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áis

Cite this: eDIL s.v. áis or dil.ie/2468

Forms: óis, áise

n Also óis. g s. áise. See Celtica vi 62 - 3 . free-will, consent: masa targud eicne . . . ma targud aisi, Laws iii 114.23 Comm. na tarta oircne i ṅdail na in á.¤ na i comáin . . . do Ghaedelu, Thr. Ir. Gl. 30.4 . = i n-áil nó a n-ascaid, Corm. Y 883 . ceannach an nighei-sin ar nimh / tabhair oram ar éigin / ná heirg i gceann áise a Eoin / gá fearr m'áisse ná m'aindeoin do not consult my wishes (a plea for intercession), Dán Dé i 5 . triallais in ben forecin fairsim uair forḟemid ais (the wife of Potiphar), LB 115b11 (= f. reme, Celtica iv 14.z ; f. hi chena, YBL 286b4 , but foremidh he chena, 63b29 , BB 237b43 ). maith a n-aís, olc a n-écen, BCC 284.z . Eire d'fhaicsin re ar n-ais ┐ re ar n-órdúghadh féin at our will and dis- position, ML 78.2 . d'eagla an bháis do bhí 'n-a dháil / achd gér bh'í a á.¤ a fhagháil, PBocht xxiii 10 . nách gabhann á.¤ gan éigean, Measgra D. 26.63 . ais .i. deoin, O'Cl.

In phr. ar á.¤ willingly (opposed to ar éicin unwillingly, see éicen): ceni thaisid ar ois daregaid ar ecin, Ml. 33b15 . ar oas, Ml. 83b15 . Saxain náró trebat Héirinn ar áiss nach ar éicin, Trip.² 1336 . daig cen co tucthá ar aís dobértha ar écin, TBC-LL¹ 132 . do chuinchid I. ar écin húair na hétar ar oais no ar charatradh, TTr.² 306 . noch an ar ais ro fríth an fear `the man's death was not cheaply obtained', ML 22.1 . cosnadh ar éiccin no ar á.¤ let him contest at all costs, Ériu iv 228 § 57 . mairg do raghadh uadh ar á.¤ , Dán Dé xxvi 42 . d'á.¤ willingly: in phoc ais acht mas d'ais on tuccadh pocc di, O'D. 2367 ( Rawl. B 506, 43 ). d'éigin nó d'á.¤ , Dán Dé ix 6 . ní fhuigheadh acht dá á.¤ é, xxiii 21 . dober lium d'ais nō d'ēcin ē, ZCP vi 47.19 . d'á.¤ an chaoimhniadh chomhachtaigh, Ó Bruad. iii 88 xix . Cf. also ní h-ás duit a n-aeninad, `thou shalt have no ease', De Contemptu 2390 (saer, v.l.) Leg. as (prep.)?

baircne

Cite this: eDIL s.v. baircne or dil.ie/5221
Last Revised: 2013

n pet cat (?): im b.¤ cat ban, im oircne rigna, Laws i 150.11 (cat ban a gloss on b.¤ ?) `a basket for women´s cats´ (see 1 bárc) EIF 122 n. 142 ; .i. im baircnia, nia tren, tucadh a bairc Bresail Bric i mbit cait bronfinna duba, 152.32 Comm. bairccni .i. ainm cait insin bis for cerchaill oc mnaib caidche, O'Curry 794 (H. 3.18, 370a). b.¤ .i. cat; is eisidhe cat bán .i. bairc-níadh a hairc mic Laimiach tuca[d] ar tus. Nó baircnia trén tucad a bairc Breasail Bric, O'Dav. 242. barcne .i. cat bān, fo bith is i mbāirc dusfucad, Corm. Y 115. b.¤ .i. catt boineand, Thr. Ir. Gl. 6.

cnám

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cnám or dil.ie/9725

Forms: cnáma, cnámh

[u, m.] vn. of cnaïd, g s. cnáma. IGT Verbs § 42 . cnámh m., IGT Decl. § 95 . act of gnawing, wasting : in loiscend .i. cū cnāmha, Corm. Y 257 . ro gab int oircne for c.¤ na hemi, Corm. 30.13 (cocnam, Y). c.¤ cárna, bronnud bánbíd `gnawing of flesh', MacCongl. 92 .z . is cudruma . . . an diansgailedh ┐ in cnam consumption (i.e. of tissues), Rosa Angl. 20.9 . ac cnam ┐ ac cerrbad (of monsters in Hell), RC xxviii 320 § 39 .

By extension of territories etc., laying waste : ag cnam cach comursann ravaging , Ann. Conn. 1315.7 = ALC i 568.6 . nir chaicletar Gaill . . . cill . . . cen cnam ┐ cen commilled, Ann. Conn. 1315.3 = ALC i 564.17 . geg cosgurach / cnam gallbaile (of warrior), IGT Metr. Faults§ 71 . See cnámtha.

Compds. (see cnáim). With nouns: na trí chnamh-aillse (fig. of enemy fortresses), ML 80.7 . sgur dod mhurmur ┐ dod chnaimhcheol oirne, Luc. Fid. 4726 `grumbling', Gloss. itir gerradh ┐-césadh ┐-cnámloscadh (describing Hell), RC xxiv 381.13 . With adj.: creabair . . . cnamhghobacha, Lism. L. 3652 .

Dathí

Cite this: eDIL s.v. Dathí or dil.ie/14753
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: Nathíi, Nahii, Nahi, Nathí, Nathi, Nati, Dathíi, Dathí, Dathi, Dahí, Dahi, Dáthí, Dáthi, Athi, Daithe, Daithem, Daithen, Dathi, Daithi

indecl. npr. m. interchanging with Nathí.

FORMS:—

A Nathíi n s. Trip. 446. 8 ; 448. 8 .

Nahii n s. Fél. Aug. 9 LB.

Nahi g s. BB 199 b 1 . LB 17 e 16 .

Nathí n s. LU 38 a 7 . CS 20. 16 . LL 313 a 9 f.b. 313 a 18 , 32 . 314 b 2 , 22 . Fél. Aug. 9 (MSS B, L). a s. LL 132 b 4 . g s. LU 38 a 1 , 8 , Rawl. 86 b 12 . MacCarthy 212. 2 (LL). LL 314 b 15 , 50 . 313 b 4 f.b.

Nathi n s. AU i 10. 11(A.D. 445). CS 18. 1 f.b. Mart. Don. Aug. 1 , Aug. 9 , Oct. 28 . AFM i 128. 7(A.D. 430). LU 38 a 2 , 14 (margin). YBL 192 b 25 , 32 , 42 . Fél. Aug. 9 (MS R1). Trip. 32. 12 ; 30. 18 . Nati, BB 197 b 5 . a s. YBL 191 b 42 . g s. AU i 20. 9(A.D. 463). YBL 192 b 43 , 48 . Trip. 136. 14 . BB 137 a 22 . MacCarthy 396. 17 (BB). Lism. L. 4637 . d s. LU 38 a 15 margin .

Nathe n s. Gorm. Oct. 28 . Mart. Don. Oct. 28 . — Comp. further Nahie ACMN 70 .

B Dathíi no instance.

Dathí n s. LU 38 a 26 , 28 . Cóir Anm. § 146 (twice). g s. LU 38 a 10 , 17 . Lism. L. xv 12 . d s. AFM i 128. 2 (A.D. 428).

Dathi the common Mid.-Ir. spelling. n s. LU 38 a 22 . 38 a 10 margin . YBL 191 b 13 , 20 , 21 , 23 . 192 a 4 . 192 b 22 . Lism. L. 2706. 2710 . g s. AU i 22. 6 (but only in the MS marked as A). Mart. Don. 62. 20 ; 54. 11 , 13 ; 130. 23 , 25 ; 350. 2 f.b. Dinds. §§ 133 , 160 (twice). YBL 191 b 35 . 192 b 48 . Rawl. 86 b 35 . RC ii 86. 1 f.b. (LU); 88. 1 . MacCarthy 212. 2 (BB); 426. 4 f.b. (BB). d s. YBL 191 b 29 .

Dahí phonet. = Dathí. n s. YBL 191 b 49 . g s. Dahi, BB 57 b 22 . 58 a 40 . Cf. Dahye ACMN 64 .

Dáthí n s. Cóir Anm. § 176 .

Dáthi g s. ALC ii 448. 22 . LL 139 a 47 .

C Athi in late MSS, wrongly abstracted from Nathi (understood as n-Athi) and such phrases as bidathí a ainm, Cóir Anm. § 146 = bid Dathí, &c.

Already in the 11th century the meaning and origin of the name had become obscure to the Irish grammarians. It was associated with daith, daithe, swift, swiftness (and the npr. Daithe, Daithem, Daithen) as is clear from the marginal note LU 38 a : is de atberthea a nainm sin fris conid Dathi a ainm óndní is dathi gabálaid ( ó daithi a gabáltais, YBL 191 b 20 , where the note has been adopted in the text), cf. Cóir Anm. § 146 . The length of the final -í is attested by the archaic spelling Nathíi and the rhyme with trí, MacCarthy 212. 2 (LL). Dathí as the later form originated from the confusion of the N- of Nathí with the eclipsing n- after a preceding accusative or neuter noun: tech Nathí (understood as t. nDathi), babtizauit Echaich mac Nathí (mac nDathi) &c. MacCarthy 212. 2 (LL): cethri cóic bliadna 's a trí: rogiallad do niurt Nathí (v.l. Dathi, BB): i Sléib Elpa na narm nán, &c. I have no example of Dathí alliterating with d- from old poetry. The accent falls on the ultimate, cf. the alliteration Na-thí: tolchar, LL 150 b 30 , 31 b 45 . Nathí trenṡeng, LL iii 15779 (Flann Mainistrech) . Dathī cen tathāer, Rawl. 86 b 34 , Gorm. Aug. 1 . With Nathíi should be compared the npr. f. Daríi, the authoress of the Cáin Daríi; -íi seems the g s. of a npr. m. the nom. of which would be Old-Ir. Eo, identical with the tree-name (cf. the npr. given by Meyer, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1912 xxxviii 798 ). This name actually occurs TBC-LL¹ 4870 : co hEo mac Oircne. LL 94 b 7 f.b. : co hEo mac Forne. The genitive Íi, Í occurs in the npr. Mac Híí in the Oir. text Anecd. iii 61. 6 , Mac Hí (the name of a deacon) LL 366 e 11 . Compare the ivo- of Ogh. IVOCATTOS (Eochad), IVODACCA (†Eodach, not Uadag, as Macalister thinks, Epigr. iii 180 ), Gaul. IVORIX in a memorial inscription from Bordeaux. Nathíi `the nephew of Eo,' then, would be (†) in Ogh. NETTA IVI (NIOTTA IVI) of the nephew of Eo, and in the book of Armagh †Nioth Íi, Niath Íi (cf. Nioth Fráich, Ardm. 15 b 2 , Niath Taloirc, 25 b ). For dar of Dar-Íi cf. dar and der; the parallelism between Nath-Fráich and Der-Fráich (niece of Fraech ?) is noteworthy.

Nathí mac Ailello, BB 130 a 22 .

Nathí mac Bresail Einecglais, BB 131 a 37 . 138 a 3 .

Nathí mac Brocáin grandfather of the Druid Nuadu mac Achi RC ii 86 1 f.b. : Dathi LU, Daithi, YBL 175 b 32 . After him or one of his ancestors probably was named the Tuath Dathi in Brega, RC ib.

Nathí mac Bróin, BB 112 b 26 .

Nathí mac Caille, BB 177 d 28 .

Nathí mac Caithri, BB 143 b 24 .

Nathí mac Caur, BB 145 c 49 .

Nathí mac Conaill Gulbain, Fen. p. 433 b .

Nathí mac Crimthainn, LL 45 b 32 . BB 136 a 11 . 137 a 18 . 138 d 5 .

Nathí mac Daigri, BB 144 e 28 , f 4 .

Nathí mac Dolbaig, BB 131 b 23 .

Nathí mac Echach, BB 131 a 26 .

Nathí mac Fiachrach = Feradach mac Fiachrach (his first name according to Cóir Anm. § 146 ). The last pagan king of Ireland, nephew ( ACMN 66 ) and successor of Niall of the Nine Hostages and father of Ailill Molt; killed by lightning at the Alps A.D. 445 (AU), 427 (ACMN), 428 (AFM , CS). (a) Annals and chronicles: AU i 10. 11 (A.D. 445); i 20. 9 (A.D. 463: inicium regni Ailella Muilt mic Nathi); i 22. 6 . ALC ii 448. 22 (A.D. 1582) (Cathal Dubh mac Conchobair of his race). AFM i 128. 2 (A.D. 428). CS 18. 1 f.b. (A.D. 412), 20. 16 (A.D. 428). Mart. Don. 54. 11 , 13 (Colga Naem and Cronán mac Aongussa of his race); 62. 20 ; 130. 23 ; 350. 2 f.b. (Lochan from Cell na Manach of his race). (b) Cóir Anm. § 146 (etym. explanation of his name, see above). Aided Nathí, LU 38 a 1 ( YBL 191 b 13 sq.), 2 , 7 , 8 , 10 , 17 , 22 , 26 , 28 . YBL 191 b 13 , 20 , 21 , 23 , 29 , 35 , 42 , 49 ; 192 a 4 ; 192 b 22 (where buried), 32 , 42 . Nathi mac Fiachrach gabais flaith nÉrend i ndíaid Néill, ib. 192 b 25 . Ailill Molt mac Nathi, ib. 192 b 43 ( Dathi, 48 ). LL 132 b 4 (death of N.). BB 108 a 12 , 53 ( Nathi = Dathi, ib. 38 , 107 a 17 ). 216 a 28 . Trip. 136. 14 . Dinds. § 133 MacCarthy 212. 2 ; 396. 17 ; 426. 4 f.b. Rawl. 86 b 35 .

Nathí mac Garrchon of Leinster (grandson of Fothad), the opposer of Patrick at Inber Deæ. Trip. 30. 18 ; 32. 12 ; 446. 8 ; 448. 8 . .vii. meic Garrchon...Nathí, &c. LL 313 a 18 . BB 124 a 39 . AFM i 128. 7 (A.D. 430).

Nathí mac Luigdech son of Lugaid mac Dalann and father of Barr mac N. Lism. L. 4637 . Mochua Balla, whose life is told BLism. 40 a 1 sq., was a great-grandson of his; he died A.D. 637. The death of Nathí mac L., then, took place probably in the middle of the 6th century.

Nathí mac Maeláin, BB 143 b 9 .

Nathí mac Meldae, LL 316 c 39 .

Nathí mac Rossa Failge: sé meic Rosa Falge .i. Nathí, &c. LL 314 b 22 . BB 130 a 7 .

Nathí mac Sechnaig bishop of Cúil Futhirbe, Mart. Don. Oct. 28 , cf. Gorm. Oct. 28 . Nathi epscop C. F., Gorm. Aug. 1 . Mart. Don. 208. 3 sq. Nathí Cúile Fothirbe, LL 313 a 9 f.b.

Nathí mac Trichim son of Erc Dáire, Fél. 56. 3 . BB 220 c 12 .

Cruimther Nathí of Achad Conairi in Leinster, a contemporary of Colum Cille, Fél. Oeng. &. Gorm. Aug. 9 . Mart. Don. Aug. 9 . Lism. L. xv 12 ; 2706 , 2710 .

Nathí a deacon LL 336 e 6 .

Hui Nathí: Bríon mac Echach mic Dáire...is dia chlaind ind Echach sa húi Nathí a quo húi Connachtaig LL 313 b 4 f.b.

Bile Dathi one of the six wondrous trees of Ireland: bili Dathi, Dinds. § 160 . LL 199 b 61 ; unnius immorro Craeb Belaig Dathi, Dinds. § 160 . Hardly here, cf. the parallel form Bile (Craeb) Daithin (Daithen). Vide 1 and 2 Daithen.

LOC. Belach Dathi, LL 200 a 10 . Dinds. § 160 . Tulach Dathi, MR 152. 8 ; 254. 11 . Togail Bruidne Dathī, Anecd. ii 44 § 5 .

foiche

Cite this: eDIL s.v. foiche or dil.ie/22818
Last Revised: 2013

n (cf. foichid and Ériu xli 127 ) inflicting harm or damage (?): In Laws Comm. used in expression: f.¤ Dé, of damage to an animal, a boat, etc. due to accident or natural causes, rendered ` act, visitation, of God ': má geall bes airde ináit a fēch ┐ f.¤ dé don-airrtet `the act of God has overtaken it' Laws i 278.15 . nidat f.¤ de doairthet ib. 22 . madh oin d'fer ḟine ... ┐ f.¤ De dia tarrachtain, v 278.13 . cin fis ... co fis f.¤ ib. 16.17 . rogabsat ... f.¤ (.i. fuachtain) ... ic cosnam in oircne aturru, Corm. s.v. mogheime ( Thr. Ir. Gl. p. 30 ). ? am gai hi foichi .i. ar gēri, BB 39b30 ( IT iii 62 = la fodb, i fodb, 61 < Lec., LL). ? cathcles cu foceardaib .i. grain catha cu ceartaib foiche in gae bulga, Todd Nenn., Notes p. xii ( O'Curry 1875 ). Cf. also: intan doratad foich forumsa trim peccad (= meque averseris propter multitudinem peccatorum) Ml. 44b29 , where edd. Thes. emend: fochaid.

See foichid.

gorn

Cite this: eDIL s.v. gorn or dil.ie/26419
Last Revised: 2019

n firebrand: gorn .i. gāi-orn .i. gae orcne .i. aithinde, unde dixit Grūibne oc fāilte fri Corc: immicuirithar gurna gair, Corm. Y 688 ; `um welchen Feuer (oder Feuerbrände) Geschrei erheben,' Thurneysen, Indogermanische Forschungen xlii 147.29 = imocuirter guirnn gair, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. xix (1919) 312.35 . grond .i. gáe no gorn .i. gái-orn .i. gái oircne .i. aithinde ... .i. immicuiretar gruind (no guirn) gair, Thr. Ir. Gl. p. 23 . guirn .i. aithinne nó gae oirgne ... No gorn .i. [teine] ut est ima ngeiniter guirn, O'Dav. 1036 = i ngús ima ngenither guirn, Ériu xiii 21.26 . gorn .i. aithinne teineadh, O'Cl.

? grebancha

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? grebancha or dil.ie/26550

ind pl. oircne mellacha grebancha lais, FB 37 (Eg.).

2 mellach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 mellach or dil.ie/31901

adj o, ā. (1 mell) protuberant, bulging, knobby: bá m.¤ cnámach corrgarb a druim humped (?), LL 117b20 . oircne mellacha, FB 37 (Eg.).

In the follg. exx.: os mellach a láruc, MacCongl. 9.25 ; 43.17 (= LB 213b28 , 215b50 ); ós meallach a más, Fianaig. 82.22 , we should prob. read mellaib, see 1 mell.

mes(s)án

Cite this: eDIL s.v. mes(s)án or dil.ie/32039

n o, m., (dim. of 3 mes(s)) a pet dog, lapdog: mesan .i. aon is messa do c[h]onuib, Corm. Y 879. measán .i. cú beag, O'Cl. a mesan, LU 3086 ( SG 236.18 ) = a orci, 2967 . im oircne rigna . . . .i. mesan, Laws i 152 z Comm. int oircne . . . no in mesan, O'Dav. 788 , cf. 1153 . messan Conaire, BDD 101 (b) = cū C., ib. (a) . Dubilla ainm in chon . . . messán Bóinne, Metr. Dinds. iii 32.

oirce

Cite this: eDIL s.v. oirce or dil.ie/33694

Forms: orcae, oirc

n io, m. O.Ir. orcae; the form oirc also occurs.

A pet dog, a lap-dog : horcae milchu, Thes. ii 48.31 ( Philarg. 121 , gl. Hylax, Eclog. viii 107 ) = horce, p. 363 . orci, LU 2967 . oirc .i. cú beag no measchú, O'Cl. trí airfite dála .i. druth, fuirsire, oirce, Triads 241. oirce no cait (among the `esrechta maccru'), Laws i 138.33 . orcca, iv 326.13 (pets of the wife of an `aire túise'). Mugh-eme ainm in c[h]etna oirce ceta-rabae ind-Heri, Corm. Y 883 ( p. 75.8 ; = in cetna orce LB, Corm. p. 29 = in cetna oirc, Bodl.). ba banc[h]ú tra in t-orci, ib. ( p. 76.20 ). cloicend ind orci, ib. ( p. 77.6 ) = in oircne , Corm. p. 30. dael . . . méitigther oirce, Fél. p. 42 z ( Jan. 15 ) = orcni, Fél. xxxiv . Con-ogam . . . oirci ar aicme ailme, Auraic. 5748 (a species of Ogham).

See oircne .

oircne

Cite this: eDIL s.v. oircne or dil.ie/33702

n io, m. singulative of oirce. A pet dog, a lapdog : oircne measan con, Metr. Gl. Ff. 60. esrecht .i. in t-oircne (.i. gairit), O'Dav. 788. oircne na rigna, Laws i 144.10 Comm. (gl. oirce, 126.9 ). cia laisin coir oircne? Nin̄. oc briugaid ┐ liaigh ┐ cruitire ┐ rigan, Eg. 88 f. 2c ( O'Curry 2143 ). cloicend in oircne , Corm. p. 30 s.v. mogheime.

oircnín

Cite this: eDIL s.v. oircnín or dil.ie/33706

Forms: oircnin

n (m. dim. of * oircne < 1 orc) a pigling : oircnin, gl. porcellus, Ir. Gl. 493.

orca

Cite this: eDIL s.v. orca or dil.ie/33954

Forms: orca, orcuin, orcni, orccni, oircne

n n, f. orca, IGT Dec. § 5. n p. orcuin, ib. ex. 258 ; orcni, LU 6448 ( TBC-LL¹ 1934 = orccni, TBC-LL¹ 2595 ); later oircne .

The calf of the leg : orc .i. colptha, O'Cl. cusna horcni, gl. suras, Gild. Lor. 181. im orcain ┐ im thairbḟeith mo choissi, Acall. 6800. co tarla erchor . . . i teṅgaid orcan Dondgillai, LL 306b5 ( RC xiii 104 § 136 ). tancatár a sála ┐ a orcni . . . co mbátar riam remi, TBC-LL¹ 1934. muil a orcan for a lurgnib, 1451 . lénti . . . co horcnib sís, 12 . léni . . . i caustul ga forcnib, TBC-LL¹ 5287 = có a oircnibh, St. da oircnibh ┐ da iosgadaibh, BS § 65. ag iomúaim . . . a n-iallchrann fria n-oircnibh ┐ traightibh, Hugh Roe 22.26 (f. 6b) , cf. AFM vi 1918.11 .

orcne

Cite this: eDIL s.v. orcne or dil.ie/33961

x see oircne .

orgun, (orcun)

Cite this: eDIL s.v. orgun, (orcun) or dil.ie/34005
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: orcun, orcuin, orcuin, orcain, orcuin, oircne, orguin, argain, oirgne, oirgne, oirgniu, orggain

n ā, f. vn. of oirgid. n s. orcun, Wb. 4b23 . orcuin, Ml. 99b4 (perh. dat. instr.). a s. orcuin, 85b9 . orcain, 73d6 . d s. orcuin, 60d3 . g s. oircne , 22b1 . Mid.Ir. n s. usually orguin (-ain), later argain, g s. oirgne (airgne), pl. oirgne, -i (airgne, -i). Treated as o-st.? a p. oirgniu, LU 3390 ( SCC 17 ). g p. orggain (: Colgain), LL 183a13 . In late lang. the oblique cases are freq. supplied by *oirged (airged).

(a) orig. the act of slaying, murdering; a murder ; absol. or with obj. gen. is dílmain la cách ar n-orcun-ni (gl. aestimati sumus ut oves occisionis), Wb. 4b23 . orcuin inna primgeinde ón (gl. novo damni genere), Ml. 99b4 . ar mad cin dóib orcuin Crist ┐ a c[h]rochad, PH 3234. tri coicait ban i nEmain | is me doruid a n-orgain I caused them to be slaughtered, Ériu v 213.118 . iar n-árcain Conaire Móir hi mBrudin Dá D., RC xvi 405.23 (Tig.). do chuingid oirgne fón orgain ro dligestár Ingcél díb (= to retaliate the murders committed by I.), BDD 23. Níamán án airgne splendid in slaughter, TBC-LL¹ 3085. buónfoch . . . lān di c[h]lochuip d'orcoin (i.e. of missile stones), ZCP viii 120.13 . pl. gonaid sóeru, saigid oirgniu, SCC 17. ni chēlat a margnima. adrollat (.i. innisit) a mor-orgni, FB 71. bator ica n-oircnib ┐ ica cerbad, Ériu viii 174.16 = oca n-argain, ib. 37 .

(b) raiding or ravaging (territory, places, buildings, etc.): doronsat orcuin i tír mBretan, IT i 17.19 ( LB 25b11 ). do orgain inna cathrach, FB 83. loscad na Trói ┐ a arcain, TTr. 175. lān-orggain Mide, LL 184a11 ( Arch. Hib. ii 72 § 29 ). lucht airgne Chláire, Keat. ii 4769. d'argain eagailse to pillage a church, iii 2300 . dorinne A. an teampall d'argain, TSh. 1445. orcain iffirn harrowing Hell, PH 2647. i medon aidche dolluid in Coimde do arcain ithfirnd, Ériu ii 140 § 149 ; cf. ZCP viii 206.33 , Dán Dé xx 40. Of plundering or despoiling persons: tigernada bít oc dénum adbair do argain na n-óglach (= who seek a pretext for harassing their subjects), PH 7528. Tadhg . . . do argain uile leis `T. was despoiled completely', AU ii 350.6 (an. 1275). Of property: iar n-orcain scrine Patraic `rifling', AU ii 16.18 (an. 1066). Of damage done by animals: isin glaisin do orgain dona caírchib, Dinds. 1 § 35 ( RC xv 283 ). Of grazing-trespass by bees: noch is ed ro-saig ind n-oircne: a rro-shaig bó co etrud for ingilt ro-saig in bech oc tecmallad a thoraid 'this is as far as the limit of trespass extends: as far as a cow reaches on pasture until milking-time, the bee reaches collecting its crop', Bechbretha 54 § 8 . neoch ma fho-rúasat orgguin a thíre 'if they should have committed trespass on his land', Bechbretha 74 § 38 .

A raid, attack, massacre : conā terno cid sceola oircne as a survivor to tell of the dest ruction (of a shipwreck), Corm. Y 323 . éluthach argni, LL 224b47 ( TTr. 562 ). oenfer do lucht na hoircne one of the raiding party, LB 129b16 . pl. doronad crecha mora ┐ airgni uathib fo Mumain, Cog. 70.20 . oirgedh sé oirgne déac `devastations', AFM i 260.8 .

A recognized class of tales was entitled `orgun', see the list of `airgne' in LL 190a16 fg. (O'Curry MS. Mat. 590 ). ni gnath orgain gan urfhogra, MR 94.12 . ma ferr lat dano orcne .i. Orcain Maighi Ce, etc., Anecd. ii 46 § 8.

(c) in concrete sense spoils, booty (rare in sing.): ra tinolait inn argain i n-oeninad, LL 225a1 ( TTr. 565 ). tug géill ┐ airgne leis, Keat. ii 5577. ar toigecht d'Fergus . . . cona airgnib ┐ cona edalaib, Celt. Rev. iv 114.20 . iomat na n-airccneadh, AFM vi 2010.5 .

sporan

Cite this: eDIL s.v. sporan or dil.ie/38663

n (-án ?) some kind of pet dog (?): esrecht .i. in t-oircne (.i. gairit) nó in s.¤ (.i. fada), O'Dav. 788 .

1 tar, dar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 tar, dar or dil.ie/40049
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: dar, tar, dar, tar, dar, dar, tair, thar, tairis, thairis, tarsin, darsin, tarsa, darsa, tar, dar, tarsna, darsna, dar, darna, tarna, tar, darm, tarmu, dar, tar, darth, tart, tardo, tardot, tara, dara, tara, dararn, darfar, dara, torum, torom, toram, taram-sa, tarumsa, thorum, thoram, torut, torot, thorad, tharad, thort, thart, tarais, taris, tairis, tharis, thairis, tarse, tharse, tairse, thairse, tarsi, tairs, tairrside, tairsi-side, tairrsi, tairsdi, torunn, torunni, torund, thoruind, thoruinn, taraind, tharainn, toraib, thoruibh, thoraibh, tharaibh, tairsiu, tair(r)siu, thairsiu, torrsu, tarrsu, tar(r)sa, tharsa, tarsta, thórsa, ta(i)rsib, thairsib, tarstibh, tar, tairis, tairise, thart, tar ais, tar éis

prep. with accus. See Thurn. Hdb. § 843 . In Mid. and Mod. Ir. also sporadically with dat. : dar broinfeirtsib (sic leg.), TBC-I¹ 2525 . t.¤ ... ferannaib, Laws iv 136.26 Comm. t.¤ a cladhaibh, TD 13.11 . t.¤ esccairdibh, Ó Héodhusa 78.13. Somet. leniting in Early Mod. Ir. : t.¤ chlár, Content. xviii 53 . t.¤ Mhac Dé, DDána 22.1 . t.¤ chonair, Hugh Roe 28.23 . t.¤ thoil nDé, TSh. 2012.

The proclitic form dar is frequent in O. Ir. beside tar. It occurs also in Mid. Ir., but in Mod. Ir. only in the meaning by in swearing, oaths, etc. (see B V). In Wb the more frequent form is dar. From Ml on tar is the more frequent, but dar is the only form in SR. Exx. of dar: Wb. 2a4 . 3c36 . 6b28 . 7b5 . 10c11 . 13a9 . 13a20 . 16b4 . 16d8 . 18a14 . 23b18 . 24a3 . 24d13 . Ml. 64d8 . SR 1162 etc. Mon. Tall. 141.28 . Sc.M² 17.y . BColm. 92.27 . TTebe 4011 . O'Gr. Cat. 590.33 (in swearing). Exx. of tar: Wb. 3c37 . 5d28 . 15c16 . 21a8 . 22b5 . 22b7 . Ml. 2a6 . 16c5 . 47a3 . 49d1 . 60c1 . 61d4 . 88a1 . 105d6 . 109d8 . 127a1 . Sg. 172a3 . 200b3 . 217b2 , 3 , 12 , 16 . 218a6 . Thes. ii 311.1 . Fél. Ep. 66 . Mon. Tall. 137.14 . Laws ii 262.2 . Sc.M² 21 h . tair, Sg. 8a7 .

In Mod. Ir. occasionally with lenited -t- thar: RC xvii 154.z . Eochairsg. 26.13 . Donlevy 186.21 . This form is commonest in forms with suffixed pron., see infra. The form with suff. pron. 3 s. is also occasionally found as simple prep.: tairis ar marbhadh dhiobh, Rel. Celt. ii 192.6 . thairis gach ní, Feis Tighe Chonáin 862.

With article. sg.: tarsin, Wb. 15c16 . Ml. 16c5 . darsin, SR 1529 . tarsa, Mon. Tall. 130.7 . darsa, TBFr. 79 . tar in, PH 718 . dar in, TBC-I¹ 2500 . pl. tarsna, Ml. 122a3 . Sg. 217b3 . darsna, FA 29 ( dar na, v.l.). darna, Sc.M² 17.y . tarna, IT i 42.13 . tar na, Donlevy 384.6 .

With poss. 1 s.: darm, Wb. 23b18 . SR 1396 . ZCP iv 39.5 . tarmu, Thes. ii 241.13 . dar mo, IT i 121.22 . tar mo, PH 3825 . 2 s.: darth 'airmitein, SR 6320 . tart, TBC-I¹ 1047 . tardo, Sc.M² 13.y . tardot shuilib, Lism. L. 1420 . 3 s. tara, dara: Wb. 24a3 . Ml. 101a3 (leg. tara). Sg. 218a6 . BDD² 921 . 1 p.: dararn-essine, SR 1862 . 2 p.: darfar cenn, Wb. 18a14 . 3 p. dara ngnussib, LU 2091 ( FA 16 ).

With rel.: taratoissed, Wb. 33d10 . tarateged, Thes. ii 315.26 . dara gaib, Mon. Tall. 141.28 . tarndotuidisa over which I shall lead you, TBC-I¹ 238 . tarsa tochuirther, Ml. 22c1 . darsa tiagu, TBC-LL¹ 481 . cindus tíri dar-si fuiniud, Ériu iv 140.14 . dars' tic, Metr. Dinds. iv 286.51 .

With pron. suff.: 1 s. torum, TBC-LL¹ p. 241 n. 1 . PH 1154 . torom, TBC-LL¹ 4709 . toram, Dán Dé ix 8 . taram-sa, TBC-LL¹ p. 115 n. 2 . tarumsa, ACL iii 235.1 . thorum, 242 § 6 . Studies 1934, 434 § 6 . thoram, TSh. 4211 . 2 s. torut, Sg. 217b4 . torot, LU 8139 ( FB 10 ). thorad, DDána 114.7 . tharad, TD 2.32 . thort, DDána 52.39 . Corp. Astron. 6.6 . thart, Content. v 186 . Dán Dé ix 11 . 3 s. m. and n. tarais, Wb. 33d10 . Ml. 28c12 (sic MS.). Goid. 94.16 . taris, Mon. Tall. 136.22 . TBC-LL¹ 1644 . tairis, Mon. Tall. 151.15 . LU 5937 . O'Gr. Cat. 442.y . TSh. 2696 . tharis, BDD² 790 . LU 2150 ( FA 22 ). thairis, Anecd. i 3.10 . TD 20.2 . TSh. 4300 . 3 s. f. tarse, BDD² 978 . tharse, RC vi 183.15 . tairse, LU 3794 ( SCC 36 ). thairse, DDána 52.29 . tarsi, TBC-LL¹ 1600 . tairs, p. 359 n. 7 . tairrside (? leg. tairsi-side), 3727 , cf. TTebe 505 . tairrsi, RC xvii 144.4 . tairsdi, ZCP vi 290.15 . 1 p. torunn, Wb. 15a1 . 15d1 . torunni, 27a14 . torund, Thes. ii 299.37 . thoruind, Fianaig. 68.21 . thoruinn, DDána 95.7 . Donlevy 392.1 . taraind, IGT Decl. ex. 664 . tharainn, DDána 24.19 . 2 p. toraib, TBC-I¹ 281 . thoruibh, DDána 7.4 . thoraibh, TD 14.31 . tharaibh, DDána 53.13 . 3 p. With acc. inflexion: tairsiu, Ml. 121b1 . 123d3 . tair(r)siu, SR 4285 . Laws iv 214.6 . BDD² 142 . thairsiu, TBC-I¹ 150 . LU 2167 . ZCP xi 83.7 . torrsu, Laws v 270.y Comm. tarrsu, iii 424.15 Comm. tar(r)sa, Content. xxi 19 . Ann. Conn. 1342.11 . TSh. 295 . tharsa, DDána 18.2 . RC xxix 220.9 . tarsta, Mac Aingil 576.17 . Eochairsg. 36.32 . thórsa, Ó Bruad. ii 226. With dat. inflexion: ta(i)rsib, SR 4297 . LU 2961 . Laws v 382.21 Comm. DDána 107.21 . Fl. Earls 22.4 . thairsib, TTebe 2705 . DDána 30.24 . tarstibh, TD 3.30 v.l.

The meanings of tar may be divided roughly into concrete and abstract. But it is frequently difficult to assign an example or group of examples to one category or the other. For the sake of convenience a somewhat arbitrary division has been adopted in the following.

A In meanings of a concrete or physical nature.

I over, across, covering , implying rest rather than motion (see ZCP viii 60 ), including exx. where the meaning is that of coming and remaining across .

(a) cona roib temel ... t.¤ rosc for nanme, Wb. 21a8 . fri nech tarsa tochuirther sciath, Ml. 22c1 . mar dlúm dar dreich, SR 6959 . fri hōrsnath īar ndēnam a datha dar or nindeōna, TBC-I¹ 2567 . drochet ... darsin nglend, LU 2148 ( FA 22 ). co ro-thib tond tairis `so that a wave laughed over him,' CRR 34.21 . slicht meōir epscoip dar a ucht, ACL iii 307 § 26 . cro[i]theas a lúireach t.¤ a cheann amach brandished his breastplate above his head, Ériu i 88.1 . tuc sciath t.¤ lorg do maithib Muman covered the retreat of, ML² 274.

(b) Of covering with clay, burying: focheird úir ... taris, TBC-LL¹ 1491 . ó doradadh úir t.¤ Aedh, ACL iii 304.z . ní cóir cré na talamh thorum, Studies 1934, 434 § 6 .

(c) Of wearing, being covered by clothes: ind etaig bruinnidi .i. bís t.¤ bruinniu ógae, Ml. 144c7 . in ṁbrat ... roboi tarais, Goid. 94.16 . ragabsat fial falaid tairsib, TTebe 4159 . deich gcéile ... | t.¤ ar shín Éire a hionar, DDána 113.17 .

(d) Of wearing a belt: a cressa dar a n-áirnib, PH 5103 . rogab tairis in cloidem he girt on the sword, D IV 2, 45d4 .

(e) do-beir lám t.¤ seizes, takes hold of: tabraiter láma tairis, TBC-I¹ 1471 . fochertar lama tairis, LU 5941 . Cf. co tarat láim dar hIffern, SR 7772 . lám Emeire ... dar a brāgaid, Ériu i 118.6 .

(f) With cros a cross: dobér-sa anosa | a crosa darm'aigidh, ZCP viii 110 § 5 . Cros Críosd thorad, DDána 114.7 . tabair cros Crist ... tardot shuilib, Lism. L. 1420.

II over, across implying motion (`motion over a space,' ZCP viii 59 ).

(a) ní tirga tara trachtu, `it will not come beyond its shores,' Ml. 121a17 . t.¤ crích innunn, Sg. 217b12 . doloddursom ... tarsa ceim `came over the stile,' Mon. Tall. 130.7 . im cert filid t.¤ crich the right of a poet to cross a territory (?), Laws i 184.17 . is muir dar crícha, TBC-I¹ 3290 . in uair tra nobenadh bainne don gemlóichet dar a aighidh whenever a flash of lightning struck him across the face, ACL iii 4.28 . tairrsech darsa fuineann grían, Ériu iv 140.16 . ní lamdais ... eoin ... cromad dar craebaib na caillead, TTebe 910 . re comhfhlaith t.¤ chlár anonn from across (?), Content. xviii 53 . tugadh léim t.¤ líne leis `he has now crossed the line (i.e. taken his decision to act),' Aithd. D. 30.12 . Gramm. cumscugud e t.¤ i co ndéni ei deogur (e.g. adeibam for adiebam), Sg. 191a3 .

(b) Of crossing rivers, the sea: dia tanic ... | dar Iordanan, SR 6938 . t.¤ sál sidi, Fél. Sept. 10 . comainm ind atha dar a sredestar, TBC-LL¹ 1463 . don fhéin ... tar tuinn `from beyond the wave,' TD 18.36 .

(c) over the wall of a city, rim of a vessel, etc.: cenn meic B. immach | rolad dar múr na cathrach, SR 6988 . ba léim ro leblaingseom tarsin cathraig ammuich, LU 9077 ( FB 82 ). dar bil in sceith, TBC-LL¹ 3779 . t.¤ luing amach `over the ship's side,' RC xv 294 § 5 . in cetna dabach i tét fichid tairse boils over, LU 3794 ( SCC 36 ).

(d) 3 s. tairis as adv. across: tainic neill diamair ... tairis, TTebe 3758 . dognīd oircne ┐ crecha ... tairis sair i crīchaib cīanaib, ACL iii 224.20 . do ghabhas thairis `transiui,' TSh. 4300 . an duine dorinde an glaedh do tabhairt tairis `to bring the man who raised the cry into his presence', BCC 202.32 . Of crossing the Irish Sea: co n-darafnetar Ulaid tairis i crich n-Alban, IT i 73.z . ar ttecht thairis (.i. tar muir), AFM iii 306.4 . Iarla D. demersus est ac dol taris, Ann. Conn. 1357.4 . Hence in Laws Comm. of stranded persons, etc. alien, foreign (opp. to Érennach), `(über die See) herübergekommen,' Ir. Recht 39 . do murchuirthi .i. tairis .i. dair, Laws i 162.1 . cid fodera conid mo doib ina ndaeraib thairis na ina ndaeraib Erennchaib, v 110.12 . trian eneclainni do daor tairis na nisil, ┐ cethraimhe don daor Eirennach, H 3.17 col. 525 ( O'D. 720 ) = tairise, H 3.17 col. 426 ( O'D. 525 ). in da murcurtha ... más do aon chinel tairis dóib, H 3.17 col. 526 ( O'D. 722 ). Cf. bráighaid-comhal, tairis `an hostage, pledge ,' Eg. Gl. 73.

(e) 2 s. thart as adv. past, around: tar thort `come hither,' TD 2.4 . thort thiarain `over west,' 3.8 . tabhair suil thart ar gach taoibh `examine the subject in every way,' Content. v 186 . léigidh thart an tsláinte pass the health round, ITS xvii 114.96 .

(f) In descriptions of fights: conna torgethar sechut na treót na torot, LU 8139 ( FB 10 ). tēt an fer tarat amal tēti bott t.¤ catt, TBC-I¹ 2680 . laóch bas tualaing th'ergaire ┐ techt thorut `overcome thee,' TTr.² 767 . roling darna laechv, 1076 . regaid fer dar fer, Sc.M² 15.8 . do cuatarsom foithib ┐ trithu ┐ tarrsa, D IV 2, 45a44 .

(g) In phrase buille t.¤ : do-rat cách díb builli dar sróin a chēili riam, Sc.M² 7.10 . ro boí trá buille dar áo i suidiu (builli t.¤ cluáis ┐ t.¤ cend, v.l.), 17.8 .

(h) t.¤ sét, slige, etc. astray: ná léig sinn t.¤ an slighidh do not allow us to stray from the path, DDána 25.4 . cuir inn t.¤ eol mearachaidh keep us from a wrong path, 25.1 .

(i) fo-ceird súil t.¤ : caní ralsid súil torunn? `have ye not cast an eye over us?' Wb. 15a1 . do chor súlae taris, Mon. Tall. 136.22 . nī rolāim sūil toraib isin fid, TBC-I¹ 281.

(j) fo-ceird tar cend overthrows, upsets: is mór ríg ralā dar cend, Hail Brigit § 20 . co corastar na daíni ... tar cend, TBFr. 274 . cend dar cend ┐ druimm dar ais, PH 4392 . See 1 cenn.

(k) With certain verbs: cid siu dothised thairis before she met him, Anecd. i 3.10 . tar doirr troide na tairche `come not into the wrangle of battle,' Content. xxii 19.

III past (i.e. leaving behind).

(a) ulcha ... co soiched dar māethīchtar a māethimlenn sīs, TBC-I¹ 2336 . rochechaing iarum tairsiu it then stepped past them (of the sun), Ériu iv 140.12 . beith t.¤ gach anbhuain aige `to be with him beyond all trouble,' Ériu v 54.45 . dochuaid tarrsa ar tarad a lama laitiri got past them (i.e. defenders), Ann. Conn. 1342.11 .

(b) With léicid (frequently in more or less abstract meanings): im legud ina tāna dar Tailtin, TBC-I¹ 2964 . ro léigedar sin thársa go maidin `they let the matter stand over till morning,' RC xxix 220.9 . far léig mé toram dod thoil, Dán Dé ix 8 . nach lēigfidīs tocrādh a tigerna tairsib that they would not leave unpunished, ML² 1527.

(c) With téit misses, escapes: t.¤ rachuimhne ó ghrásaib Dé nar deachaimne `may we never be forgotten,' Studies 1932, 433 § 7 . a ndeachaidh thorainn `all our shortcomings,' Aithd. D. 97.33 . ar an mbás gcorpordha, ┐ gan dul tairis ag aon-duine, TSh. 2696.

(d) do-icc tar mentions, refers to, treats of: tāinic t.¤ brīathraibh Frōich do Mhidhir, ZCP xiii 174.28 . fada ó tángas t.¤ an ainm `long ago has the name been written of,' Content. v 35 . ní tháinig thar dhortadh fola said nothing about shedding of blood, Eochairsg. 26.13 .

(e) With certain other verbs, frequ. in abstract senses. cuirid: uair ni rocuir ... ailges na acobur e t.¤ a modh gnath roclecht cosin did not cause him to deviate from, D IV 2, 78a22 . fan Páis do chur tairis `to put it past Him,' Maund. 87 . mór do chuir don triallsa thort `has driven ... out of thy mind,' Aithd. D. 31.36 . tar ēis forlonn na faichthe do c[h]ur tairsi when she had got beyond, Feis Tighe Chonáin 984 . do-gní: t.¤ nach éidir dénamh which cannot be done without, IGT Introd. 1.11 . 2.y . gaibid: ma gabthair tairis `if a man gets clear of it' (of carnal thoughts), Mon. Tall. 151.15 . trebaid: Muire ó nach treabhann tharainn since she does not neglect us, DDána 24.19 . ni fhuil cumadh ná siosmadh na seoladh | ... nár thimcheall thórsa `every shaping ... he hath compassed completely' (of an expert shoemaker), Ó Bruad. ii 226 .

IV through, out of (an aperture). Cf. II (c) supra.

(a) Of doors, gates, etc.: coro-m[a]idhetur secht srotha do fhuil ... amach darna secht ndoirrsib, Sc.M² 17.y . tanic an bás t.¤ doirsib mo chuirp is-tech, PH 7805 . Bernais Tana bo Cualnge ... dáig taris rucad in tain, TBC-LL¹ 1587.

(b) Of parts of the body, etc.: in mac imlesen. Fand iarom ainm na dére dothaet tairis, LU 3377 ( SCC 17 ). connách tic focal a corai tardo chend so that you cannot speak properly, Sc.M² 13.y . ní ticfa gāire tar a bél co brách, RC xxiv 374.9 . crechta doimne ... ┐ siat ic tipirsin fhola tairsib, D IV 2, 72b10 .

V through (clothes, etc.): co lluid (sleg) tarsin tlacht ... baí im Ailill, TBFr. 238 . bricht comga ... Ro gonadhsan cach tairsí ┐ treithi ┐ séici, TBC-LL¹ p. 359 n. 7 .

VI In phrases.

(a) tar ais back: in ced do cur tar aís to withdraw the permission, RC xix 28.2 . rathsill ... dara ais, TTebe 4011 . gairm thar ais ` appeal ,' Donlevy 186.21 . See ais.

(b) tar éis on behalf of , etc., see 2 éis.

VII Of time.

(a) Prospectively: nat ṡasai aena t.¤ aile `that one day should not be extended beyond two days,' Laws i 120.18 . Cf. 150.17 . má (sic leg.) téis immurgu t.¤ domnuch `if however it pass the Sunday,' Mon. Tall. 137.14 . tairis sin ` from that forth ,' Laws iii 370.2 Comm. go dtéid t.¤ tráth codalta, TD 20.59 .

(b) With téit is imminent, falls due: do-chuaidh thort mo tháirriochtain it is time for you to save me, DDána 11.23 . 52.39 . dá ndeachadh thoruinn if I was put to it, 95.7 . rachaidh thoruibh tráth oile | bláth toruidh na trócoire, 7.4 .

(c) Retrospectively: noco cuirem in bliadhain-si thoruind `till the year is ended,' Fianaig. 68.21 . atáid re hathaigh d'aimsir ... thart thall `for some time past,' TD 3.2 . an bioth go dtairrnge tharaibh till your life is over, DDána 53.13 . na faoisidineadha do chuaidh thort ` past ,' Donlevy 320.4 .

(d) tar éis after , see 2 éis.

B In meanings of a more abstract nature.

I Denoting increase, excess, etc.

(a) in addition to, besides: dá bfuirgedh dia ... | tairis in chuid do chaithemh `yet farther to consume the meal,' O'Gr. Cat. 442. y. tairis ar marbhadh dhiobh `besides those that were killed,' Rel. Celt. ii 192.6 . tairis sin `besides,' Donlevy 218.14 . tairis so, Corp. Astron. 2.29 .

(b) in excess of: rath t.¤ airdig `over-plus food stock,' Laws ii 262.2 . troscad t.¤ dliged `fasting in excess of what is legal,' iv 58.10 Comm. a mbeith t.¤ a riachtanus `aught over and above his needs,' TSh. 7105.

(c) With téit exceeds: ni conraga tairis it will not increase, Laws i 48.10 . co ndechaidh t.¤ airem a n-esbadha `their losses exceeded computation,' RC xviii 173.2 . téid t.¤ fhine Éireamhóin ` excels ,' Aithd. D. 18.26 . do chuaidh mo shúil t.¤ mo chuid, Dánta Gr. 88.1 . Cf. nā ticidh taris do not exceed it (of a stipulated number of men for a fight), ZCP xiii 228.9 .

II Denoting preference, comparison, distinction , etc. between two objects or between one and several others.

(a) excelling, surpassing, beyond: ar Chríst cóem t.¤ folaid (sic leg.?) excelling, Fél. Apr. 10 . debaid dar dā bran `combat fiercer than two ravens,' ZCP iii 45.9 . rainig a theisd t.¤ ghniomh ghaoidheal `excelled,' Rel. Celt. ii 218.31 . thairis gach ní above all, Feis Tighe Chonáin 862 . a neart t.¤ an gcóir do chuir `He has set Her power higher than any rights,' Aithd. D. 86.18 .

(b) in preference to, rather than: ar adradh Dē dó tairsibh in preference to them (the druids), RC xviii 382.19 . do thogh Dia ... gnúis í Néill ... t.¤ féin ... Gaoidhiol, TD 7.43 . a ghnaoi t.¤ nar bh'iarraidh Art (i.e. when we have you we no longer look for A.), DDána 106.31 . diomoladh na neolghach d'fulang, t.¤ a bheith dorcha air chách (of simple writing), Donlevy xxii 17.

(c) Approximating to of in Eng. of all things, persons, etc., above all: do Laighnibh t.¤ tir oile | níor dhligh buain na bóruimhe from Leinster of all countries, Content. vi 236 . buachoill mo bhó féin | t.¤ gach duine dá dtéid uaim `of all those that deserted me,' TD 22.18 . t.¤ gach arm ... dhíobh sin nachar bhfer feadhma do dhéanamh re clogat é `a helmet, above all ... accoutrements whatsoever, he was not the man to use,' O'Gr. Cat. 510.25.

(d) in comparison with: ní fhuil ann acht dia díomhaoin | t.¤ Mhac Dé (of wordly goods), DDána 22.1 .

(e) aithnid x t.¤ y distinguishes x from y: budh feidhm aithne ar an ngréin ghil | tar néimh aighthe gach aingil to distinguish the bright sun from the radiance of the angels' faces, DDána 29.34 . ionnus nach aithnighedh an dubh t.¤ an mbán, ZCP xii 396.22 . fios an sgrioptuir choir ... t.¤ an leabhar nach sgrioptur, Luc. Fid. 257.2 .

III In meanings with the underlying idea of substitution:

(a) on behalf of, for the sake of (?): is tríd trá do rádhusa | ... | t.¤ chach `on behalf of the others,' Content. vii 6 . níom comhghaol níom cara dhuibh | tarsa ná tathaoir Lughaidh `do not blame L. on that score,' xxi 19 . trúag gan mé is taraind ar thuit, IGT Decl. ex. 664.

(b) tar cend on behalf of , see 1 cenn.

(c) tar éis, see 2 éis.

(d) in return for: t.¤ cais cain-denam (in return) `for hate, well-doing,' Lib. Hymn. 173.358 (ACC). lecid in mnai ass ┐ tabar slan dúib taris in return, LL 276a36 . t.¤ gach leathtrom ... | malairt urchair uaim tar ais | do bhéar `in return for the harsh words,' Content. xvii 10 . Note also: is tairside dochuaid A. ua cleith `through her A. went in secret ...,' TTebe 505 .

IV in violation of, against, generally governing a noun meaning law, treaty, etc.

(a) With téit, do-icc, gaibid etc. transgresses (see also tairmthecht): ho luid adam t.¤ réir, Wb. 3c37 . tairmthtecht t.¤ timna, Laws i 10.3 . raghaidh cech recht t.¤ araile every right will run counter to another, ZCP viii 195.6 . berar coma úan don laech, | mad dia ti taris is báeth if he reject it, TBC-LL¹ 1644 . dias doroine cundradh ... is cuimgech cach fer dib masech tiachtain tairis `withdraw from it' (Plummer MS. notes), H 5.15, 8a ( O'D. 1589 ). riasind aurd dara gaib `the orders which he transgressed,' Mon. Tall. 141.28 . dá ngabhthar linn slighe t.¤ a síorghuidhe, Aithd. D. 19.14 . Cf. t.¤ láimh an ríogh ... | do-chuaidh sinn, 66.28 . ni failmet darth'airmitein, SR 6320.

(b) against, in violation of: dar timne recto dognither int immarmus, Wb. 3c36 . dar brethir Colum Cille, BCC² 233.334 . tar breithir an tṡenaire ┐ an druadh, RC ix 462.14 . toirched t.¤ apud `getting a woman with child notwithstanding being forbidden,' Laws i 176.1 . is t.¤ menmin lim `es geht mir gegen den Sinn,' ZCP viii 175.27 . is t.¤ ghealladh do mhaoidhis `against your promise you boasted ...,' Content. v 183 . faill do thabhairt i ngrádh Dé, t.¤ mar budh dlightheach dhó, TSh. 8613 . t.¤ mo shárugud, PH 3825 . dar sāruccud Dē, ACL iii 308.19 .

(c) in spite of: in ti troisces t.¤ taircsin reir do, Laws i 118.4 . a ngabail t.¤ a n-ainme cipē cruth i mbeid taking them in spite of their defects, ZCP viii 113.10 . robudh thochmarc t.¤ lóegh mbeo sin that were a wooing despite a living warrior (her lover Fróech being alive), ZCP xiii 173.5 . t.¤ a mbí dá dhocracht dó, TD 15.22 . Hence tairis sin yet nevertheless: rodlesaighes thairis sin and yet I have befriended thee, BS 20.27 . bíodh nach tabhair an t-aifreann éin-ní nua dona naoidheanaibh ..., thairis sin ... dleaghair a rádh, TSh. 4831.

V In asseveration = Eng. by (perh. from practice of placing hand over object sworn by, Fraser ZCP viii 60 ): ducuitig tarais fadeissin ... nech taratoissed he swore by himself, Wb. 33d10 . t.¤ ioib gl. per Iouem, Sg. 217b2 . dar mo bréthir, IT i 121.22 . tongu-sa fom chumachta ┐ t.¤ in mac n-oengine, Ériu ii 196.18 . dar an bpeann `by the pen,' O'Gr. Cat. 590.33.