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1 adrad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 adrad or dil.ie/533

u, later o, m. Vn. of 1 adraid. act of adoring, worshipping; adoration: dom a.¤ , Wb. 5a27 . a.¤ dǽ, 6d8 . etarcnae ṅdæ ┐ a.¤ gl. cultura [divina], Ml. 129c13 . ní fíra.¤ . . . bís leu du dia., 42a14 . mor do rat . . . du læri frit a.¤-su, 136c11 . adrada idal gl. profanitate, 49a23 . adartha gl. adorandi, 116b4 . occ t-a.¤-so, Wb. 5a25 . do a.¤ bachal `to worship Baal', 5a29 . dia molad ┐ dia a.¤ , Ml. 67b24 . conna dechsam i n-adradu idal, 62d1 . condechuid-som isna adradu hisin `so that he came to those adorations', 65d12 . o a.¤ ind idail áin, SR 7045 . conscerthar ar n-a.¤-ni ┐ ar ngentlecht, Trip.² 352 . sollamon n-adratha .i. Casc no Nollog, Laws v 398.11, 17 Comm. aes . . . adhartha idhul, Ériu ii 114 § 38 . lucht adhairthe an anma-so Iosa, Parrth. Anma 3913 . ar son a adhartha, DDána 37.42 . deuna gníomh adhraidh `make an act of adoration', Donlevy 406.2 . ag adhradh do Chrom Chruaidh, Keat. ii 1923 . In phrases. dia adartha: Coll, Cécht ┐ Grian fá déé adartha dhóibh, Keat. i 222.25 . asé is dia adhartha dhó `the god whom he worships', Marco P. 161 . do bheannaigeas dhōibh treasna dēibh adharthae, Feis Tighe Chonáin 167 . ail adartha rock of adoration: ail adrada (as a landmark), Laws iv 142.16 Comm. cranncor no airisem iman ailig nadhartha (as means of decision), O'Curry 2569 (Eg. 88, 48(49)a) = 2587 (49(50)d) with added comment: ar ni tualaing nech duine ro mestar fir d'anteist acht inti uma aici menma na nuile. Perh. a christian explanation of some heathen mode of divination (= incubation), Plummer MS. notes. fir n-airisme fri haltoir .i. in t-airismetu im ailig n-adartha, Laws v 470.34, 472.21 Comm. (where text has substituted the Christian analogue while the comment preserves the heathen aspect, Plummer). ?As n.loc. rocumsat a.¤ and conid de asbert A.¤ ingene Lūachāin, BColm. 18 § 17 .

2 áes

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 áes or dil.ie/645
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: áes, aeis, aesa

n u, m. áes m. (g s. and n p. aeis, aesa), IGT Decl. § 38 .

People, folk, those who, etc. Almost invariably with qual. clause, adj., or noun in gen.: áis fil oc turcbail grene gl. qui primi hominum solem uident, Ml. 94b18 . ?dommuinetar indóini is (indoiss, MS.) ferc do insin, 49b7 . dond aos bís illobrae `to those that are lying sick', Mon. Tall. 148.9 (§ 56) . genaiti áesa a Tenmag Trogaigi, LU 3521 . a Athair na n-uile aos `Father of all folk', A. Ó Dálaigh xxix 4 .

With follg. adj.: int ais amprom `the wicked ', Ml. 31c6 . int óis anfoirbthe `the imperfect folk', Wb. 13c13 . ind aiso boicht `of the poor ', Ml. 31c1 . in n-áis déed `the lazy folk', Wb. 25c19 . aithbeoadh aois éidtreoraig `a resurrection of all feeble folk', O'Gr. Cat. 485.1 . int ais firian `the righteous ', Ml. 55d11 . tairisem ind aiso firien, 54a13 . ni forcital óisa foirbthi `of perfect folk', Wb. 8c3 . ind aosae galrich `of sickly persons', Mon. Tall. 146.27. (§ 52) . dar cenn ind óesa lobuir `for sake of the feeble folk', Wb. 10c11 . int ais lósc `the blind ', Ml. 45c9 . in n-aés moith ┐ anfoirbthe `the tender and imperfect', 45b17 . ind áisso noib `of the saints ', Ml. 27c2 . inna fochaide dobertar forsin naís noib, Ml. 27b15 . in t-aes ócc óetedhach the young , TTr.² 1218 . aes sruith superiors , Trip.² 2115 . cen imcomet aesa sruith, Laws iii 510.2 . With follg. noun in gen. (for similar phrases see fer, lucht): áes . . . airechta members of an assembly , O'D. 544 ( H 3.17 c. 435 ). bhur náos énúaire sojourners , Levit. xxv 23 . áos aithrigi ` penitents ', Mon. Tall. 131.z (§ 11) . in t-aes cairdiusa ┐ caradraidh friends , CCath. 233 . óis carcre ` prisoners ', Wb. 28d30 . áes comchotaig allies, partners , LU 4637 (TBC). aes comgnima co-operators, fellow-workmen , Laws v 156.18 Comm. aes cotalta sleepers , Laws iii 220.23 Comm. don aes na deiccsin (leg. -sen) the watchers , BDD² 589 . aithgabail aesa ecolsa ` ecclesiastics ', Laws ii 120.5 Comm. fíad áes enig, LU 3903 ( SCC § 41 ). áes gráda retainers, counsellors : ar marbad a muintiri, ocus aessa grada, ocus a comalta, Cog. 62.2 . tugudur a aes gradha mur comurle dó, ZCP vi 273.4 . is and sin do gluaisetar a glanaos gradha gu hO mBriain, ITS xxvi 63.25 . do gluais uathad da aes grada, Ann. Conn. 236(s.a. 1315.11) . ro airc Feidlimid iar sin aes grada Ruaidri h. Conchobair, 1316.4 . for aes n-imthechta messengers , TBC-LL¹ 148 . mian ngalair aesa inhuitir `sick craving of invalids', Ériu xii 20.1. (BCrólige). á.¤ láime actual perpetrators: is iat is aes laime ann lucht in combaiti, Laws iii 252.13 Comm. ( lucht laime, 8 ). æs mancuine `personal retainers ', Ériu xii 40 § 50 (BCrólige). oís muntire gl. domistici Dei, Wb. 21c4 ; 21b12 . do óes oifrinn congregation at mass, Trip.² 1386 . ar n-óis rechto `we folk of the Law', Wb. 31d1 . int ais sechmaill `the passers-by ', Ml. 102a15 . romtar óis teglig `folk of (His) family', Wb. 7b13 . ond áes tuaithe from the laity , Wb. 28b32 . Esp. to denote an occupation or calling: óes cherdd craftsmen or poets , Críth G. 281 . int aos creth poets , ACL iii 310 viii 3 . a.¤ dána artists, poets , see dán. a.¤ gráid men in orders, see 1 grád. a.¤ gráda favourites, confidants, etc. see 2 grád.

Folld by gen. of a place-name: áes an Arda (= Firu Arddae § 1), ACL iii 296 § 35 . for aes mbabelone `the Babylonians ', Ml. 107a5 . áis inna ethiobae `those of Ethiopia', 94b22 . á áis siriae `O Syrians', 66c12 . aes na Temrach, BDD² 159 .

In nn. loc. see Hog. Onom.

aiccecht

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aiccecht or dil.ie/754

Forms: aiccept, aiceacht

n m. (Lat. accepta, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 236 , acceptum, Vendr. Lex.). Also aiccept. aiceacht m. IGT Decl. § 24 . Later also f.: gurab í an aiceacht, Eochairsg. 4.y . ba hisin aicept, Hugh Roe 124.7 (fo. 33a ). With lenited -c- aicheapt, Desid. 4839 (cf. aithchecht). Later cecht q.v. Lesson, instruction, precept: lectio .i. aicecht, Ir. Gl. 868 . aiccicht .i. icht a n-aice ar is i n-ace bīs an deiscipal acind aiti, Corm. Y 88 . Cf. O'Mulc. 12 . brathchai .i. bretho Cai ainm aicepta bēlri, 125 . dí raínd déc ínti ┐ acept bliadna i ncech raind (of studying verse), IT iii 31.10 . foric in n-écsíne oc múnud a aiciuchta, LU 11002 . tech n-aiccepta, Mer. Uil. 143 . co ro erb don mac mebrugud a aiccepta, Fél. 12.14 . staruidhe .i. fear ag a mbí triocha d'aiceachtaibh naomhtha ina fhoghloim, MS. Mat. 494.30 . an t-aiceachtsa do fhégh soin / do légh aitteachtsa an ughdoir, L. Cl. A. B. 176 § 109 . an aiceacht d'fhág Sé aice precept, Eochairsg. 4.y . In phrases: do-gní a.¤ do gives instruction to: dorinne-sium aiccept dóib-sim, Mer. Uil. 127 . do dēnum accechta dī, BColm. 18.16 . do-gní a.¤ learns lessons: dognidh tri haicechta gach láe la Barrai, BNnÉ 16.11 . occ denamh in aicipta, Lism. L. 4152 . do bhínn dá n-aiteacht don ḟior / gach aiceacht díbh dá ndéiniodh, TD 23.7 . do-beir a.¤ do gives a prescription, precept to: truagh nach tabhair . . . aiceacht an Daghdha dhamh / d' aithteacht a anma i nEoghan a pity you do not give me the Dagda's prescription to revive Eoghan's life, DDána 65.35 . do theagasg an phobail ┐ dá thabhairt mar aiceacht dóibh . . ., TSh. 151 . ro gab ferg an senoir . . . ┐ tucc aicept mór dó he gave him a serious reprimand, BCC 170.17 . do bi C. ag tabhairt aicepta do C.C. trias an cath sin do cuiredh trid, 186.y.

Cf. airaiccecht.

1 aire

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 aire or dil.ie/1883

n [] f. See Lochlann ii 221-2 .

(a) As vn. act of guarding, watching over, tending, caring for: a.¤ inna aithche huile gl. uigelando, Ml. 95d10 . ara mbethe ico n-airi co llocharnnaib (of guarding relics), Trip.² 2828 . mo arise duib innocht olse fri triar caém dia muntir . . . is amluid . . . robatar ocond a.¤ you guard me tonight, LL 282a36 . ba marb-sa da iṅgnais de / cen co ti-sium dam a.¤ , to tend me, TFerbe 485 . roḟitir Cormac ord n-a.¤ (na ha.¤, v.l.) the order of the watch, Ériu iii 137.55 . are in puirt na tora tascur don lir, Laws i 128.12 Comm. tú liaigh na hanma d'a.¤ , Dán Dé vii 20 . Of `waking' the dead: clérich H. dollotar d'airi P., Thes. ii 320.3 (Hy. ii). batar ic airi in chuirp isna aidchib, Trip.² 3008 . baí . . . acc a.¤ na ccorp co nonóir, AFM ii 780.2 . airet robatur sruithi E. ica a.¤ , Lism. L. 636 . Note also: a.¤ (.i. grādh nó troscud) na sanct ina fēil (B. na f.), ZCP v 486 § 9 . In hostile sense looking out for (in order to attack): do bhiodhbha is é t'fhear faire / . . . / an t-olc reimhe is é ar th'a.¤ on the look-out for you, DDána 10.8 . na cóig námhaid do ní ar gclodh / . . . / a n-a.¤ nó go ndeach dhíom / bíodh faire ar an dteach i dtám until I cease to look out for them (i.e. the five senses), Dán Dé ix 7 .

(b) notice, heed, attention: dobéer desemmrecht dúib . . . frissacomricfea far n-a.¤ `I will now give you an example which your attention will attain to', Wb. 12c35 . connach cuiread as a airi cathuchud na T., and he could not put the fighting out of his mind, TTebe 1257 . tóghbaidh sé a n-a.¤ dona neithibh saoghalta it takes their mind off earthly things, TSh. 9272 .

Used in a large variety of idioms with verbs and prepositions.

(c) With prec. prep. in sét atá form' a.¤ , `the path on which I am intent', Ériu vi 115.3 . ní suan fír baoith boi ar mh'a.¤ `that I was bent on', Mart. Don. Dec. 4 . bith ar th'a.¤ take heed, Ériu iii 145 § 24 . is aithnid damh-sa créd ata ar h'aire `I know what is in thy thought', ZCP vi 58.24 . ní beag do thír é ar a ha.¤ , TD 29.4 . is edh sin . . . tuccadh ar mh'aire-si gurbho gillae amhulcach ócc tusa, Irish Texts iii 15.9 . With do-cuirethar: doralus ar m'airi / gréschi occa ṅguidi, Fél. Prol. 15 . oebind na tarla ar m'a.¤ , LL 210a19 . is trén tárla ar a airi strongly was his attention engaged, Hy Fiach. 210 . diongna an ní tharla ar th'a.¤ `strange is the task you undertake', Content. xiv 4 . do-beir x do a.¤ pays attention to x, heeds x: is tabartha do airi . . . indus in cheneōil cosa tīagam, TBC-I¹ 327 . ní rabi d'esbaid . . . ar duni . . . ríam a ra tucad da ari acht co facced R. that he would heed, MU² 701 . tabrad cách dia airi co ticfa bráth, LU 2495 . in tan nach tabrai dot airi in senoir Anachis . . . dobeth isin gabad atait, Aen. 570 . tan nā taibret dia n-a.¤ / na pīana . . ., Ériu iii 29 § 2 . tabhair dot a.¤ . . . nách ccuirfe aonchuid don choimhthionól ad leith guarded, Desid. 6483 . tabhair dot airi . . . nách drochumhla atá agat mirad, 1971 . an dtabhair Aodh dá a.¤? does A. pay heed to? TD 4.36 . tug th'a.¤ nach breith le báidh / do thagra féin ar Niall náir, Content. iv 2 . Note also: antar frim a.¤ co n-accar in coimriti in fer isind airide, ZCP viii 120.16 . ? fáilte ni thaet imm a.¤ , LL 261a40 ( IT i 79 ).

(d) With follg. prepp. With DI: do chloinn dochoidh a n-a.¤ they had given up hope of children, DDána 27a. 10 . With DO: masa th'airi téit don brut . . . rot fia if your mind is set on the mantle, LU 3112 . mairg a.¤ do chuaid don gus alas that attention was paid to the fierce advice(?), MR 14.23 . do bhéar-sa a.¤ dhuid-se / tar cheann Torna san troid-se `on behalf of T. I will face you', Content. vi 2 . With FOR (AR): roloisc[s]et a mbar(a)ca . . . conapedh a n-a.¤ for teiched `so that they should not think of retreating', RC xii 58 § 9 . dá mbeith a n-a.¤ oram if they heeded me, Dán Dé xxv 10 . ní bí a.¤ ac lucht an oilein sin ar raed ar bith acht ar chogad `the folk of that island care for nothing . . .', Maund. 168 . od conncatar goill a.¤ cenél C. for an marcsluaigh `when the English saw that the attention of C. was directed towards the cavalry', AFM iii 320.y . bídh a.¤ mhór agom orra I take great care of them, Desid. 6356 . With prec. do-cuirethar: is air dorala a a.¤ on this his mind became set, RC xxxvii 348 § 57 . is í sin aimser a tarrla a.¤ ríg na hE. ar fad aontuma a ingine, ML² 492 . ón lá tarrla ar n-airi air `as long as we can remember', Ériu iv 220 § 34 . With FRI: cóir are re dīgail Dé it is right to beware of God's vengeance, BColm. 100.5 . bíd th'a.¤ frisin lá atbél `keep watch for the day of my death', Metr. Dinds. iii 212.37 . ó nach raib a n-a.¤ re himgabáil a dtáisig for they had no intention of . . . Caithr. Thoirdh. 40.5 . amhail na biadh a a.¤ fri a niarmhóireacht itir `as though he had no intention of pursuing them', AFM v 1852.11 . a fhiarfaige dé an roibe sa baili enní re roibe a a.¤ no suil aige `anything that he liked', L. Chl. S. 44.1 . t'a.¤ rum, a rí na mbreath `list to me', Aithd. D. 51.11 . ar n-aireine re hiath Cuinn / ag triath dhaighfhine Dhomhnuill `my thought of Conn's land belonging in future time to Mac D.'s brave host', 29.15 . With prec. téit: na dechaidh a hairi re commamdacht uad (she said) that her mind was not turned to wedlock with him, CCath. 1150 . dochoidh . . . cidh mh'airi-si m'oenar ria boin I had set my mind on a cow all for myself, Lism. L. 1582 . = imm boin, Three Hom. 78.13 . úair ní th-ari-siu téit ria since it is no concern of yours, Ériu i 134.4 . ní dechaidh a hairi-si fri feall furri do Ænias she did not expect that deception would be practised on her by A., Aen. 788 . ní mó téit m'a.¤-si rem' comfurtacht duid nor have I any hope that you will help me, ZCP vi 64.23 . With I N-: admhaim go dtéid mh'a.¤ inn / gach ní ad-chím 's ad-chluinim, DDána 60.24 . tuc a a.¤ 'sin ningin, ZCP viii 268 § 45 . With IMM: dochuaid . . . cid m'a.¤ si m'oenar imm boin I had set my heart on having a cow all for myself, Three Hom. 78.13 = fria boin, Lism. L. 1582 . ro bo lughaide a n-a.¤ . . . fá fhaillidhe in comuill `they less than ever were inclined to fail in execution', etc., Caithr. Thoirdh. 103.y .

(e) As interj. look, take care: are, in gai-se for Bude, ol C. LU 5798 ( TBC-I¹ 1326 ). th'a.¤ chugat, a Uí L. look out , Maguires of F. 21 .

Later faire q.v.

2 aire

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 aire or dil.ie/1884

Forms: oire, ere

n io, m. oire, ere m. IGT Decl. § 2 . load, burden: bad hé for n-ere gl. portate, Wb. 9d12 . tuárgabad fornn a.¤ fochide, 14b22 . cuirid díib in n-ere-se uitiorum , 27b11 . la sodain focheírt in n-a.¤ dó, LU 4936 ( TBC-I¹ 451 ). gan eiri for daumh na heuch na duine, Anecd. iii 21.7 . a.¤ ruanada a champion's burden (i.e. as much as the strongest man can carry), Laws iii 422.1 , v 262.2 , .27 Comm. amhuil a.¤ for ech, iv 58.22 Comm. ere in nónbuir . . . di ór ┐ argutt i.e. as much as nine could carry, Trip.² 285 . a.¤ secht n-ech, LL 286b37 . ere .xx. cuinge do damaib, LU 9190 ( FB § 91 ). at chíat na heriu trommu, LU 1761 . tucad a.¤ feóin leis do threlam gascid, TBC-LL¹ 2092 . úir Pettair ┐ P. . . . bērthair sin . . . ina herib co hEirind, BColm. 80.8 . ferr a.¤ īarraid, Anecd. iii 19.16 . oc breith ind eire dar sreith slige, Metr. Dinds. iv 102.31 . rotairntea a n-aireda dona damradaib, RC xiii 90 § 110 . rīasiu thīsad na slūaig cona n-eireadaib, Ériu ii 22 § 5 . atconnairc na manchu occ ruamhar ┐ araill dibh go ttiaghaibh ┐ oiredhaibh forra, BNnÉ 297.1 . xx each fana n-eredhaibh bídh, Fier. 149 . cona ethur fo a.¤ / fo trethun ín tṡáeb-chaire, Metr. Dinds. iv 84.3 . ní taghthar i dteach Mhuire / neach nach anfadh fá eire `who will not bear his own burden', Dán Dé vii 29 . Fig. co ructha dīb in t-a.¤ trom bói forro .i. ind ḟingal, ZCP viii 318.14 . gur hiomchradh lé oire an fhir i.e. the man's work was accomplished by Mary, PBocht 13.33 .

1 airer

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 airer or dil.ie/1930

Forms: oirear

n o, [n.] Later m. See LEIA oirear m. IGT Decl. § 11 .

(a) coast, shore: gabsad . . . la ha.¤ nÉrenn atúaid, BDD² 253 . i n-airiur Breg comarda Étuir forsind farrci, LU 6886 (BDD). tonna saile sétaighfit / frisna hairera ardda, SR 8058 . ro hṡeolsad re hoirer na hinnsi amuigh, KMMisc. 315.4 . na gaibed i n-airiur do aireraib Herenn, RC xiv 408.3 . sech airera na Troe, LL 222a2 ( TTr. 349 ). as ann rogabsat airear, occ Dun na mBarc, Leb. Gab.(i) 10.29 . a.¤ na trága, Metr. Dinds. iii 212.3 . mag os a.¤ in átha at the brink of the ford, MR 174.10 . crecha airir Siúiri `the region bordering on the Suir', AFM vi 2078.8 . airear .i. cuan, O'Cl.

(b) border region: ond airiur as torgaib grian, SR 2677 . bid ferda firfitir fuidb / i n-airiur ingine buidb, TBC-LL¹ 537 . `ind' ainm gach oirir no gach imil, BNnÉ 235 § 156 . conidam túalaing a.¤ críchi d'imditin fri ecrata echtrand, LU 10294 . i n-airiur Eórpa, LL 239a11 ( TTr. 1644 ). neamh an t-oirear as dú dhamh, DDána 3.7 . do chor cuarta na n-oirer i n-imechtair an longpuirt `to scour the districts in the neighbourhood of the camp', AFM vi 2160.10 . a chnuic thoir . . . fuath dot oirear im inntinn, DDána 64.1 .

In n.loc. i mBrethnaibh ┐ i n-Airiur Gaoidhiol Argyle, TFrag. 14.11 . See also Hog. Onom.

Compds. ¤-doimnech: na h-Eirne oirear doimhnighe oileanaighe `deep harboured', Miscell. Celt. Soc. 177.29 . ¤-glan: co sruth n-oirerglan nuasalcaem . . . nEortanan, BB 244a39 . ragmaít assin airerphurt itaam, LL 220a28 ( TTr. 223 ).

áirmech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. áirmech or dil.ie/2248

adj o, ā (áirem)

(a) numerous: mór do arbrib ármecha, LL 232b17 ( TTr. 1138 ). tigheas flaithemhail acmhaingeach áirmheach, Hackett xl 126 .

(b) noteworthy, famous: trí mile ban airmech, LL 3611 . don impir airmhech soin, ITS xix 6.1 . dob aithesach á.¤ in consabal sin, L. Chl. S. 41 . mac áirmheach Airt Chaomhánaigh, DDána 100.10 . do b'áirmheach idir sgolaibh, Measgra D. 62.10 . ridire occ armech, Ann. Conn. 1247.7 .

airramanta

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airramanta or dil.ie/2353

(with len. -m-) (urramma, recte urrama) laudatory adj. of somewhat vague meaning, eminent, noble, brave, etc.: an t-áirsidh urramhanta ollbhladhach, ML 114.17 . ardmac uasal urrumhanta, Ériu v 74.5 . DDána 111.24 . dá ócc chonsabal uaisle urramhanta, AFM v 1688.25 . rígh acfuindech urrunta, Stair Erc. 1392 . la hirgail . . . urunta, Stair Erc. 1070 . urrunta a triath `daring its lord', ITS v 116.14 . trombhuille don tshúist imreamhuir urrunnta substantial(?), PCT 1054 . Superl. mise . . . ba hurrunta diob, TBC St. 13 = urraitiu, TBC-LL¹ 16 . as é ba huaisli ┐ ba hurrunta isin comairli sin, Acall. 406 v.l. = uiregda, text. urrunta (urramanta v.l.), CCath. 931 . do na hógaibh . . . is urramhanta do bhí san Midhe, Keat. iii 2816 .

In bad sense proud, tyrannous: an gall uaibhrech urramhta (sic), ZCP x 12 n. 5 . righ arnaidh uramhanda edrochair (= étrócair), RC xx 335.12 .

1 aithnid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 aithnid or dil.ie/2761
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: aithnigid

v (1 aithne). Also aithnigid. Replaces earlier ad-noí, q.v.

(a) commits for preservation, delivers to, deposits with: ro aithne a eclais do Pátraic, Trip.² 723 (= commendavit). commenda .i. aithnem (leg. -nim, Plummer MS. notes), Laws i 298.21 Comm. mo charpait, m'eich uili n-og nosaithnim do Maine mór aithnim m'elgnatus uili d'Ḟiachaich I bequeath, Rawl. 138a32 . ini ro haithned o'n fir isa hae co facus tar a eisi isin tig, Laws v 196.18 Comm. dia n-aithnir iat cin co be buachaill, 126.28 Comm. (of cattle). don daer . . . ro haithnid na seoit . . . i necmais a tigerna, iii 230.19 Comm. na haithne aithniter don duine in eislind, 220.11 Comm. na huile aithne ro haithnigedh do duine, ii 304.15 Comm. co roaichni in conair fuigill is fir 'that he pledge the Path of Truth' CIH v 1590.11 , ZCP xlix-l 314 . in fear naithnigther in aithne, O'D. 1180 (H 2.15, p. 25 col. 2). ro haithned . . . i n-ērlaim espuic C. `it was then given into the hands of the bishop of C.', MacCongl. 43.5 .

(b) entrusts to, commits to the care of, commends to: ros aithne di alaili óig día forcitul commended her to a certain virgin to be taught, Trip.² 2081 . aithnid occ Cassan do legund, 835 `del- ivers him to C. (to learn) to read', Trip. 77 . atnaig in clēirech leis co C. nD. hī ┐ mos-aithin (leg. nos-a.?) aicce í do lēigenn lē. ACL iii 308 vi 8 . ro aithniset fir Muman a ngiall dia airchisecht, LU 4365 = ngiallu dia n-airchiseacht, Anecd. i 16.8 bestowed their hostages to be looked after. co bo thrí didiu non-aithned Mac con do Chormac offered himself (?), RC xiii 462 § 68 . robi bliadan lan i mbadhud conid iarum ronathnai airisi `then (the sea) gave them up again', Folklore iv 477 § 57 (Edinb. Dinds.). aithnim thú do Rígh na rīgh, ZCP vii 301 § 11 . aithin mé dot oide a Eoin commend me to thy Master, Dán Dé i 1 . is duid aithnes anmanda do carat ┐ a laimdeo `to you she commits the souls of thy friends and her household gods', Aen. 525 . aithnim m'anmain it lámaib, Ériu vi 114 § 2 .

(c) commends, prescribes (a course of action) to (DO): ro athne dam náro chreitind, Trip.² 801 (= non siniuit mihi credere). in tan aithnes aní seo dia apstalaib, LU 2579 . aithnit do (= dó) cogad do denam they exhort him to make war, Cog. 146.16 . d'athain Crist can sin d'innisin `forbade [them] to tell that', Maund. 107 . inní aitheonus mé . . . dogéntar inni sin, BNnÉ 67.y . aithnidir is-ind recht in timna-sa na déirce, PH 5845 . do chuir i gcéill dá fheartaibh / bás t'oidhir nach aitheantair `that His death was not imposed on Him (against His will)', Aithd. D. 59.25 . aithin damsa an tinad point out the place to me, SG 2.29 .

With DE orders, commands: atberim frib . . . ┐ aichnim díb I tell and demand of you, LB 143a45 . ro athain da aes grada can a adhnocol isin brug, YBL 181b19 . aichnigid dia muinteraib can a corpu do chumhscugudh, Todd Nenn. 204 note p. issed aithnius díot an Flaith, ZCP vii 301 § 8 . do aithin de . . . beith ag frecor ecluisi Torón, xi 138 § 255 . aithnighis (ro fuagair v.l.) di gan urcóid do denamh, BNnÉ 8 § 27 . ná bíodh uirre aithnim dí / cumha a meic, DDána 76.13 . ar na neithibh do athain an Tighearna dhíot, Desid. 4883 .

(e) Exceptional usages: ro athain a mathair é ri techt enjoined on him not to go, TTebe 3729 . ? do athain an Coimhdhe re n-a ndídean `called upon the Lord', Maguires of F. § 3 .

anáesmar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. anáesmar or dil.ie/3279

adj (áesmar) young, immature: ridire óg anaesmar, ZCP vi 91.25 . as ócc, anáosmhar linn he, BNnÉ 292 § 11 .

anfoirbthe

Cite this: eDIL s.v. anfoirbthe or dil.ie/3577
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: anḟoirbthe

adj (1 foirbthe). Later anḟoirbthe

(a) incomplete, imperfect (of persons or abstract qualities): imchesti anfoirbthi `imperfect mutual questions', Wb. 29c11 . mád anforbthe ind anim, LU 2126 ( FA 19 ). ar tola collaide ┐ ar n-accobar anforbthi, LB 132a17 . díchurid uad in uabar n-anforpthi, PH 3494 . is anfhorbthe sin a cleirig (of a cleric tempted by desire), Fél. 40.25 . dōene anforbthi, ACL iii 316 § 44 . As subst.: ni tuccai nach a.¤ / buith fo riaguil mo chomae `no imperfect one understands', Ériu i 202.8 . cid mor d'ulc do-gné . . . / . . . is d'anfhorbthi, Celtica ii 29.13 . In religious sense: int óis a.¤ , Wb. 13c13 . do óis anfoirbthiu, 12d26 . na bi heirisi .i. na bi hanḟoirbthi, O'Curry 2287 ( Eg. 88, 21(22)c ). In more literal sense: ionadh fhir anfhoirfe rude, uncivilized(?), BS § 58 . Of young people, immature : minores .i. inn aes moith ┐ anfoirbthe, Ml. 45b17 . lenamh ócc anfoirbti, BNnÉ 239 § 171 . an giolla beg anfoirbthi (of Cú Chulainn), TBC St. 742 .

(b) Of numbers: foirbthe ar anfoirbthiu `a perfect number for an imperfect' (gl. decem milia), Wb. 9a10 , 12d25 . corrici míli .i. foirbthe ar anfoirbthiu gl. et alia mille, Sg. 207b10 . āirim anforbthe amal atā .iii. . . . āirim forbthe ut est a sē . . . airim ollforbthe ut est a dō dēc, Auraic. 1443 . is si sin in dethber airme anforbhthe amal rogabh a tri no a cuig ar nach fuillter o chouitibh, 4493 . āirem anfhurmithi na n-apstal īar n-imorbus i.e. eleven, MacCongl. 51.14 .

Gramm.: sechmadachtae n-a.¤ past imperfect (tense), Ml. 62a16 .

2 arg

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 arg or dil.ie/4129
Last Revised: 2013

adj I o, ā noble, great, impressive: a.¤ dano urdairc unde dicitur airchetal .i. argg-cētul .i. cētul urdairc, Corm. Y 27 . a.¤ .i. urduirc, O'Dav. 43 . eraim na.¤ (cheville), Laws i 134.9 .

II Subst. o, m. prominent person, champion, hero: a.¤ .i. lāech . . . gein in airg [.i.] in lāic[h], Corm. Y 27 . leó ball ┐ a.¤ laoch, 804 . a.¤ fiann .i. tiachar, ab Argis .i. ō Grécaib ar febus a n-ōcc , O'Mulc. 57 . dibergg .i. di-bi-arg .i. ni la laochacht adrīmt[h]er ut a.¤ fiann ar nī bī i cōir laochachtae diultad Dē ┐ giallnae Demuin, 309 . argg .i. anrath, LL 311b25 . a.¤ .i. laoch, O'Dav. 43 . airg .i. laeich, fir ┐ mna, O'Curry 2047 ( H 4.22, 62a ). a.¤ .i. laoch, ut est airge (sic) ┐ fir ┐ mna, 571 (H 3.18, 285). airg ┐ fir ┐ mna ┐ ferrdomain . . . (text) airg .i. na graid flatha .i. na laich; fir .i. na graid feine cenmotha laich, 587 (H 3.18, 290) = O'D. 877 (H 3.17, c. 630). distinguished persons (Respektpersonen), Thurn. ZCP xvi 208 n.2 . ar argg (.i. láech) níad ropsam fortail `over any champion I prevailed', Ériu i 72 § 3 . argg tricc Trēnmōr T. was a swift hero, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 14 § 2 . a.¤ na laech (of Art Óenfer), LU 4172 . a.¤ n-erred (rhet.), LL 14192 . ar-cichset airg loman londgliaid, Sc.M² 15 . dotáet do lochbriga eter argaib (.i. anradaib) erritib, LU 3528 ( SCC 28 ). re n-arcaib ré n-erredaib, 8502 ( FB 35 ). Mafemis ainm n-airg, LL 2222 . a hInis Áine na n-a.¤ , Metr. Dinds. iii 190.5 . i rrubad a.¤ Mael . . . Ísu, Arch. Hib. ii 62 § 54 . do theilg san urrlaind in t-a.¤ , BB 56b50 . d'eiteall airg, Aithd. D. 9.15 . In n.loc. a Brí Airg, Ériu iv 146 § 24 .

? im aisneis n-a.¤ , Laws v 230.14 Comm. do aisneis n-a.¤ , Ériu xiii 16. 23 . Compds. aircdíne 'warrior race' Ériu lii 76 § 1b . See also ? narg.

attá

Cite this: eDIL s.v. attá or dil.ie/4927
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: attá, Fil, fil, faeilfit, fil, fil, atóo, attó, attóo, ató, -táu, -ttóo, -tó, atái, atái, -tái, adta, ata, at, atáa, attáa, ataa, att, -tá, -ta, -táa, -dathar, ataam, attaam, ataid, ataaith, ataaid, ataad, -taid, ataat, ataat, -tat, -taat, tathum, tathut, táithi, táthus, táthunn, taithiunn, tathuib, tás, fil, fil, feil, fel, fail, fil, file, fel, fele, feil, fail, biuu, -bíu, -bí, biith, biid, bíid, -bii, -bí, robīi, -rubi, -rubai, -ruba, bíis, biís, bis, bís, bithir, bither, -bither, -rubthar, bímmi, -biam, bimme, biit, bíit, robiat, -biat, -bíat, -rubat, bíte, -bíinn, -biinn, -bíid, -bíth, -bid, -bith, bithe, -bímmis, -bitis, -bítis, b, bíth, bíith, bíid, biid, bíd, bithom, biid, bith, biat, beo, beu, -béo, bee, b, -bee, robhe, beith, beid, bed, beth, -b, -bée, bethum-sa, rob, robe, rubé, rob, robbé, -roib, bess, bes, bethir, bether, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -bem, -robam, beithe, bethe, -beith, -beid, -robith, beit, rubet, be(i)t, -bet, -robat, bete, -beind, -beinn, -betha, nobed, nobeth, -bed, -beth, -robad, -rabad, -bethe, -bemmis, -beimmis, -bemis, -bethe, -betis, -[ro]ibtis, bia, bie, bieid, bied, -bia, -bia, -bia, -bía, bethiumm, bethib, bias, bies, beithir, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -biam, -piam, bethe, bethi, -bied, -bieid, biet, bieit, biet, -biat, -bíet, bete, beite, nombeinn, nobiad, -bíad, nobemmis, nobetis, b, -bá, bói, bái, -bói, boie, boithius, boíthi, baísu, both(a)e, botha, -both(a), bamar, bámar, -baid, bātir, -batar, batar, rob, -roba, -raba, rob, robói, rambái, robui, -robae, -robe, -rabae, romboth, rombod, -rabad, robámmar, -robammar, rubaid, -robaid, robatar, robbátar, -rabatar, -robatar, -rabtar, buith, buithi, atáu, atú, itu, it, atú, ataim, -t, -tái, -toi, taoi, -t, atá, attá, ata, at, atáthar, dáthar, atass, -das, itám, tám, ataum, ataim, atamaoit, atámaoid, atám, -taum, -dtám, atathai, atathi, atáithi, -táithi, -dathai, -taidh, itāt, atáit, ataut, táid, -táit, itat, atat, fil, -fhile, -fhuile, -fuili, -ḟoili, -ḟuile, fail, fail, fuil, -fail, -fuil, -uil, -ḟil, -ḟuil, -ḟoil, fil, fail, fail, filter, -fuiltear, fuilemm, -failmet, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, -bhḟuilti, failet, filet, fuilet, -failet, -filet, -fileat, -fuilet, -fuilid, failet, failet, fuilet, filet, bim, bím, -bím, -ruibim, -bi, bíd, bíd, -bí, -bíonn, -bind, bídh, -b, bither, -bithar, bímit, bídmaid, bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, bíth, bīd, -bíat, -bít, -bíd, bit, bít, bhínn, nobīth, robíth, bhíodh, bhíoth, bithi, -bithi, bithea, naboitis, nobīdis, beitis, bitis, bhítís, bhídís, bír, b, bīdh, bíodh, bíoth, bíom, bíthe, bídh, bidhí, bíod, ber, uér, beor, bheith, bur, -rabor, -rabhus, rabasa, bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, bé, beir, -rab(a)i, -rabha, -rabhair, -mbéis, -beis(se), -rabais, beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, beth, -b, -raib, -rab, -raibhe, rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, bess, beas, bethur, beme, bemmit, bemait, -bém, -beam, -ruibem, -rabum, bheam, rabham, bethi, rabthai, beit, -bet, -beat, -rabat, -rabut, -rabhait, -rabhaid, -rabheid, beinn, rabainn, beithi, beithe, bethe, beitheá, beith, nobith, mbeadh, -mbeath, -rabad, -bethe, -bette, rabtha, mbiadh, nobeitis, nobeidis, mbeith, bíat, biat, biad, bhead, bed, bét, bett, -biu, -bhiú, biad, -bi, bía, biae, biaidh, bía, -bía, bethair, bied, biaid, biáid, -bia, bíes, bés, bes, bess, bhias, biass, beither, beithir, bemit, bemait, -bem(ni, beimíd, -biam, -biaim(ne), -ben, bethi, beitte, bete, -bed, biait, biat, beit, beiti, beti, betit, beidid, -bīat, beidíd, beid, -bíad, no-béind, dobeind, do beinn, -beinn, bheitheá, biadh, -bied, bífad, rot-fiadh, biath, bhiadh, bethe, bheidīs, ro-bádus, bhádhus, bhí, -rabus, -rabhas, -rabadhus, bá, -raba, bádhus, -rabadhas, basa, bhádhuis, bhí, -rabadais, -rabhais, bhádhuis, -rabhadhuis, bae, bóe, baei, búi, -bae, -buí, robai, robae, robói, bí, robuidh, bí, bhói, bhaoi, -rubai, -roibe, -roibi, -roba, -raba, -raibhe, -rabha, -robha, bí, -raibi, baí, -rabha, -rabhustair, boí, bāi, būi, bae, buí, baí, boí, both, rombatha, robās, rombas, robás, -rabus, rabas, -bádus, -bás, bás, bas, -rabas, bas, bhás, bāmur, bámar, bhámair, -rabamar, robabair, -babhair, robadbair, bhábhair, -rabhuir, -rabhabhair, bādar, -bátir, badar, bádar, bídur, -rabadar, -rabhadair, baisit, -rabhsad, bátar, bátar, bheith, beitte

(ad-tá) subst. vb. is . The distinction betw. subst. vb. and copula is in the first place syntactical, and cases are found where there is no distinction of form. Cf. the type, common in ACC: boe sab he was a leader, ACC 26 . See further below, and the discussion by Bergin, Ériu xii 208 - 211 (cia taísiu, cia bé, etc.), who refers to cases like: is uera pictura ro bai sin, Thes. ii 6.32 as emphatic. See also Ériu xvi 46 , GOI 475 . For nimtha laám, Wb. 12a21 , nímptha fírion, 8d24 (copula ?) see GOI 487 . Note also the form of the pron. in (later): matait tall iat, Laws iv 86.8 Comm. , atá ar conair é, ACL iii 216.z . bí N. eices cecinit, RC xvii 175.14 is perh. a mistake. In follg. use of subst. vb. perh. due to infl. of Latin: mar nobéind athair doib = pater eram pauperum, PH 6107 . ata in innsci ordugud etc. = oratio est. . ., Auraic. 591 .

Apart from the ordinary indic. pres. all forms of subst. vb. are from a root beginning with b-. In indic. pres. the stem tá (in absol. position attá) is used in non-rel. sentences without conj. particle, after conj. particles with inf. pron. dat. and when the conj. particle consists of a preposition and rel. (s)a n-. Absolute inflexion of tá- is found in oldaas, indaas, etc. than (is), in meaning is angry, and with follg. suff. pron. The uninflected form fil (with accus.) is used after conj. particles where no dat. inf. pron. is present, in leniting rel. clauses and often in answers to questions containing subst. vb., and in archaic texts in absol. position in meaning there is . For fuller details see GOI 476 - 483 and exx. below. See also Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 419 ff. , Strachan, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899, 1 - 82 , Ó Máille, Ériu vi 1 ff. , Études Celt. xxxiv 143-44 . Forms of gaibid, do-coissin, díchsnigidir and 1 ad-cumaing also have the force of the subst. vb. in certain uses, see separate entries.

Note further that attá is usual after hóre (see Wb. 19a19 , 22d14 and compare GOI § 781 ) and occurs later after amal ( LU 7072 , Laws iii 90.18 ). Fil is somet. found in sense there is in mid. Ir.: fail crois d'ór in cach dorus, SR 361 . TBC-I¹ 2561 . Note also: fil derg it is red, Marco P. 173 .

The use of accus. after fil continues into the classical period, see IGT Introd. § 129 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 92 - 93 . A few exx. of forms other than fil with accus. occur: ni raibi deilb, TTr.² 1664 , ní raibi . . . mhnái, 370 , ní bhiadh mnaoi, Ó Bruad. ii 252.z (with assonance). Note also with inf. pron. rosṁbai inna tass, SR 5107 . ? nim tha maith . . . do chath fri firu, LU 3343 ( SCC 13 ). From the mid. Ir. period on fil takes personal endings except in 3 s., and occurs occasionally as an independent verb: faeilfit (fut. 3 pl. absol.), Caithr. Thoirdh. 120.26 . In rel. function attá is found side by side with fil from an early period: is heiside attá hi S., Trip.² 534 , a lucht atá istig, RC vii 298.131 , the form fil finally disappearing in this use.

In mid. Ir. fil occurs for earlier -tá with dat. inf. pron.: nichar fail tlacht, SR 1560 , ni-s-fil biad, PH 1310 . Also in rel. clause after prep.: bale hi fail, LU 7516 , fors fil, Imr. Brain 43 (see also Strachan, Stories fr. Táin 3rd ed. p. 1 note).

The consuet. pres. 1 s. conj. -bíu has in classical Ir. the force of a future: biad ní biú, IGT Verbs § 7 , see also TBC-LL¹ 882 , Acall. 6179 , Duan. F. i 43.4 .

Early forms (for fuller lists see Strachan loc. cit.). Indic. pres. 1 s. atóo, Wb. 12a21 . attó, 21c19 . attóo, 26d8 . ató, 26d17 . -táu, 32a10 , -ttóo, 17d24 , -tó, Ml. 92b8 . 2 s. atái, Wb. 5b27 . atái, Ml. 110d15 (sic MS, see Ériu xiv 30 ). -tái, 5b38 . 3 s. adta, Laws v 390.10 (see ZCP xxv 247 ). ata, Wb. 13c26 , at, 27a11 , atáa, 6a19 , attáa, 32a6 , ataa, 26b31 , att, 4b11 . -tá, 31c7 , -ta, 2b12 , -táa, 13a35 . Impers. -dathar (see GOI 477 - 478 ), Wb. 21c9 . 1 pl. ataam, Wb. 15a13 , attaam, 32a28 . 2 pl. ataid, Wb. 4a4 , ataaith, 20b16 , ataaid, 23c28 , ataad, 22d14 . -taid, 19d26 . 3 pl. ataat (trisyll.), Blathm. 471 . ataat, Ml. 55d11 , 37a10 . -tat, 42b10 . -taat, Sg. 71b3 .

With suff. pron. tathum, Metr. Dinds. iv 284.3 . tathut, Fél. July 24 . táithi (tathai, v.l.), Críth G. 197 . táthus, Fél. Feb. 5 . táthunn, Prol. 217. taithiunn, Thes. ii 293.19 . tathuib, Rawl. 88b51 .

For rel. s. without preverb (taas, tás) see atás, indaas, 4 ol.

The form fil, etc. As conj. form: fil, Wb. 16b9 , Ml. 92a8 , Sg. 193b7 . feil, Wb. 24c4 . Ml. 60b2 . fel, Wb. 3c38 , Ml. 27d10 . fail, 44b10-11 , Sg. 32a1 . As rel.: fil, Ml. 121c8 , file Wb. 23a5 , Ml. 51d11 , Sg. 151b7 . fel, Wb. 4c1 , fele, Ml. 93c7 . feil, Wb. 33b18 . fail, BCr. 18c4 .

Consuet. pres. 1 s. biuu, Wb. 16d8 . -bíu, 20a3 . 2 s. -bí, Ml. 135d1 . ACL iii 312 § 4 . 3 s. biith, Wb. 29a26 . biid, 4d33 . bíid, Sg. 150b4 . -bii, Wb. 28b25 , -bí, Ml. 103c3 . With ro: robīi, TBC-I¹ 1730 . -rubi, Wb. 11c17 , -rubai, Ml. 20d4 , Sg. 7b3 . -ruba, 3b28 . Rel. bíis, Wb. 13a12 . biís, 28b28 . bis, Ml. 61a33 . bís, Sg. 140b2 . Impers. bithir, Ml. 56b15 . rel. bither, 108b4 , -bither, 100c21 . -rubthar, cited GOI § 784 . OIPG 69 . 1 pl. bímmi, Ml. 15a4 . -biam, Wb. 16a8 . Rel. bimme, Wb. 12c11 . 3 pl. biit, Wb. 29a28 . bíit, Sg. 217a1 . robiat, 138a5 . -biat, Ml. 59d7 . -bíat, Sg. 148a4 . -rubat, 138a5 . Rel. bíte, Wb. 9d28 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. -bíinn, Ml. 108b1 , -biinn, 58d9 . 3 s. -bíid, LU 5080 (see Ériu xvii 121 ), -bíth, Sg. 148b6 . -bid, Ml. 33a5 . -bith, Vita Br. 12 . Impers. no bithe , CCath. 3971 . 1 pl. -bímmis, cited GOI § 785 . 3 pl. -bitis, Ml. 86d6 . -bítis, Sg. 5a15 .

Ipv. 2 s. b, TBC-I¹ 2391 . 3 s. bíth, Wb. 10a8 , 25 , bíith, 8d9 , bíid, 5d33 , biid, Ml. 74d3 . bíd, Wb. 3a14 . With suff. pron. bithom, Fél. Ep. 404 n.17 . 2 pl. biid, Wb. 23c11a . bith, 22b26 . 3 pl. biat, Ml. 51d13 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. beo, Wb. 23b41 . beu, Ml. 53b8 . -béo, Fél. Prol. 273 . 2 s. bee, cited OIPG 70 and see GOI 482 . b, ZCP viii 311.z (see xxiv 122 ). -bee (perh. absol.), ZCP vii 494 (Enchir. Aug.). -bē, Fing. R. 82 . With ro: robhe (restored as ro-bé), Blathm. 92 § 9 . 3 s. beith, Ml. 108a11 . beid, Wb. 14c23 . bed, 3c10 . beth, Thes. ii 245.34 (Cambr. Hom.). -bǽ, Wb. 22b14 . -b, Sg. 29b14 . -bée, Wb. 12c43 . With suff. pron. bethum-sa, Fél. Ep. 384 n.14 . With ro: rob, Wb. 5d30 , robe, 18c4 , rubé, Ml. 20d4 , rob, Wb. 28a23 , robbé, Sg. 169a1 . -roib, Wb. 16c24 , Ml. 118c5 . Rel. bess, Wb. 5d14 . bes, Ml. 77d3 . Impers. bethir, Wb. 5d33 . rel. bether, Ml. 107d8 . -bether, Wb. 10a18 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 31c11 . beimmi, 19a16 . -bem, 24a10 . -robam, 26c10 . 2 pl. beithe, Wb. 18b16 . bethe, 24b13 . -beith, Ml. 46a10 . -beid, Wb. 27c9 . With ro: -robith, Wb. 26a28 . 3 pl. beit, Wb. 10b5 . rubet, 26a23 . ro be(i)t , Vita Br. 35 . -bet, Wb. 9d27 . -robat, 11d9 . Rel. bete, Wb. 10c22 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. -beind, TBC-I¹ 1856 . -beinn cited GOI § 787 . 2 s. -betha, Wb. 4c24 . 3 s. nobed, Wb. 3b10 . nobeth, Ml. 27b1 . -bed, Wb. 9d1 . -beth, Ml. 88b15 . -robad, Wb. 17a13 . -rabad, 34a4 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . 1 pl. -bemmis, Wb. 9a3 . -beimmis, 29d23 . -bemis, Vita Br. 23 . 2 pl. -bethe, Wb. 9c20 . 3 pl. -betis, Sg. 138a9 . -[ro]ibtis, Wb. 28a1 .

Fut. 1 s. bia, Ml. 137b7 . 2 s. bie, cited GOI § 788 , OIPG 70 . 3 s. bieid, Wb. 4d6 . bied, 14c1 . -bia, 5d35 . -bia (disyll.), Blathm. 572 . -bia and -bía, GOI § 788 . With suff. pron. bethiumm. Ériu xiii 20.6 . bethib, ZCP viii 316.5 (see xxix 174 ). Rel. bias, Wb. 23b38 . bies, Ériu iii 102 § 32 . Impers. beithir, TBFr. 248 . -bether, MacCongl. 61.4 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 9c10 . beimmi, 21b7 . -biam, 15a1 . -piam, 30b17 . 2 pl. bethe, cited GOI § 788 . bethi, Trip.² 1589 . -bied, Wb. 9a21 . -bieid, 26d26 . 3 pl. biet (disyll.), Blathm. 472 . bieit, Wb. 4c40 . biet, 9d27 , Sg. 198b6 (also bíet, GOI § 788 ). -biat, 9c28 . -bíet, 40b14 . Rel. bete, Wb. 13c26 . beite, 4c40 .

Condit. 1 s. nombeinn, Ml. 59a22 . 3 s. nobiad, Ml. 32d5 . -bíad, Wb. 9d1 . 1 pl. nobemmis, Ml. 134b3 . 3 pl. nobetis, Ml. 100c7 .

Pret. 1 s. b, LU 9407 . 2 s. -bá, cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 , see perf. 2 s. below. 3 s. bói, Wb. 31c18 . bái, 27a16 . -bói, 17d17 , Ml. 78a4 . Rel. boie, Thes. ii 242.11 (Ardm.). boīe (MS. ba), Ériu xvi 46.10 (see n. 0 and Celtica vi 223 ). boíë (MS. baoí), Ériu xxvi 67, 85 . Cf. cech nóeb bói, fil, bías, Fél. Ep. 289 (where six sylls. required). With suff. pron. boithus, IT i 137.8 = boithius, 21 . boíthi, Sc.M² 3 . ? baísu, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 37.5 . Impers. *both(a)e, postulated GOI § 789 , botha, TBC-I¹ 1572 . -both(a), Vita Br. 33 . 1 pl. bamar, SR 1558 . bámar, 3286 , Imr. Brain i 48.5 . 2 pl. -baid (baïd ?), cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 . 3 pl. bātir, TBC-I¹ 217 . -batar, Ml. 55c2 . Rel. batar, Ml. 123b5 . See GOI § 789 .

Perf. 1 s. rob, Wb. 28a9 . -roba, Ml. 44c4 . -raba, TBC-I¹ 3068 . 2 s. rob, LL 14442 . 3 s. robói, Wb. 5c10 . rambái, 2c13 . robui, Ml. 93c3 . -robae, Ml. 41a5 , -robe, Wb. 18d7 , -rabae, Ml. 28d3 . Impers. romboth, Wb. 19a9 . rombod, 5b31 . -rabad, Ériu iv 146.4 . 1 pl. robámmar, Wb. 20d12 . -robammar, Ml. 105b16 . 2 pl. rubaid, Wb. 3b19 . -robaid, Ml. 46a8 . 3 pl. robatar, Wb. 24c5 . robbátar, Sg. 57b1 . -rabatar, Ml. 100c11 . -robatar, Sg. 45b1 . -rabtar, Ml. 37a16 .

Vn. buith.

Vbl. of necess. buithi.

Later forms (see also Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish, Ériu vi 1 ff. ; Mulchrone, Verbalformen der Vita Tripartita, ZCP xvi 440 ; Falconer, Verbal System of LU Táin, Ériu xvii 116 ; Strachan, Verbal System of SR, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1895, 1 - 76 ; O Daly, Verbal System of LL Táin, Ériu xiv 80 ; Mac Eoin, Verbalsystem von Togail Troi, ZCP xxviii 125 ; Sommerfelt, Le système verbal dans In Cath Catharda, RC xxxviii 41 ; Nuner, Verbal System of the Agallamh na Senórach, ZCP xxvii 272 ; PH Glossary; Lloyd, Impersonal passive forms of the Irish substantive verb, Ériu i 49 ff. ; TD Introd. lxxv ; IGT Verbs § 7 ).

Indic. pres. 1 s. atáu, Trip.² 1412 . atú, 2578 . itu, SR 1187 . it, TBC-LL¹ 434 . atú, IGT Verbs § 7 . ataim, Fier. 14 . -t, Acall. 4516 . 2 s. -tái, SR 3102 . -toi, TBC-I¹ 937 . taoi, TD 15.48 . cia doaisiu mac?, RC xxvi 30 § 128 . 3 s. -t, Trip.² 744 . atá, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. attá, Trip.² 534 , ata, SR 7708 etc., at, Acall. 429 . Impers. atáthar, TBC-LL¹ 3316 . dáthar (: máthar), IGT Verbs ex. 99 . atass, Ériu iv 114 § 17 (:as). -das (: as), IGT Verbs ex. 104 . 1 pl. itám, SR 1727 . tám, 3493 . ataum, PH 1556 . ataim, TBC-LL¹ 874 . atamaoit, TBC St. 121 . atámaoid, atám, IGT Verbs § 7 . -taum, PH 1506 . -dtám (: ár), IGT Verbs ex. 111 . 2 pl. atathai, PH 2734 . atathi, 597 . atáithi (: fáithi), IGT Verbs ex. 105 . -táithi (: sáithi), ex. 96 . -dathai, Alex. 190 . -taidh, Ériu ii 118 § 53 . 3 pl. itāt, TBC-I¹ 3132 . atáit, CCath. 1215 . ataut, PH 1064 . táid, TD 8.5 . -táit, CCath. 1701 . Rel. itat, Trip.² 882 , atat, SR 7949 . For later forms in meaning than (is) see atás, indaas, 4 ol. See also II (d) below and daas.

The form fil. 1 s. ni ḟuilim, ni ḟoilim, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. -fhile, PH 8116 . -fhuile, 3335 , -fuili, Acall. 3217 . -ḟoili, -ḟuile, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. fail, TBC-I¹ 60 , SR 353 etc. ro fail , TBC-LL¹ 263 , fuil, 3072 . -fail, Trip.² 2764 , -fuil, 872 , -uil, PH 3181 , -ḟil, Acall. 3709 . -ḟuil, -ḟoil, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. fil, Trip.² 842 , fail, SR 392 , no fail , 933 . With impers. ending: filter, MacCongl. 31.25 . -fuiltear, TD 2.42 . 1 pl. ra fuilemm , TBC-LL¹ 2971 . -failmet, SR 6320 , -ḟuilmíd, Acall. 5101 . -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. -bhḟuilti, Acall. 962 . 3 pl. failet, SR 345 . filet, 477 . fuilet, TBC-LL¹ 4739 . -failet, Trip.² 1119 . -filet, TBC-I¹ 1848 , -fileat, CCath. 1270 . -fuilet, 427 . -fuilid, TD 7.23 . Rel. failet, SR 400 . ra failet , TBC-LL¹ 5225 . fuilet, 4709 . filet, PH 435 . See also do-fil.

Consuet. pres. 1 s. bim, PH 6393 . bím, -bím, IGT Verbs § 7 . ? -ruibim, SG 373.29 . 2 s. -bi, SR 2035 . bí, ní bí, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bíd, TBC-I¹ 1453 (LU). biid, SR 4537 . bíd, 4588 . -bí, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bíonn, TD 22.12 . -bind, RC xlix 37.13 . bídh, -b, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bither, PH 7441 . -bithar, Laws iv 234.2 Comm. 1 pl. bímit, Acall. 886 . bídmaid, 5481 . bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bíth, Acall. 6139 . 3 pl. bīd, TBC-I¹ 1075 (bít, LU). -bíat, TTr.² 330 . -bít, PH 4189 , -bíd, TD 5.5 . Rel. bit (= bíït), SR 7259 . bít, TBC-LL¹ 1320 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. do bhínn , TD 23.7 . 3 s. nobīth, TBC-I¹ 593 (nobíid, LU cited above). robíth, TBC-I¹ 1903 (LU). do bhíodh , TD 14.23 . do bhíoth , 26.12 . Impers. bithi, Auraic. 5286 = -bithi, RC xx 150.y (ACC Pref.). no bithea , Acall. 156 . 3 pl. naboitis, TBC-I¹ 855 LU (nobitís, Y). nobīdis, 3621 (Y). bítís, 1898 (LU). no beitis , LL 407a27 . ro bitis , PH 1957 . do bhítís , Acall. 830 . do bhídís , TD 15.18 . Rel. tri cnuasa bítís ann, Acall. 455 .

Ipv. 1 s. bír (: gním), IGT Verbs ex. 94 . 2 s. b, Parrth. Anma 3871 . 3 s. bīdh, ZCP vi 271.z . bíodh, TD 16.2 . bíoth, 17.1 . 1 pl. bíom, Dán Dé xiv 17 . 2 pl. bíthe (: -chíthe), IGT Verbs ex. 95 . bídh, ex. 109 . bidhí, Luc. Fid. 3430 . 3 pl. bíod, TD 16.19 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. ber, SG 172.15 . uér, Ériu ii 92.9 . beor, v 222.46 . bheith mé, TD 8.9 . -ra bur , TBC-LL¹ 1112 . -rabor, ZCP xii 401.30 . ? -rabhus, ZCP v 523.27 = rabasa, Ériu xii 144.12 (TE). -rabar, ZCP iii 32.37 . bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bé, SR 1607 . beir, BNnÉ 288.29 . Acall. 592 . -rab(a)i, BDD² p. 80 . -rabha, Irish Texts iv 75 § 16 . -rabhair, Fing. R. p. 13 note 86 . -mbéis (: Céis), IGT Verbs ex. 100 . -beis(se) (: meise), Dán Dé xiv 20 . -rabais, Fing. R. 86 , BDD² 363 (see ZCP xxvii 75-8 ). beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. beth, TBC-I¹ 270 (beith, v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 101 . -b, TBC-I¹ 1671 . -raib, Trip.² 2753 . -rab, TBC-I¹ 1430 . -raibhe, Parrth. Anma 2616 . rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bess, TBC-I¹ 1104 (beis, Y). beas, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bethur, Laws ii 36.20 Comm. 1 pl. beme, Snedg. u. Mac R 9.14 . bemmit, TBC-LL¹ 2137 . bemait, Acall. 5478 . -bém, CCath. 1124 . -beam (: leam), Dán Dé xii 10 . -ruibem, SR 5540 . -rabum, PH 7899 . bheam, rabham, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 1233 . rabthai, PH 1977 . 3 pl. beit, Trip.² 1653 . -bet, TBC-I¹ 1053 . -beat, Lism. L. 4702 . -rabat, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. -rabut, PH 994 . -rabhait, BNnÉ 269.4 . -rabhaid, Parrth. Anma 2836 . -rabheid, RC xxix 136 § 51 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. do beinn , do rabainn , IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. no beithi , Trip.² 2972 . no beithe , 2983 = no bethe , Trip. 252.21 . do beitheá , TD 1.44 . 3 s. no beith , Trip.² 2967 . nobith, TBC-I¹ 3543 . dá mbeadh , TD 29.6 . -mbeath, IGT Verbs ex. 97 . -rabad, RC iii 184.24 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . -bette, Metr. Dinds. iii 382.19 . rabtha, TBC-LL¹ (C) 1675 . 1 pl. dá mbiadh sinn, TD 28.25 . 3 pl. nobeitis, SR 7855 . nobeidis, TBC-I¹ 3557 . dá mbeith siad, TD 26.36 .

Fut. (see Bergin, Ériu ii 46-8 ) 1 s. bíat, TTr.² 89 . biat, PH 1244 . biad (bíatt v.l.), CCath. 5137 . bhead, Parrth. Anma 6378 . bed, ZCP vi 41.10 . bét, 69.2 . bett, BNnÉ 52 § 42 . -biu, TBC-LL¹ 882 . -bhiú, Dán Dé xiv 20 . biad, -bi, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bía, Trip.² 1593 . biae, SR 1599 . -bíai, BNnÉ 291 § 2 . biaidh tú, TD 1.26 . bía, -bía, IGT Verbs § 7 . bethair, ZCP ii 225.4 . 3 s. bied, LU 10362 . biaid, Trip.² 1071 . biáid, TBC-I¹ 169 (LU). biaidh, -bia, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bíes, Trip.² 2671 . bés, CCath. 300 , bes, 657 . bess, PH 4666 . bhias, TD 3.50 . do biass , L. Chl. S. 1 . Impers. beither, Acall. 5259 . beithir, ZCP x 415.11 . 1 pl. bemit, LU 9753 , PH 1501 . bemait, CCath. 1467 . -bem(ni, LU 9753 . beimíd, -biam, IGT Verbs § 7 . -biaim(ne) (: siairni), ex. 108 . ? -ben, BCC 396.19 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 3083 . beitte (: eiti) (beththi, bete v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 102 . -bed, Trip.² 1590 . 3 pl. biait, Trip.² 2665 , TBC-I¹ 2057 (beite, LU). biat, Trip.² 1288 . beit, TBC-I¹ 80 . beiti, TBC-I¹ 2078 . beti, SR 8157 . betit, SR 853 . TBC-LL¹ 246 , TTr.² 760 . beidid, ZCP x 338 § 1 . -bīat, TBC-I¹ 1132 . beidíd síad, BCC 290.12 . beid, -bíad, IGT Verbs § 7 .

Condit. 1 s. no-béind, PH 6107 . dobeind, 7489 . do beinn, -beinn, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. do bheitheá , TD 19.13 . 3 s. no biadh , CCath. 3754 . -bied, TBC-I¹ 504 . ro bífad , TBC-LL¹ 5112 . rot-fiadh, IT iii 320.4 ( Cóir Anm. 70 ). do biath (: sgiath), IGT Verbs ex. 97 . do bhiadh , TD 2.54 . Impers. no bethe , TTr.² 533 . 3 pl. do bheidīs , Parrth. Anma 5227 .

Pret. and perf. 1 s. ro-bádus, PH 699 . do bhádhus , TD 23.6 . do bhí mé, 5 . -rabus, Acall. 7913 . -rabhas, 1584 . -rabadhus, 356 . do bá , -raba; do bádhus , -rabadhas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do basa ( : bádusa; proscribed form), ex. 103 . 2 s. ro bhádhuis , CCath. 553 . do bhí tú, TD 28.6 . -rabadais, PH 3725. 8121 . -rabhais, Acall. 123 . do bhádhuis , -rabhadhuis, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bae, SR 7608 . bóe, 6265 . baei, BDD² 127 . búi, CCath. 95 . -bae, SR 4975 . -buí, Trip.² 1505 . robai, SR 2229 , robae, 2262 . robói, PH 2572 . ro bí , CCath. 1302 . robuidh, Ériu iii 198 § 22 . do bí , CCath. 278 . do bhói , Acall. 58 . do bhaoi (: draoi), Dán Dé xii 22 . -rubai, SR 1241 . -roibe, BDD² 498 , -roibi, 1393 . -roba, 251 . -raba, 1533 . -raibhe, TD 2.25 . -rabha, 8.36 . -robha, 1 . do bí , -raibi, do baí , -rabha, IGT Verbs § 7 . With depon. ending -rabhustair, BNnÉ 322 § 31 . Rel. boí, Trip.² 626 . bāi, TBC-I¹ 1277 . būi, 630 . ro bae , Trip.² 288 . ro buí , BDD² 287 . ro baí , 1451 . ro boí , 1517 . Impers. both, Trip.² 2264 . rombatha, Ériu ii 20 § 3 (-a added later). -rabad, iv 146.4. robās, TBC-I¹ 2147 . rombas, SR 7564 , robás, TTr.² 151 . -rabus, Trip.² 54 . rabas, Laws iv 212.22 Comm. , -bádus, MacCongl. 43.22 . -bás, 61.3 . do bás , do bas , -rabas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do bas (: as), ex. 98 . do bhás (: fhás), Dán Dé xxvi 9 . 1 pl. bāmur, TBC-I¹ 399 . do bámar , Acall. 1283 . do bhámair (: Ádhaimh), Dán Dé xv 17 . -rabamar, TBC-I¹ 2495 . 2 pl. robabair, Anecd. ii 14.9 . -babhair, Blathm. 23 (see notes ). robadbair, TBC-I¹ 2502 . do bhábhair , TD 22a.1 . -rabhuir, Acall. 114 . -rabhabhair, TD 22a.2 . 3 pl. bādar, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bátir, TTr.² 1308 . ro badar , CCath. 573 n. ro bádar , Acall. 75 . do bídur , 5942 . -rabadar, TBC-I¹ 3108 . -rabhadair, TD 26.10 . ro baisit , O'Dav. 728 . -rabhsad, TD 16.21 . Rel. bátar, Trip.² 591 . BDD² 505 . ro bátar , 543 . Vn. an bheith , IGT Verbs § 7 . Vbl. of necess. beitte, TD 28.30 .

Cf. cenmothá, íarmothá, óthá.

Used in meaning is in a large variety of contexts. Normally replaced by copula (see 1 is) in certain fixed syntactical patterns (classification, identification, etc.), and when used in these cases exceptional (see above and II below).

I Expressing existence.

(a) Used absolutely is, exists, there is, etc.: ata in coimdiu gl. Dominus in cælo sedis eius, Ml. 30b27 . nabad hed a méit nádmbǽ `let it not be only that it is not' gl. nec nominetur in uobís, Wb. 22b14 . ní fil aimsir nad mbed ref. to fuit et est semper, Ml. 17a15 . ní torménmar-ni ara mbetis in gnimai sin gl. præter spem nostram, etc., 115b1 . ni fil chumtubairt gl. indubitabilia, etc., Sg. 154b2 . ma nubed `if it existed', 31b21 . ro baoi siomh re tuisdinsiú `he existed', Blathm. 632 . as e as soithcerndomh fil, 773 . ma rombe is maith if it is, it is well, Laws iv 2.14 Comm. ni rabi uair . . . nad ro bai `there was no hour . . . that He existed not', Ériu ii 106 § 16 . a cin for athair .i. uair na bí mac, Laws iv 240.16 Comm. Columb [ro]baoi, Columb bīaas, ZCP viii 198 § 20 . tar ēis a mic . . . / nī raba acht dā aenbliadain `was alive only two years', Ériu iii 198 § 24 . as a rad ata a nadmaim cin co be by saying there is a covenant though there is not, Laws iv 52.30 Comm. ni tha . . . ní a ngeimre in winter there is nothing, 90.1 (with petrified inf. pron. 3 s. n. in dat. sense?). ní bía terca bíd there will not be a scarcity of food, BColm. 52.5 . bid dno maith, ┐ ni bi derrscugud de `yet there is good, and nothing to surpass it', Auraic. 703 . is tré ómun bíid serc, Ériu i 195.1 . céin beti neóil im gréin ngil, Metr. Dinds. ii 38.z . i céin raibh nemh is talamh as long as . . . endure, BNnÉ 314 § 8 . bai cocad mor etarro, RC xxiv 186 § 19 . In phrase (acht) atá ní (chena) but, moreover, see 1 ní (e).

In periphrasis when emphasis on some element other than the verb is required: bieid nach dréct diib hícfider, Wb. 4d6 . bieid bes ferr de, 32a13 . do budh cusmail rit co robuis uair ecin, ┐ co n[d]ingenta rét feramail `that thou wert once such an one that thou couldst . . .', ZCP vi 87.13 . ba-sa tan / nī folabrainn ilach gamh, Ériu ii 95 § 3 . ata[a]t .iii. cáini nad chumgat comarbai do chumscuchud, Ériu xvii 68 § 9 ( Laws iv 210 ). Note further: atāit teora brīathra / ata lōgmaire for nim, ZCP vii 312 § 25 .

With words expressing time: bieid aimser nad creitfider, Wb. 28c14 . aidchi robuī `one night', Ériu ii 222.25 . fecht robai `once', Mon. Tall. 147.2 (§ 52) . biaidh uair 's . . . a time will come when, Dán Dé vii 31 .

Introducing a statement: cia beith ara rogba bóairechas riasíu ropo chúairddulchach though it be that he assume, Críth G. 67 . dá mbeith fós go mbiadh an Fhraingc comh líonmhar ┐ adeir seisean `granted that', Keat. ii 933 . má tá go seachnoid síol Éibhir . . ., TD 29.7 . ci(d), gi(d) bé whatever, whoever (see Ériu xii 210 ): ria flaithaib, .i. rias na flaithib, cibe flaithe iat `whatever chieftains they be', Laws iv 154.17 . gidh bé lá cheannghar an chairt, Dán Dé xiv 17 . cidh bé do bhean díbh an dúthaigh, DDána 26.1 . bíd (ipv. 3 s.) co n- although: admhuim . . . mo pheactha . . . bīodh gomadh é mo mhīan a bhfolach though I should wish to hide them, Parrth. Anma 4625 . bīodh nach gcaoifithea go spesialta fá gach peacadh though you might not weep specially for each sin, Mac Aingil 235 . bíth gur gheallas . . . though I promised, Ó Bruad. ii 212 § xiv . In constr. manibed x ní bíad y were it not for x y would not be, see má II (b).

(b) The subst. vb. is usual with predicates consisting of adverbial phrases of all kinds (prep. and noun, adjj. and nouns used adverbially, etc.) and thus enters into a large and varied corpus of idioms. A select list follows. Reference should in all cases also be made to the nouns, adjj., adverbs and prepositions concerned.

With CO: atáthar sund chucut your adversary is approaching, LL 10300 ( TBC-LL¹ 3316 ).

With CO N-: atúsa com thegluch there is myself and my household troop, TBC-LL¹ 437 .

With DI: im chaingin robui de muintir Tamlachti friss `about a business that arose between the monastery of Tallaght and him', Mon. Tall. 157.7 (§ 72) . masu de chlaind Echdach aird / atāi, ZCP xi 108 § 1 . ní bia debaid . . . de, Ériu iv 108 § 69 . Of materials: an crann dobí na sesam ... dobí sé do cepresus was a (lit. of) cupressus, Maund. 9 . In phrase a.¤ di such is: roboi du meit a pecthae `so great were their sins', Ml. 98c6 . má beth tra do hūaite ind āessa gráid `if the ordained folk be too few', Ériu i 220 § 13 .

With DO: biid do anmmaim cathrach `(Samnis) is as the name of the city', Sg. 104b5 . nád robatar suin do ṡlund in dúildetad inchoisget `there were not words (enough) to signify . . .', 45b1 . manusbeth tenga dia relad `if (the sun) had a tongue', Ériu ii 126 § 81 . ata eric a fogla do dul a ruradh o duine, Laws iv 50.5 Comm. Expressing possession, etc.: con roib core dúib fri cách so that you may be at peace with all men, Wb. 26b30 . in fochricc file do i nnim, 29b29 . cach ngrád asid n-ísliu bíid dó i céilsini, Críth G. 374 . robi timna in ríg don Comdhe, RC xviii 182.5 . nico mbái dó acht bás there was nothing for him but death, Vita Br. 32 . fecht robúi damsae domchaomnacuir `once it happened to me', Mon. Tall. 144.7 (§ 45) . atá damhsa ris an dáimh / gan ísliughadh neith dá gcáil it is my duty in regard to the sages not to belittle . . ., Content. xiv 8 .

With FOR (later AR): as ṅdath glas roboi forsind sl[é]ib the mountain was green, Ml. 84d4 . cech dath is maith ré neach bid forro, RC vi 183.9 . cēin beó ar in mbith mbuide, Ériu ii 92.16 . nocha cuinnghim bethaid mbí / ōtú ar sīth mo Rīgh amuigh since I am outside the palace of my king(?), ZCP vii 301 § 10 . scríbend menmman .i. robbói for a inndṡliucht-som `it had been in his mind', Sg. 178b4 . in sét atá form aire on which I am intent, Ériu vi 115 § 6 . a mhacnas orm gidh eadh raibh though I greatly desire to do so, Dán Dé xix 6 .

With FRI: nobiad fri femen `it would be (used) with the feminine', Sg. 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them', 215a5 . ni humhal robabair rim cen erghe rónn you were not submissive to me, Anecd. ii 14.9 . ba [mait]h ro mboth friu they were well treated, TBFr. 145 . is throit ra bass risin fer út that man was quickly dispatched, TBC-LL¹ 2986 ( LL 10035 ).

With I: is hi tuaisciurt slebe sióin ata in chathir, Ml. 67d8 . ataam ar ndiis i cuimriug, Wb. 32a28 . is and . . . bieid finis, 13b29 . is sunt bia-sa i n-eilithri, Ml. 137b7 . nach dú i mbí isnaib salmaib iustitia, 109a2 . bēti a scēla illāidib, ZCP iii 37.32 . dēna torba airm i mbī, vii 311 § 9 . ro-bas i lurg an madma la clannaibh Néill the Clanna N. pursued the rout, xiv 234.16 . adh bes fiu da trian na samuisce atá isín focreic, issed ata isin fogail doníther ris na ferandaib cétna i fuacht an geimridh `a calf which is worth two thirds of the `samhaisc'-heifer which is paid for the rent, it is it that is paid for the trespass', Laws iv 92.16 Comm. cínta do niad na cethra . . . leth a mbia ina nairlim isedh bias ina tairsci `half of that fine which lies for their `airlim'-trespass . . .', 74.8 Comm. cod a midídar ruire trachta ┐ raite? Nin; co rabadar ocht nurcora dec and do fhleascach, 138.4 Comm. ní bhíadh na ghoin é d'oighedh / toil Dé muna deónaighedh His wound would not be enough to cause His death, IGT Decl. ex. 378 . Common in form with suff. pron. 3 s. n. ma beith nech and tra labrathar ilbélre if there be anyone, etc., Wb. 13a4 . ar atá brithem and cenut-su `a judge is there apart from thee', 6b25 . ataat alaaili interiecta and it coitchena do cach ceniul, Sg. 10a1 . attaad teora bliadna and. Niconcomracamar díoblíonaib `it is three years since we two had intercourse', Mon. Tall. 134.26 (§ 21) . For phr. cid fil and trá see trá. In idiom tá sé i n-a fhear he is a man (see Dillon, ZCP xvii 307 ff. ): is amlaid . . . atá in rigsudi sin inna chathaír chumtachta, LU 2005 ( FA 7 ). cidead bes ina bibdaid `even though he be a caitiff', Ériu v 22.20 . gu raibhe 'na cholum ghel, Acall. 1080 . ce raib se i n-a fhír, PH 7324 . do bí 'n-a mnaí grádaig ac Find, Acall. 2018 . do rígh gion go rabhthá id mhac, DDána 91.15 . Note also: tuc . . . aithne gurbh e righ Eirenn do bí ann that it was in fact the king, Ériu iii 152 § 6 . ro innis do gur 'uo he Isu ro ui ann, RC xii 344.15 .

With IMM: ni baitir, ni loisctir cein beit immo `he is not drowned or burnt as long as they are on him', RC vi 183.8 .

With LA: gan bheith le Dia is ann bhus aithreach if we are not on God's side, Dán Dé x 27 . Expressing possession and related ideas: is lib atá a rogu, Wb. 9a23 . is derb lium attá latsu gl. certus sum autem quod et in té, 29d14 . ainmm ninchoisc cenéuil issed file la laitnóri, Sg. 30b8 . is airi nobíth digaimm leo ante ρ. sin, 9b10 . ni fil bríg laisiom hisind accobar sin `he considers that such desire is no great matter,' Mon. Tall. 151.13 (§ 62) . is dé atá lem, fobíth, etc. this is why I think so (of an assertion), TTr.² 343 . itá a rīgan la cach ríg sund, TBC-I¹ 190 . fail leis secht nimi, SR 629 . ar ní ḟil acht oenlám lim, LL 14150 .

With ó: báoi alaile anchoire antuaid o sláne `there was a certain anchorite from Slane in the North', Mon. Tall. 159.8 (§ 77) . cech lennánacht fil isin domvn is úadhi atá originates with her, TTr.² 370 . Bressal Ó Tressaig ō' tāit / Hī Tressaig `. . . from whom are sprung', Ériu ii 50 § 7 . ni fil[et] o neoch ┐ ni filter uaidibh `they are not derived from anything, and nothing is derived from them', Auraic. 1507 .

With OC: ar notéighed dīa sathairn init co mbídh oc Cnocc Droma Coblai, ZCP viii 106.29 = Trip.² 2858 . ma no bith . . . mo c[h]laideb acom if I had my sword, TBC-I¹ 3543 . co rabat aidmi oc cech altōir . . ., Ériu i 219 § 9 . in ti ac na biat ba, Laws iv 36.10 Comm. in fhil biad ocaib sund? PH 6709 . ná raibh agad ar n-éra `refuse me not', Studies 1918, 99 § 16 . In impers. constr. cindas atathar occat? how are affairs with thee? RC xxvi 368.9 . a.¤ y oc x x has the power to do y: ní bhía . . . ag boigṡín / mo chor tar creich Phádraigín, Ériu ix 163 § 7 .

With adverbs and adv. phrases: céin bett abus `while they are here below', BColm. 98.28 . ní rubai nach cruth ailiu `it cannot be otherwise', Sg. 7b3 . ataat ám in chrut sin, 140b1 . hóre nád robe Tit ar mo chiunn, Wb. 14d29 . na muindtire bís id choimidecht `of the monks that live with thee', Mon. Tall. 128.8 (§ 3) . dá rabh mé ar éanmhagh is í, Dán Dé ix 12 . is bether go hīsiul de, ZCP x 51.6 . bidh co mín michuir ret c[h]airdibh, vi 272 § 3 . is samlaid insin robói a flaithemnacht indibsi, Ml. 18a8 . nī hamlaid beitid na nāimh . . ., ZCP xiii 9.26 . dobadus co subhach rompa, KMMisc. 319.27 . léig mar atāit tall, ZCP viii 202.4 . trath atusa sund, TBC-LL¹ 2379 . ionmhuin uan nar fhás ó mhnaoi / do bhás go truagh ar a thí, Dán Dé xxvi 9 . Note also: dá mbem a-moigh `if we win forth', Ériu ix 162 § 2 . With interrogatives: ceth leth atā E., TBC-I¹ 376 . can ata? whence is it? Hib. Min. 8.270 . cāit atā do t[h]igerna?, TBC-I¹ 789 . ciatā inso?, ZCP viii 311.13 . a Findtain, arse, ┐ Éri cía gabad ca rabad inde? `where have things been therein?' Ériu iv 146 § 23 .

(c) Used with inf. and suff. pron. to express possession. With inf. pron.: rosmbia a lóg `they shall have payment for it', Wb. 5d35 . ind indocbál no-b-tá in futuro, 14c16 . ro-n-da-biad cech maith, Ml. 33b13 . rombia-sa la dia . . . a day will come for me when, Vita Br. 12 . roborbē (roburbe v.l.) which is yours, Cáin Ad. 27 . nīmthat asnai I have no ribs, TBC-I¹ 2871 . gell cóic sét di neoch rodmbí `of whatever he has', Críth G. 283 and n. uair nach tá tír dia fhulung fri re napuidh because he has no land to support him (?), Laws iv 30.19 Comm. rom be nem may I have heaven, Snedg. u. Mac R 14 § 76 . Femen intan rombai rí . . . when it had a king, RC xvii 148.19 . cia luag nomtha?, SR 1165 . rombí lethbairgen, Anecd. i 73 § 211 . atbert Cathair nimthasa ní dhuit I have nothing to give you, LL 386b22 . Note also: nintha do imtecht liumm `I have (lit. we have) no news', RC xiii 222.20 . With cumang (or similar word) and prep. DO has the power to: nímtha cumachtæ ṅdo, Ml. 140b7 . ní-s-ta som . . . cumang domm orcuin-se, 60d3 . nísmbói didiu do chumacc a mmbo do imain they hadn't the strength to, Vita Br. 24 . sáerthar lat in domnach cech cumang rotbé (rodbe, rotbia, v.ll.) dó `with all your might', Ériu ii 204 § 22 . nícom thása cumang dia tabair[t], TBFr. 302 . apraind nachimbai-si nert do theacht cucu alas that I had not strength . . ., TBC-I¹ 3439 . Used independently is able: nīmt[h]a a dechmad d'indisin / nech doní do maith `I cannot tell a tithe of all the good he does', BColm. 70.6 . nimta-sa sin . . . uair da caithius mo dan re sciathaib Ulad I cannot do that . . ., Ériu v 72.8 . Note also: ango dano for Ingcél adfía basa lecht bas briscium `peradventure I shall be the frailest corpse', BDD 102h ( RC xxii 211 ) = at-mbia basa lecht bas brisceam, BDD² 716 (leg. ro-t-bia?).

With suffixed pron. taithiunn . . . / ni fris tarddam ar n-áthius `we have . . . something to which to apply our acuteness', Thes. ii 293.19 . táithi caire umai he has a bronze cauldron, Críth G. 197 . tathum rūn, TBC-I¹ 848 . bethib sūirsi lim-sa dano ye will enjoy freedom with me, ZCP viii 316.5 . tathat lim logh do áes, logh do sinnsire thou hast with me = I accord thee, xii 365.13 . baíthium anfud mílach mend, LU 3018 . tathuib comram, Rawl. 88b51 . tathum o día praind, Anecd. i 64 § 120 . tāthud ochtar la suidiu / airm hi fail a crōlighe `thou wilt find eight men . . .', Fianaig. 12 § 16 . tathai eolus maith, ZCP vii 310 § 1 . tatos subhae `they have happiness', Blathm. 82 . Pleonastically: tathai erouidh . . . bithbron `Herod . . . has eternal sorrow', 83 .

(d) In nasalising rel. clauses to denote has something the matter, is ailing: ced das in ben maith? `what ails the good woman?', Thes. ii 329.48 . cidh tás do sūil, a clērich? what is the matter with your eye? RC xxvii 280 § 35 . Oengus mac in Dagdai hisiurcc di bliadan. Cid tas or Bodb, RC iii 345.9 . ra[fh]etur sa . . . an daas ind ingen what is wrong with the girl, Vita Br. 5 . ni fetarsa cid no-tó I do not know what is the matter with me, ZCP viii 176.5 . cid no-taí? Sc.M² 3 . roḟetarsa a n-attath[a]i. Ni taam ni or Cano, Anecd. i 9.25 ( SCano 293 ). cid tāthaí, a maccu? . . . oc imresain atām . . ., Ériu viii 157.16 . ni confetatarsin cid rombui hissennath, RC iii 344.10 . dia ḟis cid robái (rombui, v.l.) grían to find out what was the matter with the sun, Ériu iv 140.13 .

With prep. DO feels (inimically) towards, is angry with, worries: propter incredulitatem fracti sunt .i. cani airi .i. badochu lem són is [hed] romboth doib that is the fault found with them, Wb. 5b31 . cren dímsa m'ingin . . . Cid dathir di? . . . Is dichmarcach what cause of annoyance has she given? Vita Br. 13 . fiarfaig Conchobar scēla dō. —Cidh tāi di ṡodain? ol Bricriu why do you bother with it? ZCP v 502.15 . cadai-siu duind?, TTebe 424 . In good sense treats in a special manner: ca tāthar dúin do domnach des / sech gach laithi lāndiles? `why do we hold Sunday above . . .?' Ériu iii 143 § 7 . With added prep.: cidh 'ma bfuile dam? ZCP x 10.11 . ná bí réd chathrachaibh dhúinn `talk not to us of your forts', Content. vi 31 . See further s.v. daas. Frequ. in class. verse in phrase gá dtá, dás (acht) what is the use? in short. Either gá dtá or gá tá may be used to suit alliteration, see Ir. Syll. Poetry 86 . fogus orchra don éigsi / gá ttás cur ré coiméidsi `how can she be saved?' Studies 1923, 421 § 1 . gá dás luadh imdheachta an ḟir? `what need to recount', TD 13.40 . gá dás mé dá mīrbuile / acht sé d'fás ó ÓghMuire, IGT Decl. ex. 200 . gá dtám? —acht torchuir bu dheas in short, TD 3.10 . With follg. prep.: gá dtám ris . . . / acht meise féin foidhidneach, TD 3.41 . ga dtú ris, a rí L.? / ort chuirim mo chomuirghe, 30.12 . ní bhiú ris acht, Dán Dé vi 31 . ní fhuilim dó, xi 30 .

(e) With words indicating number, quantity in sense of accompanied by, having: bí[i]th a th[a]urchreicc cóic ṡétaib, Críth G. 71 . baei Conairi a ceithri cairpthig il-Lifiu, BDD 12 (a cethror cairpdech, v.l.). itó-sa lín do gona, TBC-LL¹ 434 . denam d'ḟiadach na muice in lín Feinde atámait, Acall. 2223 . atáthaoi líon a n-ithte, Keat. iii 4439 . atú-sa caegait fer, MR 248.17 . Later: bed-sa ┐ mili ridiri maraen rium ad diaig, ZCP vi 41.9 .

II Expressing state, condition, kind, etc. with pred. consisting of noun, pron. or adj. (usage more usual with copula, see introd. section above).

(a) With noun pred.: boe sab suithe cech dind, ACC 26 ( RC xx 168 ). boe saegul sneid, 24 . boe dind oc libur leigdocht, 27 . biait betha airchind they will be chieftains of the world, Rawl. 125b9 . With subj. standing between the vb. and pred.: atá dia atach ṅ-dún-ni ais dethrebo God is a refuge to us the people of the two tribes, Ml. 66d1 . bói Fíachnae Lurga athair Mongáin, Imr. Brain 42.1 . Cf. Sg. 20b3 .

(b) With adj. pred.: boe seim sáth, ACC 25 . biat slana, SR 4167 (copula?). feib atam nocht, 1347 (copula?). bía slan, LU 3344 ( SCC 13 ). Cf. habe . . . (.i. sana sis .i. slán bee), Enchir. Aug. 82a ( ZCP vii 484 ). dlegar doibsium na be lobtaigh cor ( ar dlegar doibsium na bed lobthaig cor, O'Dav. 1191 ) (Atk. in Glossary emends to be[t]), Laws iv 54.10. atámait ainmfesach, RC xxiv 371.7 . bítíss meth (leg. methi, ed.) occ tinntúd, IT iii 235.z . co filim garbliath i rricht, LU 1272 . ro boísium imnedach i tossuch a bethad, LL 7305 . ro-bádus-[s]a dronnach, PH 2788 . céin beorsa beó as long as I am alive, Ériu v 222.46 . is follus co fuilti eaclach, Fier. 69 . maith dīghōltar ant andlocht / bethar taoblom tarrnocht trūagh folk will be, ZCP xii 395.23 . With subj. betw. vb. and pred.: is trissa ndede sin biid duine slán et fírian, Wb. 4d33 . amal mbís tegdís fás [amm]edón ┐ scópthe gl. sicut domus uacans et scopata, Tur. 14 ( Thes. i 485.23 ). arrobói a rígthech lán de rígaib, Imr. Brain 1 . amal no beithi féin béo and, Trip.² 2972 . co mbatar na hádnaicti óbéla, PH 676 . bis an puls tonnmur lethan, Rosa Angl. 272.8 . oir dobi se crodha do laim ┐ mor do mét, Fier. 2 .

(c) With part. as pred. Immediately follg. vb. (see GOI 475-6 ; OIPG 147 ): amal nombemmis érchóilti gl. tanquam morti destinatos, Wb. 9a3 . biid ersoilcthi ar chiunn for ríg `be ye opened before your king' (of doors), Ml. 46a7 . co rabais (rabhdais, v.l.) marbtha mudaigthi, TTebe 854 . With subj. standing between vb. and pred.: ataat mesai Dǽ nephchomtetarrachti the judgements of God are incomprehensible, Ml. 55d11 . céin nombetis inna saigtea tuidmithi inna feuil `as long as the arrows were fixed in his flesh', Ml. 58a9 . órobatar ind liss dúntai, Imr. Brain 1 . co ra-bi in uli demnaigecht fomamaigthi dó, PH 2796 .

(d) In sentences where the vb. stands in a nasalising rel. clause and refers to a pred. expressed in the principal clause: is faittech rond-boi som, Ml. 21d4 . ni ba cian mbias in pecthach, 56c22 . fer . . . nadip romar bed a sommæ a man . . . whose wealth should not be too great, Thes. ii 241.9 . is-gáibthech atátur i-sin-magh sin, RC xxiv 378.12 . is trog robas isin chotlad sin, Ériu v 34.z . ní cás duid madh diomdhach raibh / grása Dé . . ., Dán Dé xix 22 . [is] slán do bhaoi an brat-sain, xii 22 .

(e) In the type of sentence where the description constitutes an independent sentence with copula: ego sum uermis et non homo .i. atāim-si conad cruim mē ┐ nāch duine, Corm. Y 211 . ro boi Victor co mbo ḟortachtaigthid do Pátraic, ACL iii 10 § 8 = Trip.² 217 . unus non est . . . .i. nochon fhil int aen co mbad airim, acht ata conidh fotha airim, Auraic. 689 . dom dóigh . . . robadhuis uair ecin ┐ roba díl anora tú `it seems to me . . . that there was once a time when thou wert worthy of honour', ZCP vi 99.5 .

bág

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bág or dil.ie/5152
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: -aib

n ā, f. Perh. not orig. distinct from báid, q.v. for reff. to IGT Decl.; ascription of certain exx. doubtful.

(a) boast, threat, promise, undertaking, declaration: bagh .i. geall—ut est do bert . . . bagha . . . for sluaigeadh, Thr. Ir. Gl. 58 s.v. barr. baghi (sic). .i. gnim [ut est] baghas ar mbagha finda, O'Dav. 324. bagh .i. briathar, O'Cl. bag ┐ maidhem a threat (to inflict an injury) and a boasting (of injury inflicted), O'Curry 2422 ( Eg. 88, 33b ). bagh .i. ria ndenam chinaidh .i. an bagh re séd sundradach a specific threat (?), ibid. Cf. 2571 . Cf. maidhem iar ndenam cina, 2424 (33c). faisneis fir iar mbagha esamna .i. iar mbagha dó do dén olc frit ┐ adeir go lasamail, do den olc. Ocus is de ata, `ni bera fiacha fear bagha lasaman,' 2595 (50e). rom-ṡóerae, á Íssu,/ ar écnairc do báge, Fél. Ep. 490 (: pláge). ar na ructha do bag it cend that your boasting might not be turned against you, LU 8990. ar ngníma ropsat mára/ar mbága rapsat beca, Ériu i 72 § 4 ( LL 29430 ). ro bruiset baig ┐ brethir i cend demuin, LL 364 marg. sup. na briss brethir [na briss] baíg, TBC-LL¹ 3509. eipstil co mbágaib ┐ tómthaib ┐ ironaib innti, Alex. 782. Cf. PH 1131. borrfad is báig, SG 65.13 . cidat mora bar mbága frimsa . . . ni chumaic nech uaib ni dam, LB 115a32 . nó maided for hUltaib. . . . Nī collad bāg hi suidiu (i.e. the undertaking was fulfilled), ZCP viii 319.8 (Laud Gen.). ní ba bréc in bágh it will be no idle boast, SG 88.2 . do regra na bagi sin to answer that challenge, Cog. 74.23 . cend mic Conaing ina láimh, / do bháigh for ionchaibh mic Taidhg, AFM i 504.z (`to exhibit it before the face of'). anat for mbriatra bági boastful words, LU 8425 ( FB 29 , rhet.). ? sgiath an bhádha mar do bhual, Aithd. D. 63.23 (`the shield of His love'). ? ba b.¤ ám dait-siu ga (= cía) dobertha do greimm catha gan díchill lind i[n]diu (Medb to Fergus), TBC-LL¹ 5942 = ba coir duit-si, TBC St. 4812. ba bāg dōibsom an toitim oc tesorcain a n-eiti, TBC-I¹ 3435. Cf. ba slúagad baga (buadha, v.l.) dó in sluagad a hosting in fulfilment of an undertaking, TBC-LL¹ 463.

As vn. E. oc báig mo marbtha frim threatening to kill me, RC xiii 377.10 . inn ingen asatái oc báig boasting , TBC-LL¹ 3497. do chualaigh . . . na fineadha ag báidh dá bhuandhíochur threatening to expel him, ML 80.22 . bátar occ báigh ┐ acc baccar dul do indradh Tíre Conaill, AFM v 1812.4 .

(b) fight, contest, striving; act of contending, etc.: comrama et baga Poil `P.'s conflicts and battles' gl. bonum certamen certaui, cursum consummaui, Wb. 30d12 . bid adas far mbáich, 5d35 (`proportionate to your struggle', GOI § 249.5 ). a sgel nglan / di bagaib Dhe `contests', Blathm. 93. rugais mac friom baigh to contend on my behalf (?), 156 (`of whom I vaunt'). robūi oc bāid fri Conchobar, Ériu ii 26 § 7. fri báig is búnad prímda `for battle he is a pre-eminent stock', Thes. ii 295.14 . ciṅg báge, Fél. July 24 . bagh .i. cath, O'Cl. ni comtig beó da mbágaib, TBC-LL¹ 4390. nonbur 'sa mb.¤ ri Bregmag, Metr. Dinds. iv 340.6 . oen tarb . . . rempu / . . . / oca mbáig ar búaraib defending (?), 70.27 . fri (= frim, TBC-I¹ 1212 ) baga berai fri náimtiu ascada cen claideb fa allud, LU 5686 (rhet.). a cléth bága fría naimtiu, TTr.² 1621. fer bagha ┐ buancosanta Lethi Cuind, RC xviii 285.6 (Tig.). ar bid tresi ar mbagi anāit baga Foraind, BB 240a18 . buadugad cacha bágha, MR 258.23 . déd ban ┐ bel corcra / dán trén bágh an banntrochta, Prolegomena 45 § 25 . báigh 'na n-aighidh to fight them, Aithd. D. 33.16 . gabhaidh báigh gach aoinfhear undertakes battle (?), 38.23 . i nDruim Ríg . . ./ luid b.¤ for macc nDomnaill the fight went against, Arch. Hib. ii 55 § 13. is maith chosnaidh a Briain do báidh, Cog. 78.5 . Cf. Caithr. Thoirdh. 111.3 . Aithd. D. 39.6 . báidh d'eas nó d'aol do d'fhaoilinn / red chnes chaoilshlim competes (in whiteness) with (the foam of) the waterfall, L. Cl. A. B. 216.35 . iarna luathletradh . . . do bagaid (leg. -aib) bidbad, ZCP xxx 69.1368 ( LL 408az ).

lá bága day of battle; a day's fighting: sind ló baga sa, TBC-LL¹ 444. as usa limsa aisg d'fulang na gan cungnam le mo cairdib is in lo bágha sa aniu, MR 284.23 . naoimh . . . an bheatha / . . . / go dteagaid linn i lá bágha, DDána 25A. 31 . do thabairt a lai bágha lea bunadh ceineoil, MR 284.17 . thugais linn do lá bágha you fought on our side for a day, DDána 30.16 . Cf. fri huair ṁbáge the threatened hour (?), the day of conflict (?), SR 5115.

With various verbs: slúag romaith ind rígsa / lasa tá mo bágsa `along with whom is my fight', Fél. Ep. 162. lámh oirbheartach ré mbí ar mbágh, A. Ó Dálaigh xviii 4. bágim báig for Laignechaib, LL 6343. na fer báig a Fergus ar buaib sceó mnáib Ulad, LU 6623 (rhet.). na fer baig . . . dit díth claidib, 5429 (rhet.). ni math d'ferus baíg / darochar a Chú (Fer Diad speaks), TBC-LL¹ 3962. a Ḟlaind . . . / nocho lind beri do báig, LL 7531. in oen-ḟecht dobertis a mbaig, CRR 57. cet cia théis fri báig, Fél. 4.14 . fuair a dochar dol re mbaigh (leg. baigh), Anecd. ii 39 Poem 23 § 3 . doconnarc-sa F. ag slaidhe slúagh ar ar bris báigh, Fianaig. 80.22 . do-ní in fer ´s a síd so | báig im a rígaib rompa `boasts (or `contends´) about its kings´ Celtica xix 40 § 2 .

(c) warlike qualities (?), boldness: at mathi . . . Fir Breg . . . im blad im báig im cridechairi, LU 4267. bar mbaid ┐ [b]ar mbeodacht fen, TTebe 2710 . eter . . . gráin ┐ báig ┐ chostud, TBC-LL¹ 5172.

? nach b.¤ forsa torchair / mo menmae múad medrach `battle,' Fél. Ep. 361 (promise ?). nir ba h-aitherrach báigi na bisig, MR 314.23 . do bhrígh a báigh / le mnáibh síl gCuinn contending (in generosity) (?), L. Cl. A. B. 236. 143 . deochain bunaid baga, Gorm. Jan. 23 (`warlike'). Petrus co mbaig mbunaid, Acr. 27 (`blessing').

Freq. in chevilles: brígach b.¤ , LU 4135. oen-ri bethad bag cach noib, Rawl. 84b37 . bāig go mbloidh, ZCP viii 114 § 15. ní baid briathrach, BB 273b30 (= bágh, LL). Cf. MR 264.6 . báigh briathar, Aithd. D. 8.22 .

In n.pr. Cú Bage, LL 322f1 .

Compds. With noun: M. bagfer, Gorm. March 31. teichis . . a nertaib bághfear as hard as he could go, RC ix 470.x (ICM). With adj.: co lathe brātha bāgmōir, ZCP iii 18.20 .

baíde

Cite this: eDIL s.v. baíde or dil.ie/5170

Forms: boíde, búide

n , f. (baíd) also boíde, búide

(a) affection, tenderness, attachment: ar boídi a athar his father was so attached (to him), Trip.² 1612 (baíde, v.l.) cennsu . . . ┐ trōcaire ┐ bāidhe, Otia ii 96.21 . buide na trocaire `kindness', Aen. 837. dosrat cen baide fomnad / fo dóire, SR 5281. mo heich, mo charpait, mo bāide do Mane, ZCP viii 305.5 = baede, Rawl. 138a28 . a Medb co mbaide (: rodaíne), LL 7137. a rí na baíde (: naíme), Metr. Dinds. iv 208.97 (baidheg, buidi, baighe, baide, v.ll.). ar do bāidhi, a bāidhathair / . . . / nīmreilce isin searbcarcair, Ériu iii 30 § 17. báidhe mor ┐ caer condailbhi ┐ gradh a n-athardha, CCath. 618. a bunad na huli buide, PH 162. breith le baidhe . . . la hua Domhnaill `a partial sentence for O'D.', AFM v 1282, n.g (cf. báid). baidhe no baoidhe .i. báoidheamhleacht no faidigheacht, O'Cl.

In phr. ell mbáide (see ell, 3 etal): ell mbáidhe ┐ condailbhe, TBC-LL¹ p. 429 n.6 . co ndēnaind ella bāide imme, Moling 39 .

do-gní b.¤ (FRI, IMM, AR) is kind (to), deals gently (with): is ris dorigni C.C. in mbáide, LU 368. nech . . . doneth bōidiu nō trōcuirie immum, Cáin Ad. 9. déna bóide ar do bidbaid, Ériu vi 114 § 4 (: noīme).

As quasi-vn. ic bāidhe immut caressing, fondling , Otia ii 96.1 . occ buidhe frisin náeidhin, Anecd. ii 17.22 .

(b) piety: an bhúidhe (= piedad), Desid. 6689. tré bhúidhe (one of the seven gifts of the Holy Ghost) bhímíd crāibhtheach ┐ umhal do Dhia, Parrth. Anma 3305. buidhe ┐ eagla an Tighearna = piety, Donlevy 238.17 . go buidhe, 420.3 . Cf. baíthe.

bóaire

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bóaire or dil.ie/6204

n (bó + 3 aire) lit. cow-noble, stock-master, stock-owner: Bairche boare Rossa R., . . . habitabat frequenter cum pecoribus suis, Trip. 422.13 . a tigh Blaithmaic boaire, Acall. 7432. B. . . . boaire Cormaic, Dinds. 113.

In Laws lowest of the three ancient divisions of rank in Irish law, rí, aire febe, b.¤ `corresponding roughly to . . . `king, lord and commoner', Críth G. p. 98. See Mac Neill, Law of Status, PRIA xxxvi (1923) C 267 . The b.¤ belongs to the grád Ḟéne as opposed to the aire febe who belongs to the grád ḟlatha , Laws v 290.14 - 16 Comm. Here grád Ḟéne denotes plebeian as opposed to noble rank of the grád ḟlatha (cf. Críth Gabl. loc. cit.). In a later seven-fold division the b.¤ is second lowest in rank of seven grades of the grád túaithe or `laymen grades,' Críth G. 10 , p. 98 , 99 . The b.¤ was originally the sole grade of the `commoners,' or freeholders recognized by Law, p. 77 , 98 , 99 . The mruigḟer ` farmer ' must be regarded as the ordinary b.¤ , p. 78 . The fodlai bóaireach `divisions' of the b., 16 - 18 , consisting of eight grades, in reality seven acc. to Binchy, who comprise the grád Ḟéne are a later development, p. 99 . The name b.¤ is translated ` noble of kine ' by MacNeill, loc. cit.; the compiler of Críth Gabl. understands that his status comes from his property in cattle: is dia búaib direnar, 329 ; Binchy prefers Thurneysen's suggstion that the name comes from the `bés' or annual food-rent of a cow paid by the b.¤ for a fief of stock, Laws ii 260.10 , see Críth G. p. 77 and Laws v 392.1 . The b.¤ is described as a man of hereditary property, with land to the extent of (the grazing of) ten cows: bo aire .i. fer selba bunaid, cona inud . . . do tir .x. mba lais, Laws iv 350.17 Comm. ingen in bo-airech, v 286.2 .i. in airi ac-a mbitt ba deach, 290.1 Comm. techta fuillema gill bo cach bo-airech ┐ cach occ-aireach: .iii. bae i cet-dithim a mbo side . . . bo i muin cacha bo otha suidiu, v 402.31 . turcreic bo cona timtach tricha set, cenmotha seotu turcluide. Is e bes foloing boaire in sein, ii 260.10 . Of marriage contracts between children of the Féne grade (sc. the b.¤ ) and those of the Flaith grade (sc. the aire feibe), see v 290. 14-16 Comm. : is mo dlegar cethra do bo-airib oldas do airechuib ḟeibi, 286.6 . fo-suididter in ben lethda[i]m in fir . . .: Mad ben boairech, fo-suidithter ocairig; mad ben airech desa, fo-suidithear boairig, Stud. in E. Ir. Law 51 § 24. techta fuillema gill aicde airgit cach bo-airech for cuic dairtib direnar, Laws v 396.8 . fo-suidither (leg. fo-suidethar, ed.) boairi(g) an aile one `b.¤' entertains another, Stud. in E. Ir. Law 42 § 20. fosaigidh in boaire in mboairigh aile, Laws ii 380.16 Comm. fer fothlai . . . is é remibí bóairechaib insin, arindí fotlen a bóairechas di thaurchreic céile, Críth G. 249. na seagar im tellach mbo-aireach ach tri haidche bede cora la thuaith (glossed . . . bo-aire ar briugaid sin, 440.7 Comm. ), Laws v 438.23 . cateat fodlai bóaireach? Dá ḟer midboth(a) ┐ óccaire ┐ aithech arathreba a deich ┐ b.¤ febsa ┐ m(b)ruigḟer ┐ fer fothlai ┐ aire coisring, Críth G. 16 - 18 . fodla febe tra: . . . mbruigḟear ┐ boairi tanaisi ┐ ogairi tuisi (glossed . . . taisech na n-ogaireach in boaire is taire, 80.11 Comm. ), Laws v 78.25 . rāidem fēne fírfodlaib / . . . / midbothaig, trí ōcairig, trí bōairig būain, ZCP v 499 § 6. ro saig set clithair enech bo-airech co ruicce cumal n-uinge, no boin nu-da-criad, Laws v 392.1 . dar ferunn in boaire .i. teora foirge ┐ urchar flescaidh, iv 126.10 Comm. acht certorba mboairech (glossed: acht mad ferann in boairech . . . .i. tir .iiii.ri .uii. cumal ro bui oc an boairig is ferr and), Stud. in E. Ir. Law 155.3 . cele tesbaidh do cach gradh . . . bo do bo-eirigh, Laws i 58.7 Comm. b.¤ febsa . . . ar is di búaib atá a airechas ┐ a eneclann, Críth G. 152. ? b.¤ gensa (see genas): mrugḟer . . . is é b.¤ réire breithe, b.¤ gensa, co cach inchruth a thige inna áttaib córaib, Críth G. 172. b.¤ medónach used of a person who represents the túath or the kin in dealings with a person outside them, or who carries out a seizure of property legally due to the túath or the kin from a person outside. In these external dealings he has the rank of a bóaire though he may have the rank of aire túise in internal dealings: dobeir cenel a slan na n-aidbhean .i. in tan nach biadh tobach. Boaire medonach sin ┐ is edh gabus do laimh, dul tar ceann na tuaithe re cach nduine amach ┐ dul re laimh im cach ní dlighfit amuigh do tobach doibh, ZCP xviii 380. 18 - 21 . (nasgaire) duine teit a nasgairecht . . . etir a fine (sic leg.) budein tall ┐ dara cend amach. Ma gabait a fine é budein a trebaire re laim, a[s] greim airech taisi gabus re a lucht fira itira fine budein tall ┐ greim boairech is ferr gabus tara cend immach, i-lleth re anfine sin, Cóic Con. 32 § 29.

cáer

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cáer or dil.ie/7644
Last Revised: 2019

n ā, f. globular mass in a variety of applications. Cf. cúar.

(a) berry : caer gl. baccar, Sg. 126a1 . cc.¤ gl. bacca, 22b7 . Études Celt. xi 116 . it áildi limm a cháera (of the rowan-tree), TBFr. 215 . oc ithe ch.¤ in chraind. Cáera móra, LU 1358 . batír é a ṡercla . . . caera glassa, LL 13578 . cóera na fíne, Ériu ii 192 § 3 . uva .i. c.¤ fínemnach, Ir. Gl. 267 . cáora fíadháin = wild grapes, Isaiah v 2 . triopal cáor, tarpain `a cluster of grapes', Eg. Gl. 598 . caera pinne `gooseberries', Auraic. 5609 . dobiur lim cóer ndeirg do ibur, Ériu iv 134.4 . a eo . . . na gcaor ndearg, DDána 2.5 . caera eighinn na crand, RC ix 231.2 . baccae ederae . . . .i. caora eidinn, ACL iii 330 § 3 . mora celsis [Morus celsus] [.i.] caoru an midhoighi, 328 § 99 . butalmon ┐ oculus bouis .i. caera ferghona .i. maelan mulca, 335 § 69 . c.¤ con fruit of dogwood or wild cornel: tar éis iad do bheith dearg / is searbh blas na gcaor gcon, Dánfhocail 74 (c.¤ con dogberry bush, O'R. Poems ). níor fhás giodh achd cáora con, Bard. Synt. Tr. 30.37 . deirge na ccaor ccon, Mackinnon Cat. 223.33 . In phrase caer ar geimiun (of a vain effort, here applied to a warrior), MR 124.14 (see gemen). Fig. fá chaor a hóis phóigmhilis (of lips), Hackett² li 41 .

(b) drop (of various liquids): mionn sleidhe dá sileid caora, O'Hara 4183 . ni tanic cáor fhola a corp cechtair dib, Celt. Rev. iv 120.17 . Of foam: géis gairbheasa chaor mbán, Measgra D. 5.19 .

(c) mass of cast metal (non-ferrous); a red-hot mass of slag and metal, a forged ingot (usually iron) Ériu xxxii 153 : in tiarann ina caeraib, ┐ in tuma ina thinnib, Laws i 188.35 Comm. cáor íaraind cech gabann (in a list of dues), BColm. 50.10 . da cáeir d'iarann aithlegtha, BNnÉ 72 § 125 . caera ┐ tinnedha oir, Marco P. 105 . ni bendais uird do chǽir déirg (sic MS.) a mbendais a beoil do thenid, Thr. Ir. Gl. 36.31 . colltar iarainn do chur san teallach go ndearna caoir dhearg dhe, Keat. ii 4583 . tugus chaoir go bhfailigh n-óir `a ball with a golden ring' (some type of ornament), KMMisc. 364.6 . fuighleach caoire ar gceardchainne (of Christ), Dán Dé vi 37 . biaidh dearna an deilg mhaoil / na caoir deirg, A. Ó Dálaigh v 9 . an mhéd nár theilg grían dá gáoibh / na cáoir dheirg a-níar um nóin, IGT Decl. ex. 705 . caor do mhianach Ádhaimh í (of Mary), Dán Dé x 14 . 'na chaoir chruthghlain (of a brilliant student), Measgra D. 62.11 . an ghroidh / 's in chaor bhuada `the precious jewel', O'Gr. Cat. 435.28 . Fig. ēnchaor bhūadha an bhanntrachta (of Mary), ZCP xii 382.9 . a chaor bhuaidh (of a hero), O'Hara 2949 .

(d) nucleus, compact mass. Usually with defining gen. c.¤ cliss play-ball, missile ball : facheird chaer cliss ar chonair, Metr. Dinds. iii 94.19 = foceírd caer clis as a tabhaill, BB 365a36 ( Dinds. 26 ). c.¤ comraic, described as a ball of varied colours with convergent lines used as missile: tréde neimthigedar cerdai : fige ronn, caer comraic, plett for faebur, Triads 121 .i. raed cruinn go ccomhtharrachtain d'iomat dath ann, p. 39 . is e tra in cochall oifrind in choer cómraic i ḟilet .uííí. ndatha examlai brises ┐ sráines ilchatha for aslach ṅdiabail, LB 108b20 . tugad do Lugdaig don lāech / in chāer comraig nār lānmāeth, ZCP v 504 § 5 . See táthluib. fo indamail caoire comhraic, Aisl. Tond. 131 § 3 . caor chomruig an láoich ō Líatruim / bronntair mar cháeir cárthaind, IGT Decl. ex. 416 . ag síol Aodha na gcaor gcomhraic, Hackett xxvi 122 . Fig. in chaer comraic ro hecradh . . . o danuibh ecsamla (of Colum Cille), Lism. L. 737 . Of troops: acht na robat isin cháir chomraic i taat compact body, LU 4655 ( TBC-I¹ 193 ). na ccaoir comraic dā mbeitis, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. v (1919) 93 § 35 . at-chíu . . . caera creithir comraicthi, BDD² 1028 . See ZCP xxiii 311 . With other qualifiers: corb ēigin do Guaire āenc[h]āer mōr termaind do dēnam dā muintir, CCellaig² 57.883 . ina g-caeir shluaigh shéanta, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 364.1 . ro bhattar . . . ina ccaoír bhodhbha, AFM v 1428.6 . badar . . . 'na cipi catha ┐ na cair comdlutha, CCath. 2782 . tāngadar . . . ina gcaoir chomhloinn, Ériu viii 138.1 . dream nach ónna i gcaoir chathaigh, Content. xxix 15 . ro chuirset . . . techta co C. dia innsin dó an chaor chondailbe ┐ chomaonta dorōnsat Connachtaigh ina n-aghidh close alliance, ZCP xiv 246.10 . docúaidh báidhe mor ┐ caer condailbhi . . . dhoibh, CCath. 618 . a chaor connailbhe `his great love', Dán Dé xiv 11 . caor charad ar aontail iad, DDána 34.1 . an chaor charud nó an compán, O'Hara 3020 . 'gan chaoir shuadh, Studies 1925, 404 § 7 . caor Dhanar, Magauran 1599 . dona an chaor nach beódha buan, Hackett xlii 144 ( Keat. Poems 1332 ). Cf. cǽr .i. imad, RC xvi 67.6 . c.¤ .i. comthinól ┐ deismirecht air caeraigecht, H 3.18 650a15 .

(e) c.¤ thened, theintide meteor, thunderbolt : saignena . . . ┐ caera teintidhe, CCath. 4324 . gur loisc caér thenedh Dáthí, Cóir Anm. 146 (elsewhere descr. as saighnen t.). cloicthech T. . . . do dluighi do chair theinedh (sic leg.), AU ii 106.1 . ro-ergetar na caera tened ┐ na sóignena as in aeor, PH 7263 . ra ruamnaigsetar a rruisc ina cendaib dóib immar chaera tenda tentide, LL 12370 . caer thened hí sinn aidche (of a hound), 29344 . ionnamhail chaoire moire tenedh, AFM iii 10.3 . Of missiles: for diúbhraccadh a n-ubhaill mhealluaidhe ┐ a ttrom chaor tteinntidhe forra fireballs , AFM vi 1982.6 . acc diubraccadh an bhaile do chaeraibh tromaibh . . . teinntidhi a gonnadhaibh, 2028.6 . occ imthealgadh . . . a ccaor ttaidhlech tteintidhe, Hugh Roe² 64.20 (fo. 17b). in caer Muighe Raigne, Laws v 434.12 Comm. (prob. of fire-ball of Mog Ruith who pursued Cormac's druids to Mag Raigne ( Forbais Droma Damhghaire, RC xliii 108 ff. ), p. 435 n.). dealbhaid . . . caoire ris nach gabhdaois airm, Content. v 176 . na caera teinedh do theilgedh fútha, ní gabhadh arm . . . riú, CF² 1013 . Hence spark, flame etc. : co-cáeruib troma . . . teinntidhi, RC xxiv 377.20 . caora ┐ casracha (of fireworks), Fl. Earls 188.7 . caer .i. coindell, Ériu xiii 75 § 187 . caor .i. cainneal, Metr. Gl. 17 § 44 . Fig. amal chāir / ráith a orddan, Hail Brigit 12 . gur las fiann Uladh ga fían / . . . / caor ilreachta chorcra chóir (of 1641 rebellion), Hackett² xxxii 47 .

Compds. With nouns: aoil-lí do chaoirghrís . . . 'na gruaidh, Hackett² ii 8 . ar caorlasadh `flaming', ZCP iv 424.5 . tig caor-lasadh a's tóirneach ós árd, Hard. ii 252.15 . og fraisdiubhrugadh a ccaoirmheall . . . tteintidhe, Hugh Roe² 152.12 (fo. 39a) . caorshoignén . . . lúaidhe, 228.32 (fo. 58a) . fá ghrís . . . gcaorshoighnén gceth `boltfraught lightnings', O'Gr. Cat. 451.11 . i gcalm nó i gcaoirspéirling thunderstorm , Ó Bruad. iii 18.16 . With adjj.: dhá ghruadh . . . chaordhearga, Oss. iii 50.14 . As n. pr. RC xiv 26 § 2 . a a ghnúis chaoirghel `berry-red and white', O'Gr. Cat. 540.2 .

1 cía

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cía or dil.ie/8965
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: cía, ci, cá, gá, cá, gá, cár, cá, cía, citné, cia, ciodh, cisne, cipé, cipé

interr. and indef. pron. Given in list of interrogatives, Laws v 6.1 ff. Comm. ; for forms permitted and prohibited in classical verse see IGT Introd. § 16 . See GOI §§ 456 - 460 , Strachan, Ériu i 6 ff. , Bergin, Ériu xii 205 ff.

A As interrogative.

I General form cía (ce, ci) (`unstressed or weakly stressed,' GOI § 456 ) without indication of gender. In later lang. freq. cá, gá (cf. gia, TBC-LL¹ 56 , giá, 730 etc.). who? what ? (in direct and indirect interrogation).

(a) With dependent verb (as conj. part. or in accordance with Bergin's Law). As subject of vb.: cia beir búar o thig Temrach who takes? LL 1566 . cía rét Brega?, LU 9306 . ? cia saig do rús Herind. . .?, LL 1787 . cía taisiu?, LU 6307 . cia bátar do bésa?, Tec. Corm. 7 . ní fitir R. cía-rraba / crích `whose was', Metr. Dinds. iv 4.45 . immoscoemorcuir ceptar hé, Corm. Bodl. 34.21 . As object: ce róich `how far . . . extends', Sg. 26a11 . cia roich eneclann?, Laws iii 536.1 . cia-roig dire? Ir. Recht 13 § 14 . cia fairneac?, Ériu xi 44.3 . cia acca whom didst thou see? LU 7135 . bec a ḟis duid cia do ordo, Anecd. i 7.5 ( do(o)rdo, SCano 198 `what I croon', Gloss.). So also in cíar(r)icc (separate article). Rarely cid in this use. Nom. cid dernad?, LL 251a18 . Accus. cid dernais?, LL 251a39 .

With inf. pron. usually cich-: cichib foruireth? . . . fon-roireth imned what has been caused to you? TBFr. 399 = ZCP iv 45.28 . cichib-roerad? what has been prepared for you (i.e. how have you fared?), IT iii 237.62 = cichib roér ol Bodb. Nin foruireth nammaith olse, LL 246b24 . mnā brataiter . . . cichi brata? cichi aig? cichi goin? who abducts them? TBC-I¹ 1081 (cicen, cíche, ciche, LU). ? ciche bárogell a regg / sonend ┐ dubdonend, LL 376a4 . Exceptionally: ar feisidh ciab dergeine `who has made you', Blathm. 91 § 6 . fir gontair, mnā brattar, bai agthar . . . cistabrata, cisdagata, cisdabeir? TBC-I¹ 2989 . See ZCP xxii 29 .

With copula: innaní asbertis cipad a déne ind hesséirgi `that used to say what would be the swiftness of the resurrection', Wb. 25b27 . conid fessed cia bed flaith inna diad, Ml. 89b7 . For cía ba chan see can.

Hence in various adverbial meanings. (b) how ? cia Ulto ána acca?, LL 13439 . cumma cīa-thōetsat imbi, Sc.M² 3 (`how', Gloss.). cía festa `how should ye know?' Metr. Dinds. iii 48.12 . cia ḟacci ar sluág?, TBC-LL¹ 223 . is cuma dó c.¤ eipli, Liad. and Cuir. 20.17 `how he dies', Contribb. 363 . With deut. form: cía dorochair Cróeb Dathi?, Metr. Dinds. iii 148.1 . Note also: cīa tairicc? Tairic hi cind teora mblīadna when? ZCP viii 312.29 .

(c) where ? In later lang. cá, gá (nasalizing), with narrative tense cár. cá `lochdach', IGT Introd. § 16 . Orig. with téit: ni fetatar cia deochaid where he went, LU 3329 ( SCC 12 ). nocon ḟess cia deochatar, LL 290a27 . With deut. form of vb. cia dochuatar ass? where did they go? TFerbe 565 . In later lang.: cá ngabhaid?, Oss. iii 232.5 . Keat. Poems 1545 . cá bhfaighion tú an raidhirc so?, ZCP v 215.419 . cā ndearnais do c[h]ēadc[h]reach?, Feis Tighe Chonáin 145 . cár ghabh, 490 . cá ar fríth é?, ZCP v 215.418 . carbh ail les dul, Stair Erc. 981 . With attá: ga ffuil maithe na Féine?, Duan. F. ii 322 § 15 (see iii 151). ga bhfuil suim . . . na naitheantadh `what is the abridgment?' Donlevy 52.22 . ro fhiarfaigh I. ca rabe A., Stair Erc. 25 . do f[h]iafraigdur dī cā raibhe sí whence she was, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1666 . Note also cia racha, ITS xvii 188.1526 etc.

(d) With fíu glossing Lat. quam, how (great, etc.): cia fíu .i. mór ní gl. quam admirabile, Ml. 17b12 - 13 . gl. quam (sollicite), 23a10 . ce fiu gl. quam maxime, Sg. 114a3 . See Dict. Fasc. fíu and compare cia fiú me bheith beó etc. how can I remain alive? ITS xvii 159.963 .

(e) With follg. noun (often as antecedent of rel. clause). With masc.: ciachruth gl. quomodo, Sg. 212a1 (see 1 cruth). cia dune ind inni-sseo gl. qualem . . . hominem, Ml. 35c33 . cia mod .i. imba do gres . . . `what measure', Ml. 100d4 . Perh. also in the follg.: dús cia port indib maith óigedacht `in what place', Wb. 26b24 . cia salmscribdid conicfed són `what psalmist?', Ml. 14a6 . amal nad finnatar sidi cia loc sainriud dia regtais, 99b10 . cia randdatu bis indi, Sg. 27a12 . cía cethrar? Rí ┐ brithem etc., Críth G. 536 . cia file ar secht ccumhaluibh dlighidh what poet . . .? Ériu xiii 18.4 . cia fot atúsa isin chotlud sa how long? LU 6359 . gá fad?, TSh. 1618 . ca sén dob ferr?, Ériu iv 224.13 . ca ræt in muirn . . . ar-at-cluineam?, TTebe 1901 (see crét). ca hinad?, LB 137b51 . gá cara don uile as fhearr?, A. Ó Dálaigh xv 5 . DDána 50.12 . gá fhios nach . . . (ḟ = bf?), O'Gr. Cat. 456.10 . gá chúis fá . . ., 12 . cár bh'iongnadh?, Hard. i 204 .

(f) With fem.: cia airm `what place', Wb. 12d18 (see cairm, cáit). ceseirc gl. quam caritatem habeam, 14d15 (differently GOI 289 ). ce meit gl. quanto, 33a1 . ce mét aimmser bes indi `what times may be in it', Sg. 25b16 . ce méit a[s] sinu aís quam A. `how much older', Wb. 34a5 . See méit. cia dú gl. quo, Ml. 40c7 . cia inni soas `how He turns', 123d8 (see note). cá huair díscáeilter in doman nó cá tráth thiucfus Dia?, RC xxiv 382.32 . ca delb rogabais? Ériu iv 104.15 . cia ben is mesa do mnáib?, ZCP viii 113.11 . cá slat is slimghile bas?, O'Gr. Cat. 332.27 . ga hobar dhíbh nach doiligh?, Studies 1921, 588 § 1 . gá breath rug féin ar an bhfear? Dán Dé xxv 16 .

(g) With neut.: cia eret mbete oc m'ingraimmim-se `how long?' Ml. 33a9 . cia airet bis micomus etc., Laws ii 186.6 . cia hairet, PH 1501 . See airet, cairet. anfis ca cinel aire nos beir etc., Laws i 188.6 Comm. cia forcenn doberthar foraib, Ml. 33a9 . na fetar . . . ca galar . . ro-t-básaig, CRR 3 . cia indas conaittechtatar a n-íc, Ml. 90b16 . décaid . . . a arm cia indas rundgabsat, 55c1 (see indas, cindas). cia leath reghma?, Anecd. i 2.9 ( SCano 25 ). cia tír, ZCP viii 318.33 .

(h) cía with follg. prep. and noun or pron. rendering oblique cases of Lat. pronn. (see GOI 228 - 229 ): cia ar neoch gl. ad quid, Sg. 217a5 . Cf. cia erneo gl. quam ob rem, Ml. 101a4 . ci erniu gl. quamobrem, 47b1 . cairhe biit, Sg. 242b1 leg. ciairneo = quamobrem, n . ciarrét gl. quamobrem, Ml. 48c2 . cide gl. de quo (cia de? cid de?), Sg. 3a9 . cia du neuch gl. ad quem . . .? Ml. 16a9 . cia dunaib hi do foirmsed gl. de quibus adderet? 35a17 . cia du forcunn gl. quem ad finem, 33a9 . cia du rét gl. cui rei? 121d1 . cia isnaib hí gl. in quibus, 49c13 . cia in n-erbirt ṁbiuth gl. in quem ussum, 46b28 . cia i n-olcaib gl. in quibus malis, 23b2 . ci onaibhi, gl. quibus, 47a10 . cio ainmnid dixnigidir gl. ex quo sit nominatiuo? Sg. 207b3 . ciofut gl. usque quo, Ml. 20a17 . 93a15 . ci ho fothaib són gl. quibus (dementiae facibus accensi sunt), 16b19 . ci o retaib gl. quibus rebus, 35c35 . gl. ex quibus rebus, 44d24 . cio thomus gl. qua libra etc., 55d16 . So also probably in later lang.: cia chuige a ndírighmid ar nurnuigh, Donlevy 364.16 . ca as a tangadar, Stair Erc. 1412 . casa ticit siat, Ir. Astr. Tr. 146.1 . Hence perh. in later phr. gá d'ulc what is the harm of? (see olc, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.z ). gá d'ulc bogur an bhása?, IGT Decl. ex. 758 . gá d'ulc mé gan mothugadh?, ex. 224 . gá d'ulc óigrí eslobar?, O'Gr. Cat. 470.9 . Cf. 2 cair. See Éigse xii 136 .

(i) In phrase cíadono why (then)? (see GOI 289 See further Éigse xii 136 .): ar cia dono gl. ut quid autem, Wb. 2d10 . hóre ro-n-ortigestar dia cedono tuidecht friss `why then?' 6a4 . ce dono rigne occo `what, then, is the good of prolixity in it?' 8d15 . cepu dono adrad dǽ do thabirt do Pool?, 7d16 . ciapu dono dún indarpe geinte `why should we then expel the Gentiles?' 19a14 . ? ēludh ann for romhuir / nícon fess cia dona, ZCP x 344.13 .

(j) In various constructions with adjj. In early legal texts with superl.: cia measom do cain ts.? `what is the worst of . . . ?' Laws ii 194.1 . cia dilsiumh d'ḟiledhoibh, Ériu xiii 31.2 . cía háithemh eó? acais dlighidh, etc., 25.6 . Prob. also: cia so do rinnibh etc. 20.30 = ciaso do ninnaib, O'Dav. 1289 . In later lang. in phrase gá beag is it not enough? ga beag mur ḟáth duilghis, IGT Decl. ex. 1057 . cá beag d'fhiadhnaise? Studies 1920, 97 § 2 . gárbh fhearr céim, 98 § 6 . gá bheag dhúinn dá dhearbhadh ort is it not proof enough for you? Content. vi 25 . Freq. with compar. in rhetorical questions. Cf. ga meisde ┐ ga c[h]an ┐ ca d'ulc, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.z . gá cruaidhe ceisd what more difficult question (is there)? DDána 12.1 . ga deacra ní do neithibh?, IGT Decl. ex. 938 . car doilge [le] inghin Taidg / éc Aodha aird . . . / inā d'Echtaigh a bás bróin / Corbmaic hūi Cuinn . . . , ZCP vi 269 § 4 . ca ferr duind ar mbeandacht do chur . . . go fer in liubair sea na a fágbail aigi?, LU 2769 (colophon). gá fearr m'áis-se ná m'aindeoin how is it better to get my consent than to constrain me? Dán Dé i 5 . ga feirdi me do m[healladh]?, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.2 . cá bud fherrde, PH 7582 . gá misde don cholainn chriadh / an t-anam d'faghbháil ilphian what harm? Dán Dé xxv 41 . m'uabar gá mó mínáire?, O'Gr. Cat. 346.33 . do Mhuire gár mhó guasocht?, Dán Dé xx 47 . Note also: cá minic do chionntaidh sé `how often', Donlevy 320.28 . an lícc dimor uccat fil forsan tulaigh, cía mó atá i ttalamh dhi na uása how much more of it is in the earth than above it? BNnÉ 8.16 .

II Inflected (`more fully stressed', GOI § 456 ) cía, cisí cid, citné etc. In classical verse the forms cia and ciodh are stressed, see DDána 12.1 , 58.35 . `cía, can, cúich . . . were in direct interrogation used with the copula *esti (cf. mod. Ir. cé h-é) . . . ', O'Brien, Féil. Mhic Néill 88 .

With indep. form of verb (a) cía m.: cia beraid doib a remeperthe `who will refer to them the aforesaid?' Ml. 37a9 (perh. transition from I(a) above). Usually with rel. clause: cía rédes ruind?, BDD² 294 etc. cia dib gebus t'forba?, RC xxiv 194.1 . cía de as sru[i]thiu?, Críth G. 492 . cīa nād cūala?, ZCP xi 109 § 7 . Prob. also in follg., where there is no mark of rel.: cia con-icc ní dúun?, Wb. 4b11 . cia folínfea? 12d14 . cia dobera íc do Sión?, Ml. 34d5 . dús cia atrebea isin chathraig `to learn who will dwell in the city', 35b24 . cia de dogega `which of them I shall choose', Wb. 23b33 . dús cīa díb do-ngegad, Sc.M² 19 . caidi bad ferr la hUltu, a mmarb nō a mbeo . . . ?, TBC-I¹ 681 (cia dé, LU). do fiarfaidh A. de cia dá cloind do beith etc., ZCP xi 128.34 . quis est horum qui vicit . . . .i. cia ro blaiss bethaid?, LL 281a32 . cia aca is rogha leat?, Hard. i 274.y .

(b) cid n. (rel. frequently marked): cid aem no-dom-bera-sa cucuibsi, Wb. 1a8 . cid atobaich cen dílgud cech ancridi `what impels you . . . ?', 9c20 . nícon fitir cid asbeir, 12c22 . ro fitid cid aridfuirig a foilsigud, 26a11 . dús cid forchomnacuir indi `to learn what hath happened therein', Ml. 16c5 . cid du-gén-sa osme `what shall I do, even I?', 30b9 . ní fintar cid attrebthar and `what is possessed there', Sg. 200b13 . niconfetadar cid fodruair `they . . . knew not what had caused it', Mon. Tall. 147.13 . asbert nicon feddur cid fil do sirgabail na biaide I do not understand your continual singing of the Beati, 127.2 . cid dogén?, ZCP viii 113.9 . cid tuccais ō Guaire what hast Thou got from G.? ACL iii 2.10 . With subst. vb. in nasalising rel. clause what ails, what is the matter with? see attá. With copula: nad fes cid as maith no as olc [do] denum, Ml. 51b7 . dober Dia aithesc cid as denti no cid as imgabthi, 51b8 . cid as dech do mnáib? what is the best type of wife? ZCP viii 113.5 . Note the variation in: na cóig guthaidhe, cía dhíobh as glan no as neamhghlan, no ciodh as cáol no as leathan da bfeadhuibh oireaghdha, ┐ créd atá na ndefhoghrachuibh etc., IGT Introd. 1.10 .

With nouns in sense who is? what is?

(c) m. cía (also occasionally with other genders, and regularly with ainm, see Ériu i 9 ): cia haes esca?, SR 7964 . cía méit in gill?, Críth G. 282 . cía [a] míad sidi?, 586 . cia th'ainmsiu?, LU 10774 . cía hainm? what's your name? BDD² 264 . cía hainm dá mnaí?, 365 . cia n-anmand what are their names? TFerbe 357 . cīa cétliaigh robūi ind-Ēirinn?, ZCP viii 105.12 . cía bar lín-se is[in] indsi-se?, Ériu iv. 142.21 . nī hētur cia hainm in maic aile, ZCP viii 293.24 . cia don teora crannsa an chroch, Dán Dé iii 27 . cia an monghar mór-sa?, DDána 85.6 . cia an duine bhias beó = quis est homo? TSh. 3125 .

Forms in -so, -su etc. (cf. indic. pres. 3 s. of 2 cía. See Celtica vii 38-42 ): ciaso baili ata in crann?, SR 7931 . ciaso buaid duinne?, Bodl. Dinds. 27 . cia so gním what deed? TBC-LL¹ 958 . cíasu anmann bai for suidiu?, IT ii2 195.153 . nī fetar-sa ciasu adba etc., Fing. R. 969 . ciasa bas . . . do bean . . . in bas-crann?, Ériu iv 116 § 26 (`whose hand?'). ciasa fogealtad son? .i. miach cacha mis, Laws iv 106. 15 Comm. ím comirc doib ciasa hairm ín ro scuirsid, 106.22 Comm. ciasa run, Auraic. 5210 (císi, v.l.). ciarsat comainm celisiu what's your master's name? LL 9041 (TBC). carsat comainm?, Acall. 390 . ciarso choma no bértha dó?, LL 8937 (TBC). garsa gním sain?, 9990 (TBC).

(d) cía with pron. who is? cia tussu díxnigedar who art thou? Wb. 4c24 . cia hé nu-n-dixnaigther-siu gl. qui sis, Ml. 75c9 . ciahé gl. qui (sit), 14d14 . cia hé `who is it?' 46c17 . ce hé roscríb `who it is that has written', Sg. 197a19 . cinní sin frisnaiccai siu `whom dost thou expect?', Thes. ii 227.30 (from intí-sin, GOI § 460 ). cia so who is this? Anecd. i 8. 23 ( SCano 257 ). cía so?, Sc.M² R 10 . cīa and-so?, 11 (for inso?). cia tusu?, RC xxiv 200.9 . fochtuis Feilis scela de, ce he budein, ZCP vi 25. 18 . cīa pad cīa . . . acht . . . Condere . . . who should it be but C.? Ériu i 114 § 3 . beag a fhios agad . . . / cia misi d'fhearaibh Eireann, Studies 1924, 243 § 17 . With -so, -su: cía so thú?, LU 10768 = ciasu tu, Ériu xii 170.3 . cársa cúich thú?, Mer. Uil.² 90 . cársa cía[s]ib-si etir?, 250 .

(e) cía with follg. prep. as antecedent of rel. clause (cf. I (h) above): cia dia fiachaigedar gl. ad quem debeat, Ml. 44b3 . cia forsa tiagat? `on whom do they fall? Laws ii 178.3 . nicon-fes cīa ō-tucad, Sc.M² 3 . cia ar nach tug a thrócuire? Dán Dé xxv 46 . cor dib Painiel dian / Gabriel cia ar nach cor?, KMMisc. 254.14 . d'iomad rogha ag Día dá dhiomda / fola cía dá ttiobhra ar tós, IGT Decl. ex. 109 .

(f) cisí, ces(s)í with f. noun: cisí chomairle ǽm `what indeed is the counsel?' Ml. 34c18 . cissi slabrai in díscer sa? LU 5162 (TBC). cissi gáir seo?, 4475 . císí (sic) suillse mór sucut?, BDD² 591 . áil dūn a ḟis . . . cisī rāth so, Ériu viii 157.6 . Freq. with follg. rel. clause: cessi aimser hi rogbath `at what time it was sung', Ml. 24d10 . cisi aimsir hi for-comnactar in gnimai, 97a5 . cisí digal didenach dumberaesiu a Dǽ, 100d5 . co n-eperthae cia aiccent ┐ cisi aimser derb thechtas, Sg. 26a6 . cisi rann dogéntar di, 27a13 . cesí aram gl. ad quod genus uel numerum refertur, 197b3 . cisi chiall bís indib `what is the meaning that is in them', 217a2 . cisi muime bat tualoing what fostermother could have? Blathm. 100 § 32 . cisi mathair con bert / an geinsi? ib. (MS. cisi in, text). cisi gnuis . . . forta napsalmo?, Hib. Min. 3.76 . cise noail noclanna `by what oath shall it be settled?' Laws iv 142.3 . cisi airm hi tá L.? LU 3620 (SC. 31). rāidh frim cisé (ciséd, v.l.) dāil di ṡund dogénum, ACL iii 294 § 13 . cisi breth rucais?, Rawl. 113a2 . cissí dichuimni rod dall?, LL 21767 . fég darisse . . . cisi chonar dotháet `look again, what road is he coming', RC iii 183.33 . inderb . . . cisi uair no cisi aimsir regthair, Ériu v 120.3 . cisí hairle do beradh, Hugh Roe² 292.14 . With ellipse of rel. clause: tair limsa . . . co ndérais. Cisí dígal?, MU² 1034 . Also somet. with other genders: ciasi animnairme (ainm n-áirme) fil . . ., Hib. Min. 2.41 . ciasi ord fil forna psalmu, 6.196 . ra iarfaig . . . cissi log conattaig, LL 30975 ( TTr. 156 ). occa scrúdadh . . . cisi cruth no aithfedh, Hugh Roe² 96.15 . Note also: atbertsat cipsi magen i ferfaithe in cath, Dinds. 188 ( RC xvi 274 ).

(g) cid with n. noun. In sense what is? cid aes ṅ-esci? BCr. 32a9 . cidh dire Mac-ḟuirmidh?, Ériu xiii 25.27 . cid an ní seo?, BDD² 242 . cid damhna bar ndocesaid?, ACL iii 310 viii 3 . ciodh achd ar ghrádh no ar ghrádsa / clár págsa d'fhior ón Aodhsa?, IGT Decl. ex. 137 .

With follg. rel. clause: imrádat imráti cid maith as déntí `as to what good is to be done', Wb. 1d7 . cid ḟolad ṡluindes, Sg. 25b17 (see note). ce torad gl. quem . . . fructum habuistis? Wb. 3b29 . cid chenél gl. quod genus . . . refertar, Sg. 197b3 . Perh. also: cidechor (= cid dechor) gl. quae sit differentia, 23a2 . In difft. constr. (cf. II (c) above): ced torbe doib etarscarad . . . fria tola what does it profit them? Wb. 13c6 . ce torbe dúib-si . . . in fogur-sin, Ml. 12d5 . ced slīab inso thall?, TBC-I¹ 614 .

(h) cid with pronoun: ced ed tra `what is it then?' Wb. 3b28 . cid so?, Mon. Tall. 130.15 ; YBL 118a23 ; ZCP xiii 179.3 . cid sin?, BDD² 448 . cid ón `what is that?' RC iii 184.25 . ceadh sibh acht na seacht dtroighthe what do you amount to? DDána 53.21 .

(i) cid with DO. With follg. neg.: cid dait-siu . . . nád bod latt curadmir, etc. why shouldn't you have? LU 8139 ( FB 10 ). cid daib . . . nach mair[b]fed sib?, TTebe 1865 . cidh damhsa cen dul d'iarraidh a maithme why should I not go, etc.? RC xxvii 294 § 38 . Note also: cidh duibsi what think ye of it? (?), RC xxvi 366.13 . cidh dhúinn déanamh a bhfeasa `why need I tell of them?' Content. iv 27 .

(j) cid with DI: cid de ón what does that matter? LU 6361 . cid de-side why so? TBC-LL¹ 5580 .

(l) cid with prep. and rel. clause: cid asa fordailtea grád túa[i]the on what basis have the lay grades been laid down? Críth G. 6 . Sliab B. cid diata whence is it named? RC xv 301.5 . cídh día ndearnadh Adhamh, 23 E 26, 5.18 .

(m) In similar construction in meaning why? With AR: cid arind epur frit why do I say it to thee? Wb. 5a31 . cid ara ndluthid caratrad friu iterum?, 27a30 . cid ara todlaigther inso, Ml. 32a5 . cid ara fodaim int ais firian inna fochaidi? 55d11 . cid armad machdad etc.? Sg. 167a4 . cid arṅdid huathuislib ildaib disruthaigedar?, 198b3 . cid ar bad?, Thes. ii 227. 34 . cid ara n-eperr Críth Gablach?, Críth G. 1 . cidh ar a fhuil Cuncha ar in inadhso?, ZCP xi 40.35 . With DI: cid dia leícid cundubairt for drecht uáib?, Wb. 13b12 . cid dia n-éirena(i)tar?, Críth G. 121 . rofiarfaig . . . desim cid dia mboi fora iarrair, Grail 1522 . With IMM (later FÁ): finnaid . . . cid imma ndernad in t-id, LL 8053 (TBC). cidh ma tancais alé `why hast thou come . . . ?' Ériu iii 158 § 11 . cid 'ma n-iarthai?, TTebe 1700 . cid . . . 'mara loirgis, TFrag. 118.15 . ciodh far dhoilghe trí thairnge?, DDána 40.10 . innis dúinn ciodh fa ttánghuis, Duan. F. i 78.16 . ciodh fa ttiobhradh, IGT Decl. ex. 1311 .

(n) cid as adverb, why ? cid no mbetha . . . on what account shouldst thou be . . . ? Wb. 4c24 . cid na déccaid?, Fél. Prol. 201 . ced nach maith?, Trip.² 1968 . cid nabsin Fedelm-sa . . . cichsed, LU 8296 ( FB 22 ). Tond Chlidna cid aréracht?, Metr. Dinds. iii 214.54 . cid éige, a bean?, Celtica iv 16.154 . cidh tāi a[g] gul?, ZCP viii 559.5 . cid . . . na caithi do chuidich? Ériu v 36.19 . do chách ciodh nach aithréasda?, DDána 58.35 . cidh na ro chomaillis an gealladh doradais?, BNnÉ 295 § 22 . Cf. cid ane . . . meic na mbachlach . . . do chomram cucum what business have the sons of rustics to be contending with me? Sc.M² 12 .

(o) where ? whither ? With téit: co n-at[h]comaircter nde cid ted, RC xiii 222.5 . cid nothēigid ?, ZCP xiii 176.8 . co fesamar úait . . . cid thége whither thou goest, Ériu iv 140.5 . ní fedar festa cidh rachad, Anecd. i 77.9 . cid lotar ?, LL 12826 . cid ghébmoe ?, BDD² 245 . Exceptionally with attá: d'iar[r]aidh fhessa . . . cuith a roiphi in ingen where, TTebe 33 (leg. cáit ?).

(p) In phr. cid tra acht, see trá.

Plural forms.

(q) citné, citni (prob. from cia ata n-é ` who, what (is it) that they are?', Thurn., ZCP xx 372 , GOI § 456 ). assindet sunt tra citné cumacte diandid cóir infognam what are the powers, Wb. 6a9 . citne gl. (sí . . . quaeritur) quae (gentes), Ml. 16b13 . cit né briathra robatar `what were the words?', 61b7 . cit né robatar `what were they?', 8 . asindet ón ciné (leg. citné? edd.) fochainn . . ., 101a3 . citni rig reachta . . . / robatar 'sind amsir sin?, SR 2347 . citni trenfir dotiarmórsetsu?, LU 10261 . cit n-é uisce . . . do-ríadhad?, BDD² 456 . ni fetar citne briga / mo dul i teach cor-riga I do not know what good there is in my going into the house to kings, Ériu v 30.2 . citni cenela na fuillet, Rawl. 69a29 . indis . . . dam . . . / citne clerig notrefet, / citne oic notndeirget, Three Hom. 110.16 , 17 . citne tire in geinseadar?, Leb. Gab.(i) 234.20 = Keat. ii 741 . Without follg. noun: citné foruar what are they which He has prepared? Wb. 8b5 . citne and dī rott eblatar?, LU 10284 . citn-éisidi?, BDD² 555 . ? citne in ferand?, LL 15993 = Todd Nenn. 222.3 (ceisi urrand, v.l. 223 n.).

(r) cisne (described as an `iarmberla', Auraic. 1308 ): cis n-é amuis ata chórai?, Críth G. 578 . cisne lesa . . . tascnat . . . ?, Laws i 230.21 . cisne tri leaca robaid?, v 450.1 . cisne sgéith sguirde caithche?, Ériu xiii 17.15 . cisne trí gealla nád fuilled . . .?, 33.28 . cisne tri horba doranaiter la Féne? O'Curry 2167 ( Eg. 88, 5(6)a ). cisne a trí a nemtiger cléirech, O'D. 2209 (Nero A vii, 144b). cís ní doghair oes eiscí? IT iii 262.12 . cia on cotagair æsa escai?, 61.18 = cis non dogar eassa uiscci?, Leb. Gab.(i) 264.13 . Exceptionally with pl. ending: cisneíd side ? . . . baes ┐ aneolus ┐ eitges, ZCP xii 363.2 .

(s) cis (see ZCP xx 372 , Ériu xiv 140 ): cis tána? ZCP xx 372.19 . cis n-dithle `welches sind Entwendungen?', 17 . cis duirn díolmhuine dlighther?, Ériu xiii 23.5 = O'Dav. 584 . cis dúar dían drongaighther . . . ?, Ériu xiii 26.2 = cis [i] duar etc., O'Dav. 883 . cis daghmaine domain dingnaith? O'Curry 2460 ( Eg. 88, 37(38)c ). cis rechta na gaibter a fiadhnaisi? 2600 ( Eg. 88, 51 (52)b ).

(t) Phr. cis lir how many (are) ? See Bergin, Ériu xiv 140 ff. cislir .i. cia lear no lin na sochaidi, Laws v 4.x Comm. cis lir tairgsin cach fine `how many are the . . . ?', 463.13 . gabála báise cis lir `the ways of folly, what is their number?' Tec. Corm. 14 (24.2) (gabail, v.l.). With follg. noun and rel. clause: cis-lir fir for a nasgar how many men are there who are bound? Ériu xiii 31. 21 . cis lir lanamna docuisin la feine? Laws ii 344.1 . cislir fodhla fil forsan mbron?, Anecd. v 24.16 . With follg. rel. verb: cis lir ata chóra[i] do ríg do giull how many (things) are legal . . . ? Críth G. 505 . cis lir congellait? Laws i 230.3 . cair cis lir dos-liad . . . ?, Ériu xiii 30.33 . Rarely with pl. -t: cesc citlir topuir, O'Curry 505 ( H 3.18, 257 ). See 2 lir.

(u) c(i)ata: ciata glinni con-daigi?, MU² 65 . cata cuir con-daigi-siu?, 72 . ciata builg itir ón?, RC xiii 66 § 67 . ni fedadar ceta inada . . . no indsechtais, CCath. 776 . Note also: cialín nasluag . . . / . . . ceti arbair, SR 7907 .

B As indef. in a variety of phrases.

(a) cía with noun: cia port i mbai a mathair wherever her mother was, Vita Br. 4 . cía baili i ffod as iatt sin / oidheadha na n-ócc eistidh `whatever place they may sleep' (reading i ffaoíit with note), Leb. Gab.(i) 188.3 .

(b) cía with vb. (conj. and prot.): cia tīasam wherever we go, Thes. ii 299.30 (Hy. i). cia bronntar indi, Críth G. 234 . cia taccra(i) whoever may claim (them), 425 (see 398 n.). cía denar cia therar whatever I do, whatever I say, Ériu i 227.5 . nocha n-érlai asin chathraigh acht cía térnai do rind gai, TTr.² 158 . a n-athair rempu cia thé `where'er he went', Ériu iv 100.2 . In chev. with adverbial force: cia bé however it be, LL 382 , 15039 . cia bia, Rawl. 137a38 . cia de do teacomnacair whichever it happened to be, Blathm. 98 § 25 (see notes). Cf. ciade gl. uter, Sg. 242a1 . ? is derb ní báes cia 't bera, Metr. Dinds. i 36.95 .

(c) cía with indic. of attá: cia bai dia chalmacht . . . bái dia nertmaire however brave he was, TBC-LL¹ 773 . niconibdis bandai cormmai . . . cia bith ara tecmainged dóib `they used not to drink a drop of beer whomsoever they might happen to meet', Mon. Tall. 129.19 . ( Ériu xii 209 ). cipia frisa ferthar tnú whoever shall be an object of envy, Ériu v 211.69 ( Ériu xii 209 ). cía búi de `whatever came of it' (cheville), Metr. Dinds. iii 396.23 . cía baoi dhe .i. gibé dobhi dhe, O'Cl.

(d) cip, cib with noun: cib cenél tra diaro scribad ind epistil to whatever people, Wb. 3b20 . cip port i ndēntar, Cáin Ad. 36 . Usually with cruth however it be, at all events: cipcruth bíid páx libsi etc., Wb. 5d33 . cipcruth tra, 12d24 . ni confetor cib cruth ind aingel fa dia, Blathm. 100 § 31 . See cipindus.

(e) cecip with noun (see Contribb. s.v. cech ): cecip maighean i raegbadh wherever, AFM i 30.3 . cecib tan tiostaois, v 1552.4 . tre bithin gona, no fiabhrasa cecib diobh whichever it was, vi 2024.5 . cecib nech tairisnighes iniort an coimdheadh, 2126.1 . cecip cruth foghabhtais, Hugh Roe² 86.2 . In follg. the use is strictly speaking interrogative: ní feas cecip tucht i tudchaidh, AFM iii 286.3 .

(f) cipsi with noun: cipsi aitt i loich dosfail, Rawl. 127a44 . cepsi cruth, BB 22b13 ( for cip c.¤ , Ériu xii 208 n. ). cipsi cruth `no matter how', Hugh Roe² 290.22 . cipsi mbith dáil for congra, Hard. ii 292.y . airlim n-eicne cipsí whatever it may be, Laws iv 92.z .

(g) cissí: ro geall Sir Persaual di sin cidhsi cor ara fetfad, Grail 1979 . case chruth i mbet, TBC-LL² 348 .

(h) cía bé, cipé, cid bé etc. with noun ( Ériu xii 208 ): cia bé a mmet `however great it may be', Ml. 61b28 . cipé leth tiasam, Thes. ii 299.42 . gidhbe an smólach ní chodhlann `even the thrush does not sleep', Duan. F. i 84.30 . cipe cruth, LU 3870 ( SCC 38 ). cipé rí bes hi Caisiul, ZCP viii 315.27 . ce-b e nech and do-neth . . . , PH 478 . cipé tan bud ríg tusa for Érinn 'whenever', FDG² 11.327​ . cipé a léire baistither in duine however devoutly, Ériu i 218 § 3 . gidh bé neimhdhéine do neinn, Dán Dé xiii 8 . cidh bé dhíobh staid, TSh. 3986 .

(i) cía bé, cipé etc. with verb: ciphéade (sic leg.) asberam `whichever', Ml. 25d11 ( Ériu xii 209 ). cipé da mbad áil etc., MU² 560 . céb é uabsi comallas frimsa hé, LU 9013 ( FB 76 ). atú ar bhaois gidh bé nach fuil, Dán Dé ix 8 . gidh bé ara geall, 16 . cibé labhras, TSh. 1781 . acht gidh bé éistios riomsa, Proverbs i 33 . gidh be ar bith bheanas ría `whosoever', vi 29 . Note also: mairbt[h]eim coich bē a dīe, Corm. Y 419 .

(j) cipé as adv. at all events , etc.: cipé gl. ubilibet, BCr. 31c2 . do gessaib ríg T. . . . / . . . cocad ruind co bráth ce bé `howsoever it be', CRR 54 . fiū cōicait cumal cipē, Fianaig. 50 § 27 . is maith liom a theacht gidhbé, Oss. vi 166.12 . ciphe de, BB 398b6 .

(k) cíabed, bad, beith etc.: ciabed ammet inna fochaide however great, Ml. 39a13 . cia beith a lin na noged however numerous the guests, Vita Br. 7 . ce bad hé frisa ndénte to whomsoever ye should do it (so Ériu xii 210 ), Wb. 9c24 . ciabadh hé richt a mbeith `in whatever shape she might be', Ériu xii 154 § 18 (TE). cebedh si maigen . . . a mbeith `in whatsoever part of Ireland she might be', ibid. cé beth da lánáille, ZCP viii 208.29 (but see Ériu xii 206 ). ge do beith do méit a tindenuis, Mer. Uil.² 146 . ciabadh e, Blathm. 96 § 20 , restored as ciabad de `whichever it be'. cia beith no co bia-so fó mebail whatever happens, LMU 10 .

(l) ciped (see Ériu xii 208 ): ciped techtas nech `whatever it is that anyone has', Wb. 12d41 ( Ériu xii 210 ). gip ed no raditís, TBC-LL¹ 152 . cipead dommaire `whate'er befall me', Ériu ii 90 § 16 . gibedh o ttíosadh whencesoever they shall come, TFrag. 190.16 . ciped mac díb no gabad gasced, TBC-LL¹ 1089 . giped chuin at some time or other, 3338 . ciped laa . . . forsa m-be notlaic mór (cidped, cipe, gebe, cip, MSS.), Ériu ii 208 § 28 . cip ed de at all events, CRR 4 .

(m) cid: cidh urrunnus nodleisead in t-athair `whatever proportion . . . the father is entitled to', Laws iv 60.24 Comm. cidh dergoine daon, O'Dav. 585 = cib dergona daon, O'D. 2199 ( Ériu xii 206 ). cid dusgní whatever he do, BColm. 100.9 . Cf. cidh ead dogneth hEchtair do calma imon Troi whatever brave action . . . , BB 433b24 .

(n) cid cía: cid cía bes inti whoever be in it, BColm. 52.21 . seanfhocal súd solus a chiall / ciodh cia do chum, Ériu xvi 132 § 2 . cidh cia ro chodail and 'san aidhchi sin nochur' chodail Didho, Aen. 873 . cidh cía donī, ZCP x 51.7 . na cionnta gidh cia 'gá mbeid whosoever shall have (i.e. commit) sins, Dán Dé v 13 . ? gidh cia frí senadh atúaidh, Duan. F. ii 166 § 44 . Note further: cia bad cia dia theilcfead (sic) sop, Ériu v 34.8 . cid bé cia thú `whoever thou art', TTebe 4720 . ciped chia díb nomarbtha artús, RC iii 183.8 . gidh créd do íar Aitheirne, IGT Decl. ex. 1377 .

See 2 cía and 3 cía, 1 cóich.

cléirech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cléirech or dil.ie/9416

Forms: -eadh, cléirceadh, cléirchiu, clercho, cliarcho, cleirchiu, clerco, cliarcho, cliarcha, cliarcho, clercho, cleircho, cléirche, cléirce

n o, m. (Lat. clericus). Early Mod. Ir. g pl. -eadh, IGT Decl. § 23 . cléirceadh, Ériu v 90.29 . Distinctive v a pl. cléirchiu, also clercho, cliarcho etc. cleirchiu, Snedg. u. Mac R § 51 . clerco, RC ix 22 § 22 . cliarcho, § 21 (cf. also cliarcha, SG 78.16 ). cliarcho, Snedg. u. Mac R § 16 . clercho, § 30 . RC ix 24 § 27 . cleircho, 22 § 22 . Mod. Ir. n pl. also: cléirche, Ir. Syll. Poetry 70 § 1 . cléirce, Rial. S.F. 1397 .

(a) cleric, one in orders (not necessarily an ordained priest): clēirech a clericus i.e. electus , Corm. Y 352 . cleireach gl. clericus, Ir. Gl. 422 . triar c.¤ . . . oc baithis na hi Brigti, Vita Br. 2 . alali clerech sruith, 11 , cf. sruith clérich, LU 1215 . cléirig do dénum it(i)gi a thige, Críth G. 572 . do munntir Coluim / Cille cléirigh, Snedg. u. Mac R § 56 . Cormacc ba cain clérech / haue Liathain, Fél. June 21 . clérich Hérenn, Thes. ii 320.3 ( Hy. ii 61 ). Suarlech co cleirchibh Midhe, AU an. 851 . cisne a trí a nemtiger c.¤? talum-cumscuthad tria firta ar fiadad, marbad na mbeo ┐ beougha na marb, O'D. 2209 (Nero A vii, 144b). dun tsailmcedlaid . . . d' adhantaigh ┐ do cleirech gu coraind a tonsured clerk, Laws v 24.5 Comm. cleirig ┐ mna ┐ mec, i 242.10 (exempt from the liabilities of sellchecht). ro fergaidhedh in clerech, 6.8 Comm. (of Patrick). i comthinoltaib láech ┐ clérech, LU 2253 ( FA 31 ). do cleirchib ┐ caillechaib, Ériu xix 60 § 8 . dechor eter cleirchiu ┐ laichu, § 7 . M. . . . comarba Patraic, cenn cleirech iartair tuaisceirt Eorpa uile, AU an. 1020 . i fiadhnu[i]si cleirech nErenn, idon, in Leghait ┐ U[i] Osein . . . ┐ na n-epscop archena, an. 1157 . mairg thochrus fri cléirchib cell, SG 78.14 . sóifid fiannas i cella ┐ i cleirchiu, RC xxvi 40 § 213 . in rabhattar caraitt cleirech occut `clerical friends', 362.13 . clērech graece cleros, sors, quia de sorte dictum est , O'Mulc. 216 . écosc cléirigh forsin dara fer ┐ écoscc láich for araile, SG 78.30 . cuigir no seisir do chleirchibh ┐ do shagartaibh do mharbhadh, AU iii 600.3 . gabhait clérich na cille occ ettarghuidhe an Choimdedh, Hugh Roe² 40.27 . clérech ná tuata `person Ecclesiastical', RSClára f. 52a . adeirmisne, na bráithre cléirigh, an o[i]ffige do réir na cléire oile (officium dicebamus nos clerici secundum alios clericos), Rial. S.F. 1648 . sacramaint ina ttabhairthear cumhachda ┐ grása do shagartaibh ┐ do chléircibh, Parrth. Anma 3091 .

(b) clerk; scholar, man of letters : laoch clerech `a lay cleric(?)' (distinguished in text from fer graidh), Ériu viii 121.5 . cethrar cleirech fo an inadh a caithinn an t-imperi a cuid ac scribenn cach oenḟocuil da n-abar sé, Maund. 193 . a maigistreacha moreladhnacha ┐ a cleirigh canonda, Stair Erc. 1782 . na héigsi is dot fháidhibhsi, / na cléirche, na cliarsgola, Ir. Syll. Poetry 70 § 1 . clerech uisce Arda Macha, BCC 358.26 (§ 337) . do ba cléirech do ba [ceard] `a sage', A. Ó Dálaigh lv 21 . do chiúnaidh cleireach [na comhairle] . . . an pobal `the town-clerk', Acts xix 35 .

(c) sacristan, acolyte : dá ndeachaidh an cléireach . . . i n-am an Aifrinn do rádh, dlighidh an sagart an chuid eile de'n Aifrionn do fhriothólamh dhó féin dá raibh an cléireach gan filleadh chuige, Eochairsg. 125.22 . go cclérech ndeghchluach ndesgrédech `Clarke', RSClára f. 88b . coisrig thū féin mar aon ris an tshagart ┐ freagair dhō leis an ccléireach (at Mass), Parrth. Anma 4419 . bhí an cléirioch sásta, / an sagart ró-bhaodhach, ZCP v 217 ( Midnight court 505 ). ní maith sagart gan cléireach, cited Mid. Court glossary s.v.

(d) As epithet or sobriquet: Corcran cleirech, cenn Eorpa im crabud ┐ im ecna, AU an. 1040 . Tadhg mac in cleirigh .H. Concobair, an. 1056 . da mac Maelcobha Clerich, MacCarthy 402.1 . Clereach (? leg. in c.¤) Ua Sealbhaigh, ard comharba Bairre, AFM ii 922.12 .

cloc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cloc or dil.ie/9540
Last Revised: 2013

n o, m. (Late Lat. cloc(c)a, otherwise GOI p. 87 )

(a) bell : clocc ┐ menstir ┐ bachall, Thes. ii 241.16 (Ardm.). na gobaind ócc dénum na clocc, Trip.² 2959 . es .i. ēcc; unde eslēne ┐ clog estechtae knell, Corm. Y 573 . an clog mairb, ZCP viii 559.17 . ceall o teit c.¤ ┐ salm, Laws v 118.5 . issi in faithchi techta la Feine ni ro saig guth cluicc no gairm cailig cercc, iv 194.2 . do tiscail a chluic aire, 364.7 (a form of outraging a bishop). aistreoir . . . ic buain cluig ┐ ic oslugud tempaill, v 22.7 Comm. clog cloigtige (opp. to lam-clog), 22.8 Comm. im ch.¤ focain cethra .i. focanus im braigit na cethra, i 126.3 ; 142.13 Comm. ma[d] cú foilm[n]ech bid urfogra cluic nó clothra fo a bragait, O'Dav. 471 . co clug taitnemach, IT i 39.22 . or[oit] do Domnall U Lachlaind lasi ndernad in c.¤ sa . . . ┐ do(d) Chathalan . . . do maer in chluic (inscription on a bell-shrine), Christian Inscriptions ii 109 . nocha tēigim fo guth cluic (said by one lying ill), ZCP vi 263 § 10 . ro escain in clerech Conall co mbenta ix.iii. ceolán fair atberait aroile is duine fogeib clúgu Conall, conid de sin rolil C. clogach, LB 238[d]a10 . duirtech . . . áit a cclunidis clucca, BNnÉ 317 § 6 . c.¤ tinōil `the chapter-bell', MacCongl. 31.22 . clocc proinne the dinner bell, BNnÉ 301 § 7 . caillech fri clog `a nun as bell-ringer', MacCongl. 73.14 (in a list of useless things). a rún thuigeas teangtha clog `that understands what church-bells say', Aithd. D. 97.29 . glór an tsionnaigh ris an gclog (proverbial saying?), Content. xxvii 4 . benad clog oibre `they may ring unto worke', RSClára f. 116b . comhluath is chluinid comhartha an chluig, f. 99b . ciombal .i. clog, Eg. Gl. 154 . By synecdoche of the church: ná bí ar tí chagaidh ar chlag `be not inclined to war against the church', Studies 1924, 244 § 27 .

For powers attributed to saints' bells see V. SS. Hib. clxxvi f. and: gach teidhm . . . thiocfus in bhar ttír, díneach mo cluicc . . . da díochur eiste, Misc. Hag. Hib. 44 § 65 . a bhroicseach borb, na druid aníos, / anal mo chluicc im cend do cráis, 40 § 58 . trí fáoidhe mo cluicc romhaibh a ccath, 45 § 66 .

Used in cursing: ben clucc ar Cellach Carmain / co raib i talmain rīa ciunn blīadna, Cáin Ad. 18 . tucait gáir c.¤ ┐ esgaine ┐ mallachtan don méirrlech, SG 45.14 . do fuaras gáir clog ┐ caindell ┐ mallachtain fírénach (i.e. was excommunicated), 43.27 . Cf. also: do tabairt clocc ┐ mionn da cele imma ccaradradh do comall `had taken vows by bells and relics', AFM iii 426.15 .

Many bells had proper names. See V. SS. Hib. clxxvii n.16 and perh. also: nī ruc Adomnān claideb les dochum in chathai, acht clocc na fferce Adomnāin .i. cluicīn mēsi Adomnāin, Cáin Ad. 17 . in Clog Padraic (.i. in Udachta), a bell supposed to have been bequeathed by St. Patrick, RC xxiii 404 § 12 . Solamh Ó Meallán maor cluig an edhachta, AFM iii 608.13 . do rat Patraicc a chlog feisin do Chaillin . . . Clog na rig nomen in cluig sin, ar is mór di riguib Erend ro baisted as, Fen. 232.7 , 12 . trí lán chluig na righ d'offráil airgid (given to the comarb of Caillin), ALC i 364.19 .

Attrib. g s bell-shaped : in cua[dh] cluic, Laws i 134.5 Comm. at cluic gl. galea, Ir. Gl. 26 .

? cetna gnim gnisset mar chloc / dabach humai istudloc, SR 4197 .

(b) Used to indicate the hour, hence clock (but see Stud. Celt. x/xi 312-13 ): a cinn cúig mbuilli don clog `at five o'clock', Stair Erc. 2093 ; 'at five strokes of the bell (or clock)' Stud. Celt. x 312 . dā uair in chluig riassan lō do shoillsiugadh, Fl. Earls 130.16 . ar a thrí do chlog i ndiaidh mheadhóin laoi, TSh. 10247 .

Compds. With noun. ¤thech belfry (used of the round towers often connected with Irish monastic buildings. See Petrie's Round Towers): cloicthech Sláne do loscadh . . . Bachall ind erlama ┐ cloc ba dech di clocaibh . . . do loscadh, AU an. 950 . cloicthech Mainistrech . . . co n-a lebraibh ┐ taiscedhaibh imdhaibh do loscadh, an. 1097 . leim tar chloicech (in a list of impossible conditions), O'Curry 981 ( H 3.18, 423a ). clocthige ós chella, LL 308a16 ( SG 388.31 ). cloictheach Thelcha nIonmainde . . . do dluighe do chaoir theineadh ┐ cloch do sgeinm as an ccloictheach isin, AFM ii 1012.y (A.D. 1121). By extension of a tower used merely for defence: doronsat cloicteach dhoibh fein ana coideldais ar ecla ilphiast in fhasaigh, BLism. 119 va25 . With Vn. foghar sailm-cettail Ruadhain . . . ┐ a claicc-beim . . . occ esccaine fair bell-ringing , BNnÉ 324 § 38 . With adj. co h-I cloigbinn, KMMisc. 320.4 .

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