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Cite this: eDIL s.v. ibar or

Forms: iubar, iobar, ibhar

n o, m. Later iubar, iobar.

(a) a yew, yew-wood: ind ibair báis neimnich gl. taxus, Sg. 33b11 . ibhar gl. taxus, Ir. Gl. 561. iubar .i. éo-barr .i. īarsinnī nat scara a barr friss, Corm. Y 734. co ndernui iarsin .iiii. flescca ibir ocus scrípuidh oghumm inntib, IT i 129.21 . tre oghum hi cetheōra flescae iphair, ZCP xiii 373.28 . gell ... di arggut nó uma nó ibur, Críth G. 283. ibar .i. ab ebore .i. ō cnaím elefante ar dath ┐ suthaini. Nó i.¤ ab hibernis locis .i. ō locaib imechtrachaib mundi, ut periti dicunt , O'Mulc. 700. mong ... iubair ēou-glais of a green-trunked yew-tree?, K. and H. § 13. fidhbadh inda[la] leath di, ibair ┐ daraig mora i suidiu, RC x 72.2 . Describing the Cráebrúad: erscar do dergibar and, LU 10122. ructa iarom hi tech ndarach cúachlete ┐ comla ibair aire, 1443 . is do i.¤ as ainm siniu fedaib `oldest of woods,' Auraic. 5593. airigh fedha quidem .i. dur, coll, ... ibur, gius `chieftain trees ...,' 1153 . In a comic name: Dorn Ibair hua Cipp Goband ┐ Fadb Darach hua Omna, CRR § 18. Of a house: rogníth do derg-ibur druimnech, Metr. Dinds. iv 106.63 . ar mecnaib ibair on the roots of a yew-tree, BB 299a15 . As symbol of great age: saoghal na slaiti iubhoir, Gleanings from Irish manuscripts 115 § 12. do thollfadh oirdne iobhair would pierce pieces of yew-wood, DDána 78 § 2.

(b) Frequent in place-names: Ibhar Cinn Chon, ScM. R § 19 . a hIbar-glind, LL 207az . abb manach Ibhair Cinn Trachta, AU ii 136.16 . Imleach Iubhair, AFM ii 1146.4 . See Onom.

(c) In plant names: iubhar beinne juniper , O'R. fructus iuniperi .i. caera an ibhuir craigi, RC ix 234.8 . Ballsamita. Gamandrie .i. iubar lena, ACL i 335 § 74. Pursibatum Timus .i. bilur Muiri .i. fraech .i. ibur lena .i. fochluc, 334 § 30. iubhar sléibhe mountain sage , P. O'C. ambrosia , O'R. iubhar talamh juniper , O'R. iubhar thalmhain rough spleenwort , P. O'C.

(d) an article made of yew-wood?: ni saig dilsi for eachaib na hibraib cu seachtmain ... .i. nocha tairiseand dilsi for na heachaibh fireanna anas ar na haigcideadhaibh iubair tra ... re teacmaisin na seacainme isin neach, no caechadbaidh (? leg. —bair) no dluighisidhe isin n-iubhar `against the occurrence of dry blemish in the horse or of rotten material or a tendency to split in the `iubar" (Plummer MS. notes), O'Curry 1863 (< 23 P 3, fo. 20a ). cinnas sin ┐ cur marbdile in t-iubar sin since that `iubar' is an inanimate possession, O'Curry 634 (< H 3.18, p. 306 ). na huile marbdil ... is dechmad a niubail cenmotha in t-iubar, O'D. 1685 (< H 5.15, p. 29b ). See ibas.

COMPDS. ¤dabach a vat made of yew : beoir i n(d)ibhardabhchaibh, IT iii 91 § 129. ¤lestar a vessel made of yew: ┐ mo ibair-lestair ocom, Ériu iv 134.14 . ro choisricsat in biad [┐ tucait a n-éna ┐ a n-íbairlestair dá n-ionnsáighidh], Acall. 110. ¤derg red with yews: san iodhainleirg ... | n-ealaigh n-iobhairdheirg, DDána 74 § 47. ¤donn: géabhaidh Domhnall ... Éirinn n-iobhardhoinn, 105 § 36. ¤dos yew-tree: gurbho socair sadal robhaoi Suibhne isin iubardhos, BS 132.19 . ¤draignech: rī Achaid Ūir ibairdraignig bristling with yew-trees, Murphy Metrics 15 § 14. ¤sciath a shield of yew-wood: marbh ri Cermna ... in aine na nibharsciath in the play of yew-wood shields?, BB 47a18 = in áne na n-armsciath, LL 128b13 . ¤shlat: mac Céin da gcláon iobharṡlat `for whom the yew-branch bends,' TD 31 § 1.

1 nin

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 nin or
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: nena, ninu

n [u, m.] n p. nena, ZCP xii 295.7 (< H 3.18 p. 564 ). a p. ninu, LL 186b14 ( RC xxvi 14 § 8 ).

(a) name of the ash-tree: nin .i. uinnius, Auraic. 1173. coscrad sīdhe nin .i. uindis. ar is dī na croind gaei triesa cosgarthar an sīth, 4269 .

(b) name of the letter n in the Ogham alphabet (called after the tree): nin dno is o chrand ro hainmniged .i. o uindsind, Auraic. 1171 ; belonging to the first `aicme' or letter-group and denoted by five strokes, ib. 976 . dinin dishail .i. sech [ni] nin ni sail acht duir it is neither n nor s but d, 815 , cf. 3653 . cech baile i mbiadh nion re ngort is ngetol sgribthar and, 2896 . anamain eter dā nin inso .i. nin i tossuch in moltai ┐ nin ina deriud, LU 400 (ACC Introd., cf. RC xx 146.3 ; description of the Amra, which begins and ends with the letter n). Aedh Gnaí . . . nin do gait ás goma hAedh Gaí é, Cóir Anm. 162.

(c) a letter of the Ogham alphabet in general: nin .i. liter, ut dicitur: dar ninu Nede, Corm. Y 996 ; for the citation: dar ninu, see RC xxvi 14 § 8 (glossed: dar mo littre, LL) and Auraic. 2793 (dar mo niona). nin ainm coitcheand do gach litir, Auraic. 1561 , cf. 2791 . nin .i. letir nó oghum no fren [= frém?] oghuim, ut est co laidhib co ninaib, O'Dav. 1288. nín .i. dealb nó litir, Lec. Gl. 6. nion .i. litir, O'Cl. Metr. Gl. 26.1 . ni uindim aon-nin am chīn (.i. ni faicim aon-litir am lebhar), ZCP v 488 § 4 (B. na filed). contoaim for amnin a nin (.i. luighim fam luighe filed), ib. § 9 (amnin = non-letter?). sin drochnin duit `a bad letter (handwriting)', O'Gr. Cat. 267.15 (scribe's note). pl. nena filed feghthar linn . . . bethe, sail, huath, coll, etc., ZCP xii 295.7 . See also 2 nena.

ogum, ogom

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ogum, ogom or
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: ogam, ogham, o., ogham

n o, m. later ogam, ogham.

(a) Ogham , a species of writing or script used in Ireland in early times, though prob. adapted from the Roman alphabet (see, however, Macalister, The Secret Languages of Ireland 28 ). In Irish ogham the letters (25 in all) were represented by strokes, vertical or oblique and varying in number from one to five, drawn from one or both sides of a foundation-line (druim); it was commonly employed on stone pillars or rectangular staves of wood, of which an angle served as `druim'. The only extant specimens are inscriptions on burial- (or memorial-?) stones. Its invention was traditionally ascribed to Ogma mac Elathan (see Ogma): athair ogaim Ogma, mathair ogaim lam no sgian (i.e. Ogma was the in- ventor of Ogham, its efficient cause is hand or knife), Auraic. 2813 . The letters in the o.¤ alphabet bore the names of trees or shrubs and the alphabet itself was called Beithe-luis(-nin) from the opening letters b, l, (n). Ogham script seems to have been cultivated in the bardic schools throughout the Middle Ages and in the Auraicept in BB and other MSS. 93 various kinds of ogham alphabet based on the Beithe-luis are described. In the curriculum of the bardic schools (given in IT iii 32 § 2 , 34 § 9 , §12 ) 50 `ogums' (? ogham alphabets) form part of the course in the first, second, and third years respectively. In heroic lit. we find ogham writing used for burial inscriptions, cryptic messages and occas. for divination (wooden staves or rods being used for the last purpose).

(b) an ogham inscription : ogum i llia, lia uas lecht, IT i 158.1 ( LL 154a45 ). dammared Find fichtib glond | cian bud chuman in ogom, ib. 14 (= int ogum, LL fcs.). atá coirthe oca ulaid. ┐ atá ogom isin chind fil hi talam din corthi. Issed fil and. Eochaid Airgtech inso, LU 10993 = Imr. Brain i 48.15 . ro tócbad a lia ┐ ro scríbad [a] ainm oguim, TFerbe 757 . dogni ith n-erchomail . . . ┐ scribais ogum ina menacc, TBC-LL¹ 224 = tuc ainm n-oguim 'na menuc, TBC-LL¹ 565 , cf. 675 , 1230 . dobert C. a sleigin dō ┐ doforne ogum n-ind, IT ii1 178.138 . co ndernui [in druí] iiii flescca ibir ┐ scrípuidh oghumm inntib, IT i 129.22 (a method of divination). foidis . . . Dauid co hAibisolon in milid ┐ rig-ogum ina sciath do thabairt chatha, ZCP xiii 177.9 (i.e. secret instructions to give battle). las' cētna dernta chumni i n-ogmaib, Corp. Gen. 363 (320c24) . comorbus ... ro rinnad oghmaib 'inheritance ... which has been engraved in Ogams', Ériu lvi 73 (18) ( CIH iii 746.38 ).

Ogham inscriptions were also used to attest sales, ownership of property, and for mere-stones; ogum na creca do beth i llic firt, H 3.18 p. 251 ( O'Curry 484 ), where a tombstone is used for the record. in bat la comorbaib cuimne cen ogom i n ailc[h]ibh . . . cen macu, cen ratha, ib. p. 22 a ( O'Curry 61 ). comcuimne da crích . . . .i. in t-oghum isin gollan [= gallán], ib. p. 230b ( O'Curry 421 ). in t-ogum isin ngollán . . . gebid greim tuinide dō, H 5.15 p. 7a ( O'D. 1581 ).

(c) in late gramm. treatises ogham apparently denotes the written language or spelling as distinguished from the spoken lang. or pronunciation (Gaedhelg). an connsuine bháithtear do gháoidheilg do dhénamh d'oghum san chomhfhocal, IGT Introd. § 2.36 (i.e. to express in the written compound word a letter which is assimilated in pronunciation? an error; cf. § 41 , § 42 ). nach do réir oghuim do shíor chuirthear comhar- dadh, § 3 (i.e. rhyme is not invariably determined by spelling). ogham iomagallmha, § 1.6 (= current or ordinary spelling?). atáid cóig aicme chúigir san bheithe luis ┐ ger lór trí litre .xx. san ogham iomagallmha, § 4.16 (there are 25 characters in the `beithe-l.' or ogham alphabet, but only 23 in current script).

(d) the term ogham seems to have been later applied also to some species of Bérla na filed or cryptic lang., see Thurn. RC vii 369 , O'Don. Gram. p. xlviii , and Macalister, The Secret Languages of Ireland 29 , 35 . obscurum loquendi modum, vulgo Ogham, anti- quariis Hiberniae satis notum , O'Molloy, Grammatica Latino- Hibernica (quoted by O'Don., loc. cit.). Morish O'Gibellan . . . an eloquent and exact speaker of the speech which in Irish is called Ogham, ACMN (transld. by MagEoghe- gan) p. 286 (an. 1328). See ogmóracht.