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aiccetal

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aiccetal or dil.ie/759

n o, [n.]. Later m. vn. of ad-cain act of chanting, reciting; recital: atait secht cinela aire . . . aer-aicetal, ecnach n-egnairce etc. satirical recital of insults, Laws v 228.26 . aicetal .i. cuidhbius, ut est áer aicetail .i. aor co cuidhbius, O'Dav. 33 . do aiccetul in eighme, Laws v 308.10 Comm. (gloss on focetal n-eigme, 306.5 ). aicetal .i. roscad, ut est lecem ae n-aicetail, O'Dav. 18 . beim fri hailchi aicetail .i. co mbi aicetul anma in fir nod cren accomul noguim .i. ogum na creca do beth i llic firt, O'Curry 484 ( H 3.18, 251 ). dorchad .i. cin aicetal cin laidh cin ogum , 485 (ib.). bri aicetal .i. isbeir talmacht uait, manap duit dobera in taicetal, 2024 (H. 4.22, 49).

1 ail

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ail or dil.ie/954
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: oil, oili

n i and k, f. (See GOI § 320 and ZCP xvi p. 183 ). oil f. (g s. and n p. oili), IGT Decl. § 14 .

(a) boulder, rock: cid armbad spiritalis ind a.¤ . . . isi ede ind a.¤ rúnde, Wb. 11a19 . asind a.¤ `out of the rock', Ml. 93b9 . in lind . . ./ do ḟuc doib asind ailig (: maig), SR 4068 . dind a.¤ tuargabad asin tiprait, Trip.² 1067 . co mmemaid a chenn frisin n-ailich, 1507 . cobsaide ailech `firmness of rock', Thes. ii 356.4 . a.¤ (.i. cloch) trom, LU 9949 . petra lasin Laitneoir, a.¤ lasin nGaedel, Auraic. 1087 . dobertha ailge arda foa doitib, RC xii 434 § 37 . mo shuidiugad amal cech nailig ele isin múr clochisea, LB 157b8 . bás Mongāin . . . don a.¤ doteilcc Artūir air, ZCP vi 269 § 7 . enghuba esa ra ha.¤ , SG 366.25 . do bhí an oil ar muin Mhuire / far loigh tuir na trócaire (of the stone at the mouth of Christ's tomb), DDána 20.42 . atā foillicht a choss issin ailigh, Fl. Earls 208.22 . a.¤ .i. cloch, O'Cl. a.¤ áobhta .i. ail aithbhe .i. cloch frith ar tráigh, ib. With defining gen.: a.¤ chloiche large stone: ro bai a.¤ chloche ar a cind, IT i 82.2 . trascraid . . . oilche cloch forru, Aen. 2209 . darsin oilig cloiche, LB 126b23 . a.¤ adartha see 1 adrad. Fig. a a.¤ na sonairte (in a litany to the Trinity), Hib. Min. 43.12 . uathmar a.¤ (of God), SR 4773 . Of persons: ind a.¤ bratha . . . in t-occlaech ard allata, CCath. 2917 . in a.¤ mbratha nach fuilget nerta trenmiled, BB 419b16 . a.¤ cothaighthe gacha comlainn, AFM v 1340.17 . a.¤ ollaman a firmly established teacher, ZCP iv 237.27 . a.¤ firindi, Anecd. ii 8.24 ( Airne F. 272 ). ? Moisi mo cech n-a.¤ / i toisigecht in popail, SR 4451 . Aron ba amru cech n-a.¤ , 4513 .

In n.loc.: Colmán Alo, Thes. ii 269.41 (Ardm.) aduersum Coirthech regem Aloo C. king of Ail (Clúade), 271.33 . See also Hog. Onom.

Compd. ¤-bla stone boundary-mark, Laws iv 142.16 .

(b) grave-stone (cf. 3 oil): cu fil a ailcha imbi, Fianaig. 38.12 . cid glic fri ailchi uara `though he be cunning at carving cold stones', Fél. 188.9 . oil adhmaid a stone of remembrance, Ériu x 80 § 42 . beim fri ailchi aicetail .i. co mbi aicetul anma in fir nod cren accomul noguim .i. ogum na creca do beth illic firt, O'Curry 484 ( H 3.18, 251 ). iomdha oil úir san eing-se, DDána 92.2 . ail leachta grave-stone , Laws iv 142.17 Comm.

(c) monument, memorial(?) (cf. ailad?): forácaib ailgi ┐ airisni da márgnímaib, LL 221a33 ( TTr. 299 ). rolín in domun uili d'algib a nirt ┐ a níachais, 222a46 (ib. 380). d'ailgib ┐ d'air[is]nib a nirt, 225b45 (635). ailche ┐ airise a gnim, BB 414b45 . dia ailgib ┐ día gaiscedhaib, TTr.² 1501 .

(d) foundation, basis (of law, etc.): ar it é trénailig (trenailche, trenailce, MSS) in sin frisa n-astaiter bretha in betho, QML xiii 4 § 1 . is and do-n-icfad na duba digeanna cen a.¤ cen fasach `without foundation without precedent', Laws v 480.20 . co nailchib roscud ┐ fasach ┐ testemuin, O'D. 2211 (Nero A vii 145b). breth cen ailig, Triads 244 .i. gan hailche 'na timchioll, .i. rosg ┐ fasach, p. 43 . Sencha . . . ni conberedh breth ngua gin teora ailche astudha cacha bretha, Laws i 24.23 . sruth do aill . . . do foxla ailche . . . imtha samlaidh in fer samailter fris; baidhidh droch leighniudha fortabhraidsi co nailchib testemna ┐ cedfaidhi, iv 356.12 . ni íadat iubaili for étechti a.¤ , LU 3473 `prescriptive periods should not close upon a foundation of illegality', SCC p. 34 . is ae fo a.¤ .i. iubaile tsaorratha inso, Laws ii 198.2 Comm. ?laighidh a.¤ for naesaib, iii 220.21, 24 , 226.21 . a.¤ .i. dliged no briathra, O'Dav. 631 . a.¤ .i. dliged (B. na f.), ZCP v 486 § 6 . a.¤ (also ailech) anscui(ch) the lit. immoveable rock i.e. unshakeable testimony: for-toing a.¤ anscuichthe lais (.i. for-toing airdi no aimseir . . . no laid no litteir . . . it hē mairb in sin fortongat for biu, nī fortongar cenaib) an immoveable rock testifies along with him (i.e. a sign or time . . . or a lay or letter . . ., those are the dead that testify against the living, without them there is no over-ruling testimony) ZCP xv 361 § 46 (xvi 228) . feitheam for-toing fir fri hailche andscuithe, O'Curry 1890 ( 23 P 3, 22 ). it he a secht in sin con-osnat cach n-imt[h]aithbech: fiadnaisi inraici, ailig anscui[ch]thi . . ., Bürgschaft 21 § 62 . tri filidecht techtai, tri ailge anscuichthi, tri airmitin sen, ZCP xii 363.35 . ni ruc C. breth riam cen teora ailig ancsui[ch]thi breth occa .i. ailig aicnid gaisi etc., CF 73.4 ( SG 89.30 ). ?do fuair . . . a liomhdha (= líomhadh?) an algaibh `in the noble arts', Oss. v 146.5 . See also under 1 all

Cf. 1 ailech.

airismech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airismech or dil.ie/2140

adj (airisem) in: ogum n-a.¤ , in which only the first letter and final syllable of word are written (c-le = certle), Auraic. 5815 .

ar-léga

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ar-léga or dil.ie/4177
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: airlégaid, airlégend, arlega, airléch

v (* air-lég-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 561 ) reads out or aloud, recites . In O. Ir. glossing Lat. lego and compds. Later as simple vb. airlégaid. Vn. airlégend. arlega gl. recitat, Sg. 211b13 . intan arallegthar a briathar, Wb. 9b3 ; 18a24 . aralégatar gl. legendo, Sg. 213a9 . airléch gl. pellige, 24a14 . con arlégid si gl. ut . . . legatis, Wb. 27d14 . co[n]arlégthar gl. ut legatur, 25c30 . act arroilgither ind epistilse dúibsi . . . et doberthar ind æpistil . . . conárlægthar duibsi gl. et cum lecta fuerit . . . ut . . . legatur, 27d13 . condaarleg gl. uerba portauit, Ml. 43b14 . arléga P. in n-epistil, Trip.² 2689 . mad noeb aridléga `if he who recites it is holy', Fél. Ep. 178 . cuindig in epistil in domnaig . . . ┐ arusléga do dóinib domain, Ériu ii 204 § 22 . araléga (arléga, airleaga v.ll.) nascríba `thou shalt recite it', iii 108 § 56 . aralegasu fiadosom ind riaguil `thou shouldst read the Rule aloud in his presence', Mon. Tall. 160.12 (§ 78) . ardléga fer díb in n-ogum , LU 4807 (TBC) = ardolēga, TBC-I¹ 315 (cf. 1 ard compds.). airlegais in mac bec in n-ainm, LL 8622 ( TBC-LL¹ 1232 ). is asa medon airlegthar int ainm, Auraic. 5828 . erlegthar in epistil fo'n uli domun, PH 1174 . sliocht a chneadh an uair fhéaghthair / páis Dé is aisde airléaghthar, DDána 54.3 ; is understood, Sages, Saints and Storytellers 170 . no herleghta aca som hí gach día, BNnÉ 63 § 89 . o ro h-airléugaitt na litre, AFM vi 2334.12 .

Of sacrament, orders: ro erlég in mbathais administered baptism, Trip.² 94 . is é ró herleg gráda fair-seom ordained him, 302 . ro erlegh gradh righ for Aedh consecrated, AU i 500.16 . airleghfaidh an Coimde fein gradh nespuicc fort, BNnÉ 17.23 .

beithe

Cite this: eDIL s.v. beithe or dil.ie/5597
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: beith

n [io], m. Also beith f., IGT Decl. § 14.

(a) birch-tree, birch-wood: ássaid beithi tria doirnnin `a birch grows through its handle' (of a bell), Trip. 248.11 . samalta ra cír ṁbethi like the top of a birch-tree, MU² 586. ro ésraít a tigi do bethi barralaind barrglas, TFerbe 65 . One of the `athaigh feada,' Laws iv 146.24 ( Auraic. 1154 ). gecca do crannaibh nemhthorthacha eile . . . .i. b.¤ ┐ fernocc (`beeches'), BNnÉ 239.29 . a bheithi blaith bennachtach `O birch, smooth and blessed', BS 66.9 . ar barrdhos úr b.¤ bhuig, Magauran 1244 . is airi remitet (? sic leg. cf. 5488 ) b.¤ sech gach fidh, ar is and rosgripad ogum , Auraic. 2800. a n-aonfleisg do beithi on one birch-stave, 2804 . (on the four woods in the Cross) bethe bán i mbúi in sgríbenn, ZCP viii 107.11 . ba bethe a titail, 13 = ba bethe clar a titail, Goid. 66 n . cethri fedha na croiche .i. cupriss, cedir, giús, b.¤ , ZCP iv 235 n.23 . Note also: bethe gl. `haec buxus' arbor, Thes. ii 226.33 .

(b) the letter b , see Meroney, Early Ir. Letter-names, Speculum xxiv 27 , cf. Thurneysen, ZCP xvii 295. b.¤ dno on b.¤ ro hainmnigheadh ar cosmaillius fri cois in bh.¤ ut dicitur: Feocos foltchain in beithi, Auraic. 1157. vii mbethi a n-aonfleisg do beithi seven b's on one stave of birch-wood, 2804 . atait dano litri coibhnesta i nogum . . . amal atat beithi ┐ fern ┐ ifín, BB 301b19 . ní aithgēonad á sech beith he would not know a from b., ZCP v 483 § 5. beithe bogtha the letter p Celtica x 116 . gan bh.¤ bogtha do rádha innti (viz. in the Aibghitear), IGT Introd. § 1.8 . beth, crann bethe, bethluisnion `ye alphabet . . . from the first 2 letters B and L', Eg. Gl. 705.

In n. loc. Buindi in b.¤ , RC xviii 10.29 (Tig.). Buidhi an bh., AFM ii 1000.16 . As landmark: gonice in béith edar da álterin `as far as the birch tree between two Alterins', Goid. 109.21 (see Ériu xvi 98 n.2 ).

As n. pr. f. ?: foracsat mac slán slattra / Aes is Bethe bán bechta, Metr. Dinds. iii 106.18 .

See beithe-luis(-nin).

do-foirndea

Cite this: eDIL s.v. do-foirndea or dil.ie/17657

Forms: dofoirndea, dofoirnde, dofoirṅdet, tofhóirndet, tóirndet, dofhoirde, dofhoírdet, tornebad, tororan-som, dosrorann, dosrorainn, dofoirndither, thórnter, dufornditer, tórann, toirndide, toirndithi, dufoirndither, rothairind

v (* to-fo-rind-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 603 ). Indic. pres. 3 s. dofoirndea, Ml. 2d2 . dofoirnde, Sg. 59b1 . 3 pl. dofoirṅdet, Sg. 26b16 . tofhóirndet (rel.), 72b5 . nád tóirndet , 25b12 . With omission of ¤n-, dofhoirde (3 s. rel.), Sg. 203b4 . dofhoírdet, 203b11 . Condit. 3 s. tornebad, ZCP viii 306 . Perf. 3 s. tororan-som, Ml. 29b8 . dosrorann, SR 4422 . dosrorainn, 152 . Pass. pres. s. dofoirndither, Tur. 55 . thórnter (rel.), Sg. 59b18 . pl. dufornditer, Ml. 65c16 . Vn. tórann.

(a) expresses, signifies (usual sense in O.Ir.): gl. significare, Sg. 59b1 , 18 ; exprimere, Acr. 11c3 ( Thes. ii 5 ). inna trisecht tra dofoirndea sin in treodataid, Ml. 2d2 . dufornditer a ngnimae inna rig tri delba ban the deeds of the kings are represented by figures of women, 65c16 . tororan-som trisin doit in gním gnís in do[i]t, 29b8 . is aimser derb dofoirnde inna hilur (the word `dies') expresses definite time in its plural, Sg. 66b10 . dofoirnde in son ┐ a folad inchoisig expresses the sound and the substance which it signifies, 9a12 (`it determines the sound'). is he candadas inna ndegnimae són . . . dofoirndither trisin mbrat find, Tur. 55 . in brat-sa is ed doforne co mbēra-sa mac (interpretation of a dream), Lism. L. 798 . imrum Maelidūin dofóirne rūin richid rāin, Anecd. i 74 § 223 . ised doforne na .v. bairgena iar sians .i. na .v. oessa in domain, LB 149a6 . cid doforni sin, a chleirigh? what do you mean? BNnÉ 306 . cid toirnes gāir gāithi, Hib. Min. p. 39 . tucad int ainm sin iarsin n-inde thoirnes, PH 6934 . na dā descipul . . . issed dofornet sin, 4551 . atat cethri forcométésa . . . asa tórniter rúin ┐ sians, 3510 . amal rothoirned comach a chuirp . . . tria brissed na bairgine, 5315 . ? a cossa ┐ a llama in .l. eolach dosruarannsom which he indicated, BB 495a42 .

(b) traces, marks out, delimitates (a design, site, etc.); common meaning in Mid.Ir.; for transition cf. follg. exx. from glosses: toirndide (part.) gl. templum auro et argento distinctum, i.e. marked out, Ml. 143c1 . toirndithi descriptos (toros), well-defined (muscles), Acr. 26v3 ( Thes. ii 8 ). dufoirndither gl. (tuum mihi nomen . . . in contumeliam pudoris) impingetur, is brought against one as a disgrace (the Ir. may mean is made to express or possibly glossator connected impingere with pingere = paint, portray), Ml. 86a2 . Hence: dofornde P. crois isind licc cona bachaill, Trip.² 857 . dobert C. a sleigin do ┐ doforne ogum n-ind, IT ii1 178 . indelba .i. anmand na n-altora . . . arindi dofornitis intib delba na ndūla adortais, Corm. Y 752 . co roroind (toroind?) sigin na crochi i fragid in tempuil, PH 2095 . With transference of obj.: gabul ina laim ┐ da beind eisti ┐ doforni oen na n-aisill isin luaith he traces out (a circle with) one of the legs (of the fork), Ériu v 72 . Esp of a site for building: tair cuccum . . . ┐ toraind in reclés, Trip.² 970 . dororaind Patraic Ráith nAirthir, 953 v.l. (doraind, text). in glóruill . . . | dosrorainn i coic [c]ressaib marked it out into five zones, SR 152 . bid amne ind eclas . . . | feib dosrorann int ardrí, 4422 . daroraind fot ┐ lethet ┐ airde ina heclaisi, PH 6352 . is e toirrnebhus mu relec (= cemiterium designabit where meaning seems rather will retrace, point out ), Lat. Lives 112 = ise foillsigfides moligisea, ┐ tórindfess morelicc, Three Hom. 100. 8 . eirgid in clerech ┐ tornid in chill, ZCP xiii 26 . conid he roclaidh ┐ rothorainn (dororaind, v.l.) an cill, BNnÉ 300 § 2 . toimhsis ┐ tóirnis a tempull, 207 . rothórainnsett an chill ┐ an relecc, 14 . co rothóraind si dóib in dún cona heo, RC xvi 281 ( Dinds. 161 ). Macha, is lē rothornedh Emoin, 45 ( Dinds. 94 ). rochum cathraig . . . dia luirg rostorna is dia deilg, Metr. Dinds. i 6 . tóraindter rátha . . . lib damsa, RC xxvi 132 § 2 . dofóruinn impi tóraind na ratha, ACL iii 326 . toirneas an tiprait, Lism. L. 967 . for Feicc doroirned ar lecht, Fianaig. 10 § 4 . Occasionally confused with do-airindi lowers: co rastocaib ┐ co rastoraind he took it (the statue of Saturn) up and set it down again (for rastairind), LL 230b1 ( TTr. 975 ). rothoraind a rosc forsna huigib, MR 24 = rothairind, FDG 171 . See also do-rinda.

drécht

Cite this: eDIL s.v. drécht or dil.ie/18598
Last Revised: 2013

n u, n. (see Sg. 38b8 , but cf. Imr. Brain cited below).

I Part, portion, section . Usually with partitive DI, rarely with gen.: drecht .i. imat, O'Dav. 624 , cf. 721 . is drecht díib nad rochreit, Wb. 5c2 . d.¤ caich ceniúil gl. plenitudo gentium, 5c3 . is (sic leg.) d.¤ úaibsi as debthach, 11d2 . for drecht úaib, 13b12 . cach la d.¤ diib is atrab, alaill ní atrab `one of the two portions of them', Sg. 38b8 . asbert Medb fri d.¤ dia muinter, TBC-I¹ 888 . fri tarrachtain drechta díb, 1462 . teclamaidh d.¤ dina bolgaib, RC x 74.14 . roloiscthe d.¤ mór dona longaib, TTr.² 1701 . romarbhsat d.¤ do mhuccaibh, SG 88.16 . d.¤ d'écsib, Metr. Dinds. iii 104 . tri maic C. . . . ┐ drecht diib i nAidniu, araill díib oc Dubcechair, ZCP viii 305.29 . drechd din aidchi, Otia i 114 . rogab cach d'feraib Eirenn a d.¤ don breithemnus his own part of the judicature (?), Laws i 18.22 (but perh. in sense II (b) below). gebaid cach a dréchta de, 18.20 . rucastar an ingen drechta móra do chrudh lé, Acall. 828 . ra h-ed cían ┐ ra dréchta fata for a far space and for long stretches (portions), MU² 275 . tidnaic do L. an cuairt . . . ni duairc an d.¤ no mean portion, BCC § 349 (poem).

Esp. of a number, band of persons: co facaidh in t-imperi ina dochum co nd.¤ ndána ndasachtach, ZCP vi 274.30 . drechta móra do míledaibh Cesair, CCath. 1432 . ro-díthaighit dréchta dia ndrongbuidnibh, AFM v 1646 . drechta dermara d'occbhaidh ┐ do shoighdiúraibh, Hugh Roe 66.8 . Hence ¤chath troop, battalion: leinb an dúin 'na ndréachtchathaibh, 3 C 13, 519.2 .

Note also: lethd.¤ húad i ngort dia treise `a half-day's labour' (notes), Críth G. 84 . In concr. sense d.¤ gíalnai, 570 (` earthwork, rampart ', Gloss.). denamh drecta ima dún, O'D. 512 ( H 3.17 415 ). dlegar don céile dénum drechta im dun na flatha, O'Dav. 721 . ? drect .i. dliged, Stowe Gl. 104 .

II

(a) Term of bardic art of uncertain meaning, denoting either a species of composition or more probably a section, division ; see IT iii 115 , 120 , 170 : foglaim na cetbliadna .i. coeca ogum . . . ┐ airacept na n-eicsine . . . ┐ fiche d.¤ , IT iii 32.4 . oblairi . . . secht ndréchta lais do scelaib, Lec. 340b21 . condaróis íar téchtu | inna dréchtu imm druimne the sections concerning `druimne' (?), Imr. Brain i 52.22 .

(b) poem, literary composition (freq. of an official character), tale (see The Learned Tales of Medieval Ireland 113 n. 122 ): d.¤ duan dicitur , Cóir Anm. 67 . drechta .i. duana no laidhe ┐ roscada, O'Dav. 589 . d.¤ molta, Lec. 142a3 . canitir drechta, LU 3242 ( SCC § 3 ). corop siat a duana ┐ a drechta gabtair i nEmain, TBC-LL¹ 1156 . gabtha a ndúana ┐ a ndréchta ┐ a n-admolta doib, MU² 214 . fir dēnma d.¤ ┐ nath, RC xiv 412 § 25 . oirfideach ré gabháil duan ┐ dréacht, Keat. ii 5339 . co nderna teóra dréchta adhmolta, AFM iii 180.15 . Cf. Laws i 18.22 cited above. lucht cech dāna . . . ic taspénad a nd.¤ ┐ a ndliged do ríg, LL 215a21 . re cenel nEnna gan fhaill | dréchta rīg cenēl Conaill, Fen. 344.10 . file nach dron dechraigfes | sochur dochur dílmaine | d.¤ cech tire thic, ZCP iv 237.23 = Leb. Cert. 236 . Of incantations: co ron-icastar Diancecht . . . tria drungo drona dagdrécht, Lec. 60b9 ; cf. dréacht .i. aircheadal sorcery, incantation , P. O'C. Hence dréachtglan (epithet of bards), Keat. Poems 1410 , 1559 . Note also: d.¤ .i. sgél, O'Cl. drecht .i. eolus, O'Dav. 625 . scoth na bí do drochduine d.¤ `a word that is not of a bad man's knowledge', 1423 .

ébadach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ébadach or dil.ie/19336

Forms: -ach

adj pertaining to the symbol or combination called ébad: ebadach .i. ebad eter gach da fid (a species of ogam) BB 313 = Auraic. 6066 . .l. ogum imm ebadaig (var. -ach) nilmain (part of the literary student's third year course) IT iii 34 . Cf. Ebadach Ilaind, Auraic. 5853 .

forfid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. forfid or dil.ie/23611

Forms: forfid, forfedaib

n i, m. additional (?) letter (see fid, sect. d), name for an Ogham character (see s.v. ogum, (ogom), sects. a, c) representing a `défogur' or double vowel (whether diphthong proper or orthographic device to represent a different sound of an ordinary vowel, e.g. -ea- in `neam' heaven, Auraic. 1340 ); distinguished from `fid airegda' = principal (single) vowel and `taebomna' = consonant. In ordinary Ogham there were five `forfeda': ea oi ui io ae, forming an `aicme' or group; there were however other letters called `forfeda' in some of the more cryptic and fanciful species of Ogham ( Auraic. 6112 - 6125 ). feda ┐ forfedha ┐ taebomna, Auraic. 426 . nem ... in fid aire[g]da fil and ... ┐ is buigi in forfhid .i. neam, Auraic. 1342 . g p. do duilib feda na forfid , 5417 (= na fored, LL 38b7 ). uird na forfed, LL 38b11 ( Auraic. 5423 ). d p. forfedaib, Auraic. 5457 . éubhadh, óir, uilleann, ifín, amarchall, ag sin aicme na bfhoirfheadh, IGT, Introd. § 4 , § 12 (cf. cáoladh ceirt .a. ag dul a n-amharchall áidh mur so: lámh: don láimh [see emoncholl], cáoladh ceirt .o. ag dul a n-óir, § 14 ).

1 gá

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 gá or dil.ie/25017

Mid. Ir. for cia interrog. adj.: gá ogum sut ina taeb, TBC-LL¹ 727 . ga Dia aile, PH 158 . gá méad fiche bliadhan, TSh. 10933 . gá huair ?, TD 1.28 . gár mhó ionmhuine, ib. 20.16 . ga lá (`lochdach'), IGT Introd. § 16.

gallán

Cite this: eDIL s.v. gallán or dil.ie/25318

n o, m. (dimin. of 2 gall): g.¤ cloche a large upright stone, a pillar-stone: gallán clochi bói for sin fhaichthi ... dofuairghaib fria ais, RC xiv 424 § 44 . rodosmarb d'óen urchur don g.¤ chloche, 428 § 52 . iomad de leacaíbh ró-leathna agus galláin chloch ag a n-iomchar, Keat. ii 5429 . comcuimne da crích ... .i. int ogum isin gollan, O'Curry 421 ( H 3.18, 230b ). int ogum isin ngallán ... gebid grem tuinide do (one of the things that establishes proof of legal right to possession), O'D. 1581 ( H 5.15, 7a ). amhail do theilgfeadh gallán gaoine an t-ord do buailfidhe uirre dá druim, TSh. 1945.

1 id

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 id or dil.ie/27166

Forms: idh, id, id, id, edha, eda, idi, hidi, ige, hidhe, idai, n-idi, idhe, hidhe, idheadh, n-egh, n-edh, id, idh

n i, m. , later f. (see Bidrag 45.10 ) n s. in idh , O'Curry 518 (< H 3.18, p. 261a ). id iarnaidi, TBC-LL¹ 1229. int id , TBC-I¹ 262. ind id , 259 . g s. edha, Laws v 188 n. 3 . inn eda , TBC-LL¹ 565. ind idi (St. na hidi ), TBC-LL¹ 580. ige, KMMisc. 168 § 8. na hidhe , Keat. ii 3660. n p. ? na idai , ZCP viii 103.y . a n-idi , TBC-LL¹ 3825. idhe, IGT Decl. ex. 1295. a p. na hidhe , RC xix 272 § 195. g p. idheadh, DDána 106 § 36. go n-ilmhét n-egh , Rel. Celt. ii 232.11 . na n-edh , 226.3 . n du. in da id , Laws v 484.18 Comm. See idh, IGT Decl. § 14.8 .

(a) a hoop-shaped object, a withe (bound around some object): tópacht ... cétbunni darach ... ┐ doringni i.¤ de ... ┐ tuc in n-i.¤ im chael in chorthe, TBC-LL¹ 563 - 5 . cid frisifarcbad int i.¤ , TBC-I¹ 262. in n-ogum bōi isinn ith, 252 . gabsat oc fegad ind idi barbarda, TBC-LL¹ 580. in da i.¤ ┐ in leithri `the two withes,' Laws v 484.18 Comm. (gl.: bir-crand treige n-urcomail, 482.28 ). Of the withe put round an anvil when distraining on a smith: darin n-i.¤ im indeoin, O'Curry 518 (< H 3.18, p. 261a ), cf. gat im indeoin, Laws ii 118.22 Comm. idh lúptha um cengal céchta, IGT Decl. ex. 959.

(b) a fetter, a chain, a spancel: an idh im cois in crochaire, Laws v 188.23 Comm. um dunta edha im cois in cimeda, ib. n. 3 . risin i.¤ luim, risin slabrad, i 106.20 Comm. firend .i. id bis im c[h]olpa niad, Corm. Y 586. i.¤ iarnaidi na thimchiull ┐ i.¤ niachais éside, TBC-LL¹ 1229. slabrad imo braigid ┐ i.¤ tre na slabraidi tria coirthi toll, BB 134b41 . i slabhradh nó i n-idh iaruinn, TD 9 § 24. gan bheith san idh ní háil liom `my wish is to be in bonds,' Dán Dé ix 2. idh geimhle cháigh do choimhdhe `the chain of the world's salvation,' Aithd. D. 64 § 32. idh cháol chimidh, IGT Decl. ex. 1330. na hidhe iaruinn dobhí asan droichid `the chains of iron,' RC xix 272 § 195. idh do cheir fa eitibh eóin, Rel. Celt. ii 228.32 . Of horses: ro maidset a n-idi ┐ a n-erchomail (here id by itself seems=id fata, see below), TBC-LL¹ 3825. ? i.¤ ara ḟastas cech ech | a ellma as dech do cech rath, Ériu ix 47 § 18. ? cuma leis [in] eich na idai immbi [┐ in] c[h]onair forsa tēit (? sic leg.), ZCP viii 103.y .

id erchomail a spancel, a shackle between the forefeet: atnaig F. id n-erchomail tria a di pherid, LU 5697. asso ... i[n]d i.¤ n-irchomail duit i nduais t'airchetail, Anecd. i 8.14 . idh urchumail gl. trica, Ir. Gl. 279. i.¤ ercomail. quia eq[u]us in eo it .i. imthét, O'Mulc. 702. buiseom oc snim irchomail fo Grip .i. gabar Diarmada. Beir lat indn idh sea, Anecd. i 8.13 .

id fata the long spancel (i.e. hindfoot to forefoot) (Plummer MS. notes): i.¤ [ḟ]ata (sic leg.) (v.l. idh fata) aurslaicthi a ech, TBC-LL¹ 2539.

(c) a collar: a n-aimsir Ḟearadhaigh robói an idh Mhorainn, Cóir Anm. § 107. cosmhail barr a ghlaice gile | ré tarr slaite ige úaid `the thick part of the hoop of a torque (?),' KMMisc. 168 § 8. ar dhealgain a ghúalann gile | deargaidh búabhall idhe (v.l. ighe) óir a golden trumpet-shaped torque, IGT Decl. ex. 306. an iodh Morainn; agus do ba do bhuadhaibh na hidhe-se cibé do chuirfeadh fá na bhrághaid í ..., Keat. ii 3659 - 60 . ? To this: focheirded i.¤ n-óir immi, Metr. Dinds. iii 104.22 .

(d) a ring: do lámh gan idh órdaighthe | is céad fáinne fád bhráighid, Dánta Gr. 13.15 . iodh óir ... an tan do bhiadh a mhac chomh arrachta is go líonfadh a mhéar an iodh, Keat. ii 3382.

ringlet, curl: ciabh ... go n-ilmhét n-egh, Rel. Celt. ii 232.11 . folt i n-a óir-idhibh air, DDána 67 § 27. ar gach n-iodh d'idhibh a chúil, Studies 1941, 125 § 36 .

? To this: idh .i. foilghi no cumdach, Ériu xiii 80 § 277.

imm-clói

Cite this: eDIL s.v. imm-clói or dil.ie/27784

Forms: im-cloi, imcloeth, imcloat, ima-claifind, rohimcloe, himarchlái, imrochlad, imroemclad, imchlóid, imchloid, roimclaiset, imchloidid, imclaidet, imcloidfid

v turns about, changes; exchanges (trans. and intrans.): Indic. pres. s 3 im-cloi, Anecd. iii 58.13 . impf. s. 3 imcloeth, ACL iii 325.4 . Subj. pres. pl. 3 imcloat, ZCP xiii 22.10 . sec. fut. s. 1 ima-claifind, ZCP xiii 258 § 11. pret. s. 3 rohimcloe, SR 4697. ní himarchlái , 242 . pass. imrochlad, TBC-I¹ 73. With double prefix, imroemclad, Laws i 262.z .

Later as simple vb. imchlóid: indic. pres. s. 3 imchloid, Ériu ii 118 § 54. pret. pl. 3 roimclaiset, MR 232.9 . imchloidid: indic. pres. pl. 3 imclaidet, Cóic Con. § 65. fut. s. 3 imcloidfid, TBC-LL¹ p. 89 n. 1 (St.).

imcloi side a n-ogum, dilega a hamless, scribtha a less (of an injurious message written in ogum), Anecd. iii 58.13 . secht mbliedna do cech oe hi flaith Herenn. imcloeth beus hi cinn hsecht mbliadana, ACL iii 325.4 . iarsin rohimclóe in scél | la Iéssu ocus l(a) Caléb the story changed, SR 4697. grian hi nGemin im-mis Máii | is demin, ni imarchlái, 242 . co roimchla lith ifectsa, Ériu iii 140.163 . a[t]chīu imrochlad a gnē that his form has been changed, TBC-I¹ 73. secht mblatha imchl[oid] cecha bliadna `seven flowers it changes in every year' (of a tree), Ériu ii 118 § 54. imchloeit na Gaill aniar co hEs-dara `turn back to Ess-dara,' AU ii 214.5 . imclaidet isin tanisi .i. do-níat emcloemclód, Cóic Con. § 65. Ath Grenca iomcloidfid a ainm, TBC-LL¹ p. 89 n. 1 . ro imclaiset angala a inchindi i cúsalaibh a chind, MR 232.9 (= LL 409b8 ). cid milis mid lestor nglan ... | ima-claifind fed co li | alaill for (leg. ar) muic fonaichthi `I would exchange some of it for roast pig,' ZCP xiii 258 § 11. Vn. imchloud. See also under imma n-.

lecht

Cite this: eDIL s.v. lecht or dil.ie/29705

Forms: leachta, lechta, lechtu, lechta, lecht, leachta

n (Lat. lectus, Vendryes, De Hibernicis Vocabulis 150 , Études Celt. ii 154 n .). g s. leachta, Laws iv 142.17 Comm . n p. lechta, LL 6227. 14793 . a p. lechtu, Fél. Ep. 146. lechta, TBC-LL¹ 2758. g p. lecht, LL 15657. m., IGT Decl. § 95 (127.23) . Also leachta, Joshua vii 26.

(a) grave, tomb, sepulchral monument, resting place : l.¤ .i. lige mhairbh. ab eo quod est lectus, Thr. Ir. Gl. 27 . cen fert do dol inna l.¤ , Blathm. 463 . Mael-Rúain . . . / occa l.¤ . . . / ícthair cnet cech cridi, Fél. Prol. 227 . ogum i llia, lia uas l.¤ , IT i 158.1 . Cf. do tógbhadh a lia ós a leacht, Atlantis iv 152.31 . ail adrada, . . . no líg, no ail leachta, Laws iv 142.17 Comm . atá a l.¤ ┐ a lia forsin tsligi ocon glais, LU 5367 . comaig láech arabí l.¤ líac a dolmen(?), 8314 ( FB 23 ) (rhetoric). Lagin na ll.¤ , LL 15657 . a ligi no a l.¤ and so / nibad airdairc, LU 2845. N. mac E. assa l.¤ N. whose grave it is, LL 20096 . adlaicthear misi ina fert, / bidh ionann leact damh is dó, TBC-LL¹ 3144 (Stowe). a ḟert ┐ a l.¤ ┐ a lie, LL 12492 . ataat dí chloich and .i. L.¤ Con indala n-aí ┐ L.¤ Cethin alaile, 3825 . Sid Nectain sund forsin tṡléib / l.¤ meic Labrada langéir, ZCP viii 516.20 . adbath F. . . . ro claidead a leacht ┐ ro laigeadh a feart, RC xxiv 184 § 17 . l.¤ lanmasech do chloch snaigti, Ann. Conn. 1244.5 . leacht mór-adhbhēil ainmheasardha . . . cloch, Trompa na bhF. 5477 . at-mbia basa l.¤ bas brisceam lurcu manaís, BDD² 716.

Of a grave in the form of a cairn: tugsat cloch gach fir i leachtt Ṡuibhne, BS 154.18 . carn cloch do chor ós a chionn, dá ngairthí leacht, TSh. 5759.

(b) Perh. burial in: leacht an Esbuig, Cín Lae Ó Meall. 35.25 .

(c) By transference, death: la Lugaid mo l.¤ L. will cause my death, LU 9875 . l.¤ Stairn sin debaid duind, LL 14693. cid mór a nert hi colaind / fúair a l.¤ la Coinculaind, ZCP iii 44 § 20 (= Ériu ii 24.22 ). is ferr a l.¤ / andā a thecht cen réir `his death is preferable to his escaping without leave', KMMisc. 260 § 8 . fath a lechta, BB 50b16 . See also s.v. 1 tiug and cf. 1 fert.

COMPDS. ¤Fhánaid grave-strewn F., DDána 107.15 . ¤lecc tombstone: sirechtach / sellad fri a lechtlecca, Bruchst. i 43 § 98. ¤l(a)ige corpses, the slain (in battle): lechtlaige ┐ carnail mór do chollaib dóine, TTr.² 1113 . co torchratar arna n-athchumma lechtligi láech landlúith i cosraigib cró, LL 240a10 ( TTr. 1720 ). lechtlige saercland sanchan iarna ndichned and, BB 443a12 . ní bud suail in lechtlaige / bias re rígaib Lorcmaige, SG 372.z . ro thócbadur Túath dé Danann léo in lechtlighi sin, Acall. 5190 (`that great sepulchral stone', SG ii 227.1 ). ¤lann (2 lann) place strewn with graves : ar breith fola ferglainne fora lectlaind iar latharnu (leg. L-), ZCP viii 307.3 (rhet., Laud Gen.). Cf. Metr. Dinds. ii 12.48 s.v. lechtach. ¤mag grave-strewn plain : bíaidh leachtmhagh in gach lugair, IGT Decl. ex. 2090 . i leachtmhuigh fhadbaigh Éireann, Manners and Customs ii 165 n. 145 .

1 lía

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 lía or dil.ie/30096
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: lie, lie, liae, liaa, liic, liaic, liic, lia, liacc, liac, liic, lic, léig, lieic, liic, lic, legga, liaga, líac, leagaibh, liic, leag, líog, lie

n (orig. disyll., see Otia ii 86.y , Metr. Dinds. iii 116.100 . Later monosyll., LL 6365 , Duan. F. ii 78.48 ). nk, m. (later occasionally f., see below). l.¤ m. (as vocalic stem), IGT Decl. § 108. n s. lie, Wb. 21c6 . Ml. 131c12 . in lie , Wb. 4d16 . Fél. Ep. 14 (dissyll.), O'Mulc. 247. liae, Laws i 124.18 . liaa, TBC-I¹ 1230. a s. liic, LU 5365. liaic, TBC-I¹ 3004. liic (in place-name), LL 6365. lia, Acall. 867. g s. liacc, Wb. 4d15 . liac, Sg. 22b10 . Ml. 131c9 . d s. liic, Fél. Oct. 5 (dissyll.). liac, Sg. 65a1 (perhaps scribal error, see Strachan, OIPG 4th ed. p. 148 , 209 ). lic ( liic, LU 5367 ), TBC-I¹ 891. léig, Thr. Ir. Gl. 36.28 . n p. lieic, Sg. 18b7 . liic, Ériu viii 156.26 . lic, ib. a p. legga, LL 227a33 ( TTr. 741 ). liaga, TSh. 9455. g p. líac, LU 2121 ( FA 18 ). d p. leagaibh, CRR² 16. n du. in da liic , LU 4928. Note also: ar do lia luim (: chongbhuim), IGT Decl. ex. 1805 . This is (hesitantly) condemned as `lochdach', but may be an example of the usage described by O'Brien, Celtica ii 346 , iv 102 . Fem. gender is, however, supported by: is líag fhīorbhúadhach eiséin (with alliteration), O'R. Poems 2987 , cf. 2990 . On the late n s. leag ( lec, AU ii 174.9 etc.) see Bergin, Ériu xii 217. See also Duan. F. iii Gloss. s.v. líog.

Stone.

(a) In general meaning: lie . . . lapis , Corm. Y 810. lie uilnech gl. angularis lapis, Wb. 21c6 . Ml. 131c12 . lia brec ┐ lia find ┐ lia dub (used in ordeals), Laws v 472. 19 Comm . a mbeith amail comorba liacc their being like the inheritor of a stone, O'Curry 249 ( H 3.18, 144 ). cur liac putting the stone (`putting stones'), RC ix 454.18 .

(b) Various specific meanings. Whetstone : lia gl. cos, Sg. 67b12 . lieic gl. cotes, 18b7 . cotibus .i. lecib, Thes. ii 47.17 . cotut .i. a cote [.i.] lie forcid, O'Mulc. 247 . aithigud ar n-iarnd fri liic, Trip. 218.18 ( Trip.² 2592 ). bla liac limad (.i. slan don ti limus in scin risin lic, Comm.) grinding is exemption of a stone (i.e. the owner of a grindstone is exempt from penalty for accidental damage during grinding), Laws iii 294.20 , 21 . imbleith for lig, v 484.3 . mor sleg . . . ro limtha risin lia, Acall. 4495.

Upper millstone; millstone : im ocht mbullu ara fognat muillond: topur . . . liae, mol, indeoin . . . `for the eight parts which constitute (lit. serve) the mill . . . the stone, the shaft, the supporting stone' .i. . . . in cloch iachtair, Laws i 124.18 , 140.17 Comm . im denum liacc bron, 184.11 . imrethed ima cuairt amal licc muilind, RC ix 470.16 . Cf. 1 mol.

Standing stone, pillar-stone, usually of a memorial stone, one marking place of death or burial; Ogham-stone: tir . . . a claetar poll i curtar lia `land . . . where a hole is made, where a stone is put', Laws iv 6.12 . cladar a fert . . . sátir a lia, LU 5704 ( = liaa, TBC-I¹ 1230 ). ro tócbad a lia ┐ ro scríbad [a] ainm oguim ┐ doringned duma immon licc, TFerbe 757 . co ro chlaidhter mo ḟertsa lat ┐ co clantar mo lia that my grave may be dug by thee and my stone planted (i.e. set in the ground), Rawl. 130b28 . co tard a druim frisin liic leaned his back against the pillar, LU 3284 . ogum i lia, lia uas lecht, IT i 158.10 . tri lic . . . niathbuidne ┐ tri liic lathbuidne, Ériu viii 156.26 = sé coirthi cloichi, 15 . na mairbh . . . gan lia ná leacht ós a gcionn, TSh. 5761. Hence in later lang. in sense of grave, tomb (cf. lecc, lecht): do-chuadhais fan líg `thou didst enter the grave', Dán Dé ix 18 . [san] lia 'n-a éanar gan óidh / ní sgéaradh re Dia dá deoin, PBocht 13.18 . In: is hé ro sáith in lia lom, Duan. F. ii 78.48 , where lia corresponds to v s. líog in 47 , it is not clear whether a flat or upright stone is meant. Note also: co talaid a anmain as for a beolu i richt lici, Anecd. i 10.16 (confused with lecc, cf. 1 lía, 13 , lie, 19 ). atá ben Lóith ina lícc ṡalainn, Maund. 93.

Of a stone used as a landmark: see l. cloiche below. crich incoisce ail adrada . . . no crann, no líg a district which a stone of worship . . . or a tree or a standing stone (`flag') marks, Laws iv 142.17 Comm . crich íncoisce comarda feadha no muighe, craind no liag, 144.4 Comm . Of a milestone: isin treas lícc on chathraigh E., BB 207b24 ( = lapide tertio, Nenn., see Todd Nenn. 70 n .). Equated with carraic: coronesart 'moan cairric, conid marb and. Unde Lia Lindgadan, Dinds. 119.

Note also: lec an arain lapisfulta, O'Don. Suppl.

(c) With adj. or defining gen. l.¤ cloiche. In some exx. perhaps stone pillar: rosuigid . . . lia cloichi cóicdruimneach i fír-mullach Uisnig, Ériu iv 152.15 . tuc a lám ar lia cloiche ro bói a slis in dúnaid, Acall. 2175 . liaga cloch do dhenamh d'echaibh righ Uludh the turning of the King of U.'s steeds into pillarstones (`flagstones'), Lism. L. 2875 . do chruinniughadh a rabhadar do liagaibh cloch 'n-a seasamh i nÉirinn, Keat. ii 3504 (corresp. to cach coirthi . . . , Ériu ii 22.16 ). an líog chomhthrom chloicheise (of the tomb of Christ), DDána 20.42 . do ním líga cloch / dia feraibh, Misc. Hag. Hib. 35.17 . lia láime missile-stone, slingstone : lia laime druth, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 21 § 1 . fácbaid . . . / liic (sic leg.) laime cech láech-fhir, Metr. Dinds. iii 116.100 . ro gabadh . . . dib . . . di liagaib lam, CCath. 3150 . l.¤ telma slingstone : srethis liic telma boí ina láim fair, LU 5875 = TBC-I¹ 1406 . fucaird L. . . . liic talma do, RC xii 100 § 135 . l.¤ lógmar precious stone, see lógmar.

Of Lía Fáil, see 5 fál.

In names of mosses or fungus: co ndath losa líac, LL 6782 . ropo chomhderg a haiged ┐ corcair líac Laigen, Ériu iv 104.52 . samalta ra corcair lossa liac . . . a gnúis, LL 266b1 ( MU² 589 ; luss liac `foxglove', Watson). See corcur, 1 lus.

Compds. ¤aidne, see 2 aidne. ¤delgg, ZCP xxii 74.3 . liagdhealg .i. dealg in a mbí liag loghmar, no cloch úasal, O'Cl. liagh-delg óir, BB 260b 62 . da liaig-delgg n-iairn ina mbrutt (`two spoon-shaped brooches of iron'), ZCP xviii 297.6 .

menoc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. menoc or dil.ie/31974

Forms: menod

n o, m., (confounded with menad which somet. takes its place in the Stowe version of TBC, cf. also menod in RC x 214 § 3 cited below) a peg or piece of wood (used for securing the ends of a circular withe, etc.)? Apparently it had angles suitable for incising Ogham letters; by Windisch, TBC transld. Verschlussstück. mano thuco menuth taccuir fair . . . ni dūinfiuth iarum fair a menod fein ind fedo `a proper peg', RC x 214 § 3. id iarnaidhi 'na thimchiull . . . ┐ ainm n-oguim 'na menoc, TBC-LL¹ 1230 (= ina meanad, St.). tuc ainm n-ogaim na menuc inn eda (of a ring made by bending an oak-branch), 565 (= i meanadh, St. ; in a beinn, Add.) = scribais ogum ina menacc, TBC-I¹ 224 (menoc LU). airlegais F. in n-ainm n-ogaim baí na menuc, TBC-LL¹ 582 (= i mean̄ an eada, St. ; a mbeand na hidhe, Add.) = in n-ogum boi isinn ith, TBC-I¹ 252.

ogam

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ogam or dil.ie/33565

x see ogum .

ogmóir

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ogmóir or dil.ie/33575
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: oghmóir, -óir, -óra, -órach, -óire, -óraigh

n i, m. ( ogum ) oghmóir (g s. -óir, -óra, -órach: n p. -óire, -óraigh), IGT Dec. § 50.9 . One skilled in Ogham-writing, an oghamist : Morann mac Main in t-ogmoir, ZCP iii 15 z ; cf. Auraic. 5528 fg. , where Morann is said to have invented kennings for the Ogham letters. Later scholar (of language): fo lim cen cop ógmoir, IT iii 73 § 31 ; 'learned man' EIS 135 § 5 . oghmoire ileardha scholars of divers kinds, 92 § 136 = Bruchst. i § 42 . mór n-oghmóir, IGT Introd. § 2 . comhardadh cionnas is cóir | ceisd is fhiarfaighthe d'oghmóir '"how is rhyme correctly made?" is a question which should be asked of a scholar', Celtica xxvii 58 § 1 .

ogmóracht

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ogmóracht or dil.ie/33576

Forms: ogmoracht

n ā, f. the art of Ogham-writing? or more prob. the science of the artificial or cryptic diction practised by Irish bards: ogmoracht, Auraic. 5803 (name of an art or occupation, transld. `harvesting'). sai ndana ┐ n-oghmorachta ┐ eladhan imda aile `Ogmic', AU ii 444.9 (of Muiris Ó Gibealáin † 1328) = ALC i 608.19 (`Ogham-writing'). See ogum (d).

ogum , ogom

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ogum , ogom or dil.ie/33582
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: ogam, ogham, o., ogham

n o, m. later ogam, ogham.

(a) Ogham , a species of writing or script used in Ireland in early times, though prob. adapted from the Roman alphabet (see, however, Macalister, The Secret Languages of Ireland 28 ). In Irish ogham the letters (25 in all) were represented by strokes, vertical or oblique and varying in number from one to five, drawn from one or both sides of a foundation-line (druim); it was commonly employed on stone pillars or rectangular staves of wood, of which an angle served as `druim'. The only extant specimens are inscriptions on burial- (or memorial-?) stones. Its invention was traditionally ascribed to Ogma mac Elathan (see Ogma): athair ogaim Ogma, mathair ogaim lam no sgian (i.e. Ogma was the in- ventor of Ogham, its efficient cause is hand or knife), Auraic. 2813 . The letters in the o.¤ alphabet bore the names of trees or shrubs and the alphabet itself was called Beithe-luis(-nin) from the opening letters b, l, (n). Ogham script seems to have been cultivated in the bardic schools throughout the Middle Ages and in the Auraicept in BB and other MSS. 93 various kinds of ogham alphabet based on the Beithe-luis are described. In the curriculum of the bardic schools (given in IT iii 32 § 2 , 34 § 9 , §12 ) 50 `ogums' (? ogham alphabets) form part of the course in the first, second, and third years respectively. In heroic lit. we find ogham writing used for burial inscriptions, cryptic messages and occas. for divination (wooden staves or rods being used for the last purpose).

(b) an ogham inscription : ogum i llia, lia uas lecht, IT i 158.1 ( LL 154a45 ). dammared Find fichtib glond | cian bud chuman in ogom, ib. 14 (= int ogum , LL fcs.). atá coirthe oca ulaid. ┐ atá ogom isin chind fil hi talam din corthi. Issed fil and. Eochaid Airgtech inso, LU 10993 = Imr. Brain i 48.15 . ro tócbad a lia ┐ ro scríbad [a] ainm oguim, TFerbe 757 . dogni ith n-erchomail . . . ┐ scribais ogum ina menacc, TBC-LL¹ 224 = tuc ainm n-oguim 'na menuc, TBC-LL¹ 565 , cf. 675 , 1230 . dobert C. a sleigin dō ┐ doforne ogum n-ind, IT ii1 178.138 . co ndernui [in druí] iiii flescca ibir ┐ scrípuidh oghumm inntib, IT i 129.22 (a method of divination). foidis . . . Dauid co hAibisolon in milid ┐ rig-ogum ina sciath do thabairt chatha, ZCP xiii 177.9 (i.e. secret instructions to give battle). las' cētna dernta chumni i n-ogmaib, Corp. Gen. 363 (320c24) . comorbus ... ro rinnad oghmaib 'inheritance ... which has been engraved in Ogams', Ériu lvi 73 (18) ( CIH iii 746.38 ).

Ogham inscriptions were also used to attest sales, ownership of property, and for mere-stones; ogum na creca do beth i llic firt, H 3.18 p. 251 ( O'Curry 484 ), where a tombstone is used for the record. in bat la comorbaib cuimne cen ogom i n ailc[h]ibh . . . cen macu, cen ratha, ib. p. 22 a ( O'Curry 61 ). comcuimne da crích . . . .i. in t-oghum isin gollan [= gallán], ib. p. 230b ( O'Curry 421 ). in t-ogum isin ngollán . . . gebid greim tuinide dō, H 5.15 p. 7a ( O'D. 1581 ).

(c) in late gramm. treatises ogham apparently denotes the written language or spelling as distinguished from the spoken lang. or pronunciation (Gaedhelg). an connsuine bháithtear do gháoidheilg do dhénamh d'oghum san chomhfhocal, IGT Introd. § 2.36 (i.e. to express in the written compound word a letter which is assimilated in pronunciation? an error; cf. § 41 , § 42 ). nach do réir oghuim do shíor chuirthear comhar- dadh, § 3 (i.e. rhyme is not invariably determined by spelling). ogham iomagallmha, § 1.6 (= current or ordinary spelling?). atáid cóig aicme chúigir san bheithe luis ┐ ger lór trí litre .xx. san ogham iomagallmha, § 4.16 (there are 25 characters in the `beithe-l.' or ogham alphabet, but only 23 in current script).

(d) the term ogham seems to have been later applied also to some species of Bérla na filed or cryptic lang., see Thurn. RC vii 369 , O'Don. Gram. p. xlviii , and Macalister, The Secret Languages of Ireland 29 , 35 . obscurum loquendi modum, vulgo Ogham, anti- quariis Hiberniae satis notum , O'Molloy, Grammatica Latino- Hibernica (quoted by O'Don., loc. cit.). Morish O'Gibellan . . . an eloquent and exact speaker of the speech which in Irish is called Ogham, ACMN (transld. by MagEoghe- gan) p. 286 (an. 1328). See ogmóracht.

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