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ísel

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ísel or dil.ie/29112
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: isliu, ísliu, íslem, íseal, íseall

adj o, ā (in pl. as i). Compar. isliu, Wb. 4b25 . ísliu, Thes. ii 22.35 (Bcr.). Superl. íslem, Ériu ii 202 § 20. Subst. íseal íseall, IGT Decl. § 53.8 .

I

(a) Of size or position, low, of low stature, low-lying ; as subst. (freq. in pl.), a low-lying place, a hollow, the depths: īsil .i. tīs fil, Corm. Y 775. īsel .i. īs-aill, ar nī erbarad a n-īsil muna bē ard ocae , 738 . hua ísiul gl. ab inferno, Ml. 69b8 . donaib íslib gl. ad inferna, 27b2 . inna fortechtai .i. inna ísli ┐ inna cobsaidi gl. depresa (camporum), 81c15 . isin mórchuthe n-í.¤ (i.e. Hell), Thes. ii 317.1 ( Hy. ii ). i n-ísiul gl. in deiectu, 11.39 (Bcr.). isli gl. demersa, ib. ísli doibsom in fecht-sa innahí ruptar ardda dunnai `low to them now ...,' 11.41 (Bcr.). sírid in rindide n-uile ó hisul co huasal `the whole zodiac from low to high,' 22.40 (ib.). rí in hislib, ri in arddaib, SR 7630. ard a medón isli im a dá n-imechtar, LU 2149. nach tan bus n-íslem cech bendchopur Arad Mora is and bas ardam a chongbáil-sium ┐ a bendchopur, Ériu ii 202 § 20. mo slīabh árd ós gach íseall, ZCP viii 221 § 44. Bri mag n-í.¤ ... mag innā biat slēbe ardae, acht talam cumbair í.¤ , O'Mulc. 154. a n-īslib ┐ a n-etrigib na talman, ML² 37. ar ní is ísli ní ḟeacfa | na trí trínsi in túaiscearta, IGT Decl. ex. 1592. fer i.¤ tailc tarbda, TTebe 2557 . hi nglendaib ísle na Galile, PH 4474. biaidh na cnuic níosa thorthaighe iná na hísle, Corp. Astron. 206.9 . Isell Ciarain `name of a church at Clonmacnoise,' CS p. 302.5 and n. 0

Frequent as the second element of a compd. : mac do Samuél chendísel `the Low-headed ,' Fél.² lxxxv 12. amhail theid sruth ... tar chladhaibh clachisli ` low-stoned ,' CF 808. ní bu leithísel in mam `the yoke was not down on one side,' Thes. ii 341.2 (Hy. v). ina dumaduib smūid-lethna smáil-ísle smūrluaithrig, ML² 1178. ar na glenn-s[h]ūilib geil-derga gruadhlaig-ísli very hollow-cheeked . 1589 .

(b) Of sound, low, deep: guth i.¤ cruaid leis, BB 496b28 . traethait na ciulu isli na ciuil arda .i. stocairecht no cornairecht, 327b33 . re séisibh ísle ... oirfidech, MR 110.z . an osnaidh ísill, IGT Decl. ex. 399. Of palatal vowels: eadhadh, iodhadh ceann i gceann | agus éabhadh .eó. íseall 'e, i together with palatal eó', Celtica xxvii 62 § 17 . na trí heamhanchuill ísle 'the three palatal graphs beginning with a', Celtica xxvii 63 § 19 . See also ísle.

(c) Of colour, pale (?) : da mbía in fual is e isi[l] ina dat `remissa in colore,' Rosa Angl. 186.14 .

(d) Of number : ós aniú as ísle a dtionóil `the number is lowest,' Content. xxii 11.

(e) As grammat. epithet, used of the short form of pl. of a noun which has more than one pl. form : gach focal bhíos d'úathadh ┐ d'iollradh, séimh as cóir a ainm ísiol iollraidh a ndíaigh an áirimh, mur so : trí bhile, ... ┐ lom as cóir a ainm ard iollraidh ... mur so : trí bileadha, IGT Introd. 8.21 .

In advbl. phrase, ós ísel, ós ísiol secretly, in secret: tig Naoise ós ísiol a ndaíl [D.], IT ii2 111.42 . go ttainic fora menmain imteacht a hErinn os íseal, BNnÉ i 207.29 . guth oram ... ós íseal ris an ollamh, Studies 1924, 87 § 19 . claon do dhearc uirre os íseal, TD 1 § 12. dorala iomacallamh ós ísiol etir é ┐ drong d'esccairdibh U., AFM vi 1956.y . do chúaidh ... do chum na solluman, ní hós aird acht ... ós íseal, John vii 10. an ti ithiomráidheas ós íseal a chomharsa, TSh. 7277. labhair go réig is glaodhaig go híosal, Midnight court 905 ( ZCP v 228 ).

II Metaph. lowly, humble, mean, of low degree: a ngrád as isliu oldate angil gl. Principatus, Wb. 4b25 . air dom-muinfide bed n-í.¤ intí dia `for that God would have been thought to be mean,' Ml. 40c17 . foillsigthir as n-í.¤ in doinacht iar n-aicniud, 25c5 . is airi asindet som donaib huaislib i ndiad inna n-í.¤ , 40c20 . huand eregim hísil gl. humili conquestione, 63d13 . i.¤ fri art `lowly towards the high,' Thes. ii 235.15 . Cf. Celtica viii 58.5 . cit móir ríg in domain | ...it uaisliu | amsáin ísil Íssu `Jesu's lowly soldiers,' Fél. 152. cíat ísliu fíad dainib | ... bit áird úas dind ḟlatha, 153 . [as] ndiabul taurchrecce in gráid as ísliu t[a]urchreic in gráid as ardu, Críth G. 112. nach grad bes issle araile, is fair fortongar ; nach grad bes uaisle araile, is e fortoing araill, Laws v 460.16 . secht cumula do eagluis uasail, ocus let secht cumul do eagluis ísil `an humble church,' iii 70.12 Comm. is coitceann índsin itir iseal ocus uasal `both to plebeian and noble,' iv 26.2 Comm. on grad uasal cusin grad n-isil, amail ata ollam, ansruth ... foclac, v 26.16 Comm. re foluibh ísli fhuinn Luighdheach `low-born families,' Studies 1919, 73 § 4 . breith íseal ni fhuiléangadh `he will be satisfied with no mean ambition,' Aithd. D. 20 § 3. ráinig mise ar an miotal badh hísle, Keat. Poems 659. do rochtain ... an bhoicht ┐ an tsaidhbhir, an uasail ┐ an ísil, TSh. 361. Of quality : cuibrech is isliu anas ` worse ,' Laws iii 498.10 Comm.

Compds. ? ¤shellach : issil selbt (leg. íssel-sellach `kurzsichtig,' Thurn.), Thes. ii 236.13 . ¤nemed a nemed of low rank, lower dignitary: i mun (leg. mbun) craind uasal-neimid ... i mbun craínd isil-nemidh, Laws iv 182.17 and 184.1 Comm.

oc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. oc or dil.ie/33397

 

Forms: oc(c), ac, oc, ac, ic, ag, ocin, ocind, ocon(d), icon(d), con(d), ocna, ocna, icna, ocum, acum, icum, agam-sa, ocut, acut, acot-su, icot, occo, occa, oca-som, ocae, occai, oc(c)o, oc(c)ae, aci, aice, aige, occai, occae, occi, occai, acci, aicce, aice, aici, ocunn, ocainn, acainn, ocaind, oc(c)aib, acaib, ocaib, occo, oc(c)a, oc(c)u, acu, aca, octhaib, oc, oc, ocom, icom, 'com, occ, oc(c)ot, ic(c)ot, cot, occa, occo, oco, oc(c)a, ic(c)a, coa, ca, ga, occar, coar, cár, oc, oc, ocabar, icabar, co, ga, occa, ocua, ocaó, ica, coa-ta, ica-t, ca-tá, ga-tátt, gán, cán

prep. governing dat. O.Ir. oc(c); ac, Ml. 22a5 , 82d11 . Mid.Ir. oc, ac, ic. Mod. ag. Causes no change in initial of a subst. immediately following. In Mid.Ir. often loses initial vowel in composition with art. or poss. pron. With art.: s. ocin bathis, Tur. 68 ; ocind oipred, Sg. 190b3 . Mid.Ir. ocon(d); icon(d); 'con(d). pl. ocna fothaircthib, Sg. 217a4 . Mid.Ir. ocna, icna.

With pers. pron.: 1 s. Mid.Ir. ocum, acum; icum; agam-sa, TBC-LL¹ 2207. 2 s. Mid.Ir. ocut; acut, LU 3917 ; acot-su, 4016 ; icot. 3 s. m. & n. occo, Wb. 5a26 . occa, Wb. 8a11 , Hy. i 36 T . oca-som, LU 9019 ( FB 77 ). ocae , Ml. 41d3 . occai, Hy. i 36 F , ii 55 . Mid.Ir. oc(c)o, oc(c)ae, aci, aice. Mod. aige. 3 s. f. occai, Ml. 67d23 . occae, 89c16 . occi, Sg. 7a2 . Mid.Ir. occai, acci, aicce. Mod. aice, aici. 1 pl. ocunn; in Mid.Ir. often with palatal final, ocainn, acainn; ocaind, LU 8829 ( FB 62 ). 2 pl. Mid.Ir. oc(c)aib, acaib. 3 pl. ocaib, LU 3243 , 9166 . occo, 8874 , 9018 , 9094 . oc(c)a, oc(c)u, acu. Mod. aca. octhaib, Ériu iv 144.1 is a late analogical form.

With poss. pron.: 1 s. oc mo, Wb. 26c2 . oc mu, Thes. ii 293. 16 . Mid.Ir. ocom, icom, 'com. 2 s. occ t'adrad, Wb. 5a25 . ac du guidi, Ml. 22a5 . oc(c)ot, ic(c)ot, 'cot. 3 s. occa, Wb. 24c13 , 28d10 . occo, Sg. 67a10 . oco, 213b4 . oc(c)a, ic(c)a: 'coa; 'ca: ga, TBC-LL¹ 5713 , 5720 . Mod. ag a, 'gá. 1 pl. occar n-, Wb. 4b16 , 10c22 . coar n-, SR 1500. cár, PH 1849. 2 pl. oc far n-, Wb. 5d33 . oc bar, 25c16 . ic for, SR 1246. ocabar n-, PH 2669. icabar, LL 238b34 . co for n-, LU 5244 (H). ga bar, LB 110b57 . 3 pl. occa n-, Wb. 16c5 , 20c3 . ocua n-, Ml. 18b4 . ocaó n-, LU 4630 . ica n-.

With rel. pron.: nearly always folld. by subst. vb.; no exx. in Glosses. coa-ta, TBC-LL¹ 1236 (2 s.) co ata, Rawl. 152b38 (3 s.). ica-t, TBC-LL¹ 1616. ca-tá, 120 . ga-tátt, BColm. 80.29 (3 pl.). ca mbia, IT i 190.15 ( FA 30 LB). oca mbaí, TBC-LL¹ 3516. coa rabi, 785 . gá farcgaib, 786 . gar cumad, ZCP viii 114 § 13.

Isolated exx. occur with cop.: pres. sdéd gan dóigh urraim na n-eillteadh, IGT Dec. ex. 1177 = gán, 662 . cán, Hy Fiach. 284. pret. on curi car terc sluaig, Metr. Dinds. iii 418.20 . As preverb, only in composition with ben- (subst. vb.), see ocuben.

In general sense denotes proximity, local or figurative (always of rest in a place or state).

I In local sense

(a) at, beside, close to: oc na fothaircthib at the baths, Sg. 217a4 . occi (gl. iuxta se), 7a2 . imdi noa occai (gl. Tarsis potens navium), Ml. 67d23 . cáingrían ocon tṡléib sin, Fél. Oct. 20. icon dún . . . .i. oc Dún Mac N., TBC-LL¹ 1225. in fetar-su cia fil icond áth?, 1157 . oc cros ind-dorus lis by the cross in front of the hostel, Mon. Tall. § 62. dessid Ísu ic meis, PH 5035 , cf. dessid ocon muicc sat down (to carve) the pig, IT 100.22 . oc Ierusalem, PH 485. fert Fergusa . . . fil ic Findloch i Connachta, ACL iii 5.4 . cantairecht do tocbail agun altoir, ZCP viii 115 § 27. gom thoigh at my house, 219 § 9 . tair ic taurcbáil na gréne in the quarter of sunrise, IT i 129.9 . Cf. is e fil oc mo gerran-sa who is in charge of my nag, Ériu v 30.9 . Exceptionally after vb. of motion (in fig. sense): do impo se na Lumbardaig . . . oc creidium na heclasi, ZCP xiii 184.2 .

(b) in fig. sense, beside = compared with (Germ. neben): luin oc elaib, Corm. Y 69 , cf. gloss in LU 330 : .i. deróli na luin i farrad na n-ela. marbāin inna bliadna so, | nirbo chuīnti nech occo there was none worth bewailing compared with them, Bruchst. i § 96 = níbo caointe ní occa, TFrag. 60.15 .

(c) folld. by demonstr. pron. so, sin, sút and a subst., form- ing an elliptical sent. here (there) is (are) (= Lat. ecce, Fr. voici, voilà). The form ac is always used in this construction, which is unknown in O.Ir. The orig. constr. is prob.: oc so (sin) atá . . . , the prep. governing the demonstr.; but later ac so (sin) comes to be regarded as a compd. adv. and the follg. subst. is sometimes in acc. case. See IGT Introd. § 128 , where ag so, ag sin and ag súd are said to be followed either by nom. or acc., `ag sin bean gheal' and `ag sin mhnáoi ngil' being both correct. ac so me here I am, PH 638. ac so uan Dé, 3794 . ac sin chucut do ríg (= ecce rex tuus venit tibi), 4376 . ac seo in corn-so dúib, LL 301b3 ( RC xiii 62 x ). ac sin bar n-usci dhaibh, Ériu v 158.220 . ag soin . . . an mbunnainn, IGT Dec. ex. 561.

Ac so, ac sin are freq. used like Fr. voici, voilà to indicate respectively a following or a preceding statement, enumera- tion, etc. ag so an tres gniomh diobh . . . fer a ionaid do dermat, BNnÉ 263.1 . ethech ┐ bréga ┐ luigeda dímaine . . . ac sin brissed na cet-aithne, PH 7604. ac sein duit ocht fichit cest rá ernisem, LL 145a52 . ac sin a n-oidid éicin chloinde crōda Cennēidig, ZCP viii 120.7 . o Gabrann co Cnamchaill . . . ag sin in gnathrainn, Ériu ii 50 § 4. ag sin agat . . . slighe na ndeich n-aithne, Dán Dé vi 11.

II Of the time or occasion at or during which someth. takes place (often = Germ. bei):

(a) sulbaire degbelrai cen tognam n-occae (gl. gratia illaborata), Ml. 89c16 . nin-fortéit-ni in spirut oc suidiu the spirit helps us not herein (i.e. when we pray), Wb. 4a27 . bale i rrabe oc na clessaib engaged in sports, FB 43. an cetharlebar sosceli do aurlegund oc praind at meal- time, Mon. Tall. 29. crosfigild iarum oc domine probasti at (the words) `Domine p.', § 30. dia mbatar icon choibfhleid, PH 5048 . doratad anmunna forru icon bathis, 970 . fleadh gá sgaoiltir sgéla, IGT Dec. ex. 1051. (For: ic abardorcha, CCath. 1090 , read i cabar-.) Further extensions of this use: cid ar nach sechend ind eclais Crist ic timna na himdibe? why does not the Church follow Christ in the matter of circumci- sion? PH 5765. atbert Esaias oca césad when speaking of his passion, 2275 . atá an ghealach níosa lugha . . . mar deirim aice fein as I state when I deal with it, Corp. Astron. 88.18 .

(b) with 3 s. n. pron. used as advb. = at it, thereat, engaged therein, on that occasion, etc. ní torbe precept . . . mani dénatur ḟerte occa, Wb. 8a11 . oín-menme lib occo (gl. ut unanimes honorificetis Deum), 6d3 . huisque prius in calicem ┐ issed canar occo (i.e. while the water is poured into the chalice), Thes. ii 252.5 ( Stowe M. 64b ). Celestinus . . . isé ro herlig gráda fairseom, Germanus ┐ Amatho . . . ar aird occo G. and A. being present, Trip. 30.28 . ro baí munter P. oc búain orba . . . ros-gab íta mór occai, 236.2 . praind do tomailt . . . is a hurcul acht sailmchetal ┐ aurnaigti occo to eat . . . is for- bidden unless it is accompanied by psalm-singing, Mon. Tall. 65 . cudnód ind prainde arnā bether ocu nach cein that no long while may be spent over it, § 89. dā biait do cetol i crois- figill cen tairnem lama occa, RC xv 489 § 17. ma doragbus ní d'uabar . . . cluinte mo nuallan acai `hear me wail for it', Ériu ii 56 § 15 . nis-fil do plaig . . . nachus-bera sin for culu, acht corup léir guidter Dia occai, RC xii 430.6 .

III Folld. by vn. (strictly a case of II).

(a) after subst. vb., taking the place of a pres. part.; corre- sponding to the older Engl. gerundial construction `to be a-going'. ataat oc timthirecht apastolorum they are serving, Wb. 14a30 . ce rudbatar iudei occa thindnacul-som though . . . were delivering him up, 4b13 . Cf. is occ maid atáa he is engaged in good, 6a18 . itu ic frithalim na n-anmanna, SR 1187. bui- siom oc huamim sewing, Mon. Tall. 60. mor fer ro boí com iarraid many men have wooed me, SCC 44. ata mog Dé icot gairm is calling thee, PH 1369. tic Euá asin tsruth, bai for tir co [leg. coa or ca] tirmugud, SR 1686 = oca tirmugud, MacCarthy 66.7 . ro batar . . . duile De coar n-airmitein, SR 1500 = oc ár n-a., MacCarthy 60 z . ata Dia ic for togáes, SR 1246 = ga bar togaethad, MacCarthy 52.18 . ata drong . . . ocabar n-aithceód, PH 2669. ro bátár a cruti ocaó n-airfitiud playing to them, TBC-LL¹ 168 ( LU 4630 ).

Note the irreg. constr. in the follg. exx. in which oc accom- panied by rel. pron. governs a vn. in a rel. clause: fogéba . . . aní coa-taí iarair you will find what you are seeking, TBC-LL¹ 1236. fúr na fleidhi oca rabhadhuis denumh damsa which you were making for me, Lism. L. 2357. fírinde ina núfhiadnaise icca rabatar tairchetul of which they had been prophesying, PH 5768 . With prep. do inserted before vn.: do dhemnaib ca tai d'adrad whom thou worshippest, PH 634. is e so in t-Ísu oca raba Hiruath d'iarraid, 2841 .

With ellipse of vb., in function of pres. part.: cid tu dana icim dail? who art thou that comest to meet me? IT i 127.4 . ingen oc ambrán singing, PH 889. siat oc slechtanaib . . . ┐ oc ádrad Ísu, 2615 . espuig ag adhaltras, ag meallad a ngraidh bishops adulterous, belying their orders, ZCP viii 209.29 . sib-si icc iarraid bar leicctiu don cath ┐ misi ica-for [accabur v.l.] fostadh, CCath. 5129.

After subst. vb. in impers. construction: cia bethir oc far n-ingrim though they be a-persecuting you, Wb. 5d33 . céin both oc taisbenad na flede dóib while they were setting forth the feast, FB 13. is and ro bas oca caíniud lamentation was made for them, 77 . atathar com breith don Teibh they are taking me to Thebes, RC x 180.35 . ru fitir níb uc denam a lessa ro bass and, RC iii 176.18 . The follg. ex. offers an analogous construction: os gar ndola con lō so since we are going to this battle (?), RC xxxvii 352 § 9 .

(b) with other vbs., referring to subj. of sent.: conid oc accaíne sin atbert in rí, PH 4268. ro-bar-n-élned oc adrad cloch ┐ crand by worshipping, 1707 . a fhuair [do máthair] do galar acut breith, 7390 . dorala Cairend doib ic tabairt usci do Temraig as she was bringing water, RC xxiv 192.17 . muna derntaí maith icabhur cosnum, Acall. 5141 = ocabar, Fr. Esp. used idiomatically after vbs. of beginning, continuing, desisting: forópair oc dogru, SCC 44. fecis Ailill oc cóí began to weep, IT i 127.17 . ro gab ac midem ┐ ac mórdescain, CRR 25. gabais Gabriel ga guidi, ACL iii 244 § 11. fuabrais ic troscadh for Ciaran, 5.2 . nā han ag atach Righ nimi cease not to beseech, ZCP vi 272 § 14. Analog. with abstr. noun: fos oc etli `per- severance in holiness', Mon. Tall. 19.

(c) referring to other member of sent. than subj.; imba immalei dō occa[r] taithchricc et occar n-áinsem? will he be at the same time redeeming us and accusing as? Wb. 4b16 . bliadain . . . dō ga hiarraidh he spent a year seeking her, IT i 129.15 . cen fial impu oca n-imdíten, MacCarthy 56.9 . doro- chair ecla forsna huli anchretmechu oca fhacsin sin, PH 2164. coro indisetar don rí cách uli oc édpairt dona deeib that all were sacrificing, 979 . ro brised in cath . . . ar Oilill ┐ ar Mheidb . . . oc tabairt tána bó cuȧilngi, RC vi 178.134 .

After the obj. of a vb. of seeing, hearing, etc., often as complement: otchí Isu in ṅduine ic comallnad a thimna when Jesus sees a man fulfilling his command, PH 4607. itcualamar in t-aingel oc comrád, 2968 .

(d) introducing an absolute adverbial phrase: issed aspered M. oca aurail do neoch fairsiom guidhi Dé laisiom when any one enjoined on him to pray God for him, Mon. Tall. 75. boi ingreimm mor forsna Cristaigib . . . oc eráil forru édpart do génum dona deeib, PH 962. is aire chanait . . . don anmain ic escómlad di asin churp, 8139 (= ica escomlad asin churp). ag clos linn . . . do fhreagra, Content. x 21. The follg. con- structions are mixed: gu rabha oc dul a anma ass he was at his last gasp, Irish Texts i 43.27 . nech lasmbad oc dil occorso do cheli Dē who was wont to satisfy the hunger of a servant of God, Ériu i 46.2 .

(e) after an adj.: it mathi side oc aslug these are good at seduction, Wb. 30c13 . it mathi inna ganema oc óul ind lenda (gl. bibulae), Ml. 129d14 . nitat soír oc tintuúth skilled in translating, Wb. 12b23 . cid trén oc tecmallad . . . cia bo labor oc tecmallad mighty . . . weak at gathering, 16c25 , 26 . nidam maith-se oc immarbaig, TBC-LL¹ 1676. Cf. bid gadhar tafaind Ailill oc iarraid crich ┐ ig cosnum mennato, RC xxiv 176.3 .

(f) the vn. following oc is often used in a passive sense, being in this case always preceded by a poss. pron. In Mod.Ir. g(h)á, d(h)á are used in this way. crann immua-mbiat [inna lestrai] ocua ndenum round which (vessels) are made, Ml. 18b4 . ita in cath oca ferthain indiu the battle is being fought, SCC 33. tintud septin . . . is hé ro malartad occo tintúdh [sic leg.] asind ebre isin ngreic which was corrupted in being trans- lated, Hib. Min. 10.335 . binnidir téta mendchrot aca seinm, TBC-LL¹ 209. atú-sa icom mess ona dib rigu I am being judged, PH 1407. dorigne in himaigin . . . co mbeth aice hi oca hadrad, 61 . gair ban ┐ mac aca milliud, TTebe 2155 . fuair se dias do muindtir E. aga ndicennud he found two . . . being be- headed, ZCP vi 281.26 . é féin aga imchor . . . a gcathaóir being carried, Fl. Earls 172.25 . iomad teach n-aoidheadh 'ga ndéa- namh ┐ leabhar da scríobhadh, Keat. iii 3037.

IV Of persons.

(a) with, among, denoting generally not mere proximity but some kind of association , corresponding to Lat. apud, Fr. chez, Germ. bei; often = at the house of, in the country of; used of an author in whose work some statement occurs, etc.

robem occa i mbithbethaid may we be with Him, Hy. i 36. ní n-accathar nech aile occut let no one else see it in your possession, FB 59. is acainne ḟuarais crích ┐ ferand among us (i.e. in Connacht), TBC-LL¹ 5944. nico raga do chorp-sa i n- ádnocul ocainde, PH 3693. iar n-a gabail doibh for creich occo after he had been made prisoner by them when he was raid- ing amongst them, MacCarthy 396.11 ( BB 48b ). ocut-sa dogním in cháisc (= in thy house), PH 5032. an agum-sa 'gud leig[i]us stay with me for thy healing, ZCP vi 37.12 . cid mís no bheinn gun ríg thess though I should spend a month with, ACL iii 304. 21 . anais octhaib .xl. láa he stayed with them, Ériu iv 144.1 . eoangelium ic grecaib, bonum nuntium . . . ic auctoraib na Roman the Greeks call it euangelium , ZCP viii 113 § 5. `amen' . . . is é a etarchert ic Aquil `fideliter'; is e imorro a etarchert oc Cirine `uere', PH 7982. ata tuaruscbail er in peccad-sa ic Solam i nEcclesi[asti]co , 7769 . léaghtar ag Iul Caesar isan seiseadh leabhar d'á stáir, Keat. i 72.95 . Esp. after fo-ácaib, of leaving someth. with some one: facbaid mallachtain aice ┐ berid mallachtain uada, PH 8289. fáccbais comarbus na cille sin ag Urcain, BNnÉ 264 § 226. iar faccbail [sic leg.] imcho- mhairc occa chele after bidding each other farewell, 328 § 56 . ó Ghuaire . . . gár ḟagaibh dámh mór mbennacht, ZCP viii 109.22 Cf. mod. `slán agat!' said by a departing guest in response to the host's `slán leat!'

In many cases oc in compos. with a plural pron. and follow- ing an interrog. or indef. pron. or numeral is used almost in a partitive sense like ó (see 1 ó vii); in early exx. there is a difference in meaning between oc and ó in such cases; in Mod.Ir. ag is freq. used in partitive sense. cia nod-máid acaib-si sin? who among you makes that boast? TBC-LL¹ 1974. cia bad chóir da ḟúapairt Conculaind accu which of them ought to attack C., 2077 . cach mac gaibes gaisced acaib, IT i 101.5 . denum tuidecht cen comlabra do neoch fri araile ocaind with- out conversing with each other, MacCarthy 64.5 ( LB 112a49 ). gach laoch aca-sumh, ML 132.2 . gá méad aca how many of them, Dán Dé xvi 23.

(b) with subst. vb. to denote (temporary) possession: ata x ocumm I have (am in possession of) x; to be distinguished from: is limm x x is mine (belongs to me).

uccu .i. aicci a oenar ata se (i.e. a man's choice rests with himself alone), Corm. Y 1295. árchú fil ocom, TBC-LL¹ 1003. a mboi de ór ┐ argut oca all the gold . . . they had, PH 999. nech ic nach fil almsa, 4974 . do thorad in chroind ic ata fiss uilce ┐ maithusa, MacCarthy 52.20 ( LB 110b58 ). is aigci ata cach maith, . . . ic mac mo Dé, BColm. 100.16 . dā mac dēc ic Coscrach . . . a hocht diib co-ata sil who have posterity, Rawl. 152b38 . ni fhuil ag fissid ar ndil, acht ag Rig na rígh our destiny lies not with the seer, ZCP vii 301 § 9. cia aga bhfuil dúil i lúth? who has any desire for, Keat. Poems 522.

Note follg. constructions: ni boí occo-som do chumachta a mbith beó iarna ndichenned it was not in their power to remain alive, FB 77 (the subj. is the vn. a mbith). duine ga raibe dolás a ngar dó to whom sorrow was nigh, BCC § 147. Occas. atá ocumm folld. by vb. nearly = I am able (to): indar leosom bai aici-seom a sechna he would be able to avoid it, TBC-LL¹ 2208. ata oen-ní ocund do denum `I have yet one expedient', PH 1192 .

Often with ellipse of vb.: bél aicce i tallfad cú, Ériu iv 100.14 . proinn aige da gach aoidhidh, ZCP viii 109 § 4. tucad claideb . . . ac Pilasceius . . . do Plicigias `a sword which had belonged to Pelasgus', TTebe 2499 . ni fhetad duine biad folaig ece [= aice] ann none could have any hidden food, LB 155b59 . ni muirbither mac mna lium cen chin aice, PH 401. uchán! gan againn oinniuin is gáirleog alas that we have not, Keat. Poems 1245.

(c) in sight of, in judgement of (cf. analogous use of la): ro bámar-ni fecht co cátaid acut, SCC 43. ni lia esbaid daim acaind . . . nā esbaid laich the loss of an ox is not more to us than the loss of a warrior, CRR 4. ar bam anoraigti-sea oc Dia dia fhódmar martrai honoured in the sight of God, PH 2428. co nachat anmand uaisle . . . noemait nech icon choimdid, 5087 . nach fil clerech is amru ac Día oldas-[s]om, BColm. 102.13 . olcc occo-som máthair Néill they disliked N.'s mother, Ériu iv 92.11 . inn edh dobeir fort-sa [sin] ar n-etairisine acut? CCath. 634 (= is it because you deem us disloyal that you act thus? = deeratne tibi fiducia nostri? Luc. Phars. i 362 ). co flaith Dúrlais 'cán mór me (= who thinks much of me), Hy Fiach. 284.5 . ní hé as daidhbhre ag Dia, Dán Dé xxxi 22.

(d) used with reflex. pron. after vbs. of saying, observing, thinking, etc.: atrubart aice fén he said to himself, PH 1046. déchaid-si acaib fén masa me see for yourselves if it is I, 3108 . is tria úmla ro chind aice a chlood that he had resolved to vanquish him, 4814 . ro imraid aice ina menmain deliberated, ZCP v 502.8 . do smuain sé aige gumadh ferr leis, Maund. 268. mesait ┐ tuicit aca badhdein, Fl. Earls 228.2 .

The vb. gaibid is similarly used; nā gebed nech aicce fén combad, etc. let not any one conclude, PH 4954. nā ragbam accaind ar dhíles na hindmusa doratait dúin let us not count as our own property, 6123 . Similarly techtaid possesses: ni ro techta occut feirg harbour not anger, PH 4094. is aen-athair techtmait-ne uli ocaind, 6004 : cf. 4025 .

(e) almost in sense of agent, cf. analogous use of la. Strictly, oc indicates, not the agent, but the quarter, group of indi- viduals, etc., in which the action takes place or has its origin. With pass. often employed instead of do where that prep. is needed in another sense. (In Mod.Ir. ag is commonly used to denote the agent after a part. in periphrasis for perf. tense: atá an litir scríobhtha agam I have written.) co torchair acu iarsin iar cur a n-āir he fell at their hands after slaying many of them, ZCP i 105.31 = co torchair leo, ib. 10 . idrochadar sin uili ic feraib Muman, Cog. 22.17 . is dethbir det-siu cia fogabad mor d'imned ocut-sa it befits thee that he should meet with much tribulation from thee, PH 3828 (Satan addresses Hell). co coí n-étarbaig ic anmannaib na peccdach ica pianad oc na slogaib na ndemna, 8306 . iarna marbad ocin rig (i.e. by order of), 6650 . ni lamtís beos icon rig Crist do adrad co follus `through fear of the king', 1016 . ídpairt inn uain oc macu Israel, KMMisc. 144 § 4. With pass.: ra cruthaiged comairle acu, TBC-LL¹ 702. ro benait na cluic ac na cleirchib, ACL iii 225.23 . ro hádnaiced in cend oc Herudiátis by command of H., PH 916. cia coa ndernad in chet-long? by whom was the first ship made? ZCP iv 236.6 . oilén R. atá a laim muindteri Eoin Baisti arna thabairt ac in imperi dóib, Maund. 35. Grigair . . . 'gar cumad in cantairecht (= who was the originator of church music), ZCP viii 114 § 13. gabhthar . . . gá n-aos ceoil . . . laoidh, Gofraidh Fionn iii 46 ( Ir. Monthly 1919 ). is é ní ar ar fanadh againn what has been decided on by us, Maguires of F. § 17 .

Here may be placed the use of oc after vbs. of learning, hearing, etc. (strictly local): ros-fóglaim ocumm nu [leg. mu?] gnímu-sa, PH 1790 , cf. 281 . co ccualaidh féin ag an ccleirech an fís sin `from the cleric's mouth', RC xxv 396 § 13. fear ilchleasach do hoileadh ag Scáthaigh, Keat. Poems 527.

saidid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. saidid or dil.ie/35940
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: said, saidi-siu, saidid, saides, sedait, sedda, settai, setta, suidiath, sudioth, saided, nosaided, nosaiditis, sius, seiss, rasisset, sessed, sesed, sessad, shuided, sestais, seiss, sés, sesed, sessar, síasair, siasur, siadair, siasatár, sīassadar, du-n-essid, dessid, desid, dofessid, dofesid, dessid, doesetar, eisetar, ndesitar, deissitar, ndestetar, destetar, suide, saidis, suidid, shuidiub, suidfe, dessid, deisidhis, deisidheadar, ndeisidhetar

v i, later suidid sits. Depon. in pret.

Early forms: Ipv. 2 s. said, TBC-I¹ 957 (suid, LU). Indic. pres. 2 s. saidi-siu, Ml. 101c6 . 3 s. saidid, Trip.² 916 . forsa-said, SR 617 . rel. saides, LU 10026 . 3 pl. sedait, LU 4921 (= saigid, TBC-I¹ 436 ). rel. sedda, LU 8358 ( FB 24 ). settai, 8368 (ib.). ? setta, 8325 (ib.). Cf. Sagen pp. 36 - 7 . But see ZCP xxiv 236-37 . Impf. 3 s. ? suidiath, ACC 10 ( RC xx 160 ) = sudioth, LU 575 , cf. RC xxxvi 375 - 6 . saided, SR 4514 . nosaided, Goid. 101.35 . 3 pl. nosaiditis, ib. Subj. pres. 1 s. i sius , Thes. ii 357.17 ( Hy. vii ), see KZ xxxi 97 and Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 604 . 2 s. seiss, LU 8242 ( FB 19 ), LL 49b9 ( Hail Brigit § 1 ). Translated as fut., GOI § 384 . ? 3 pl. rasisset, Metr. Dinds. iii 202.43 (perh. to ro-saig). Subj. impf. 3 s. no sessed , Ml. 135a13 . nicon sesed , Mon. Tall. 140.9 . co sessad , Rawl. 107b49 = coro shuided , LL 186a44 , RC xxvi 12.7 . 3 pl. forsa sestais , TBC-I¹ 3451 . ? Cf. séis .i. do shuidheadh, O'Cl. Fut 3 s. seiss, Wb. 26a8 . SR 8266 , 8273 . Cf. sés (séis, v.l.), ZCP ix 452.1 (Baile Bricin). Used as pret., LL 108a22 , 109a6 , 42 ( RC xiv 402 § 9 , 406 § 15 , 408.z ). Condit. 3 s. ro sesed , LU 6469 (TBC) = TBC-LL¹ 2619 . Pret. 1 s. co sessar , MacCongl. 93.2 . 3 s. síasair, Hy. v 1 . siasur, RC xii 78 § 71 . Cf. síasair .i. suidhe, O'Cl. siadair, Four Songs 8 , see Thurn. ZCP xvi 274 . 3 pl. siasatár, LU 5299 = sīassadar, TBC-I¹ 822 . See also under fut. supra. Perf. 1 s. forsn-dessad-sa, Metr. Dinds. iii 440.3 . 3 s. -desid, Wb. 3a7 . du-n-essid, Ml. 121a11 . amal donesfid (leg. -essid), Wb. 26a8 . dessid, SR 3745 , cf. 1381 , 2156 , 4447 , 6131 , 7567 . desid, LU 9735 . With f-: dofessid, LL 125b47 . dofesid, TBC-I¹ 3163 , 3174 (YBL). dofeisid, Corm. Y 825 ( Anecd. iv 70.10 ) = dessid, LB ( Corm. 27.37 ). 3 pl. doesetar, TBC-I¹ 3164 . do eisetar , SG 71.25 . co ndesitar , LU 8274 ( FB 21 ). deissitar, Trip.² 1107 . for ndestetar , LU 6792 = fors ṅdestatar, BDD² 306 . destetar, TBC-LL¹ 5214 .

Vn. suide.

The stem said- is early superseded by suid-, though still used occas. as a wk. vb., pret. 3 s. saidis, MacCongl. 53.4 . suidid follows wk. conjug., with b-fut. (1 s. -suidheabh, DDána 88.26 . ní shuidiub , 3 s. noco suidfe , Ériu v 224.75 ). But the pret. 3 s. form dessid continues in use till comparatively late: 3 s. deisidhis, Ériu iv 176.7 . 3 pl. deisidheadar, AFM i 528.15 . co ndeisidhetar , MR 264.17 . The use of the stem suid- in transitive (causative) sense is found in 1 suidid and compds. in -suidi, and in the later verb 2 suidid (from suidigidir).

I

(a) sits, sits down (in wide sense): dunessid gl. (in planitiem) desedisse, Ml. 121a11 . Aron . . . | saided 'sin tabernacuil, SR 4514 . seiss i suidiu a miadamla | Mac Dé athar, 8273 . suidfid . . . for a chathair rígda, LU 2318 . sedait Ulaid imbi . . . isin tig, 4921 = saigid, TBC-I¹ 436 . seiss C. for rubu na rígrátha, LL 109a42 ( RC xiv 412 ) (fut. for pret.). suid for mo deis, PH 2282 . said sīs . . . co n-imberam fidchill, TBC-I¹ 957 = suid, LU. asbert B. ris dula coro shuided i n-inud ollaman, RC xxvi 12.7 = co sessad hi suide, Rawl. 107b49 . dessid M. . . . | for ochair na conaire, SR 3745 . nach tan atraig ┐ . . . nach dand suides whenever he rises and whenever he sits down, Mon. Tall. 140.20 . dessid ocon muicc, Sc.M² 8 . an t-inadh a suidhenn an t-i[m]peri sin dochum a choda, Maund. 192 . deisid in cleireach isin chathair, Ériu v 28.12 . carn forndessad-sa innossa, Metr. Dinds. iii 440.3 . do shuidhdis for a n-attib comoil, Marco P. 84 . co n-eisid for a ucht, Lism. L. 4434 . do suidestar T. . . . hi cathair ollamnachta Coicid Connacht, Ann. Conn. 1270.18 . is amlaid doesetar ┐ a ṅglūne fri talmain, TBC-I¹ 3164 . deisitar for colba in tigi, ACL iii 224.29 . With direct obj.: dessid Hīruphīn 'he sat upon cherubim', SR (Adam and Eve) 48.1381​​​​ .

(b) of birds: perches, alights : forsa-said ind énlaith, SR 617 . in chaill . . . fora ndesetar na heonu . . . ┐ in dairbre fora ndessid in t-én mor, RC xvii 395.4 , 5 . suidfit brain for bernadaib, LL 48a26 ( SG 373.16 ). dula don eon co n-essidh for barr crainn, Lism. L. 2512 .

(c) alights, halts, rests (in a place): co ndessetar i Slemain Mide, TBC-LL¹ 5095 . tainic A. co riacht Corca Tri, co ndeisidh a tigh righ Corca Tri, Ériu ii 186.4 . ro sesed ubull for cach óenfinna would remain adhering, LU 6469 (TBC2).

(d) settles down, dwells : dessid Dímain for Drobeóil . . . dessid Cappa i nGlind Dá nGrúad, Metr. Dinds. iii 90.30 . ? rasisset in nem iarsain may they rest in heaven (leg. i nem?), 202.43 . a sein dacūaidh isan Rōim | Grigair . . . | is ra suidh 'san Rōim . . . | go raibi 'na hab[d]ainecht, ZCP viii 114.31 . Augustin tra dessid hi sossud uasal epscoip, Anecd. iii 70.23 . co roisetar dia mbothnaid et ro saidsitar co finim a uit, ACL iii 311.12 . Oileach i suidheadh síol Néill, L. Cl. A. B. 183.81 .

(e) with cogn. acc.: síasair (.i. ro saidestar) suide eōin i n-ailt `she sat the seat of a bird' (i.e. perched like a bird), Hy. v 1 . suidfit . . . sudi nemthrócar for richessaib, LU 2415 . Cf. sé[i]s na trī suidiu, id est suide Cīarāin ┐ Comān ┐ Crōnān, ZCP ix 452.1 .

(f) encamps, sits in blockade: do suidestar ar Fiad Ratha Cruachan co setrech sirchalma, Ann. Conn. 1309.3 . ro shuidh Iarla of Esex re haghaidh chathraig Dh., AFM vi 2114.11 . ro shuidh friu as a haithle `came to an engagement', v 1756.2 . Cf. do shuidh comhairle na millteach i bhfoslongphort rém ucht = consilium malignantium obsedit me, TSh. 3380 .

(g) slán seiss lit. `mayst thou rest in safety' (formula of greeting): slan seiss a Brigit co mbuaid, LL 49b9 ( Hail Brigit § 1 ). slán seiss, a Emer, LU 8242 ( FB 19 ). See GOI § 384 . As nominal phr.: `missi latt' ar Midir mass | `ar sligid co rop slán seiss' that thou mayst fare safely, Ériu vii 225 § 50 . nirbo slan seis donti ro thinchaisg, BB 415a32 . Cf. mo slān sēis don dae nach dūr, ZCP v 489 § 11 (B. na f.).

(h) saidid for settles on, falls to the lot of: dessid ordan ┐ rath Abraim for Isaac, Rawl. 73a34 . deissidh digal . . . | for sil clainne Cuinn, AU 942 (i 462.8) , cf. Bruchst. § 124 . mic Crundmáil forsndessid cin, Metr. Dinds. ii 24.91 (essid, eissead, v.ll.). nīamdath bennachtan . . . Patraic | . . . | dofessid for Cathal, Bruchst. § 6 ( IT iii 41 § 43 ). Cf. siadair deann da cach dinn, RC v 202.1 . `Farbe setzte sich auf jeden Hügel', Thurn. ZCP xvi 274 .

(i) stands still, pauses, comes to a stand, remains : ō doessith in cath fo chumlund when the battle remained evenly contested, Fianaig. 34.17 (cited also RC xiii 454 n. 4 ). tāngator . . . dia ndūinibh, ┐ nī fó aithis fomhela . . . rosaidhsiutt dia ccuairt n-eachtra did they rest from their warlike circuit, ZCP xiv 265.12 . Impers. dessid doib issin longphort they remained, TBC-LL¹ 2137 (batar, St. tarrastar, Eg.). ? Impers. pass. cobair guirt arbai nó feóir . . . acht sedair isuidiu occu co dia[i]d lái provided they remain at the task (?), Ériu ii 210.3 (sedur, segar, v.ll.).

(j) in phrases with prepp. LA, OC, etc. decided to, arranged to, adopted (a plan, course of action) (only in perf.): is fair deisid léo, TTr.² 139 . conid sí dál forsndessid this was the tryst agreed upon, Metr. Dinds. ii 4.40 . conadh fair deisidh oca ua N. . . . dionnsaicchidh, AFM v 1612.x . as fair deisidh lais techt i cricha na hAffraici, CCath. 2867 . as fair desidh leó . . . cath d'fogra for C., Leb. Gab.(i) 80.25 . With comairle, etc., as subj.: desid léu in chomairle sin, Trip.² 588 . deisid ocae airisemh they decided to halt, RC xxi 314 ( BDC 31 ). deisidh . . . leo an comhairle sin, BNnÉ 40 § 79 . ho desid for lán tria foilsigud tri recht `when it (sin) had been superabundantly established through its manifestation by (the) Law', Wb. 3a7 . ó desid ógi na cretmi la firu Hérenn when the purity of the faith of the Irish had been proved (founded, established?), Trip. 562.6 = RC vi 163.x ( LU 9735 ). Cf. is for sund dofeisidear breatha buaín ┐ ambuaín la feine `are known' (based, decided?), Laws iv 62.15 .

sonairte

Cite this: eDIL s.v. sonairte or dil.ie/38467

 

Forms: sonirte

n , f. (sonairt). O.Ir. sonirte (Wb.), sonarta (Ml.). strength, firmness, courage : a ndudaesta airisom .i. líi et sonirte immefolṅgi in corp uile andsom ón, Wb. 12b5 . ni tri sonirti n-irisse damelat, 10c3 . int sonartae, Ml. 34a25 . ní lugu immefolngi sonartai do neuch in cotlud, 135a13 . ro eirpset a sonartai hi suidib `they trusted for their strength in them', 43c18 . sonarte ocae gl. potentiam conlatam sibi, 41d3 . æmid inna sonartae athnuigthe `as of the renewed strength', 61a32 . inna sonartae gl. firmitatis, 48c14 . hont sonartai gl. ualentia, 48c17 . hóssi insin sonartae nime, 51c28 . amal ṁbís slántu cáich ┐ á sonarte, Thes. ii 3.35 (Aug.). ba fer tailc trebur co s.¤ ballraid, LU 6709 (TBC). dogéna Día are-sim a athnuadugud . . . 'sa sonairti cétna, BColm. 104.18 . fortitudinem .i. sonairt[i], RC xxviii 320 § 47 . na cethri suailche airegdai .i. trebaire ┐ mesraigetu, s.¤ ┐ fírinde, PH 4608 . for sonairti irsi na martírech, LB 251a11 . cona tainic nach sonairti aignidh nó nach met[u]ghudh menman doib, CCath. 3128 . go tāinic menma ina maithib ┐ sonarti ina slōg, ML² 718 . at he teora ranna ngotha, mét ┐ s.¤ ┐ maethe, O'Dav. 1205 .