid, bed, beth, -b, -bée, bethum-sa, rob, robe, rubé, rob, robbé, -roib, bess, bes, bethir, bether, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -bem, -robam, beithe, bethe, -beith, -beid, -robith, beit, rubet, be(i)t, -bet, -robat, bete, -beind, -beinn, -betha, nobed, nobeth, -bed, -beth, -robad, -rabad, -bethe, -bemmis, -beimmis, -bemis, -bethe, -betis, -[ro]ibtis, bia, bie, bieid, bied, -bia, -bia, -bia, -bía, bethiumm, bethib, bias, bies, beithir, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -biam, -piam, bethe, bethi, -bied, -bieid, biet, bieit, biet, -biat, -bíet, bete, beite, nombeinn, nobiad, -bíad, nobemmis, nobetis, b, -bá, bói, bái, -bói, boie, boithius, boíthi, baísu, both(a)e, botha, -both(a), bamar, bámar, -baid, bātir, -batar, batar, rob, -roba, -raba, rob, robói, rambái, robui, -robae, -robe, -rabae, romboth, rombod, -rabad, robámmar, -robammar, rubaid, -robaid, robatar, robbátar, -rabatar, -robatar, -rabtar, buith, buithi, atáu, atú, itu, it, atú, ataim, -t, -tái, -toi, taoi, -t, atá, attá, ata, at, atáthar, dáthar, atass, -das, itám, tám, ataum, ataim, atamaoit, atámaoid, atám, -taum, -dtám, atathai, atathi, atáithi, -táithi, -dathai, -taidh, itāt, atáit, ataut, táid, -táit, itat, atat, fil, -fhile, -fhuile, -fuili, -ḟoili, -ḟuile, fail, fail, fuil, -fail, -fuil, -uil, -ḟil, -ḟuil, -ḟoil, fil, fail, fail, filter, -fuiltear, fuilemm, -failmet, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, -bhḟuilti, failet, filet, fuilet, -failet, -filet, -fileat, -fuilet, -fuilid, failet, failet, fuilet, filet, bim, bím, -bím, -ruibim, -bi, bíd, bíd, -bí, -bíonn, -bind, bídh, -b, bither, -bithar, bímit, bídmaid, bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, bíth, bīd, -bíat, -bít, -bíd, bit, bít, bhínn, nobīth, robíth, bhíodh, bhíoth, bithi, -bithi, bithea, naboitis, nobīdis, beitis, bitis, bhítís, bhídís, bír, b, bīdh, bíodh, bíoth, bíom, bíthe, bídh, bidhí, bíod, ber, uér, beor, bheith, bur, -rabor, -rabhus, rabasa, bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, bé, beir, -rab(a)i, -rabha, -rabhair, -mbéis, -beis(se), -rabais, beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, beth, -b, -raib, -rab, -raibhe, rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, bess, beas, bethur, beme, bemmit, bemait, -bém, -beam, -ruibem, -rabum, bheam, rabham, bethi, rabthai, beit, -bet, -beat, -rabat, -rabut, -rabhait, -rabhaid, -rabheid, beinn, rabainn, beithi, beithe, bethe, beitheá, beith, nobith, mbeadh, -mbeath, -rabad, -bethe, -bette, rabtha, mbiadh, nobeitis, nobeidis, mbeith, bíat, biat, biad, bhead, bed, bét, bett, -biu, -bhiú, biad, -bi, bía, biae, biaidh, bía, -bía, bethair, bied, biaid, biáid, -bia, bíes, bés, bes, bess, bhias, biass, beither, beithir, bemit, bemait, -bem(ni, beimíd, -biam, -biaim(ne), -ben, bethi, beitte, bete, -bed, biait, biat, beit, beiti, beti, betit, beidid, -bīat, beidíd, beid, -bíad, no-béind, dobeind, do beinn, -beinn, bheitheá, biadh, -bied, bífad, rot-fiadh, biath, bhiadh, bethe, bheidīs, ro-bádus, bhádhus, bhí, -rabus, -rabhas, -rabadhus, bá, -raba, bádhus, -rabadhas, basa, bhádhuis, bhí, -rabadais, -rabhais, bhádhuis, -rabhadhuis, bae, bóe, baei, búi, -bae, -buí, robai, robae, robói, bí, robuidh, bí, bhói, bhaoi, -rubai, -roibe, -roibi, -roba, -raba, -raibhe, -rabha, -robha, bí, -raibi, baí, -rabha, -rabhustair, boí, bāi, būi, bae, buí, baí, boí, both, rombatha, robās, rombas, robás, -rabus, rabas, -bádus, -bás, bás, bas, -rabas, bas, bhás, bāmur, bámar, bhámair, -rabamar, robabair, -babhair, robadbair, bhábhair, -rabhuir, -rabhabhair, bādar, -bátir, badar, bádar, bídur, -rabadar, -rabhadair, baisit, -rabhsad, bátar, bátar, bheith, beitte

(ad-tá) subst. vb. is . The distinction betw. subst. vb. and copula is in the first place syntactical, and cases are found where there is no distinction of form. Cf. the type, common in ACC: boe sab he was a leader, ACC 26 . See further below, and the discussion by Bergin, Ériu xii 208 - 211 (cia taísiu, cia bé, etc.), who refers to cases like: is uera pictura ro bai sin, Thes. ii 6.32 as emphatic. See also Ériu xvi 46 , GOI 475 . For nimtha laám, Wb. 12a21 , nímptha fírion, 8d24 (copula ?) see GOI 487 . Note also the form of the pron. in (later): matait tall iat, Laws iv 86.8 Comm. , atá ar conair é, ACL iii 216.z . bí N. eices cecinit, RC xvii 175.14 is perh. a mistake. In follg. use of subst. vb. perh. due to infl. of Latin: mar nobéind athair doib = pater eram pauperum, PH 6107 . ata in innsci ordugud etc. = oratio est. . ., Auraic. 591 .

Apart from the ordinary indic. pres. all forms of subst. vb. are from a root beginning with b-. In indic. pres. the stem tá (in absol. position attá) is used in non-rel. sentences without conj. particle, after conj. particles with inf. pron. dat. and when the conj. particle consists of a preposition and rel. (s)a n-. Absolute inflexion of tá- is found in oldaas, indaas, etc. than (is), in meaning is angry, and with follg. suff. pron. The uninflected form fil (with accus.) is used after conj. particles where no dat. inf. pron. is present, in leniting rel. clauses and often in answers to questions containing subst. vb., and in archaic texts in absol. position in meaning there is . For fuller details see GOI 476 - 483 and exx. below. See also Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 419 ff. , Strachan, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899, 1 - 82 , Ó Máille, Ériu vi 1 ff. , Études Celt. xxxiv 143-44 . Forms of gaibid, do-coissin, díchsnigidir and 1 ad-cumaing also have the force of the subst. vb. in certain uses, see separate entries.

Note further that attá is usual after hóre (see Wb. 19a19 , 22d14 and compare GOI § 781 ) and occurs later after amal ( LU 7072 , Laws iii 90.18 ). Fil is somet. found in sense there is in mid. Ir.: fail crois d'ór in cach dorus, SR 361 . TBC-I¹ 2561 . Note also: fil derg it is red, Marco P. 173 .

The use of accus. after fil continues into the classical period, see IGT Introd. § 129 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 92 - 93 . A few exx. of forms other than fil with accus. occur: ni raibi deilb, TTr.² 1664 , ní raibi . . . mhnái, 370 , ní bhiadh mnaoi, Ó Bruad. ii 252.z (with assonance). Note also with inf. pron. rosṁbai inna tass, SR 5107 . ? nim tha maith . . . do chath fri firu, LU 3343 ( SCC 13 ). From the mid. Ir. period on fil takes personal endings except in 3 s., and occurs occasionally as an independent verb: faeilfit (fut. 3 pl. absol.), Caithr. Thoirdh. 120.26 . In rel. function attá is found side by side with fil from an early period: is heiside attá hi S., Trip.² 534 , a lucht atá istig, RC vii 298.131 , the form fil finally disappearing in this use.

In mid. Ir. fil occurs for earlier -tá with dat. inf. pron.: nichar fail tlacht, SR 1560 , ni-s-fil biad, PH 1310 . Also in rel. clause after prep.: bale hi fail, LU 7516 , fors fil, Imr. Brain 43 (see also Strachan, Stories fr. Táin 3rd ed. p. 1 note).

The consuet. pres. 1 s. conj. -bíu has in classical Ir. the force of a future: biad ní biú, IGT Verbs § 7 , see also TBC-LL¹ 882 , Acall. 6179 , Duan. F. i 43.4 .

Early forms (for fuller lists see Strachan loc. cit.). Indic. pres. 1 s. atóo, Wb. 12a21 . attó, 21c19 . attóo, 26d8 . ató, 26d17 . -táu, 32a10 , -ttóo, 17d24 , -tó, Ml. 92b8 . 2 s. atái, Wb. 5b27 . atái, Ml. 110d15 (sic MS, see Ériu xiv 30 ). -tái, 5b38 . 3 s. adta, Laws v 390.10 (see ZCP xxv 247 ). ata, Wb. 13c26 , at, 27a11 , atáa, 6a19 , attáa, 32a6 , ataa, 26b31 , att, 4b11 . -tá, 31c7 , -ta, 2b12 , -táa, 13a35 . Impers. -dathar (see GOI 477 - 478 ), Wb. 21c9 . 1 pl. ataam, Wb. 15a13 , attaam, 32a28 . 2 pl. ataid, Wb. 4a4 , ataaith, 20b16 , ataaid, 23c28 , ataad, 22d14 . -taid, 19d26 . 3 pl. ataat (trisyll.), Blathm. 471 . ataat, Ml. 55d11 , 37a10 . -tat, 42b10 . -taat, Sg. 71b3 .

With suff. pron. tathum, Metr. Dinds. iv 284.3 . tathut, Fél. July 24 . táithi (tathai, v.l.), Críth G. 197 . táthus, Fél. Feb. 5 . táthunn, Prol. 217. taithiunn, Thes. ii 293.19 . tathuib, Rawl. 88b51 .

For rel. s. without preverb (taas, tás) see atás, indaas, 4 ol.

The form fil, etc. As conj. form: fil, Wb. 16b9 , Ml. 92a8 , Sg. 193b7 . feil, Wb. 24c4 . Ml. 60b2 . fel, Wb. 3c38 , Ml. 27d10 . fail, 44b10-11 , Sg. 32a1 . As rel.: fil, Ml. 121c8 , file Wb. 23a5 , Ml. 51d11 , Sg. 151b7 . fel, Wb. 4c1 , fele, Ml. 93c7 . feil, Wb. 33b18 . fail, BCr. 18c4 .

Consuet. pres. 1 s. biuu, Wb. 16d8 . -bíu, 20a3 . 2 s. -bí, Ml. 135d1 . ACL iii 312 § 4 . 3 s. biith, Wb. 29a26 . biid, 4d33 . bíid, Sg. 150b4 . -bii, Wb. 28b25 , -bí, Ml. 103c3 . With ro: robīi, TBC-I¹ 1730 . -rubi, Wb. 11c17 , -rubai, Ml. 20d4 , Sg. 7b3 . -ruba, 3b28 . Rel. bíis, Wb. 13a12 . biís, 28b28 . bis, Ml. 61a33 . bís, Sg. 140b2 . Impers. bithir, Ml. 56b15 . rel. bither, 108b4 , -bither, 100c21 . -rubthar, cited GOI § 784 . OIPG 69 . 1 pl. bímmi, Ml. 15a4 . -biam, Wb. 16a8 . Rel. bimme, Wb. 12c11 . 3 pl. biit, Wb. 29a28 . bíit, Sg. 217a1 . robiat, 138a5 . -biat, Ml. 59d7 . -bíat, Sg. 148a4 . -rubat, 138a5 . Rel. bíte, Wb. 9d28 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. -bíinn, Ml. 108b1 , -biinn, 58d9 . 3 s. -bíid, LU 5080 (see Ériu xvii 121 ), -bíth, Sg. 148b6 . -bid, Ml. 33a5 . -bith, Vita Br. 12 . Impers. no bithe , CCath. 3971 . 1 pl. -bímmis, cited GOI § 785 . 3 pl. -bitis, Ml. 86d6 . -bítis, Sg. 5a15 .

Ipv. 2 s. b, TBC-I¹ 2391 . 3 s. bíth, Wb. 10a8 , 25 , bíith, 8d9 , bíid, 5d33 , biid, Ml. 74d3 . bíd, Wb. 3a14 . With suff. pron. bithom, Fél. Ep. 404 n.17 . 2 pl. biid, Wb. 23c11a . bith, 22b26 . 3 pl. biat, Ml. 51d13 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. beo, Wb. 23b41 . beu, Ml. 53b8 . -béo, Fél. Prol. 273 . 2 s. bee, cited OIPG 70 and see GOI 482 . b, ZCP viii 311.z (see xxiv 122 ). -bee (perh. absol.), ZCP vii 494 (Enchir. Aug.). -bē, Fing. R. 82 . With ro: robhe (restored as ro-bé), Blathm. 92 § 9 . 3 s. beith, Ml. 108a11 . beid, Wb. 14c23 . bed, 3c10 . beth, Thes. ii 245.34 (Cambr. Hom.). -bǽ, Wb. 22b14 . -b, Sg. 29b14 . -bée, Wb. 12c43 . With suff. pron. bethum-sa, Fél. Ep. 384 n.14 . With ro: rob, Wb. 5d30 , robe, 18c4 , rubé, Ml. 20d4 , rob, Wb. 28a23 , robbé, Sg. 169a1 . -roib, Wb. 16c24 , Ml. 118c5 . Rel. bess, Wb. 5d14 . bes, Ml. 77d3 . Impers. bethir, Wb. 5d33 . rel. bether, Ml. 107d8 . -bether, Wb. 10a18 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 31c11 . beimmi, 19a16 . -bem, 24a10 . -robam, 26c10 . 2 pl. beithe, Wb. 18b16 . bethe, 24b13 . -beith, Ml. 46a10 . -beid, Wb. 27c9 . With ro: -robith, Wb. 26a28 . 3 pl. beit, Wb. 10b5 . rubet, 26a23 . ro be(i)t , Vita Br. 35 . -bet, Wb. 9d27 . -robat, 11d9 . Rel. bete, Wb. 10c22 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. -beind, TBC-I¹ 1856 . -beinn cited GOI § 787 . 2 s. -betha, Wb. 4c24 . 3 s. nobed, Wb. 3b10 . nobeth, Ml. 27b1 . -bed, Wb. 9d1 . -beth, Ml. 88b15 . -robad, Wb. 17a13 . -rabad, 34a4 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . 1 pl. -bemmis, Wb. 9a3 . -beimmis, 29d23 . -bemis, Vita Br. 23 . 2 pl. -bethe, Wb. 9c20 . 3 pl. -betis, Sg. 138a9 . -[ro]ibtis, Wb. 28a1 .

Fut. 1 s. bia, Ml. 137b7 . 2 s. bie, cited GOI § 788 , OIPG 70 . 3 s. bieid, Wb. 4d6 . bied, 14c1 . -bia, 5d35 . -bia (disyll.), Blathm. 572 . -bia and -bía, GOI § 788 . With suff. pron. bethiumm. Ériu xiii 20.6 . bethib, ZCP viii 316.5 (see xxix 174 ). Rel. bias, Wb. 23b38 . bies, Ériu iii 102 § 32 . Impers. beithir, TBFr. 248 . -bether, MacCongl. 61.4 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 9c10 . beimmi, 21b7 . -biam, 15a1 . -piam, 30b17 . 2 pl. bethe, cited GOI § 788 . bethi, Trip.² 1589 . -bied, Wb. 9a21 . -bieid, 26d26 . 3 pl. biet (disyll.), Blathm. 472 . bieit, Wb. 4c40 . biet, 9d27 , Sg. 198b6 (also bíet, GOI § 788 ). -biat, 9c28 . -bíet, 40b14 . Rel. bete, Wb. 13c26 . beite, 4c40 .

Condit. 1 s. nombeinn, Ml. 59a22 . 3 s. nobiad, Ml. 32d5 . -bíad, Wb. 9d1 . 1 pl. nobemmis, Ml. 134b3 . 3 pl. nobetis, Ml. 100c7 .

Pret. 1 s. b, LU 9407 . 2 s. -bá, cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 , see perf. 2 s. below. 3 s. bói, Wb. 31c18 . bái, 27a16 . -bói, 17d17 , Ml. 78a4 . Rel. boie, Thes. ii 242.11 (Ardm.). boīe (MS. ba), Ériu xvi 46.10 (see n. 0 and Celtica vi 223 ). boíë (MS. baoí), Ériu xxvi 67, 85 . Cf. cech nóeb bói, fil, bías, Fél. Ep. 289 (where six sylls. required). With suff. pron. boithus, IT i 137.8 = boithius, 21 . boíthi, Sc.M² 3 . ? baísu, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 37.5 . Impers. *both(a)e, postulated GOI § 789 , botha, TBC-I¹ 1572 . -both(a), Vita Br. 33 . 1 pl. bamar, SR 1558 . bámar, 3286 , Imr. Brain i 48.5 . 2 pl. -baid (baïd ?), cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 . 3 pl. bātir, TBC-I¹ 217 . -batar, Ml. 55c2 . Rel. batar, Ml. 123b5 . See GOI § 789 .

Perf. 1 s. rob, Wb. 28a9 . -roba, Ml. 44c4 . -raba, TBC-I¹ 3068 . 2 s. rob, LL 14442 . 3 s. robói, Wb. 5c10 . rambái, 2c13 . robui, Ml. 93c3 . -robae, Ml. 41a5 , -robe, Wb. 18d7 , -rabae, Ml. 28d3 . Impers. romboth, Wb. 19a9 . rombod, 5b31 . -rabad, Ériu iv 146.4 . 1 pl. robámmar, Wb. 20d12 . -robammar, Ml. 105b16 . 2 pl. rubaid, Wb. 3b19 . -robaid, Ml. 46a8 . 3 pl. robatar, Wb. 24c5 . robbátar, Sg. 57b1 . -rabatar, Ml. 100c11 . -robatar, Sg. 45b1 . -rabtar, Ml. 37a16 .

Vn. buith.

Vbl. of necess. buithi.

Later forms (see also Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish, Ériu vi 1 ff. ; Mulchrone, Verbalformen der Vita Tripartita, ZCP xvi 440 ; Falconer, Verbal System of LU Táin, Ériu xvii 116 ; Strachan, Verbal System of SR, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1895, 1 - 76 ; O Daly, Verbal System of LL Táin, Ériu xiv 80 ; Mac Eoin, Verbalsystem von Togail Troi, ZCP xxviii 125 ; Sommerfelt, Le système verbal dans In Cath Catharda, RC xxxviii 41 ; Nuner, Verbal System of the Agallamh na Senórach, ZCP xxvii 272 ; PH Glossary; Lloyd, Impersonal passive forms of the Irish substantive verb, Ériu i 49 ff. ; TD Introd. lxxv ; IGT Verbs § 7 ).

Indic. pres. 1 s. atáu, Trip.² 1412 . atú, 2578 . itu, SR 1187 . it, TBC-LL¹ 434 . atú, IGT Verbs § 7 . ataim, Fier. 14 . -t, Acall. 4516 . 2 s. -tái, SR 3102 . -toi, TBC-I¹ 937 . taoi, TD 15.48 . cia doaisiu mac?, RC xxvi 30 § 128 . 3 s. -t, Trip.² 744 . atá, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. attá, Trip.² 534 , ata, SR 7708 etc., at, Acall. 429 . Impers. atáthar, TBC-LL¹ 3316 . dáthar (: máthar), IGT Verbs ex. 99 . atass, Ériu iv 114 § 17 (:as). -das (: as), IGT Verbs ex. 104 . 1 pl. itám, SR 1727 . tám, 3493 . ataum, PH 1556 . ataim, TBC-LL¹ 874 . atamaoit, TBC St. 121 . atámaoid, atám, IGT Verbs § 7 . -taum, PH 1506 . -dtám (: ár), IGT Verbs ex. 111 . 2 pl. atathai, PH 2734 . atathi, 597 . atáithi (: fáithi), IGT Verbs ex. 105 . -táithi (: sáithi), ex. 96 . -dathai, Alex. 190 . -taidh, Ériu ii 118 § 53 . 3 pl. itāt, TBC-I¹ 3132 . atáit, CCath. 1215 . ataut, PH 1064 . táid, TD 8.5 . -táit, CCath. 1701 . Rel. itat, Trip.² 882 , atat, SR 7949 . For later forms in meaning than (is) see atás, indaas, 4 ol. See also II (d) below and daas.

The form fil. 1 s. ni ḟuilim, ni ḟoilim, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. -fhile, PH 8116 . -fhuile, 3335 , -fuili, Acall. 3217 . -ḟoili, -ḟuile, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. fail, TBC-I¹ 60 , SR 353 etc. ro fail , TBC-LL¹ 263 , fuil, 3072 . -fail, Trip.² 2764 , -fuil, 872 , -uil, PH 3181 , -ḟil, Acall. 3709 . -ḟuil, -ḟoil, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. fil, Trip.² 842 , fail, SR 392 , no fail , 933 . With impers. ending: filter, MacCongl. 31.25 . -fuiltear, TD 2.42 . 1 pl. ra fuilemm , TBC-LL¹ 2971 . -failmet, SR 6320 , -ḟuilmíd, Acall. 5101 . -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. -bhḟuilti, Acall. 962 . 3 pl. failet, SR 345 . filet, 477 . fuilet, TBC-LL¹ 4739 . -failet, Trip.² 1119 . -filet, TBC-I¹ 1848 , -fileat, CCath. 1270 . -fuilet, 427 . -fuilid, TD 7.23 . Rel. failet, SR 400 . ra failet , TBC-LL¹ 5225 . fuilet, 4709 . filet, PH 435 . See also do-fil.

Consuet. pres. 1 s. bim, PH 6393 . bím, -bím, IGT Verbs § 7 . ? -ruibim, SG 373.29 . 2 s. -bi, SR 2035 . bí, ní bí, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bíd, TBC-I¹ 1453 (LU). biid, SR 4537 . bíd, 4588 . -bí, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bíonn, TD 22.12 . -bind, RC xlix 37.13 . bídh, -b, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bither, PH 7441 . -bithar, Laws iv 234.2 Comm. 1 pl. bímit, Acall. 886 . bídmaid, 5481 . bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bíth, Acall. 6139 . 3 pl. bīd, TBC-I¹ 1075 (bít, LU). -bíat, TTr.² 330 . -bít, PH 4189 , -bíd, TD 5.5 . Rel. bit (= bíït), SR 7259 . bít, TBC-LL¹ 1320 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. do bhínn , TD 23.7 . 3 s. nobīth, TBC-I¹ 593 (nobíid, LU cited above). robíth, TBC-I¹ 1903 (LU). do bhíodh , TD 14.23 . do bhíoth , 26.12 . Impers. bithi, Auraic. 5286 = -bithi, RC xx 150.y (ACC Pref.). no bithea , Acall. 156 . 3 pl. naboitis, TBC-I¹ 855 LU ( nobitís , Y). nobīdis, 3621 (Y). bítís, 1898 (LU). no beitis , LL 407a27 . ro bitis , PH 1957 . do bhítís , Acall. 830 . do bhídís , TD 15.18 . Rel. tri cnuasa bítís ann, Acall. 455 .

Ipv. 1 s. bír (: gním), IGT Verbs ex. 94 . 2 s. b, Parrth. Anma 3871 . 3 s. bīdh, ZCP vi 271.z . bíodh, TD 16.2 . bíoth, 17.1 . 1 pl. bíom, Dán Dé xiv 17 . 2 pl. bíthe (: -chíthe), IGT Verbs ex. 95 . bídh, ex. 109 . bidhí, Luc. Fid. 3430 . 3 pl. bíod, TD 16.19 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. ber, SG 172.15 . uér, Ériu ii 92.9 . beor, v 222.46 . bheith mé, TD 8.9 . -ra bur , TBC-LL¹ 1112 . -rabor, ZCP xii 401.30 . ? -rabhus, ZCP v 523.27 = rabasa, Ériu xii 144.12 (TE). -rabar, ZCP iii 32.37 . bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bé, SR 1607 . beir, BNnÉ 288.29 . Acall. 592 . -rab(a)i, BDD² p. 80 . -rabha, Irish Texts iv 75 § 16 . -rabhair, Fing. R. p. 13 note 86 . -mbéis (: Céis), IGT Verbs ex. 100 . -beis(se) (: meise), Dán Dé xiv 20 . -rabais, Fing. R. 86 , BDD² 363 (see ZCP xxvii 75-8 ). beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. beth, TBC-I¹ 270 (beith, v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 101 . -b, TBC-I¹ 1671 . -raib, Trip.² 2753 . -rab, TBC-I¹ 1430 . -raibhe, Parrth. Anma 2616 . rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bess, TBC-I¹ 1104 (beis, Y). beas, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bethur, Laws ii 36.20 Comm. 1 pl. beme, Snedg. u. Mac R 9.14 . bemmit, TBC-LL¹ 2137 . bemait, Acall. 5478 . -bém, CCath. 1124 . -beam (: leam), Dán Dé xii 10 . -ruibem, SR 5540 . -rabum, PH 7899 . bheam, rabham, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 1233 . rabthai, PH 1977 . 3 pl. beit, Trip.² 1653 . -bet, TBC-I¹ 1053 . -beat, Lism. L. 4702 . -rabat, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. -rabut, PH 994 . -rabhait, BNnÉ 269.4 . -rabhaid, Parrth. Anma 2836 . -rabheid, RC xxix 136 § 51 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. do beinn , do rabainn , IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. no beithi , Trip.² 2972 . no beithe , 2983 = no bethe , Trip. 252.21 . do beitheá , TD 1.44 . 3 s. no beith , Trip.² 2967 . nobith, TBC-I¹ 3543 . dá mbeadh , TD 29.6 . -mbeath, IGT Verbs ex. 97 . -rabad, RC iii 184.24 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . -bette, Metr. Dinds. iii 382.19 . rabtha, TBC-LL¹ (C) 1675 . 1 pl. dá mbiadh sinn, TD 28.25 . 3 pl. nobeitis, SR 7855 . nobeidis, TBC-I¹ 3557 . dá mbeith siad, TD 26.36 .

Fut. (see Bergin, Ériu ii 46-8 ) 1 s. bíat, TTr.² 89 . biat, PH 1244 . biad (bíatt v.l.), CCath. 5137 . bhead, Parrth. Anma 6378 . bed, ZCP vi 41.10 . bét, 69.2 . bett, BNnÉ 52 § 42 . -biu, TBC-LL¹ 882 . -bhiú, Dán Dé xiv 20 . biad, -bi, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bía, Trip.² 1593 . biae, SR 1599 . -bíai, BNnÉ 291 § 2 . biaidh tú, TD 1.26 . bía, -bía, IGT Verbs § 7 . bethair, ZCP ii 225.4 . 3 s. bied, LU 10362 . biaid, Trip.² 1071 . biáid, TBC-I¹ 169 (LU). biaidh, -bia, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bíes, Trip.² 2671 . bés, CCath. 300 , bes, 657 . bess, PH 4666 . bhias, TD 3.50 . do biass , L. Chl. S. 1 . Impers. beither, Acall. 5259 . beithir, ZCP x 415.11 . 1 pl. bemit, LU 9753 , PH 1501 . bemait, CCath. 1467 . -bem(ni, LU 9753 . beimíd, -biam, IGT Verbs § 7 . -biaim(ne) (: siairni), ex. 108 . ? -ben, BCC 396.19 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 3083 . beitte (: eiti) (beththi, bete v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 102 . -bed, Trip.² 1590 . 3 pl. biait, Trip.² 2665 , TBC-I¹ 2057 (beite, LU). biat, Trip.² 1288 . beit, TBC-I¹ 80 . beiti, TBC-I¹ 2078 . beti, SR 8157 . betit, SR 853 . TBC-LL¹ 246 , TTr.² 760 . beidid, ZCP x 338 § 1 . -bīat, TBC-I¹ 1132 . beidíd síad, BCC 290.12 . beid, -bíad, IGT Verbs § 7 .

Condit. 1 s. no-béind, PH 6107 . dobeind, 7489 . do beinn, -beinn, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. do bheitheá , TD 19.13 . 3 s. no biadh , CCath. 3754 . -bied, TBC-I¹ 504 . ro bífad , TBC-LL¹ 5112 . rot-fiadh, IT iii 320.4 ( Cóir Anm. 70 ). do biath (: sgiath), IGT Verbs ex. 97 . do bhiadh , TD 2.54 . Impers. no bethe , TTr.² 533 . 3 pl. do bheidīs , Parrth. Anma 5227 .

Pret. and perf. 1 s. ro-bádus, PH 699 . do bhádhus , TD 23.6 . do bhí mé, 5 . -rabus, Acall. 7913 . -rabhas, 1584 . -rabadhus, 356 . do bá , -raba; do bádhus , -rabadhas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do basa ( : bádusa; proscribed form), ex. 103 . 2 s. ro bhádhuis , CCath. 553 . do bhí tú, TD 28.6 . -rabadais, PH 3725. 8121 . -rabhais, Acall. 123 . do bhádhuis , -rabhadhuis, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bae, SR 7608 . bóe, 6265 . baei, BDD² 127 . búi, CCath. 95 . -bae, SR 4975 . -buí, Trip.² 1505 . robai, SR 2229 , robae, 2262 . robói, PH 2572 . ro bí , CCath. 1302 . robuidh, Ériu iii 198 § 22 . do bí , CCath. 278 . do bhói , Acall. 58 . do bhaoi (: draoi), Dán Dé xii 22 . -rubai, SR 1241 . -roibe, BDD² 498 , -roibi, 1393 . -roba, 251 . -raba, 1533 . -raibhe, TD 2.25 . -rabha, 8.36 . -robha, 1 . do bí , -raibi, do baí , -rabha, IGT Verbs § 7 . With depon. ending -rabhustair, BNnÉ 322 § 31 . Rel. boí, Trip.² 626 . bāi, TBC-I¹ 1277 . būi, 630 . ro bae , Trip.² 288 . ro buí , BDD² 287 . ro baí , 1451 . ro boí , 1517 . Impers. both, Trip.² 2264 . rombatha, Ériu ii 20 § 3 (-a added later). -rabad, iv 146.4. robās, TBC-I¹ 2147 . rombas, SR 7564 , robás, TTr.² 151 . -rabus, Trip.² 54 . rabas, Laws iv 212.22 Comm. , -bádus, MacCongl. 43.22 . -bás, 61.3 . do bás , do bas , -rabas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do bas (: as), ex. 98 . do bhás (: fhás), Dán Dé xxvi 9 . 1 pl. bāmur, TBC-I¹ 399 . do bámar , Acall. 1283 . do bhámair (: Ádhaimh), Dán Dé xv 17 . -rabamar, TBC-I¹ 2495 . 2 pl. robabair, Anecd. ii 14.9 . -babhair, Blathm. 23 (see notes ). robadbair, TBC-I¹ 2502 . do bhábhair , TD 22a.1 . -rabhuir, Acall. 114 . -rabhabhair, TD 22a.2 . 3 pl. bādar, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bátir, TTr.² 1308 . ro badar , CCath. 573 n. ro bádar , Acall. 75 . do bídur , 5942 . -rabadar, TBC-I¹ 3108 . -rabhadair, TD 26.10 . ro baisit , O'Dav. 728 . -rabhsad, TD 16.21 . Rel. bátar, Trip.² 591 . BDD² 505 . ro bátar , 543 . Vn. an bheith , IGT Verbs § 7 . Vbl. of necess. beitte, TD 28.30 .

Cf. cenmothá, íarmothá, óthá.

Used in meaning is in a large variety of contexts. Normally replaced by copula (see 1 is) in certain fixed syntactical patterns (classification, identification, etc.), and when used in these cases exceptional (see above and II below).

I Expressing existence.

(a) Used absolutely is, exists, there is, etc.: ata in coimdiu gl. Dominus in cælo sedis eius, Ml. 30b27 . nabad hed a méit nádmbǽ `let it not be only that it is not' gl. nec nominetur in uobís, Wb. 22b14 . ní fil aimsir nad mbed ref. to fuit et est semper, Ml. 17a15 . ní torménmar-ni ara mbetis in gnimai sin gl. præter spem nostram, etc., 115b1 . ni fil chumtubairt gl. indubitabilia, etc., Sg. 154b2 . ma nubed `if it existed', 31b21 . ro baoi siomh re tuisdinsiú `he existed', Blathm. 632 . as e as soithcerndomh fil, 773 . ma rombe is maith if it is, it is well, Laws iv 2.14 Comm. ni rabi uair . . . nad ro bai `there was no hour . . . that He existed not', Ériu ii 106 § 16 . a cin for athair .i. uair na bí mac, Laws iv 240.16 Comm. Columb [ro]baoi, Columb bīaas, ZCP viii 198 § 20 . tar ēis a mic . . . / nī raba acht dā aenbliadain `was alive only two years', Ériu iii 198 § 24 . as a rad ata a nadmaim cin co be by saying there is a covenant though there is not, Laws iv 52.30 Comm. ni tha . . . ní a ngeimre in winter there is nothing, 90.1 (with petrified inf. pron. 3 s. n. in dat. sense?). ní bía terca bíd there will not be a scarcity of food, BColm. 52.5 . bid dno maith, ┐ ni bi derrscugud de `yet there is good, and nothing to surpass it', Auraic. 703 . is tré ómun bíid serc, Ériu i 195.1 . céin beti neóil im gréin ngil, Metr. Dinds. ii 38.z . i céin raibh nemh is talamh as long as . . . endure, BNnÉ 314 § 8 . bai cocad mor etarro, RC xxiv 186 § 19 . In phrase (acht) atá ní (chena) but, moreover, see 1 ní (e).

In periphrasis when emphasis on some element other than the verb is required: bieid nach dréct diib hícfider, Wb. 4d6 . bieid bes ferr de, 32a13 . do budh cusmail rit co robuis uair ecin, ┐ co n[d]ingenta rét feramail `that thou wert once such an one that thou couldst . . .', ZCP vi 87.13 . ba-sa tan / nī folabrainn ilach gamh, Ériu ii 95 § 3 . ata[a]t .iii. cáini nad chumgat comarbai do chumscuchud, Ériu xvii 68 § 9 ( Laws iv 210 ). Note further: atāit teora brīathra / ata lōgmaire for nim, ZCP vii 312 § 25 .

With words expressing time: bieid aimser nad creitfider, Wb. 28c14 . aidchi robuī `one night', Ériu ii 222.25 . fecht robai `once', Mon. Tall. 147.2 (§ 52) . biaidh uair 's . . . a time will come when, Dán Dé vii 31 .

Introducing a statement: cia beith ara rogba bóairechas riasíu ropo chúairddulchach though it be that he assume, Críth G. 67 . dá mbeith fós go mbiadh an Fhraingc comh líonmhar ┐ adeir seisean `granted that', Keat. ii 933 . má tá go seachnoid síol Éibhir . . ., TD 29.7 . ci(d), gi(d) bé whatever, whoever (see Ériu xii 210 ): ria flaithaib, .i. rias na flaithib, cibe flaithe iat `whatever chieftains they be', Laws iv 154.17 . gidh bé lá cheannghar an chairt, Dán Dé xiv 17 . cidh bé do bhean díbh an dúthaigh, DDána 26.1 . bíd (ipv. 3 s.) co n- although: admhuim . . . mo pheactha . . . bīodh gomadh é mo mhīan a bhfolach though I should wish to hide them, Parrth. Anma 4625 . bīodh nach gcaoifithea go spesialta fá gach peacadh though you might not weep specially for each sin, Mac Aingil 235 . bíth gur gheallas . . . though I promised, Ó Bruad. ii 212 § xiv . In constr. manibed x ní bíad y were it not for x y would not be, see má II (b).

(b) The subst. vb. is usual with predicates consisting of adverbial phrases of all kinds (prep. and noun, adjj. and nouns used adverbially, etc.) and thus enters into a large and varied corpus of idioms. A select list follows. Reference should in all cases also be made to the nouns, adjj., adverbs and prepositions concerned.

With CO: atáthar sund chucut your adversary is approaching, LL 10300 ( TBC-LL¹ 3316 ).

With CO N-: atúsa com thegluch there is myself and my household troop, TBC-LL¹ 437 .

With DI: im chaingin robui de muintir Tamlachti friss `about a business that arose between the monastery of Tallaght and him', Mon. Tall. 157.7 (§ 72) . masu de chlaind Echdach aird / atāi, ZCP xi 108 § 1 . ní bia debaid . . . de, Ériu iv 108 § 69 . Of materials: an crann dobí na sesam ... dobí sé do cepresus was a (lit. of) cupressus, Maund. 9 . In phrase a.¤ di such is: roboi du meit a pecthae `so great were their sins', Ml. 98c6 . má beth tra do hūaite ind āessa gráid `if the ordained folk be too few', Ériu i 220 § 13 .

With DO: biid do anmmaim cathrach `(Samnis) is as the name of the city', Sg. 104b5 . nád robatar suin do ṡlund in dúildetad inchoisget `there were not words (enough) to signify . . .', 45b1 . manusbeth tenga dia relad `if (the sun) had a tongue', Ériu ii 126 § 81 . ata eric a fogla do dul a ruradh o duine, Laws iv 50.5 Comm. Expressing possession, etc.: con roib core dúib fri cách so that you may be at peace with all men, Wb. 26b30 . in fochricc file do i nnim, 29b29 . cach ngrád asid n-ísliu bíid dó i céilsini, Críth G. 374 . robi timna in ríg don Comdhe, RC xviii 182.5 . nico mbái dó acht bás there was nothing for him but death, Vita Br. 32 . fecht robúi damsae domchaomnacuir `once it happened to me', Mon. Tall. 144.7 (§ 45) . atá damhsa ris an dáimh / gan ísliughadh neith dá gcáil it is my duty in regard to the sages not to belittle . . ., Content. xiv 8 .

With FOR (later AR): as ṅdath glas roboi forsind sl[é]ib the mountain was green, Ml. 84d4 . cech dath is maith ré neach bid forro, RC vi 183.9 . cēin beó ar in mbith mbuide, Ériu ii 92.16 . nocha cuinnghim bethaid mbí / ōtú ar sīth mo Rīgh amuigh since I am outside the palace of my king(?), ZCP vii 301 § 10 . scríbend menmman .i. robbói for a inndṡliucht-som `it had been in his mind', Sg. 178b4 . in sét atá form aire on which I am intent, Ériu vi 115 § 6 . a mhacnas orm gidh eadh raibh though I greatly desire to do so, Dán Dé xix 6 .

With FRI: nobiad fri femen `it would be (used) with the feminine', Sg. 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them', 215a5 . ni humhal robabair rim cen erghe rónn you were not submissive to me, Anecd. ii 14.9 . ba [mait]h ro mboth friu they were well treated, TBFr. 145 . is throit ra bass risin fer út that man was quickly dispatched, TBC-LL¹ 2986 ( LL 10035 ).

With I: is hi tuaisciurt slebe sióin ata in chathir, Ml. 67d8 . ataam ar ndiis i cuimriug, Wb. 32a28 . is and . . . bieid finis, 13b29 . is sunt bia-sa i n-eilithri, Ml. 137b7 . nach dú i mbí isnaib salmaib iustitia, 109a2 . bēti a scēla illāidib, ZCP iii 37.32 . dēna torba airm i mbī, vii 311 § 9 . ro-bas i lurg an madma la clannaibh Néill the Clanna N. pursued the rout, xiv 234.16 . adh bes fiu da trian na samuisce atá isín focreic, issed ata isin fogail doníther ris na ferandaib cétna i fuacht an geimridh `a calf which is worth two thirds of the `samhaisc'-heifer which is paid for the rent, it is it that is paid for the trespass', Laws iv 92.16 Comm. cínta do niad na cethra . . . leth a mbia ina nairlim isedh bias ina tairsci `half of that fine which lies for their `airlim'-trespass . . .', 74.8 Comm. cod a midídar ruire trachta ┐ raite? Nin; co rabadar ocht nurcora dec and do fhleascach, 138.4 Comm. ní bhíadh na ghoin é d'oighedh / toil Dé muna deónaighedh His wound would not be enough to cause His death, IGT Decl. ex. 378 . Common in form with suff. pron. 3 s. n. ma beith nech and tra labrathar ilbélre if there be anyone, etc., Wb. 13a4 . ar atá brithem and cenut-su `a judge is there apart from thee', 6b25 . ataat alaaili interiecta and it coitchena do cach ceniul, Sg. 10a1 . attaad teora bliadna and. Niconcomracamar díoblíonaib `it is three years since we two had intercourse', Mon. Tall. 134.26 (§ 21) . For phr. cid fil and trá see trá. In idiom tá sé i n-a fhear he is a man (see Dillon, ZCP xvii 307 ff. ): is amlaid . . . atá in rigsudi sin inna chathaír chumtachta, LU 2005 ( FA 7 ). cidead bes ina bibdaid `even though he be a caitiff', Ériu v 22.20 . gu raibhe 'na cholum ghel, Acall. 1080 . ce raib se i n-a fhír, PH 7324 . do bí 'n-a mnaí grádaig ac Find, Acall. 2018 . do rígh gion go rabhthá id mhac, DDána 91.15 . Note also: tuc . . . aithne gurbh e righ Eirenn do bí ann that it was in fact the king, Ériu iii 152 § 6 . ro innis do gur 'uo he Isu ro ui ann, RC xii 344.15 .

With IMM: ni baitir, ni loisctir cein beit immo `he is not drowned or burnt as long as they are on him', RC vi 183.8 .

With LA: gan bheith le Dia is ann bhus aithreach if we are not on God's side, Dán Dé x 27 . Expressing possession and related ideas: is lib atá a rogu, Wb. 9a23 . is derb lium attá latsu gl. certus sum autem quod et in té, 29d14 . ainmm ninchoisc cenéuil issed file la laitnóri, Sg. 30b8 . is airi nobíth digaimm leo ante ρ. sin, 9b10 . ni fil bríg laisiom hisind accobar sin `he considers that such desire is no great matter,' Mon. Tall. 151.13 (§ 62) . is dé atá lem, fobíth, etc. this is why I think so (of an assertion), TTr.² 343 . itá a rīgan la cach ríg sund, TBC-I¹ 190 . fail leis secht nimi, SR 629 . ar ní ḟil acht oenlám lim, LL 14150 .

With ó: báoi alaile anchoire antuaid o sláne `there was a certain anchorite from Slane in the North', Mon. Tall. 159.8 (§ 77) . cech lennánacht fil isin domvn is úadhi atá originates with her, TTr.² 370 . Bressal Ó Tressaig ō' tāit / Hī Tressaig `. . . from whom are sprung', Ériu ii 50 § 7 . ni fil[et] o neoch ┐ ni filter uaidibh `they are not derived from anything, and nothing is derived from them', Auraic. 1507 .

With OC: ar notéighed dīa sathairn init co mbídh oc Cnocc Droma Coblai, ZCP viii 106.29 = Trip.² 2858 . ma no bith . . . mo c[h]laideb acom if I had my sword, TBC-I¹ 3543 . co rabat aidmi oc cech altōir . . ., Ériu i 219 § 9 . in ti ac na biat ba, Laws iv 36.10 Comm. in fhil biad ocaib sund? PH 6709 . ná raibh agad ar n-éra `refuse me not', Studies 1918, 99 § 16 . In impers. constr. cindas atathar occat? how are affairs with thee? RC xxvi 368.9 . a.¤ y oc x x has the power to do y: ní bhía . . . ag boigṡín / mo chor tar creich Phádraigín, Ériu ix 163 § 7 .

With adverbs and adv. phrases: céin bett abus `while they are here below', BColm. 98.28 . ní rubai nach cruth ailiu `it cannot be otherwise', Sg. 7b3 . ataat ám in chrut sin, 140b1 . hóre nád robe Tit ar mo chiunn, Wb. 14d29 . na muindtire bís id choimidecht `of the monks that live with thee', Mon. Tall. 128.8 (§ 3) . dá rabh mé ar éanmhagh is í, Dán Dé ix 12 . is bether go hīsiul de, ZCP x 51.6 . bidh co mín michuir ret c[h]airdibh, vi 272 § 3 . is samlaid insin robói a flaithemnacht indibsi, Ml. 18a8 . nī hamlaid beitid na nāimh . . ., ZCP xiii 9.26 . dobadus co subhach rompa, KMMisc. 319.27 . léig mar atāit tall, ZCP viii 202.4 . trath atusa sund, TBC-LL¹ 2379 . ionmhuin uan nar fhás ó mhnaoi / do bhás go truagh ar a thí, Dán Dé xxvi 9 . Note also: dá mbem a-moigh `if we win forth', Ériu ix 162 § 2 . With interrogatives: ceth leth atā E., TBC-I¹ 376 . can ata? whence is it? Hib. Min. 8.270 . cāit atā do t[h]igerna?, TBC-I¹ 789 . ciatā inso?, ZCP viii 311.13 . a Findtain, arse, ┐ Éri cía gabad ca rabad inde? `where have things been therein?' Ériu iv 146 § 23 .

(c) Used with inf. and suff. pron. to express possession. With inf. pron.: rosmbia a lóg `they shall have payment for it', Wb. 5d35 . ind indocbál no-b-tá in futuro, 14c16 . ro-n-da-biad cech maith, Ml. 33b13 . rombia-sa la dia . . . a day will come for me when, Vita Br. 12 . roborbē (roburbe v.l.) which is yours, Cáin Ad. 27 . nīmthat asnai I have no ribs, TBC-I¹ 2871 . gell cóic sét di neoch rodmbí `of whatever he has', Críth G. 283 and n. uair nach tá tír dia fhulung fri re napuidh because he has no land to support him (?), Laws iv 30.19 Comm. rom be nem may I have heaven, Snedg. u. Mac R 14 § 76 . Femen intan rombai rí . . . when it had a king, RC xvii 148.19 . cia luag nomtha?, SR 1165 . rombí lethbairgen, Anecd. i 73 § 211 . atbert Cathair nimthasa ní dhuit I have nothing to give you, LL 386b22 . Note also: nintha do imtecht liumm `I have (lit. we have) no news', RC xiii 222.20 . With cumang (or similar word) and prep. DO has the power to: nímtha cumachtæ ṅdo, Ml. 140b7 . ní-s-ta som . . . cumang domm orcuin-se, 60d3 . nísmbói didiu do chumacc a mmbo do imain they hadn't the strength to, Vita Br. 24 . sáerthar lat in domnach cech cumang rotbé (rodbe, rotbia, v.ll.) dó `with all your might', Ériu ii 204 § 22 . nícom thása cumang dia tabair[t], TBFr. 302 . apraind nachimbai-si nert do theacht cucu alas that I had not strength . . ., TBC-I¹ 3439 . Used independently is able: nīmt[h]a a dechmad d'indisin / nech doní do maith `I cannot tell a tithe of all the good he does', BColm. 70.6 . nimta-sa sin . . . uair da caithius mo dan re sciathaib Ulad I cannot do that . . ., Ériu v 72.8 . Note also: ango dano for Ingcél adfía basa lecht bas briscium `peradventure I shall be the frailest corpse', BDD 102h ( RC xxii 211 ) = at-mbia basa lecht bas brisceam, BDD² 716 (leg. ro-t-bia?).

With suffixed pron. taithiunn . . . / ni fris tarddam ar n-áthius `we have . . . something to which to apply our acuteness', Thes. ii 293.19 . táithi caire umai he has a bronze cauldron, Críth G. 197 . tathum rūn, TBC-I¹ 848 . bethib sūirsi lim-sa dano ye will enjoy freedom with me, ZCP viii 316.5 . tathat lim logh do áes, logh do sinnsire thou hast with me = I accord thee, xii 365.13 . baíthium anfud mílach mend, LU 3018 . tathuib comram, Rawl. 88b51 . tathum o día praind, Anecd. i 64 § 120 . tāthud ochtar la suidiu / airm hi fail a crōlighe `thou wilt find eight men . . .', Fianaig. 12 § 16 . tathai eolus maith, ZCP vii 310 § 1 . tatos subhae `they have happiness', Blathm. 82 . Pleonastically: tathai erouidh . . . bithbron `Herod . . . has eternal sorrow', 83 .

(d) In nasalising rel. clauses to denote has something the matter, is ailing: ced das in ben maith? `what ails the good woman?', Thes. ii 329.48 . cidh tás do sūil, a clērich? what is the matter with your eye? RC xxvii 280 § 35 . Oengus mac in Dagdai hisiurcc di bliadan. Cid tas or Bodb, RC iii 345.9 . ra[fh]etur sa . . . an daas ind ingen what is wrong with the girl, Vita Br. 5 . ni fetarsa cid no-tó I do not know what is the matter with me, ZCP viii 176.5 . cid no-taí? Sc.M² 3 . roḟetarsa a n-attath[a]i. Ni taam ni or Cano, Anecd. i 9.25 ( SCano 293 ). cid tāthaí, a maccu? . . . oc imresain atām . . ., Ériu viii 157.16 . ni confetatarsin cid rombui hissennath, RC iii 344.10 . dia ḟis cid robái (rombui, v.l.) grían to find out what was the matter with the sun, Ériu iv 140.13 .

With prep. DO feels (inimically) towards, is angry with, worries: propter incredulitatem fracti sunt .i. cani airi .i. badochu lem són is [hed] romboth doib that is the fault found with them, Wb. 5b31 . cren dímsa m'ingin . . . Cid dathir di? . . . Is dichmarcach what cause of annoyance has she given? Vita Br. 13 . fiarfaig Conchobar scēla dō. —Cidh tāi di ṡodain? ol Bricriu why do you bother with it? ZCP v 502.15 . cadai-siu duind?, TTebe 424 . In good sense treats in a special manner: ca tāthar dúin do domnach des / sech gach laithi lāndiles? `why do we hold Sunday above . . .?' Ériu iii 143 § 7 . With added prep.: cidh 'ma bfuile dam? ZCP x 10.11 . ná bí réd chathrachaibh dhúinn `talk not to us of your forts', Content. vi 31 . See further s.v. daas. Frequ. in class. verse in phrase gá dtá, dás (acht) what is the use? in short. Either gá dtá or gá tá may be used to suit alliteration, see Ir. Syll. Poetry 86 . fogus orchra don éigsi / gá ttás cur ré coiméidsi `how can she be saved?' Studies 1923, 421 § 1 . gá dás luadh imdheachta an ḟir? `what need to recount', TD 13.40 . gá dás mé dá mīrbuile / acht sé d'fás ó ÓghMuire, IGT Decl. ex. 200 . gá dtám? —acht torchuir bu dheas in short, TD 3.10 . With follg. prep.: gá dtám ris . . . / acht meise féin foidhidneach, TD 3.41 . ga dtú ris, a rí L.? / ort chuirim mo chomuirghe, 30.12 . ní bhiú ris acht, Dán Dé vi 31 . ní fhuilim dó, xi 30 .

(e) With words indicating number, quantity in sense of accompanied by, having: bí[i]th a th[a]urchreicc cóic ṡétaib, Críth G. 71 . baei Conairi a ceithri cairpthig il-Lifiu, BDD 12 (a cethror cairpdech, v.l.). itó-sa lín do gona, TBC-LL¹ 434 . denam d'ḟiadach na muice in lín Feinde atámait, Acall. 2223 . atáthaoi líon a n-ithte, Keat. iii 4439 . atú-sa caegait fer, MR 248.17 . Later: bed-sa ┐ mili ridiri maraen rium ad diaig, ZCP vi 41.9 .

II Expressing state, condition, kind, etc. with pred. consisting of noun, pron. or adj. (usage more usual with copula, see introd. section above).

(a) With noun pred.: boe sab suithe cech dind, ACC 26 ( RC xx 168 ). boe saegul sneid, 24 . boe dind oc libur leigdocht, 27 . biait betha airchind they will be chieftains of the world, Rawl. 125b9 . With subj. standing between the vb. and pred.: atá dia atach ṅ-dún-ni ais dethrebo God is a refuge to us the people of the two tribes, Ml. 66d1 . bói Fíachnae Lurga athair Mongáin, Imr. Brain 42.1 . Cf. Sg. 20b3 .

(b) With adj. pred.: boe seim sáth, ACC 25 . biat slana, SR 4167 (copula?). feib atam nocht, 1347 (copula?). bía slan, LU 3344 ( SCC 13 ). Cf. habe . . . (.i. sana sis .i. slán bee), Enchir. Aug. 82a ( ZCP vii 484 ). dlegar doibsium na be lobtaigh cor ( ar dlegar doibsium na bed lobthaig cor, O'Dav. 1191 ) (Atk. in Glossary emends to be[t]), Laws iv 54.10. atámait ainmfesach, RC xxiv 371.7 . bítíss meth (leg. methi, ed.) occ tinntúd, IT iii 235.z . co filim garbliath i rricht, LU 1272 . ro boísium imnedach i tossuch a bethad, LL 7305 . ro-bádus-[s]a dronnach, PH 2788 . céin beorsa beó as long as I am alive, Ériu v 222.46 . is follus co fuilti eaclach, Fier. 69 . maith dīghōltar ant andlocht / bethar taoblom tarrnocht trūagh folk will be, ZCP xii 395.23 . With subj. betw. vb. and pred.: is trissa ndede sin biid duine slán et fírian, Wb. 4d33 . amal mbís tegdís fás [amm]edón ┐ scópthe gl. sicut domus uacans et scopata, Tur. 14 ( Thes. i 485.23 ). arrobói a rígthech lán de rígaib, Imr. Brain 1 . amal no beithi féin béo and, Trip.² 2972 . co mbatar na hádnaicti óbéla, PH 676 . bis an puls tonnmur lethan, Rosa Angl. 272.8 . oir dobi se crodha do laim ┐ mor do mét, Fier. 2 .

(c) With part. as pred. Immediately follg. vb. (see GOI 475-6 ; OIPG 147 ): amal nombemmis érchóilti gl. tanquam morti destinatos, Wb. 9a3 . biid ersoilcthi ar chiunn for ríg `be ye opened before your king' (of doors), Ml. 46a7 . co rabais (rabhdais, v.l.) marbtha mudaigthi, TTebe 854 . With subj. standing between vb. and pred.: ataat mesai Dǽ nephchomtetarrachti the judgements of God are incomprehensible, Ml. 55d11 . céin nombetis inna saigtea tuidmithi inna feuil `as long as the arrows were fixed in his flesh', Ml. 58a9 . órobatar ind liss dúntai, Imr. Brain 1 . co ra-bi in uli demnaigecht fomamaigthi dó, PH 2796 .

(d) In sentences where the vb. stands in a nasalising rel. clause and refers to a pred. expressed in the principal clause: is faittech rond-boi som, Ml. 21d4 . ni ba cian mbias in pecthach, 56c22 . fer . . . nadip romar bed a sommæ a man . . . whose wealth should not be too great, Thes. ii 241.9 . is-gáibthech atátur i-sin-magh sin, RC xxiv 378.12 . is trog robas isin chotlad sin, Ériu v 34.z . ní cás duid madh diomdhach raibh / grása Dé . . ., Dán Dé xix 22 . [is] slán do bhaoi an brat-sain, xii 22 .

(e) In the type of sentence where the description constitutes an independent sentence with copula: ego sum uermis et non homo .i. atāim-si conad cruim mē ┐ nāch duine, Corm. Y 211 . ro boi Victor co mbo ḟortachtaigthid do Pátraic, ACL iii 10 § 8 = Trip.² 217 . unus non est . . . .i. nochon fhil int aen co mbad airim, acht ata conidh fotha airim, Auraic. 689 . dom dóigh . . . robadhuis uair ecin ┐ roba díl anora tú `it seems to me . . . that there was once a time when thou wert worthy of honour', ZCP vi 99.5 .

1 de, di

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 de, di or dil.ie/14787
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: di, di, di, di, di, di, du, di, di, dia, di, dí, di, de, desen, de, de, dhe, di, di, dég, dḟég, dím, dít, de, de, dhe, du, dú, doit, dínni, dunni, desom, dosom, dinach, donach, dind, dind, dind, dind, dind, dindh, dindí, dond, dond, dund, dind, dond, dun, dind, din, dund, dint, dind, dunt, din, din, din, den, don, dun, dun, din, dun, den, don, dind, din, dinaib, denaib, dinab, donaib, dunaib, din, den, don, don, den, dhen, dhent, don, dina, dena, dona, dona, dena, dhena, dosna, DI, di, dim, dimm, dom, dit, ditodérnamaib, dia, dear, diar, dibar, difar, dia, dim, dem, dom, dom, dit, det, dot, dot, dod, difar, dib(h)ar, dib(h)or, d'úr, dá, dár, dia, dá, dia, dá, dhá, dár, dhár, dá, dá, da, dia n, diarbu, diná-, dinadrícthe, dinach, dunach, dia, dá, diná-, doná-, do, dá, dhá, DI, díim, díimsa, dimsa, dím, dimsa, dimso, dít, de, desom, de, dé, dæ, comairle, Dairíne, ráidimne, fáistine, uile, di, dissi, díinn, díin, díinni, diínn, diín, dínn, dín, din, dínni, dinni, dinne, díib, díibsi, diib, diibsi, diibse, diib, díbsi, díib, diib, díb, dib, diib, dím, dínn, díim, díinn, dím, dínn, rúun, ruún, ríi, dím, dímm, dímsa, dít, dítt, dítsu, desin, desen, deside, desium, dissi, dise, dín(n), dínne, d(h)ínne, díb, d(h)íb, díbsi, díb, d(h)íob, díbsin, d(h)íobsan, DI, DE, dĕ, díbdud, derban, derbrad, conda-dercacha, -dercaither, níruderchóin, derchóiniud, niconderérachtar, -derna, -dergénsat, -derlaig, -derlaiged, -derlaichta, dílgai, dílgud, dermar, dermat, ndermanammar, todernam, -deroíma, derscaigi, deruarid, dered, de-reth, -dechuid, -dich, dechor, debuith, -dénai, dénum, dead, dudí, dudiastae, deich, dígal, diu-, diunag, deö-, deolaid, degaid, deïd, desruith, demaig, denall, denuas, dedbol, denmne, dethbir, dethiden, dessid, dellig, décsiu, -décci, -décmaing, decming, -dér, -dérig, dírech, dindba, fordingrat, dingbail, di, diucrae, diuderc, diunach, fordiuclainn, diummus, diupae, diupart, -diurat, diurad, -diuschi, diuscartae, díbad, rodíbairg, díbe, díberg, díbdud, rodibda, díbert, díchenn, díchned, -díchliter, dícheilt, díchor, dídnad, dígal, dígbáil, díguin, dílgud, dímeiccem, dírech, díscir, -díltised, díltud, -díxnigedar, di-anim, dí, díbec, dímór, díthrom, dí, dĕ, De, di, Di, di, DI, DI, dib, dííb, dimm, dínn, do, dinaib, de, diib, di, dia, dind, diib, di, dia, diar, don, dund, donaib, di, dia

prep. = Lat. de. It aspirates the anlaut of an accented syllable immediately following. Aspiration marked: Wb. 5 c 16 . 6 d 8 . 9 a 23 . 9 b 19 . 10 d 14 . 12 a 21 . 12 a 22 . 19 a 6 . 20 d 9 . 26 b 16 . 26 d 8 . 29 c 10 . Ml. 21 c 3 . 23 a 19 . 36 b 3 . 36 d 10 . 48 b 11 . 48 d 27 . 55 d 4 . 58 c 4 . 68 c 4 . 85 a 2 . 93 d 14 . 99 b 7 . 107 a 2 . 112 c 12 . 116 c 2 . 131 c 17 . Sg. 1 a 2 . 3 b 27 . 31 b 2 . 33 a 13 . 181 a 9 . Tur. 131 . Ardm. 17 a 2 . 17 b 1 . 170 b 2 . Thes. i 6. 23 . ii 256. 11 (twice); 295. 11 , 15 ; 298. 11 ; 302. 5 ; 309. 19 ; 315. 2 ; 332. 4 ; 344. 1 ; 346. 8 . Aspiration unmarked: di Críst (in full), Wb. 15 a 34 . di Críst , ib. 22 c 9 . 26 b 7 . 26 d 9 . 27 a 10 . Thes. ii 255. 15 (but di Chríst, Ml. 93 d 14 ). di peccad, Wb. 24 c 18 . di techt, Ml. 44 b 1 . di techdaisib, ib. 105 b 7 . du trócairi, 110 c 5 . di comparit, Sg. 42 b 3 . 43 a 6 . di posit, ib. 42 a 5 (cf. dia posit, 41 b 2 ). di Teretes, ib. 66 a 22 . dí triub, Tur. 6 . di croccund, Thes. ii 347. 33 . Though itself a proclitic word it is liable to eclipsis: (a) after a neuter noun: foraithmet ṅde, Ml. 61 b 12 . a bec ndo síd, ib. 51 a 5 . bec ṅdi dechur, 72 c 9 . (b) after a noun in the a sg.: fri Alpai ṅdesiu, Sg. 217 b 8 . (c) after the relative a n-: a ndu imnedaib fodaimi, Ml. 55 d 11 . (d) in Mil after rel. as: as ndí Assaraib, 35 a 10 . as ṅdu dóiri, 139 a 6 (twice). as ndi thalam, 68 c 4 . After rel. bias: cibed bias nde, ZCP iv 46. 16 TBFr. (Eg.). Cf. acht oenfiach adrenar nde, Anecd. iii 22. 21 .

FORMS: de, very rare in Oir.: de maid, Wb. 21 d 11 . de Iudeib, 18 d 6 . 31 b 15 (but 34 a 3 probably Lat.). de chuingid, 24 b 24 . Mil no instance ( for dech, 56 a 1 , read `di cech'). Sg: de dliguth, Sg. 26 b 7 . de rét, 31 a 5 . de genitin, 77 b 2 . de chaldigud, 181 a 9 . de dobriathraib, 181 a 9 ( de cithara, 103 a 1, probably Lat.). de phurt, Thes. i 6. 23 ; de obli, ii 254. 12 ; de molad, 315. 1 ; de nimib, 353. 4 . Always deṡiu, ( ZCP x 376 ) hence Sg. 71 b 2 . 217 b 8 . 217 b 12 . desen, Thes. ii 343. 32 . Under the influence of the pron. cpd. de, de became quite a common spelling in Mid.-Ir. (LU, LL, &c.). As an etymological writing frequent also in modern books and MSS. Spoken de, dhe = di + suff. pron. 3 sg., cf. mod. aige, ass, air, &c.

di usual Old- and Mid.-Ir. writing.

(a) before vowels (no elision of -i- in Wb Sg Mil); before a-: Wb. 2 a 14 . 7 b 11 . 18 c 11 (twice). 32 c 8 . Ml. 35 a 8 . 40 c 16 . 48 d 12 . 57 d 10 . 61 a 35 . 66 a 3 . 67 d 2 . 126 b 1 . 133 c 11 . Sg. 32 b 14 . 35 b 7 . 211 a 9 . before o-: Thes. ii 254. 7 - 11 , 13 . before u-: Ml. 23 c 20 . 51 b 10 . 93 a 5 . 127 a 2 a . Thes. ii 249. 10 . di humaldóit, Wb. 28 d 29 . di humu, Ml. 2 b 16 . before ái-: Wb. 7 b 11 . Ml. 102 d 9 . ói-: Ml. 43 d 1 . Sg. 40 a 13 . e-, é-: Wb. 4 d 1 . 8 b 4 . Ml. 2 c 1 . 33 c 17 . 55 a 18 . 130 b 1 . i-; Wb. 12 a 30 . 15 d 7 . Ml. 37 b 24 . 40 a 18 . 57 c 13 . 87 c 1 . Sg. 40 a 6 , 7 , 8 . 42 a 1 . di Iudeib, Wb. 4 c 40 . 27 d 4 .

(b) before gutturals: Wb. 6 d 8 . 9 a 23 . 12 a 21 , 22 . 13 d 7 . 15 a 34 . 16 a 4 . 17 b 19 . 18 d 6 . 19 a 6 . 20 d 10 . 22 c 9 . 24 d 10 . 26 b 7 . 26 d 8 . 26 d 9 . 27 a 7 , 10 . Ml. 21 c 3 . 36 d 10 . 40 b 7 . 48 b 11 . 48 d 27 . 51 d 3 . 58 c 4 . 62 b 13 . 66 d 10 . 74 c 13 . 85 a 2 . 92 c 5 . 93 d 14 . 99 b 7 . 107 a 2 . 112 c 12 . Sg. 3 b 27 . 31 b 2 . 33 a 13 . 34 b 2 . 42 b 3 . 43 a 6 . 106 a 7 . 181 a 9 . Tur. 131 . Ardm. 17 b 1 . Thes. ii 10. 6 .

(c) before dentals: Wb. 5 c 16 . 9 b 19 . 10 d 14 . 20 c 14 . 26 b 16 . 27 a 10 . Ml. 17 a 11 . 17 d 11 . 23 a 19 . 25 d 17 . 36 b 3 . 44 b 1 . 46 b 26 . 51 c 11 . 68 c 4 . 72 b 5 . 72 c 9 . 97 d 10 . 105 b 7 . 116 c 2 . 122 b 16 . 131 a 12 . 133 b 1 . 139 a 6 , 8 , 10 . Sg. 61 a 1 . 66 a 22 . 156 b 4 . Thes. ii 256. 11 ; 295. 3 ; 315. 22 .

(d) before labials: Wb. 24 c 18 . 29 c 10 . Ml. 61 a 9 . 115 d 9 . Sg. 42 a 5 . Thes. ii 256. 11 ; 30. 33 .

(e) before nasals; m-: Wb. 4 d 10 . 7 d 9 . 11 a 20 . 24 a 12 . 24 b 31 . 28 d 31 . 30 a 8 . 33 a 15 . Ml. 26 b 5 . 51 b 10 . 58 c 4 . 62 c 2 . 67 b 16 , 17 . 84 c 12 . 85 c 6 . 93 a 20 . 102 d 4 . 124 b 5 . Sg. 7 a 1 . 30 b 11 . Ardm. 17 b 1 . Thes. ii 295. 5 . n-: Wb. 15 c 13 . 16 b 11 (thrice). 17 a 11 . 32 a 20 . Ml. 16 d 5 . 63 c 5 . 65 a 1 . 75 b 20 . 123 c 15 . Sg. 40 a 80 . 43 a 3 . 45 a 11 . 59 b 18 . Thes. ii 11. 36 .

(f) before liquids; l-: Wb. 25 d 20 . Ml. 35 b 24 . 40 a 19 . 55 d 4 , 6 . 57 d 13 . 61 d 2 . 68 a 2 , 15 . 72 d 6 , 7 . 84 c 15 . 90 c 18 . Tur. 115 . Thes. ii 326. 2 ; 16. 40 ; 40. 31 . r-: Wb. 6 a 14 . 12 a 17 . 12 c 6 . 13 a 12 . 18 a 8 . 20 d 11 . Ml. 125 b 7 . Sg. 33 a 10 .

(g) before s and f. s-: Wb. 3 d 28 . 4 b 5 . 8 a 5 . 12 b 32 . 12 d 12 . 17 d 19 . Ml. 2 b 17 . 26 b 20 . 31 d 10 . 34 b 6 . 37 a 14 . 44 b 27 - 28 . 44 c 6 . 48 c 1 . 55 c 1 . 60 b 11 . 90 d 13 . 104 a 3 . 108 d 3 . Sg. 1 a 2 . 41 b 4 . 42 a 2 . 59 b 9 . 183 b 3 . Ardm. 17 a 2 . 18 b 1 ; cf. also didiu. f-: Wb. 1 a 9 . 11 b 13 . 14 a 33 . 18 a 8 . Ml. 20 a 12 . 54 b 30 . 93 a 5 . 134 a 3 . Sg. 3 b 19 . 66 a 6 .

dí: as ndí Assaraib, Ml. 35 a 10 . dí huaisletu, 40 c 16 . dí triub, Tur. 6 . dí Iohain, 40 . dísin, Ml. 63 c 18 .

d with elision of -i- before vowels and ḟ very common in Mid.-Ir. MSS. In Glosses rare, cf. doenscríbend, Sg. 112a2 . dég, Ml. 88 a 4 , from dḟég, cf. dḟech, Ardm. 17b1 . Common in Old-Ir. poetry, e.g. Anecd. iii 55. 18 ; 56. 8 (Siab. Conc.).

DO for DI. The confusion of di and do in proclisis dates back to the Cambr. and the Wb glosses. It is quite possible that on the lips of the people di had as early as the 8th century the same forms as to-day, i.e. unstressed də in proclisis, dí- in pronominal cpds. Under the influence of the latter forms (dím, dít, de), di de lingered on all through Mid.-Ir. The present de, dhe, is partly due to etymological spelling, partly (Cork, Kerry) renders a spoken de, ye = Oir. de (di + pron. 3 sg.), cf. mod. as, air, aige. The fusion of di and do was facilitated by their being unaccented; but it was also partly due to syntactical confusion of these two prepositions which occasionally might both be used synonymously with one and the same verb.—do: prímgeinde do hireschaib, Wb. 4 b 9 . 10 a 15 . 25 c 12 . 31 d 2 . Ml. 14 b 12 . 14 d 3 . 15 d 9 . 24 d 26 , 30 . 26 a 8 . 35 d 17 . 42 b 18 . 45 a 9 . 45 d 7 . 51 a 5 . 51 b 8 . 51 d 25 (twice). 123 d 3 . 124 c 22 . 137 d 2 . Sg. 2 a 7 . Tur. 128 . Thes. ii 298. 10 , 11 ; 299. 9 ; 309. 19 ; 311. 20 ; 313. 14 ; 315. 2 ; 320. 26 ; 321. 2 ; 322. 10 , 24 ; 323. 7 , 8 ; 332. 4 ; 333. 1 ; 335. 29 ; 344. 1 ; 346. 8 .—du: Cambr. 37 d . Ml. 24 d 29 . 26 a 8 . 55 d 4 . 55 d 11 . 55 d 25 (?). 63 b 12 . 63 c 5 . 66 c 3 . 68 d 14 . 69 c 7 . 72 d 9 . 91 d 4 . 94 c 10 . 96 b 5 , 13 . 98 c 6 . 103 d 9 . 110 c 5 . 110 d 16 . 114 b 12 . 114 c 9 . 117 c 6 . 131 c 17 . 133 a 10 . 139 a 6 (twice), 9 . Tur. 80 . 103 . Ardm. 18 b 1 . Thes. ii 294. 14 .—dú: ní dú ulc, Ml. 24 a 19 .— doit, Thes. ii 258 seems = dít.—For dond, donaib, see below.

DI FOR DO: Wb. 17 a 11 . 24 b 24 . Ml. 21 c 3 (?). 44 c 6 . 51 c 11 . 55 c 1 . 56 b 1 . 134 a 3 . dínni = dunni, 87 d 8 . desom = dosom, 33 a 5 . dinach = donach, Acr. 23 d 2 .

DI + ART.—SING.

(a) before vowels. dind, Wb. 5 c 16 . 10 a 5 . 11 d 16 . dind, 29 a 23 . dind hiriss, 11 d 2 . Ml. 21 c 3 . 24 c 17 . 25 a 19 . 48 d 28 . 58 c 6 . 67 b 17 . 67 c 18 . 89 a 6 . dind, 48 d 28 . 95 a 3 . 104 a 6 . Sg. 17 a 6 . 53 a 10 . dind huiliu, 40 a 17 . dindh, 35 b 13 . 125 a 6 . dindí, 9 a 2 . 63 a 17 (twice). 66 a 28 . 100 a 11 . 125 a 6 . 161 b 10 . 197 a 15 - 16 . Thes. ii 252. 14 ; 255. 7 ; 26. 40 . din obli, Thes. ii 255. 14 . dond: Wb. 10 a 14 . dond, Sg. 9 a 2 . 155 a 1 . dund: Ml. 17 b 23 . 34 a 27 .

(b) before ḟ (+ vowel or liquid): dind, Wb. 22 c 9 . Ml. 21 c 3 . 40 b 8 . 99 a 9 . dind fr., 56 b 1 . dond fritobairt, Sg. 183 b 3 . dun, Ml. 125 a 11 .

(c) before liquids: usually dind: Wb. 20 b 1 , 6 . Ml. 37 b 19 . Sg. 35 b 2 . 65 a 1 . 77 a 5 . Thes. ii 35. 32 ; 339. 3 . din rath, Wb. 5 d 6 . dund, Ml. 37 b 19 .

(d) before ṡ- (s + vowel or liquid): dint: Ml. 2 b 3 . 14 d 10 . 37 b 16 . 89 d 12 . Sg. 58 b 7 . dind: Wb. 13 a 21 . 24 a 17 . Ml. 55 c 1 . dunt, Ml. 27 d 2 .

(e) before d and t: din: din t., Ml. 15 b 4 . 16 c 7 . 24 d 14 . 44 b 1 . Thes. ii 13. 27 . din d., Wb. 12 c 13 . Ml. 61 a 36 . 81 a 7 . 94 c 12 . 97 d 10 . Sg. 39 b 11 . den d., Wb. 25 b 7 . don d., Wb. 9 d 5 . 10 d 8 . dun d., Ml. 17 b 23 (twice); dun t., Ml. 123 c 3 .— dind d., Sg. 5 a 5 . dind t., 3 b 14 .

(f) in other positions: din, dun: din ch., Cambr. 37 b . Wb. 22 c 18 . Ml. 2 b 13 . 112 c 11 . Tur. 60 . Ardm. 17 a 2 . Thes. ii 338. 1 ; 33. 19 . dun ch., 67 d 14 ;—din g., Ml. 48 a 21 . 48 b 2 . 48 d 28 . 49 b 4 . 61 a 37 . 113 d 3 . Sg. 9 b 17 . 156 b 6 . Thes. ii 248. 11 (sic leg.). dun g., Ml. 61 a 34 . 85 b 11 .— din ph., Ml. 126 b 1 .— din b., Ml. 39 a 1 . — din m., Ardm. 188 b 1 . Ml. 14 d 10 . 61 d 7 . 97 d 10 . Tur. 140 . den macc, Tur. 21 . den ch., 60 . den g., Thes. ii 230. 19 . don sc., Thes. ii 299. 8 .— dind b., Wb. 5 c 16 .

DUAL. din: din dib láib, Thes. ii 33. 26 .

PLUR. dinaib: Wb. 5 a 4 . 11 b 4 . 12 d 40 . 16 c 22 . Ml. 19 b 2 , 11 . 19 d 18 . 20 c 3 . 24 a 17 . 26 b 20 . 26 d 12 . 27 a 7 - 8 . 27 b 4 . 35 c 20 . 40 c 18 . 46 b 26 . 51 a 16 . 61 d 5 . 62 a 22 . 67 b 17 . 72 c 3 . 73 c 12 . 75 a 12 . 81 c 14 . 102 d 17 . 129 c 3 . Sg. 2 b 1 . 197 b 7 . Thes. ii 232. 10 . denaib: Ml. 29 a 9 . dinab gabálib, Wb. 13 d 33 . donaib: Ml. 19 d 18 . 23 c 27 . 37 b 24 . 46 b 26 . 60 b 6 . 64 c 17 . 89 a 2 . 107 c 8 . 119 d 3 . Sg. 2 a 10 . 50 a 19 . 63 b 10 . Tur. 115 . dunaib: Ml. 35 a 17 . 55 d 25 (?).

MID.-IR. din, den, don (arch. -nd, -nn); before ṡ- dint, &c. MOD. don, den, dhen, dhent (v. col. 128), don t (don tṡaoghal, don tṡruth, don tṡluach). Plur. Mid.-Ir. dina, dena, dona. These forms date back to Oir., cf. 1 do. Mod. dona, dena, dhena, Munster dosna (modelled on isna, leisna, &c.).

DI + POSS. PR. di short. 1 sg. dim: Wb. 26 d 21 . 27 a 34 . 29 d 3 . Ml. 21 c 7 . 23 d 6 , 9 . Ardm. 18 a 1 . m is unaspirated; hence written dimm, Ml. 23 d 9 . dom, Thes. i 337. 2 . 2 sg. dit: Wb. 31 c 8 . Ml. 40 a 6 . 110 d 12 . Thes. ii 249. 3 . ditodérnamaib, Ml. 40 a 7 . 3 sg. m. n. f. dia m. and n.: Wb. 5 b 10 . 33 a 2 . Ml. 23 d 17 . 40 b 8 . 44 b 1 . 53 d 6 . 65 d 8 . 94 c 8 . 133 a 10 . Sg. 50 a 3 . 111 b 2 . Ardm. 18 a 1 (four times). Thes. ii 253. 6 . fem. Ml. 72 b 17 . 102 a 15 . 1 pl. arch. dear n-: Cambr. 37 c . diar n-: Wb. 14 c 15 . 17 c 23 . 31 b 2 . Sg. 195 a 2 . 2 pl. dibar n-: Wb. 25 a 3 , 30 . 27 c 2 . difar n-: 23 d 17 . 3 pl. dia n-: Wb. 7 b 14 . 31 d 15 . Ml. 43 a 14 . 53 d 15 . 67 d 2 . 69 a 8 . 117 b 7 . 126 a 7 . 134 d 3 .

MID. & MOD.-IR. 1 sg. dim, dem, dom, &c.; mod. dom. 2 sg. dit, det, dot; mod. dot, dod. 2 pl. difar n-, dib(h)ar n-, dib(h)or n-; do bar n-, &c.; mod. do bhur n-, d'úr n-. 3 sg. pl. and 1 pl. The frequent early Mid.-Ir. writing dá (n-), dár n- shows that in the spoken language of the 11th century dia had become dá; dia, however, as a literary form lingered on for centuries until the close of the Mid.-Ir. period. Mod. dá (n-), dhá (n-); dár n-, dhár n-. For dá (n-) in the spoken language very commonly dona, modelled on iona. Exx. of dá from the LU: is cumma imthescad dá sciath ┐ dá sleg ┐ dá chlaideb, 79 b 14 ; ib. 27 . da, ib. 36 ; 81 a 25 . Numerous instances from LL in Quiggin Vorton. Wörter 35 . TBC Gloss.

DI + REL. dia n-: Wb. 8 c 11 . 13 b 12 . 13 c 12 . 13 d 25 . 16 c 7 . 19 d 11 . 21 d 4 .— Ml. 14 d 13 . 35 b 24 . 37 a 10 . 54 a 20 . 69 c 7 . 69 d 4 . 118 a 7 .— Sg. 3 a 2 . 30 b 3 . 66 b 10 . 71 a 17 . 197 a 6 . 197 b 12 , 18 . 208 a 7 . Tur. 80 . 131 . diarbu, ib. 22 . Thes. ii 326. 6 ; 328. 36 ; 337. 23 .— With negatives: diná-: dinadrícthe, Wb. 28 b 1 . dinaconbi, Ml. 85 b 7 . dinach, Acr. 23 d 2 = dunach.—MID.-IR. dia n- and dá n- ( LL 56 a 20 . 68 b 28 . 104 a 41 ), cf. poss. pron. above; neg. diná- doná- (di and do): innisis Mac Roth inní dona ragaib, LL 70 b 48 = TBC-LL¹ 1744 . Cf. ib. 2962 . ceol mbind diná fríth cosmailius fo niṁ, Ériu ii 116 § 47 . doná fríth sét ná samail, TTr.² 1711 . LB 136 a 51 . 138 a 12 . 138 b 11 . AFM v 1276. 17 . MOD. dá n-, dhá n-.

DI + PERS. PR. 1 sg. díim, Wb. 2 a 10 . 30 a 24 . díimsa, 7 a 2 . dimsa, 18 a 3 . dím, Ml. 54 d 7 . 95 d 3 . 132 a 10 . Thes. ii 248. 4 ; 351. 5 . dimsa, Ml. 17 b 18 . dimso, 59 a 18 . 2 sg. dít, Ml. 101 b 1 . 3 sg. m. and n. de masc.: Wb. 4 c 12 . 12 a 22 . 26 d 17 . 28 b 6 . Ml. 16 a 10 . 22 d 19 . 32 d 10 . 38 c 9 . 48 d 27 . 48 d 28 . 50 d 1 . 61 b 12 . 127 b 19 . desom, 33 a 5 . 91 a 21 . de, Sg. 59 b 7 . Thes. ii 298. 23 ; 337. 27 . neut.: Wb. 1 a 3 , 9 . 10 b 27 . 11 d 2 . 16 c 4 . 15 d 21 . 17 d 2 . 19 b 10 . 22 a 11 . 24 c 11 . 32 a 2 . 32 c 11 . Ml. 23 c 5 . 24 d 26 . 26 c 2 . 40 b 9 . 69 a 17 . 122 a 2 . Sg. 18 a 1 . 26 b 5 . 72 b 6 . 147 b 3 . 181 a 5 . Thes. i 5. 29 . Ardm. 18 a 1 . Thes. ii 248. 7 ; 253. 8 ; 298. 18 ; 334. 2 ; 33. 26 . dé: issí a pennit dé (not = ade), Wb. 26 b 20 . Ml. 69 d 3 . dæ, Ml. 44 b 1 . See further exx. in Ériu liii 135 . Rhymes with the final syllable of uide, Acall. 6811 ; comairle, 6659 ; Dairíne, 3231 ; ráidimne, 5170 ; fáistine, 6660 ; Laige, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 48. 9 ; uile, 68. 23 ; -se, 74. 25 . 3 sg. f. di (in Mid.-Ir. often dí, also occasionally in O.Ir. dī: lí, Fél. 166.27; . dī: lī: mbī, IT iii.1 § 131 ), Wb. 15 d 20 . 24 d 11 . 28 d 22 . Ml. 42 b 7 . 95 b 2 . 95 d 8 . 96 a 8 . 102 a 15 , 20 . 145 c 3 . Sg. 27 a 13 . 187 b 6 . 188 a 22 . 209 b 10 . di féisin, 199 b 10 . di feisne, 199 b 6 . dissi, Wb. 28 d 22 . 1 pl. díinn, Wb. 25 a 18 . 31 c 25 . díin, 10 d 8 . díinni, 26 b 18 . diínn, 15 b 4 . diín, 26 b 13 . dínn, 15 a 3 24 c 16 . 24 d 10 . dín, Ml. 105 d 7 . din, Ml. 53 d 9 . dínni, Wb. 10 d 8 . 15 a 6 . 24 c 8 . 24 d 24 . 26 a 25 . 26 d 7 . Ml. 87 d 8 . 135 c 1 . dinni, Wb. 15 d 8a . Ml. 91 b 10 . dinne, Thes. ii 335. 43 . 2 pl. díib, Wb. 27 b 11 . díibsi, 14 d 9 . 25 d 21 . diib, 8 c 9 . 23 a 22 . 24 c 14 . diibsi, 17 b 29 . 24 c 16 . diibse, 26 d 19 . diib féisne, 13 a 26 a . díbsi, 14 d 13 . 25 d 20 . 3 pl. díib, Wb. 5 c 2 . 13 a 16 . Ml. 90 b 17 . 90 c 27 . 121 b 8 . Sg. 9 b 10 . 51 b 13 . 73 b 8 . 74 b 4 . 138 b 4 . 149 a 2 . diib, Wb. 4 d 4 , 5 , 6 . 5 a 20 . 7 d 10 . 8 a 17 . 9 c 31 . 9 d 4 . 10 b 1 . 11 a 4 . 13 b 3 . 14 a 29 . 23 a 23 . 27 a 22 . 28 a 20 . 28 c 4 . Ml. 16 d 2 . 19 d 6 . 20 d 4 . 22 b 1 . 40 c 21 . 72 b 17 , 27 . 90 b 19 . 90 c 9 . 98 b 9 . 104 a 8 . 104 d 3 . 107 b 5 . 114 c 15 . 122 d 7 . 137 c 2 . 145 c 7 , 8 . Sg. 15 b 9 . 29 b 16 . 35 b 13 . 38 b 8 . 63 a 9 . 70 b 4 . 106 b 2 . 203 b 6 . 208 b 8 . 215 a 1 . Ardm. 17 a 2 . Thes. ii 23. 38 . diib féisne, Wb. 13 a 26a . díb, not in Wb; Ml. 30 d 13 . 35 a 8 . 42 b 5 . 47 b 6 . 61 b 17 . 96 c 13 . 129 c 18 . 146 a 3 - 3 . Sg. 9 a 18 . 213 b 8 . Thes. ii 320. 24 ; 335. 25 ; 335. 38 ; 344. 19 . dib, Ml. 33 c 13 . 42 c 7 . 44 a 20 . Thes. ii 34. 34 ; 298. 25 ; 310. 34 ; 316. 24 ; 317. 33 ; 330. 11 ; 335. 28 ; 344. 14 .—3 dual . de in cia de ( Wb. 23 b 33 . Sg. 242 a 1 ). nechtar (cechtar) de, q.v.—In the 2 and 3 pl. diib is disyllabic in Wb, monosyllabic only in connection with an enclitic particle. In the 1 sg. and pl. monosyllabic dím and dínn are original. Wb díim, díinn either disyllabic under the influence of the 2 and 3 pl. or, more likely, Wb-spelling for dím, dínn; cf. Wb rúun, ruún, ríi, &c.

MID.- & MOD.-IR. as Oir.—only monosyllabic all through (arch. occasionally diib. in the 2 and 3 pl.): 1 sg. dím, dímm (Mod. d(h)íom); dímsa (d(h)íomsa). 2 sg. dít, dítt (d(h)íot); dítsu, -so, -sa (d(h)íotsa). 3 sg. m. n. de (d(h)e); desin, desen, deside, desium (d(h)eisean). fem. di (d(h)i), dissi, dise (d(h)ise). 1 pl. dín(n), dínne (d(h)ínn, d(h)ínne). 2 pl. díb (d(h)íbh, d(h)íb), díbsi (d(h)íbhse). 3 pl. díb (d(h)íobh, d(h)íob), díbsin, -sen, -side, -sium, -so (d(h)íobhsan, d(h)íobsan). In Mod.- and late Mid.-Ir. the 3 pl. is kept distinct from the 2 pl. by broad bh ( díob, Mon. Tall. 147. 25 ; 15th cent. MS B IV 2, fo. 60 b . ZCP viii 116 st 15 , rhyming with síor. SG 309. 3 ).

DI, DE IN VERB. & NOM. CPDS. dĕ (cf. pron. cpds. 3 sg. m. n.) most frequent before `ro': co nderbadad (but rodíbda, inf. díbdud), ní derban , nís derbrad ( Thes. ii 347. 2 ), conda-dercacha, LU 87 a 29 , -dercaither (doecci), níruderchóin, derchóiniud, niconderérachtar (doérig), -dergaba (dígbáil), -derna, -dergénsat, -derlaig, -derlaiged, -derlaichta (ni dílgai , dílgud), dermar, dermat, co ndermanammar ni (Mil), dernum, todernam (cf. sním), -deroíma (dítiu), ní derscaigi , ní deruarid (diurad).—Cf. further dered `end, remnant' from *de-reth. Before broad ch, bh: -dechuid (but -dichsed, -dich), dechor, debuith. Occasionally before g-: -dénai, dénum. Before v: dead (besides diad, dudí, dudiastae), imper. deich (but -dích, dígal), aisndéis beside aisndís; but de + fo > dú-, Thurn. Hdb. 458 , or diu-: diunag, or deö-: deolaid `poor.' Before ṡ: degaid (beside digaid), deïd (if from + de-ṡed-), desruith; subj. condessin, ( ZCP x 376 ) (but condieig). di + a- >de in demaig, denall, denuas, v. XXXI. di + ad: dedbol. di + an-: denmne. di + aith: dethbir, dethiden. di + en: dessid, dellig, décsiu, -décci, -décmaing `cut off,' decming `impossible.' di + ess: -dér, -dérig, dérge, ( RC xxxvii 22 ) (do-érig), but dírech; deistiu .i. iartaige clainde, H 3.18, 80 . di + in: dindba, fordingrat, dingbail.

di: frequent with us (and fo): diucrae, diuderc, diunach (do-fonig), fordiuclainn, diummus, diupae, diupart, -diurat, diurad, -diuschi, diuscartae ( domfoscarte, Ml. 127 c 20 ). Cf. also diuchtraim, Wi.—Before most consonants: díbad, rodíbairg, díbe, díberg, díbdud, rodibda, díbert, díchenn, díchned, díchetal, -díchliter (díchlith, dícheilt), díchor (rodíchuired), dídnad, dígal, dígbáil, díguin, dílgud, dímeiccem, dírech, díscir, -díltised, díltud, -díxnigedar. Privative dí- very common: di-anim, -asnéte, -chin, -chmairc, -choem, -chretem, -chumuc, -grád, -gu, -ing, -miad, -rim, -thrub. Emphatic dí: díbec, dímór, díthrom (de- rare in this sense, cf. de-ḟordal, der-).

ORIGIN. Italo-Celt. , Ir. dí. In accented position also dĕ. The latter possibly includes the particle dis-, Lat. dis-. Compare especially the distinction made between dí-chor a putting away and de-chor a disagreement, a difference, diversity, and that between dí-taa stands apart and de-buith difference of opinion, dissent. De- from dis- possibly also in dedail. De- was either developed before broad consonants or possibly like Gk. δία it goes back to dis-a (modelled on μητά, κατά = Ir. ceta-). As dĕ- in the great majority of cases has the same functions as dí-, this explanation presupposes a blending of dē and dis in Irish. The original sense of dis- seems preserved only in nominal cpds. in Irish (de-chor, de-buith, de-dail).

OMISSION OF DI. Di is frequently omitted before the second of two substantives connected by ocus or nó: di ael ┐ chrieid, Ml. 102 d 9 . ib. 133 c 1 . Wb. 4 b 5 . BDD § 1 . MacCarthy, 62. 8 f.b. nech dia chlaind nó huib, RC xxiv 202. 17 .— Repeated: Wb. 13 d 7 , 25 c 12 . Ml. 67 b 17 . RC xxv 240 § 13 , 242 § 15 . Acall. 5355 . 7621 . 7677 .

SENSES. Di corresponds in usage closely to Lat. de, which it constantly translates in the Glosses, and with which it was identified by Irish grammarians: optimi de se meriti, gl. díb, Ml. 61 b 17 . de uita certamen, gl. din bethaid suthin, ib. 39 a 1 . exaltasti me de portis mortis, gl. dinaib dóirsib, 27 b 4 . ib. 19 d 18 . 24 c 17 . 25 a 19 . 40 a 6 , 7 . 73 c 12 . Tur. 21 . 59 . 115 . 132 . 140 . Thes. ii 26. 40 , &c.Ml. 27 d 12 it is introduced to render Lat. dis- in vb. cpds.: non dissimulat, gl. ní deintamladar. Like Lat. de it does not usually apply to time, except in a few petrified phrases, such as di chéin, do ló, d'adaig, d'aidchi, &c., cf. XLIX below. It unites the senses of the original ablative, instrumental and genitive.

De, di in a privative and emphatic sense (Lat. di-magis), see above.

A DI IN THE SENSE OF THE ORIGINAL ABLATIVE.—The difference between di and ass (removal of one object from within another) is shown by the following examples: tanísca Cuillius asa thruaill, LU 65 b 36 . tíscáil gái a hálad, O'Dav. p. 120 ; but : amal tíscar cend di luin, LU 71 a 22 . tairbling asa charput, FB § 36 ; but: doarblaing den chamull, Tur. 60 . tuc a lán...asin dabaig medha, Acall. 7399 . amal soersai lóain assin dabaig out of the vat Fél. Ep. 540 (but de lámaib Assar, Ml. 35 b 24 ).

v I With intransitive verbs of motion, denoting departure, separation or moving away from a place or object indicated by the subst., pron., &c., governed by di. Lat. cedere, decedere, discedere, migrare de. Often with verbs containing di- or ass- (as in Lat.).

atraig arises from, stands up from (Lat. de sella, de toro surgere): forchongair ... coire do línad hó bii ┐ Georgi do thabairt ind. atracht a ḟiuchad de cóic cubat déc, PH 1265 . Cf. éirgid: coro érig a ḟeoil ┐ a lethar de, ib. 2144 . aṁal luaithreadh saṁraidh ag eirghe do lár ré gal ngaoithe, TSh. 3. 5 . Cf. also Ml. 21 c 7 : de strato meo matutinus adsurgam, gl. dim dérgud.

bruinnid darts, springs forth from: bruinnid breo di thein, LL 145 a 40 . bruinnid araile díb bréo don teni forsin mac, Cóir Anm. § 54 . Cf. do-bruinn.

con-oscaigi removes from: cumscugud du díglae dín, Ml. 105 d 7 .

conrualae went away, departed : for nem a conrualae cech laithe dind íre what has gone to heaven from the earth Fél. Ep. 26 .

do-airling springs from, descends from: doarblaing den chamull, Tur. 60 (twice). disin doeirbling unde desilit, ib. 59 . beirid eocha lib ┐ ná túirlingid díob, SG 257. 18 .

do-bruinn springs forth, flows from, sprouts : dubrúinn dinaib slébib forsna talmana...in chré fechtnach sin, Ml. 81 c 14 . Cf. 1 bruinnid.

do-cer falls : docer in biail dia samthig, Tur. 131 . co torchair in cochull dib, Thes. ii 335. 28 .

do-érnai escapes from: ní thérna duine di riam gan éc, Acall. 6792 .

do-ic comes : súth nime ticed don draic sin, PH 2491 . táinic aingel Dé do nim, 3467 . 2473 . 5367 .—For the idiom tic dím `I can,' see below.

do-téit comes from, téit goes from: notésstae (sic leg.) di thír ┐ talam na ní sin, Wb. 9 b 19 . tuidecht in popuil di Ægipt, Ml. 130 b 1 . dichoid de muldach Muire which went out from the head of M. Mon. Tall. 127. 10 . coná térna ass acht a ndechaid do rind gai ┐ do gin chlaidib, LMU § 15 . doraga mac duni de nim i lló brátha, RC xxv 234. 15 . doraga in Comdiu de nim, RC iv 248. 3 f.b. do thuidecht do nim, PH 3044. 3087 . cech húair nothéged dia lurgc, BColm. 56. 14 . má ragad cliar dimdach de, Ériu iv 214 st 10 . rachaid in fiad ata urri di, Acall. 7505 . iar ndol a feirge díbh, Cog. 214. 27 .

do-tuit falls from: coel ┐ cumung in drochet co tuitet dia medón isin glend ngaibthech, FA § 22 . mar tuitios baindi daill, O'Gr. Cat. 198 . gur thuit duille na fíréandachta bunadhasaighe dhínn, TSh. 91. 20 . cloch gan láma uirre ag tuitim do ṡliab, ib. 3. 1 .

dul depart from: ré ndul don doṁan so, TSh. 103. 7 .

lingid leaps from: ní asse léim dind béstatu ┐ dind tinchosc, Wb. 5 c 16 .

scáilid parts with: doscaeil in chaillech díob, SG 309. 3 . dond ch., 308. 4 f.b.

scaraid separates from, parts with: nír scar din fognam SG 326. 28 .

scuchaid departs from: scuchaid dím a mallachtnachu LU 32 a 34 . RC iv 248 § 9 . PH 3635 . Cf. LL 92 b 20 : ragab som dá armaib for feraib Hérenn coro scáigsetar dó.

scuirid ceases from: scuirem i fecht sa do scélaib na ṅGaedel, LL 4 a 47 . coná rosguirsed don treathan, MR 256. 11 . scuir don forcetul sin, PH 708 . níor sguireadar den tseolréim sin gur ghabhadar cuan a nEas Dara, OCT 9.20 .

snigid drips from: inbanda uisci glain oc snige anuas don charraic, PH 506 .

teichid flees from: ní techdis na heoin dia chonair reime, Ériu v 20. 14 . oc teiched din tsligid, SG 403. 3 .

trágid ebbs from: trágid in pian díb, FA § 24 .

II With trans. verbs denoting removal, abstraction, expulsion, robbing from, &c. (Lat. abripere, capere, deicere, emittere, eripere, expellere de); particularly after verbs containing di-.

ar-clich wards off: oipni ri airsclaige na gona díb, TTr. 2056 .

ar-scarta sweeps off, casts out: cethri cóicid Hérenn... do aurscartad di Maig Murthemni, RC iii 179. 3 .

benaid (bainid, béim, buain) takes off, cuts off from; wrenches, strips from, &c. ní bas síriu bithus di chend dít, LU 71 a 22 . bí a dornd do Ḟiachaig, ZCP iii 45. 2 . co mbí a chend de, TBC-LL¹ 1309 Y. robean sum a chathbarr dia chind, MR 70. 23 . in cochall gan a buain de, Acall. 4890 . SG 13. 3 . ic búain duilisc do charraic, ZCP v 497 § 11 . a chroiceann do bhuain de, TSh. 190. 19 .

berid takes away from, dobeir, do-ucc-, &c.: ruuc cách a rainn dí sin amal dundgniat geinti dinaib brataib bertae hodie, Ml. 63 c 18 . amal runucad buáid diib, 104 a 8 . rouic búaid diib, Wb. 27 a 22 . Cf. buadigidir, XXXII below. Thes. ii 311. 20 . bec nách ruc ár folta diar cennaib, Siab. Conc. Anecd. iii 49. 1 . ní beir dím sním lobrae, Fél. Prol. 223 . étach berar do aos tuati, Mon. Tall. 154. 42 . nach brat berair do aos étraich, 155. 24 . Acall. 7366. 7931 .— berid coscur de, PH 3515 . 4895 . 4909 . 6275 . 8407 . co ruca braff di, ib. 3513 . go tuc Gamut leis da thig na ceola go teach Grigair, ZCP viii 114. 16 . tucsat a lláma chucu don méis, PH 5136 . breth di, 4200 .

brataid steals from: cétna brat Saxan di Ére, AU A.D. 434 .

cnuasaigid gathers from: do barr in ḟeóir docnuasaigthea in mil, CF 73. 10 .

con-gaib keeps from: ní congebed uacht síne do ḟeiss aidche hi linnib, Thes. ii 315. 2 .

con-scara keeps apart from: co comscara Dia dínn a mbruth, Otia ii 96 § 27 .

con-sní gains from: ag cosnum mennato dia bráithrib RC xxiv 176. 4 .

cuirithir puts away from: cuirid díib in nere so, Wb. 27 b 11 . n do chor diib, Sg. 106 b 2 . rochuir a mertnigi de, SCC § 31 . dénum aithrige co cuirmis dind ní diar cintaib, MacCarthy 62. 1 f.b. cor chuir in cathbarr de, Acall. 7931 . SG 13. 3 . PH 451 . iar ccor in tṡaoghail dé having retired from the world AFM 847 .

dlomaid removes, expels from: dlomais dóib da thír díles, LL 152 b 45 .

do-airindi, -tairinni lowers : aṁail do turnadh an chloch don tṡlíabh, TSh. 3. 20 .

do-boing exacts (a tax) from: toibgigthur éric dit, Laws ii 16. 6 ; ib. i 136. 11 , v 422. 20 . fuil Críst do thabach dia clannaib, PH 3287 . a lín in tṡluaigh doboing bretha dín, RC xvii 143. 19 .

do-cuirethar, vn. díchor, puts away, prevents from: bod ríg Érenn acht co ṅdíchuirea Luirig do neart ata forin neclais, BB 208 a 38 . díchor da cach dualaig, Alex. 824 .

do-ecmaing, -ecmaing cuts off : coneccmaing a láimdói di Lugaid, RC iii 182. 3 . décmaing a chend de, LL 291 b 3 . RC xiii 46 § 58

do-esc-, tesc- cuts off : doneiscend a chend den mil TBF, ZCP iv 41 . 5 (YBL). do chlaideb féin tescfas dít do chend, Dinds. § 36 . tescthar de a lám, RC x 68. 15 . gur thesc barr a thengad de, Cóir Anm. 279 . gur thesc a chenn da cholann, Sechrán 66 .

do-feid, do-díat leads from: as nert Dæ dudaruid som du cech imniud, Ml. 63 b 12 . oca tuididen di cech imniud, ib. 92 c 5 .

do-foscart-, -diuscart removes : díuscart dím an delg, Thes. ii 248. 4 . díscart dín in nécin fil fornd, LU 63 b 9 . nodiuscartiss de, BColm. 94. 22 .

do-fúarcaib, tócbál, etc. raises from: ní thuargaib a cend dia glún, LMU § 17 . tuarcabad dímm a náirde tegdais i rraba, PH 3728 . toicébut sa mo thinnscrai dhít, Lism. L. 1159 . dosnócaib do lár, Trip. 552. 8 . cioth rod-tógbhuais dot choilcthaib, ITS v 20. 10 .

do-gaib, vn. dígbáil, takes away from: dirogbad a díib, Sg. 9 b 16 . ná digebad cid a oenḟocul dia briathraib si nó di briathraib ind cáich cossa fuided, Mon. Tall. 150. 5 . ó ndígaibther .vi. lathi díbsin, PH 4931 .

do-ícsa takes off : bithus di chend dít amal tíscar di luin, LU 71 a 22 . ní thíscad a drucht do rind ind ḟeoir FB § 88 .

do-ingaib, vn. díngbáil, keeps off from: Dia dím cech saeth doringba, Thes. ii 351. 5 . FA § 16 . a Dhia cidh ná dingbai dínd in cia why keepest Thou not the mist off from us? RC xvii 143. 17 . BColm. 92. 17 . PH 344. 7233 . dingaib dind na hamaiti, Acall. 6767 . 4416 . 5463 . 6975 . 7143 . 7680 .

do-léci lets go, throws, lets down: condarlicthe tech immunn di nim, Wb. 15 c 13 . tairlaicid forchai tentide dina nemdaib a fiery bolt was hurled from the skies Trip. 60. 19 . ind long...doleced do nim, FA § 2 . rotelged... do neim, BColm. 64. 8 . theilgeas na daoine i dtiaich na talṁan do chlár táiplisi an tsaoghail, TSh. 26. 2 . teilc tart doit, Thes. ii 258. 12 (one expects dít).

do-seinn hunts : rotaiphnedh socraite Poimp don muigh, CCath. 5769 .

fennaid flays : iar ḟendad a chrocind ┐ a ḟindfaid dia chind, PH 6578 .

fo-ceirt throws from: focertam fial diínn, Wb. 15 b 4 . amal foceirt nech a ætach de, 32 c 11 . facheird dia aicniud, Ml. 94 c 8 .

fóidid sends : fóidis Dia Michel do nim, SR 1918 .

foxul, toxul remove from: iar foxul s diib, Sg. 15 b 9 . ferann da togslaidther in athgabáil, Laws i 302. 17 .

gaibid takes (away) from, keeps from: gabáil mo gotha dím, Ml. 95 d 13 . masa gabáil rogabu de in mac sin, Laws v 200. 12 . ní gebed di dul ind, Thes. ii 315. 22 ; ib. 333. 1 .—Frequent in the phrase gaibid desemrecht di takes example from: co ngaba cách d. dit gnímaib, Wb. 31 c 8 . 7 b 14 . 24 c 8 , 14 . 26 a 25 . 26 b 7 , 13 , 18 . 26 d 7 , 17 . 28 a 20 . 30 a 24 . 32 a 2 . Ml. 22 b 1 . 30 d 13 . 118 a 7 . cu ragabthai se desmberecht dimm, PH 5272 . ib. 3573 .

gataid takes away from, lops off; steals from: ní gatda diib imnetha in betho, Wb. 10 b 1 . mar ragatad a chend de Chormac, LL 52 b 7 . gatsat mo uli indmas dím PH 704 .

glanaid clears away from, expels from: glanais a luathred di lár ind lis, LU 23 b 12 . Mac Moga ┐ Eocho glanait sluago Mumnech do chlár Lifi Lagnech, LL 35 b 10 .

gluaisid moves from: gluasacht oenubuild díob de lár Mon. Tall. 145. 18 .

in-árban expels from: indarpe s de genitin ejection of `s,' Sg. 77 b 2 . Usually constructed with ass.

laaid casts from: ní rolsat som cumachtae ṅdé diib, Ml. 16 d 2 . rolá in cennide dia chind, ScM. § 3 . rolá a bratt de, PH 1128 . 7084 . Cf. rolái dó a étach, ib. 5242 .

léicid puts away from: fár léigis díot do choimét, SG 260. 11 . ná leic meisi don chroich sin, PH 2471 . anté leigeas de gan bheith ag smuaineadh, TSh. 7. 5 ; same phrase 9. 19 .

leoid cuts off from: co roleoad dia bun, Ériu iv 134. 11 .

scáilid loosens from, releases from: BB 364 a 40 . rosgaoil macc an chuill dá héill, Tor. Dh. Oss. 182 . co roscáil de fochetóir, PH 2195 . atá mian orm sgaoileadh dhíom, TSh. 75. 14 . leaves alone: sgaoil don médail!, RC xxix 220 .

scipaid sweeps or snatches away from: cor scib dím in díliu, Ériu iv 128. 15 . an ceann lem ingin do sgiobfainn dod chaolsgrog, Midnight court 652 . ib. 709 .

taithmigid loosens from: taithmidig a chuibrige de PH 2227 . assan i cuibrech ┐ ócech immalle fria. taithmigid díb, ib. 4372 . 2223 ; with do = di, 2112 , 4888 .

-talla takes off: tiagsa contall a chenn dind aithiuch labar, Ml. 58 c 6 . nico tald som dér dia gruad, Mon. Tall. 153. 23 . an bic co tall mo léni dím, LL 277 a 19 . antan tallus mo chéill dia thorbu dam, Ériu iv 134. 11 . tallsat in étach de PH 3300 .

tremi-beir transfers from: crux ainm do gním in chrochtho acht tremiberar di suidiu conid ainm dun chrunn, Wb. 8 a 5 . Ml. 2 b 17 . 21 c 3 .

III With verbs denoting salvation from, protection from, cure of:

aingid: nonanich Dia di cach imniud, Wb. 16 a 4 . Dia mór mo anacol de mur teintide, ACC 4 .

cobraid helps out of: cabair mé don díchumang sa, BColm. 62. 11 . fuarus sa mo chabair do cach docamail irraba isin tsægal, YBL 164 a 31 .

do-eim rescues from (orig. `demit'): conidnderoimed di lámaib Sauil, Ml. 55 d 4 .

do-essoirc saves : dumesurc sa din (sic leg.) galar fúail se, Thes. ii 248. 11 . donnesmart...do, etc., 322. 10 .

ícaid saves from: ár nícc donaib galaraib i mbiam, Ml. 107 c 8 . isindí rondannícais ni din derchoiniud hísin, 89 a 6 . din galar, 48 b 2 , 48 d 28 . dun g., 61 a 34 . dun tedmaim, 123 c 3 . donaib imnedaib, 35 c 20 .— íccfaid side (i.e. Dia) cách dia cintaib, PH 6475 .

soeraid id.: nobsóirfa si Dia dinab fochidib, Wb. 11 b 4 . di peccad, 24 c 18 . nonsoer ni di dóiri...dinaib pecthaib ┐ donaib adradaib idal dorigensam, Ml. 46 b 26 . din dóiri, 81 a 7 . de d., Fél. Ep. 532 . din galar, Ml. 48 a 21 . 61 a 37 . dinaib fochidib, 19 b 2 , 11 . 24 a 17 . 26 d 12 . di f., 20 a 12 . ( Fél. Ep. 520 ). dinaib imnedaib, 27 a 7 - 8 . 102 d 17 . donaib i., 89 a 2 . di lámaib (Asar, mu námat, &c.), 35 b 24 . 53 d 6 . 55 d 6 . 61 d 2 . 68 a 2 . 84 c 15 . 90 c 18 . Fél. Ep. 528 . du l., Ml. 91 d 4 . pro liberatione .i. di lámaib A., 72 d 6 , 7 . di chumachtu Assar, 112 c 12 . cum saluata sis, gl. di chumachtu A., 107 a 2 . saluum eum fecit Deus .i. di ingraimmim Abisolon, 87 c 1 . di thein, Thes. ii 302. 5 .— Fél. Ep. 512 . 516 . 524 . 536 . 552 . 556 . rosaerad Abraham dona gáibthib, PH 5885 . Three Hom. 92. 29

With omission of the verb: di thólu æchtrann ┐ námat di phlágaib tened ┐ nóine save us from Thes. ii 256. 11 .

IV After verbs denoting cleansing, clearing, purging, washing:

nigid cleanses from. in sruth niges anmand na næm din (v.l. don) chutrumma chinad noslenand, FA § 16 .

V With verbs denoting restraint, prevention or prohibition (di + dat. pers. or dat. rei). quis nos impediuit..., gl. dind riuth forsa robith, Wb. 20 b 1 .

ar-fuirig keeps back from: ma arfuirestae díb in taidchur, Ml. 47 b 6 .

ar-gair forbids : ní argart recht díinn, Wb. 31 c 25 . prohibentes nos, gl. .i. dínni, 24 d 24 . prohibere, gl. .i. diib féisne nó di nach aile, 13 a 26 a . ní bói ní aridgarad de, Ml. 72 b 6 . din, 53 d 9 . dím, 132 a 10 . argérat ítaid díib, 121 b 8 , with which comp. Mon. Tall. 147. 25 : ní argara ítid díob, and RC ix 474. 21 : cumma aranggairtis gortai ┐ íttaid díb na hubla; -argarad dit, BDD § 13 .

ar-troetha restrains from: artróidfea siu inna drochdáini dia nanduch, Ml. 134 d 3 .

baccaid hinders : nír bacadh dibh no one hindered them Lism. L. 3208 . an aithne bhacas dín the commandment that hinders us MacCur. p. 110 .

con-gaib restrains from: níscongbaitis .i. di ersolcud a ngena, Ml. 55 a 18 .

con-secha id. coiscid do bar nimresuin, Fen. 182. 5 . coscther a gin de golgaire, TTr. 1068 . Ériu v 190 l. 472 . coisg dá luadh, Each. Iol. 59. 3 .

do-airmesca, -tairmesca hinders : ní rotoirmescad dibso toidecht, PH 575 . Cf. nadat torbad .i. nachat tairmescad dit gaisciud, LL 262 a 21 . Cf. SG 22. 2 , 16 .

VII After fris-toing abjures : mani cometsam dear tolaib ┐ ma fristossam dear pecthib, Cambr. 37 c .

VIII After anaid ceases from, rests from, orig. `to breathe...from' (cf. ἀναπνέω with gen.): ná anam di dénum maith, Wb. 20 c 14 . iarsindí ronan hua céin di aisndis dun popul, Ml. 126 b 1 . de molad Dé ni anad, Thes. ii 315. 1 ( anad do molad, PH 2418 . ) rogess dó anad de, LL 288 b 16 . an dím, ib. 119 a 25 . ní anfem de, Lec. 150 a 1 = BB 326 b 4 . anad dind imguin, SCC § 36 . roansat dia nimratib FB § 72 . anad de thinsaitin, LL 159 b 2 . do imthecht LU 22 b 3 . 25 a 16 . ó and oc are competing prepositions.

IX In the construction of such verbs as beogidir revives from, sonartnaigidir becomes strong from: a mbeogud dia marbad, Mon. Tall. 147. 17 . a rrosonartnaigestar din galar hi robae, Ml. 49 b 4 .—Cf. Speijer Scr. Synt. § 100 n. 2 .

X After verbs denoting surpassing, excelling:

deligid surpasses : deligfit a ndegláich de deglaechaib fer nÉrenn, LL 57 a 16 .

do-róscai surpasses, excels : ní derscigem nech di alailiu, Wb. 2 a 14 . doroschither dano diib, Ml. 107 b 5 . di hilib, 40 a 18 . Sg. 40 a 6 , 7 , 8 , 17 . 42 a 1 . doróscaisset maic Israhel donaib cenélaib cocríchthaib, Ml. 119 d 3 . di neuch, Sg. 43 a 3 . 45 a 11 ; further 42 a 1 , 5 . 42 b 2 , 3 . 40 a 13 . Thes. ii 335. 43 .— dirósced Cuchulainn diib uile, LU 121 b 21 . roderscaig do mnáib Érend, 48 a 25 . darrósci de rígaib, LL 237 b 5 . FB § 1 . CCath. 279 . SG 345. 2 , &c.

ro-uc prevails over, outstrips : a ned ruc do chéli do ócaib domoin...roucaiseo di mnáib Ulad, FB § 18 . a ned rucc grian do rennaib nime rucaisiu de mnáib domain uile, ib. § 19 . roucsaidse...do sluagaib na tíri sin ule, § 93 . ruc Íth de brithemnaib Hérend, LL 12 a 17 . corruc díb Ír mac Miled...do cach luing, ib. 12 b 22 .

XI In the construction of verbs denoting lack or want of. The preposition which originally depended on the verb often comes to be associated with a neighbouring noun or pronoun in a partitive sense.

ar-tá stands before, confronts, remains: becc arabí do uidi do neuch, Anecd. iii 21. 11 .

do-esta is wanting : andudesta di foirbthetu for nirisse, Wb. 1 a 9 . 23 d 17 . ma dudesta ní dibar niris, 25 a 30 . tesarbae óinloman de, 17 d 2 . aní dodesta di chomalnad, 26 d 8 , cf. ea quae desunt .i. diar niris, 31 b 2 . ut nihil desit, gl. dia forcitul, 31 d 15 . Ml. 94 c 10 . Acr. 3 c . Thes. ii 13. 27 ; 33. 19 ; 33. 26 .—dá bliadain teasda do dá ḟichet = thirty-eight years, Cog. 140. 21 (B). dís testa do ḟichit = eighteen AU ii 230. 15 . oenlá tesbaid di fichit nineteen days SR 6814 . a ndotesta dit nirt, SCC § 13 . ní theseba do slondud su don tír se, Dinds. § 127 . —Competing prepos.: ass, Wb. 28 d 31 . Hy. v 88 .

do-fuarat remains, is left over . Prep. no longer connected with the verb: forsan dered duruarid dib, Ml. 44 a 20 . nícon diurat ní dib dia æs (partitively), 72 b 17 . do neoch rothiruarthestar din churp doenna, RC xxv 242. 8 .

mairid is left over, remains : ó nár mair do thrí cathaib na Féinde acht mad Oisín, Acall. 7906 . issed romairistar d'iarsma na muintire, 7903 .

XII After verbs and substantives denoting disgust, abhorrence of:

lius: amal nadngaib lius di suidiu is samlid insin nísgaib som lius di fordiuclaimmim mu thuaithe se, Ml. 34 b 6 .

XIII With verbs denoting buying from, receiving from. Lat. emere, redimere, mercari, accipere de aliquo.

ar-fóim receives from: anmman araḟóimtar di dánaib ut doctor de doctrina , Sg. 156 b 4 . combed de láim anmcharat arfemad sacrafaic, Mon. Tall. 146. 26 . is do láim ind anmcharat is cóir airitiu in tsacrafaic, 146. 23 . de aiti, 160. 18 .

cennaigidir buys from: is díles in mac sin don fer isa ben coro chendaigther de, Laws v 200. 12 . ceinnechutsa fín lógmar díb, LB 139 a 51 .

crenaid id.: ní cria di ṡecht mbaethaib file la Féne .i. di mnái di chimbid di mesc di drúth, &c., Tec. Corm. § 19 .

do-oggell(a), ZCP x 377 , LEIA D-172-73 . buys from: issed doruagell diib AU A.D. 963 . doruachell lógu móra don scolaigi, LB 213 a 56 .

XIV After verbs denoting asking, begging, demanding . Lat. quaerere, percontari de aliquo.

fisraigid inquires : dḟiosruig de, Gadelica ii 91. 6 .

guidid begs : in clam gáde ailgis dí, Thes. ii 339. 5 . nathir...gáid dím a tichtu i Pardos, SR 1322 . gáid side di mithisse .vii. ṁbliadan, LU 134 b 12 . But also with do ( LU 61 b 22 ; LL 288 b 16 ; 124 a 14 ) and co ( SR 2171 ).

iarmi-foig asks : with di and do in Mid.- as in Mod.- Ir.; the oldest sources seem to prefer do: iarfaigis dó, FB § 39 . iarmoracht dosom, Mon. Tall. 137. 2 . roiarfacht scéla dó, Trip. 122 . LU 113 a 22 . dia coic .i. do B., Thes. ii 334. 41 . doib (v.l. dibh) ib. 323. 9 . Mid.-Ir. usually di; de, Acall. 2854 . 3646 . 6445 (do only in proclisis as 6546 ); PH 1802 . 1960 . 2611 . 2621 . 3106 . 6579 . 7294 , &c.

XV In the construction of dligid (ar-dlig) in Mid.-Ir., competing with do.—OLD-IR. do: (a) dlegair domsa precept do chách, Wb. 1 b 8 . dlegair do neuch attlugud buide do Dia, Ml. 55 a 7 . (b) dligim ní duit I have a claim upon thee, Wb. 32 a 20 . rodligestar ní dó, Ml. 36 a 29 . MID.-IR. (a) di: ní dlegar díb dol a cath, BColm. 102. 3 . ardlig dín a cetol, Fél. June 1 . a ndermat ní dlegar dím, LL 137 a 12 . dlegar dínn ár nimcaissin do thimorcain PH 6870 . ib. 4098 . 4157 . 4168 . 4182 . 6514 , &c. ní díom dlegar, SG 320. 35 . do: dlegair do neuch cloechlód inaid do dénum, PH 6464 . (b) duine trúag dia rodlecht rí Laigen lind, Thes. ii 337. 23 . rodlig Lugaid fíacha de SG 253. 7 . orguin rodligestar Ingcél díb to which I. had been entitled from them BDD § 23 . dligid Colmán screpall de, BColm. 94. 27 . dligim dítsu, RC iii 184 . In this sense do is not used in Mid.-Ir.

XVI After verbs denoting eating, drinking from. (orig. abl. or gen.). Competing prep.: ass.

ibid drinks from: assibsem imróol di rath in spirito, Wb. 12 a 17 . de turbulento riuo ... potare .i. dint sruth buadarthu, Ml. 2 b 3 . ité ata mou atoibet do thopur ecna na deachta, PH 6238 . cachaen ibius ní de (.i. din tobur), Acall. 6778 . —ass: ibhis digh móir aisti (sc. assin tsíthal), Acall. 7151 .

óol drink from: deug mór du óul din dígail, Ml. 94 c 12 .

loimm sip from: is loimm de (v.l. do) romuir, Fél. Ep. 41 .

ithid eats : mad a lourtu noestais diib, Ml. 98 b 9 .

XVII After verbs (words) denoting choice or selection out of a number or quantity.

do-roígu has chosen : nípat hé indíi beta thuicsi di Iudeib, Wb. 4 c 40 . toga díb sin choose of them ZCP viii 318. 4 . aitire dogó de manchaib, Ériu i 220. 6 .

XVIII In the construction of do-rorban profits by, from: is mór a thorbe de dúnni, Wb. 1 a 3 . níbtá torbe de, 19 b 10 . connach bi tarbe dúinde de, Acall. 4213 .

XIX Di with ellipse of verb between two substantives, indicating removal of the former from the latter: dá mad gnáth mairb a talmain nó fuilt do chennaib dáine, Acall. 7062 . a cind dona druídib ┐ dona filedaib mani fintar cia doróne ...shall lose their heads ZCP iii 5 § 15 . Cf. usce dia mbassaib do dhig fair, MacCarthy 70. 13 .

XX Expressing position with regard to, (north, south, &c.) of: amal rundgab Slíab Sion andes ┐ antuaid dun chathraig, Ml. 67 d 14 . in tulach lethaniar do Themraig, Acall. 7897 . allathís dia ṡúil below his eye PH p. 630 b . suas de, Thes. ii 314. 7 . Cf. Sliabh Cruadha do thaobh dhé, ML 22. 12 .

XXI Ml. 55 c 1 : hi telaig ba nessam dind slóg, dind seems to stand for older dund (nessa do geintib, Wb. 2 b 17 . cid as nesu dúin, LL 258 b 43 . LB 219 a 70 . dó LU 62 b 40 ); but both constructions might be old. Cf. Lat. proximus with dat., abl. and ab, and Umbr. nesimei asa deveia (abl.), Iguv. 6 a .

XXII-XXXI ABLATIVUS ORIGINIS—denoting derivation, descent, source, starting-point or the like.

XXII After dotéit, do-ic (cf. I supra) ásaid, imfolngai, forcomnacair indicating the source (thing or person) whence anything originates or is acquired. dotéit: ished dothéit de tre ilar na ndáne, Wb. 22 a 11 . cid mall ished dodechuid de, 24 c 11 . anda lim ol sisi dorraga ní don mac sin something will come of that boy Mon. Tall. 150. 26 . is de taett ár tárcud ne, BColm. 98. 9 . do-ic: táinigc maith an tsámaid sa dom thoisgc cucu good has come to this congregation from my journey to them BColm. 98. 11 . de tháinig a thiughlaithi, MacCarthy 420. 4 (BB). táinig don smuaineadh sin gur dhiúlt sé dáinius an tṡaoghail, TSh. 13. 12 . thiocfadh de, dá dtiocfadh, ib. 14. 28 ; 34. 2 f.b. ; 48. 13 ; 65. 1 ; 80. 11 . IDIOM. ní tic dím I cannot (orig. it cometh not from me; for the sense-development cf. Acall. 7680 ): ní tic din (sic leg.) astud we cannot keep RC v 200 § 12 . tic dimsa, ib. ní thic dim a náirim uli, LU 39 a 12 . ní thicfad don domun uli, LB 145 a . ní thic dimm a nindise uli, PH 503 . do neoch, IT i 169. 21 . with do: ní thic dún a rád, LL 29 b 2 . ásaid: síl Aeda diar ásair mór ríg, LL 185 b 1 . iseadh fásas desin, MacCarthy 122. 2 (BB). fásaid in maith se díb co menic, PH 7963 . —im-folngai causes, effects : imforlinged mór namri de, Wb. 15 d 21 . Ml. 69 d 4 . déde immefolngi dundí contuarcar, Ml. 34 a 27 . condib degním immefolngither de, 23 c 5 . imfolngar gním di suidib fochetoir, 31 d 10 . a folad dia nimmolṅgaithær uox the substance from which vox is produced Sg. 3 a 2 . The last ex. shows how close is the connection between this sense and that of XXVII (c). forcomnacair has come from, is formed from, v. foll.

XXIII Expressing the origin or derivation of a name .

(a) name from: denominatiua, gl. de rét ailiu roainmnichthe, Sg. 31 a 5 . ainmnigud dind rét as mám and, 77 a 5 . doberr ainm ṅdóib din gním gníte, 156 b 6 = PCr. 65 b 1 . a fogur dia forcomnacair, Sg. 30 b 3 . mbruigfer cid ara neper? dí lín a mruige, Laws iv 31 . Lugaid...is desin ráiter Gairbḟerand claidim Luigdech, RC xxiv 186. 16 .—Often approaching or passing into the sense of `cause.' is ainm sanctus dó dind rubríci sin, Ml. 37 b 19 . amal asrobrad leusom donaib feraib trénaib di inni a nneirt asrobrad donaib ídlaib di inni a nenartae, 37 b 24 . asberam sanctos doib dint sainriud inna nóibe techtae, 37 b 16 .

(b) gram. derived from: Aniendae di anmmaim ind ṡrotho, Sg. 35 b 7 . rosarium .i. bróinde nó rostae .i. de rosa dind luib, 35 b 2 . celae dondí as caelestem , 9 a 2 .

XXIV Connecting two substantives, of which the latter indicates the source whence the former has come or is brought (cf. XIX): pane caeli, gl. in sásad di nim, Ml. 123 c 15 . Iudae Machabeo, gl. di Macha civitate , 67 b 16 . sacaird dí triub Leui, Tur. 6 . Lassar di cheniul C., Ardm. 17 a 2 ; 18 a 1 (dia desciplib di Laignib); 18 b 1 § 15 . lam nóib di Laignib, Thes. ii 326. 2 . Dé de nimib, Hy. vi 19 . Nár thuathech di thuathaib Cruithnech di chlaind Lóith LL 138 b 13 . cométaid di muintir nime, Snedg. u. Mac R 37. 6 . dias dAlbain is do Lochlaind, ib. 13 . Nechtán de Albae, Fél. Jan. 8 . Émene de Brú Berbae, Dec. 22 . Ep. 396 . láir do Chorco Ché rodnalt, ZCP viii 307. 30 . ib. 313. 32 ; 110. 5 . Ériu iv 104. 5 , 15 ; 106. 15 . luisse do ṡléib a flash from a mountain, 102. 15 . daig do sléib, Rawl. 84 b . dig den tiprait, Ériu iv 100. 15 .—do ṡíl Rosa (the npr. follows) LL 314 a 18 .

XXV Indicating racial origin, descent .

cinid springs, descends from: cinsiu di churp ríg sceo rígnai, FB § 22. 3 . conid díb rochinset in dá tharb, LL 246 b 51 . cinfid di ṡíl Chuind, ZCP iii 461. 16 . nír chin a choṁaosa dia chined i naonaimsir, AFM 1788. 5 . Competing prep.: ó ( Wb. 4 c 6 ; LL 46 a 34 , &c.).

gainithir is born from: ó óinsíl rogénartar dá macc de, Wb. 4 c 12 . cuirp genit...dina sílaib dereolaib, LU 37 a 31 . geinfid maccán dia fine, Three Hom. 98. 23 . co ngeinfitis cinedu iumda dia ṡíl, PH 2260 . oen is mesa rogen ┐ genfes do ṡíl Adaim, 3079 .—More usual with ó.

do-fuissim v. XXIX (c). is di v. XXVI. attá di v. XXIX.

XXVI After the copula.

(a) indicating the group, person or thing whence anything originates or of which it is a part.

(α) type † ba di Grecaib Aichil: di chlaind Cham ind Egiptacdai, Ml. 99 b 7 . ba do Ḟraṅccaib máthair inna clainne, Thes. ii 309. 19 . ba díb in tṡaergein Slaṅga, LL 5 b 23 . corub do muinntir Finn iat, Acall. 3142 . cúicir druad...ba díb Badgna, díb Cathbad drái, 2543 . do lucht in tíre seo hé, 7476 . do Thuathaib Dé Danann issí, 3907 . asberat bid di lucht na luinge...in tEugan Táidlech, ZCP viii 313. 23 . ib. 26 . ba de Ultaib a bhunudhus, RC vi 174. 8 . Ériu iv 140. 20 .— is din chorp in ball, Wb. 22 c 18 . ní díbsem in comsuidigud, Sg. 213 b 8 . is do chóicid Chondacht in ferann sin, RC xxiv 186 § 20 . PH 5766 . 2589 .

(β) type †ba di Grecaib do Aichil indicating racial origin: de Iudéib do Barnaip di geintib do Thit, Wb. 18 d 6 . di Iudéib doib, 27 d 4 . as ndi thalam do that he is of the earth Ml. 68 c 4 . di chlaind Thessei dóib .i. di Grecaib dóib huili, Sg. 31 b 2 . ropo do Dáil Choncobair dosom, Thes. ii 325. 4 . is dár sluagaib duitsiu a Ḟerguis, TBC-LL¹ 753 . can do Ḟind? do Laignib ar Cáilte, Acall. 6547 . Finn...do chlannaib Baiscne dó, 7307 . as do Leith Cuinn dó, 2029 . ní dibh dóibh ZCP viii 112. 1 . ib. 112. 4 . Todd Nenn. 224. 30 .—Cf. d'oendreim dóib is d'aencháraid they were of one company and of one yoke (of horses), BColm. 90. 11 .—Rarely of things or abstracts (as type α): is de corpore dissi (of the eye), Wb. 12 a 26 . prouindsi Aroandum didiu, do rigi Magnuis Cam dhi, ZCP i 388 . Hence the change of construction, Ériu iv 140. 19 : de chloind Míled dúindi ┐ do Grécaib ár mbunad.

(b) indicating the origin of a name: is de is named from: corub díb...na trí tulcha, Acall. 6517 .

XXVII After the subst. verb.

(a) of origin, descent, native place : nícon bia rí dit chlaind, ZCP viii 315. 24 . manodfil fer di chlaind Airt i nÉre ishé in fer sin, 311. 34 . Most frequent diatá from whom is (are) ZCP viii 293 pass. dia rabatar Mic Conchubair, 294. 21 .— cathrach dia rabi, PH 1635 . Cf. also Ml. 103 d 9 : cum totius gentis interitu, gl. connaconbeth ní du Israheldaib.

(b) of issue, consequence : ní bia bríg desium, Mon. Tall. 154. 11 . biaid olc de, LMU § 10 . regma amin cibed bias nde ZCP iv 46. 16 . ní bia debaid de, Ériu iv 108 st 69 . ised rombia de, ZCP vi 267 § 8 . TBC-LL¹ 1896 . PH 2647. 4745 . is eol dam a mbias de, Fianaig. 26. 7 . atá so de this results from it ZCP viii 317. 36 . cid bias din gai seo, RC iii 179. 28 ; 180. 4 f.b. inní dia fuil a marbad, Fianaig. 50. 19 ; v. XLV (a).

(c) of the origin or derivation of a name: atá di is named from. is de attáa Féna Forfid, Ardm. 18 a 1 . Colmán mac Duach diatá Cell meic Duach, Ériu i 44. 1 . conid de atá Cnoc in Banchuire, Acall. 2851 . isam mebrach inní dia fuil, 7305 . is díb atá Ferb in Trír, 7349 . inní dia raibe, 6451 . is desin atá, 7880 . Ériu iv 140. 8 .—Cf. conid desin atá in seanḟocul, RC xxiv 194 § 8 .

(d) makes a part of, belongs to, v. XXXIII (k).

(e) of the stuff or material, v. XXIX (b).

XXVIII The idiom attá di such is originally meant it follows, comes, results from (XXVII (b) supra), is because of . A similar usage occurs with do-ic: dothicfad dia nimut nách biath anóir forro = such would be their abundance that they would not be valued ZCP i 386. 10 ; and with rosaig: rossaig do binne a labartha conid, &c., TBith. 101 . —For the sense-development cf. especially: consternatus sum, gl. atá di thrummai na fochaide insin, Ml. 23 a 19 , which might be translated: this results from the heaviness of the tribulations. robói du méit a pecthae som combu uisse a nepeltu i nóinecht so great were their sins that...(orig. it followed from the greatness of their sins, &c.), Ml. 98 c 6 . robói du chensi Duaid conná rogaid do Dia dígail for Saul, ib. 55 d 4 . búi dá cosṁailes ná haithned nech fer seoch a chéile díb, CCath. 2051 . atá do gére theinedh ifrinn dá ndoirtidi fairgi an domain na chenn nách turnfadais aenraed dá thes, RC xxiv 381. 14 . atá do ṁét an ḟuachta atá and, ib. 17 , 20 , 24 , 26 , 28 , 30 . búi dia noemi coná rolámsat a marbad, PH 552 . —si sanctorum pedes lauauit, gl. marusbói di humaldóit, Wb. 28 d 29 . ni tha dia méit, 5 b 10 . ní rabæ di esamni Duaid co naipred, &c., Ml. 33 c 17 . attá di ṡeirc la laitnóri inna nGrec co seichetar cid a comroircniu, Sg. 1 a 2 . rosbúi do bríg they had such grace Snedg. u. Mac R 9. 2 . búi do méd a ratha such was his grace Ériu v 20. 6 . robói d'imarcraidh egla forro conná fededar..., CCath. 776 . robúi do méd do cinedaib roclói Poimp conice sin nárbo miad leis, &c., 275 . atá d'iomat maigeanta as díolarrdhacht maisdeadh such is the abundance of my intelligence ML 124. 5 . dobí d'ḟebas a ṁebra gacha cluinedh tiar is tair dobíodh aige do mebair, SG 108. 7 . bói d'ḟebus in fethme...co, &c. LB 156 b 28 . dobai d'ḟeabhus aimsire...go fuabradais fognamaig na fearann gan feidhm MR 102. 7 . dobí dá thinneasnaighe tháinic, SG 27. 28 . dobhí dá rothes, 22. 13 . búi dia luas som cu cengailtea a marcaig isna dillaitibh, ZCP i 382. 2 . atá dia sruthi ┐ dia huaisli na hesergi co mbátar..., PH 3424 . Acall. 3119 . In late Mid.-Ir. also with a personal subject: ní bíd dá bochta nech isin domun ná bá hécen dó a ícc, LB 132 b 7 , for Oir. †ní bí di bochtai neich, &c. no one is so poor. atá da faide fodhes iatsen (Stokes' emendation unjustified) ná faicet acht blogh bec don tṡechtar rét, CCath. 1583 . — di méit...feib as much...as: itá do mét dethiden ┐ gráda cáich díbsium feib oc araili, RC xxv 246 § 24 . Cf. XLVIII.

XXIX Indicating the material or substance of which anything is made or consists .

(a) between two substantives (for orig. gen.), connecting the material immediately with the thing, type: tob di humu a bronze trumpet Ml. 2 b 16 . críol di croccund róin a basket of sealskin Thes. ii 347. 33 . cros dit sailiu, ib. 249. 3 . mílech de ór, BDD § 1 . tuagmila di ór ┐ airget, ib. léine dei ṡítiu, ib. ecor de ór, ib. cúaich di ór, Anecd. iii 50. 20 . bruidni do dergór, 51. 2 . brat d'olaind Tíre Tarrṅgaire, Acall. 7268 . cimus do bánór, ib. léine do tṡroll ríg, 7415 ; do tṡída buide, 7660 . coróin do spínib PH 3296 . cros de ór, MacCarthy 38. 7 . ib. 38. 3 .—Competing with the gen.: amdabach do sciathaib, Acall. 6940 : amd. sciath, LU 65 a 6 . MR 142. 3 . én dergóir, MacCarthy 38. 8 ; cúaich óir, LL 22 b .

(b) attá di is made of, consists of: dá maelassa imma chosaib ┐ ní feas cia luib dia rabadar, Ériu iv 138. 28 . inar corccra...┐ ní fess cia luib dia robi, PH 2854 .

(c) after verbs signifying `to make, to shape, to produce, create; to be made,' &c. Lat. de aliquo fit aliquid; facere, componere, comparare, fabricari (aliquid de aliquo).

con-utaing builds up: amail cumtaiges inna curpu móra dena sílaib dereolaib ┐ dano amail rochumtaig na curpu dermara den dligud nemaicside ┐ den dligud nemchorptha, RC xxv 242. 10 . is sochma do Dia coro chumtaige cen adbar nó de adbar deróil cech nadmat bes áil dó, 242. 14 .—Cf. XXXVIII.

fo-ceirt: ár do chor dínni, Ml. 135 c 1 . rolauth ár dermar di cechtar in da leithi, LL 408 a 46 . ib. 404 b 24 .

cruthaigidir creates, shapes : rochruthaigfea in Comdiu cuipa na esérgi dind adbur toltanaigfes do, RC xxv 242. 7 . isé rochruthaig Adam do chriaid in talman, PH 2289 .

do-fuissim brings forth, creates : hé donrósat do nephní SR 7518 . má rothuismis na huli do nefni, PH 4796 . clanna cáine tusmiter di ḟorbbaib téchtaib, LL 293 b 40 . na dúli dia rotuismidea na cuirp sin, RC xxv 242. 13 . cuirp na ndáine...tusmiter dina sílaib dereolaib, 252 § 37 . LU 37 a 31 .

do-gní makes. (α) trans., type: mad fleteg dogneid dind œclis if ye make the church a banqueting-house Wb. 11 d 16 . dorigénsat in descipuil deu diib, 7 d 10 . ib. 2 a 10 . 4 d 1 . 8 c 9 , 11 . 9 d 4 . 13 a 21 . 17 b 29 . 24 d 11 . Ml. 26 c 2 . 27 d 2 . 51 b 8 . 69 c 7 . níbu machdath dorónta dia dind liac that a god should have been made of the stone Sg. 65 a 1 . ib. 9 a 18 . 26 b 5 . 27 a 13 . 35 b 13 . 41 b 4 . 63 a 9 . 63 a 17 . 66 a 22 , 28 . 70 b 4 . 100 a 11 . 125 a 6 . 149 a 2 . 187 b 6 . 188 a 22 . 197 b 7 . 209 b 10 . 216 a 1 . is di lus...dogníther in chorcur, Tur. 115 . din chloich dorigne saland, Hy. v 40 . Thes. ii 337. 27 . na dúili co ndernta do nemní, RC xxv 252 § 36 . déna bairgena dona clochaib se, PH 4797 . dogéna ór do indebar, 7276 . dorigne sroigill do ṡúainemaib, 4526 . cruithnecht don eorna, BColm. 102. 32 ; 104. 1 . MacCarthy 48. 7 , 11 . SG 251. 3 f.b. gadaigi dogní dimsa you make me out a thief Ériu v 234 l. 52 ; cf. PH 7600 . dorinni sé rí do Lingcus, RC x 181. 22 . doghéna Diabul cimidhi dona pecthachaibh, xxviii 318 § 36 . LB 212 a 5 . RC xii 428. 2 f.b. Ériu iv 134. 12 . PH 7656 . TSh. 32. 28 .—Here also dogní di = to do with, dispose of (like Lat. facere + abl.): an rochara dogné dímsa do with me as thou wishest RC xxiv 150. 31 . ZCP iv 43. 13 . apair cid dernais dind ornaisc, RC iv 43. 29 . déntur do thoil féin dímsa, ZCP vi 277. 12 . (β) impers., type: do-rinne ḟinnmagh d'iforn hell became a fair plain Ériu iv 114. 28 . ib. 116 st 20 . co nderna min ┐ luaith díb. Acall. 5585 6336 . 6340 . ib. 5619 . 5013 . 420 . 421 . 2395 . 3510 . doringne cuach cera dia gnúis, TBC-LL¹ 2602 . 6083 . SG 250. 18 . co nderna brioscbruar dona huile longaib, ib. 3 f.b. dorignedh uisce searbh da lionn, 28. 23 .—With ellipse of the verb: ní asse nóib di suidib not easy is it (to make) saints of them Wb. 3 d 28 .

suidigidir establishes : rosuidigestar æm óinchorp d'ilballaib, Wb. 12 a 30 .

im-folngai v. XXII supra.

XXX Indicating the place where action is originated and whence it extends while the originator remains fixed there; type: dobert maldachta foir di mulluch in tslébe he cursed him from the top of the mountain Ml. 58 c 4 . ex Sion...inde, gl. is dé ropridach ┐ is de atror int huile talam, 69 d 3 . luid hi telaig ┐ argart doib di suidi, 55 c 1 . fommchain...de dindgnaib doss it sings to me from the tops of bushes Thes. ii 290. 9 . di uertice fulget .i. din mulluch, Tur. 140 . Dia firién cluines mo dó nuaill de (v.l. do) nimiath néll who from the heaven-land of clouds hears my cries ACC § 5 . is dib (viz. from the thrones) beres in comdid a briathra fíriana for cech noen, PH 6239 . asbert Bricriu friu do lár in tigi from off the floor of the house FB § 26 . tarlaic aurchor do muin a mairc, Oss. i 3 . Also: gabtar ár neich dún ┐ indliter ár carpait co ndernam cathugud dar nechaib ┐ dar carptib indiu, TBC-LL¹ 3609 . Cf. debaid dechaib, s.v. debuith.

XXXI In some STANDING PHRASES in connection with a subst., adj. or pronoun.

demaig from without , q.v.

deṡiu: romsnáidhet d. ar demnoibh, Ériu iv 238. 8 .

fri...deṡiu on this side of: fri Alpai ndesiu, Sg. 217 b 8 . fri crích deṡiu on this side of the boundary, 217 b 12 . citra .i. centarach .i. frie deṡiu, ib. 71 b 2 .—Opp. to fri...anall.

dianechtir from without : Ml. 57 d 10 . 66 a 3 . 67 d 2 . 127 a 14 . 211 a 9 .

diandes from the south , Thurn. Hdb. 287 . Ml. 67 d 2 .

fri...denall from yonder side: fri sonnach adíu...fri sonnach denall, LU 23 b 19 .

denuas from above, de-super: d. dotiagar hisa tech, Thes. ii 292. 19 .

di bunud (from the root) from the beginning, originally: ná hadṁuigh si toirrchius na bainimpire óir ní let é do bhunadh, Sechrán 24 . Ériu iv 53. 10 . dar liom is urlabhradh daona sin agat...is duine mé do bhunadh, OCT 13.12-13 , 14 . Cf. iar mbunud, Acall. 7704 .

di cech aird from every side : abís in mara timchellas in talmain sin do cech aird, RC xxv 252 § 36 . FA § 6 , § 28 (LB).

di cech leith id., undique . immib di cach leith, Wb. 17 b 19 . dugairet arbar inna nnámat...impu di cech leith, Ml. 62 b 13 . 66 d 10 . in talmain impu di cach l., 51 d 3 . v. leth.

di cech thóib id. na héigmi doníthi umpu do cach thaib, Acall. 6782 .

di chéin from afar (a) of time. doarrchet d.c. nombiad adrad Dé la genti, Wb. 6 d 8 . is d.c. immunrordad, 20 d 10 . (b) of space: fasisidar di chéin Coinculainn, LU 71 a 34 . do neuch ditoet do chéin aidchi ndomnaig, Anecd. iii 21. 12 .

di chian from afar, of space: gan nech do thiachtain dochum ár longpuirt do chian ná dḟocus, Acall. 5474 .

di chianaib for long : robádar cethri cridiscél liomsæ de ch. I have long had four darling wishes Mon. Tall. 136. 20 .

di chiunn with a verb of motion = away . intan tét a laithe di chiunn cosnaib gnímaib, Ml. 21 c 3 . For other senses of di ch., v. 1 cenn.

din chur so (sin) this time, on this occasion, now , &c. Already Mon. Tall. 148. 14 (den ch. sin). don ch. sa, TTr. 1275 . LL 215 a 45 : dind ara chur.

di éis after ; but do might be older ( dom héis se, Wb. 29 d 9 ). retro .i. di ess, Ml. 2 c 1 ; dia é., 23 d 17 . 72 b 17 . dia né., 69 a 8 . 53 d 15 . diar néis, Sg. 195 a 2 .

di ḟocus, d'ḟocus from near : do chian ná d'ḟogus, Acall. 5474 .

di ḟót at once, suddenly : di fot .i. dinad nó di maighin .i. fochetoir, O'Dav. 754 .

dinad on the spot , v. di ḟót.

di leith: dind leith ailiu, Thes. ii 16. 40 ; 35. 32 .

di maigin on the spot : ó rob erdalta lais a ṁarbhadh do ṁaighin, Hugh Roe 102. 20 . O'Dav. 754 .

disin hence, then Ardm. 18 b 1 (twice); glossing Lat. unde Ml. 44 b 27 - 28 . Tur. 59 . Lat. hinc Ml. 48 c 1 . 104 a 3 . Lat. exinde 90 d 13 . Lat. proinde 108 d 3 .

B In the construction of certain verbs (and subst.) which might partly belong to the categories mentioned above.

XXXII aithnid, Mid.-Ir. aichnid, enjoins, commands : ná derb le maith ná le saith issed aithnius díot an Flaith, ZCP vii 301 §8 . tre forchongra in Tailgind do aichin dim dul ann, Acall. 7254 . mar daithin díobh gan where he commanded them not, &c., Keat. aithnes dia apstalaib, LU 35 a 31 . dá ḟeadhnachaib, ML 64. 22 . roaithniged díob, SG 54. 21 .— One would expect do (cf. Cog. 146. 16 ); di seems to have arisen in such phrases as do aithin dóib (díb) cen...do dénum.

buadaigidir is victorious, wins : nír bu lour leusom buaduguth dib with victory over them Ml. 33 c 13 . is missi buadaigfes de bar mac nDamáin, LL 82 a 38 . buadugud do Grécaib dona Troiandaib, TTr.² 180 . In Fél.² clxxii 11 , di seems original.—The same constr. occurs after búaid.

celebraid bids farewell : de Ḟiachraig, LL 51 a 17 f.b. díb, 276 b 4 . díib, Trip. 182. 18 . do: celebor dam, LU 73 b 8 . celebrais dó, LL 291 b 7 f.b. dóib, Trip. 198 . TFerbe § 16 Eg.; do seems original.

dethiden care , v. LII (c θ). essamnae fearlessness, confidence , v. ib.

lenaid adheres to, cleaves to, follows : lenit a pecthe dindí dobeir a ngrád, Wb. 29 a 23 . 5 c 16 . 10 a 5 . co lenamain dít, Ml. 101 b 1 . roleldar díb (i.e. axibus) 96 c 13 . rolil dím, 54 d 7 . lenaid din gutai thoisig, Sg. 9 b 17 . Thes. ii 310. 34 .—Thus also glenaid: glete de which stick to him Ml. 127 b 19 .—There is no support for the common supposition that di has here taken the place of do. The vn. díle .i. lenamain, Metr. Gl. 17 , also points to di as the original construction.

remcaissiu providence , remidéci provides for, v. LII (c θ).

C DI IN A PARTITIVE SENSE, often taking the place of the old genitive.—The partitive sense arose when di loosened its connection with the verb and became dependent on some neighbouring word denoting quantity. Compare the following instances where the sense of the original ablative is still apparent: assibsem imróol di rath in spirito we have drunk a great draught of (orig. from) the grace of the Spirit Wb. 12 a 17 . Ml. 94 c 12 . cach æn ibius ní din tobur, Acall. 6778 (cf. ité atoibet do thopur na deachta, PH 6238 ). gatar dam díb one of the oxen is stolen BColm. 56. 13 . ní foichred cnói díb for lár, LU 90 b 6 . cid focerdmais ní dé why should we cast away any of it? Cog. 96. 23 . dís testa do fichit eighteen AU ii 230. 15 . má dudesta ní dibar níris, Wb. 25 a 30 , &c.

XXXIII

(a) Preceded by a cardinal or ordinal number: óin di airchinchib Assiæ one of the leaders of A., Wb. 7 b 11 . óin dinaib aicsenaib inso, Ml. 62 a 22 . unus de cantatoribus, gl. dinaib cétlaidib, 61 d 5 . oen dinaib cestaib, Anecd. ii. 12. 1 . aen díb, ZCP viii 110. 30 . aen do chétt one out of a hundred BColm. 106. 11 . -mebdatar a nnói díib ZCP viii 313. 35 . míle dia náimtiu, PH 4048 - 4051 .

(b) preceded by a numeral subst.: mórḟeser dia muintir, Ardm. 18 a 1 . dias aile díb; dís dia muntir, PH 4427 . triar do chlannaib Baiscne, Acall. 7308 . morfesiur dia aes gráda, PH 980 . ochtur do Cháilti, Fianaig. 50. 1 . trí nonbair d'iarsma na Féinde, Acall. 7896 . trí .l. ban do mnáib T., 7822 . Cf. is óinfer gaibes búaid diib, Wb. 11 a 4 .

(c) preceded by a pronoun or pronominal word: alaile: alaaili diib...alaaili dano some of them Sg. 215 a 1 . for alailib diib, 208 b 9 . rel. a n-: ní áirmi a mbís iarna chúul dind séit, Wb. 24 a 17 . a mbís hóṡen suas dind eo, Thes. ii 255. 7 . a fúair do ṡaethar ┐ do ṡalchar, PH 7390 . ib. 7485 , 7646 . cách, cech: cách di suidib, Ml. 26 b 20 . cách diib, 114 c 15 . 137 c 2 . díb, 42 b 5 . 42 c 7 . díob, Mon. Tall. 132. 14 ; 133. 15 ; 136. 2 . cech diib, Ml. 72 b 27 . cachae, cechae: cach hae díib, Sg. 74 b 4 . cechae diib, Ml. 40 c 21 . 146 a 2 - 3 . cach ai dib, Thes. ii 330. 11 . cach oen, nach oen: fri cach noen din cenélu dóine, Cambr. 37 b . cech óin díib, Ml. 90 c 27 . dia chlaind, 133 a 10 . cach haen do mnáib, BDD § 3 . nach oen...de[m] muindtir, Mon. Tall. 129. 36 . cechtar de: Wb. 15 d 9 . 19 c 21 Ml. 17 d 12 . 39 b 2 . 31 b 3 b and 4 . 31 a 24 . 114 b 1 . Sg. 4 a 8 . 29 b 16 , 18 . 77 a 6 . 147 a 5 . 188 b 5 . nechtar de: Wb. 11 c 17 . 14 c 4 . Ml. 35 d 24 . Sg. 27 b 6 . 62 b 2 . 173 b 6 . 201 a 4 . cía de, Wb. 23 b 33 . Sg. 242 a 1 . c. dhib, ACL iii 5. 29 . RC xxiv 194. 1 . cia don dís, PH 3262 , 3273 . Acall. 7644 . cid: cid as maith di sunt, Wb. 12 d 12 . After é, sí, ed, often emphatically brought forward with the copula: ishe rochreti di muntir Cessair, Wb. 24 b 31 . ishé céetne fer cetaruchreti di áis Assiae, 7 b 11 . ithé ciaturuchreitset diib, 14 a 29 . issí mo sanserc sa di cleirchib, Mon. Tall. 150. 10 . sechi sí dia rígnaib, Ml. 65 d 8 . issed romarb don tṡlúag, RC iii 181. 36 . intí: intí nochreitfed diib, Wb. 5 a 20 . intí diib bes tresa orcaid alaile, Ml. 19 d 6 . 102 d 4 . Mon. Tall. 132. 24 . indní díob adgladmis, ib. 136. 29 . nech, neut. ní. nech: accaldam neich diib, Wb. 13 b 3 . nech di æcnib, 8 b 4 . 18 c 11 . 28 b 1 . 32 c 8 . nech dim chlaind, Ml. 23 d 6 . nech dinaib nóibaib, 51 a 16 . cen nech dimm æs dim chlaind, 23 d 9 . nech dia chloind RC xxiv 202. 12 . ní: fil ní de as fir, Wb. 11 d 2 . ib. 1 a 9 . 12 b 32 . ma dudrignius ní donaib remeperthib, Ml. 23 c 27 . ní din main, 97 d 10 . ib. 20 d 4 . 24 a 19 . 60 b 6 . 102 a 20 . du dánaigiud neich dúnni di (sc. a thrócaire), Ml. 96 a 8 . ithe neich di, 102 a 15 . ib. 105 b 7 . Sg. 147 b 3 .

(d) preceded by a substantive (or substantivally used adj.) denoting part or quantity . banne: b. dond lind, LL 208 a 46 . bec and its opposite mór: is bec di mór aní roinnisemar, RC xxvi 148 § 28 . is bec di mór chena aní sin, LU 17 b 32 . ní romill a bec din chasail, Trip. 58. 23 . ní beg dhe, O'Gr. Cat. 115 . a bheag ná a ṁuar de, Midnight court 520 . blog: dind ailig, Corm. s.v. gaire . don blonaicc IT iii 65. 8 . CCath. 1584 . iar mbloid don ló, Ériu v 116. 4 . boimm: b. don bargin, LB 49 b . PH 5141 . cethramthu a quarter: cecha cethramthan di (viz. nox), Ml. 95 d 8 . cuit: cuit cáich din rath diadu, Wb. 5 d 6 . cuid díb, Otia i 115. 6 . drécht: dreecht díib, Wb. 4 d 6 . 5 c 22 . i ndrécht dind hiriss, 11 d 2 . cachla drécht diib, Sg. 38 b 8 . drécht din aidchi, Rawl. 44 a 1 . Otia i 114 . d. mór dona longaib, TTr.² 1701 . dia muintir LU 65 a 37 . d. d'écsib, LL 161 a 5 . drong: drong dia míledu, PH 848 . d. dona Iudaidib, 2623 . d. díorma do ṁaithibh Dháil Chais, AFM iv 1064. 8 . leth: assin leath deiscertach de Ultaib, RC vi 174. 5 . indala leth dind rígthig FB § 15 . lucht: a roacairbe fri lucht aile díb, FA § 9 . mír: mír dind lucht, Thes. ii 339. 3 . rann: rán din deacht, Wb. 12 c 13 . rann diar forcitul, 14 c 15 . r. di sillaib, Sg. 59 b 9 . rann din obli, Thes. ii 255. 14 . pars de feoil, Mon. Tall. 132. 8 . rand de (sc. corp) RC xxv 242 § 14 . sochuide: s. diib, Wb. 8 a 17 . uathad: huathad ṅdóine do chretim diib, Wb. 4 d 4 . bid huathad creitfes diib, 4 d 5 .

(e) after words like ball, membur, tráth, lá, bliadain and the like, to denote the unity of which a part is expressed by the preceding word: is ball di Críst in fer, Wb. 22 c 9 . is ball dind fiur in ben, 22 c 9 . naich baill dind deilb, Sg. 5 a 5 . óire nundem membur uili du Dea, Cambr. 37 c . Thes. ii 255. 15 . in naemad caibdel do lebar Matha, PH 7293 . 7304 . lomán dia brut a string of his cloak BColm. 92. 30 . in fichetmad lá do mís Márta, PH 2574 . ba hí in sesed uair do ló innsin, 2894 . isin nomad bliadain déc do ḟlaith Tibir, 2571 . etir dá thráth din ló, RC iii 184. 29 . re deirid don ló, Acall. 7696 .

(f) similarly after any substantive (or adj. used absolutely), denoting the class or category of which the preceding word forms a specimen. (α) type: duine (fer, ben, macc, rí, &c.) diib = one of them: sé maic leis. ní fárcaib mac díb claind, ZCP viii 291. 21 = nech díb, 292. 3 . trí slóig ...slóg díb, FA § 22 . ní fil diib mnái nachit charad, SCC § 6 . tuarustal uirrig diobh, ZCP viii 116. 33 .—Similarly duine (fer, &c.) di chét one of a hundred TSh. 55. 16 (d. do chéad). Cf. oen do chétt, BColm. 106. 11 . cech fer din cethrur so, Ml. 2 b 13 . (β) type: fer dia muintir a man of his household Wb. 33 a 2 . ib. 9 c 31 . cach fer di chlaind Latin, Sg. 33 a 13 . do cach cathrur di Románaib, 33 a 10 . 51 b 13 . 138 b 4 . (γ) type: aingel di ainglib nime one of heaven's angels Wb. 18 c 11 . ib. 12 d 40 . rann di rannaib in domain, Ml. 125 b 7 . ced laá di laib sechtmaine, Thes. ii 40. 31 . robrisiset cleith di clethaib ind rígthige, FB § 25 . fer d'ḟeraib Éirenn, SG 291. 25 . fer dina feraib, ib. §§ 61 , 91 . oenchainle dina cainlib sin, FA § 13 . mac dia maccaib PH 6614 . ball do ballaib, 7631 ; ib. 4825 . secht deich bliadna de bliadnaib, MacCarthy 192. 6 . Often emphatic.

(g) Very frequent with a comparative or superlative or word with the force of a superlative: carissimo filio, gl. dim daltib huilib, Wb. 29 d 3 . iunioris .i. di chlaind Iacob, Ml. 85 a 2 .

(α) di follows immediately after the comp. (sup.): anas ansam diib, Wb. 10 b 1 . in deil as choemem di dindgnaib Roerenn, Thes. ii 295. 3 . cia ben is mesa do mnáib, ZCP viii 113. 11 . in dá én ba háildem dib, SCC § 6 . fer as áldem di feraib Hérend, FB § 51 . in fer ba ṁó dḟeraib Éirenn, Acall. 7990 . in ingen ba sine díb, 7329 . in tóclach ba mó díb, 5064 . is cruthaige dferaib, 6988 ; ib. 7393 . 7819 . oenlaech...caeime do laechaib in domain, FDG 575 . in tænduine is ferr delb don Ádhamchloind, Acall. 7562 . in ba hindilldirghi dibrucud dona feraib ┐ in ba mó eiri dona trénmogaib, 7394 . dún ba dili lais dia dúinib, TE § 1 Eg. in dún fa nessa dóib dona trí dúintib, Acall. 7462 .

(β) type: in gaiscedach is ferr robói d'ḟeraib in domain, Acall. 6557 . in tarm is derscaidti bai dib, RC xxiv 196. 4 . triur is ferr lámach atá d'ḟeraib in domain, Acall. 6092 . in lín is lia robadais d'ḟéind riam, 7621 .

(γ) type: intí diib bes tresa orcaid alaile, Ml. 19 d 6 = intí bes t. díb. Cf. ní beth duine budh áille anás, Acall. 6020 . ní ḟuil don drong dænnachta nech is annsa limsa, 6434 .— After words equivalent to a sup.: prímgeinde do hireschaib, Wb. 4 b 9 . lennán dia claind, RC xxiv 176. 10 .

(h) di in partitive sense after a negative verb (esp. attá) = Fr. il n'y a pas de: nád bíad dē de cleithi la chenél and, Trip. 1814 . See cléithe. nísfil do pláig for bith nachusbera sin for cúlu RC xii 430 § 21 . go nach raibhe do chongnaṁ aige, ML 30. 15 . ní fail di nach dath ná beth forsin loch sin, LL 170 a 37 . cen co beth do thrénḟeraib and acht Fergus, Ériu iv 28. 15 . cen co beth do gaisciud and acht Conall, ib. 28. 20 . gin co beth d'ḟis ná d'ḟíreolus a nÉirinn acht..., Acall. 7887 . ní fuil d'feraib innti acht mathir sea, Acall. 5958 . ní fuil d'écsib Innsi Fáil fear imtha, Ériu iv 220. 9 . gonár fácbhadh do bhúaibh i nÉirinn so that no cows were left in Ireland, ib. i 89 § 36 .—Similarly in positive clauses after attá: i mbói di óinachdaib leu robeth for díb mílib ech, Ml. 43 d 1 .

(i) partly from the preceding usage and partly from the partitive usage in general arose the idiomatic use of di neoch din neoch, din cách (with or without díb) = cách, cach oen, nech.— fidbretha...muirbretha do neoch doruirmius, Laws i 182. 1 . is triasin forcongra sin atresat na huli dáini a bás .i. do neoch rosluic talam ┐ atuatar biasta, RC xxv 236. 2 = PH 3628 . fer rodíglastar Ultu for firu Hérend .i. do neoch díb romarbad, Ériu iv 28. 27 . bertís lægu riasin tráth arnabárach ┐ do neoch nobered loegu díb noscáiltis imma loegu TBC-LL¹ 1531 . cech dúil do neoch techtas bethaid all creatures who PH 4021 (partit.). morfesiur dia aes gráda do neoch ba díle lais díb, ib. 980 (part.). ragait attrebthaide Salamona etir aes ┐ áitid din neoch as tualaing gabáil gascid, TTr. 490 . ara clannaib...de neach file ┐ bias co dé ṁbrátha, LL 36 b 4 . connách bái dUltaib i mbethaib do neoch donarbo chotlud ná cuala, TBC-LL¹ 2962 ; —Here perhaps also Thes. ii 11. 36 ; Wb. 17 a 11 di neuch is governed by Lat. oboedientia. Neut. di neoch all that: imdéntar leis do neoch romilled dUltaib, TBC-LL¹ 1612 (di depending on imdéntar; but 1622 : imdénta latt an romilled dU.). essbuid cecha maithiusa do neoch fil eter neam ┐ talam, PH 4344 . Cf. also 2219 : coro díglum ár nancride fén fair do neoch forodámar ara dáig, where di depends on díglum.

(j) di partitively with the copula = one of, part of: is d'adbaraib chatha Chula Dremne sin that is one of the causes of RC xvii 142. 4 . bid dia phianaib a niffern na péisti sin fésin ic cocnam a ḟola it will be part (one) of his sufferings PH 7670 . bid diar scélaib, Snedg. u. Mac R 14. 7 . ba da bésaibh cach ní fa tibred lám da forba it was one of his customs to complete everything to which he put his hand CCath. 1178 . is do thimnaib rechta Moysi nemthomailt ḟeóla mucce, PH 6542 . is do bhuadhaibh an chopáin so an tan, &c., Oss. iii 226. 25 .—Here also Ériu vi 160. 2 f.b. : corub d'ingantaib láime Ciaráin an scél sin. Cf. XXVI above.

(k) di partitively with attá = forms part of, belongs to: ní di chorp atóosa hóre nímtha laám, Wb. 12 a 21 . ní nádmbed arse di chorp acht atá de, ib. 12 a 22 .

XXXIV Type ferr do laech a better warrior : isé ba ferr do laech, LL 150 a 37 . Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 20 . am ferr do laech andái (sic leg.) RC ix 460. 4 ( ICM 1. 5 ). Modelled on the plural: †ité batar ferr di laechaib.

XXXV di . . . di, di . . . nó di, whether . . . or, be it . . . or, developed from the partitive sense of di: gibé noḟothraiccfedh innte (viz. isin dabaig) do chlannaib Fiachrach d'ḟior nó do mnái whether man or woman Anecd. iii 5. 3 f.b. (depend. on gibé). aonduine d'fir nó do mnái, ZCP viii 211. 20 . ar ná bí nach soer fri tairmthegd in domnaig di triun ná tróg whether strong or wretched Anecd. iii 25. 20 (depend. on nach). ní búi mílid...doná búi cara isin longphort sin da coibhnestu nó do cliaṁain nó da comdalta nó da fir aenchluichi isin Róim, CCath. 2431 sq. ní faicfed delb daena fair do chind ná do chois, RC xxvi 146. 3 . cidh bé conair isin domun do dodhaing nó do ṡodhaing be it hard or easy CCath. 639 . Not here PH 4285 . —Cf. do bicc nó (do) mór little or much PH 4140 . dḟír nó do gó, ZCP v 24 st 15 , v. L infra.

XXXVI GENETIVUS GENERIS: after a collective, quantitative or numeral word, di indicates the constituent units or substance. Competing with the genitive and sometimes not distinguishable from the gen. materiae (XXIX above) and partitivus.

(a) after a numeral word: a nói do móin a nói do min ┐ a nói do chaill, Thes. ii 298. 10 . míli dainglib, Acall. 7735 . trí cét míle do demnaib, 7770 . aon do ló one day ZCP v 495. 5 . viii 562. 10 . SG 23. 16 . Caithr. 150. 5 . aen doidche one night SG 60. 31 . Cf. araile doidche below. dias de fennedaib, LL 90 b 25 . céd do doirrsib, Snedg. u. Mac R 13. 19 .

(b) after pronouns and pronominal words: quaecunque fecerimus, .i. di sóinmechaib ┐ dóinmechaib, Wb. 4 b 5 . nihil, gl. di frithorcuin, Ml. 95 b 2 . Rel. a n-: (α) type: a ndorigeni Dia de maid the good that God had done Wb. 21 d 11 . 30 a 8 . Cf. Ml. 124 b 5 . a césme di cach imniad ┐ di cach guassacht in betho, Wb. 13 d 7 . (Cf. in rocésusa dimned, Anecd. iii 55. 18 = 56. 8 .) Ml. 127 a 2a . a nobid and de feol, Mon. Tall. 129. 25 . a tánic do noeblégund a tír, 136. 21 . a ndernnsat na senóraig do thoirrsi, Acall. 7909 . (β) a ndu imnedaib fodaimi what of afflictions thou sufferest Ml. 55 d 11 . araile: a. doidche, SG 12. 32 . Cf. oen di ló. cid: cid as imgabthi do dénum di ulc ┐ cid as déinti di maith, Ml. 51 b 10 . dim: deim de eot deim de formut, ACC § 105 . ed: ciped do phéin nó do fochraic dliges, RC xxv 240 § 13 . ceped dliges di phéin, 242 § 15 . ní, nanní, nech, inneoch. ní: ní di maith, Wb. 28 d 31 . 33 a 15 . ib. 13 a 12 . Ml. 15 d 9 . 23 c 20 . 36 d 10 . 63 c 5 . 68 d 14 . 93 a 20 (ní di máinib). 114 b 12 . 114 c 9 . 122 b 16 . 124 c 22 . ní di maith, Mon. Tall. 134. 17 ; 147. 30 . ní de min some meal, 157. 31 . ib. 137. 7 . nanní: slogait nanní do uisciu dodaic, Ml. 123 d 3 . 96 b 5 . 96 b 13 . nech di fáithib some prophet Ml. 93 a 5 . co millit in neoch bís do moltaib accaind, Acall. 7677 .

(c) after a collective term or quantitative word (subst. or adj. abs.) or the name of anything having component parts. aicme a tribe : Siracusii .i. aicmae di Graecaib, Sg. 106 a 7 . ib. 34 b 2 . airge a drove; a herd, a troop: airgi do buaib, Acall. 7602 . a. do bochtaib, AFM p. 824 . banne a drop : banna bec de usci, Mon. Tall. 150. 36 , 37 (but banni dond lind LL 208 a 46 partitively). bec a little : a mbecc sin dogníu di maith, Wb. 24 a 12 . a bec ndo síd and, Ml. 51 a 5 . bec ṅdi dechur, 72 c 9 . gan a becc ná a mor do chomraind, Acall. 5474 . boimm a bit : b. do arán, Lism. L. 2734 . breth choice of: do breith fén dór ┐ dairget, Eg. 1782, 30 a 1 . do breth féin do iath ┐ do ferann, Ériu v 150 l. 71 . ib. l. 62 . crithir a spark : c. do chuimne, TSh. 11. 13 . cutrumae an equivalent : a cutrume si do súg this much juice Mon. Tall. 150. 40 . dia enough : d. do cheart, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 356. 1 . d. do phudhar, ib. 13 . do chin, 21 . drong a flock : drong dechaib, Acall. 6542 . d. da gach uile bethadhach, ZCP ii 270 § 205 . emid: emid di fiur so much of a man Sg. 66 a 6 . ere a burden : ere camaill de ór, PH 2011 . here do úir Rómae, BColm. 84. 9 . foróil super-abundance: f. dinaib anib, Wb. 16 c 22 . frass a shower : frass do nemannaib, BDD § 2 . Anecd. iii 50. 15 . gar: gar daimsir iarum a short while after PH 7199 . lán the full of: lán lainne a scéith di úir, RC iii 182. 6 . —Cf. XLIII. lín number : ara lín du chenélaib, Ml. 131 c 17 . lín do bochtaib, PH 6129 . loimm a sup: lom di midc, Mon. Tall. 136. 10 ; but lom nais, ib. 9 . lór sufficiency : ba lór do neim dó he had enough of venom Ériu iv 32. 2 . lór do chalmataid, ib. 28. 16 .—Cf. XLIII. méit quantity : méit di flescaib, Sg. 3 b 19 . cia méit...do biud, Thes. ii 335. 29 . cá mét do chloind, SG 250. 8 . méd do chinedaib...mét do degthoici, CCath. 275 . mór much : mór di maith, Wb. 11 a 20 . 4 d 10 . mór di genib, Thes. ii 322. 24 . a mmór de, Mon. Tall. 152. 22 . is mór do cheol dochualamar, Acall. 7212 . mór do tṡétaib ┐ dindmusaib, 5355 . ib. 7883 . Cf. mór nóir, mór nargait, Anecd. iii 55. 8 , the older expression. morán id.: m. do ṁíltib SG 9. 24 . ordu a morsel: dorat do Ísu ordu do bratán ḟonaithe, PH 6711 . ré space of time: re ré mor do bliadnaib, Acall. 5541. 7029 . riar as breth above: a réir do ṡétaib LU 133 a 40 . LL 375 b 38 . treimse id.: re treimse do bliadnaib, Acall. 5547 .

(d) after words denoting kind, sort, like, parallel, &c. a samail di ríg, SCC § 37. 8 . a samail di graig, 37. 6 . ní fuar do ṡét di márchlois, Liad. and Cuir. 16. 6 . MOD. ní ḟeaca riaṁ a ṡaṁailt sin do dhuine, W. K. a leithéid sin dechtrannaib, SG 260. 3 .

(e) after other substantives: ascaid de ór, PH 7057 . cró uimpi d'ḟeraibh, Ériu iv 112. 11 . fit mór de tuari anmín, Mon. Tall. 152. 18 . lóg di máinib inna nEgiptacde, Ml. 84 c 12 .

(f) frequent with comparatives denoting quantity: quod minus habuistis .i. di rath nó di forcitul, Wb. 18 a 8 . uilliu ...di fochaid, Ml. 54 b 30 . ní bia di mútaib bes huilliu, Sg. 7 a 1 . lugu di mirbuil, RC xxv 252 § 36 . lugu do chinaid, PH 5166 . móo do peccad, 5259 . ZCP viii 111. 9 . MOD. níos mó do ṁaith, &c.—After lia di occasionally has the sense of Abl. respectus: cipsa lia do randaib nocha lia do naeṁaib, Ériu iv 224. 2 . lia do maccaib na rígna do degamsaib, ib. 94. 1 .

(g) buan dolcc a lasting evil RC x 226 § 179 . cinnte do chendaigib certain merchants LB 115 a .

(h) after words like dabach, soithech and the like, di denotes the contents of the vessel: dá dabaigh décc do lionn maith, ZCP viii 116. 1 . baiglend do midh soóla a can of delicious mead Acall. 7421 .

D DI OF MEDIUM, CAUSE, MANNER, TIME & MEASURE in the senses of the original instrumental; in old texts the latter is occasionally still preserved: isé nobenfad a crand oenbémim di bun, LU 58 b 21 . iarna foebraib fennad, Fél. Prol. 48 .

XXXVII Di introduces the tool or instrument by means of which something is done, after trans. verbs denoting:

(a) to make or to do , dogní, conutaing: is do rinn scine doníther, Corm. Tr. 145 . in loech órda cumdaiged do lámaib, PH 2830 . in gái dia ndernais in gním namra, RC v 203 § 26 . don chaladcholg is dom gó díob dorignes in gleo, SG 252. 11 . dodhein teine de chipíní, Gadelica 88. 41 .

(b) to seize , gabaid: rogab din láim aile in seig, SG 391. 16 .

(c) to beat, strike, ply upon, scourge , and the like, benaid, buailid, dobeir builli, dounsi béim, gabaid, dofuairc, &c.: cote in rinnd dia ruba uitam omnis hominis, Wb. 13 d 25 . béim dind echḟleisc, SCC § 8 . dobennaissiu hé di ḟleisc, Trip. 224. 16 . dobeir M. béim do biail, RC xiii 30. 10 . dounsi Cuculainn béim da biail do, FB § 77 . dounsi C. béim din chlaidiub, ib. § 57 .— tuc buille dó do chrann na sleige, Acall. 6721. 6731 . don chonṡlaitt, PH 856 . gabaid goi...dorat buille de i toeb Ísu, 3358 . buille do laigin, 2874 . cét mboaille fort láim dé abaind, Mon. Tall. 142. 10 . bualad do chloidheaṁ, Ériu i 102 § 63 . búailset dia mbassaib, PH 117 . 2143 . do ṡlaitt, 135 .— doriacht fer co claideb...┐ dorat dara brágait don apstal de, 2151 .— co ngébad do chlaidim air féin, Acall. 7495 . rogab cách díb da claidmib a cend araile, 6261 . PH 3299 . — is díbside sraiglit, FA § 16 . — rotúaircset a nochta da ndornaibh, CCath. 1082 . túaircset do flescaib ┐ do sonnaib, PH 2143. 8313 .

(d) to cut, shear, clip , tescad, berrad, gerrad, selgad: arna dteasgad d'armaib an chatha, Ériu i 91 § 41 . is cumma imthescad dá sciath ┐ dá sleig ┐ dá chlaideb, LU 79 b 14 . deimes dia mberrtha, SG 411. 12 . gerraid sí... dia fiaclaib, PH 7661 . consealgad glasgég darach dia corrán, RC xxiv 196. 18 .

(e) to break, to injure : dobrisfinn thfiacla dom dorn, RC xix 144 § 120 . dobacaighedh mac Con la Coirpre don rindcne .i. do sleigh Ailella, RC xvii 11. 2 .

(f) to wound, to kill : gonaid, créchtnaigidir, ardíben, marbaid: cor ghonsat toeb na himagine de (sc. in gae) PH 142 . gaet do ṡleig Deirg, Acall. 1104. 1745 . in gai dia gcréchtnaigther, CCath. 3669 . ardibiba sluaga dia lúaignib, SG 254. 29 . d'iarann ní marbthar, Fen. 68 . Acall. 3236 . SG 391. 32 (di chloich). a nguin d'armaib límtha SG 42. 15 . Cf. marbhas d'urchar sleige í, ML 32. 13 ; Acall. 6947 . 6950 . 7065 .

(g) to throw, fling : doléici, dobeir urchor, foceirt, dobidc, &c.: dambidc Semei di chlochaib, Ml. 58 c 4 . rodíubraic rónurchair de (viz. lia cloiche), Acall. 4802 . dobered urchair di, Acall. 5797. 5810 . Oss. ii 2 . tolléci aurchor de, FB §§ 82 , 87 . focheird rout nurchair din liathróit, TBC-LL¹ 1024 . — Cf. for frestal a námat do clochaib, CCath. 1873 .

(h) to drive, drive away, expel : bruidni dia taircellad a eochu, Anecd. iii 51. 3 . bocṡlaitt dia nescartad conu PH 851 . dorigne sroigill...┐ rosindarb di na slóig, 4526 .

(i) to destroy : toghail in múir do reithibh toghla, CCath. 1883 .

(j) to bind : rochengail hé do línscoit, PH 2916 .

(k) to write : in chathach roscríb dia láim féin, Fen. 167 . scríbtha do láim, PH 4769 . gur thoit eite cuige conadh de sin roscríbh in leabhar, SG 23. 21 .

(l) to shut : dúnaid comlaid a thaige de baccánaib íarnaide, RC vii 296 l. 116 .

(m) isé doratt tí dia bachaill he made a circle with his staff BColm. 52. 23 .

XXXVIII With a wider application introducing the means or instrumentality; transl. the Lat. inruptione (abl.), gl. di maidm, Ml. 85 c 6 . ceilid conceals : náchar étir le do cheilt do bréthir ná do gním ná do chomartha, RC xix 166. 3 . buadrid disturbs : búaidrim port parrghais do neim an imarbais, Ériu iv 114. 12 . buadertha in táth dia chacc LU 74 a 24 . dogní makes, does : mina déna maith díb... mina déna toil Dé díb (sc. na hindmasa) PH 4110 . lessaigid aids, heals : in lín do bochtaib conicfatís do lessugud do indmusaib, PH 6129 . lassaid illuminates : isiatt so na lóchranna da lasfatt Laighin, ZCP viii 110. 16 . insorchaigid id.: roionsorchaigh iarthur Eórpa do ṡoillsi soalach, ZCP v 496. 6 . loscaid burns : mo loscud do chrithrib, TFerbe 610 . loscud do thenid, PH 7428 . conutaing adorns : conrotacht in grianán sin do imdénmaib sainamraib, FB § 3 . conrottacht in timdorn féssin dór, TTr. 1548 . bethugad support oneself by: a b. dá allus féin with his own sweat SG 41. 28 . broenaid: dia rath ronbróina Brigit may B. let her grace rain on us Thes. ii 326. 6 .—Not uncommon in Figura Etymologica: mad ferr cotobsechfider di chosscc alailiu, Wb. 9 a 23 .—Like Lat. per introducing the intermediate agent: is dítsa tarras sin uile through thee Acall. 5986 . teora mná torrcha di hUltaib do mnáib na nDéisi, Ériu iii 141. 219 . di chumachtu by means of, by the power of: cia tír ass asam lat do thabairt dúinne dit chumachta, ZCP viii 318. 34 . cia clérech dá fil muilenn cerr do ch. a mírbuile, BColm. 102. 23 . di chomairgi through the protection of: terno do chomairci an naeim each ríg Lifi, BColm. 90. 10 . de and desin thereby, by means of that, deside id., desen, Thes. ii 335. 37 , see PH 629 b .

XXXIX After verbs of vanquishing, gaining victory, triumphing, excelling, &c., di introduces the domain within which victory is gained: aonlaoch bérus barr ormsa do rith ná do chomrac ná do chorraigecht, SG 290. 12 .

XL After the intrans. verbs dotuit and docer, di introduces the tool or weapon; the agent is usually introduced by la. craet dofæth don gai seo a maccu. dofaeth rí din gai sin, RC iii 178. 22 . dofaethsat din gai roléici, 180. 39 . ib. 38 . dofaoth Fraoch darmaib Eochaid, ML 124. 12 . dona harmaib sin, Acall. 7029 . 6885 (di ṡleig).—dorochair de (viz. din gai) RC iii 129. 31 . Also followed by béim, lám and the like: gur thuit N. do béimeannuib ṁic Mórna ML 18. 25 . dofaeth in corp den snaisse, Anecd. iii 62 . co torchair do bíc (= bidc) aenuaire, BB 49 a 23 . tuitfid dá láim, ML 58. 1 . di láim M. docer Daire, LL 48 b 25 . MacCarthy 192. 4 .

XLI After verbs of buying di introduces the price: manisdeirclimmis di thorud ár láam, Wb. 26 b 16 . dorúaicled do lóg ḟola Críst, PH 3242 . oenfiach adrenar nde, Anecd. iii 22. 21 . ceinnechut sa fín lógmar díb, LB 139 a 51 . rochennaigset don argut sin ferann, PH 3235 . dochennaig sé ┐ nách dór nó dargat acht dia ḟuil féin ┐ dia ḟeoil, 7513 .

XLII In the construction of arbeir biuth he uses, consumes , competing with the genitive: airbert biuth di thorud a precepte, Wb. 10 d 14 . as di sunt arbeir biuth, Ml. 60 b 11 . intan airbir bith in scriptúir do deismirecht asna salmaib, Ir. Ps. 128 .

XLIII After verbs, substantives, and adjectives of filling, satiating, smearing and the like, where di has taken the place of the original instr. or gen. línaid: ronlín di rath in spirto, Wb. 20 d 11 . líntar lán di fín, 11 b 13 . a llínad di atrub ┐ dóinib, Ml. 133 c 11 . CCath. 1920 (forlínaid). cor lín in grian da soillsi in doman, Acall. 5442 . líntar lestar de, PH 6362 . ib. 2507 . líonta dairc, TSh. 38 . 14 . líon mála de ghainiṁ na trágha, Gadelica 88. 26 . lán: inna mmaige robtar lána di Assaraib, Ml. 40 b 7 . ib. 36 b 3 . 40 b 7 . 104 d 3 . Sg. 59 b 18 . it bois láin di uisciu, Thes. ii 249. 10 . ib. 320. 26 . ScM. § 1 . FB § 67 . ba llán in tír di suigibh, Anecd. iii 49. 9 . at lána dímsa, PH 3405 . ib. 2016 . 2113 . 7177 . Subst. loingṡithel ┐ a lán duisci inti, Acall. 7149 ; cf. XXXVI (c). foslig smears : lase foruillechta béoil in chalich di mil, Wb. 7 d 9 . foselgatar a bráthir a tunig som do fuil, Tur. 128 . focertar i nim ┐ fuslegar de imman delg, Thes. ii 248. 7 . sáithech satiated, satisfied , sásaid satiates : ba sáthech in cú de, Hy. v 28 . beit sáithig de na braineoin, Lec. 440 b 9 . na hindmassa doratait dúinn...do sásad bocht díb, PH 6122 . lour: lór di chath, SCC § 36 . PH p. 787 a ; cf. XXXVI (c). riar supplying wants: a muinntir do riar don ṁin cheadna, TSh. 137. 10 . Cf. also frisailethar serves, attends : rofreslad co maith do cach ní, Acall. 6845 .

XLIV DI OF MANNER—the sense of means passing into that of attendant circumstances. The old instr. is occasionally preserved: dotaet bidc, FDG 37 (YBL). atchuadatar briathraib bíthib, SR 5814 . —doghabhasdair aga ccaoineadh do chneadhaibh ┐ d'éighṁibh ┐ d'osnadhaibh ML 108. 14 . gabuis in rígmílid uirri do brathbuillib móraibsecha co torchair leis, SG 251. 4 f.b. laibheoraidh an cluigín do ghuth ṡolusbhinn, ib. 2. 33 . dolabhair do briathraibh gruama, 12. 23 . adubairt Serlus do briathraib imcainte, RC xix 18 § 6 . adubairt do guth mór, ib. 18 § 4 . adubhairt d'ḟoclaibh dána, Midnight court 61 . rolabhuir an colam fris do glór dhaona, Ériu iv 53. 31 . raluidin se de marcaib I used to ride on steeds Ériu i 72. 20 . dothuit ar talaṁ do tháimnéll báis she fell to the ground in a dead faint RC xix 162 § 151 (ambiguous). di léimim with a leap: dotiag dia léimim inna carptib, LU 63 b 5 . TBC-LL¹ 738 Y. téid san uaṁaigh do léim, Ériu i 30. 239 . di bidc id.: dotaed do bheidhg asin imdaig, FDG 37 B.K. (dotœd bidg YBL). In a similar way arose a great number of standing phrases, cf. di chois, dech, di ḟorcraid, doenguth, doenbreith, doeninntinn.

XLV DI OF CAUSE, REASON OR MOTIVE—This sense was developed partly from the sense of `means' and partly from that of starting-point or origin (XXII above). Cf. such a phrase as: is de tháinic a thiugbás originated from i.e. was caused by Acall. 2584 .

(a) from, by, in consequence of, according to, in various usages: si enim mente excedimus, Deo, gl. .i. caritate .i. di imradud Dæ, Wb. 15 d 7 . Ml. 99 a 9 . Sg. 50 a 3 . di chor cruinn dacer dul issa muir de ligno sortis in mare missus Tur. 131 . cia adbar dia cess in bith, SR 7866 . ropo liath in mag sin dia ninchinnib, RC iii 177. 33 . ba brecc do imdornchoraib na claideb, Ériu iv 26. 26 . corbo chlárḟind...don tṡnechtu, TBC-LL¹ 1706 . ní bia blicht ac buar ...don bás hísin in consequence of ZCP viii 111. 23 . ní bí acht trí duirn in cach duine díb ┐ is bláith inócclach iat da méte féin according to their size (Stokes) ZCP ii 260 § 186 . fordorchae soillsi in lae don tṡaighnén (means and cause at the same time), CCath. 373 . de therefore, for that reason, consequently : Thes. i 5. 29 . ii 253. 8 . is de tra doforgill som, Mon. Tall. 140. 17 ; 144. 25 . is de forácaib Fiacha Connla ina tír, ZCP viii 314. 16 . betis colla de can chend, Ériu i 130. 39 . RC xii 88§97 . ZCP viii 115. 4 . Denoting consequence: torchis Eocho do chinn a chéli co mbreth Colla de, ZCP viii 319. 29 . bia torrach uaimsea ┐ béra mac de, BDD §7 .—Often in poetry in a vague sense, esp. at the end of a line to suit the metre. Frequent after comparatives corresponding to Lat. eo, Goth. þe, Eng. the; v. 5 de. desin id. bái imchosnum ┐ tnúth mór eter B. ┐ F. desin, RC xxiv 180. 10 . dochuaid doigh éada a nAoife dhesin, OCL 6. 7 . is demin desin conid náma Dé intí ná cretend, PH 2264 . coná fétait desin na popuil fognam, 4233 , 568 . &c., v. PH p. 629 b . TSh. 20. 22 . deside id.: conid córa deside marb do rád frisin pecthach, PH 4811 . diṡuidiu, disuidi, didiu, v. didiu. dindí for that, because, since , cf. airindí: dindí nád rochoilset ind Assair tempul, Ml. 48 d 28 . inde est quod...i. dindí as nansae ┐ as línmar a cenél sin condaarthróithad Dia, 104 a 6 . itaque .i. dindí atacomla, Sg. 161 b 10 . ib. 197 a 15 , 16 , syn. with fobíth. cid dia n- why , cf. cid ara n-, cid frissa n-; may contain either di or do according to the verb that follows. cid dia léicid cundubairt for drécht úaib..., Wb. 13 b 12 . cid dia nepir som aní sin, 19 d 11 . is súaichnid cid dia ndechuith, 16 c 7 . cid dia téige uann RC x 66. 10 . cid dia rotdíchlis ḟormsa, LL 289 b 33 , cf. SG 61. 38 ; but Ml. 35 b 24 (ind fochuinn dia ragbhtha .i. dia sóirad) contains di in the sense of ` of, about, concerning .' aní dia fil the cause of: inní da fuil a marbad, Fianaig. 56. 19 , v. XXVII (b).

(b) in the construction of several verbs, subst., and adjectives, denoting:

(α) to die of, to be sick with: atbail, atbath, caillter, téit éc, is marb, galrach and the like. atbail: mani eple de, Sg. 181 a 5 . dafuabair galar...atbail de, SCC § 4 . in dig tonnaid dia nerbalt, LMU 17. 32 . co nerbailt do bidg oenúaire, LL 25 a 39 . atbélam di ḟuacht ┐ gortai, MacCarthy 62. 8 f.b. de galar olc, ib. 158. 8 . atbath: conid de atbathatar, Thes. ii 298. 18 . dend áine sin, Mon. Tall. 156. 5 . dia guin, RC xxiv 184. 15 . do mallchríne, MacCarthy 144. 2 . do thám thrait, ib. 142 st 3 . do galar, BColm. 106. 4 . conbeba dot breith, LL 147 a 6 . caillter: ní caillfear den ocras tu, Gadelica 90. 37 . éc: éc a máthar dia breith ZCP viii 303. 31 . dochóid N. éc de thám, MacCarthy 146. 3 . a éag do chuṁaid a ṁná, Ériu i 24 l. 115 . tatham: rothathaiṁ C. do bheadhg aonúaire, AFM 308. 4 f.b. marb: marb in ben dot breith, LL 147 a . do bidc oenúaire, SR 7170 . de thám, MacCarthy 150. 15 . do galar, ZCP viii 120. 4 . do dásacht, TFrag. 164. 2 . do chumaid a mná, RC xiii 11. 7 . de, PH 3844 . The opposite is beo de, Wb. 10 b 27 . galar: amal as már a galar de, Ml. 40 b 9 .

(β) to reprimand for, take vengeance for: is cúrsagad rondcúrsagusa di chomitecht, Wb. 19 a 6 . oc toibeim for Laegairi don badbscél, FB § 70 . cairigid: cairigius a menma Ailill don gním sin, TE § 6 LU. Competing with imm. díglaid: coro díglum ár nancride fair do neoch forodámar ara dáig, PH 2219 , v. XXXIII (i).

(γ) to beat one for sth.: céd mbémenda fort láma...da cach uabar dogensat, Ériu i 201. 6 .

(δ) to do penance for: issí a pennit de, Wb. 26 b 20 . du aithrigi dia pecthaib, Thes. ii 253. 6 . ní hécen aithrigi disuidiu, Mon. Tall. 142. 2 . co ṅdénsat aithrigi don chul doronsat PH 993 . aithrige don ulc roimraid, 5134 . ib. 1208 .

(ε) to complain of: fodord dóib di dommatu, Ml. 97 d 10 . murmurare de inopia .i. din dommataid, 97 d 11 . de male potentibus querela, gl. denaib míchumachtgib, 29 a 9 .

(ζ) to be or become angry for: rofergaiged Ailill de, LL 27 b 1 . rofergaigestar fri Patraic do marbud in druad, Anecd. iii 36 . iarna dechrad d'íttaid, LL 75 b 25 . gabaid feirg desin, PH 981 . ib. 855 . Competing with imm.

(η) to be proud of, to boast of: rosgab huall dí imbud a soinmiche, Ml. 57 c 13 . connách gabad huall de, Ml. 69 a 17 . is deidbir móidem di suidib, Wb. 17 d 19 (a rare construction). is diumdach Gúaire díot, SG 53. 13 .

(θ) to be envious or jealous of: nongaib format friu dia sóinmichi, Ml. 43 a 14 . nád robae étugud Dæ desom, 32 d 10 .

(ι) to be thankful for: attlugud boide do Dia dibar nícc, Wb. 27 c 2 . di cach maith, 27 a 7 . dia sóirad, Ml. 117 b 7 .gratus...de præstitis, gl. dinaib remfoiridib, Ml. 72 c 3 . gratus...de recentibus præstitis, gl. dinaib remfoiredib nuib .i. dinaib degnímaib, 75 a 12 . budig desen, Thes. ii 343. 32 . dín bat budig brain, LU 119 a 33 . buidech dib, ACL iii 6. 1 . Midnight court 898 . diambtis budig d'oenbairgin, Ériu i 132. 72 . SG 19. 6 ; 54. 32 (bud buide Guaire díot). BB 498 a 15 (di toirtib in talmun).

(κ) sad, mournful, tired, weary and the opposite: arnápat toirsich dim chuimregaib se, Wb. 26 d 21 . 27 a 34 . toirsich de, Trip. 84. 19 . brónach: is de ní beth brónaig, Fél. Prol. 188 . b. de díth a coiceli, ZCP iii 248 § 63 . desin, PH 911 . doguilse: d. di neuch adbaill ┐ di neuch nád etar ┐ di neuch bís la nech, Wb. 16 b 11 . co cáined in doman do bás Mártain amal noḟáiltniged dia bethaid, RC ii 400 § 38 . de quibus oportuerat me gaudere .i. díibsi, Wb. 14 d 9 .

(λ) thirst from: bátar i nítaid...dend ḟulacht they were athirst from the cooked food RC xxiv 196. 11 .

(μ) intoxicated : atbertis conid for mesca do nua fína robátar na hapstail, PH 5394 .

(ν) weak from: súili tláithi do déraib, Ériu i 138. 6 .

(ξ) Here also arcessi commiserates, has compassion on (orig. is sorry for): air arrocheis side di bochtai cháich, Ml. 61 a 9 . airchissis de, LU 78 a 15 . roairchis dind Críst, Snedg. u. Mac R 9. 9 . dib, 11. 17 . dííb, PH 4961 . dimm, 1301 . dínn 2204 . 4412 . airchis co luath díomsa, SG 393. 2 . Occasionally also do: a. daib (3 pl.) PH 1009 . arcessi do neoch, Wb. 4 c 19 .—Cf. airchissech di cech duine, Rawl. 40 a . menma airchisechtach di cach duine, 3 B 23, 27 a 1 .

XLVI DI OF MEASURE WITH COMPARATIVES corresponding to Oir. i n-: dob áirdi do dhá throigh Admirandus A. was taller by two feet RC xix 368 § 235 . as má Mars do bheagán ná oiread go leith na talman paulo maior Gadelica ii 106. 5 . For -de after comparatives v. XLV (a).

XLVII DI IN THE SENSE OF GEN. or ABL. QUALIT.: in corp do rogili ┐ in folt do roáilli ┐ in agaid do chumtachta ┐ in tṡúil do roglaissi, ZCP iv 40. 13 sq. issiat ubla is millsi amuigh do chubra innsi Áduim of the fragrance of Adam's Isle Ériu iv 114. 4 .

XLVIII (Possibly a subdivision of XXVIII) DI is the preposition in idiomatic impersonal phrases of the type: attá d'ḟebas na síne the weather is good: is fossad do chéim glan glé cia beith d'ḟeabus na síne, TE § 9. 6 Eg. má beth tra do húaite ind aessa gráid lasna tuatha cia beit trí hecailsi for cubus cech ḟir gráid, Ériu i 220 § 13 . má beth tra do úaisle ind ḟ.r gráid ┐ a airmidin dofórmagar a dligid, ib. § 15 . Here also Ériu iv 142 § 19 : cia bar lín se...ní fil ém diar núaiti we are not few; and PH 3964 : bói dia óite in inbaid he was a young man at that time.

XLIX DI OF TIME: for, during : do thríb cethorchaib aidchi ammain for usciu ┐ bargin, Mon. Tall. 136. 7 . di lau: luid tria hecosc a ṡenathar do Themuir di lau sobais on a prosperous day ZCP viii 311. 18 . do ló in ḟuigill on the day of judgment FA § 6 LB. di lau is d'adaig by day and night: do ló ná d'áidchi, Acall. 6118 . do ló ┐ d'aiche, Lib. Flav. ii 25 a 2. 22 . pl. do láib is d'aidchib, Ériu iv 106. 14 . d'adaig at night , q.v. disin unde, hinc, exinde, proinde, v. XXXI. di chéin from afar , v. XXXI. di chianaib, ib.

L DI FORMING ADVERBS from adjectives. Cf. Lat. de improviso, de novo, de integro, de cetero, de subito (Plaut., Lucilius), Lat. de repente (Plaut.). di léir diligently : guidid Dia di léir, Ml. 68 a 15 . geib do mámb do léir (v.l. co lléir), ACL iii 313. 2 . robói Fergus féin isin gliaid sin ┐ atát a scéla do léir aige, ib. 5. 7 . di glé clearly, openly : ní éicsem huile do glé cid fri saegul sechtmaine, Rawl. 88 b 26 . di gnáth usually, always : is grema duit nách é Tadhg do choṁarsa garcc do gnáth, ZCP viii 223 st 23 . do ghnáth. Miscell. Celt. Soc. 380. 12 . AFM 2256. 3 . As to do gréss cf. LI. di biuc a little, di mór much : dia nellad do bicc' nó mór ón ḟuigell ḟírén, PH 4140 . do biuc ZCP viii 217. 17 . do lomm, Midnight court 391 . Cf. XXXV above. do ṡír always = co sír, TSh. 5. 5 ; 12. 25 ; 21. 26 . dḟan sé a bhfochair a athar do ṡíor, TSh. tearcól do ṡ. aca, ib.; ised bís mo smacht do ṡír, Hib. Min. 82.12 . v. sír. Here also dano, if it is from di nuu = Lat. de novo, denuo. Cf. also dáirithe.

LI PHRASES, belonging to E in various senses.

di ág, dág, dáig, dágain, dáigin; dég, d'ḟech, d'éigin for the sake of, because of: dígal...dég ár pectha, Ml. 88 a 4 . d'fech, Ardm. 17 b 1 . bid dibar nág si ronbia ni corona, Wb. 25 a 3 . di ág mná .i. di ág Medba, ZCP viii 305. 20 . di ág aige Aingine, RC x 224. 166 . v. dáig, &c.

d'áis with the consent of, of free will : go mbendaís an tiarla as d'áis no d'éiccen until they should rescue the Earl by consent or violence AFM vi 2172. 25 . tré chloinn Eogain 'sní dá nais but not with their consent R.I.A. 23 G 24 p. 250 .

di breith, do b. according to the judgment : do b. rechta PH 2810 . do b. a anmcharat, ib. 7615 . See breth.

di bríg because of: de bhrígh nách bhfuil spioraid Chríost aca, De Imit. 1. 16 . do bhrígh ó bheith na pheacthach dhó, TSh. 62. 1 . dá bhrígh sin for that reason, TSh. and mod.

do chet with the permission of, opp. cen chet: adubhairt nách geabhdaois suirghe ón dias sin oile acht do chead a nathar, ML 12. 25 . do chead Dé, SG 16. 35 . do ched a nathar, AFM v 1686. 24 .

di chiunn, do chiunn away , after a verb of motion: intan tét a laithe di chiunn, Ml. 21 c 3 . for the sake of, on behalf of, &c. de chind, LU 82 b 18 .

di choiss on foot : is dia chois a mbúi, Hib. Min. 70. 15 . immathéged cách dia chuis, LU 40 a 12 . dariachtatar na noecharptig...┐ in triar de choiss maroen riu...┐ nira luathiu na noecharptig anda in triar de choiss, LL 101 b 32 = TBC-LL¹ 5876 . do choiss, BB 487 b 5 . ib. 7 a 34 . conadh airi sin nách togluasinn laech do ch. ná dheoch, ZCP i 394. 13 . Cf. di thraig below.

di chumaid from sorrow LL 11 a 29 . 23 a 50 , b 38 . SR 6923 . See XLV (b α).

di dáig because of. See dáig.

di deoin by the will of: atbath rí de deoin Dé, LL 133 a 22 . dia deoin of his own accord LL 16 b 7 . PH 2361 sq. dia nd., LL 193 a 46 . dom d., Fianaig. 62. 12 . ZCP viii 223. 30 . v. 1 deóin, aindeóin.

d'écin by force : d'áis nó d'éiccen, v. dáis supra.

d'eoch on horseback : do chois nó dh'eoch, ZCP i 394. 13 . Synonym for eoch, TFrag. 204. 15 .

dom dóig on my own account : doscríbus sin dom doig Mon. Tall. 154. 26 .

di druimm by means of, in virtue of, on the score of: de dh. dinntleachta, De Imit. 4. 1 . do dh. chennaig, AFM vi 2076. 5 . na ccreach, ib. v 1338. 4 f.b. de dhruim díchill ┐ díoghraise, TSh. 225. 3 (N.E.). Often only a strengthened di, v. druim(m).

di eclai for fear : d'eagla go ndiongnadh biataigh dhíobh ML 118. 17 . ná hinnis aní bu mian leat do dénam d'egla muna, &c., Ériu iv 126 § 4 .

d'ḟebas on account of the goodness or excellence of: tét do saigid Chuipit dia febus a ṡeirce sium ó gentib, Aen. 384 . d'feabas a delba, FDG 458 . tabair di siud iad d'febas. a huirchill, SG 297. 6 .

d'ḟech v. di ág supra.

d'ḟeirc in anger : dodechad...d'ḟeirg riut dot romad TBC-LL¹ 3421 .

dia ḟír in truth LL 192 a 36 ( Metr. Dinds. ii 49. 39 ).

di ḟochonn in consequence of: di ḟ. a ferge a ttothfund for fairge, Todd Nenn. 132. 51 .

di ḟorcraid, di imḟorcraid, d'imarcraid abundantly, extra, in excess : atá leusom di forcrid a ndudesta airibsi, Wb. 14 a 33 . conná ternó ní dona .u. gaiscedaib déc nobítís di imforcraid hi tegluch Chonchobair, LU 61 a 13 f.b. ; cf. PH p. 758 a , and see immarcraid, immḟorcraid, immarcaid.

d'ḟorniurt through the oppression or tyranny of: fearg oirne ┐ air d'ḟoirnirt indluig, Ériu iv 212. 20 .

di gním nó di bréithir in word or deed : má dotuc easanóir do g. na do b. do nech acu, RC xix 28 § 22 .

do gréss continually, semper : origin of do obscure, v. 2 grés.

di inchaib, do i., d'inchaib ( LL 147 b 16 ) for the honour of, under the protection of, &c. tair lind dí giall di i. Connacht, LU 69 b 2 (cf. Laws v 308. 19 : fíach gill di inchaib). de i., FB § 13 . dit i., LU 66 b 38 . roléiccead ass d'ionchaibh a chomairgedh, AFM 1072. 14 . See 1 enech, ainech.

do láthair, de l. in presence of, before (both after verbs of motion and of rest) contains original do.

di léimim v. XLIV.

di marcaib v. XLIV.

di memur, do mebair by rote, by heart : gabáil ind tsailm de memur, Mon. Tall. 142. 24 . dobhí dḟebus a ṁebra gach a cluinedh tiar is tair dobíodh aige do mebair, SG 108. 7 . gan aonḟocal do ṁebair, ib. 280. 1 . atá in scriptúir do mebair lais, PH 2185 . ib. 4178 .

di glanmemur, do ghlanṁeabhair id. conách bi ní da gcluineadh gan a bheith do ghlainmeabhrae aige, MR 282. 11 (Stowe, not in YBL). dá mbeidheadh an bíobla go léir de ghlanṁeaṁair agat, De Imit. 2. 4 . ib. 112. 4 .

dia mess féin according to his own opinion Each. Iol. 25. 14 .

di miscais from hatred : dia m. ara máthair, Ériu iv 102. 6 .

di muin, glossed de chommairgi: robí (.i. romarb) Aed di muin Chormaic in ríg , Rawl. 122 a = LL 314 a 27 .

di muir by sea : ac indrudh Muman do muir ┐ do thír RC xviii 49. 24 . in comdortad darónsat a námait do muir ┐ do thír fair, CCath. 2675 . cach olc do muir is do thír tige fri Temrach, BColm. 102. 10 .

do nós ever : do n. mar is cóir dóib, Hy Fiach. 459. 1 ; ib. 458. 35 . ar thagid do n., KMMisc. 264. 13 .

d'oenaicned of one mind : d'aentáib ┐ d'aenláim ┐ d'aenaigned da bar ninnsaigid, MR 194. 14 .

d'oenbreith at one birth : doenbreith ructha Olom ┐ Conrí ZCP viii 332. 2 .

d'oenintinn of one mind, intent : dias dot sluagaib do beith da aeninntinn, RC xix 26 § 19 .

d'oenláim. See d'oenaicned.

d'oenméin with one accord : dorinneadar uile d'aoinṁéin, TSh.

d'oentóib together (after verbs of motion as well as of rest): is d'oentaib bátar ind fir se hi cend Ulad, SCC § 22 . do chuadar cum an catha dh'aentaeibh, Caithr. CC 25 .

d'oentoisc with special aim, deliberately, exclusively LL 90 b 25 . Laws iii 422. 5 ; v 336. 19 , 20 . TSh. 160. 2 ; 215. 16 ; v. toisc.

d'oenuaim of one report, all together , v. Dinneen 36 a .

d'oenurchor, v. XXXVII (f).

di ráith, do r., .i. ar son for the sake of O'C. is di r. dee dobeir dígail fort, Wb. 6 a 14 ; v. ráith.

do réir ( dit réir, ACL iii 313. 2 ) according to contains original do, v. 1 do.

di rogain, di rogu, with beirid = takes as a choice, chooses : ruc in mac ba sine a indmus do rogain, LB 158 b 6 . AFM 1640. 8 . Proverbs 22. 1 . a breith do (v.l. de) roghain TSh. 56. 25 .

di ṡeirc for love : cum benignitas apparuit saluatoris nostri .i. is do seirc móir dodechuid airitiu colno do Chríst, Wb. 31 d 2 . asbert...cid dia mbói fochond a galair. atá dit seirc seo ol Ailill, TE § 10 LU (belongs under XLV a). is dia ṡeirc conairlither a thol it is through love of Him that His will is cared for Ériu i 195. 2 .

diṡuidiu = didiu, q.v.

di thír by land . See di muir.

di thoisc, do thoisc on account of, owing to: ag caoineadh a amaráin féin do thoisg an trír chéadna, TSh. 60. 7 . gach saoth da dtig orra is do th. an ubhaill úd táinig, 92. 15 . bás...da ṡíol do th. a anuṁla sin, 93. 1 f.b. do th. an adhalt rannais, 151. 18 , &c. Tor. Dh. Oss. p. 194 .

di thraig on foot , cf. di choiss: doluid aṅgel Dé dia thraig ar chinn Baláim, SR 4785 .

d'urmór for the greater part: dochuartaighsiod fearann Chonaire ┐ dochreachsat durmór é, ML 22. 19 .

E DI OF THE SUBJECT-MATTER OF THOUGHT, FEELING OR ACTION : of, concerning, with regard to, in reference to, corresp. to Lat. de.—For the sense-development compare: is becc pridchimmeni di rúnaib Dée, Wb. 12 c 6 . atfét dún ní dona mórgaibfi rogaifis, Anecd. iii 53. 26 . co ninnisi tú ní dot madgnímradaib, &c.

LII

(a) In elliptical or incomplete sentences: de collectis autem quae fiunt in sanctos, .i. dinab gabálib, Wb. 13 d 33 . uaniloqui...maxime qui de circumcisione sunt, gl. de Iudeib ón that is of the Jews, 31 b 15 . mire sane uariauit hos uersus .i. cachla fers and di adhuath...in fers aile dí húaisletu, Ml. 40c16 . du gnímaib aní tuas du persannaib anísiu sís, 117 c 6 . ib. 89 d 12 . 102 d 9 . in finem .i. di laithiu brátha, 40 a 19 . Transl. Lat. de: Sg. 2 a 10 (donaib). 2 b 1 (dinaib). With the copula: is do (seldom di) is of, about : ní dond imdibu colnidiu lessom inso he is not here speaking of &c., Wb. 10 a 14 . is do diuchtrad corporum ┐ do chotlud corporum , 25 c 12 . náich do imdibu colnidu aní thuas, 10 a 15 . is do dóinacht maicc cachla focull ┐ dia deacht a naill, Ml. 24 d 30 . is dind oipred, 67 c 18 .—ceith dand erán ┐ den seildind imbe both as to the bread and, &c. Mon. Tall. 151. 25 . issed as chóir laisim...de bithbúr praindea, ib. 146. 28 . isí comairli is cóir dhe, ZCP viii 114. 8 . ni ba edh de thuathaib Dea it was not so with RC xii 92 § 122 .

(b) in subject-headings, titles of tales, chapters , &c. after Latin model: Cato de agna pascenda, gl. din dínit bed ṡástai, Sg. 39 b 11 . Nonio Marcello de doctorum indagine .i. dind eclim, 17 a 6 . De Chophur in da Muccide, LL 246 a 15 . de gabáil in tṡída inso sís, 245 b 12 f.b. do fallsigud Tána Bó Cúalṅge, 245 b 1 . de rígaib Muman inso, 320 a 15 . do Monur (leg. monur) epscop sunna, ACL iii 313. 1 ; 316. 15 , ZCP x 378 . do fedmannaib anmcharat...so, 318. 11 . de chórus cána in domnaich budesta, Anecd. iii 21. 1 . agso síos do ríoghaibh Éireann, Keat. iii 2. 1 .—Often at the end of a tale when the title is repeated.

(c) in the construction of many verbs, such as—

(α) speak, tell, preach, mention and the like. Lat. loqui, dicere, narrare de. Referring to Lat. dicere: cum dicit de osoribus suis .i. di náimtib, Ml. 16 d 5 . de suscepto homine dicta .i. di dóinacht Críst són, 17 a 11 . Sg. 3 b 27 . 66 a 6 . Lat. tractare: de speciebus...supra tractauimus, gl. di delbaib, Sg. 61 a 1 . praefari, Ml. 61 a 35 , 36 . sermo esse, 26 b 5 . inserere de, 75 b 20 , cf. 26 b 20 . After adfét, asindet, aisndís; di: a nadfiadar di Críst, Wb. 27 a 10 . ib. 5 c 16 (di thuiste dúile). innahi adfiadam di Christ, Ml. 93 d 14 . aisndis di duiniu, 131 a 12 . intan adcóidemmar di comparit, Sg. 43 a 6 . Ml. 65 a 1 . 115 d 9 . Cf. Sg. 103 a 1 . Tur. 40 . din (-nd, -nt), Ml. 14 d 10 . 40 b 8 . dinaib, 40 c 18 . de, 122 a 2 . Sg. 18 a 1 . 59 b 7 . diib, Ml. 145 c 7 , 8 . di, 42 b 7 . dia (n-), 40 b 8 . 54 a 20 . Sg. 197 a 6 . taidbsin dia nécid remaind, PH 6689 . do: aisndís du forgairib Dæ, Ml. 66 c 3 . ib. 14 b 12 . 14 d 3 . 24 d 30 . 42 b 18 . 110 c 5 . 125 a 11 . 126 b 1 . 137 d 2 .—do may be original in the sense `ascribe to' ( Ml. 72 d 9 ). asbeir di: amal bid di muir atberad, Ml. 62 c 2 . ib. 37 a 14 . dind, 21 c 3 . dinaib, Wb. 5 a 4 . dínni: ní don daum storidiu acht is dínni preceptórib ar is díin asrobrad a ndede so, 10 d 8 . diib, Sg. 29 b 16 . 73 b 8 . 203 b 6 . di 3 sg. f., Wb. 15 d 20 . Ml. 145 c 3 . dia n-, Wb. 13 c 12 . 21 d 4 . Ml. 14 d 13 . Sg. 66 b 10 . 71 a 17 . 208 a 7 . diar n-, Wb. 17 c 23 . is de atberthe in sírite de, SCC § 17 . cid arnapair in tapstal spirtalda díb, RC xxv 244 §§ 20 - 23 . issed asbered som de suidiu, Mon. Tall. 142. 19 . de bithúr, 136. 31 . PH p. 630 a . do: Ml. 26 a 8 . 45 a 9 . 51 d 25 . 133 a 10 . don, dund: asberar corp don dlúim máir sin, Wb. 9 d 5 . Ml. 17 b 23 . 37 b 19 . donaib, 37 b 24 . issed asbert do bithfúr, Mon. Tall. 134. 21 .—In the sense `ascribes to' do may be original ( Wb. 4 b 3 . 9 d 5 . Ml. 110 d 16 ). atá briathar: ní díib attáa briathar less it is not of them he speaks Wb. 13 a 16 . intí dia robe briathar linn, Sg. 197 b 12 . PH 2725 . 3148 . 4600 . 6189 . 6501 . 6698 . 6791 . cestnaigidir asks, inquires : cestnaigther do forcraid na foltni, RC xxv 240 § 12 . foraithmet mention of: f. ṅde, Ml. 61 b 12 . dia mbi f. riam, Sg. 197 b 18 . coná raibi acht mad f. bec di (viz. the Táin) in Érinn, ACL iii 4. 15 . gairthir di is called : goirther coin in diabuil díb, PH 7703 . Sabecdai do gairm díb, 6969 . Longínus goirther dím, 694 . dogairther di id.: conid de dogarar díndi Féne ó Fénius, Ériu iv 140. 23 . RC xxiv 184. 7 . BColm. 58. 3 . labraithir Lat. `loquitur': ní labrathar di féisne, Sg. 199 b 6 . de se loqui, gl. cétna persan di féisin, 199 b 10 . quando de ratione...loquimur, gl. de chaldigud, 181 a 9 . pridchid: is becc pridchimme ni di rúnaib Dé, Wb. 12 c 6 . rolá di: ní du choscrad in tempail rala som, Tur. 80 . ráidid: Góidil do rád dib, Thes. ii 316. 24 ; 317. 33 .

(β) sing of, write of. Lat. canere, scribere de. canaid: is di laithiu sabbait rocét in salm so, Ml. 57 d 13 . ib. 48 b 11 . 85 b 11 (referring to Lat. cecinit). Thes. ii 252. 14 . conid díbsin rochéad in seanchaid, RC xxiv 182. 15 . PH p. 630 a . gaibid: di: di thuasulgud in popuil...rogabad in salm so, Ml. 116 c 2 . ib. 16 a 10 . 35 a 8 . 35 a 10 . 44 b 1 . 48 d 27 . 133 b 1 . 139 a 8 , 10 , 11 . din, 44 b 1 . 48 d 28 . 112 c 11 . de, 16 a 10 . 24 d 26 . 44 b 1 . 48 d 27 , 28 . dia (n-), 35 b 24 . 44 b 1 . dimsa, 17 b 18 . díb, 35 a 8 . do: is de rogabad in salm so do dechur etir deacht ┐ dóinacht maicc, 24 d 26 . 24 d 29 . 45 d 7 . 133 b 2 . 139 a 6 , 9 . Referring to Lat. scríbere, Wb. 25 b 7 .

(γ) prophesy, prefigure; testify . do-airchain: is díimsa tairrchet, Wb. 7 a 2 . ib. 15 a 34 . 26 d 9 . desom, Ml. 38 c 9 . di thetacht in spirto...profetauit, Tur. 170 b 2 . amal roterchan in fáith de, PH 5115 . fiugraid: an rofiugrad di Críst, Wb. 15 a 34 . fáitsine: dia mbói oc fáitsine dia mac, PH 3436 . dobeir forcell: is de dobiur f. di neurt inna deserce, Wb. 16 c 4 . ib. 25 d 20 , 21 (díibsi), 25 d 20 . Ml. 22 d 19 . 24 d 14 . a forcell forrogelsam ni di laithiu brátho, Wb. 25 d 20 . dobeir teist (testas): do thabirt testassa dínn, Wb. 15 a 3 . ib. 15 a 6 . 15 d 8 a . 18 a 3 . 23 a 23 . 24 c 16 . 25 a 18 . 28 b 6 . 28 c 4 . 34 a 3 .

(δ) instruct, teach . Lat. docere de: do munud a dalti di cach gním, Wb. 24 d 10 .

(ε) discuss, dissertate . Lat. disserere, disputare de: etarcert di dúlib, Wb. 27 a 10 . di phecthib, 29 c 10.

(ζ) blaspheme : du écnduch di Dia, Ml. 72 b 5 (hardly for `do'; usually with gen. `écndach Dé').

(η) hear, think, remember, forget . Lat. audire, cognoscere, sentire de. cluinithir: issed rochualai Maolrúain la sruthi di dérgu ind tíri, Mon. Tall. 133. 19 . Cf. magna a patribus de tuis factis audiuimus .i. di neuch durigni siu du adamru, Ml. 63 c 5 . domoinethar: cáintoimtiu diib, Wb. 23 a 22 . náro taithmen Ísu do forcraid na foltne did not think of RC xxv 242. 16 . Referring to Lat. sentire, Ml. 15 b 4 . accipi de, ib. 17 d 11 . coná raibi acht mad cuimne di (viz. the Táin) i nÉrinn, ACL iii 4. 15 . cuimnigidir is mindful of: ní de fat na foltni .i. dia forcraid acht dia nárim nammá cumniges Ísu isin tṡoscélu, RC xxv 240 § 12 . ár ndermat ni diar sóirad, Ml. 96 a 13 .

(θ) care for, provide for, be confident about, fear for: dethiden: dethiden díbsi, Wb. 14 d 13 . dissi, 28 d 22 . diibsi, 26 d 19 . d. dinaib bochtaib, Ml. 129 c 3 . Cf. cia dethitiu i faili siu don bargin út, Ériu i 134. 3 . Later also with for. A cpd. with di (*di-aith-fedan). remcaisiu, remdéicsiu providence ; remidéci provides for: nád rabae r.-déicsiu Dé dimso, Ml. 59 a 48 . desom, 91 a 21 . díib, 90 b 17 . dia dúlib, 20 b 2 . remcaissiu Dé diib, 90 b 19 . 90 c 9 . diib som, 122 d 7 . dinni, 91 b 10 . dinaib dúlib, 20 c 3 . de, 50 d 1 .— nadmbed dliged remdéicsen Dé du dóinib sech remideci Dia dunaib anmandib amlabrib, 55 d 25 . essamnae: de protectione tua...fiducia, gl. ní núae dúnni ind esamnae so dit dítin siu this confidence concerning thy protection Ml. 110 d 12 . Cf. XXXII above.

(ι) uisio quae de obscuratione solis facta est, .i. din temul, Ml. 16 c 7 .

(κ) de Homine intelligendum est .i. di dóinacht maicc is immaircide, Ml. 25 d 17 . is din gním...is i. .i. du chésad Chríst, Ml. 113 d 3 . do of the person, Wb. 12 b 26 .

dúchann

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dúchann or dil.ie/19051

 

n chant, song, melody: duchonn .i. loinniucc nó ceól, O'Dav. 606 . esnad .i. ní nath acht is duchand, Corm. Y 562 ; O'Mulc. 431 . asbert epscop E. in duchandsa dia formolad na Colman, BColm. 32 . a hesnada, a duchne, Ériu iv 163 . do gabhadh duana ┐ duthchonna, ITS v 108 . do ghabhadar duanta ┐ dubhchanna a sean ┐ a sinnsear, Maguires of F. § 86 . oc creicc duan ┐ duchand ┐ drécht, Acall. 4665 v.l. dord duchand, RC xv 433 ( Dinds. 42 ) = dord duchunn, BB 372b44 . d.¤ duchenn, Lec. 470b13 . do ghabhail a nduan ┐ a ndubhchonn, CF 76 . As quasi-vn. singing, chanting: na hingena nobítís ic amrán ┐ ic duchund, TTr.² 1086 , cf. LL 405a18 . is [in]gen Iepte ceta-tosceoil ingena oc duchann la Ebru o dindgnu do dingna, O'Mulc. 213 . Cf. murdúchu.

éislinn

Cite this: eDIL s.v. éislinn or dil.ie/19882
Last Revised: 2019

 

adj i unsafe, insecure ; as subst. insecurity, danger; an insecure, unguarded place: eslind .i. esinnill,...inill i medon, eslind .i. extra , O'Mulc. 439 . eislinn .i. esinnill no edaingean, O'Cl. Thes. ii 352.5 - 42 . nau tholl diant eslinn guas, 294.27 . cé ní eslind libsi | ar gnúis ind ríg `though you have no danger' Fél., Epil. 397 . nobítís cauraid...ara bélaib hi cathaib ar na bad eslind dó that he might not be exposed to danger Ériu iv 24.28 . conuir bud eislinn do unsafe for him Laws iii 58.29 Comm. imthéit i n-ág i n-eslind, IT i 221.17 . na haithne aithniter don duine i n-eislind o do ria leis co inill ata trian do ar a comet, Laws iii 220.11 Comm. an tan no théged i cathugud no íadaitís...láma fair ná díchsed i n-eslind TTr.² 1676 . ni reilced...i n-eislind, Ériu iv 24.26 . cona bai ní badh eislinn doib acht a n-airm fen dia crechtnugad, CCath. 5690 . tucsat glūn re gliaid ┐ aighed re heislind do Goll cona muintir, Acall. 2828 . doriacht aenben... | is do ḟuacair ar Ḟein Ḟind | comling aenḟir gerb eislind, 5651 . doriachtsam as gach eslind, Aen. 619 . A vulnerable part of the body, flank (?): dolleici...uad indara sleig...conostarla tria eslind a chuirp corbo chross tall tarsna triana chlíab iar tregdad a chride, TFerbe 242 . dorat Achil furmiud fair don lágin...co lluid...tri eslind a chléib ┐ tri chomthrom a chride co ro briss a druimm dar dó `through the flank of his chest' TTr. 2047 = LL 244a41 . Cf. gor ab iad eislinni, inni ┐ inathair C. arna criathrad ┐ arna comthollad do cēdurchor Cellaig, MR 270.8 . Of worry, insecurity, mental affliction (?): agá rád riu gan dogra do dénam ┐ cen eslinn ┐ gan imshním do beith ortho 'telling them not to despair and not to feel sorrowful nor insecure', Stair Nic. 24.447 . Cf. éislinn 'a weak spot; a flaw, a defect; a failing in health'​​, Dinneen . As attrib.: ind áth eislind ind-agaid for namhot, Ériu viii 172.12 . gur crechtnaigit na cuirp ina n-inadhaib eslinne, 46.33 . Cf. imfaebair cach giallnai eislinniu `the punishment of every imperfect service' Laws iv 320.17 (`of every defective vassalage' PRIA xxxvi C 16, 296 ). Obscure exx. are: gáeth úar tar fáebru eslind, BDD 101a = LU 91a42 . fer ar-feid solaig fri aiss esslind..., LU 132a13 .

fo-ceird

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fo-ceird or dil.ie/22405
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: focertiti, fotcicher, nimchicher, -cuirethar, -la, focress, focreasa, fosci[u]rtsa, focheirt, fodosceirdi, foscerdi, foceirt, faceird, focheird, foceird, focertam, fuchertat, focherdat, focerdat, foscerdded, focherded, fochertitís, focerdaitis, fuscerdam, foncerddam, foceirr, foceirr, facherred, focher[r]ad, fochichur, —foíchur, -cichiur, focicherr, fotcicher, chiuchra, —foicher, focichret, foscichret, fasciugrat, fochichred, —foichred, fochart, focairt, fochartatár, fachartar, focertar, fochertar, fomcertor, focerddar, fucertar, focerdatar, fócerddetar, focherte, focertha, focicherthar, focichertar, —foic[h]ert[h]ar, fochichritar, focres, focress, fochress, focreas, focressa, rochres, rochress, do creasadh, bhacresa, facheirdset, —ar, focherdsat, fochertsat, —cuirethar, —cuiretar, cuirthe, cuire, cure, cuirid, —coirther, —corathar, —corad, —corastar, —corthe, —coirthi, —lá, láim, —raltais, —ral, —rol, —rolur, —ralór, laa, laa, —rala, láis, —rabhais, lam, —roláid, rrálat, rolat, lád, —roltis, róiltis, roláosa, rolaus, rodalláus, rollais, laa, ralasom, láeside, —ralae, corralai, láoi, rālastar, lasid, —ralsid, laset, —rolsat, —ralsat, —ralsatar, lafithir, cuirfithir, coraltar, —ralatar, coralta, rolaad, rollaad, rolathe, roláithea, —lathe, —latha, rolaitea, rosaralta, ralta, F., dofuarat

prototonic forms of this verb are found only in the fut. ( ni focertiti , CCath. 2830 is late, and phonetically irregular. Cf. fotcicher ... nimchicher, cited below, II (a)), in other tenses they are supplied by -cuirethar and -la; the —ro— forms are regularly from -lá both in pres. and past tenses. Cf. focress (.i. rolaad), Hy v 48 ; 72 ; 79 . focreasa .i. rocurid, Lec. Gl. 87 .

Forms: A ind. pres. 1 s. fosci[u]rtsa, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1859, 196 (< H 3.18, 75b ). 2 s. rel. focheirt (gl. seminas) Wb. 13c21 . fodosceirdi; foscerdi, LB 219a19 ; 26 . 3 s. foceirt, Wb. 32c11 . Trip.² 904 . faceird, Ml. 94c8 . focheird, LU 8848 . foceird, O'Mulc. 527 . 1 pl. focertam, Wb. 15b4 . 3 pl. (rel.) fuchertat, Ml. 93a25 . focherdat, LU 8848 . focerdat, O'Mulc. 527 . imperf. 3 s. foscerdded, Rawl. 113a1 . focherded LU 5005 . 3 pl. (rel.) fochertitís, LU 7031 ( BDD 67 ; focerdaitis Y). imperat. 1 pl. fuscerdam, Wb. 34a2 ( Ériu xi 136 ). foncerddam, LL 283a19 . subj. pres. 2 s. foceirr Wb. 13c24 . 3 s. foceirr, Laws v 320x . past 3 s. facherred Ml. 124b3 . focher[r]ad, Corm. Y 323 . fut. 1 s. fochichur LU 5761 (= —iur, TBC-I¹ 1290 ). —foíchur, LL 251b20 ( TBFr. § 24 ). -cichiur, BDC 112.138 . 3 s. focicherr, Ml. 87d6 . fotcicher, LL 147a22 . fo chiuchra , LU 4583 . —foicher, TBC-I¹ 706 (= —focher, LU 5184 ). 3 pl. focichret, RC xxvi 38 § 201 . LU 4462 . foscichret, LL 289b7 - 8 . Cf. fasciugrat, LL 119b26 (rhet.). sec. fut. 3 s. fochichred, LU 5291 . —foichred, 6822 ( BDD 38 ). pret. 1 s. fochart, LU 10987 . 3 s. focairt, TBC-I¹ 3656 . LU 3279 . Ériu ii 33.14 , 15 . 3 pl. fochartatár, LU 1735 ( RC ix 480 : Cf. fachartar, Ml. 64a10 ). Pass. pres. s. focertar, Thes. ii 249.10 . fochertar, LU 5018 (= focherddar, TBC-I¹ 529 . fomcertor, ZCP xv 301§4 . focerddar, Sg. 71a19 . fucertar Wb. 34a2 . pl. focerdatar, Ml. 96c11 . fócerddetar, TBC-LL¹ 6145 . imperf. s. focherte, LL 106b34 . subj. past s. focertha, BDD 85 D (focerta UY). fut. s. focicherthar, LU 7129 ( BDD 81 ). focichertar, IT ii 178.137 . —foic[h]ert[h]ar, ZCP xii 235.16 . pl. fochichritar, SR 8324 . pret. s. focres, Ann. Inisf. 2b8 . focress, Hy v 48 ; 72 ; 79 . LU 4618 . fochress, 7060 ( BDD 72 ; focreas Y). pl. focressa, LU 6924 ( BDD 54 ). The pret. pass. rochres, LL 77b19 ( TBC-LL¹ 2586 ), rochress, LU 6439 . do creasadh, Acall. (Leabh. ó Laimhsgr.) ii 73.25 . bhacresa, H 3.17 ; Eg. ( TBC-LL¹ p. 367 ) is by Windisch referred to this verb.

Analogical forms: pret. 3 pl. facheirdset, —ar, TBC-LL¹ 3630 . 3712 . focherdsat, TBC-LL¹ p. 895 n. 11 . fochertsat, Hugh Roe 166.12 (f. 44b) .

B From —cuirethar: ind. pres. 3 pl. —cuiretar, BCr. 32b11 . imperat. 2 s. cuirthe, Ml. 56c5 . cuire, BCr. 32c11 . LU 10821 . IGT, Decl. ex. 460 . cure, LU 4784 . LL 279b17 . 2 pl. cuirid, Wb. 27b11 . subj. pres. 2 s. —coirther, Wb. 10a21 . 3 s. —corathar, Ml. 68b9 . ZCP xi 84.32 (= coradar, LL 294a1 ). past 3 s. —corad, LU 4724 . Metr. Dinds. iv 132.17 . pret. 3 s. —corastar, Ml. 39a3 . LU 4919 . LL 117b34 . TBFr. § 20 . Pass. past subj. s. —corthe, LU 4762 (—coirthe, Eg., —coirthi Y).

C From —lá: ind. pres. 1 s. níro láim , LU 4774 . (?) imperf. pl. 3 —raltais, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 41 § 31 . subj. pres. 1 s. —ral Wb. 7a4 . —rol, LL 251a39 . —rolur, LU 5225 . —ralór, 6875 . 3 s. ro laa , 4740 . mani laa , 4766 . —rala, Wb. 11b21 . Cf. coro láis , LU 1378 (a later -s- formation, like 2 sg. —rabhais ?). 1 pl. coro lam , LU 3781 . 2 pl. —roláid, LU 6874 . 3 pl. co rrálat , LU 6725 ( BDD 21 ; co rolat Y). past subj. 3 s. coro lád , LU 4616 . 3 pl. —roltis, TBC-I¹ 808 = róiltis, LU 5283 . ind. perf. 1 s. roláosa, 4791 ( Pedersen Vgl. Gr., ii 499 , takes this as pres.). rolaus, LL 147a41 . rodalláus, 249b40 . 2 sg. rollais, 251b14 . 3 s. ro laa , Sg. 75a4 . ralasom, Tur. 80 . ro láeside , LU 2928 . —ralae, Ml. 90c17 . corralai, LL 260b14 . ro láoi , IGT, Introd. § 4 . rālastar (: at-āgastar `feared') ACC 56 Comm. 2 pl. ro lasid , Wb. 15d1 . —ralsid, 15a1 . 3 pl. ro laset , Thes. ii 343.43 . roláiset, LU 7032 . —rolsat, Ml. 16d2 . —ralsat, Rawl. 164a48 . —ralsatar, Metr. Dinds. iv 144 . Pass.: fut. lafithir, BDD 81 Eg ( RC xxii 179 n. 13 ; cf. cuirfithir ib. n. 14 ). pres. subj. s. coraltar, LL 269a16 . pl. —ralatar, Laws iv 206.14 . past s. coralta, ScM. § 5 (corolatha; co ro lathea v.l.). perf. ind. s. rolaad, Wb. 13d9 . Sg. 153b6 . rollaad, Ml. 29c1 (second a over line). 44d2 . YBL 212b39 . cor laud, LB 60b31 . pl. rolathe, Rawl. 73b31 . roláithea, Fél. Prol. 41 (—láithe, —lathe, —latha v.l.). rolaitea, Fél.² clvii 7 . Cf. rosaralta (= frisa ralta ?), Ériu viii 156.22 . Vn. 1 cor, q.v.

I

(a) sets, puts, places (with FOR, I N-, IMM, etc.): focertar ... it bois is laid on thy palm Thes. ii 249.10 . fuchertat a laim íarna cúl who put their hand behind their back Ml. 93a25 . focairt dī lāim ima bráigit embraces him ZCP viii 311.14 . foceirtt lamae fair lays hands upon him Mon. Tall. § 66 . ní for fírduine rolaset a ṅgona `inflicted their wounds' (ref. to: in fer fordacorsatar | goíta, Hy v 66 ), Thes. ii 343y . benaid ... a cethri cinnu díb ┐ focheird for ceth[e]ora benna na gabla, LU 4799 . focherd in láech ... lossa ┐ lubi íci ... i cnedaib ... Con C. applies 6341 . focherdat i ndabaig; ... in dabach aile in ro lád, 5201 . is aire sein rolathe na da mac for Tibir, Rawl. 73b31 . fodosceirdi ... it beolu na mírenda `these morsels thou must put in thy mouth' MacCongl. 97z . focheird cach fer a brat immáraile, LU 7542 ( BDD 107 ). focheird fáthi n-imbi, LU 5748 . foruapratar ... in cathraig co ro lasat faithe fiangaiscid impe, Anecd. ii 54 § 16 . dolluid nél solas imme co corustar a beolu for talmain , LB 146a19 . alterutro .i. ní alteroutro ... issechtar rolaa a dilledchi ní immedón `'tis outside he has put (exposuit) its declinability, not in the middle [i.e. not `altero utro'] Sg. 75a4 . ni du choscrad in tempuil storidi ralasom `that He has put it' Tur. 80 (or does this belong to II? Cf. III). Iar mac N. ro láoi íarmbérla san nGaoidhilg, IGT, Introd. § 4 . ro láiset láma do, ┐ ron ergabsat, PH 3101 . Cf. frim gruad corcra ma chora | dom ruacht bochta fombera, Auraic. 5342 (`auch wenn ich Purpur auf meine Wange bringe' Thurn., ZCP xvii 292 ). F.¤ FOR AIRD displays, exhibits: na clesrada ... focheird Fer d. bar aird, TBC-LL¹ 3748 (= tuc St). 3757 (= cuiris a n-airde St). Cf. rolaiset na lama co lanard risna lannaib raised their hands aloft with the blades (?) Ériu viii 44.35 . plants, sows: mad grainne cruithnechte foceirr, Wb. 13c24 . conasrolaside (conid roláas v.l.; leg. condarolaside) isna hinadaib in robo dóig leis a nn-ás, Ériu iv 150 § 29 . ro-hairedh in mag ┐ rolaad sil cruithnechta ann, YBL 212b39 (= Ériu v 114 ). Of pitching (a tent), throwing up (a pile, mound), erecting, etc.: focress a phupall ... for Ailill, LU 4618 (= do A., TBC-LL¹ 390 ). focherdat a puiple icond áth sin, LU 5524 . do creasadh a phuball for an aird-rí, Acall. (Leabh. ó Laimhsgr.) ii 73.25 . card ... fochertitis in tan ba n-orgain. carnd roláiset ... in tan sin they used to make a cairn ... (etc.) BDD 67 ( LU 7031 ). focherte a ḟert ┐ a lecht ┐ a lie, LL 106b34 ( Ériu iv 26 ). rolad a fert ┐ a llia la C., Ériu v 213.122 . tairsiu ... coraltar mo ḟertsa latt, LL 269a16 ( ZCP iii 3 ; coro altar, coro claidter v.l.). focres a fert ann, Ann. Inisf. 2b8 . ro ladh a lia ┐ a lecht ... ar Muig Rein, Fen. 140.1 . tri liic ... Conall C. roda lā `placed them' Ériu viii 156.29 . cuma damh ... cibe focher trillsi treph raises wicker dwellings CS 610 = RC xvii 168 (Tig.), Bruchst. i § 90 (see trilis). For: rolād trā a gāir guba ┐ a ḟert ┐ a lia, Ériu i 120 § 13 , cf. (h).

(b) throws, casts, often of missiles: sís fucertar cech ingor suas fuscerdam ni, Wb. 34a2 . corralsat sis anchoram, Thes. ii 328.41 ( Hy v Comm. ) = co ro laiset sís a n-ingir, IT i 39 (< LB 82 marg. inf.). amal focerdatar saichtea for naimtea, Ml. 96c11 . focherd ... G. saigit forsin anmunna, PH 6304 . fochairt a chroísig forro, LU 3281 . fogabatside in n-id focheird [focheard TBC2] Cú C. ... Fír ol F. Cu C. rodla, 4732 ; 4741 . ní théssid secce conda rala nech úaib co n-áenláim, 4809 . bágais Cu C. ... fochichred cloich as a thábaill forru, 5291 . nochon ḟetur ... ní frisi corthe in t-id `I know not ... anything for which the withe should have been thrown' LU 4762 . fucaird L. liic talma dō `cast a sling-stone at him' RC xii 100 § 135 . fochartatár íarom bunsaig ... isa leth i mbátár na finna, LU 1736 . focherded a líathróit ┐ focherded a loirg ina díaid, 5005 . cía focerta míach ... fora mulluch `though a sackful ... were flung on his crown' 6821 ( BDD 38 ). f¤ saile spits : fo-cresa saile (MS saili) ... i n-einech dúilemon 'the face of the Creator was spat upon', Blathm. 191 ​. focheird a saili forsin n-ailig = projecit Lat. Lives 57 . fochairt [a luathred] i n-alt in maro, LU 1725 . Cf. fo[ci]chiur (?) an īch issan sāile I will throw the salmon Anecd. i 73 § 207 (= nan-cuirer, v.l. ruscurius, RC x 88.11 ). ro láithea for bíastaib `they have been cast to wild beasts' Fél. Prol. 41 . With cognate acc., or advb.: fochichursa aurchor dait, LU 5761 . tuc som a láim fon deil cliss dó ┐ focheird rout n-urchair úad TBC-LL¹ 1270 . focairt imroll missed his aim LU 3279 . ni focertiti imroll les, CCath. 2830 . F.¤ IMMUDU, IMMACH throws away, loses: is cor roda lláus immudu it is a cast wherewith I cast it away, i.e. I have lost it TBFr. § 13 . fon-rollassat immach a lloeg they lost her calf Irish Texts i 7 § 24 . frithe ... sleibe, da trian do fir fodngaib ┐ aentrian ... do neoch foceirr amach, Laws v 320x . F.¤ CRANNCHOR (CRANN), F.¤ AR C. casts lots: rollaad crannchur foir, Ml. 29c1 . focres crandchor forro dús cía díb lasa ragtha i tossoch, LU 6879 ( BDD 47 ; —creasa Y). co rolaset chrandchor inter se, Thes. ii 328.41 ( Hy v Comm = co ro laiset sortem, LB 82 marg. inf.). roláiset cranncur cia dib dia roised in flaithius ar tus, D IV 2, 77 [71]rb10 . focerdar crann eturru dus cia de beres ..., Laws iv 172.9 . focerdat crann iman agh mbeo dus ci ..., 102.11 . co rolaa ar crandchar and cia dia teccema a coimet, YBL 156a23 . See crann and crannchor. Cf. berar mucc ┐ ag ... dóib, ┐ apar friu a mmunter féin da n-irgnam dóib. foscichret i crandchor, RC xiii 444w ( LL 289b8 ).

(c) casts down, overthrows: dobeirsi dí láim friu ... conda ral[a] fón ṅglend pitched them into the valley LL 279b20 ( SG 414 ). Cf. doriacht Cethern ... acus focress in dunad ┐ in longphort foraib ┐ noṅgonand cach imme, TBC-LL¹ 4261 (= fosnobairside iarum tresin dūnad ┐ gontaiseom sochaidi, TBC-I¹ 2761 ). F. TAR CEND upsets, prostrates: is mór ríg ralā dar cend, Hail Brigit § 20 . atnagat a ṅgol ... co corastar na daíni ... tar cend, TBFr. § 20 . ro láiset ... a tech tar a cend, LU 1507 ( MU² 1003 ). Cf. fosceird dar a cend ┐ sí marb she falls down dead LL 117a29 (= RC viii 62 ). Cf. II for constr. Fig. is e ro lá dar cend ar forcetulne PH 1686 .

(d) F.¤ A, DE throws off, expels; drops, sheds: rolaad cech alt as a choir dam (gl. totus resolutus sum a campage membrorum) Ml. 44d2 . amal foceirt nech a aetach de Wb. 32c11 . foceirt a chocal de throws off his cowl Trip.² 904 . focertam fíal diínn, Wb. 15b4 . cuirid díib in nere se (gl. deponite ... de) 27b11 . (of a bull:) fochéird de na tri .l. mac nobitís oc cluchiu fair, LU 5330 . .xx. fer focherd de expelled 5819 . foceird a athair mac ingor a horba (.i. ada cuirid ... as in fearand), Laws iii 52.17 . faceird dia aicniud drives him from his nature (gl. perturbat) Ml. 94c8 . focicher don nirt i ttá `will hurl him from the power in which he is' BNnÉ 307 § 29 . is and roláset na bae a n-adarca díb LL 166a18 (= oralsat, BB 408a44 . con rallsat, Dinds. 123 ). cor lasat a n-adarca `till they cast their horns' Dinds. 16 . (cf. and sin ro chuirset na búair a mbenda, Metr. Dinds. iv 224 ). See also (e). is and rola C. in cennidi dia chinn, ScM. 15 . do láoi don chróisigh a ceann | gearr do bháoi an cróisin gan chrann, IGT, Decl. ex. 577 . F.¤ TAR: focheird úir da luib taris (of a bull ploughing up the earth with its hooves) TBC-LL¹ 1490 . Similarly: fócerddetar in n-úir thairsiu 6145 .

(e) puts forth, emits, sends out: focertar fíadain leó are sent with them LU 8869 ( FB 66 ). na rre ... focerdat in bech saithe `when the bees send out a swarm' Laws iv 172.13 (glossed: i cuirid beich ... uaithib). focherdsat na draoithe gaotha draoidhechta ina ndéoidh, Leb. Gab.(i) i 254z . do neoch fo-cheard doman de `all that earth brings forth' Ir. Review 1912, 248 . an dā each ... rolasett fa sech ri sliab, BColm. 90.4 . rolaad gairm escaire for naomaib hErenn `a call was made on' 54.21 . cuire huait, BCr. 32c11 (gl. tolle opp. to adde). Cf. di[a]ndrala huait CXVIII dofuarat latt ... (gl. tolle Kalendas, remanent CXX) Bvi 74 (`subjektlos,' hence 3 s., Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 499 ). gur láoi ioth, KMMisc. 168 § 5 .

Cf. focress di grán, mass a méin (om. comma and render: its ore was sent from a goodly grain ?), Metr. Dinds. iii 120.16 .

(f) launches (a boat): rolaisead a curach for muir, RC xxvi 136 § 8 . Cf. focerd a luing ... sech Eirinn soir `steered his vessel' Lism. L. 252 .

(g) In various figurative senses corresponding to above: ní rolsat som cumachtae ṅDé diib did not cast off the power of God Ml. 16d2 . focertar side ... hi selbad ind fir sin `is thrown into the possession of' 30c3 . i n-oena focerddar ┐ dofuasailgther cach áram (gl. omnes numeri ex [singulari] componuntur) Sg. 71a19 . is illeith Duid ... focert a n-ugturras refers (ascribes) their authorship to D. Hib. Min. 4. 131 . nach breth dobeirthe co Conn, foscerdded Conn cucisum, Caratnia § 1 . ro lá gach oman de, Leb. Gab.(i) i 198y . cach eccomnart ... romfarraid ... ro laas dīm fom cumhang, BNnÉ 301.2 . raráid A. ná curfed P. de in n-athis ... coro ralad tria chath ... do denam fri Grécu, LL 228a34 ( TTr. 818 ). in feil bis for luan focertar for mairt the feast ... is transferred to Tuesday LB 9b46 ( Rule of Tallaght § 10 ). o atraracht Crist a bás rolaad in cháisc iarom for dómnach was transferred to Sunday KMMisc. 146.5 . abbair fris, ní corathar a ḟlaith eter rindi gaí, ZCP xi 84.1 . foncerddam il-leth ar Tigernai let us entrust ourselves to our Lord LL 283a19 . Lism. L. viii . nícon béosa fot chumachta-su bas ire diandum roib forsa rol mo greis, TBFr. § 22 (`if I have anyone under whose protection I may put myself' Ériu xi 94 ). Cf. forollat for do greiss that have come [? put themselves ?] under thy protection Ériu viii 173.18 . See Mary Byrne, Ériu xi 94 ff . rolāsett each an dru[i]th ... for greis in aesa imthruimm, BColm. 90.5 . Cf. rotog ... gach dechnebar dib a menmarc do naemuib E., ┐ rolaiset fora muinteras ... ┐ rolaiset forro ainecrus a n-indtige ┐ a n-imtechta co toirsitis E., Lism. L. 2073 . do neoch doraega ┐ ro laí ina muinteras, LU 1393 (cf. II below). rolaite for coindmed cach naidchi they were quartered out every night YBL 209b46 ( Ériu v 236 ). focerd a n-oman cach tuaith `it casts every tribe into dread' Fianaig. 12 § 19 . ma cuaird focheird a toimsi it is measured by the circumference SR 169 = ima cuairt ... focert a tomus, Laws i 28.25 . rolasid súil torunn you have taken our measure Wb. 15d1 . 15a1 . ní ro láim súil toraib isind fid `I cannot cast my eye over them' (i.e. cannot see them all together) LU 4774 . tíagait ... co rolsat súil tairsiu ┐ ba dírim leó in slúag, 3782 ( SCC 35 ). Cf. o ralathur suil dar cach, Ériu ii 229 § 8 . focheird airdmius forsin lorg makes an estimate of LU 4788 . roláosa ... fomus forsa nī sin, 4791 . Mael S. ... focheird síth ima sen-mag `spreads peace' Metr. Dinds. i 44 . With DO of person: offers, grants (to): cid dam focerdta roga | nogegainn mo choimthoga if I were given my choice ZCP vi 267 § 11 . focres rogu do Mug Ruith do thírib Muman viii 314.19 . ro lád roga dóib, LU 8720 ( FB 54 ). With FOR of pers. lays, imposes (on); bestows (on): rolā cāin forsna clanna, Hy i 52 ( Thes. ii 306 ). cáin Patraic ... fucres for cach claind, Trip. 214.1 (2518) . turfochruic flathu foceird for doim `which he grants to an indigent person' (one of the seven bestowals not recoverable by distraint) Laws v 264.16 . rolá bricht forru cast a spell over them Metr. Dinds. iii 388.27 . F.¤ COMAIRLI takes counsel; plans: focres comairli ic lucht na cathrach cidh dogentais, CCath. 920 . focressá comairle léo cinnus dogendais ..., 130 . Cf. focresa cro comairle ┐ cindti comraid ac macaib S. Ériu viii 56.9 . F.¤ COR, CUAIRT turns, twists, makes a stir; goes round; visits; searches: nocon foicher cor dia chind riut will not turn his head towards thee TBC-I¹ 706 (= focher, LU 5184 ). na curid cor díb do not stir LL 259b20 ( IT i 67 ). focheird C. cor n-íach n-eirred de, LU 9119 ( FB 87 ). focerd Fergus cor conidralai for tech mbecc, IT i 144.4 (= do lá F. cuairt, ZCP v 501 . Cf. luid C. ┐ B. du chur cúarta fofúaratár óentech, LU 10579 ). focherd a suilchor issin tig casts a glance ib. IT i 144.16 (= foceird luathchor dá sūil isin tigh, ZCP v 501 ). oral cúairt fuiribsi that I may visit you Wb. 7a4 . asbert M. ... ar a n-indled a noi carpti dí coro lád cor isin dúnud, LU 4616 . regmai coro lam cor imón slúag, 3781 . ro lá curu in gaeth ... im Inber ..., Otia ii 82 . coro lá cor immán rigthech, LU 8381 ( FB 25 ). luid ... corralai cor imma techsom, LL 260b14 ( IT i 74 ). fochichret cuaird in domuin will go round SR 8088 . cia leith focheird a chainchuaird, 1198 . rolá cúairt hÉrend fo thrí `he made the circuit of Erin thrice' Metr. Dinds. i 16.30 . Cf. fochress cach cúaird imm alaile don díbeirg fri éitsecht in scéoil arranged themselves in concentric circles LU 7060 ( BDD 72 ). See 1 cor, 1 cúairt. focheird cor tra do menmannaib araile cid foruair, etc., the minds of some are exercised by the question, what caused LB 212a66 ( Alex. 1014 ). F.¤ COR makes a contract or agreement: cor focerdcar [sic] seach aga fine `a covenant made without the knowledge of the chief' Laws iv 60.12 . cor foceird baeth fri gaeth, iii 6.19 . dā cor focerdaiter fri hechlacha, iv 58.24 Comm . nach cor ... focerdtar for aes forngaire, ZCP xiii 23.23 ( Bürgschaft 11 § 37 ). inge secht n-uasalchuru nadat asu do thaithbiuch neochma rolatar [sic leg., ZCP xvi 271 ], Laws iv 210.2 . fo bith nand asu dichenglad cor mbel inneochma ralatar, 206.14 . coro-lasat a curu bliadain fri D., Dinds. 22 = BB 363a6 . With ellipse (cf. i): flaith foceird fri anflaith, Laws v 358.7 (expld. in Comm. p. 360 as one who accepts stock from an unlawful or extern chieftain). Cf. focerd fri flaith n-eachtrunn, ii 286.5 Comm . Similarly: focerd a mainche fri eagluis (= makes a contract of service with? See mainche) iii 68.5 . Eochaid mac O. focheird cuindlic [ = cuindilc] ┐ a hocht brathair E. and his eight brothers make a pact Anecd. iii 61.15 . focartatar coindi[l]c ib. 30 . ┐ focheird a ḟoesam ┐ a oentaid fris, Fél. 132.25 (see fáes(s)am). cach cor ... cach idnucul focertur forsna urgurtuib sa (.i. cuirither resin lucht ro urgairustur dligedh cunnrud do denum), Laws ii 290 ( ZCP xiv 376 ). Cf. is mōr ríg frisrala cor currech Corpri ... `whom the Curragh of C. has overthrown' [? to whom ... has plighted itself] Hail Brigit § 16 . F.¤ BEDG makes a leap, jumps, springs: focheird bedg cuce springs at him LL 260a41 ( IT i 72.19 ). rola Cu Ch. bedg de tresin mbudin, LU 1517 ( MU² 1015 ). focherdat in miolcoin bedg i mBrei, TBFr. § 5 . focheird Cu Ch. tri bidcu ina ndíaid, LU 5795 . See bedg, and cf. do-cuirethar. Cf. ni fuailfed focheird inti | luaithred M. `no motion in it made the ashes of M.' Metr. Dinds. ii 62.5 . F.¤ SCÍS rests: arrallsat scis a tig rig, YBL 13a21 ( Snedg. u. Mac R p. 12 ). Cf. lotar hi tír do chor a scísi, Trip.² 376 .

(h) of sounds, noises: utters, makes; raises (a shout, cry): focherdat ... gāir foa cheer him LU 8849 ( FB 64 ). focheird osnaid sighs LL 371a8 . ro lasat gáir mesca 259b15 ( IT i 67 ). biasta ... fochichret gaire garga SR 8060 . focherd srainn snores BS § 27.1 . focerd ilach cheers Laws i 244.6 Comm. focertitis ualla mora ┐ grithghairi `uttered great yells and howls' RC xiv 46.2 . baili i ralsat Gaill grithgair, Rawl. 164a48 = ait i rrollsat G. crithgair, LL 185a44 ( Arch. Hib. ii 85 ). roláadh gáir móir and, TTr.² 1640 . dia ralsatar fíanna faíd `raised a cry' Metr. Dinds. iv 144 . focheird fáid ... cloc bind, Auraic. 5131 . foceird fit ... frissin n-escmogin hisses at O'Mulc. 527 . Cf. for braigtib rig foceird feit (of a sword) LU 1042 ( ACC 101 ) = LU 9673 ( ZCP iii 214 ). fochartatar a ndord n-impi, LU 7850 ( BDD 141 ). a ngloim ro lásat na tri .l. curach oc tuidecht hi tír (the noise they made) LU 6935 ( BDD 55 ). Here perhaps f.¤ grith: (of weapons on a rack:) ro lásat grith co mbátár for lár in tige, LU 6936 ( BDD 55 ). (of swords, etc. tossed by a juggler:) fochartatár grith immi co mbátar for lár in tige, LU 7560 , 7568 ( BDD 109 , 110 ). foceird armgrith mór a rrígthech the house clattered (?) LU 8203 ( FB 15 ). (of a regiment:) an armgrith rolāsad oc teacht ind rēimme, TBC-I¹ 3221 . fochertar armgrith mór leo .i. mac sethar ind ríg do folmaisiu a báis, LU 5018 . rola Temair tri crithu [leg. grithu ?] di ┐ rolaiset na sluaigh ... ┐ roláset primdingnai Erenn uile, Anecd. ii 7.19 . Cf. f.¤ dírna, below, III.

(i) performs, executes, wages: f.¤ cath, etc.: fochartatar ... an [leg. na] coin cocluiche `the hounds had a coursing-match' RC xii 72 § 43 . secht catha raláe ma thīr, LL 44b33 (= ro ládh mun tir, 380b41 ). desin rolád ... in cath for fál F. `hence was fought ... the battle at the fence of F.' Metr. Dinds. iii 346.97 . gur laoi is Oilill cath Cláraigh GF, Ir. Monthly 1919, 168 . With FOR of defeated side: in cath ... rolá for leith Chuind, Metr. Dinds. iii 200.17 . With FRI of opponent: co róiltis glied fris, LU 5283 . Cf. anaid sund ... conid rolursa frisin fer n-ucut till I tackle that man LU 5225 . mad comáes nod corad fris `had it been his match in age who opposed him' Metr. Dinds. iv 132. 17 . DO: focerd gliaidh do Aen. 2505 . Cf. focichret for collaib coin congala, RC xxvi 38 § 201 . co rrálat a ndíbeirg for firu Alpan, LU 6725 (`that they may wreak their rapine on the men of A.', Stokes, BDD 21 ). co rrólsat a ndibeirg lais, LU 6729 ( BDD 22 ). f.¤ ár (with gen. of obj.) slaughters; overthrows in battle: fochiuchra for tiugára, LU 4583 (= con curfe, TBC-LL¹ 290 ). focerddat a n-ár ┐ marbait in ríg, LL 242b5 ( TTr. 1910 ). cor muidh for Gallaib ┐ cur ládh a n-ár, RC xvii 351.20 (Tig.). co rolládh a n-ár etir ergabail ┐ marbadh, 355.26 (Tig.). rosceastar sliabh nEthna sruaim tened ... gu ro lae ar daini ┐ cethra ann, CCath. 854 . co ráemid for Gúari corro lad ár cend and LU 9605 . focerdded ār ceann and, BB 428b29 . Cf. co rolad ár mór dib and, Ann. Inisf. 19a14 (988) .

II Used to take the place of an intrans. vb. of motion.

(a) in older lang. in impers. constr., often with inf. pron. obj. (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 310 ff .): facheirt in alios sonos `it puts itself [ = passes] into other sounds' Sg. 4b6 . fosceird dar a cend ┐ sí marb she falls down dead LL 117a29 (cited above, I c). This is evidently the same construction as that in: arnach corathar immoth ... dia seirc that he may not become stupefied from love of them Ml. 68b9 . Cf. dia corastar Saul foir isin nuaim i mboí when S. chanced upon him Ml. 39a3 . bec nacham ralae i nderchoíniud I almost despaired 90c17 . (Cf. becc náchimrala húathbás, BDD 87 Y, where DEU omit becc). ni foichred cnoi díb for lár not one nut would fall LU 7329 ( BDD 97 ; ni rossed cnú díb lár, Eg.). focerd F. cor conidralai for tech mbecc ann, IT i 144.5 . foscerd iarsin i n-araile indsi `they land' RC x 72 (foscairt v.l.). foscerd do inis they come to an island Anecd. i 56 § 45 ; fosceirt, 59 § 74 . dochuamar a tir sunna, ronla a nuaim in Ciclopdai `we landed here and went into the Cyclops cave' Aen. 154 . is and rolasi co Cathbath, LL 259b26 . YBL 109b37 ( IT i 68 ; rolaad sí, Eg.). foscerd ... imonsech fo c[h]osmailess luathrinde they are whirled round (of three opposing sea-currents) Corm. Y 323 . nosuighfedh cid Erind focher[r]ad ind, ib. fotcicher i súan | nimchicher i súan thou wilt fall asleep. I will not LL 147a22 ( PRIA iii 548 ). nach duine rodacuala son foscerded i cess, LL 126a18 . focerd E. i ces a ben do eludh `it grieved E. that his wife had eloped' Ériu xii 188.7 . foscichreth uili i ndāssacht, Ériu ii 136.1 . amal snechtae fosceird i robāne `which is cast into great whiteness' 130 § 99 . fosceird iar sen a muir naill, YBL 6b45 (= focheirdat ass iar sein hi mmuir n-aill LU 1887 ; see section b below). foscerdsom ína cotludh they fall asleep YBL 5a21 = fochairt inna cotlud, LU 1801 . Cf. srethius fair ... in slig conid rallá ina chomsudiu, LU 5148 . rolá didiu i socht ... Mac D. Mac D. became silent ScM. 3 . roslá i socht na hUlto, 9 (= rolá socht mór forra R). focherd A. i serg de A. falls into a wasting sickness LU 10730 (TÉ). ge robatar longphorta slog in domain i n-athfoccus don tigh sin ni rolae tigerna in tige i snimh ... uair ni rabattar ... innmassa occo, CCath. 3337 . is ann sin ro láa [rogabsat; ro ba v.l.] curudha ... for tocbháil a fedhma catha, CCath. 2016 (cf. section c). Cf. ni rola imroll mo urchur cussindiu, LU 3281 .

Exceptionally to express completion of action: ic coistecht fris dóib uile coro láis in tasfénad sin do dénam, LU 1378 (= con roisc, LL 280b32 , corroisc, YBL 120b25 ). Cf. rolāi dí had achieved ' Fianaig. 46 § 9 .

(b) Somet. with reflex. inf. pron.: foscerdat inna buidne form ranks LU 4684 , cf. ro lasat i ndrungo ... ┐ buidne, BB 414b10 . Cf. TBC-I² 246 n. 211 .

(c) hence as intrans. vb. denoting indefinite motion (though some of the following may be corruptions really belonging to section a). lit. and fig.: is and fochichersom ar gním n-aithergaib [sic leg.] `he will resort to' BDD 102 c , (cf. CCath. 2016 cited in section a). focicher crú tria chnessaib blood will burst through skin (?`ich werde Blut ... springen lassen' Wi.) TFerbe 648 . focertat i suan co cenn tri la fall asleep RC xiv 46.17 (cf. YBL 5a21 cited in section a). focherddat Ulaid chuci, LL 124a25 ( Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 6 ). focerd C. a magh mor a aenur `C. found himself on' [went in to ?] IT iii 195.3 . focherd i tracht romra comes to (= anchors in) Anecd. ii 15 § 8 . focerd in long i roibi S. ┐ lenaid for carraic ` struck ' Aen. 1010 . focairt chos in Duind C, ar adairc a chele alighted TBC-I¹ 3656 . focaird forsin cuanlocht na mac tíre came upon the wolf-pack ZCP viii 310.40 . Cf. ar chribais il-leirg ... daceird [focheird v.l.] [my dog] comes upon a pig (?) IT i 162.4 ( LL 208a12 ). fochard and Morrigan ... do tascc an catha `proceeded to proclaim' RC xii 108 § 166 .

Cf. rolaus cian i cein | ar do charait i mbrōn, LL 147a41 ( PRIA iii 548 . Supply cuairt ?).

III In the following idiomatic constructions

(a) with AR (cf. II): ni áil dúib á iarfigid arna rala for cubus áiri lest it distress your conscience Wb. 11b21 (Thes. takes `for' as prep., comparing: act ni roib ní for cocubus, 30a16 ). focerd a chubus som ar tomailt torith na muindtiri `he exercised his conscience about eating the produce' Mon. Tall. 77 . ni ralá do cless n-airiut cosinnocht never troubled (?) thee LU 7562 ( BDD 109 ). ní arná corad mo chiall | arna fordulu no tíag it is not that my mind heeds not the strayings (= that I am not acting intentionally ?) LU 4724 . Michél ... focheird mo menma airi `M. ... my mind is set on him' Ériu ii 92.6 .

(b) In the following the vb. seems transitive: focairddsi menmain for in gilla set her heart on RC xxv 346 § 2 . ní foíchiursa mo menmain for óclach n-aile, TBFr. § 24 . ro láeside menmain fora macsom, LU 2928 . Cf. ráthaigis E. aní sin ┐ focheird a menmain airi she considered it (= was puzzled by it ?) LU 10743 .

(c) focerd dano menma in coca thairis cur bhá slan a sechtmain the cook forgot him (?) till a week passed Lism. L. 1997 .

(d) f.¤ for weighs on, grieves, vexes: na cuirid fortsu sin ... uair fogebum uili in t-olc sin grieve not for that BB 445a37 ( Mer. Uil. 10 ). ralágh [prob. for ro-lá] ... cumha a banchéle for an ríg coma ... imeslān é, ZCP xiii 197.12 . bai aenfer ... fornar laessat na cumscaigthi mora sin `whom those great commotions did not affect' CCath. 1086 . atcuas doséin a mhac do epilt. rolá fair go mór go mbaí hi siurcc, AFM vi 2218.20 . (of rain:) ba moa rolá for muintir Uí D. na frossa ferthana ... inás for ṡlógh an Gh., 2034.2 . ar a mhēd rolā fair gan a ṡlogh dia tharrachtain, Hugh Roe 252.29 (67b) .

ba fou fachart[at]arsom it was for that that they applied(?) it Ml. 64a10 . Cf. ni du choscrad in tempuil storidi ralasom `it is not of the destruction of the ... temple that he has put it (gl. non id ille dixit quod illi dicunt Comm. on Marco P. xiv 58 ) Tur. 80 . ba dō fachairtsam son, ar nicontissed aridisse, RC xi 444.3 (= ba do focerdsom anni sen for Coin C. fodeig arna contissed ..., ZCP iii 247.1 ). (Expl. of cruimther as transl. of premther:) in Bretain ... it ē dorintaiset ┐ is anni as premter dorintaiset. is fair iarom rolaset legnidhe na mB. annīsin: amail is lomm, etc. Corm. Y 211 (= is fáei ... latharsat LB; is foi ... rolasat HM. O'Don., Corm. Tr., renders LB `accordingly the literati of the B. explained it'). ni cian rollā for dāla did not long delay (?) SR 7651 .

(e) f.¤ dírna di = scares (?): fochérd dírna mór din tslóg co luid Medb día chosc, LU 4685 . atracht in slōg uile ara chind ┐ rola dirmae din chath imbi oc teacht isin telaig TBC-I¹ 3288 = ro lá dírna dina cathaib ┐ dina sluagaib ac déscid in láich sin, TBC-LL¹ 5391 . See Hermathena 1931 p. 4 , and cf. f.¤ grith I (h) above.

1 fulacht

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 fulacht or dil.ie/24930

 

Forms: -aicht, -achta

n u, m. (cf. fulacht m. g s. -aicht and -achta, given under decl. of beandacht, but proscribed as a faulty form, IGT, Decl. § 25 ). The original sense is uncertain ; recess, cavity (?) ; cf. caide i nduine aitreibh an ghotha ? .i. i bfulachtaibh taoibh ┐ tromchridhe, Ériu xiii 36.5 . 24 . ceithre huide [an ghotha] .i. a f.¤ go druim, a druim go bruinne, a bruinne go braighe, a braighe go beola, 36 . im-foilge guth i bfulachtaibh taoibh, 37.21 (= i bfolachtaibh toib, O'Dav. 1094 ).

Freq. in the meaning cooking-pit, fireplace (usually out of doors, in a wood), hence also the act of cooking, esp. roasting or baking: co n-accai in fer ocond ḟulucht i mmedón ind feda ... oc funi in tuircc, LU 4948 . o ro ṡernad Noísi ... fulocht for feda fianchlar | millsiu cach biud ... | araralad mac U., LL 261a25 ( LMU 17 ). (in list of common rights in a territory :) f.¤ cacha chaille .i. in ni ara ndentar f.¤ isin caill .i. ind[i]uin (see indeóin), Laws v 482.26 (484.12) . ag ... for fulucht ... ag ... inbruithe `a calf ... to be roasted ... a calf ... to be boiled ii 252y ( SM Facs. 31a , ZCP xiv 355 ). triar oc dénam fulochta (in an `imda') LU 7658 ( BDD 123 ). (in an encampment :) do hordaigheadh aca ... a bhfeasa ┐ a bhfulachta `their feasts and their cookings' ML 76.13 (1079) . fianbotha folachta, Cog. 60. 10 . dogniat ... fianbotha f.¤ ┐ feolchombach, Hugh Roe 132.11 (f.35b) . eoin a doiribh ... | rosoichtís f.¤ Fénne, Acall. 732 . ainm in chiuil dignitis na fianae um an bf.¤ fiansae, Corm. Y 562 . saigid folachtai co tinntud uad dot tig (a journey permitted on Sunday) LB 204b40 = s. foluchta, Anecd. iii 22 . ce atagtha for fulochtu iarum conusnesta ina carnu `on cooking-hearths' Ériu ii 122 § 63 . cf. um Dheirg ... dar cheird ... falocht i bhfinnḟeadhaibh, DDána 83.21 . i fianboith folachtae i ccuas cairrgi (where the outlawed Earl of Desmond was captured in 1583) AFM v 1794.1 . cf. féarbhoth [fian-, Atk.] fhulachta ` cooking-booth ' TSh. 5946 (disparaging simile of the world). folach fiann .i. both folachta, Laws i 206.4 Comm. `inadh fulachta so', ar F., `┐ is cian o dorindedh'. `Is fír, ar C., `┐ f.¤ na Morrighna so, ┐ ní déntá gan uisci', Lism. L. xliii . fulacht na Morrigna in so .i. blogh di feoil huim ┐ araili di ḟeoil ḟonaithi ┐ mir n-immi irse ┐ ni legad a n-im ┐ ba fonaithi a n-om ┐ ni ba loiscthi an bruithi ┐ moale nobitis a triur for in mbir, YBL 419a12 . Cf Fulacht na Morrigna and so .i. crand a roth ┐ crand a mol edtir teine ┐ uisci ┐ iarand a corp ┐ da nai rethlen as an moil sin, etc. Celt. Rev. viii 74 . cf. also Triads 120 . isind crand fulucht fianachta `the appropriated tree' Laws i 206.12 Comm. (referring to : im crand ngabala bis i ndithrib, 202.2 ; leg. crand-fulacht or crand fulachta ?). oc fulucht draidechtae brewing magic potions RC xii 100 § 133 . dē en foulachtae the fumes of the concoction, ib. bidh e an t-ionadh ainglidhe | a mbia fian bān i foluc[h]t, BNnÉ 193 § 13 .

By extension, the contents of the pit, food cooked: ba do gessib Con C. cen adall fulachta dia chaithim, LL 120a 14 . dia mbad ḟulocht mór nobeth and ib. 18 . co mbert a f.¤ n-uadaib carried off the food they had cooked RC xxv 344.3 . ba ferr folacht Formáoile | tri cháoga damh ... um cháoga muc, Duan. F. i 15.11 . ollamh re fagháil fulachta (= praeparatis ad escam) TSh. 7996 .

In later times certain spots were popularly called fulachta Fian (na bhF.) : do bhíodh do mhéid na dteinnte-se go bhfuilid a láithreacha dubhloiscthe i mórán d'áitibh i nÉirinn aniú ┐ is diobh ghairmid na criadhaireadha Fulacht Fian, Keat. ii 5113 .

The phrase FOR F.¤ camping ; in hiding is perhaps another extension : Ri dochoid fecht for folocht | ... diaro chind Iudas in mbrath | dia mbui i nGlind Iosofath, SR 7737 (hardly a ref. to the Last Supper, as suggested Duan. F. iii . More probably to Gethsemane). But a commoner word for this is folachta, q.v.

gríanaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. gríanaid or dil.ie/26632
Last Revised: 2019

 

v ā (grían) suns, warms in the sun: grīansum grīan, cāin cainnel may the sun, a fair torch, shine on me, ZCP x 347 § 16 . Vn.: nísfagbad a grīanad il-lō nō a thōcbáil i n-aidche it used not to get its sunning by day, MacCongl. 11.20 . is fair nobitis eōin Ērenn oc a ngrīanadh 'the birds of Ireland used to be sunning themselves upon it', ITS xxxix 20 § 220 (of Mag nElta).

immarcraid, immḟorcraid, immarcaid, immacraid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. immarcraid, immḟorcraid, immarcaid, immacraid or dil.ie/27746
Last Revised: 2019

 

n i, f. ? Orig. n. imarcraid n-innisen, BDD § 152. excess, surplus, super-abundance, superfluity: télach neich din imarcraid lenda `a discharge of some of the excess of liquid,' Mon. Tall. 164.12 . nar abbraitis fir hErend, da tuitted Fer diad lessium, ba hi.¤ legis daberad fair that it was through his having given himself more medical attendance, TBC-LL¹ 3593. dobérthar in coiméit cetna a túaid co n-imarcraid fair, Sc.M² § 2 R. y . ise rogha in athar in imforcraidh d'aisic uadh, Laws ii 174.11 Comm. cidbe dib aga mbe an imarccaidh, v 500.x . noco n-imarcraid lium lan a n-eneclainni dun righ `I do not think it too much,' v 74.5 . aithgin na himurcraide ro caith tairis d'ic ris `compensation for the excess which the borrower has used of it,' v 282.8 . imacraidh tainic immach i ndeghaidh na hathghabala, O'D. 2444 ( Rawl. B 506, fo. 60a ). gidh bec inn imacraidh bes and 'however small the excess there may be', Mar. Dis. 42 § 21 . is emiltius fri héstidib is imarcraid n-innisen `superfluity of narration,' BDD § 152. ro leblaing mucc díb tarsin carput is i.¤ in mucc sain a Medb or cach `that swine is one too many,' RC xiii 450 § 37. erain no erail .i. imforcraid, O'Dav. 780. nir' furail no imforcraidh staraide cacha cineda `a historian of every race were not too much,' CCath. 4406. mor fer ... ro foirrgit ... tre imforcraidh in eccomlainn `many men were destroyed by the overwhelming of an unequal fight,' 6021 . ni mar sin d'iumarcraid na sprédi `a superfluity of wealth,' PH 7752. do-bheirdis do no bochtaibh | a mbíodh acu d'iomarcaidh, DDána 27a § 9 . himurcroigh saethair, RC xix 254 § 165. is e is oibir dilius don naduir gach ni is imarcraid ┐ is urcoiddi d'innarbadh, xlix 38 § 12 . labrum anois do imarcaidh (imurcraigh v.l.) étaigh na ndímsach `of the excess of the proud in the matter of dress,' De Contemptu 2184 . iomarcaidh no easbaidh sunnartha `excess or insufficiency of definition,' IGT Introd. 2.25 . conadh he Cath Finntragha conigi sin gan imarcaidh gan easbaidh, CF 1038. cuir aradhna don umhla | i srian an eich allmhurdha | ... | bhacfas í dá hiomarcaidh that will curb her pride (of the body), Studies 1933, 406 § 4 . maighdean nar bh'iomarcuidh uaill, DDána 38 § 29. an lucht fuair flaitheas nimhe le hiomarcaidh aithrighe, 39.15 . ní rug nech díb imarcrad ó chéile d'áirde iná do méit `no single one did, whether in height or bulk, exceed another,' SG 246.37 . an tan itheas nó ólas sé iomarcaidh, Donlevy 166.5 .

Used attributively: gabtar cumal imarcraid du gach gradh dib sin, Laws v 24.z Comm. is forrán fich ... ┐ iss anfola i.¤ ┐ díth degdáini, TTr. 1612. ba cuman la Hercoil ina ḟích i.¤ ┐ ina anfolaid anfóill in gnímsain, 377 . co nach berdis a bhrogha d'ughra na d'foireicen imarcaid uad-som, MR 148.12 .

Of people, very many, too many, a multitude: dia rucuidh imurcuidh daimhe les in flaith `if the chief should bring too large a company,' Laws ii 232.6 Comm. ro mharbh imarcaidh loach, ML² 1809. mar fuaratur imarcraid na nem-charat Mac Diarmata i mbaegal do dortsed fair, Ann. Conn. 1405 § 15. adcondaircc imarcraid na Tiabanda ag tromlaigi air, TTebe 4012 . atá an iomarcaidh dhíobh ceanghailte ... do neithibh saoghalta, Donlevy ix.z . forlucht .i. roimurcad daoine, RC xxvi 45 n. 6 .

From the meaning excess comes that of advantage, superiority (over) ; also oppression, injustice: ní bái immarcraid neich díb ac áraile neither had an advantage over the other, TBC-LL¹ 3008. ata congancnes agat d'iomarcadh cles agus gaisgidh toramsa, 3847 . imurc[r]aidh na n-uasal ar n-a huirislibh `the prevailing of the nobles over the lowly,' AU iii 468.29 . beg dochim d'imarcaidh air `I see but few arrears accumulated against him,' O'Gr. Cat. 501.18. ni geb-sa an imarcaidh sin buaibh `I will not accept that advantage from you,' Stair Erc. 1847. ro bui imarcraigh adhbulmór ac Filoces o Ercuil `Ph. had a very great advantage over H.', 339 . ní rodhlighset cenél cConaill imforcraidh ó chenél nEóghain `the Cinel Conaill had no right to submission from the Cinel Eoghain,' Hugh Roe 200.4 . ata imarcaid eli it chenn `there is another odds against thee,' MR 204.10 . ba anfola ┐ ba immarcraid ┐ ba écóir a cartad a purt, TTr. 216. gach ágh agas gach acais agas gach iomarcaigh do fearadh 'na cheann `all the contests, the virulence and the injustice that had been worked against him,' ML 100.4 . dorónsat an lucht úd fairbricch ┐ iomarcradh foirn, AFM v 1670.10 . ní théarnó uan i nUltaibh | luagh éanbhó dom iomurcaidh `there went not from me into Ulster unjustly even the value of a single cow,' TD 3 § 22. ar sduaigh n-úir mbionnḟoclaigh mBreagh | iomarcaidh dúinn do dhéineamh `that I had done wrong to the ... hero of Bregia,' 15 § 5 . an ga bulga ag Coin Chuluinn | iomarcaidh narbh ionfhuluing, DDána 104 § 26. mó do-niam ort d'iomarcaidh `I do thee a greater wrong,' 84.13 . na hiongantaigh a chiabh cham | go mbiadh th'iomarcaidh agam `that I should have a superiority over thee,' Studies 1928, 451 § 9 . go mbia ag na naomhaibh ar nimh | iomarcaidh tar na hainglibh, PBocht 77.37 .

arrogance: nach déinid munbhar ar fhear | éigion iomurcuidh na aithfear `for that against no man do they use murmuring, arrogance, or reproach,' Studies 1923, 599 § 17 . an túabhar agus an iomarcaidh `pride and arrogancy,' Proverbs viii 13. (lán) do shaint, d'fheirg, is d'iomarcaidh, A. Ó Dálaigh xix 7 .

d'immarcraid in addition, over and above, besides: dona .v. gaiscedaib dēc nobītis d'imorcraid (di imforcraid, LU) hi teaglach Conchobair, TBC-I¹ 557. cech bó ... ro chluined no-mbligtis da trian blechta d'immarcraid uadib, IT i 72.6 . pennait d'imarcraid do, Laws i 42.31 Comm. dialt d'imarcraid inti seach casbairdne, IT iii 12.z . ata brissed na haithne d'imarcraid i n-a ndenum dia domnaig `additionally wicked for being done on Sunday,' PH 7361. batar a trelmha diubhraicthi urlumha occo d'imarcraidh fós, CCath. 1854. inand ghabhaid acht gan illradh ag Lugh ┐ méd na mbrugh and d'iumarcaidh, IGT Decl. § 29. With poss. pl.: inann ghabaid ... d'úathadh ┐ d'illradh dá n-imarcaidh they are declined in the same way in the sing. and in the pl. too, IGT Decl. 48.5 .

In comparisons, a greater amount, a greater number (with gen. of person with whom comparison is made): ní fuair aon naomh i nEirinn iomarcraidh Cáoimhgin ó Dia `no saint ... got more than did C. from God,' BNnÉ 128 § 22. as-bert somh boí i.¤ na ndaoine mór aice do scélaib, ZCP x 421.2 . Similarly with poss.: ca dluidh duitsi ... ar nimarcraidhne do denum `what is the cause of your exceeding us [in plunder],' ZCP xi 40.14 . fuair a himarcraid ammaitechta ┐ tincetla druadh ... i tir na Tesaile `much more than her witchcraft,' CCath. 3911. doroini a aenar a n-imforcraid mait[h]isae uile `he by himself surpassed them all in valour,' 3545 . ni raibe ... lucht aenlunga fuair i n- (leg. a-n ?) imforcraidh urdurcais ... dara n-eisi `a crew that gained more distinction ... than they,' 2848 . Folld. by sech of obj. compared: co na fil fógnam d'imarcraid do Dia ico'n duine drúth sech na hainmigib brúidemla `a lustful man doeth no more service to God than the brute beasts,' PH 7458. bui d'imarcraidh airdi ann seach na muruibh `it was so much higher than the ramparts that ...,' CCath. 1847. tre imarcraidh (MS. imarcraigh) caenduthrachta sech in lucht batar rompa, Lism. L. 3758.

inill

Cite this: eDIL s.v. inill or dil.ie/28731
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: innill, inill, inill

adj i (see Thurn., KZ 48.56 ) Mod. Ir. usually innill.

I safe, secure, careful, trusty: fidh quasi fidus est .i. innill hé, Corm. Y 617. innill .i. in ello .i. indtus .i. i n-ursae. Inill inell ; ello graece intro ; innill didiu intra, 764 . inill gl. tuta, Gild. Lor. 74. a thigerna bi at luir[i]g ro inill gl. domine esto lorica tutisima, 147 . innill .i. urasa, O'Cl. is in dun no a n-inut i.¤ , Laws ii 2.10 Comm. tír daingen dodaing ... innill ... ocus carracbenna sliaph ... impi, CCath. 3803. coimedaig inill `a vigilant keeper,' MR 170.17 . Matha mac Alphe, in sui ordraic inill na rothairind demum, PH 3371. cu tarda thalmain nderrit ndiamhair n-inill n-aluind n-etarscartha dhó o dhainib, Lism. L. 3561. céin nóbítis na hossada ar cóir ... ba hinill do Grécaib techt isin Trói, TTr.² 1260. dá mbeath m'éag 'na éag inill, DDána 11 § 8. ar siúr innill aobhdhai-ne (of the Blessed Virgin), A. Ó Dálaigh xxxi 10. teagar inill `prudent preparation (?),' TD 25 § 39. ar n-iul an uair nach inill | mo shiur ní huaim airighim `when my course is dangerous,' PBocht 17 § 34. aird nó aircend nait ionta innille, Hugh Roe 184.22 . go ndleaghair dhó faire innill do dhéanamh air féin, TSh. 7269. innill ó smacht `safe from control,' Keat. i 178.67 . nír bho hinnill leó anmhain isin ffiodbhadh, AFM vi 1900.11 . Compar. ata inilliu (gl. tutiora), Ml. 110d11 . is ferr lais ┐ is inildiu do anmin neich ind fit bec mín quam ..., Mon. Tall. 152.17 . stiúr, a Dhé, ar an iúl inne, | gi-bé iúl is innille, Measgra D. 52.104 . a naés diairm do légadh uatha i slighidh be hinnille inás an conair ..., AFM vi 2016.9 . Superl. for compar. ni fagbaimsi isin domun (sic leg.) uile rann is innillium ... inas in Tesail, CCath. 4287.

Adv. securely, carefully, in safety: tre múr anfaidh go hinnill `through the stormy sea in safety,' BNnÉ i 214.35 . coimét-sa in cathair co hinill, ZCP vi 45.13 . Muire ... | leanam uile go hinnill (: thirim), DDána 24 § 19. mar do bātar sligthe salchae ┐ ard-bhōthair imchomhga ... ō Doua go Turnae, nī hinnill rug fer a scrīptha ... so mess ... ar in regiōn ` easily ', Fl. Earls 40.14 . tor do dhéanamh chomh hard soin ... go bhféadfadaois na huaisle ... bheith go hinnill ionnta gan baoghal na díleann, Keat. ii 32.

II As subst., n. a protector, guardian ; a stronghold, secure place, security: innill .i. daingean . roseagaid innill .i. do ionnsaigeadar ionadh daingean, O'Cl. inill gl. tutor, Sg. 13a3 . lan fiach for inti do gni in fubtadh, gid i n-innill cid i n-eisinnill `whether in a place of security ...,' Laws i 178.6 Comm. do caemtet a heslinn co innill, co netarscarad friu i n-inill `he accompanies them from an insecure place to a place of security, and separates from them in that place of security,' 242.8 . tucc a dirma slóigh ... leis a hin[n]illib denna Diraich `out of the security of the fortress of D.', CCath. 3465. bidh a ngalar nech is slán | ... bidh a n-inill nech is trú | is bidh a n-eisinill étrú, ZCP vii 302.x . mo inill ar forrán `my safeguard,' Gorm. Jan. 28. béaraidh Míchéal aingeal inn | ó eisinill go hinill, Dán Dé xiv 6. inill `a fortress ,' O'R.

laithe

Cite this: eDIL s.v. laithe or dil.ie/29474
Last Revised: 2019

 

n io, n

Cf. . laithe m., IGT Decl. § 2. See also Introd. § 147 . Early occurrences: n s. a laithe, Ml. 21c3 . a s. fri laithe, Wb. 8d22 . g s. laithi, Wb. 26b7 . d s. laithiu, Wb. 25d20 . n pl. laithi lithacha .i. laithi senamla, O'Curry 1282, (H 3.18 534) . g pl. inna laithe, Ml. 17d6 . d pl. hi lathib litaib, Ml. 62a18 . Note also d s. laithen, ITS xxix 168.1 123.6 (?) , g pl. 11 .

(a) day, daylight (as distinguished from night: see Celtica iii 256-7 ): samaltir in molad dóinde fri laithe ar a gairti ṁbis, Wb. 8d22 . intan tét a laithe di chiunn, Ml. 21c3 . amal as toisegiu grián indáas laithe ┐ is laithe foilsigedar cech rét, Ml. 85b11 . adaig tar aesi laíthi, 21c3 . hi cech oina laithe gl. in dies singulos, 58d3 . tairciud cech lathi i ndigaid alaili, 111a5 . ni fil isin bliadain | . . . laithe . . . | nach at-rised munter, Fél. Prol. 283 . laithe na mís, 301 . is ī rē laithe nobitis isin cess, O'Mulc. 835 . ba hiat sin na sē laithi |. . . lūan, mairt, cēdāin, is dardāin | āine [┐] satharn, Ériu iii 143.6 . oir is amlaid so fodhailtear in aimsear ... a cadar i llaithi, a llaithi i sechtmain, MR 108.4 .

With adaig: trī laithe ┐ teora haidche, ITS xxxv 20 § 112 . fed do laithe ┐ t'oidhchi, Smaointe B. Chr. 3952 .

Of particular times of day (in gen. or with DI): medon lathi gl. hic meridies, Sg. 66b21 . a mucha lai ┐ laithe ambarach, YBL 329a24 ( TMoméra 154.3 ). co ti leth lathi in domnaig mid-day, SR 8036 . o leuth lathi . . . co trath nona, SR 8041 .

Of yesterday, today, next day, etc.: isind lathi luid yesterday, TBC-LL¹ 3605 . isind laithiusa indiu, RC iii 179.10 . See also bárach.

(b) With adj. or qual. gen. Most frequently of Day of Judgement : di llaithiu bratho, Wb. 25d20 . See bráth. a laithe an chriarta, ZCP viii 208.31 . laithi in Luain, ML² 1621 . Duligēn deilb latha luain, ACL iii 307.y .

Of feast-days and festivals: lathe na samna, LU 3223 ( SCC 1 ). Of sabbath: di laithiu sabbait rocét, Ml. 57d13 .

Various: i laithibh teannta on days of oppression, L. Cl. A. B. 237.13 . laithe a tréighte, 224.118 . See aicenta, 2 saerda.

(c) In adverbial phrases. Denoting point of time : scorais ala laithiu fichet mís Augaist `encamped on the 22nd of August', AU i 434.8 . [a]raile laithiu tra bói Colmán isin Carraig-sin, BColm. 52.y .

With cech ` daily ', freq. in g s.: drong sacart...dom chobair cech laithe, Fél. Ep. 271 . gacha laithe, Fl. Earls 24.4 . fuair nead lán gach re laithe every other day, IGT Decl. ex. 133 .

Also in phrase cor an chaem-laithe: flaith Fáil car an chaomhlaithi | ag car áir na hénlaithe, IGT Decl. ex. 132 . car an caemh laithe `while daylight remained' AFM vi 2198.1 . See also 1 sam compds.

With prepp. CO: go laithib a mbais, BNnÉ 119.6 . I N-: i laithibh sealga, Aithd. D. 28.26 .

In phr. ro boí l.¤ once upon a time: rombói lathe rordu rind | de thuaith Chorpri des Boind, LL 331c20 . Later l.¤ n-óen: luid C. laithi n-aen ann do forom ar enlaithib, RC vi 184.16 . laithe n-aon, Desid. 129 . aon do laeithibh do chuadhus-[s]a, Feis Tighe Chonáin 292 . aon do na laithibh one day Desid. 5386 .

Miscellaneous wider applications: co nderrnaid teora laithiu fri ré n-athgairid 'a three days' journey', Grail 1981 .

leth

Cite this: eDIL s.v. leth or dil.ie/30036
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: leth, leith, leithe, leithe, lethe, leithi, lethe, -leithe, leath, leithdeimhin, lethshathach

n o and s, n. Freq. treated as two words, l. o, n. half and l. s, n. side (e.g. GOI, Críth Gabl., BDD). But it is in some contexts difficult to decide between the two meanings, and cf. d s. leth (side), Ml. 51d3 , 128a1 ( leith, 62b13 ), d s. leith (half), Sg. 18a4 (but see note in Thes.), leuth, BCr. 3c , SR 8041 ; g du. leithe, Sg. 25b6 is ambiguous in meaning, and with lethe, Fél. Dec. 4 may belong to the by-form leithe, which latter. however, is more reliably attested in meaning side than in meaning half: a s. lethe, Imr. Brain 49 , leithi, TBC-I¹ 525. d s. lethe (MS.), Críth G. 428 , Grail 2004 . -leithe, Ir. Astr. Tr. 8.27 .

In later lang. more usual in meaning half (for meaning side cf. taeb) except in adv. and prep. phrases, in which both meanings are frequent. leath m., IGT Decl. § 31. f. , § 39 .

A in meaning side, direction .

I

(a) side: cia beth cosar do cluim glain / fom dda lethe though I had a couch strewn of down beneath my sides, ZCP xiii 258.11 . a beóil for leith a cind, BDD² 541. Cf. do-berad urcar do cloich fuirre ┐ níba cian o leit[h] a cinn, TBC St. 1311 . tibri da leithe `to laugh on all sides', Laws v 228.27 (a kind of satire) .i. gaire uime . . . do cach l.¤ , 230.13 Comm . ? gur gab cairde fair ona cethre lethaib, asrenar . . . a di chumal cairde gacha leithe dona cethre lethaib, O'Curry 2532 - 3 ( Eg. 88, 44 ). ord cumaisc imorro .i. a cumusc a gabail as a leth deridh `the latter end(?)', Laws v 26.21 Comm . ro-claenad-som . . . cach l.¤ don luiṅg, TTebe 1995 . fal na leiti-si (sic) . . . don longphort, CCath. 5177 . tréd na loidhe ar leith an cnuic, Irish Texts ii 2 § 8 . ruc sí . . . mac forsin faidche ┐ sí fó leith ina dromlaig carrying one side of the pail(?), SG 326.28 ( RC xxiv 190.13 ). ? Page: fec leath 91, 92, MS. Mat. 573.29 (see lethenach). Less freq. direction, region : sechip l.¤ fon ṁbith foguir `on whatever side', Thes. ii 300.4 ( Hy. i ). cid féchai-siu issind l.¤ cían úait, IT i 121.10 ( TE 6 Eg.). mairg lingis lēim in l.¤-sain (i.e. towards Hell), ZCP vi 265 § 15. is i do leath coir tanacais you have done well to come, Aen. 1870. In chevilles: forom l.¤ , LU 3867 ( SCC 38 ). slúaig ós lethaib, Airne F. 288. Obscure: tāinic gaimred co ngainni / rolīnsat lethe linni `die Wasser haben die Flachlande angefüllt', Bruchst. i 67 § 156 (letha, v.l.). da each a laim leath aer sealba `two horses in hand at the border of the land', Laws iv 18.20 (leth saor selba, v.l.).

(b) Of twofold division of a house side (?), part (?); indala l.¤ de crín ┐ araile úr one part of seasoned and the other of green wood, Trip.² 601 . isind le[i]th ailiu, i fochlu on the other side, the north, Críth G. 591 . l.¤ in tige . . . do Conchobur . . . a ll.¤ n-aill do bantrocht Ulad, LU 8159 ( FB 12 ). l.¤ in tige . . . la Connachta ┐ in l.¤ aile la Ulto, Sc.M² 5 . isin leith aile in tigi, TTebe 473 . san leith oile `in the other division', TD 11.16 . an uair do chuiridís tuighe ar leath an tighe . . . chum na leithe oile, Oss. iii 216. 18 - 19 .

(c) Of the sides of the body with dess and clé: atá . . . / a scíath da leith chlíu on his left side, MU² 489 . certláech da leith deis . . . fer bec . . . da leith chlí on his right, on his left, 538 - 40 . don ochtmad asna uachtarach chleib a lethi deis Adaim doronta Eua, MacCarthy 48.12 . dul sa leath chlé dod chridhe / slighe i dteach nDé 'gun duine, DDána 10.25 . ar uaisle an leithe dheis dil, Content. i 10 . dá dheis . . . dá leith chlí, TSh. 4090 . do leith do láimhe deise, DDána 24.23 .

(d) With words indicating points of compass: fri mílid in lethe atúaid `of the northern region', Metr. Dinds. iv 40.7 . forin leith tuaiscertaigh don áth, TBC St. 2869 . don leith thuaidh, DDána 64.36 . leath thúaigh northward, Deuteronomy iii 27 . barsan leith descertach ind átha, TBC-LL¹ 3387 . mad od leith anneas gai[res an drean], Ériu viii 122.27 . ar an táobh theas leath theas on the south side southwards, Exodus xxvi 18 . don leath ṡoir eastwards, 2 Kings xiii 17 .

As acc. of destination, Ériu xli 34 .

(e) In phr. (a) l.¤ with clause containing verb of motion the direction in which, anywhere, wherever : nistá leó l.¤ do-coiset do chuincid neich `they have nowhere that they can go to beg anything', Mon. Tall. 128.10 . in l.¤ bertait sin hí lecidsi dóib wherever they bring her, LU 3125 . l.¤ dia mbí in gaeth is fris bís in chomla facing the wind, BDD² 1312 . hiss ē l.¤ ruc-sum a rēim / co Cenannas, Fing. R. 659 . é l.¤ luidi for tochmarc, Metr. Dinds. ii 2.20 . teis lee alleath gebus remat `you shall go with it whither it will go before you', Ériu v 120.16 . régat a l.¤ dīa tuitched `I shall go whither I have set out', i 116.8 . in leith teid (of a spear), Laws v 30.11 Comm . in leath bearar [in] slúaigead, Ir. Review 1912, 248 § 3 . is é l.¤ do-chuaid Conn ar a imgabāil a mesg c[h]lainni . . . Morna, ML² 1806.

Also with cach: cach led dochoid-som sund wherever he went, Wb. 14c20 . cach l.¤ no théged, IT i 130.23 . cech l.¤ naragdais, ZCP viii 110 § 7.

For the construction is é l.¤ attoíbi . . . co dú, is aentadach fri . . . co dú this is the context of, this is a parallel passage to, etc. see at(t)oíbi, oentadach.

In a large variety of adverbial and prepositional phrases.

II With adverbs of direction: ar in leirg l.¤ ifus, CRR 56. immot breith assa leith adíu `about carrying thee hence', Ériu i 130.34 . isind leith anall on the far side (of the house), BDD² 669 . l.¤ anall don ḟidh `on this side of', Ériu iii 164.29 . leath thall d'Fhinn, Cín Lae Ó Meall. 8.27 . lethatshuas dinn `above', O'Gr. Cat. 232.x . da'n dá cical so lethatís dind, 290.27 . don leith amuidh externally, Grail 2621 . leith amuich outside (contr. with astig), Párl. na mB. 2132 . l.¤ amaich d'Eirinn outside I., Acall. 6457 . leath amuigh do uile-theorannaibh na Breataine, Keat. ii 1718 . beith leith amuich don phecadh without sin, ITS xxix 189.13 . leith amuigh don dá chás adubhart apart from, Mac Aingil 4529 . leath amuigh d'aicídibh tura an fhíona except for, Eochairsg. 95.22 . l.¤ amuigh do mnaib not including, BCC 228.35 (§ 237) . leath 'muigh gurab amhluidh . . . apart from the fact that, Luc. Fid. 3765 . l.¤ istich inside, Celtica ii 78.278 . andsa treas alt . . . l.¤ astig `on the third interior joint', O'Gr. Cat. 295.4 . leath istigh dar gcuimhne féin `within our own memory', Keat. ii 423. Cf. also: is uathaib sin l.¤ i fat gach ferann `far and wide', SG 121.31 . In form la-: dobert ferann do laistiar in the west, Rawl. 119a17 . lais tiar iar fuine ngréne, Fél. 112.25 . bóirdréis . . . tímpchioll a ccótaoi lastíos below, Párl. na mB. 538 . d'fhan an marc-shluagh la-amuigh, Cín Lae Ó Meall. 49.4 .

III With pronominalia.

(a) With poss. a his, its : co sceasain cach ball de a leithi (sescaind, lethe, LU) his limbs sprang apart, TBC-I¹ 525. sreith cechtar de a l.¤ he knocked each of them in a different (lit. his own) direction, LL 13983 . tēit in slōg uili for teiched, cach fer a l.¤ , Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 34 § 4 . luid cách a lethi each went his way, LL 14308 . téit . . . cechtar de a l.¤ íar sain, TBFr. 169.

(b) With aile. With prep. DO and art. on the other side (freq. of battle, contest, etc.): bite i n-irgail . . . friu duṅdala leith, Ml. 47c3 . dind leith ailiu gl. illinc, BCr. 32a4 ( Thes. ii 16 ). at-raghat side súass, at-raghat didiu Ulaid don leith eile, Sc.M² 18 R . dilluid F. . . . don l.¤ oili a mBōaind entered the Boyne on the other side, ZCP viii 120.14 . tiocfaid leis don leith oile / guais-ṡeabhuic Bheann mBoghoine, TD 4.43 . don dara l.¤ . . . don leith eili (of simultaneous elections to a bishopric), Ann. Conn. 1307.12 . In more general sense on the other hand, alternatively. Cf. ho l.¤ ailiu gl. e regione, Ml. 128a1 . dob'áil liom . . . dob'áil leam dhon leith oile . . . , DDána 5.15 . don leith oile, L. Cl. A. B. 192.73 . don leith oile adeir Críost . . . , TSh. 1642 . In phr. l.¤ n-aill elsewhere, anywhere, etc.: is ferr damsa techt l.¤ n-aill, LU 3347 ( SCC 13 ). ráither fria . . . techt hi l.¤ n-aill n-aile co maitin, RC xxii 393.z . (BDD App.). indtan no teigdis nach l.¤ aili when they used to go anywhere else, Mon. Tall. 129.17 . tucsat a ndorus na huama i ll.¤ n-aill iat `inside of the door of the cave', PH 1018 . cidh ara tucuis in claideb i ll.¤ n-aile? why did you give away the sword? Lism. L. 1326.

(c) With cach: amal . . . asroither uisce for talmain cech l.¤ `on every side', Ml. 44d1 . aurchor snedar cach leth in all directions, Críth G. 219 . fer cach leithe lándligid `a man of full righteousness on every side i.e. dealing justly with all men', 528 and n. 0 (or to be referred to 2 l.?). co rucadur gacha leithi ar A., Fier. 235. Usually with prec. prep. DI (do, dá) or FOR (ar) in, from all directions, sides, everywhere : immib di cach leith, Wb. 17b19 . in talmain n-impu di cach l.¤ , Ml. 51d3 . di cech leith, 62b13 . 66d10 . testiu na fuile . . . for cach l.¤ , 22b1 . for cech l.¤ gl. longe lateque, 53b9 . slúaged . . . / de cach leith dar túatha, Fél. Ep. 35. fogéba do cach leith aci agid n-airegda, LU 2029 ( FA 10 ). for cech l.¤ , LU 2146 ( FA 21 ). ic fégad . . . for cach l.¤ úathu, MU² 364 . eo óir ina brut ro saiged a gúalaind for cach l.¤ on either side, IT i 131.17 . di cech leith gl. undique, Gild. Lor. 67 . in popul imme di cech l.¤ , PH 761 . dá cech leith, 7063 . do gach leith ┐ da gach thaib dib, TTebe 2225 . sneachta seacht traigthe ar gach leath uadha, SG 34.16 . táir dá gach leith ina lenmhain, IGT Decl. ex. 1158 . ar gach leath, L. Cl. A. B. 112.43 . do gach leith do na laochaib sin, ML² 1860 . do cach lethe, Grail 2004 . for cech l.¤ de, 2480 . da gach aen leithe de na timceall, Ir. Astr. Tr. 8.27 (leth, v.l.). go ttuccadar gealladh air gach leith mutually, Dhá Sgéal Art. 152. Note also: for cechtar in da leithe `on either side' (of a stream), Laws iv 144.11 . comtar crólinnecha curaid di chechtar na da leithi, LL 224b27 ( TTr. 548 ).

(d) With cid (later cía) where, whither : inchoiscsiu damsa ceth l.¤ atā Emain show me the way to, TBC-I¹ 376 = ced l.¤ , LU 4865 = cía let[h], TBC St. 782 . cia leath reghma? Anecd. i 2.9 ( SCano 25 ). ni fhetar cia l.¤ do-rechaind, acht tucas m'aiged siar I knew not where to go, PH 500 . cia l.¤ their Adam uait?, MacCarthy 52.8 . cia leith ro cuaidh in clu mor-sin? what has become of? CCath. 4546 . cia l.¤ so, a dorman? whither away? Fing. R. 90 . cid l.¤ na mochærgi? why are you up so early? RC xiv 400 § 4.

(e) In phr. do díb le(i)th(a)ib on both sides, mutually : diblethaib .i. cechtar a da leithe, O'Curry 965 ( H 3.18, 415 ). ra theigsetar na slúaig immi-sium do dib lethib, LL 175a42 ( CRR 26 ). ro ferad cath . . . do dib lethib eturro, Ann. Conn. 1256.6 . ro naidmset a ccodach ┐ a ccaradradh do dib leitibh, Leb. Gab.(i) 232.12 . dībh leithibh, Celtica iv 70.209 (l.¤ ┐̇ tib, MS.).

(f) With na(ch) in any direction, anywhere : imned dom na lled dochood wherever I went, Wb. 17d7 . nochon occobrad-si co ndigseth nách l.¤ cen heisium immaróen fríe would go nowhere without him, Trip.² 151 . na digsitís nách leth o Ierusalem, PH 5408.

(g) With óen-: F. . . . ┐ L. for ōenl.¤, M. ┐ D. forsan l.¤ n-aill on the one hand . . . on the other, Rawl. 149a35 . a h-ocht Ailgenan na n-each / co ndeachaid d'eg ar enleath together, BB 61b31 . a óga tigidh d'einleath, Duan. F. ii 68 § 11 . cuirfiter d'éinleith will be put aside, RC xxviii 318 § 30. do rug ar n-omhain d'aoinleith dispelled our fear, DDána 18a.5 .

IV With prepositions (many uses with prepp. are exemplified also under III).

(a) With A: a lleith posessoris by virtue of being possessor, Sg. 198a18 . a lleith atraib gl. extrinsecus, in the matter of possession, 198b1 . a lleith indí atreba, 200b11 . a lleith aittrebthado gl. intrinsecus, 204a1 . biat-sa as do l.¤ I will be at thy side, Alex. 93 . ac urchuitmhe assa leith making excuses on his own behalf, Anecd. ii 68.4 . See also under i l.¤ fri.

(b) With AR (in later lang.): tug fiodh ar leith do lighe made the tree to bend to one side (one of the marks of an auspicious reign), L. Cl. A. B. 224.127 . rachadsa ar do leith `I shall side with thee', Duan. F. ii 244 § 16 . techt ar a leith féin to side with him, Cín Lae Ó Meall. 40.10 . ar mbeith d'Eireamhón ón fhior / ar leith gléimheadhón Gaoidheal `when E. had parted from him amid the Gaels(?), Studies 1920, 98 § 5 . níor luigh ar leith a mháthar did not depend on(?) (of Cú Chulainn), DDána 96.29 (`encroached not on his mother's land', Ir. Monthly 1927, 437 ).

(c) With DO (in some cases perh. DI): do leith dano dó a óenur frisna tri cóectu mac on one side, LU 4914 = TBC-I¹ 429 . ni-s-téged nech do muintir G. secci do leith, do na tabrad sceim némnig to one side(?), PH 7212 . co mba hecin di usce na Temrach da tharraing do l.¤ ┐ cach cumal ar uair 'na haghaidh (i.e. she always carried one side while the others took turns on the other), RC xxiv 190.8 . in Mangartach . . . do leith de ┐ Sliab Cruadha . . . don taob eile, ML² 320 . gach meacain gach lus don leatsoin there, Hackett xlii 59 .

Usually as prep. phrase with follg. gen. In concrete sense in the direction of, towards : iarsin tictís, gním cen chleith, / ind ríg dia leith ó thír thoich to him (`on account of him'), Metr. Dinds. ii 24.74 . do leith na hairde thuaidh facing the north (of a tent), 3 C 19, 51 vb15 . nac[h] racainn do leith mo aigte I would not go forward, TBC St. 1592 . líne do leith a aighthe / do chathaoiribh cumhdaighthe opposite, DDána 85.42 . do leith a aighthe in front of him, CF² 1036 . do leith a ccúil . . . do leith a ndrumann, AFM iii 320.9 , 11 . Of the seat of a disease: go mbi nescoid isna hairnibh uair ann do leith in droma ┐ uair eile do leith a sreabhonn . . . ┐ uair do leith a gcabhán, 3 C 19, 201 rb26 - 28 . Of time: doleith na haidhche towards night, 3 C 19, 73 va 24 . do bi dias do Gaidilaib ann sin do l.¤ in Chimsogaig on C.'s side, Ann. Conn. 1281.4 .

past, by (here DI(?)): romgab do leith losinan the fox avoided, slunk by me, ZCP i 459. 11 . amail sinchān do leith ǣgaire, MacCongl. 85.2 (`approaching a shepherd'). Fig. na hinghena . . . nobitis ic amran ┐ hic duchunn no geibed do leith doib dano imradagh anma Hectoir used to avoid(?), LL 405a19 ( TTr.² 1086 ).

In more abstr. senses. With respect to, as regards, according to: is do leith genelaig fer nGréc doib, Dinds. 128. ? tiucfaidh in cétmuinnter fo coruib ┐ cidh adhaltrach hí ticfaidh a fear .i. do leth in oirechta comtibach, O'D. 2077 ( Rawl. 487, 58 ). a chlú do leith eolasa ┐ eagna, Keat. ii 204 . do leith a athar ┐ a mháthar `both on his father's and mother's side', O'D. 4896 . a n-éagmais a hárdchéme onóra do leith a glúine geinealach `in respect of', Párl. na mB. 3570 . in ratione cibi .i. do leith an bhídh, 23 K 42, 307.15 . do l.¤ dileghtha an adbuir, RC xlix 8.4 . More specifically because of, from, on account of: do leith G. because you are related to G., Irish Texts ii 44 § 35 . do leith ubhaill a fhachain, DDána 10.6 (`an apple caused it,' Ir. Monthly 1929, 211 ). do leith a nemdilegtha pour cause de l'indigestion, O'Gr. Cat. 217.7. na neithi . . . disgaoileas do leith a teasa because of their heat, 3 C 19, 49 ra27 . do l.¤ an fuail from, by means of (in diagnosis), 23 K 42, 151.17 .

(d) With FO separately, severally, individually : cách fo leith gl. singuli, Wb. 5d3 . ní [i]mmalle acht is cach æ fo leith, 17d2 . cechtar nái fo leith, Sg. 63a15 . mórfeser a dám inna thúaith, cóicer fo leith when engaged on his private concerns (as an individual), Críth G. 379 ( fo le[i]th(e), 428 ). ainmnigestár cach fer fó leith cona anmaim diles fein, LU 1811 . ar cach n-ái fo leith díb, TBC-LL¹ 2726 . cech macc fo leth dia maccaib, PH 6613 . sláinte anma is cabhair chuirp / atáid fa leith na labhuirt, Arch. Hib. i 99 § xi . ima leith alternately, Laws iv 372.21 Comm . ┐ mar sin ar na peacadhuibh eile fó leith, Mac Aingil 2061 . an biobla ma leith, .i. leis fein amhain, gan ghluais, etc., Luc. Fid. 4592 . Somet. with FOR in this sense: don oenfer for leith `for one man only', Mon. Tall. 156.28 . oc ainmniugud a ball for leith, PH 7326 . gach pearsa ar leith 'n-a Dhia dhíbh, DDána 25.6 .

(e) With FOR (AR) aside, apart : tēit leo for l.¤ aside, Sc.M² 4 . co-rrala a cholaind for l.¤, ┐ corro-an a chenn i fertais in charpait to one side, 19 (leith, R.) luid īarum for l.¤ a óinur `aside', Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 6 § 5 . ro bae-side . . . ina throscud i Sliab Sína ar leith `apart', Celtica iv 28.381 . in ticfa ar l.¤ do immacallaim frimsa?, ZCP ii 135 § 9 . gādatar mnā Connacht do Conchobur tuidecht for leith, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 6 § 5 . atat acum sund for leith / curaid ri cath . . . (: creich), TBC-LL¹ 516 . ruc leis for l.¤ da mac Z., PH 3024 . tucait aes dána Ulad ar l.¤ , RC xiv 430 § 56 . ar leith gá fhad fhuileongas? `how long will he suffer the affliction of being far away?', Aithd. D. 8.19 . ar leith [ó] dheachmhaidh Dhé `exempt from', PBocht 7.25 . ar leith atám ó theasda laid aside, Studies 1924, 87 § 15 . ar leth nó i ccoitchinne in particular or in common, RSClára 117b . ? in slicht socinelach geinfes for leith on ridiri ┐ on maigdin sin, Grail 2669 . In this sense somet. with FO: ód thriall fó leith, Oss. vi 54.19 . doimthigh a nimh . . . as fo leith, Ériu v 88.34 . ? With TAR: no gur cuir in rig dar l.¤ mathair a cloindi put aside(?), YBL 317b24 (cf. Aided M. Gloss.).

(f) In quasi-adjectival use with both FO and FOR apart, separate, different, special : gnáe far l.¤ gl. separatim, Sg. 73b1 . syllab fo leith, 165b2 . co ndergensat rainn fo leith di gl. separauerunt ab aliis partibus, 187b6 . 188a22 . 188b5 . 212a6 . Of a particular kind of assembly: cis lir cenēla airechta dochusin la Fēne? . . . A cōic: cūlairecht ┐ taebairecht ┐ airecht uirdnidhe ┐ airecht fo l.¤ et airecht fodesin, ZCP xii 359.14 . airecht fo l.¤, is a suidhi bīt nadmand ┐ ratha (sic MS.) ┐ fiadain, 360.1 . torinolta i tech for leith, Trip.² 228. biaid pian for leith er son cech peccaid air, PH 7617 . gabsatt . . . ferann fo l.¤ , BColm. 8.3 . atá i n-airicul fo leith, LU 3374 ( SCC 16 ). rogairm Cond . . . ar fót fo leith `called C. aside', Ériu iii 160.y . trí lá is tri aidche ba leith / bámmar uile i tig Cachir, RC vii 292.53 . dath fo l.¤ a eduigh cach lae, Laws ii 148.6 Comm . cás ar leith an Lúan `Doomsday, supreme danger', PBocht 5.47 . rann ar leith ni dliged dam, Irish Texts ii 41 § 9 . seómra ar l.¤ , RSClára f. 111b . pian ar leith ar an intinn, ┐ pian fá leith ar an gcorp, TSh. 6495 - 6 .

(g) In phr. le(i)th for (ar) le(i)th on both sides, respectively, both of them (usually of two persons or groups): ra fornaidmit na glinni sin leith for l.¤ , MU² 106 . co mbaí . . . nónbur ra hulibásaib eturru l.¤ for l.¤ , 118 . rointer Eri l.¤ ar l.¤ `share and share', Metr. Dinds. iii 358.35 . in cath rolád, l.¤ for l.¤ , iv 250.65 . ro tuit . . . in cath l.¤ ar leith, CCath. 2217 . M. . . . ┐ F. / fríoth a n-árach leath ar leath, DDána 64.25 . táinig a ré leath ar leath / sgol Uladh, éigse Laighneach, 115.2 . forna cathaibh leath ar leath, CF² 1195 . go rangattar . . . da nionaduibh féin l.¤ ar l.¤ respectively, BNnÉ 201.33 . a gcoingheall leath ar leath (aequa utriusque conditio), TSh. 3871. More generally: an tuile dhámh, leath ar leath the throng of companies, side by side, Ériu v 56.67 . an cúiger druadh, leath ar leth `the five wizards, side by side', iv 222 § 38 . In follg. rather in turn, one after the other : fuaradh na mball leath ar leath, DDána 27.6 . ughdair Ghaoidheal leath ar leath, O'R. Poems 1473 . fágbhuim-si fós, leath ar leath / beannacht uaim ag gach aoinneach, Celtica iv 119 § 30 . Note also: as mar sin an cethramadh cric as mesarda ┐ is ferr acu l.¤ ar l.¤ `all things considered', Ir. Astr. Tr. 140.x . Other constructions: di leith for l.¤ , TBC-LL¹ 1685 . do leith for leith, MR 222.z . do leith fo leith, 240.24 . leath um leith, PBocht 18.17 . do leith dar l.¤ , TTebe 3122 .

(h) With I in such a wide and subtle variety of meanings as hardly to be amenable to classification. That given here must be regarded as arbitrary, and the ascription of an example to one category or another is in many cases very doubtful.

In physical sense beside, in the direction of, towards : co cualatar guth mbec ina hingini hi leith in tigi, Irish Texts i 2.18 (cf. Bethu Brigte 38) . rothicfa it' lethe-su will come to thee, Imr. Brain 49 (`to thy parts'; `to your country', Murphy Lyrics). Laighnigh i leith do dhroma behind you, DDána 101.53 . i leith leaptha red lennán, BS 46.4 . With follg. DO: a leith don chaislēn, Cín Lae Ó Meall. 26.24 . a leith da druim from behind, TTebe 1016 . Cf. forsin marcsluag do bi l.¤ da ndruim behind them, Ann. Conn. 1247.7 . = a leith a ndroma, ALC i 376.18 .

Of kinship, family connection: hua-som Codiáir moir . . . i ll.¤ o mathair on the mother's side, LU 1136 ( ACC § 121 Comm. ). dáermacne . . . a lleth o mathrechaib, TBC-LL¹ 1739. ar ni boi astig nech bad glica a l.¤ o mnaib `weil im Hause auf Seiten der Frauen keine Klügere war', ZCP xiii 270.6 . comdais meic do Mac-Con na trī Fothaid gē beit i leith Sīl Fergusa, Corp. Gen. 263 . sil a leith ciníl do chríadh, Irish Texts ii 35 § 31 . leanfa D. . . . i leith athar rian na Róisteach, Ó Bruad. i 110.3 . ? enmac do fhácuib do chloinn / ina leith do Tuathaib Temra, Irish Texts ii 23 § 12.

téit i l.¤ joins forces with: resorts to, places one's trust in, seeks refuge in: ós éigin dóibh dola id leith `they will surely join thee', Aithd. D. 24.18 . a luas . . . / do-chuas i leith láimhe libh `the speed with which men flocked to thee', 77.22 . dol na l.¤ dí ní digha, Irish Texts ii 57 § 4. Cf. dochóidh . . . / Muire i leith mh'oige d'fhighe `Mary . . . has set about weaving my nature', PBocht 12.28 . leabhair Chaisil is chláir Macha / nír mheiste dhóibh dol 'na leith, L. Cl. A. B. 237.10 . dola a leith na leabhar linn, KMMisc. 174 § 29 . cách i leith a deisi ag dul resorting to force (?), L. Cl. A. B. 193.92 . mar thug láimh fá chreich na Cásg / a leith a grásd do-cháidh Crísd, IGT Decl. ex. 1001 ( DDána 38.6 ). ní a leith a chémend do-chúaidh / an Múaid ag breith lémend lúidh was not content to proceed at its normal pace(?), IGT ex. 1256 .

fo-ceird (cuirid) i leith assigns to, ascribes to: curther a n-ugturas hi lleith Duid a oenur, Hib. Min. 128 (of Psalms). is e Ferceirtni cuires in irad so i ll.¤ na n-ugdar ┐ ite na hugdar (sic) i cuirter l.¤ , BB 299b36 - 7 . ferta . . . meic Dé do chur i lleth Belzebúb to give B. the credit for, PH 6436 . is e fath ara cuirther primhdhacht i lleith na tri mberla sin `superiority is claimed on behalf of', Auraic. 162. Cf. ilmuine mic Dé nacha cuiridhsi i far leth feisin `which claim not ye for yourselves', Laws i 22.22 Comm . Also charges with, lays to the account of, attributes to: is lib-si fessin . . . in chair doralais inar leth-ni, Alex. 946 . Críoch Chonnacht a ndúthchas féin/ na leith ní cuirthe mar chéim `is not to be brought as a charge against them', Content. vi 91 . ar n-éara 'n-a leith na léigidh `let not my rejection ever be brought (as a proof of carelessness) against Thy work', Aithd. D. 77.17 . cuir 'n-a leith do chosg do chean / an rosg do bheith ag briseadh, DDána 27.4 . dá gcuirthear uabhar i leith fir aca, TSh. 9368. Cf. ar an máthair atá id leith `thy supposed mother', Keat. ii 6353.

In phrases with other trans. verbs in sense of committing, entrusting to: nít erpi i lled nach áili `with any one else', Wb. 1d10 . lecam ar ráma úan isa muir ┐ foncerddam i ll.¤ ar Tigernai `let us cast ourselves upon our Lord', Ériu xi 137.8 . cuir hobair a leith an Tighearna `commit thy works unto', Proverbs xvi 3 . lecsiu immurgo i ldeth nDe mess for a menmain-som `leave it . . . to God', Mon. Tall. 148.11 . do ré[i]r is ad l.¤ legmuid, Ériu iv 224 § 48 . caingne in tsenaidh . . . do lecon i lleith na ndea `to trust to the gods', CCath. 4549. ar ndíon 'n-a leith ná leigeadh (of Christ's wounds), DDána 48.8 . cipe leces a furtacht ┐ a cobhair i lleith in Coimdedh, ZCP iv 390.13 .

With vb. to be expressed or understood relying on, engaged in etc.: arn-iumramh a leith Dé under God's protection, KMMisc. 322 § 5 . bím i leith guidhe do ghrás `I trust in imploring Thy grace', A. Ó Dálaigh xxxvii 1 . bíom 'na leith i ló an bhrátha / dom dhíon ar eagla an ursgátha, DDána 12.14 . i leith fhaghla ós eadh atá bent on(?), 106.4 . láeich a leith a farchadh `handling their mauls', Studies 1920, 417.20 . Here also perh. gé tú inníu i lleith eiseine (? leg. eisléine), Anecd. ii 22 § 9. Cf. i lleith leinne, LL 18172.

On the side of, along with, in support of: hóre attá innar leid cia conicc ní dúun gl. pro nobis, Wb. 4b11 . robu ferr leu buith hi leith Duaid on David's side (in battle), Ml. 87c4 . robbet inna lobrān leith / ria ndul i ṅgnūis spirta nóib `may they be on the side of her weaklings', Thes. ii 348.5 ( Hy. v 90 ). bīd 'na leith used to be with him, ACL iii 307 § 27 . ? uair is ina leath itá (`since it concerns them(?)'), Leb. Cert.² 260 . ar tí airm do chur ar a chois arís a leith an rí in support of, Rel. Celt. ii 202.29 . sé 'n-a leath acht go léigdís had they allowed Him to help them (the two thieves), Dán Dé xx 25 . Perh. also: fágthar misi a leath a bhfuil sa bhfaithedh let me be left to take charge of all [the foes] who are on the field, 23 I 1, 66.18 . an banntigerna bís orra . . . a l.¤ a lámh bítt na mná so [do]gres `are always obedient to her', Maund. 135.

With respect to, concerning, in the case of: dogniat . . . guchoibsenae do thuildiud indaldeth fadesin do tormuch pende foraib `make false confessions about themselves', Mon. Tall. 153.1 . a cion i leith an leanaibh her crime as regards the child, A. Ó Dálaigh li 21 . cenn Muman i lleith o clercibh `as regards its clerics', CS 1008. Perh. also: mar dhaingean i leith a láimhe `to strengthen his hand', PBocht 1.41 . tlás a l.¤ lamh, Irish Texts ii 31 § 3 . a leth laithe `according to the day', Leb. Gab.(i) 240.y .

Various: in mil . . . do rinne in foguil; is a dul ina leth `it (the beast on which the lot falls) goes for its crime', Laws ii 6.30 Comm . in gell do tuitim i lleth in ti tucustur he `the hostage surety falls upon the person', 136.21 Comm . i leith fheirge is eadh a-tá / nach deirge an cneadh an chéad-lá `owing to his wrath', Dán Dé xxviii 7 . a dtéid duid do na deich genoibh / tuig soin san leith ina libh `think of thy share in the ten nuts only in the aspect in which it is thine', PBocht 7.27 .

(i) In phr. i le(i)th fri, in O. Ir. glosses a ll.¤ fri, where a is a s. neut. of article, cf. later l.¤ re without prep. (below).

In the direction of, towards : a nem hitat aingil i n-uachtar ┐ firmimint a ll.¤ frinnai ille `on the side towards us', Ml. 42b10 . i lleth friusom opposite them, LU 1987 ( FA 5 ). i leith risin muir moir, CCath. 1942 . ni dechaid A. isna crichaib borétaib i ll.¤ fri téchtmuir, Alex. 437 . i nilar comperta i lleith re mnaibh ilarda with, BCrólige 57 gl. 7 . Cf. cidh il-leth in tigi fris even in the other side of the house, Lism. L. 1483. Similarly l.¤ fri: isin rann tuaidh do na Deisibh l.¤ le hEoghanact, ITS xvi 56.4 . leath re Hierusalem towards J., Isaiah vii 1 . Of time: hi l.¤ fri aidchi towards nightfall, RC xxii 394.8 .

More freq. as regards, with respect to, in the matter of, touching : a lled fri Abracham `as regards A.', Wb. 2c3 . a lled friss fadesin, 6c18 . a lled fri spirut gl. spiritaliter examinatur, 8b16 . a lleth frissan ingraim gl. quantum ad praesentem causam pertinet, Études Celt. xl 59 ( Ml. 30b2 ). cidh is fis, ┐ cidh is anfis . . . a leith reisin comairce?, Laws iv 228.15 . i ll.¤ fri do[i]nib . . . i ll.¤ fri Dia, Rawl. 75a47 . i leith re claidem when it comes to a sword, SG 248.17 . ro taiselbad he i leith risin fer `it was ascribed to', Laws i 34.10 Comm . is uasal i lleith re tabuirt `when considered as a gift', v 214.17 Comm . cinntech i l.¤ fri Dia, PH 6218 . i lleith ra hiris Críst, Anecd. iii 64.22 . ní measa fian Chaisil Chuirc / i leith re déanamh gach uilc, Content. ii 3 . ar gheallsad sliocht Éibhir Ḟinn / do chomhaillsead i leith rinn `in our regard,' vi 101 . a leith re hóglách m'aosú for a youth of my age, BS 44.8 . ba mór an techt (écht) hisin i l.¤ re mac taoísigh, AFM iii 648.14 . In BCC and Beatha S.F. often l.¤ re without prec. prep.: leith riu as regards them, BCC 18.13 (§ 33) . l.¤ re Día, 90.4 (§ 94) . leith re haibíd, Beatha S. F. 1397 . leith re sbioraid, 683 . In some contexts with more specific meaning of because of, by reason of, by, through : is ed fodera in comrorcu sin dam i ll.¤ frit-sa `owing to thee', MacCongl. 57.7 . a leith ré huathbhás with awe, Ó Héodhusa 66.z . l.¤ re do glicus fein `according to', Celtica ii 62.22 . do leag Dia a lámh air leith re heasláinte righinn do chur ar a chorp. Beatha S. F. 154 . In follg. perh. against : i dteach nDé do ria an ríoghan / Dia lé i leath ris an saoghal, DDána 99.38 (`against the world', Ir. Monthly 1919, 227 ). guais a lonn-ḟuighle i leith ribh, Content. vii 8. But: tiucfaid Laighin a leith ribh / beith at aighidh ni heidir on your side, Irish Texts ii 98 § 15 . Other exx. with follg. FRI: leath re Fodla fuil Uidhir / Fodla ni fuil 'na aghaidh `auf Fodlas Seite ist Odars Blut', ZCP ii 331.29 . gan neach d'Eirinn 'na aghuidh / is l.¤ re Heirind Ulaigh `sind auf Erins Seite die Ulaten', 332.1 . si-se leath re Lámhach, DDána 98.38 . ní bhiadh . . . / leath ag Dia ris na daoinibh `God would not have come among men', Aithd. D. 98.5 . For Mod. Ir. maidir le, mar le (mad i l.¤ fri) see O'Rahilly, Ériu ix 14.

(j) In phrases replacing earlier ille, immalle: o sin i leith, Anecd. ii 3.8 (= i lle, Airne F. 77 ). ón ló sin i lleath, Dhá Sgéal Art. 1180 . o shin a leath, Smaointe B. Chr. 169. a hAlbain a leith, AFM iii 366.z . Cf. toit cuccum-sa i lletsa `on this side', CCath. 2982 . `rosc' tuigsin gach neich ma le, Metr. Gl. 11 § 10 (maleith, LL).

B In meaning half .

I

(a) a half, the half (of): ni roisset á l.¤-adi gl. mediam aetatem, Ml. 74a11 . ni arindí bed l.¤ ṅgotho no bed indib (ref. to semiuocales), Sg. 5a4 . a ll.¤ o laim deiss gl. dexteram . . . partem, 17b2 . dephtoros dodichsed inna leith chomsuidigthi `would enter as half of the compound', 18a4 . l.¤ ind orpi-so `half of this heritage', Thes. ii 239.16 ( Ardm. 17b ). a lleith n-aill, AU 747 . a leath na cille, 836 . isindara l.¤ in lestair ┐ in l.¤ n-aill dō-sum, Corm. Y 1059 (p. 92.6) . o leuth lathi, SR 8041 . l.¤ fer nAlban, Anecd. i 1.2 ( SCano 3 ). l.¤ nó trían do chruth, TBFr. 224 . l.¤ na haidche, Fing. R. 791. i leith laoi at midday, DDána 42.3 . l.¤ ruith ┐ l.¤ gabra `riders in chariots and riders on horses' (notes), BDD² 460 . ní rabi la Ultu láth gaile rosassad l.¤ méite fair, LU 9184 ( FB 91 ). co n-acca ara chind in fer ┐ l.¤ a chind fair ┐ l.¤ fir aile fora muin, LU 4933 ( TBC-I¹ 448 ). dagénsa dá leth de (a warrior), LU 5306 ( TBC-I¹ 829 ). leca lógmara . . . ┐ a llethe úachtarcha ina lócharnaib, LU 2055 ( FA 13 ). trían nó l.¤ a ḟeraind, Imr. Brain 46.13 . mo trín is luga lethi, LL 11031 ( TBC-LL¹ 4198 ). mo trian is luga lethe, TBC St. 3501 . secib ni foghailther a ndiph randaip raiter in dara rand co rab l.¤ cin cob cudruma, Auraic. 2925 . comortus andso se fer 'na leit[h] secha so híos `in the half below' (scribal note), TTebe xvii 26 . ro-scoilt bend-chapur in tempuil in ṅdíb lethib, PH 2896 . i ngach leith don ló `every hour of the day' ( Ir. Monthly 1927, 551 ), DDána 106.4 . gé atá a leath do Cinedh Conuill although half of it belongs to, Irish Texts ii 42 § 16 . do gheibhinn-si . . . / . . . / t'uille ┐ leath do leabtha, TD 14.17 . ní as lía iná l.¤ na nguth (of votes), RSClára 98a . gur thuit in cath-milid C. ina lethib leadairthi, MR 270.16 . do gerr conuige a l.¤ é `clave him to his middle', Fier. 225 . úachtarán leithe Ierusalem, Nehemiah iii 9. ? am luidset co leth lenna, feimidset imram nach leth `when they had got half way across', Dinds. 5.

(b) In legal contexts: lóg leith ungæ di muccib `half an ounce in pigs', Thes. ii 239.19 (Ardm.). trichait l.¤ n-unga n-argait, SR 3152 . na coic leithe unga, RC x 94.2 . l.¤ .uii. cumal a smacht cana, Ir. Recht 37.16 . coraigecht aenmna re bliadain dam . . . ┐ l.¤ feissi dogrés `half-conjugal society', Acall. 4955 (SG). trian n-urgnama, a l.¤ do mnai do gni half of it (milk) to the woman who does the work, Laws ii 364.23 . l.¤ do fir fodngaib, l.¤ n-aill do faithchi hi fogabar, iv 184.18 (of swarming bees). l.¤ méich tharai a half measure of kiln-dried wheat, Críth G. 111 . l.¤ n-arathair a half share in a plough, 158 . díre a béla colpda(i)ch; a l.¤ dia ḟidbu, etc., 247 . secht fuile cena dia mbeir liaig l.¤ half-fee, Laws v 362.15 . let leithi in trin one-half of one-half, ii 366.2 Comm .

(c) Of territorial divisions: cu ru raind Hérinn dar dó ┐ co tuc in l.¤ ro boí sís d'Hérind do Thúaith Dé Danann et in l.¤ aile do Maccaib Míled, MU² 5 , 6 . leath / indsi móiri Mac Mílead, Leb. Cert.² 263 . rannfa meise . . . / i ndíbh leithibh críoch fhuar Éireann, DDána 111.8 . Domnall mac dā leithi (.i. al-l.¤ tes ┐ tūaid dind Érinn), ZCP xii 236 § 56 , cf. in fíal Fer dá lethe, Fél. Dec. 4 . On the traditional division of Ireland into L. Cuinn and L. Moga see O'Rahilly, EIHM 191 - 2 . Lex aui Suanaich for Leith Cuinn, AU 748 . ruc leth na muici cona druim ó Leith Cuinn, Sc.M² 18 R . Mug Nuadat a quo leth Moga N., Rawl. 147b19 . tairct[h]er leth Érenn uait-si do C[h]onn, ML² 904. Note further: roiniudh for Gallu Locha Cuan re Leith Cathail, AU 943 . leath Branuigh `O' Byrne's half', LBranach 67 . G. . . . ri lethi iarthuraigi Ceneoil Aeda, Ann. Conn. 1224.6 . dala immorro na lethe thess do Chonnachtaib, 1225.14 .

(d) In phr. l.¤ catha, l.¤ gliad (fitting) opponent in battle, adversary: l.¤ catha, TBC-I¹ 3289 (of Celtchar) = TBC-LL¹ 5394. bud leór l.¤ catha do ḟeraib hÉrend siat ac cosnam a tigerna, 5708 . l.¤ gliad, TBC-I¹ 3252 (Rochaid) = TBC-LL¹ 5315. Hence without accompanying gen: is suaill nach leath doib Domnall all but a match for them, Prolegomena 44 § 18 . do budh leath dáibh uile í `she would equal them all', PBocht 9.17 . cath do thabhairt dóibh, gion go bhfuilmíd leath nó trian riú, CRR² 26.

(e) Attrib. g s.: eisinnraic leithi `half unworthy', Laws i 116.3 Comm . a gilla glomhuir amuil a amhus lethe (some kind of a servant), ii 26.5 Comm . roinn leithe ar anbhuain Eirenn a bisection, O'Gr. Cat. 464.12 . do gheall tú roinn leatha dhamh ann do thír, Dhá Sgéal Art. 800.

(f) In vaguer sense part, division : cechtar in da leithe sin `each of those two parts', gl. in duas partes diuidere (of the word uires), Sg. 25b6 . is Persa bar leath share(?), Alex. 191. in leath budh mō da rīge, Ériu iv 178 § 32.

In phrases.

II

(a) In phr. co le(i)th and a half : noichtiche co lleuth 29½ days, BCr. 3c ( Thes. ii 10.5 ). sith mbliadhna co l.¤ , AU 1128 (ii 120.12) . fri ré bliadna co lleith, LU 1279 (H). dí ungi co leith, RC x 62.1 . tri huairi dec co ll.¤ , MacCarthy 46.3 . bliadhain go leith, TD 32.40 . míle go leith, Keat. Poems 1345. Meaning doubtful in: dia tí íasc i n-inbera rot bía hé[u] co lleith araile. Dia tí iall a mmag rot bía caúth co lleith araile, LU 5646 ( TBC-I¹ 1168 ) = co leth arale . . . colleith arailiu, ZCP ix 148 - 9 = dia foígela énflaith . . .co lleith alailiu . . . Día tomna . . . iasc . . . co leith arailiu, LU 5526 = co leith allaile . . . co lleth arailiu, TBC-I¹ 1043 = colleith alailiu . . . colleth alailiu, ZCP ix 145.38 . See TBC-LL¹ 1830 ff ., where Windisch's literal translation (see n. 0 ) with the other half (which makes up the pair) does not seem possible; araile, -iu, etc. may have belonged originally to the beginning of the next sentence (see Fasc. A 119.11 ff ), and hé[u] co l.¤ may be a hyperbole.

(b) In phr. for (ar) le(i)th: fer for l.¤ Connacht `more than half the Connaughtmen', Cóir Anm. 251 . gur cosain . . . treab ar l.¤ Alpan dó, IT, ii2 123.32 . ceall ar l.¤ ceall `one more than half of the churches', RC xiv 30 § 8 . duine ar leith fer nErenn, SG 20.36 . triar for leith a sluag foracbaiset half their army plus three, RC vi 188.13 .

Compds.

In meaning A.

(a) Perh. in sense of -sided in: lethchil .i. lethchlāen, Corm. Y 318 . gruaidh leathchorcra ar lí na subh, L. Cl. A. B. 193.90 . drech lethderg lethgabur (description of Conall Cernach), LU 8636 ( FB 47 ). do Meidbh Lethdeirg, ZCP xi 42 § 28 . do thaeb lethḟas bare, Mart. Tall. 112.1 . druim na leirge leathfholamh, Aithd. D. 20.26 . it é lethgabra amal Conall Cernach, BDD² 1150 , taken in BDD and by Vendryes, Études Celt. iv 397 as subst. ` centaur ', cf. lethghabar .i. lethech, H 3.18, 532.14 ; but cf. gabar .i. solus, Lec. Gl. 536 and see 2 gabor. as aigi-siomh fil in drec[h] lethgabar (of Genonn Gruadṡolus), TBC St. 4500. ag goradh a ghruaidh leithghil, L. Cl. A. B. 90.78 . Luoch Lethglass . . . lethglass e o talmain go mullach a cinn green-sided(?), RC xii 100 § 136. ? Dun da Lethglas, IT iii 40 § 34 (see Hog. Onom.). senchas lethmáel `pointless', Metr. Dinds. iv 24.24 . sluagh lethodar, Leb. Cert. 4.16 . ? bloscad inna gréne frisinna margánu lethrati, ZCP viii 175.24 . cuing leth-remor 'na leth-leirg `broad-flanked', Metr. Dinds. ii 46.10 .

(b) More partic. ¤ard etc. lit. (high) at one side, hence uneven, unequal: measam laidi (leg. lige) lethard lopsided, ZCP xvii 69 § 9 = ACL iii 230.155 . Usually in more abstr. sense unequal, unfair , etc.: claen cach lethard, O'Curry 351 ( H 3.18, 193b ). dire l., BCrólige 5 . tacra la leath-ard n-ae `to plead in support of an unequal cause', Laws v 252.11 . In Laws Comm. freq. lethairde: fo comairdi no fo leithairde `equally or unequally', iii 270.7 . comhroinnter eturru fein fo lethairde unequally, iv 254.11 Comm . ba lethard cundartha / ba tomus lettromm `an unequal contract, uneven measure', MacCongl. 73.29 - 30 . cid lethard a ngrād, BColm. 34.1 . im lethard rainne unfair division(?), ZCP xii 365.2 . ba lethfota a lám one of his arms was longer than the other, iii 218 § 24 . adhaigh is lá go leathfhada `of unequal length', Aithd. D. 61.20 . nī bu leithísel in mám down at one side, Hy. v 56. Hence with certain adjj. of defective rhymes: coic fodhla arē ccuibdes oll: / leathfoda, leathtend, leathtrom, / bruilingicht, nī bec in col, / let[h]garbh gin a lesugud, ZCP xii 295 § 6. See lettrom etc.

(c) Hence with nouns meaning judgement, opinion, contract etc. onesided, partial, prejudiced: ar n-aonbhrath breithimh-ne san Luan ní bu leathaighne partial advocate, Aithd. D. 55.7 . leathbháidh fil agat re hÓ F., Maguires of F. 18 . can lethbreath iter saidbir ┐ daidbir impartial, YBL 167b39 . ar in lethbreth ruc A. imon ubull orda, Aen. 211 . leith-bhreath le báidh ní bhéara Ó Fearadhaigh, DDána 109.20 . leithbr[ia]thar accusation(?), Acall. 7995. masa lethbrostu . . . no masa combrostu setting-on on one side (of dogs fighting), Laws iii 196.1 Comm . cia lethcoimpert i n-airbert breithe (improper behaviour in a judge), O'D. 536 ( H 3.17, 432 ) = O'Curry 2271 ( Eg. 88, 20 ), see ZCP xv 355 . arin lethcumaid dorōine sé ara brōgaib fēin sech brōgaib na manach the partial treatment he gave to his own shoes, ZCP iii 33.6 . lethchuma ar Ghilla Dé / ní cuibe do'n té dogní `an injustice to G.D.', SG 284.5 . do leath-chumaidh ar an gcuid oile don mheithil unfairly, TSh. 10134 . lethedargaire, MR 262.23 . is fer lethetrana do chuaid etarru biassed mediator, Laws iii 196.11 Comm . in t-ochtmad aithne:— na dena leth-fhiadnaise false witness, PH 7619. leath-ghrádh oide idir dhaltaibh favouritism, Content. xiv 13 . Cf. (adj.) dá gcor i sochar leith-leasach dhóibh féin to their own advantage, TSh. 7103. ? freagra do lethluith, O'Dav. 1510 . bíd in éudach coitchenn gan lethpháirt ar bioth `partiality' (i.e. particularity), RSClára 73b . Cf. leathrannach partial, unfair, Eochairsg. 11.31 . partial (poetic) knowledge : nemṡós, lethṡós, lánṡós 'no knowledge, partial knowledge, full knowledge' Ériu xxxii 62 § 1 . ro gníd lethinacht (= lethṡmacht) mór fair injustice, LL 217a33 ( TTr. 22 ). Cf. doghnid Ioip lethsmacht aturu, D IV 2, 26rb48 = BB 4a21 = 411b26 . ni dhearnaidh leathtrom na leathsmacht, 23 E 26, 289.11 . Hence: mad fleteg ledmagtach dogneid dind æclis, Wb. 11d16 (`factions', Gwynn, Hermathena xx 63 ). aighi (aigne ?) lethsmachtach partial advocate(?), ZCP xii 364.27 . brethem beris breith for leth tagra cin imaidbi without hearing both sides(?), Laws v 354.1 . See leithscél, etc. With similar shade of meaning in adjj.: ro bátar leithriata uile fri Poimp ar tus [cein] co táinic Césair `on the side of P.', CCath. 1244 (leitreta, v.l.) is mor is lethreta in cined doenna frisiṅ dualaig-sin in ecnaig inclined to, PH 6876.

(d) Pleonastically with words meaning side, edge, border. The following examples properly belong to sense B and should be considered under (f) Ériu liii 179-80 : dar let[h]bord in longpuirt `edge', CCath. 5431 . lámh le leathbhord along the frontier, DDána 96.13 . i leithimeal Mhuidhe Dermuidhe, Flower Cat. 471.32 . fa leithimel Conmaicne, AFM vi 1882.4 . medhōn idir dhā leithimell do chonngbhāil between two extremes, Celtica i 194.1078 . Cf. frém lethimeallach an láidaigáin `the exterior radix of the little finger', O'Gr. Cat. 287.31 . nirbo fota ro bai an cath can dul do lethleth `inclining to one of the two sides', CCath. 5742 . do leith-leith na sligedh `on each side of the road', Fl. Earls 162.4 . leithreadh .i. leithleith. robdar leithreadha .i. dochuadar do leithleith, no dén táobh, O'Cl. `leath-luighe leaning', Eg. Gl. 421. See lettáeb, etc.

In meaning B.

(a) In a variety of compds. in meaning half: fer lethbali, MU² 195 (`half-township', Gloss.). bith for lethbargin `a half-ration of bread', Ériu vii 162.z . ? midben .i. lethben nó lethuagh fobīth in toraind bis iter indalæ ben de, O'Mulc. 823 . samaisc i llethbeirt half a bundle, Críth G. 213. ailid cach ben . . . lethbiathad a ceile di `half the refection', BCrólige 56 . ? for lethblai baíth, LL 211a7 (see Metr. Dinds. ii 20.48 ). leth-chanóin `demi-cannon', AFM v 1732.13 . lethcoir n-urnadma `das halbe Ordnungsmässige der Antrauung', Ir. Recht 37.20 . mad lechur (= leth-chur) .i. forgiallnai, O'Curry 829 ( H 3.18, 380 ). fosuididter in ben lethdam in fir half the husband's retinue, Laws ii 386.6 . lethdei = semidei, Auraic. 2920 . lethdrécht . . . i ngort `a half-day's labour', Críth G. 84 (see note). a ndo[ro]chair . . . de lethdoinib . . . dineoch nad roacht cridiu cathae shirkers(?), RC xii 104 § 148 . Cf. co torchair fer ┐ lethfer fer nÉrenn leis, Comp. CC 109.18 , perh. a mere turn of phrase, cf. ech ┐ letheach fer nÉrenn, 11 . lethfeidm laech `half effort', Arch. Hib. ii 54 § 7 . aire forgill in lethḟira `des Halb Schwurs', Cóic Con. 38 § 52 . do leith fitt `half-ration', Mon. Tall. 156.20 . lethflaithem .i. fer da cleithe, Laws iv 350.12 . Christo tantum seruit .i. cen ledfognam coiugio without partial service coniugio , Wb. 10a24 . ? dlighidh saerbiathad deisi, ┐ boin lethgabala `a cow of the second quality', Laws iv 350.y . geni gaba acht lethgabail de, 212.z . aithgin cona lethgabail diabulta `with double half-seizure', v 168.4 Comm . a lethgabol (-ál ?) étaig do brutt `half of clothes for mantle', Ériu i 220 § 14 . ¤gáe half-length spear, short spear(?) (possibly one of a pair of spears) : i suainem in let[h]ga letartaigh, CCath. 5598 . lethgai londrecha lasamna, TTebe 1400 . do lethgāethib lethna lict[h]i `half-spears for throwing', Fianaig. 90.1 . an tres fross do lethghaibh, TFrag. 182.6 . ¤Gall Of people of the Hebrides ( Rannsachadh na Gàidhlig i 14 ): uainn do Lethghallaibh léig[idh], Celtica x 196 § 11 . abbas Leithglinne, AU 639 . in Leth-innsi, 1412 (iii 64.2) . leathloghadh (opp. to lánloghadh) `partial indulgence', Mac Aingil 6421 . ? fri tōeb in lāir leithlessi (-lisse, v.l.) `half-ruined fort', Ériu vii 2.17 . nocht-aile isin lethmachaire `half (cleared) plain', O'Dav. 963 , cf. Laws iv 72.18 Comm ; 'pastureland occasionally tilled (?)' Landscape Archaeology in Ireland 248 . leathnomen = lesainm, ZCP iii 226.13 , cf. leth-ainm fir annatha, Anecd. ii 52.6 . lethol n-ais ó cach airig, Irish Texts i 19 § 5 . fuillem cacha leth-oile, Laws v 414.1 . cét lóeg ┐ di lethorc half-grown pigs (?), LU 6930 ( BDD 54 ). for hErainn cen lethrainn undivided, SR 2351 (cf. Wortk. vi 949 ). Bicair Leth-ratha, AU 1490 (iii 346.4) . cosc sair ┐ dair ┐ lethair 'half-noble' = lethṡáer, Celtica xxiv 38 . a laim leathaer sealba, CIH i 210.25 . .i. i lethsuir na selba, 211.1 . Cf. CIH v 1861.16, 18 , vi 2020.18, 19 . tri gnuidh do lea[th]scoilteach `half-cleavings', IT iii 196.6 . ic leithṡeolad ┐ ic lánṡeolad ri lethgaethaib with shortened sail (?), LL 236a33 - 4 ( TTr. 1431 ). leith slighidh half way, Cín Lae Ó Meall. 30.24 . emisperium .i. letspeir, Ir. Astr. Tr. 88.12 . ni tairgend a hathair lethtinol le, Ir. Recht 37.22 . cutrumu leth-tochusa in fir gusa teit `half the property,' Laws v 290.6 Comm . ní fhuaras . . . / leath-tail óm chéill chorpardha `I have not found even grud