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1 aile

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 aile or dil.ie/978
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: oile, eile, arch, aild, aile, aile, aill, aile, aill, aili, ailiu, ailiu, áili, aili, aili, aile, ailib, aile, aili, aile, aili, aili, a., n-aill, n-aile, éile, éle, aill, aili, ailiu, ailiu, aile, alaill, allail, alaill, alaili, alailiu, aili, alaaili, alaili, n-aile, allaili, aile, alaili, aili, alaile, holailiu, horaili, fulailiu, folaill, hualailiu, alaile, alaill, alaile, arele, lelele, alaill, aláil, araill, alaili, aláili, álaili, araili, áréli, alailiu, arailiu, alaili, aili, lialailiu, liala ailiu, aile, alailib, alaili, aréli, alaili, indala, indala, dondala, indala, indala, indala, all, AILE, ALAILE, arailiu, alailiu, alaile, (a)la, al(l)

In later lang. oile, eile other, one of two, second , pronominal used as adj. and noun. Inflected as io, iā -stem except in n a s. neut. (aill, see below). GOI §§ 486 ff. , Hamp, Études Celt. ix 477 (aill, arch. aild). Old-Irish forms. Stressed forms

(a) aile (as adj. follows noun; as subst. always with article or nach). As adj. n s m. aile, Wb. 12c46 . n. aill, 9c3 . a s m. aile, Wb. 9d31 . n. aill, 13a1 . g s. aili, Sg. 30a2 . d s. ailiu, Wb. 21a7 . ailiu, Sg. 30b4 . n p. áili, Wb. 12b1 . aili, 22d14 . a p. aili, Sg. 28a6 . g p. aile, Wb. 12b3 . d p. ailib, Wb. 12b11 . Fem. n s. aile, Wb. 10d18 . a s. aili, Sg. 189a8 . g s. aile, Sg. 188a12 . n p. aili, Sg. 22a3 . a p. aili, Sg. 191a2 .

n As subst. n s m. nach a.¤ , Wb. 20a10 . n s n. a n-aill , Wb. 4b24 . a s m. nach n-aile , Wb. 8a3 . éile, éle (influence of céile, GOI p. 308 ), 6a15 , 6c18 . a s n. na aill , Wb. 17c23 . g s. nach aili , Wb. 17b28 . d s. nach ailiu , Sg. 209b12 . a p. amal na heliu, Sg. 9b1 . ailiu gl. quos (nullos tepefacit sol), Ml. 94b20 . Fem. g s. inna aile , Thes. ii 15.42 (BCr.).

(b) With double stem ala aile, alaile, with dissimilation araile (with stress on -ail-) (as adj. precedes noun; as subst. does not take article or other proclitic, cf. Ped. Ériu xv 188 ff.).

As adj. n s n. alaill ṡain, Sg. 6b24 . allail (recte alaill, edd.) pronomen , 209b10 . g s. alaili thríuin, Sg. 96a4 . d s. alailiu chruth, Ml. 98d1 . n p. alá aili aidme, Ml. 89a9 . alaaili réta, Sg. 111b5 . a p. alaili dliged, Ml. 18c11 . g p. ala n-aile ndoine, Ml. 54a21 .

Fem. a s. allaili mbeasti, RC xi 446.1 . g s. ala aile aidme, Ml. 51c5 . d s. alaili tain gl. quando, Sg. 222b2 . n p. ala aili interiecta, Sg. 10a1 .

When used with a prep. ending in a vowel alaile sometimes drops its initial: holailiu, Ml. 80a2 . horaili, 2a6 . fulailiu (sic MS.), 102d2 . folaill, Laws iv 102.14 . But hualailiu, Ml. 40d17 . Sg. 25b12 . With la see substantival use infra.

n As subst. n s m. alaile, Wb. 6b20 . n s n. alaill, 7d11 . a s m. alaile, Wb. 5d15 . arele, 9c19 . With la: lelele, 16c24 . a s n. alaill, 4c33 . aláil, 12a10 . araill, 23b21 . g s. alaili, Wb. 4c13 . aláili, 12a34 . álaili, 13a9 . araili, Sg. 10a10 . áréli, Wb. 13a5 . d s. alailiu, Wb. 2a14 . arailiu, 21a13 . n p. alaili, Wb. 13a16 . ala aili , Sg. 215a1 . a p. with la, lialailiu, Ml. 14a4 (liaailiu, MS.). liala ailiu, Sg. 32b5 . g p. ala n-aile (gl. reliquorum), Ml. 37a21 . Sg. 201b15 . d p. alailib, Wb. 25b13 . Sg. 208b8 . Fem. a s. fri alaili , Sg. 202a4 . d s. aréli (see above), Wb. 8a7 , alaili, Sg. 189a7 . 212b3 .

In Bardic verse this form alliterates with words beginning either with r- or vowels: líonmhar dá reic re-roile, DDána 61.3 . sgol i n-ucht ar-oile ag ól, 103.25 .

(c) Unstressed forms (always adjectival preceding noun or aí, see below, and most usually with preceding article or cach). With article (both words indecl.) n s m. indala mmod, Ml. 45b11 . a s m. indala fer, Wb. 4c16 . d s. dondala lucht, Wb. 16c20 . n s f. indala chlas, Ml. 138d1 . g s f. indala rainne, Sg. 74b7 . a s n. indala lestar, Wb. 4c32 . With cach, usually cach la: cach la sel, Wb. 15d9 . cach le céin, Ml. 19c1 . Without art. somet. also all, see C I (a) below.

A. The form AILE.

I As adj. following its noun other, second: frituidecht a.¤ anísiu, Sg. 21b11 . pronomen naill, 197b17 . fogur na liter na.¤ , 4a8 . guidiu itge n-a.¤ , Fél. Ep. 413 . anní nail as much again, IT ii1 180.177 . cethri fogaetha a.¤ , SR 49 . immon michil lasin crosfigill-so immon muiri lasind crosfigell na.¤ immasech `with the next', Mon. Tall. 137.z (§ 28) . do nach raod aliu `to any other matter', 143.30 (§ 43) . isind le[i]th ailiu, Críth G. 591 (eliu, MS.). do c[h]ellaib elib, BColm. 62.20 . forsin triur aili `the other three', RC xxiv 174.10 . aisceda imda eili, Sc.M² § 4 R . Longínus in ainm ele, PH 673 . a dhuine dhiombuain eile, DDána 27.3 . céd eili d'uaislib `a hundred other nobles', IGT Decl. ex. 60 . ┐ ní eili and furthermore, Hy Maine 161.31 . beag oile as congnamh ré chois `little else', Dán Dé x 17 . aill with non-neut. noun: ro-lēcus-[s]a gaí n-aill cucut-su, Sc.M² § 13 . issin láim n-aill, MU² 543 . do thuc bulli n-aill, TBC-LL¹ 1998 . fecht n-aile (n-aill), úair a.¤ another time, on another occasion see fecht and 2 úar. Of future time, next, forthcoming: lathi n-and resint samḟuin a.¤ cind bliadna, LU 3298 ( SCC § 10 ). cosin caiscc naili `until the next Easter', Mon. Tall. 132.17 (§ 12) . nach (na) . . . a.¤ (aill) any other . . . : nábat nacha arm aili `let it not be any other arms', Wb. 11d14 . dochum nacha rainne a.¤ , Sg. 188a12 . indtan noteigdis nach leth aili, Mon. Tall. 129.18 (§ 6) . in nacha reduibh ailib, Ériu ii 106.9 . Masc. with neut. noun: huare nad fil na nert n-a.¤ , Ml. 29d5 .

n II As subst.

(a) another, the other, others etc.: cuit inna aine ┐ inna a.¤ of the one and of the other, Thes. ii 15.42 (Bcr.). amal na heliu `like the others', Sg. 9b2 . arus leth do fallaib an aill do doebdadaib `for half is due for the neglects, the other for the claimants,' Laws iv 126.21 Comm. mad a.¤ da lina beta olca folaid `one of two parties', ii 366.11 . ma a.¤ dá lína bes anfoltach, O'D. 565 ( H 3.17, 441 ). co ndearnadhsom in a.¤ chédna likewise, TFrag. 22.22 . mani tucad . . . ní din chéttadall ni bered a n-aill, Sc.M² § 1 . ní fargaib bennachtain ┐ ní thuc anaill (alali, v.l.), RC viii 52.25 . aroile . . . anaill the one . . . the other (ref. to léo), Grail 3399 .

(b) period of two days: a.¤ do mnaib . . . treisi do rig, Laws i 78.15 . nat ṡasai aena tar a.¤ `that one day should not be extended beyond two days', 120.18 . athgabail a.¤ itir uin ┐ treise rosmidir Sencha, 126.11 . cach athgabail a.¤ , 144.24 .i. for ata anad naili ┐ apad aili, 146.21 Comm. is for dail na haili, 146.12 Comm. athgabail a.¤ do ingin im comorbus a mathar, 146.y .i. ar ata anadh naili, 148.3. Comm. a.¤ déc space of twelve days (cf. a.¤ déc one twelfth , (g) infra): a.¤ do mnaib, a.¤ dec doib im roe, Laws i 78.15 .

(c) Frequ. a n-aill something else, anything else: nimbe anaild arbera bith `he has nothing else that he may eat', Mon. Tall. 146.16 (§ 50) . ind lethbairgin ┐ ind cethramtu nó anaild `the half loaf and the quarter or other quantity, 151.z (§ 63) , ní fogbat merdrecha Ulad a n-aill acht foraim én dóib, LU 3254 ( SCC § 5 ). it é do theoir ríagla / nítroib anaill bas diliu `have thou naught else dearer', Ériu i 194 § 7 . in fil anaill? ol Grigoir `is there anything else?' ZCP iii 30.21 .

(d) Hence with ocus, etc. furthermore: ┐ anaill forácbus[s]a . . ., LL 279a7 . ┐ anaill béus, iarfaig-siu and furthermore, ask . . ., TBC-LL¹ 1920 . ┐ dano a n-aill and úair ni chesend nech, LU 2654 . ┐ anaill niro tagaill . . ., Grail 2786 . Cf. similar use of araill: et araill aile dana béus, TBC-LL¹ 106 . ┐ araill and, dano, . . . ní fil rígain . . ., LU 4015 ( SCC § 46 ). araill ele bheós ro leth ainm . . ., AFM v 1858.z . ┐ araill ele nir bó siodhach . . ., vi 2052.10 .

(e) Uninflected aill . . . aill one . . . another, some . . . others (not found in O. Ir. Glosses): imrordus in rígraid / . . . / aill úas laithib lígdaib / aill fo díanaib déraib some . . . others, Fél. Prol. 23 . aill fir mair . . . / aill ingene húage `one of a mighty man . . . another of a virginal maiden', June 5 . áill fri cumaid . . . aill ele fri teichead (of persons), Alex. 309 . .lll. carpdech . . . aill bruitt budi aill bruit deirg `some in yellow mantles others in red mantles', RC xiv 412.8 . Hence adverbially partly . . . partly: aill is tóla catha crūach / aill is cōra cacha crích, ZCP xi 110 § 30 . go ruc in ingen leis aill ar áis aill ar égin, Ériu xi 46.13 . Cf. aill .i. aonfecht .. . ut est aill torla tres tochuired, O'Dav. 34 , Ériu xiii 15.11 .

(f) With nach any other: arna arroímatsom nach na.¤ `lest they should receive any one else', Wb. 14d37 . cen acaldaim nach aili, Sg. 153b7 . cen acomol naich aili do `without joining any other to it', 197b17 . nib écen na aill, Wb. 22d12 . ni gessid na aill act búaid precepte, Wb. 26a34 . ní epur na haill `I say nothing more', Sg. p. 217 marg. sup. (Thes. ii xxii). in fail na aill adcota[r] dam, Trip.² 1323 . cona bía cuit do nach ailiu i nHére, 2766 . do-bérad naill ( = na aill) would give something else, BDD² 276 . With partitive DI something else of: asbéram na aill diar ṅgnímaib, Wb. 17c23 . in fuil anaill d'ingantaib air?, Grail 2983 . Cf. aill do buadaib Duind C. andso something of the triumphs, TBC-LL¹ 1529 .

(g) In numerals (fractions). a.¤ déac one twelfth: oile dég f., IGT Decl. § 3 . oil a dég (oil dhég v.l.) lochdach, IGT Decl. § 14 . aili deac brotto `the twelfth part of a second', Thes. ii 13.29 (BCr.). erpais Patraic aili deac Erend dó the twelfth part of Ireland, Trip.² 911 . `a.¤ dhéc the twelfth part, the Brehon's fee . Anglicé allayéag,' O'Don. Suppl. ni uil aile déc dosomh ┐ atá éiric a gubreite fairsium, O'D. 536 ( H 3.17, 432 ). da tecarthar ni da folaid cruid on breithemain, no ailedec, Laws i 234.17 Comm. diablad na aile dec, 234.18 Comm. no co thormaigi fa geall co roib aile dec, v 252.20 Comm. log a breithemnuis, aile dec, 212.22 Comm. Perh. also in: ni bhía an oile dēgsi am díaigh / nach foighe Ó Bríain d'éicsi úaim, IGT Decl. ex. 216 . barr na ngēg uile re n-idnaibh / uile dég gun fidhbaidh ortt (lochtach), ex. 225 . Cf. Kl. enair for dardain ail uathaid fuirre `the second day of the moon thereon', RC xviii 176.27 (Tig.). 284.2 . For ail dec 35.9 Stokes suggests reading ail uathaid.

B. The form ALAILE etc.

I As adj.

(a) other: aliud pronomen . i. is allail (recte alaill, edd.) pronomen , Sg. 209b10 . cenn cridi ┐ alaaili réta `and other things', 111b5 . sech alaili dliged ┐ indliuchtu `apart from other sayings and meanings', Ml. 18c11 . imtech[t] Boinde . . . ┐ alanaile n-aband, AU i 308. 11 , cf. 330.4 , 374.4 . In later lang. neut. form somet. used after noun irrespective of gender: leth in moige . . . al-leth allaill, RC xi 446.52 . don taeb araill, Stair Erc. 782 . isin luing araill, Grail 2969 . isind láim anaill, TBC-LL¹ 1719 . Note also: adhaigh n-aill n-aile another night, BNnÉ 324 § 38 .

(b) Usually some, a certain (gl. quidam, aliquis): hualailiu chlausul gl. uelut in clausula, Ml. 40d17 . holailiu lon gl. quodam adipe, 80a2 . ainm alaili thríuin `name of a certain hero', Sg. 96a4 . alaill ṡain, 6b24 . hualailiu mud gl. quodammodo, 25b12 . con alailiu fogoir (leg. fogur, edd.) gl. aliquo `with some sound', 39a2 . alaili tain gl. quando, 222b1a . ac gūmāidim ala naile nairec ninganta falsely boasting of various wonderful inventions, Corm. Y 825 . cornan alaili cuislendach, `a certain piper Cornan', Mon. Tall. 131.23 (§ 10) . alaili fáith marb, Trip.² 1395 . di araile anmcharait, ACL iii 5.3 . aroile fer angid, PH 818 . doní . . . araile gaitt irisech `she commits a certain pious theft', BColm. 84.10 . i n-araile domnuch, ZCP iii 33.15 . ro indsaig araile carruic . . . ┐ ros buail, Grail 1435 . in araile locc i lLaighis `at a certain place', AFM ii 1066.3 . Cf. co aroile mainistir ecin, RC x 187.4 .

n II As subst.

(a) another, the other: ni ferr nech alailiu, Wb. 2a16 . ni áir do neuch molad alaili, 16a24 . is coitchen do cechtar de ainm alaili `the name of each is common to both', Ml. 14d12 . intí diib bes tresa orcaid alaile, Ml. 19d6 . tar cenn alanaile gl. aliorumuice, 95d9 . Sg. 201b15 . cenmathá dobrethir ┐ alaaili `except the adverb and other (parts of speech)', 71b17 . muidit secht catha ren Osseirgé for na Déise . . . asberat araile is tricha cath others say, Ériu iii 138.102 . in foirend is craibdige araile `the folk who are more believing than the rest', PH 6363 . coná baí aithgne neich sech alaile díb, TBFr. 271 . cach gabal tra issuidiu araile hisesam `every other division is sung sitting, the next standing', Mon. Tall. 140.4 (§ 31) . gach clas ro claideadh do línadh do arbaim alaill do imbim the furrows to be filled alternately with corn and butter, Laws iv 98.14 Comm. drécht diib i nAidniu, araill diib oc Dubcechair, ZCP viii 305.30 . Hence alaile . . . alaile etc. (the) one . . . the other, another: biit alaili and rofinnatar a pecte rosíu (sic) docói grád forru alaili is iarum . . ., Wb. 29a28 . alaaili diib hi remthechtas . . . alaaili dano it coitchena eter remthechtas, Sg. 215a1 . Later araill . . . de is used of all genders: comérgit Ulaid araill díb . . . araill, LU 5017 . Cf. a dá grúad . . . co ndeirgi fola laíg ┐ araill eile co solusgili sneachta, BDD² 38 . Also when first part of phrase contains ind ala (infra).

(b) With idea of mutual action each other: con rochra cách a.¤ lit. that each may love the other (= that all may love each other), Wb. 6d1 . rosbennach cách dib elathain aroile, Fél. 4.20 . Eogan . . .┐ Oed . . . do marbad aroili, Ann. Conn. 1340.12 . ar bruinnib ┐ ochtaip aroile ┐ a chēile, Fl. Earls, 80.17 . Frequ. with prepp.: combad imned for araill domsa so that it should be trouble upon trouble for me, Wb. 23b21 . Cf. in peccath for arele, 9c19 . is ball cách dialailiu, 5d4 . ar a ndig cechtar dīb sech anaile (araile v.l.) so that they can get past each other (of two chariots), Corm. Y 1082 (96.11) . ni dernai nechtar n-ai olc fri araili, TBFr. 24.3 = fria chéile, 420 . ón tráth co roili, BDD² 1251 . lán ón orsain go ar-oile / an teach . . ., DDána 85.37 . casmhail a rún dá-roile, 92.6 . an ro loitseat Goill ┐ Geraltaig imo roile (roile) isan tansa `the injuries mutually done upon each other', AFM v 1734.15 . dīss derbrāthor dieroile `two . . . brothers', Fl. Earls 124.1 . ?asrean a ceile agh fo laill do `his neighbour shall give him another calf', Laws iv 102.14 Comm.

(c) somebody, something; a certain person or thing . In sg.: araill tra cairigedarsom there is a certain thing (?) (`there are other things now which he blames'), Wb. 25b9 . So also: [con]-secha alaill indib (`he corrects another thing in them'), 26c1 . aroile do lāmhoip S. Niclās `one of the hands', Fl. Earls 80.20 . ba ingnad liasna Fomoire alaill tarfas doib isin cath a certain thing, RC xii 92 § 122 . atpert aroile fris `a certain man', Stair Erc. 1449 . Note also: ara ara bélaib isin charput sin araile forseng fánfota forbrec a charioteer in front of him . . . and he was, LU 9274 . In pl.: is sí cétbaid alanaile `this is the opinion of some', Ml. 36a1 . circunflex la grecu for alailib diib, Sg. 208b8 . With DI: araill d'feraib Midi `some of the men of M.', RC xviii 23.31 . do deachaidh fein cona mac . . . ┐ ar oile dia mhuintir innte, Leb. Gab.(i) 242.26 . d'foraithmet araill dona neithibh remraiti, 272.6 . araill d'áes na cemenn sin, CCath. 86 .

(d) As adv. (d s n.) arailiu `otherwise', Wb. 21a13 (introducing an alternative explanation); cf. alailiu chruth gl. aliter, Ml. 98d1 . alailiu, Wb. 9a23 (see Bergin, Ériu xiv 29 ; xvii 1; Pedersen, Ériu xv 188 ). alaile, Anecd. iii 59.2 . araili .i. gne eile, Laws iv 68.3 . Perh. also in TBC-I¹ 1044 , TBC-LL¹ 1833 ff. (reading ... cadān co leith. Allaile (alailiu LU) dia tonda etc.) .

C. The form (a)la, al(l).

I As adj.

(a) other, one of two, second (in this use a `compositional prefix', GOI § 394 ): all-aidchi on another night, IT ii2 194.21 . alachéill in sin, ZCP viii 313.29 . Morc .i. ala flaith na Fomoire, Leb. Gab.(i) 80.30 . béra cend ríg alathúaithi lat, BDD² 727 . fria lesa alabrugh of other territories, O'Curry 454 ( H 3.18, 242a ). rogrād fir alathīre 'great love of a man of another land', Ériu ii 15 § 2 . ? nach for ala thire tí tarrassais 'that you did not abide upon the surface of another land', PMLA lvi 940 ( LL 37013 ). li ala lécuinn Saul `by one of S.'s cheeks', Ml. 55c1 . ala n-or di i teg, a n-aill fri sīn, Corm. Y 35 (aurso). ala thred dub alaili find, Anecd. i 57 § 58 . tēora blaī būirig . . . blaī mescae . . . alablaī dúnaid la túatha téchtai tecraiter the second exemption, ZCP xi 83.1 . cath Ocha alachath `the second battle', RC xiii 54.10 . ala-chor second contract, Laws ii 274.z . mád ala feacht iar mbrethaib forru `for the second time', 66.16 . See also under compds. and 1 al. See also under allabrig.

(b) With article ind ala one of two, (the) one (. . . the other) (see also B II (a) supra): dotóeth indala fiacail airthir a chinn `one of the two teeth', Thes. ii 248.9 . arambé indala rann cen diall `that one of the two parts be undeclined', Sg. 74b6 . ind ala c. gl. praetermisit unam c (i.e. by writing hoc for hocc), 205b5 . co lluid tré scíath n-ete indala heóin one of the two birds, LU 3282 ( SCC § 7 ). doroigu ind ala fer . . . et romiscsigestar alaile, Wb. 4c16 . is léir dorigni indala lestar is dínnimu dongní alaill, 4c32-33 . ni coir dídnad dondala lucht et troscud dond lucht ailiu, 16c20 . īadais andala (indara, LU) sūil . . . asoilg alaile, TBC-I¹ 394 . benaid . . . Mac Cecht a chend dondala fir . . . ro boí in fer aile oc élúd, LU 7942 . Loch nE. dindala leith di ┐ Slíab C. dind leith ailiu, Trip.² 1957 . Later indara: indara láim dó fri ubull bragat in chon. dobeir araile fria chúl one of his hands, LU 5012 . indara fecht . . . canait ceol . . . in fecht n-aill contúaset fri ceól muintire nime, 1978 ( FA 5 ). is hé indara fer . . . ró an . . . Donnmal int aili, Trip.² 1521 .

(c) ind ala the second (cf. tánaiste): cengsat siar dind ara chur `for the second time', Metr. Dinds. iii 4.33 . isin dara cét lá deidenach don ré `on the second last day of the term', Laws iv 136.1 Comm. Hence in compd. numerals: ala rann deac `one twelfth', Thes. ii 13.29 (BCr.). issed indala nainmm déc the twelfth name, Thr. Ir. Gl. 25.9 = indara hainm, Corm. Y 750 . indala descipul lxx at the seventy-second disciple, Laws i 20.2 Comm. fir errainne co alasét sesed with sixty-two `séts' ZCP xii 361.21 . ?torad cach trethain ala cairrge, Laws v 484.2 (Comm. takes as all beyond). Cf. co treathan ala cairge no ala caire, O'Curry 20 ( H 3.18, 9a ).

(d) cach (a)la every other, every second: cach la céin . . . in céin naili sometimes . . . sometimes, Ml. 19b1, 3 . cachlacein `alternately', Mon. Tall. 146.29 (§ 52) . is i fescur cachlacēin / dlegar dīdnad dōib they are entitled to a meal on alternate days at vesper-time (of fasting regulations), ZCP xiii 29.14 . cach la sel dún for imrádud dé in sel aile for precept `at one time meditating on God, at another time preaching', Wb. 15d9 . ammarbad cach la sel iarum do a mbeogud indtale dia marbad `he continues alternately to mortify and revive them from their dying state', Mon. Tall. 147.16 (§ 52) . bó cona timthuch cech la blíadnai . . . colp[d]ach ḟirenn lee in mblíadnai n-aili every second year, Críth G. 266 . cach alablīa[dain] every second year, Corm. Y 1082 ( Anecd. iv 96.16 ). cach ara bliadain, Laws iv 140.29 Comm. druinech cechla bean / crecōir cechla fer, ZCP ix 170.17 . ate cuir treineacha la Feine cach la fear dia urgaire, alaili dia forngaire, Laws iv 54.13 . gach re n-am alternately, Dán Dé v 41 .

II n As subst. indala n-aí (invariable) one of the two: is dochu ind ala nái oldaas a n-aill, Wb. 4b24 . togu ind ala n-ái . . . damnad alaili `to choose one of the twain . . . to condem the other', 4c13 . ci atbela ind ala n-ái ni epil alaill, Sg. 30a3 . ind ala n-aí antúaid alaile andess, 67b22 . co n-accai in da mnaí . . . indala n-ai brat úaine impe alaili brat corcra, LU 3285 ( SCC § 8 ). elcuig indalanae, ruibidh alailiu, ZCP viii 105.11 . da fítt . . . inddala hí do tabirt do Día . . . araile do tomailt fadein, Mon. Tall. 161.10 (§ 80) . Later also ala (n-)aí: ar lēicse ala aí di arailiu, ZCP xv 316 § 10 . ni frith ala ai do thacru, 354 § 42 . dá [n]dorus [n]-and—comla[e] ar ala n-aí, clíath ar alailiu, Críth G. 101 . bōthar, talla dā boin fair .i. alanāi for fot alaile for tarsnae, Corm. Y 1082 ( Anecd. iv 96.17 ).

COMPDS. cosnamach fri hailecricha, Ériu viii 173.28 . i n-ailithír, Trip.² 2033 . asna hailithírib foreign countries, TTr.² 1747 (cf. ailithir). aile máthair, Sg. 152a2 (not treated as compd. by GOI § 394 . Perh. infl. by the Lat. altera mater). See also C I (a) above.

áinsem

Cite this: eDIL s.v. áinsem or dil.ie/1521

Forms: áinsed

u, m. vn. of ad-nessa. Also áinsed. act of accusing, blaming: imba immalei do occar taithchricc et ocar n-á.¤ `redeeming and accusing us', Wb. 4b16 . is nessa do inni lemm oldaas bid ar n-á.¤ .i. díar fírianugud-ni són ní diar n-á.¤ , 17 . ind ainsemo gl. accussationis, Ml. 34a18 . inarfasad (inárfussa v.l.) domsa . . . in cathraigh indumtarthatar indainsedh (anainsed, indainssed, v.l.) dam, Anecd. ii 53.1 . ? ainnsi [is] airgsi gach aithfer, Metr. Gl. 19 § 60 .

airegda (-ae)

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airegda (-ae) or dil.ie/1917

Forms: airechda

adj io, iā (3 aire). Also airechda. excellent, pre-eminent, notable: is ho Isaác dofuisémthar a síl nairegde, Wb. 4c7 . rann airegde inna anme gl. spiritus, 25c26 . inna ndule nairechdae, Ml. 87b21 . airechta gráda a cossa ┐ a lama, Thr. Ir. Gl. 37.14 = airegdai grāta, Corm. Y 1059 (92.19) . rí amra a.¤ , BDD² 1 . at-chíu flaith n-ard n-aireagdai, 1011 . na trí gillai óca ána a.¤ , MU² 74 . imm rigain . . . n-oiregdha, Aen. 376 . trí éoin a.¤ remarkable , LU 2008 . bá laithi n-airechdae léo-som ind feis Temrach notable , Trip.² 524 . teora gemai airechdai . . . .i. Colum Cille etc., 599 . deilge órda a.¤ , TBC-LL¹ 5684 . na cethri suailche airegdai noble, PH 4608 . na hocht sualchi erechdai, 6850 . fogeba . . . bethaidh n-a.¤ occumsa excellent, CCath. 3341 . a sosadh orduirc oiregda na hEirenn (of Tara), Ériu iii 150 § 1 . dá roicheam don bhrugh fhionnfhuar oireaghdha, DDána 70.18 . sircolladh do denum ar imdhaidh uasail oiredha `stately', ZCP vi 95.4 . is oirighdha aigeanta imchubhaidh do'n ealadhain si, MR 94.13 . feda airegda vowels (of the Ogham alphabet), see fid. principal, leading, first: se nechi a.¤ triasa n-insaigther iffernd, LU 2354 . secht mbaill oirida `seven principal members', Rosa Angl. 130.10 . i ccabhanuibh oireadha ┐ neamhoireadha na hinchinne ventriculis cerebri tam in principalibus quam non principalibus, 23 K 42, 290.7 . Adv. ata folmhughadh leanna fuair go hoireadha ionnta ┐ leanna duib go tanaiste, 392.9 .

Compar.: ciasu airegdu in fer, Wb. 11c17 . ni airegdu a persan som oldaas persan na nabstal olchene, 18d14 . in fót as airechdu són gl. superior gleba, Ml. 37d14 . erechdu són gl. procero, 53a16 . ar ba hairegdu leo a hadnacul hi Cruachain, LU 2915 . Superl.: is ē dēach is airegdamh dīb, Corm. Y 447 (38.9) . dealb is airechdam . . . būi for duine riamh, 1059 (94.13) . With form of compar.: do neoch bá sruthem ┐ ba hairegdu inna caurad, LU 4979 (TBC). int aenduine rob airechda . . . hi comamsir fris fein, Ann. Conn. 1306.2 .

2 assa(e)

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 assa(e) or dil.ie/4492

adj io, iā easy, light: is asse duib maid do denum, Wb. 4a4 . mad asse dom gl. uellim autem esse apud uos, 20a1 . ni asse tacre . . . friss, 25b14 . ni asse nóib di suidib, 3d28 . connabí asse a aicsin leu, Ml. 116a1 . Ɔnách ase ditia do buith uandí as dis. , Sg. 104b4 . con[n]ách assa[e] bóaire do cach áe, Críth G. 147 . inge .vii. n-uasalchuru nadat assai do thaithbiuch, Ériu xvii 66 § 7 ( Laws iv 210.1 ). ni hassa bith fria, LL 12434 . ro gabh an ní nad asa, AFM i 336.3 . nocho n-asa a n-áirim gním Laigen, SG 375.37 . dia m-bad assa do etir if it was at all possible for him(?), Alex. 809 . In cheville: cúairt n-assa, Metr. Dinds. iii 290.63 .

Compar. as asu, Sg. 187a3 . ? assu éc ernbáis, BDD² 718 . is assu ém damsa . . . oldás daitsiu, LU 4790 (TBC). is asso in tsīrgorta / oldās in sīrloscadh more bearable, ZCP vii 311 § 20 . Note also: astul .i. slisen nō gāe libuir nō assude a dul, Corm. Y 19 = assaite a dul, O'Mulc. 96 . Cf. 1 usa. With neg. it is difficult (on idiom see St. fr. Táin Gloss.): ní assu du chách imram isindroféith, Ml. 126a7 . ar ní assu nach ai araili dib one is just as difficult as the other, LU 2080 ( FA 15 ). ni asu araile, Laws iv 184.11 `it is one of the most difficult', Plummer MS notes. in t-oenchrand ni h-assu a chlód which it is not possible to fell(?), TBC-LL¹ 2349 . ní hassu dún . . . a idnaide, LU 5666 (TBC). In phrase is a.¤ la considers easy: is asa lim fuaidridh do cur, IT iii 201.3 . With compar.: is assu linn scarad friar corp, Wb. 15c22 . ba assu limm oldaas for n-imdibe-si, 20b9 . iss asu chách lind `the easiest thing in the world', MacCongl. 103.18 . ce de bid assu latsu?, TBC-I¹ 1221 (`which of the two would you deem the lighter?' St. fr. Táin Gloss.). Note also: co mbad esaiti leo a fecht ┐ a slogad, TBC-LL¹ 189 . With superl.: cia tír ass asam lat do thabairt dúinne, ZCP viii 318.34 .

As subst. in phr. iar n-assu after (the time when it was) easy (feasible); too late: cobair iar n-asa (sic leg., edd.), Mon. Tall. 164.22 (§ 90) . rabert giarb í in chobair iar n-assu (iarnasa v.l.), TBC-LL¹ 3942 . bid aithrigi iar n-assu, Ériu ii 138 § 134 . aithirge iar n-assu, LB 101 marg. inf. cia dorada aitrige / is hí ind hí iar n-assa, TFrag. 110.10 . bés bidh edón cidh áes Arda as nesa / mani pad ferr, a Dé, iar n-as[s]u / nī bud messu, ACL iii 297 § 57 . But perh. difft. word.

As n.pr. Assa a ainmsi . . . ar ba hurussa a haltram, LL 12425 . Assa a hainm gó sin anald, ar ba hailgen, RC vi 174.20 .

attá

Cite this: eDIL s.v. attá or dil.ie/4927
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: attá, Fil, fil, faeilfit, fil, fil, atóo, attó, attóo, ató, -táu, -ttóo, -tó, atái, atái, -tái, adta, ata, at, atáa, attáa, ataa, att, -tá, -ta, -táa, -dathar, ataam, attaam, ataid, ataaith, ataaid, ataad, -taid, ataat, ataat, -tat, -taat, tathum, tathut, táithi, táthus, táthunn, taithiunn, tathuib, tás, fil, fil, feil, fel, fail, fil, file, fel, fele, feil, fail, biuu, -bíu, -bí, biith, biid, bíid, -bii, -bí, robīi, -rubi, -rubai, -ruba, bíis, biís, bis, bís, bithir, bither, -bither, -rubthar, bímmi, -biam, bimme, biit, bíit, robiat, -biat, -bíat, -rubat, bíte, -bíinn, -biinn, -bíid, -bíth, -bid, -bith, bithe, -bímmis, -bitis, -bítis, b, bíth, bíith, bíid, biid, bíd, bithom, biid, bith, biat, beo, beu, -béo, bee, b, -bee, robhe, beith, beid, bed, beth, -b, -bée, bethum-sa, rob, robe, rubé, rob, robbé, -roib, bess, bes, bethir, bether, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -bem, -robam, beithe, bethe, -beith, -beid, -robith, beit, rubet, be(i)t, -bet, -robat, bete, -beind, -beinn, -betha, nobed, nobeth, -bed, -beth, -robad, -rabad, -bethe, -bemmis, -beimmis, -bemis, -bethe, -betis, -[ro]ibtis, bia, bie, bieid, bied, -bia, -bia, -bia, -bía, bethiumm, bethib, bias, bies, beithir, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -biam, -piam, bethe, bethi, -bied, -bieid, biet, bieit, biet, -biat, -bíet, bete, beite, nombeinn, nobiad, -bíad, nobemmis, nobetis, b, -bá, bói, bái, -bói, boie, boithius, boíthi, baísu, both(a)e, botha, -both(a), bamar, bámar, -baid, bātir, -batar, batar, rob, -roba, -raba, rob, robói, rambái, robui, -robae, -robe, -rabae, romboth, rombod, -rabad, robámmar, -robammar, rubaid, -robaid, robatar, robbátar, -rabatar, -robatar, -rabtar, buith, buithi, atáu, atú, itu, it, atú, ataim, -t, -tái, -toi, taoi, -t, atá, attá, ata, at, atáthar, dáthar, atass, -das, itám, tám, ataum, ataim, atamaoit, atámaoid, atám, -taum, -dtám, atathai, atathi, atáithi, -táithi, -dathai, -taidh, itāt, atáit, ataut, táid, -táit, itat, atat, fil, -fhile, -fhuile, -fuili, -ḟoili, -ḟuile, fail, fail, fuil, -fail, -fuil, -uil, -ḟil, -ḟuil, -ḟoil, fil, fail, fail, filter, -fuiltear, fuilemm, -failmet, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, -bhḟuilti, failet, filet, fuilet, -failet, -filet, -fileat, -fuilet, -fuilid, failet, failet, fuilet, filet, bim, bím, -bím, -ruibim, -bi, bíd, bíd, -bí, -bíonn, -bind, bídh, -b, bither, -bithar, bímit, bídmaid, bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, bíth, bīd, -bíat, -bít, -bíd, bit, bít, bhínn, nobīth, robíth, bhíodh, bhíoth, bithi, -bithi, bithea, naboitis, nobīdis, beitis, bitis, bhítís, bhídís, bír, b, bīdh, bíodh, bíoth, bíom, bíthe, bídh, bidhí, bíod, ber, uér, beor, bheith, bur, -rabor, -rabhus, rabasa, bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, bé, beir, -rab(a)i, -rabha, -rabhair, -mbéis, -beis(se), -rabais, beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, beth, -b, -raib, -rab, -raibhe, rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, bess, beas, bethur, beme, bemmit, bemait, -bém, -beam, -ruibem, -rabum, bheam, rabham, bethi, rabthai, beit, -bet, -beat, -rabat, -rabut, -rabhait, -rabhaid, -rabheid, beinn, rabainn, beithi, beithe, bethe, beitheá, beith, nobith, mbeadh, -mbeath, -rabad, -bethe, -bette, rabtha, mbiadh, nobeitis, nobeidis, mbeith, bíat, biat, biad, bhead, bed, bét, bett, -biu, -bhiú, biad, -bi, bía, biae, biaidh, bía, -bía, bethair, bied, biaid, biáid, -bia, bíes, bés, bes, bess, bhias, biass, beither, beithir, bemit, bemait, -bem(ni, beimíd, -biam, -biaim(ne), -ben, bethi, beitte, bete, -bed, biait, biat, beit, beiti, beti, betit, beidid, -bīat, beidíd, beid, -bíad, no-béind, dobeind, do beinn, -beinn, bheitheá, biadh, -bied, bífad, rot-fiadh, biath, bhiadh, bethe, bheidīs, ro-bádus, bhádhus, bhí, -rabus, -rabhas, -rabadhus, bá, -raba, bádhus, -rabadhas, basa, bhádhuis, bhí, -rabadais, -rabhais, bhádhuis, -rabhadhuis, bae, bóe, baei, búi, -bae, -buí, robai, robae, robói, bí, robuidh, bí, bhói, bhaoi, -rubai, -roibe, -roibi, -roba, -raba, -raibhe, -rabha, -robha, bí, -raibi, baí, -rabha, -rabhustair, boí, bāi, būi, bae, buí, baí, boí, both, rombatha, robās, rombas, robás, -rabus, rabas, -bádus, -bás, bás, bas, -rabas, bas, bhás, bāmur, bámar, bhámair, -rabamar, robabair, -babhair, robadbair, bhábhair, -rabhuir, -rabhabhair, bādar, -bátir, badar, bádar, bídur, -rabadar, -rabhadair, baisit, -rabhsad, bátar, bátar, bheith, beitte

(ad-tá) subst. vb. is . The distinction betw. subst. vb. and copula is in the first place syntactical, and cases are found where there is no distinction of form. Cf. the type, common in ACC: boe sab he was a leader, ACC 26 . See further below, and the discussion by Bergin, Ériu xii 208 - 211 (cia taísiu, cia bé, etc.), who refers to cases like: is uera pictura ro bai sin, Thes. ii 6.32 as emphatic. See also Ériu xvi 46 , GOI 475 . For nimtha laám, Wb. 12a21 , nímptha fírion, 8d24 (copula ?) see GOI 487 . Note also the form of the pron. in (later): matait tall iat, Laws iv 86.8 Comm. , atá ar conair é, ACL iii 216.z . bí N. eices cecinit, RC xvii 175.14 is perh. a mistake. In follg. use of subst. vb. perh. due to infl. of Latin: mar nobéind athair doib = pater eram pauperum, PH 6107 . ata in innsci ordugud etc. = oratio est. . ., Auraic. 591 .

Apart from the ordinary indic. pres. all forms of subst. vb. are from a root beginning with b-. In indic. pres. the stem tá (in absol. position attá) is used in non-rel. sentences without conj. particle, after conj. particles with inf. pron. dat. and when the conj. particle consists of a preposition and rel. (s)a n-. Absolute inflexion of tá- is found in oldaas , indaas, etc. than (is), in meaning is angry, and with follg. suff. pron. The uninflected form fil (with accus.) is used after conj. particles where no dat. inf. pron. is present, in leniting rel. clauses and often in answers to questions containing subst. vb., and in archaic texts in absol. position in meaning there is . For fuller details see GOI 476 - 483 and exx. below. See also Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 419 ff. , Strachan, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899, 1 - 82 , Ó Máille, Ériu vi 1 ff. , Études Celt. xxxiv 143-44 . Forms of gaibid, do-coissin, díchsnigidir and 1 ad-cumaing also have the force of the subst. vb. in certain uses, see separate entries.

Note further that attá is usual after hóre (see Wb. 19a19 , 22d14 and compare GOI § 781 ) and occurs later after amal ( LU 7072 , Laws iii 90.18 ). Fil is somet. found in sense there is in mid. Ir.: fail crois d'ór in cach dorus, SR 361 . TBC-I¹ 2561 . Note also: fil derg it is red, Marco P. 173 .

The use of accus. after fil continues into the classical period, see IGT Introd. § 129 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 92 - 93 . A few exx. of forms other than fil with accus. occur: ni raibi deilb, TTr.² 1664 , ní raibi . . . mhnái, 370 , ní bhiadh mnaoi, Ó Bruad. ii 252.z (with assonance). Note also with inf. pron. rosṁbai inna tass, SR 5107 . ? nim tha maith . . . do chath fri firu, LU 3343 ( SCC 13 ). From the mid. Ir. period on fil takes personal endings except in 3 s., and occurs occasionally as an independent verb: faeilfit (fut. 3 pl. absol.), Caithr. Thoirdh. 120.26 . In rel. function attá is found side by side with fil from an early period: is heiside attá hi S., Trip.² 534 , a lucht atá istig, RC vii 298.131 , the form fil finally disappearing in this use.

In mid. Ir. fil occurs for earlier -tá with dat. inf. pron.: nichar fail tlacht, SR 1560 , ni-s-fil biad, PH 1310 . Also in rel. clause after prep.: bale hi fail, LU 7516 , fors fil, Imr. Brain 43 (see also Strachan, Stories fr. Táin 3rd ed. p. 1 note).

The consuet. pres. 1 s. conj. -bíu has in classical Ir. the force of a future: biad ní biú, IGT Verbs § 7 , see also TBC-LL¹ 882 , Acall. 6179 , Duan. F. i 43.4 .

Early forms (for fuller lists see Strachan loc. cit.). Indic. pres. 1 s. atóo, Wb. 12a21 . attó, 21c19 . attóo, 26d8 . ató, 26d17 . -táu, 32a10 , -ttóo, 17d24 , -tó, Ml. 92b8 . 2 s. atái, Wb. 5b27 . atái, Ml. 110d15 (sic MS, see Ériu xiv 30 ). -tái, 5b38 . 3 s. adta, Laws v 390.10 (see ZCP xxv 247 ). ata, Wb. 13c26 , at, 27a11 , atáa, 6a19 , attáa, 32a6 , ataa, 26b31 , att, 4b11 . -tá, 31c7 , -ta, 2b12 , -táa, 13a35 . Impers. -dathar (see GOI 477 - 478 ), Wb. 21c9 . 1 pl. ataam, Wb. 15a13 , attaam, 32a28 . 2 pl. ataid, Wb. 4a4 , ataaith, 20b16 , ataaid, 23c28 , ataad, 22d14 . -taid, 19d26 . 3 pl. ataat (trisyll.), Blathm. 471 . ataat, Ml. 55d11 , 37a10 . -tat, 42b10 . -taat, Sg. 71b3 .

With suff. pron. tathum, Metr. Dinds. iv 284.3 . tathut, Fél. July 24 . táithi (tathai, v.l.), Críth G. 197 . táthus, Fél. Feb. 5 . táthunn, Prol. 217. taithiunn, Thes. ii 293.19 . tathuib, Rawl. 88b51 .

For rel. s. without preverb (taas, tás) see atás, indaas, 4 ol.

The form fil, etc. As conj. form: fil, Wb. 16b9 , Ml. 92a8 , Sg. 193b7 . feil, Wb. 24c4 . Ml. 60b2 . fel, Wb. 3c38 , Ml. 27d10 . fail, 44b10-11 , Sg. 32a1 . As rel.: fil, Ml. 121c8 , file Wb. 23a5 , Ml. 51d11 , Sg. 151b7 . fel, Wb. 4c1 , fele, Ml. 93c7 . feil, Wb. 33b18 . fail, BCr. 18c4 .

Consuet. pres. 1 s. biuu, Wb. 16d8 . -bíu, 20a3 . 2 s. -bí, Ml. 135d1 . ACL iii 312 § 4 . 3 s. biith, Wb. 29a26 . biid, 4d33 . bíid, Sg. 150b4 . -bii, Wb. 28b25 , -bí, Ml. 103c3 . With ro: robīi, TBC-I¹ 1730 . -rubi, Wb. 11c17 , -rubai, Ml. 20d4 , Sg. 7b3 . -ruba, 3b28 . Rel. bíis, Wb. 13a12 . biís, 28b28 . bis, Ml. 61a33 . bís, Sg. 140b2 . Impers. bithir, Ml. 56b15 . rel. bither, 108b4 , -bither, 100c21 . -rubthar, cited GOI § 784 . OIPG 69 . 1 pl. bímmi, Ml. 15a4 . -biam, Wb. 16a8 . Rel. bimme, Wb. 12c11 . 3 pl. biit, Wb. 29a28 . bíit, Sg. 217a1 . robiat, 138a5 . -biat, Ml. 59d7 . -bíat, Sg. 148a4 . -rubat, 138a5 . Rel. bíte, Wb. 9d28 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. -bíinn, Ml. 108b1 , -biinn, 58d9 . 3 s. -bíid, LU 5080 (see Ériu xvii 121 ), -bíth, Sg. 148b6 . -bid, Ml. 33a5 . -bith, Vita Br. 12 . Impers. no bithe , CCath. 3971 . 1 pl. -bímmis, cited GOI § 785 . 3 pl. -bitis, Ml. 86d6 . -bítis, Sg. 5a15 .

Ipv. 2 s. b, TBC-I¹ 2391 . 3 s. bíth, Wb. 10a8 , 25 , bíith, 8d9 , bíid, 5d33 , biid, Ml. 74d3 . bíd, Wb. 3a14 . With suff. pron. bithom, Fél. Ep. 404 n.17 . 2 pl. biid, Wb. 23c11a . bith, 22b26 . 3 pl. biat, Ml. 51d13 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. beo, Wb. 23b41 . beu, Ml. 53b8 . -béo, Fél. Prol. 273 . 2 s. bee, cited OIPG 70 and see GOI 482 . b, ZCP viii 311.z (see xxiv 122 ). -bee (perh. absol.), ZCP vii 494 (Enchir. Aug.). -bē, Fing. R. 82 . With ro: robhe (restored as ro-bé), Blathm. 92 § 9 . 3 s. beith, Ml. 108a11 . beid, Wb. 14c23 . bed, 3c10 . beth, Thes. ii 245.34 (Cambr. Hom.). -bǽ, Wb. 22b14 . -b, Sg. 29b14 . -bée, Wb. 12c43 . With suff. pron. bethum-sa, Fél. Ep. 384 n.14 . With ro: rob, Wb. 5d30 , robe, 18c4 , rubé, Ml. 20d4 , rob, Wb. 28a23 , robbé, Sg. 169a1 . -roib, Wb. 16c24 , Ml. 118c5 . Rel. bess, Wb. 5d14 . bes, Ml. 77d3 . Impers. bethir, Wb. 5d33 . rel. bether, Ml. 107d8 . -bether, Wb. 10a18 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 31c11 . beimmi, 19a16 . -bem, 24a10 . -robam, 26c10 . 2 pl. beithe, Wb. 18b16 . bethe, 24b13 . -beith, Ml. 46a10 . -beid, Wb. 27c9 . With ro: -robith, Wb. 26a28 . 3 pl. beit, Wb. 10b5 . rubet, 26a23 . ro be(i)t , Vita Br. 35 . -bet, Wb. 9d27 . -robat, 11d9 . Rel. bete, Wb. 10c22 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. -beind, TBC-I¹ 1856 . -beinn cited GOI § 787 . 2 s. -betha, Wb. 4c24 . 3 s. nobed, Wb. 3b10 . nobeth, Ml. 27b1 . -bed, Wb. 9d1 . -beth, Ml. 88b15 . -robad, Wb. 17a13 . -rabad, 34a4 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . 1 pl. -bemmis, Wb. 9a3 . -beimmis, 29d23 . -bemis, Vita Br. 23 . 2 pl. -bethe, Wb. 9c20 . 3 pl. -betis, Sg. 138a9 . -[ro]ibtis, Wb. 28a1 .

Fut. 1 s. bia, Ml. 137b7 . 2 s. bie, cited GOI § 788 , OIPG 70 . 3 s. bieid, Wb. 4d6 . bied, 14c1 . -bia, 5d35 . -bia (disyll.), Blathm. 572 . -bia and -bía, GOI § 788 . With suff. pron. bethiumm. Ériu xiii 20.6 . bethib, ZCP viii 316.5 (see xxix 174 ). Rel. bias, Wb. 23b38 . bies, Ériu iii 102 § 32 . Impers. beithir, TBFr. 248 . -bether, MacCongl. 61.4 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 9c10 . beimmi, 21b7 . -biam, 15a1 . -piam, 30b17 . 2 pl. bethe, cited GOI § 788 . bethi, Trip.² 1589 . -bied, Wb. 9a21 . -bieid, 26d26 . 3 pl. biet (disyll.), Blathm. 472 . bieit, Wb. 4c40 . biet, 9d27 , Sg. 198b6 (also bíet, GOI § 788 ). -biat, 9c28 . -bíet, 40b14 . Rel. bete, Wb. 13c26 . beite, 4c40 .

Condit. 1 s. nombeinn, Ml. 59a22 . 3 s. nobiad, Ml. 32d5 . -bíad, Wb. 9d1 . 1 pl. nobemmis, Ml. 134b3 . 3 pl. nobetis, Ml. 100c7 .

Pret. 1 s. b, LU 9407 . 2 s. -bá, cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 , see perf. 2 s. below. 3 s. bói, Wb. 31c18 . bái, 27a16 . -bói, 17d17 , Ml. 78a4 . Rel. boie, Thes. ii 242.11 (Ardm.). boīe (MS. ba), Ériu xvi 46.10 (see n. 0 and Celtica vi 223 ). boíë (MS. baoí), Ériu xxvi 67, 85 . Cf. cech nóeb bói, fil, bías, Fél. Ep. 289 (where six sylls. required). With suff. pron. boithus, IT i 137.8 = boithius, 21 . boíthi, Sc.M² 3 . ? baísu, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 37.5 . Impers. *both(a)e, postulated GOI § 789 , botha, TBC-I¹ 1572 . -both(a), Vita Br. 33 . 1 pl. bamar, SR 1558 . bámar, 3286 , Imr. Brain i 48.5 . 2 pl. -baid (baïd ?), cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 . 3 pl. bātir, TBC-I¹ 217 . -batar, Ml. 55c2 . Rel. batar, Ml. 123b5 . See GOI § 789 .

Perf. 1 s. rob, Wb. 28a9 . -roba, Ml. 44c4 . -raba, TBC-I¹ 3068 . 2 s. rob, LL 14442 . 3 s. robói, Wb. 5c10 . rambái, 2c13 . robui, Ml. 93c3 . -robae, Ml. 41a5 , -robe, Wb. 18d7 , -rabae, Ml. 28d3 . Impers. romboth, Wb. 19a9 . rombod, 5b31 . -rabad, Ériu iv 146.4 . 1 pl. robámmar, Wb. 20d12 . -robammar, Ml. 105b16 . 2 pl. rubaid, Wb. 3b19 . -robaid, Ml. 46a8 . 3 pl. robatar, Wb. 24c5 . robbátar, Sg. 57b1 . -rabatar, Ml. 100c11 . -robatar, Sg. 45b1 . -rabtar, Ml. 37a16 .

Vn. buith.

Vbl. of necess. buithi.

Later forms (see also Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish, Ériu vi 1 ff. ; Mulchrone, Verbalformen der Vita Tripartita, ZCP xvi 440 ; Falconer, Verbal System of LU Táin, Ériu xvii 116 ; Strachan, Verbal System of SR, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1895, 1 - 76 ; O Daly, Verbal System of LL Táin, Ériu xiv 80 ; Mac Eoin, Verbalsystem von Togail Troi, ZCP xxviii 125 ; Sommerfelt, Le système verbal dans In Cath Catharda, RC xxxviii 41 ; Nuner, Verbal System of the Agallamh na Senórach, ZCP xxvii 272 ; PH Glossary; Lloyd, Impersonal passive forms of the Irish substantive verb, Ériu i 49 ff. ; TD Introd. lxxv ; IGT Verbs § 7 ).

Indic. pres. 1 s. atáu, Trip.² 1412 . atú, 2578 . itu, SR 1187 . it, TBC-LL¹ 434 . atú, IGT Verbs § 7 . ataim, Fier. 14 . -t, Acall. 4516 . 2 s. -tái, SR 3102 . -toi, TBC-I¹ 937 . taoi, TD 15.48 . cia doaisiu mac?, RC xxvi 30 § 128 . 3 s. -t, Trip.² 744 . atá, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. attá, Trip.² 534 , ata, SR 7708 etc., at, Acall. 429 . Impers. atáthar, TBC-LL¹ 3316 . dáthar (: máthar), IGT Verbs ex. 99 . atass, Ériu iv 114 § 17 (:as). -das (: as), IGT Verbs ex. 104 . 1 pl. itám, SR 1727 . tám, 3493 . ataum, PH 1556 . ataim, TBC-LL¹ 874 . atamaoit, TBC St. 121 . atámaoid, atám, IGT Verbs § 7 . -taum, PH 1506 . -dtám (: ár), IGT Verbs ex. 111 . 2 pl. atathai, PH 2734 . atathi, 597 . atáithi (: fáithi), IGT Verbs ex. 105 . -táithi (: sáithi), ex. 96 . -dathai, Alex. 190 . -taidh, Ériu ii 118 § 53 . 3 pl. itāt, TBC-I¹ 3132 . atáit, CCath. 1215 . ataut, PH 1064 . táid, TD 8.5 . -táit, CCath. 1701 . Rel. itat, Trip.² 882 , atat, SR 7949 . For later forms in meaning than (is) see atás, indaas, 4 ol. See also II (d) below and daas.

The form fil. 1 s. ni ḟuilim, ni ḟoilim, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. -fhile, PH 8116 . -fhuile, 3335 , -fuili, Acall. 3217 . -ḟoili, -ḟuile, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. fail, TBC-I¹ 60 , SR 353 etc. ro fail , TBC-LL¹ 263 , fuil, 3072 . -fail, Trip.² 2764 , -fuil, 872 , -uil, PH 3181 , -ḟil, Acall. 3709 . -ḟuil, -ḟoil, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. fil, Trip.² 842 , fail, SR 392 , no fail , 933 . With impers. ending: filter, MacCongl. 31.25 . -fuiltear, TD 2.42 . 1 pl. ra fuilemm , TBC-LL¹ 2971 . -failmet, SR 6320 , -ḟuilmíd, Acall. 5101 . -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. -bhḟuilti, Acall. 962 . 3 pl. failet, SR 345 . filet, 477 . fuilet, TBC-LL¹ 4739 . -failet, Trip.² 1119 . -filet, TBC-I¹ 1848 , -fileat, CCath. 1270 . -fuilet, 427 . -fuilid, TD 7.23 . Rel. failet, SR 400 . ra failet , TBC-LL¹ 5225 . fuilet, 4709 . filet, PH 435 . See also do-fil.

Consuet. pres. 1 s. bim, PH 6393 . bím, -bím, IGT Verbs § 7 . ? -ruibim, SG 373.29 . 2 s. -bi, SR 2035 . bí, ní bí, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bíd, TBC-I¹ 1453 (LU). biid, SR 4537 . bíd, 4588 . -bí, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bíonn, TD 22.12 . -bind, RC xlix 37.13 . bídh, -b, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bither, PH 7441 . -bithar, Laws iv 234.2 Comm. 1 pl. bímit, Acall. 886 . bídmaid, 5481 . bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bíth, Acall. 6139 . 3 pl. bīd, TBC-I¹ 1075 (bít, LU). -bíat, TTr.² 330 . -bít, PH 4189 , -bíd, TD 5.5 . Rel. bit (= bíït), SR 7259 . bít, TBC-LL¹ 1320 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. do bhínn , TD 23.7 . 3 s. nobīth, TBC-I¹ 593 (nobíid, LU cited above). robíth, TBC-I¹ 1903 (LU). do bhíodh , TD 14.23 . do bhíoth , 26.12 . Impers. bithi, Auraic. 5286 = -bithi, RC xx 150.y (ACC Pref.). no bithea , Acall. 156 . 3 pl. naboitis, TBC-I¹ 855 LU (nobitís, Y). nobīdis, 3621 (Y). bítís, 1898 (LU). no beitis , LL 407a27 . ro bitis , PH 1957 . do bhítís , Acall. 830 . do bhídís , TD 15.18 . Rel. tri cnuasa bítís ann, Acall. 455 .

Ipv. 1 s. bír (: gním), IGT Verbs ex. 94 . 2 s. b, Parrth. Anma 3871 . 3 s. bīdh, ZCP vi 271.z . bíodh, TD 16.2 . bíoth, 17.1 . 1 pl. bíom, Dán Dé xiv 17 . 2 pl. bíthe (: -chíthe), IGT Verbs ex. 95 . bídh, ex. 109 . bidhí, Luc. Fid. 3430 . 3 pl. bíod, TD 16.19 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. ber, SG 172.15 . uér, Ériu ii 92.9 . beor, v 222.46 . bheith mé, TD 8.9 . -ra bur , TBC-LL¹ 1112 . -rabor, ZCP xii 401.30 . ? -rabhus, ZCP v 523.27 = rabasa, Ériu xii 144.12 (TE). -rabar, ZCP iii 32.37 . bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bé, SR 1607 . beir, BNnÉ 288.29 . Acall. 592 . -rab(a)i, BDD² p. 80 . -rabha, Irish Texts iv 75 § 16 . -rabhair, Fing. R. p. 13 note 86 . -mbéis (: Céis), IGT Verbs ex. 100 . -beis(se) (: meise), Dán Dé xiv 20 . -rabais, Fing. R. 86 , BDD² 363 (see ZCP xxvii 75-8 ). beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. beth, TBC-I¹ 270 (beith, v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 101 . -b, TBC-I¹ 1671 . -raib, Trip.² 2753 . -rab, TBC-I¹ 1430 . -raibhe, Parrth. Anma 2616 . rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bess, TBC-I¹ 1104 (beis, Y). beas, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bethur, Laws ii 36.20 Comm. 1 pl. beme, Snedg. u. Mac R 9.14 . bemmit, TBC-LL¹ 2137 . bemait, Acall. 5478 . -bém, CCath. 1124 . -beam (: leam), Dán Dé xii 10 . -ruibem, SR 5540 . -rabum, PH 7899 . bheam, rabham, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 1233 . rabthai, PH 1977 . 3 pl. beit, Trip.² 1653 . -bet, TBC-I¹ 1053 . -beat, Lism. L. 4702 . -rabat, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. -rabut, PH 994 . -rabhait, BNnÉ 269.4 . -rabhaid, Parrth. Anma 2836 . -rabheid, RC xxix 136 § 51 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. do beinn , do rabainn , IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. no beithi , Trip.² 2972 . no beithe , 2983 = no bethe , Trip. 252.21 . do beitheá , TD 1.44 . 3 s. no beith , Trip.² 2967 . nobith, TBC-I¹ 3543 . dá mbeadh , TD 29.6 . -mbeath, IGT Verbs ex. 97 . -rabad, RC iii 184.24 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . -bette, Metr. Dinds. iii 382.19 . rabtha, TBC-LL¹ (C) 1675 . 1 pl. dá mbiadh sinn, TD 28.25 . 3 pl. nobeitis, SR 7855 . nobeidis, TBC-I¹ 3557 . dá mbeith siad, TD 26.36 .

Fut. (see Bergin, Ériu ii 46-8 ) 1 s. bíat, TTr.² 89 . biat, PH 1244 . biad (bíatt v.l.), CCath. 5137 . bhead, Parrth. Anma 6378 . bed, ZCP vi 41.10 . bét, 69.2 . bett, BNnÉ 52 § 42 . -biu, TBC-LL¹ 882 . -bhiú, Dán Dé xiv 20 . biad, -bi, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bía, Trip.² 1593 . biae, SR 1599 . -bíai, BNnÉ 291 § 2 . biaidh tú, TD 1.26 . bía, -bía, IGT Verbs § 7 . bethair, ZCP ii 225.4 . 3 s. bied, LU 10362 . biaid, Trip.² 1071 . biáid, TBC-I¹ 169 (LU). biaidh, -bia, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bíes, Trip.² 2671 . bés, CCath. 300 , bes, 657 . bess, PH 4666 . bhias, TD 3.50 . do biass , L. Chl. S. 1 . Impers. beither, Acall. 5259 . beithir, ZCP x 415.11 . 1 pl. bemit, LU 9753 , PH 1501 . bemait, CCath. 1467 . -bem(ni, LU 9753 . beimíd, -biam, IGT Verbs § 7 . -biaim(ne) (: siairni), ex. 108 . ? -ben, BCC 396.19 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 3083 . beitte (: eiti) (beththi, bete v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 102 . -bed, Trip.² 1590 . 3 pl. biait, Trip.² 2665 , TBC-I¹ 2057 (beite, LU). biat, Trip.² 1288 . beit, TBC-I¹ 80 . beiti, TBC-I¹ 2078 . beti, SR 8157 . betit, SR 853 . TBC-LL¹ 246 , TTr.² 760 . beidid, ZCP x 338 § 1 . -bīat, TBC-I¹ 1132 . beidíd síad, BCC 290.12 . beid, -bíad, IGT Verbs § 7 .

Condit. 1 s. no-béind, PH 6107 . dobeind, 7489 . do beinn, -beinn, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. do bheitheá , TD 19.13 . 3 s. no biadh , CCath. 3754 . -bied, TBC-I¹ 504 . ro bífad , TBC-LL¹ 5112 . rot-fiadh, IT iii 320.4 ( Cóir Anm. 70 ). do biath (: sgiath), IGT Verbs ex. 97 . do bhiadh , TD 2.54 . Impers. no bethe , TTr.² 533 . 3 pl. do bheidīs , Parrth. Anma 5227 .

Pret. and perf. 1 s. ro-bádus, PH 699 . do bhádhus , TD 23.6 . do bhí mé, 5 . -rabus, Acall. 7913 . -rabhas, 1584 . -rabadhus, 356 . do bá , -raba; do bádhus , -rabadhas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do basa ( : bádusa; proscribed form), ex. 103 . 2 s. ro bhádhuis , CCath. 553 . do bhí tú, TD 28.6 . -rabadais, PH 3725. 8121 . -rabhais, Acall. 123 . do bhádhuis , -rabhadhuis, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bae, SR 7608 . bóe, 6265 . baei, BDD² 127 . búi, CCath. 95 . -bae, SR 4975 . -buí, Trip.² 1505 . robai, SR 2229 , robae, 2262 . robói, PH 2572 . ro bí , CCath. 1302 . robuidh, Ériu iii 198 § 22 . do bí , CCath. 278 . do bhói , Acall. 58 . do bhaoi (: draoi), Dán Dé xii 22 . -rubai, SR 1241 . -roibe, BDD² 498 , -roibi, 1393 . -roba, 251 . -raba, 1533 . -raibhe, TD 2.25 . -rabha, 8.36 . -robha, 1 . do bí , -raibi, do baí , -rabha, IGT Verbs § 7 . With depon. ending -rabhustair, BNnÉ 322 § 31 . Rel. boí, Trip.² 626 . bāi, TBC-I¹ 1277 . būi, 630 . ro bae , Trip.² 288 . ro buí , BDD² 287 . ro baí , 1451 . ro boí , 1517 . Impers. both, Trip.² 2264 . rombatha, Ériu ii 20 § 3 (-a added later). -rabad, iv 146.4. robās, TBC-I¹ 2147 . rombas, SR 7564 , robás, TTr.² 151 . -rabus, Trip.² 54 . rabas, Laws iv 212.22 Comm. , -bádus, MacCongl. 43.22 . -bás, 61.3 . do bás , do bas , -rabas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do bas (: as), ex. 98 . do bhás (: fhás), Dán Dé xxvi 9 . 1 pl. bāmur, TBC-I¹ 399 . do bámar , Acall. 1283 . do bhámair (: Ádhaimh), Dán Dé xv 17 . -rabamar, TBC-I¹ 2495 . 2 pl. robabair, Anecd. ii 14.9 . -babhair, Blathm. 23 (see notes ). robadbair, TBC-I¹ 2502 . do bhábhair , TD 22a.1 . -rabhuir, Acall. 114 . -rabhabhair, TD 22a.2 . 3 pl. bādar, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bátir, TTr.² 1308 . ro badar , CCath. 573 n. ro bádar , Acall. 75 . do bídur , 5942 . -rabadar, TBC-I¹ 3108 . -rabhadair, TD 26.10 . ro baisit , O'Dav. 728 . -rabhsad, TD 16.21 . Rel. bátar, Trip.² 591 . BDD² 505 . ro bátar , 543 . Vn. an bheith , IGT Verbs § 7 . Vbl. of necess. beitte, TD 28.30 .

Cf. cenmothá, íarmothá, óthá.

Used in meaning is in a large variety of contexts. Normally replaced by copula (see 1 is) in certain fixed syntactical patterns (classification, identification, etc.), and when used in these cases exceptional (see above and II below).

I Expressing existence.

(a) Used absolutely is, exists, there is, etc.: ata in coimdiu gl. Dominus in cælo sedis eius, Ml. 30b27 . nabad hed a méit nádmbǽ `let it not be only that it is not' gl. nec nominetur in uobís, Wb. 22b14 . ní fil aimsir nad mbed ref. to fuit et est semper, Ml. 17a15 . ní torménmar-ni ara mbetis in gnimai sin gl. præter spem nostram, etc., 115b1 . ni fil chumtubairt gl. indubitabilia, etc., Sg. 154b2 . ma nubed `if it existed', 31b21 . ro baoi siomh re tuisdinsiú `he existed', Blathm. 632 . as e as soithcerndomh fil, 773 . ma rombe is maith if it is, it is well, Laws iv 2.14 Comm. ni rabi uair . . . nad ro bai `there was no hour . . . that He existed not', Ériu ii 106 § 16 . a cin for athair .i. uair na bí mac, Laws iv 240.16 Comm. Columb [ro]baoi, Columb bīaas, ZCP viii 198 § 20 . tar ēis a mic . . . / nī raba acht dā aenbliadain `was alive only two years', Ériu iii 198 § 24 . as a rad ata a nadmaim cin co be by saying there is a covenant though there is not, Laws iv 52.30 Comm. ni tha . . . ní a ngeimre in winter there is nothing, 90.1 (with petrified inf. pron. 3 s. n. in dat. sense?). ní bía terca bíd there will not be a scarcity of food, BColm. 52.5 . bid dno maith, ┐ ni bi derrscugud de `yet there is good, and nothing to surpass it', Auraic. 703 . is tré ómun bíid serc, Ériu i 195.1 . céin beti neóil im gréin ngil, Metr. Dinds. ii 38.z . i céin raibh nemh is talamh as long as . . . endure, BNnÉ 314 § 8 . bai cocad mor etarro, RC xxiv 186 § 19 . In phrase (acht) atá ní (chena) but, moreover, see 1 ní (e).

In periphrasis when emphasis on some element other than the verb is required: bieid nach dréct diib hícfider, Wb. 4d6 . bieid bes ferr de, 32a13 . do budh cusmail rit co robuis uair ecin, ┐ co n[d]ingenta rét feramail `that thou wert once such an one that thou couldst . . .', ZCP vi 87.13 . ba-sa tan / nī folabrainn ilach gamh, Ériu ii 95 § 3 . ata[a]t .iii. cáini nad chumgat comarbai do chumscuchud, Ériu xvii 68 § 9 ( Laws iv 210 ). Note further: atāit teora brīathra / ata lōgmaire for nim, ZCP vii 312 § 25 .

With words expressing time: bieid aimser nad creitfider, Wb. 28c14 . aidchi robuī `one night', Ériu ii 222.25 . fecht robai `once', Mon. Tall. 147.2 (§ 52) . biaidh uair 's . . . a time will come when, Dán Dé vii 31 .

Introducing a statement: cia beith ara rogba bóairechas riasíu ropo chúairddulchach though it be that he assume, Críth G. 67 . dá mbeith fós go mbiadh an Fhraingc comh líonmhar ┐ adeir seisean `granted that', Keat. ii 933 . má tá go seachnoid síol Éibhir . . ., TD 29.7 . ci(d), gi(d) bé whatever, whoever (see Ériu xii 210 ): ria flaithaib, .i. rias na flaithib, cibe flaithe iat `whatever chieftains they be', Laws iv 154.17 . gidh bé lá cheannghar an chairt, Dán Dé xiv 17 . cidh bé do bhean díbh an dúthaigh, DDána 26.1 . bíd (ipv. 3 s.) co n- although: admhuim . . . mo pheactha . . . bīodh gomadh é mo mhīan a bhfolach though I should wish to hide them, Parrth. Anma 4625 . bīodh nach gcaoifithea go spesialta fá gach peacadh though you might not weep specially for each sin, Mac Aingil 235 . bíth gur gheallas . . . though I promised, Ó Bruad. ii 212 § xiv . In constr. manibed x ní bíad y were it not for x y would not be, see má II (b).

(b) The subst. vb. is usual with predicates consisting of adverbial phrases of all kinds (prep. and noun, adjj. and nouns used adverbially, etc.) and thus enters into a large and varied corpus of idioms. A select list follows. Reference should in all cases also be made to the nouns, adjj., adverbs and prepositions concerned.

With CO: atáthar sund chucut your adversary is approaching, LL 10300 ( TBC-LL¹ 3316 ).

With CO N-: atúsa com thegluch there is myself and my household troop, TBC-LL¹ 437 .

With DI: im chaingin robui de muintir Tamlachti friss `about a business that arose between the monastery of Tallaght and him', Mon. Tall. 157.7 (§ 72) . masu de chlaind Echdach aird / atāi, ZCP xi 108 § 1 . ní bia debaid . . . de, Ériu iv 108 § 69 . Of materials: an crann dobí na sesam ... dobí sé do cepresus was a (lit. of) cupressus, Maund. 9 . In phrase a.¤ di such is: roboi du meit a pecthae `so great were their sins', Ml. 98c6 . má beth tra do hūaite ind āessa gráid `if the ordained folk be too few', Ériu i 220 § 13 .

With DO: biid do anmmaim cathrach `(Samnis) is as the name of the city', Sg. 104b5 . nád robatar suin do ṡlund in dúildetad inchoisget `there were not words (enough) to signify . . .', 45b1 . manusbeth tenga dia relad `if (the sun) had a tongue', Ériu ii 126 § 81 . ata eric a fogla do dul a ruradh o duine, Laws iv 50.5 Comm. Expressing possession, etc.: con roib core dúib fri cách so that you may be at peace with all men, Wb. 26b30 . in fochricc file do i nnim, 29b29 . cach ngrád asid n-ísliu bíid dó i céilsini, Críth G. 374 . robi timna in ríg don Comdhe, RC xviii 182.5 . nico mbái dó acht bás there was nothing for him but death, Vita Br. 32 . fecht robúi damsae domchaomnacuir `once it happened to me', Mon. Tall. 144.7 (§ 45) . atá damhsa ris an dáimh / gan ísliughadh neith dá gcáil it is my duty in regard to the sages not to belittle . . ., Content. xiv 8 .

With FOR (later AR): as ṅdath glas roboi forsind sl[é]ib the mountain was green, Ml. 84d4 . cech dath is maith ré neach bid forro, RC vi 183.9 . cēin beó ar in mbith mbuide, Ériu ii 92.16 . nocha cuinnghim bethaid mbí / ōtú ar sīth mo Rīgh amuigh since I am outside the palace of my king(?), ZCP vii 301 § 10 . scríbend menmman .i. robbói for a inndṡliucht-som `it had been in his mind', Sg. 178b4 . in sét atá form aire on which I am intent, Ériu vi 115 § 6 . a mhacnas orm gidh eadh raibh though I greatly desire to do so, Dán Dé xix 6 .

With FRI: nobiad fri femen `it would be (used) with the feminine', Sg. 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them', 215a5 . ni humhal robabair rim cen erghe rónn you were not submissive to me, Anecd. ii 14.9 . ba [mait]h ro mboth friu they were well treated, TBFr. 145 . is throit ra bass risin fer út that man was quickly dispatched, TBC-LL¹ 2986 ( LL 10035 ).

With I: is hi tuaisciurt slebe sióin ata in chathir, Ml. 67d8 . ataam ar ndiis i cuimriug, Wb. 32a28 . is and . . . bieid finis, 13b29 . is sunt bia-sa i n-eilithri, Ml. 137b7 . nach dú i mbí isnaib salmaib iustitia, 109a2 . bēti a scēla illāidib, ZCP iii 37.32 . dēna torba airm i mbī, vii 311 § 9 . ro-bas i lurg an madma la clannaibh Néill the Clanna N. pursued the rout, xiv 234.16 . adh bes fiu da trian na samuisce atá isín focreic, issed ata isin fogail doníther ris na ferandaib cétna i fuacht an geimridh `a calf which is worth two thirds of the `samhaisc'-heifer which is paid for the rent, it is it that is paid for the trespass', Laws iv 92.16 Comm. cínta do niad na cethra . . . leth a mbia ina nairlim isedh bias ina tairsci `half of that fine which lies for their `airlim'-trespass . . .', 74.8 Comm. cod a midídar ruire trachta ┐ raite? Nin; co rabadar ocht nurcora dec and do fhleascach, 138.4 Comm. ní bhíadh na ghoin é d'oighedh / toil Dé muna deónaighedh His wound would not be enough to cause His death, IGT Decl. ex. 378 . Common in form with suff. pron. 3 s. n. ma beith nech and tra labrathar ilbélre if there be anyone, etc., Wb. 13a4 . ar atá brithem and cenut-su `a judge is there apart from thee', 6b25 . ataat alaaili interiecta and it coitchena do cach ceniul, Sg. 10a1 . attaad teora bliadna and. Niconcomracamar díoblíonaib `it is three years since we two had intercourse', Mon. Tall. 134.26 (§ 21) . For phr. cid fil and trá see trá. In idiom tá sé i n-a fhear he is a man (see Dillon, ZCP xvii 307 ff. ): is amlaid . . . atá in rigsudi sin inna chathaír chumtachta, LU 2005 ( FA 7 ). cidead bes ina bibdaid `even though he be a caitiff', Ériu v 22.20 . gu raibhe 'na cholum ghel, Acall. 1080 . ce raib se i n-a fhír, PH 7324 . do bí 'n-a mnaí grádaig ac Find, Acall. 2018 . do rígh gion go rabhthá id mhac, DDána 91.15 . Note also: tuc . . . aithne gurbh e righ Eirenn do bí ann that it was in fact the king, Ériu iii 152 § 6 . ro innis do gur 'uo he Isu ro ui ann, RC xii 344.15 .

With IMM: ni baitir, ni loisctir cein beit immo `he is not drowned or burnt as long as they are on him', RC vi 183.8 .

With LA: gan bheith le Dia is ann bhus aithreach if we are not on God's side, Dán Dé x 27 . Expressing possession and related ideas: is lib atá a rogu, Wb. 9a23 . is derb lium attá latsu gl. certus sum autem quod et in té, 29d14 . ainmm ninchoisc cenéuil issed file la laitnóri, Sg. 30b8 . is airi nobíth digaimm leo ante ρ. sin, 9b10 . ni fil bríg laisiom hisind accobar sin `he considers that such desire is no great matter,' Mon. Tall. 151.13 (§ 62) . is dé atá lem, fobíth, etc. this is why I think so (of an assertion), TTr.² 343 . itá a rīgan la cach ríg sund, TBC-I¹ 190 . fail leis secht nimi, SR 629 . ar ní ḟil acht oenlám lim, LL 14150 .

With ó: báoi alaile anchoire antuaid o sláne `there was a certain anchorite from Slane in the North', Mon. Tall. 159.8 (§ 77) . cech lennánacht fil isin domvn is úadhi atá originates with her, TTr.² 370 . Bressal Ó Tressaig ō' tāit / Hī Tressaig `. . . from whom are sprung', Ériu ii 50 § 7 . ni fil[et] o neoch ┐ ni filter uaidibh `they are not derived from anything, and nothing is derived from them', Auraic. 1507 .

With OC: ar notéighed dīa sathairn init co mbídh oc Cnocc Droma Coblai, ZCP viii 106.29 = Trip.² 2858 . ma no bith . . . mo c[h]laideb acom if I had my sword, TBC-I¹ 3543 . co rabat aidmi oc cech altōir . . ., Ériu i 219 § 9 . in ti ac na biat ba, Laws iv 36.10 Comm. in fhil biad ocaib sund? PH 6709 . ná raibh agad ar n-éra `refuse me not', Studies 1918, 99 § 16 . In impers. constr. cindas atathar occat? how are affairs with thee? RC xxvi 368.9 . a.¤ y oc x x has the power to do y: ní bhía . . . ag boigṡín / mo chor tar creich Phádraigín, Ériu ix 163 § 7 .

With adverbs and adv. phrases: céin bett abus `while they are here below', BColm. 98.28 . ní rubai nach cruth ailiu `it cannot be otherwise', Sg. 7b3 . ataat ám in chrut sin, 140b1 . hóre nád robe Tit ar mo chiunn, Wb. 14d29 . na muindtire bís id choimidecht `of the monks that live with thee', Mon. Tall. 128.8 (§ 3) . dá rabh mé ar éanmhagh is í, Dán Dé ix 12 . is bether go hīsiul de, ZCP x 51.6 . bidh co mín michuir ret c[h]airdibh, vi 272 § 3 . is samlaid insin robói a flaithemnacht indibsi, Ml. 18a8 . nī hamlaid beitid na nāimh . . ., ZCP xiii 9.26 . dobadus co subhach rompa, KMMisc. 319.27 . léig mar atāit tall, ZCP viii 202.4 . trath atusa sund, TBC-LL¹ 2379 . ionmhuin uan nar fhás ó mhnaoi / do bhás go truagh ar a thí, Dán Dé xxvi 9 . Note also: dá mbem a-moigh `if we win forth', Ériu ix 162 § 2 . With interrogatives: ceth leth atā E., TBC-I¹ 376 . can ata? whence is it? Hib. Min. 8.270 . cāit atā do t[h]igerna?, TBC-I¹ 789 . ciatā inso?, ZCP viii 311.13 . a Findtain, arse, ┐ Éri cía gabad ca rabad inde? `where have things been therein?' Ériu iv 146 § 23 .

(c) Used with inf. and suff. pron. to express possession. With inf. pron.: rosmbia a lóg `they shall have payment for it', Wb. 5d35 . ind indocbál no-b-tá in futuro, 14c16 . ro-n-da-biad cech maith, Ml. 33b13 . rombia-sa la dia . . . a day will come for me when, Vita Br. 12 . roborbē (roburbe v.l.) which is yours, Cáin Ad. 27 . nīmthat asnai I have no ribs, TBC-I¹ 2871 . gell cóic sét di neoch rodmbí `of whatever he has', Críth G. 283 and n. uair nach tá tír dia fhulung fri re napuidh because he has no land to support him (?), Laws iv 30.19 Comm. rom be nem may I have heaven, Snedg. u. Mac R 14 § 76 . Femen intan rombai rí . . . when it had a king, RC xvii 148.19 . cia luag nomtha?, SR 1165 . rombí lethbairgen, Anecd. i 73 § 211 . atbert Cathair nimthasa ní dhuit I have nothing to give you, LL 386b22 . Note also: nintha do imtecht liumm `I have (lit. we have) no news', RC xiii 222.20 . With cumang (or similar word) and prep. DO has the power to: nímtha cumachtæ ṅdo, Ml. 140b7 . ní-s-ta som . . . cumang domm orcuin-se, 60d3 . nísmbói didiu do chumacc a mmbo do imain they hadn't the strength to, Vita Br. 24 . sáerthar lat in domnach cech cumang rotbé (rodbe, rotbia, v.ll.) dó `with all your might', Ériu ii 204 § 22 . nícom thása cumang dia tabair[t], TBFr. 302 . apraind nachimbai-si nert do theacht cucu alas that I had not strength . . ., TBC-I¹ 3439 . Used independently is able: nīmt[h]a a dechmad d'indisin / nech doní do maith `I cannot tell a tithe of all the good he does', BColm. 70.6 . nimta-sa sin . . . uair da caithius mo dan re sciathaib Ulad I cannot do that . . ., Ériu v 72.8 . Note also: ango dano for Ingcél adfía basa lecht bas briscium `peradventure I shall be the frailest corpse', BDD 102h ( RC xxii 211 ) = at-mbia basa lecht bas brisceam, BDD² 716 (leg. ro-t-bia?).

With suffixed pron. taithiunn . . . / ni fris tarddam ar n-áthius `we have . . . something to which to apply our acuteness', Thes. ii 293.19 . táithi caire umai he has a bronze cauldron, Críth G. 197 . tathum rūn, TBC-I¹ 848 . bethib sūirsi lim-sa dano ye will enjoy freedom with me, ZCP viii 316.5 . tathat lim logh do áes, logh do sinnsire thou hast with me = I accord thee, xii 365.13 . baíthium anfud mílach mend, LU 3018 . tathuib comram, Rawl. 88b51 . tathum o día praind, Anecd. i 64 § 120 . tāthud ochtar la suidiu / airm hi fail a crōlighe `thou wilt find eight men . . .', Fianaig. 12 § 16 . tathai eolus maith, ZCP vii 310 § 1 . tatos subhae `they have happiness', Blathm. 82 . Pleonastically: tathai erouidh . . . bithbron `Herod . . . has eternal sorrow', 83 .

(d) In nasalising rel. clauses to denote has something the matter, is ailing: ced das in ben maith? `what ails the good woman?', Thes. ii 329.48 . cidh tás do sūil, a clērich? what is the matter with your eye? RC xxvii 280 § 35 . Oengus mac in Dagdai hisiurcc di bliadan. Cid tas or Bodb, RC iii 345.9 . ra[fh]etur sa . . . an daas ind ingen what is wrong with the girl, Vita Br. 5 . ni fetarsa cid no-tó I do not know what is the matter with me, ZCP viii 176.5 . cid no-taí? Sc.M² 3 . roḟetarsa a n-attath[a]i. Ni taam ni or Cano, Anecd. i 9.25 ( SCano 293 ). cid tāthaí, a maccu? . . . oc imresain atām . . ., Ériu viii 157.16 . ni confetatarsin cid rombui hissennath, RC iii 344.10 . dia ḟis cid robái (rombui, v.l.) grían to find out what was the matter with the sun, Ériu iv 140.13 .

With prep. DO feels (inimically) towards, is angry with, worries: propter incredulitatem fracti sunt .i. cani airi .i. badochu lem són is [hed] romboth doib that is the fault found with them, Wb. 5b31 . cren dímsa m'ingin . . . Cid dathir di? . . . Is dichmarcach what cause of annoyance has she given? Vita Br. 13 . fiarfaig Conchobar scēla dō. —Cidh tāi di ṡodain? ol Bricriu why do you bother with it? ZCP v 502.15 . cadai-siu duind?, TTebe 424 . In good sense treats in a special manner: ca tāthar dúin do domnach des / sech gach laithi lāndiles? `why do we hold Sunday above . . .?' Ériu iii 143 § 7 . With added prep.: cidh 'ma bfuile dam? ZCP x 10.11 . ná bí réd chathrachaibh dhúinn `talk not to us of your forts', Content. vi 31 . See further s.v. daas. Frequ. in class. verse in phrase gá dtá, dás (acht) what is the use? in short. Either gá dtá or gá tá may be used to suit alliteration, see Ir. Syll. Poetry 86 . fogus orchra don éigsi / gá ttás cur ré coiméidsi `how can she be saved?' Studies 1923, 421 § 1 . gá dás luadh imdheachta an ḟir? `what need to recount', TD 13.40 . gá dás mé dá mīrbuile / acht sé d'fás ó ÓghMuire, IGT Decl. ex. 200 . gá dtám? —acht torchuir bu dheas in short, TD 3.10 . With follg. prep.: gá dtám ris . . . / acht meise féin foidhidneach, TD 3.41 . ga dtú ris, a rí L.? / ort chuirim mo chomuirghe, 30.12 . ní bhiú ris acht, Dán Dé vi 31 . ní fhuilim dó, xi 30 .

(e) With words indicating number, quantity in sense of accompanied by, having: bí[i]th a th[a]urchreicc cóic ṡétaib, Críth G. 71 . baei Conairi a ceithri cairpthig il-Lifiu, BDD 12 (a cethror cairpdech, v.l.). itó-sa lín do gona, TBC-LL¹ 434 . denam d'ḟiadach na muice in lín Feinde atámait, Acall. 2223 . atáthaoi líon a n-ithte, Keat. iii 4439 . atú-sa caegait fer, MR 248.17 . Later: bed-sa ┐ mili ridiri maraen rium ad diaig, ZCP vi 41.9 .

II Expressing state, condition, kind, etc. with pred. consisting of noun, pron. or adj. (usage more usual with copula, see introd. section above).

(a) With noun pred.: boe sab suithe cech dind, ACC 26 ( RC xx 168 ). boe saegul sneid, 24 . boe dind oc libur leigdocht, 27 . biait betha airchind they will be chieftains of the world, Rawl. 125b9 . With subj. standing between the vb. and pred.: atá dia atach ṅ-dún-ni ais dethrebo God is a refuge to us the people of the two tribes, Ml. 66d1 . bói Fíachnae Lurga athair Mongáin, Imr. Brain 42.1 . Cf. Sg. 20b3 .

(b) With adj. pred.: boe seim sáth, ACC 25 . biat slana, SR 4167 (copula?). feib atam nocht, 1347 (copula?). bía slan, LU 3344 ( SCC 13 ). Cf. habe . . . (.i. sana sis .i. slán bee), Enchir. Aug. 82a ( ZCP vii 484 ). dlegar doibsium na be lobtaigh cor ( ar dlegar doibsium na bed lobthaig cor, O'Dav. 1191 ) (Atk. in Glossary emends to be[t]), Laws iv 54.10. atámait ainmfesach, RC xxiv 371.7 . bítíss meth (leg. methi, ed.) occ tinntúd, IT iii 235.z . co filim garbliath i rricht, LU 1272 . ro boísium imnedach i tossuch a bethad, LL 7305 . ro-bádus-[s]a dronnach, PH 2788 . céin beorsa beó as long as I am alive, Ériu v 222.46 . is follus co fuilti eaclach, Fier. 69 . maith dīghōltar ant andlocht / bethar taoblom tarrnocht trūagh folk will be, ZCP xii 395.23 . With subj. betw. vb. and pred.: is trissa ndede sin biid duine slán et fírian, Wb. 4d33 . amal mbís tegdís fás [amm]edón ┐ scópthe gl. sicut domus uacans et scopata, Tur. 14 ( Thes. i 485.23 ). arrobói a rígthech lán de rígaib, Imr. Brain 1 . amal no beithi féin béo and, Trip.² 2972 . co mbatar na hádnaicti óbéla, PH 676 . bis an puls tonnmur lethan, Rosa Angl. 272.8 . oir dobi se crodha do laim ┐ mor do mét, Fier. 2 .

(c) With part. as pred. Immediately follg. vb. (see GOI 475-6 ; OIPG 147 ): amal nombemmis érchóilti gl. tanquam morti destinatos, Wb. 9a3 . biid ersoilcthi ar chiunn for ríg `be ye opened before your king' (of doors), Ml. 46a7 . co rabais (rabhdais, v.l.) marbtha mudaigthi, TTebe 854 . With subj. standing between vb. and pred.: ataat mesai Dǽ nephchomtetarrachti the judgements of God are incomprehensible, Ml. 55d11 . céin nombetis inna saigtea tuidmithi inna feuil `as long as the arrows were fixed in his flesh', Ml. 58a9 . órobatar ind liss dúntai, Imr. Brain 1 . co ra-bi in uli demnaigecht fomamaigthi dó, PH 2796 .

(d) In sentences where the vb. stands in a nasalising rel. clause and refers to a pred. expressed in the principal clause: is faittech rond-boi som, Ml. 21d4 . ni ba cian mbias in pecthach, 56c22 . fer . . . nadip romar bed a sommæ a man . . . whose wealth should not be too great, Thes. ii 241.9 . is-gáibthech atátur i-sin-magh sin, RC xxiv 378.12 . is trog robas isin chotlad sin, Ériu v 34.z . ní cás duid madh diomdhach raibh / grása Dé . . ., Dán Dé xix 22 . [is] slán do bhaoi an brat-sain, xii 22 .

(e) In the type of sentence where the description constitutes an independent sentence with copula: ego sum uermis et non homo .i. atāim-si conad cruim mē ┐ nāch duine, Corm. Y 211 . ro boi Victor co mbo ḟortachtaigthid do Pátraic, ACL iii 10 § 8 = Trip.² 217 . unus non est . . . .i. nochon fhil int aen co mbad airim, acht ata conidh fotha airim, Auraic. 689 . dom dóigh . . . robadhuis uair ecin ┐ roba díl anora tú `it seems to me . . . that there was once a time when thou wert worthy of honour', ZCP vi 99.5 .

béim

Cite this: eDIL s.v. béim or dil.ie/5566
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: béime

(-mm) n, n. vn. of benaid, see GOI § 735. b.¤ m. and f., g s. and n p. béime, IGT Decl. § 45 (g s. ex. 572, d s. ex. 693).

(a) act of striking; cutting, hewing, taking (off, away), removing, stripping (clothes, etc.): beim a cinn fri cloich gl. capita petrís inlidant, Ml. 139c3 . la beim dom churp cuimnech `at the smiting of my mindful body', Fél.² Ep. 363. fo-loimetar a b.¤ cosna claidbib they threaten to smite him, BDD² 1206. ba b.¤ cride fri cliab leis (of fear), TBC-LL¹ 1038. iarna beím dó asa fremaib (of an oak), Sc.M² 18R . oc bēim ḟeda, TBC-I¹ 778. fertais carpait do bēimim (béim, LU), 780 . a chenn do bēim (bein, v.l.) de, Sc.M² 7. dixit cend Lomnae drūith īarna bēimeim de, Corm. Y 1018 (87.4) . iar mbeim a chind do Ch. `after striking off C.'s head', Ériu ii 30 § 13. a ndrisi ┐ a ndraigne do beim dib (of land), Laws i 128.9 Comm. im beim adbar droichit `cutting the materials for a bridge', 134.27 Comm. b.¤ .i. búain, O'Cl.

Special applications: sesem ic beim in cluic, Thes. ii 346.38 . oc b.¤ tened, BDD² 480. b.¤ spréde, 487 . tene an aonbeime .i. Aodh (see áed), Anecd. ii 52.1 . iar mbēim eiti when he flaps his wings, ZCP vii 310 § 7. dóṡuidigthi .i. cechtar nái foleith cen b.¤ foscdæ innalaill (gl. apposita) without (the one) casting a shadow on the other (of genders of oppidum and Suthul), Sg. 63a15 . íar bēim dei a lēned having taken off his tunic, TBC-I¹ 1387 . a etach . . . do beim do na corpaib, Laws i 176.7 Comm. ní maith lim-sa a manaig do bēim ar L. `to deprive L. of his monks', BColm. 84.16 . ? ni fess mo bunad ria beím `I know not my race to proclaim it', Ériu vii 225.19 .

(b) blow, stroke; cut: bemmen gl. ictús, Ml. 39c17 . bémen dígle . . . nímmalle act is cach ae fo leith .i. coic cethorchuit béimmen `blows of punishment . . . five forties of blows', Wb. 17d2 . ind mbemmi a glancing blow, LL 11091 ( TBC-LL¹ 4285 ). fer benas dam óenbeímmim `at a single blow' (Vocab.), Críth G. 557. is ē nobenfad a crand ōen bēim (óenbéimim, LU) dia bun, TBC-I¹ 339. b.¤ búirid fri teora sústa iarnae they strike a blow with three iron flails, BDD² 1270. co tarat beim ( la tabairt beimen, FB 39 Eg.), LU 8536. dobert b.¤ dind echfleisc dó, 3287 ( SCC 8 ). benaim bēimend ágmara / for slōg síabra, TBC-I¹ 1686 ( LU 6170 ). roben a teora mǣla Midi da thrī bēmennaib, TBC-I¹ 3603. in treas beimennd Fergusa . . . .i. na tri maola Midhi, it e na tri beimenna, Anecd. ii 52.13 . dá cét mbéimen for láma (of penitential exercises), Ériu i 197.5 . cin coisi, di bemium `crime of foot, by kicking', Laws i 238.11 . doradad iarsin b.¤ dara munel cor beanad a cheand de, RC xxiv 56.1 . beim co commus (one of Cú Chulainn's feats), Ériu iv 30.12 . beim fo clos `some kind of military exploit' (Plummer MS. notes), BB 488b22 . co mbeim léoman (rhetoric), LU 5442 , TBC-I¹ 966. bēimm dobeir nathair do neoch an adder's sting for someone, Bruchst. 22 § 48 ( IT iii 78 § 48 ). fri b.¤ n-aéla thrust (of a fleshfork into a cauldron), LL 38376 ( RC xiii 58 ). ráinic b.¤ ǽile fon choire do Conall, RC xxix 219.19 . B. breo betha buadaig / beim in æl airimh ænuigh, Lism. L. 3464. rus-bean bem da heirr `struck . . . with a stroke of its tail' (of a serpent), TTebe 2074 . gearraidh sí (i.e. a scythe) d'aon-bh. an feóithne ┐ an fochnagán, TSh. 2644.

Extended applications: Bemenda Branduib i mBreghaib (i.e. ` seven battles', ed.), RC xvii 163.12 . Bemenna B. i mBreaghaibh, AFM i 222.6 . brogais Bernsa b.¤ don maig `advanced a pace', Metr. Dinds. iii 92.39 . bēim graece bemandro .i. pasus (leg. passus), O'Mulc. 140. bēim didiu .i. césad nó foditiu (through confusion with Lat. passio ?), ibid. b.¤ .i. céim, O'Cl. bēim, cēim `a step', Eg. Gl. 717 (see Ériu xi 119) . beim beg do breathaibh crolighi annso (title of passage consisting of extracts from commentaries on Bretha Crólige, see Ériu xii 2 ), O'Curry 305 (H 3.18, 167). Cf. beimm cenelach lessom anisiu `this is a general remark (?),' Thes. ii 39.22 .

(c) In legal contexts determination, decision, definition, rule, statement (?): b.¤ .i. cinneadh, O'Cl. beim tuathi do nartaiched aicne .i. in cinnedh doní in tuath on aigne dia toirithín, O'Curry 444 (H 3.18, 238b). beim naillech nad nertad tuatha deter- mination, assertion (?) by oath, Laws i 232.1 (and 234.6 Comm.). beim nailliuch . . . .i. noill cinnti . . . .i. in luighe cinnedh (in tuath), O'D. 105 (H.3.17, 86). b.¤ sét ro slanaige tuathband, 576 (443). beim .i. cinne (leg. cinned, Stokes), beim sochaidi ro sluagaigh (leg. slanaigh) tuathbann .i. is cinne sochaidhi, O'Dav. 311. beim sochaidh ro slanaigh tuathbann .i. ro slanaigh in dliged so co obund is na tuathaib. Cail mar cuirfidh in bec sin re cheile. In beim annsa roscadh inand he ┐ in dliged ata sa fasach. In tobonn ata sa fasach is inand ┐ in beim mar in cetna, O'Curry 2113 (H.4.22, 79a). beim sochuir ro slánaigh tuathband ┐ do garar nos la curaibh cosmailsi, O'D. 533 (H. 3.17, 431) `the striking [?] of a good contract which public law validates', Plummer MS. notes. beim tairbe na tarrathar .i. bem so tairben cluais na tarruith nech adidceth, O'Curry 879 ( H 3.18, 394a ).

(d) In various special phrases: b.¤ n-asclaing see asclang. b. císa a rate (?) (levying ?) of tribute: ben do beim císa orainn, Lism. L. 3195 . Cf. (c) supra. b.¤ n-écndaig, cf. (e): ba ussa . . . a dilgud sein oldaas beim n-ecnaich for Dia `blasphemy of God', Ériu ii 122 § 63. See écndach. b.¤ forais (see forus): b.¤ foris inso sís uile all that follows is a laying down, or statement, of rules, Wb. 25c18 . aphorism: forus .i. forismus graece sermo breuis latine ipocrāit (?) no excerptio interpretatur unde dicitur adcomced beim foruis fair (see Gwynn, KMMisc. 183 ), Rawl. 108b36 , O'Mulc. 578. b.¤ súl(a) (see s.v. súil): gebis galur Dauid . . . tria béimm súla ┐ tria aídcell anfhoill, LB 129a15 . treisi an b.¤ súla iná sin the evil (?) (envious ?), eye can go further (lit. is stronger) than that (?), Bard. Synt. Tr. 219.17 .

(e) Fig. blow, stroke of feeling, emotion; reproach, offence (with FOR, AR); blemish, fault, disgrace: beim di omhon, Ériu ii 134 § 118. in bem dimecin dorat L. fair, BB 416a16 . dorat . . . aithis ┐ beim forsan coicedh n-uili, Sc.M² R 14 . benais M. b.¤ n-aisce fair reproached him, TBC-LL¹ 472. beim ar a ecna `offence à sa science', RC xxiv 377.29 . b.¤ .i. égnach no toibhéim, O'Cl. , Eg. Gl. 718. is b.¤ ar inchaib na h-atharda, MR 300.31 . fagail beime ni dual di she should not receive reproach, ZCP ii 337.22 . ní b.¤ ar Bh. `no reproach to B.', TD 6. 17 . le a dtréithibh gan bh.¤ ar bioth, Hackett lv 13 . ná bíodh 'na bh.¤ air ar n-obadh, IGT Decl. ex. 693. buain béime ar mo bhogha-sa `that you have undertaken to revile my bow', Content. xxiv § 22 .

Compd. ¤scrisad: do bhéimsgriosadh . . . le tréan-thuile mhóir violently snatched away, O'Rah. 44.5.

1 bith

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 bith or dil.ie/5971
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: inb, betho, beotho, betha, biuth, bithu, bithe, mbetha, bethaib

n u, m. GOI §§ 73 , 307 . n s. an b.¤ , Blathm. 245. a s. inb, Wb. 22b13 . g s. betho, 1a3 , 14b10 , 29a8 , 31b18 , Ml. 16c5 , 54a15 , 88a3 , beotho, Wb. 11a19 . betha, 15d9 . Ml. 46d6 , 68b9 . d s. biuth, Wb. 12c16 , Ml. 24b13 . a p. bithu, Wb. 4c4 . bithe, Beatha Bharra 62.111 , BNnÉ 7 § 23 . g p. mbetha, LU 2001 ( FA 6 ). d p. bethaib, Imr. Brain 26. b.¤ m. (acht gan illradh aige), IGT Decl. § 71.

I

(a) the world: isin biuthso gl. in hoc mundo, Wb. 12d4 . isin mb.¤-sa gl. in hunc mundum, 29b14 . is dered ṁbetho inso `this is the end of the world', 10b3 . fon mb.¤ `throughout the world', Thes. ii 334.4 (Hy. v). do thustin an betha, Ériu ii 98 § 1. tuigithir blath inb.¤ `blossom covers the world', Ériu xxii 41 § 4 (MS). ad-comaicc a erball do thochur in beatha tar a cheann (of Leviathan), BDD² 503. no sirfed . . . in m[b]ith mbras, LU 3554 ( SCC 29 ). céin boí in díliu forsin b.¤ (for b.¤ v.l.), Airne F. 76. in b.-sa is b.¤ cáich ar n-uair `this world belongs to each (generation) in turn', Ériu ix 48 § 22. m'ænur dolod forsin mb.¤ `alone I came into the world', ii 56 § 14 . da mad he in b.¤ uli dogebtha, PH 7581. timcheall an betha `round the world', TTebe 4471 . cech noeb . . . bias / for b.¤ barrglass broenach, Gorm. 250 Ep. § 1 . báidhtir an bioth, DDána 26.16 . do lucht an bheatha, TSh. 7645. Freq. in phr. fir betha inhabitants (men) of the world, mankind, people: fir betho, Ml. 16c5 . di ḟeraib Hérenn nach di feraib betha, BDD² 917.

Often in theolog. sense the (temporal or material) world as opposed to the spiritual one: ó deithidin in betho .i. ó sétchi, Wb. 10b15 . amal ro mbo marb Ísu don biuthso `dead to this world', 15b25 . ní car Brigit būadach b.¤ , Thes. ii 327.13 (Hy. v.). mo chlūasa / . . . / nār ēistet . . . / . . . for b.¤ bētach the shameless world, ZCP vi 259 § 3. docotar . . . fri tola in betho `to worldly desires', Wb. 29d8 . See 1 cé.

(b) land, territory, soil: urcollud b.¤ brug betha go banna .i. uasal-collud for in mb.¤ .i. for in tír, O'Dav. 312. dobeir in ṁblicht isin ṁb.¤ , Ériu ix 50 § 37. bid íatt bus mesa / dūibh for b.¤ Banba, ZCP viii 110. 31 . lachttrom dúibh an bioth `the land', Magauran 354 .

(c) existence, life: i ndiththrub in beotho `in the desert of Life', Wb. 11a19 . ná ragad ar cúlu . . . co bruinni mbrātha ┐ betha, TBC-I¹ 1834. báire an bheatha `life's game', Dán Dé vii 3 . ar táille an bheatha i n-a mbíod span of life, xxiii 25 . Note also: amal aipgitir in betha `the alphabet of the fauna', Auraic. 5600.

In ds. in phrases ar-beir, airbert, comairbert biuth, see these words.

In phr. isin b.¤ , for (ar) b.¤ in the world, in existence; hence developing to anywhere, at all; (follg. a noun) any, whatsoever, see also s.v. 1 cía; freq. follg. a noun in neg. sentences nothing, no(one) at all: can co rabur acht oenlá . . . ar b.¤ but one day alive, TBC-LL¹ 1112. baterc for b.¤ mnai a samail for chóemi scarcely anywhere was there to be found, PH 830. na Ulltach eli for b.¤ `or any Ultonian', MR 38.16 . imad dérchointe . . . ┐ cecha eccumsanta for b.¤ of every unrest whatsoever, PH 4314. a bpéin budh mó san mbioth `in the greatest possible pain' (Gloss.), Desid. 1440. gibé ar bioth ní whatever , 593 . ni chumaic tra nech for b.¤ (isin b.¤ frecnairc-sea, LU 1996 ) tuaruscbail . . . na n-oirecht sin, FA 6 (LB). nac fitir a chuphus for (ar v.l.) b.¤ cidh no biadh doib donn orgain, Anecd. ii 49 § 11. nach béradh aen troigh teichid . . . ar comha ar b.¤ , Cog. 252.18 = ar coma sa b.¤ , 186.10 . ní háil leam . . . obair ar bioth shaoghaltha, Desid. 2511. ní fhuil ar bioth eascairde aguinne as mó, 478 . Note also: ba lōr a onōraighi . . . ar b.¤, dia madh rī no-biadh ann grand . . . enough indeed for a king, Fl. Earls 46.z . ar b.¤ any, Eg. Gl. 707. nom-bera ar bith at all events, RC xxiv 60 § 19. tar gach mbioth ` everywhere ', BS 30.22 . See McCaughey, SGS xii 30 - 33 .

II Age, period (see GOI § 365 ): is hé in b.¤ dédenach diand ebrath b.¤ sīl Chuind ┐ Muman ind [ḟ]laith co bráth, ZCP viii 313.30 . b.¤ cc. rob. ccl. a `bith' is 200 years, a `robith' 250, O'Curry 21 (H.3.18, 9b). o rosaigh co dechnemur is ann is ro b.¤ , 20 (ibid.) ? ic turc[a]bail na mbithó, Lism. L. 760. In phr. isna (tre, tria) bithu for ever: is dia bendachthe isna bithu gl. benedictus in secula, Wb. 4c4 . tria bithu na mbetha (Lat. per saecula saeculorum), LU 2001 ( FA 6 ). tre bithu betha (= in saecula), Lat. Lives 2 § 2. noco techtai sruth intí ná eissi acht lán tre bithu (= semper), 29 § 23. ro hedhbhradh dó hí trí bithe 'was surrendered up to him in perpetuity', Beatha Bharra 62.111 ​​​​. anaid hi sist ┐ hi ccairdes tre bithe, BNnÉ 7 § 23​ . piana ... o nach ternaife tré bíthe, Aisl. Tond. xiii 3 . See sír.

Compds. (freq. bid- in Wb., but cf. bith- 3b4, 3b7, 24a17). Only in meaning lasting, permanent, perpetual (later also as intensive and/or alliterative prefix). Cf. b.¤ .i. sir, Corm. Y 126 n. 8 . nad etsa bas b.¤ , ACC 98 (indep. use of bith ever , Misc. Hib. 50 § 366 ).

With adjj.: ag Tegh Moling biothainglighi ` ever-angelic ', BS 80.y . an ógh bithálainn bennaighthe `beauteous', BNnÉ 275 § 254 . robo bith-buaghlach (? -báoglach) bailedhach buadhartha, O'Dav. 297. act bid bidbéo gl. non moritur, Wb. 3b2 . is bithbeo corp crist, 3b4 . bad bithbíi i n-ísu, 3b7 . totchurethar bíi bithbi (rhetoric), LU 10027. teine bithbéo ` perpetual ' (Vocab.), Críth G. 180. a bhó bhithbhliocht always rich in milk (of Mary), Aithd. D. 97.27 . fear biothcaithmheach ` constantly-spending ', AFM v 1424.26 . nipsa bla bithdilis (b.¤ diles, v.ll.) inalienable , Anecd. ii 60.6 . it bithdommai sidi dǽ gente gl. inopes, Ml. 36c14 . bithḟotai sidi gl. uocalibus semper longuis, Sg. 5b 1 . bithgairddi gl. perpetuo breues, Sg. 5a14 . scieth bithghel, TBC St. 4561. Ol ṅguala .i. dabach Geirg, for lár in tige bithlán ` ever-full ', Ériu iv 30.25 . Brigit bé bithmaith `ever excellent', Thes. ii 323.1 (Hy. iv). a cind secht mbliadan mbithmas, ZCP v 23 § 4 . no-meilinn léini mbithnuí, Lament 2 . combi bidslán ` ever-sound ', Wb. 4d33 . cen soinmigi ┐ doinmigi do tecmung . . . acht robu bithsóinmech doib, Ml. 90c27 . for pianad bithsuthin `in the everlasting punishment', Ml. 26d12 .

With nouns: .iiii. bliadna pennite ┐ bith-ailithre (= cum peregrinatione perenni), Ériu vii 144 § 21. beannacht ┐ bithbheannacht perpetual blessing, DDána 120.31 . bithbés troiscta `continual fasting', Mon. Tall. 161.1 . uita aeterna .i. . . . bid bidbethu, Wb. 4a13 . immin bidbethid, 15c14 . i mbithchāin `as a perpetual law', Cáin Ad. 28. bithchen do thíchtu, MU² 58. comalta ┐ fer bithchotaig dam, LU 6007 (TBC). mnā do uhith i mbithdōire in perpetual bondage, Cáin Ad. 16. bithfer fíta na riaglae one who keeps to the prescribed ration, Mon. Tall. 151.24 . donfé don bithflaith `eternal kingdom', Thes. ii 325.16 (Hy. iv). do bithgres always, SR 4912. ní dúthrais a bithingnais `his perpetual absence', Thes. ii 291.10 . [i m]bithphennit, Wb. 24a17 . bidserc doib gl. inseruerunt sé doloribus multis, Wb. 29b23 .

With vnn. doarngert bithanad isin chill sin, RC xxiv 56 § 17. bhithbeith gan forcenn i fudhomhnuibh pian, Ériu ii 122 § 63. biddixnugud fírinne `eternal existence', Wb. 14c31 . bidfoglim doib gl. semper discentes, 30c15 . in bithiata hi robaid riam `of the perpetual closure', Ml. 46a8 . ba ferr lim dobertha oldaas a bithtarṅgire than to be constantly promised, Mór M. 262 § 1.6 .

With vbs. ( GOI § 384 ): ro-bithbéo it pardus `may I be for ever', Fél. Ep. 39. faithchi i mbithbiat caírig `in which there are always' (Vocab.), Críth G. 198. in Coimde robhithbhai ┐ bhithbias, Ériu ii 106 § 19. ? is fris con bith bennaib búredar (= bith-buireadar co mbennaib, ed., 105 n.43), ZCP xi 87 § 48. a Chrīosd, bhiothmhairios ad th'airdrígh, Parrth. Anma 4827.

3 d

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 3 d or dil.ie/14067

often written for eclipsed t in MIr. MSS. For OIr. cf. intain diagma ni, Wb. 3 a 15 . hóre déte, 11 d 7 . con dánicc, 3 c 27 , and oldaas .

debach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. debach or dil.ie/14829

n strife, contention : bá férr síth ┐ cháinchoṁracc oldáas eisíth ┐ debach, TTr.² 1763 . Not different from deibech, q.v.

deibech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. deibech or dil.ie/15102

Forms: debig, deibhech

n o. g s. debig (: Nemid), LL 206a9 . deibhech, -thech m., IGT Decl. § 22 . See exx. 801 , 802 . contention, strife, conflict: in ra síd no in ra debech, MU² 827 . bá férr síth ┐ cháinchomhracc oldáas eisíth ┐ debach, TTr.² 1763 . fir nachdat daidbri im d.¤ men that are not stinting in strife, Metr. Dinds. iii 330 . conna dernam d.¤ , TBC-LL¹ 3474 . cor deibig, LL 213a56 . ferr dál debech, 345c22 . rob iad-sin an triar gan d.¤ as ferr enech tainic riam undisputably, ZCP vii 304 . tuc do gach droing gan d.¤ , SG 28.13 .

deimin

Cite this: eDIL s.v. deimin or dil.ie/15210

Forms: demin, deimne, demniu, demne, demnib, deimnib, demniu, démniu, demni, demnithir, deimhin

adj Always spelt demin in O. Ir. Glosses. g s f. deimne, LL 193b50 . n p. (as pred.) demni, LU 2613 . a p m. and n. demniu, LL 7a8 . demne, 234ay 0 ( TTr. 1291 ) = BB 398b48 . d p. demnib, SR 5656 , YBL 179a21 . deimnib, SR 4692 . Compar. demniu, Ml. 112b13 . démniu, PH 6731 . demni, LL 182b37 . Equative demnithir, Wb. 28c14 , Ml. 131d12 . See also demein.

I As adj. sure, certain, undoubted: amal bid Dia farid gellad . . . bad demnithir sin let it be as sure as if God had declared it, Ml. 131d12 , cf. Wb. 28c14 . rogellai Saul . . . a ingen dó, demin scél (chev.), SR 5839 . ni cuala scel bo demniu, YBL 125b35 . demni scélaib surest of tidings (chev.), LL 182b37 . demin forgaill (chev.), SR 4302 . demniu idnu, LL 7a8 . cidat demni araile di ruinib na esergi, RC xxv 242.2 . is demin (folld. by clause with or without conj.): is demin nach hepelam, SR 2748 . is d.¤ co mbia esergi dóib, RC xxv 236 . is d.¤ is derb is airithe co nach . . ., PH 6036 . is d.¤ de-sin conid . . ., 2264 . as dearbh deimhin ná . . ., AFM vi 2358 . is gle is d.¤ is Duid rogab na psalmu, Hib. Min. 162 . is d.¤ tánic mo lá, SG 91.26 . is d.¤ écin, is e in duine-si rotsáraig, PH 3855 . is demin lim I am sure (of, that): is demniu liunn a n-adchiam . . . oldaas an rochluinemmar, Ml. 112b13 . is demhin lemsa . . . an ní bhias de sin, TFrag. 202 . nach ni is d.¤ leo do dlestin dib, Laws ii 272 . is in luc i mba d.¤ leo in crand do thuitím where there were sure the tree would fall, Lat. Lives 94 . gach inad inar d.¤ le Pādraig bendachad do Chairill, ZCP vii 307 . With FRI: ropad d.¤ frisna hoen n-apstal déc . . . certe iam noverant undecim apostoli, PH 5122 . is demin dom: is demhin do righaibh Erend . . . ni biadh tuisel . . . foraibh it is certain to the kings of E. that . . . they shall meet with no mischance, Leb. Cert. 6.20 .

As attrib. with subst., certain, indisputable; sure (to come), inevitable: iarmofuacht A. scéla demne dona techtaib, LL 234a49 ( TTr. 1291 ). a fhioss deimhin cissi haidhed nombérad, SG 79 . derbfaistine demin do denum do, MR 166 . tresna runu rodemne, BB 398b48 . ni hūaim téit éc dían d.¤ , ACL iii 216 . coroslig . . . díglaib demnib with sure vengeance, SR 5656 . genuine, real: ba dál ri dithrub ṅdemin, LL 151b21 . is hesin dlige d.¤ tresa tanic ... the way...really came, PH 232 . fid d.¤ na nduan the true tree of poems, SG 245 . Sure, reliable, trustworthy: cultech ndemin, Thes. ii 292.10 . dín d.¤ , SR 5798 . cona cathrachaib . . . daiṅgnib deimnib, 4692 . fri dai[n]gniu demniu, LL 7a8 . lamda degmná deimne, 193b50 . a Dé demin, 183b13 . riaglóir d.¤ , Ériu iii 106 .

Adv. in demin surely, certainly, verily, indeed ; gl. quod quidem, Ml. 37a13 , cf. 37a17 . cid in d.¤ gl. iam quidem omnino, Wb. 9c18 . Mid. Ir. co demin: de nim tra co d.¤ doraga in comdiu, RC iv 248 . cuich thú, a duine, go deimhin?, BS 148 . budh ri go deimhin . . . an ghen fail id bhroinn, TFrag. 102 . Often emphasizing answer to a question: nach hé Cailte . . . siút? is mé co d.¤, ar C., Acall. 3216 ; 2376 , 6318 . go d.¤ derb, SG 245 . Defining foregoing statement, to wit, namely: as comfocus ind aimser. aimser sin in báis co d.¤ (= tempus utique mortis), PH 5089 . slicht in gói rothecht ina thoeb . . . .i. ina thoeb ṅdess co d.¤ (= videlicet latus dextrum), 6780 . isin cathraig .i. i nIerusalem co d.¤ , 5081 .

II As subst., certainty, assurance, proof: doberadh d.¤ duin an fuil sluaigh S. ar gar duin, Fier. 209 . tainicc deimhin a mbáis go Saxoibh, AFM vi 2092 . acht mona a mbeth a d.¤ acca an flathas neamhdha d'fagbail, ZCP i 124 . do bo truagh les gan a d.¤ aicce cindus do beidis . . ., BCC 16.34 . mar fuair S. deimhin air sin, TSh. 9105 . co bfionnta fein a dh.¤ , BS 148 . muna ffághbadh féin d.¤ an sgeoil, TFrag. 28 . deimhin, f., IGT Decl. § 150 .

Compds. ¤ḟorgell sure testimony: in tan arróet demin forgell ind imdibe o Dia, PH 5679 . hi ndeminfoirgell esérgi Críst, LB 226b50 . deimin forgill na scribtuiri, Laws v 12 (perhaps two words `sureness of testimony'). ¤scél: luid fri deminscél cosin ṅgrianán to bear exact tidings, TFerbe 69 . nogo faghthai deiminsgel o R., Fier. 175 . Note also ¤máthair mother (compd. analogous to derb-bráthair, ¤ṡiur): Callech ingen Dunlaing . . . demin máthair Bráin, LL 141b11 ( RC xlvii 314 ).

díglaide

Cite this: eDIL s.v. díglaide or dil.ie/16322

adj io,iā (dígal) avenging, vengeful: oldaas ata ndiglaidi gl. ultoria (suplicia), Ml. 111c8 . ticfet toirne díglaidi, SR 8151 . dia ruca breth for do diglaighiu, O'Dav. 454 . See 1 díglaid.

dílmain

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dílmain or dil.ie/16440
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: dílmainiu, dílmain

adj i (dí + loman leash, O'Rahilly, SGS ii 17 ff . q.v.).

The primary meaning appears to be free from restraint (?), without attachment ; hence

(a) applied to actions, that which is free, permissbile, without hindrance or penalty , and

(b) of agent or instrument free (to act), unhampered . The connexion is shown in Wb. 14a24 where d.¤ glosses vacuum in veniet cum ei vacuum fuerit = when it will be free to him to do so = in tan bus d.¤ dó; and BCr. 32c3 where indilmainiu = expeditius (aliis aptius multo et expeditius videtur ut computatio . . . incipiat).

(a) is diliu lem aní as torbae oldaas aní as d.¤ (= omnia licent sed non omnia expediunt), Wb. 11b17 . is d.¤ la cách ar n-orcunni everyone thinks himself free to slay us, 4b23 . dilmuin cach anfot, Laws ii 25 . is d.¤ (gl. licet), Sg. 210b3 ; 163b4 (dílmin). is d.¤ dom it is free to me (to), I am at liberty (to . . .), it is lawful for me, I may with impunity: ba nd.¤ dossom airbert biuth do thorud a precepte , Wb. 10d14 . ba ndilmain do, Études Celt. xl 67 ( Ml. 54c18 ). RC ii 392 . Trip. 208 . BB 239b33 . 3 B 23, 81b . Anecd. iii 23 . Laws ii 72 . Without gram. subj., Laws ii 82 . With DE: Balur roba d.¤ de | rochum raith . . . mBresi (`it was worthy of him', O'Curry; it was within his pleasure?), MS. Mat. 578 (poem quoted by Mac Firbis).

Hence attrib. just, lawful: messair d.¤ `legitimate measure', Tec. Corm. § 3.39 (where however meaning may approach (b), the idea being the opposite of that expressed in `loaded dice'). Cf. also Hib. Min. 438 (text doubtful). dilmuin .i. dilis (lawful?), O'Dav. 605 , 725 . O'Cl. Possibly also fo d.¤ , Acall. 3244 (= as their fair share?).

(b) free from obstacles, unimpeded, unattached: gl. expeditum (= free for action, of a pers., used to explain accinctus ), Ml. 81b7 . Cf. Wb. 14a24 and BCr. 32c3 . Corm. Y 477 . Of things: Fél. p. 200 ( Fél. Sept. 4 ). ní chuirfea ind es nó a n-abaind he ara ticfa d.¤ without a catch (of a fish-hook), Acall. 7272 . Of persons: ro[s] leicset (so corrected by W. Stokes, Academy No. 584 ) d.¤ uadib 'na ndirmaib (of Egyptians letting Israelites depart), SR 3945 . for fer nd.¤ imt[h]éit (opp. to: fer imthéit co n-eri), Ériu ii 204 . cech d.¤ . . . fil cen recht cen réir (i.e. everyone exempt from monastic rule, every layman, opp. to cech fírmanach), Fél. p. 4 . is arrae trí coecat | don d.¤ nodgéba (opp. to nóeb `a professed religious'), Ep. 180 . duine d.¤ bis for sibal a hinad an unattached person (gl. fulla), Laws i 106.7 Comm. gasraid Cruachna . . . ni d.¤ duine ón feadhain | rigraid Muige Muireadhaigh `no man of the band is fruitless (unmarried)', Hy Fiach. 178 (possibly to be taken in connexion with ó unattached to, or absol. independent, unemployed ?). Éire díolmhuin ní dleagair | o ríoghaibh fhreimhe Huidhir it is not right that É. should be left empty of (? unattached to, i.e. unruled by?), 3 C 13, 463.1 . fo d.¤ , Acall. 909 , 3244 (?). Adv. (compar.) in dílmainiu gl. liberius, Ml. 61b21 .

(c) of offspring illegitimate: mac diolmhuin, Rel. Celt. ii 164.y . clann diolmhuin oile ag D., 174.15 .

(d) Of persons free, unattached: na daoine díolmhaine ` volunteers ' (Gloss.), TSh. 73 . ro marbadh drong da dhaoínibh diolmuine, AFM vi 2096.15 .

As subst. cech dílmain . . . cet cia théis fri báig ` freeman ', Fél. 4.13 .

do-beir

Cite this: eDIL s.v. do-beir or dil.ie/17216
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: do-ucc, do-bert, do-rat, tuicsiu, tabair, taber, tabar, taibred, tabrad, taibrem, tabram, taibrid, taibrith, tabraid, taibret, tabrat, dobiur, dodasbiur, doberim, thabur, nis-tabor, dubir, dobir, dobere, tabair, dobeir, dober, tabir, tabair, doberam, taibrem, thabrum, d-a-berid-si, doberat, doberait, fuantaibret, thabrat, doberad, dobertis, do-m-beirtis, tabratis, doberae, taibre, toibre, thobri, dumbera, taibrea, thobrea, tibri, doberum, donberaid-si, doberthi-si, tabraid, du-m-berat, dusmerat, thabrat, dubertha, doberthusa, doberad, taibred, taibreth, doberthe, dobéer, dobér-sa, tiber, thibér, tiubér, thiubar, doberae, tibéræ, dos-mbéra, thibre, tibrea, tiubrae, dobérat, thibreat, dobēraind-sea, tiobhrainn-si, tibartha-sa, tiubharta, domberad, nandatiberad, tibred, nachis-tibred, dobérmais, tibrimmis, tiubhrumais, tiurmais, do-sm-bérthe, tibertais, nis-tibritis, tiuradais, do-m-biurt, dondmbiurtsa, dobert-sa, dobirt, dobertais, dobert, dubbert, tobert, contubert, contubart, dosbertar, do-s-bertatar, tubertatar, tubartadar, dobertsat, dobreth-, dobreth, dobretha, dobrethsat, tabarr, taborthar, tabraiter, doberr, dober, do-berar, duberar, doberair, tabarr, tobarr, tabar, dobertar, tobertar, tabartar, doberthe, dobertha, tibirthi, dubertis, dobertis, doberthar, do-m-bertar, dopartar, tabarthae, tabarthe, dubertis, dobertais, dobérthar, dubérthar, tibérthar, bērtar, tibertha, tibertais, dobreth, tobreth, tubrad, tabrad, tobrad, dobretha, tabart(h)ae, tabarthi, tarti, tartat, tardatis, tart-sa, dord-sa, tartar, conas-tarddur, tarttai, durata, dorata, tarta, condarta, tharda, fris-tarddam, dorattid-si, tartaid-si, tharddaid-si, doratat, conda-tardat, condartin, condardad, tarddad, thardad, tartaitis, doratus, doratas, tharddusa, tartus, doratis, doratais, duratais, duratis, donrátais, dartais, tharddais, dorat, doratastur, tarat, tarat, condadarat, tard, doratsam, doratsamar, tartamar, daratsid-si, doratsaid, thardsaid, doratsat, doratsatar, tartsat, tardsat, conda-tarsat, tartsatar, ní tartisset, doratar, dorattar, tartar, condartar, dorataiter, ndartaiter, tarta, tartha, doratad, doradad, doratath, tartad, dardad, tardad, dorata, doratta, tarta, tuic, tuic, do-n-uc, tuc, tucaid, tuicet, dofuci, do-t-tucai, duduccai, tucait, dofuctais, conos-tuc, conda-tuc-si, conda-tucc, tucar, tuicce, tuigi, tucair, tuca, tuccas, conos-tucam, thucaind, nacha-tucad, conna-tuctais, do-n-uccus-sa, tuicais, dofucais, rothucais, tucais, do-n-uic, du-n-uic, d-a-uic, duuic, duic, tu-n-uic, tuicc, tuic, tuic, da-uc, duuc, tuc, doḟuc, domfuc-sa, doruc, rodatuc, tucastair, tugasdair, dofucsam-ni, da-b-ucsum, tucsam, tucsam, tugamar, tucsaid, tucsabair, du-nn-ucsat, dofucsat, tucsat, tucsatar, tucthar, con-ducthar, thuicter, duccatar, tuctha, ducad, tuccad, tucad, tuiced, fofuctha, tucait, do-ucci, tucu, dofuca(a)im, tuicim, do-sn-ucci, dusn-ucai, dorucai, tuicci, thuccai, tucci, tucai, tuice, do-uicim-ne, tuigmít, dofucaid, do-nd-ucet, thuccat, thucat, thuicit, tuigit, tucad, tuctais, tuicce, condid-tucce, tucca, do-nd-uccam, tucid, -tuccid, conducaid, nis-tuccin, dos-fucad, rothucad, condid-tucmis-ni, tuicfe, tucfa, dofucfa, tucfa, da-ucbaid-si, tucfait, nodafucfad, dofucébad, tucus-su, rothuic, thuiccestair, tucsid-si, do-tuicetar, tucsat, tuicset, duucthar, dohucthar, tuucthar, tucthar, tucatar, tuctar, du-n-ucthar, conducthe, tuccfither, dofuicfind, tuicti

v (* to-ber-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 469 ), gives, places; brings, gets . The perfective forms are supplied, in the meaning gives, places , by *to-rat-, in the meaning brings, gets by *to-ucc-; in later lang. the perf. do-ucc (tuc) gradually takes the place of do-bert and do-rat and is sometimes used to gloss the two latter, cf. tard .i. tug, O'Cl. Forms of *to-rat- are, however, permissible in bardic verse, see IGT Verbs § 14 . The perfective *to-ucc- (lit. can bring ) also forms a complete paradigm without distinction of perfective and non-perfective forms, with the meaning understands (later tuicid) the vn. being 2 tabairt later replaced by tuicsiu.

Ipv. 2 s. tabair, Ml. 27c12 , 87d12 . taber, Thes. ii 250.16 . tabar, TBC-I¹ 1482(LU) . 3 s. taibred, Wb. 22b7 , 12 . tabrad, PH 6017 . 1 pl. taibrem, Wb. 13d15 . tabram, PH 3757 . 2 pl. taibrid, Wb. 16c17 . taibrith, 6a20 . tabraid, Corm. Y 323 , PH. 3 pl. taibret, TBC-I¹ 2980 . tabrat, PH 6137 , etc.

Indic. pres. 1 s. dobiur, Wb. 14a20 . dodasbiur, Anecd. ii 16 . doberim, PH 2764 , etc. ní thabur , Sg. 179a4 . nis-tabor, 204b5 . 2 s. dubir, Ml. 105d4 , 110d13 . dobir, Thes. ii 249.1 , 2 , 3 . dobere, -i, PH 1777 , etc. ní tabair , Ml. 63c13 . na tabrai, SR 848 . 3 s. dobeir, Wb. 21a13 . dober, 14b15 . TBC-I¹ 62 , 71 (LU), etc. ni tabir , Wb. 14b15 . ní tabair , Sg. 214a5 . 1 pl. doberam, Wb. 13b15 . ní taibrem , 15c9 . ní thabrum , PH 2070 . 2 pl. d-a-berid-si, Wb. 24c16 . 3 pl. doberat, Wb. 15b2 . PH 1135 . doberait, PH 2652 , etc. Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 40.10 , etc. fuantaibret, Ml. 45a3 . ni thabrat , PH 1952 . Impf. 3 s. doberad, TBC-I¹ 279 . 3 pl. dobertis, Ml. 54c30 . do-m-beirtis, 90d17 . co tabratis , PH 6290 .

Subj. pres. 2 s. doberae, Ml. 106c1 , cf. 94d4 . ni taibre , Wb. 29a22 . ni toibre , a20 . mani thobri , ZCP viii 313.4 . 3 s. dumbera, Ml. 40c21 . ceni taibrea , Ml. 93a9 . mani thobrea , Wb. 4c20 . nā tibri , SR 1659 . 1 pl. doberum, PH 5819 . 2 pl. donberaid-si, Wb. 16c9 , cf. 8d21 . doberthi-si, PH 5785 . ní tabraid , Wb. 6c1 . 3 pl. du-m-berat, Ml. 40c21 . dusmerat, Mon. Tall. 144.14 . ni thabrat , Corm. Y 1059 . Impf. 2 s. dubertha, Ml. 130d15 . ma doberthusa , Anecd. iii 30 . 3 s. doberad, Wb. 32a12 . mani taibred , Ml. 35c26 . arná taibreth , LU 11025 . 2 pl. cia doberthe , Wb. 15d8 .

Fut. 1 s. dobéer, Wb. 12c35 . dobér-sa, TBC-I¹ 185 . SR 2885 . da tiber , TBC-I¹ 2301 . ní thibér , SR 842 . nach tiubér , Imr. Brain i 67.12 . ní thiubar , Ériu i 93 . 2 s. doberae, Ml. 44a20 . in tibéræ ? 77a16 . 3 s. dos-mbéra, Wb. 13b30 . ni thibre , PH 7950 . Corm. Y 698 . ni tibrea , TBC-LL¹ 3502 . nach tiubrae , BNnÉ 309.27 . 3 pl. dobérat, Wb. 6b27 . TBC-I¹ 1133 . mani thibreat , TBC-I¹ 2980 . Condit. 1 s. dobēraind-sea, TBC-I¹ 824 . nach tiobhrainn-si , MR 284 . 2 s. co tibartha-sa , Imr. Brain i 63.15 . co tiubharta , 68.16 . 3 s. domberad, Ml. 108a5 . nandatiberad, 97d10 . na tibred , LU 3171 . nachis-tibred, Thes. ii 341.37 . 1 pl. dobérmais, Imr. Brain i 69.20 . PH 7233 . na tibrimmis , CRR 33 . ni tiubhrumais , Ériu iii 158 . nach tiurmais , Acall. 5675 . 2 pl. do-sm-bérthe, Wb. 19d24 . 3 pl. día tibertais , LU 3448 . nis-tibritis, RC iii 175.11 . co tiuradais , ZCP vi 276 .

Pret. 1 s. do-m-biurt, ZCP iv 43.4 . dondmbiurtsa, TBC-I¹ 3556 . dobert-sa, TBC-LL¹ 1893 . CCath. 1702 . 2 s. dobirt, Ml. 56a13 . dobertais, TBC-LL¹ 1105 , 1621 . 3 s. dobert, Ml. 23b10 ; 58c4 . TBC-I¹ 326 , etc. dubbert, Ardm. 18a1 ( Thes. ii 241 ). tobert, TBC-I¹ 655 . Fianaig. 24.4 . contubert, Hib. Min. 77.19 . contubart, Thes. ii 242 . 3 pl. dosbertar, Tur. 128 . do-s-bertatar, TBC-I¹ 912 (LU), 1788 . tubertatar, IT i 137.11 (LU). cu tubartadar , TBC-I¹ 3069 . dobertsat, Alex. 5 . CCath. 3255 . AFM 1172 , etc. In Mid. Ir. the passive dobreth- (see below) is somet. used to supply act., 3 s. dobreth, TBC-LL¹ 674 , 1930 , 1958 . dobretha, CRR 8 , 53 . FB § 38 . LU 10168 . TBC-I¹ 2210 , 2212 . TBC-LL¹ 101 , 468 , 655 . 3 pl. dobrethsat, TBC-LL¹ 1315 .

Pass. ipv. s. tabarr, Ml. 104b2 . na taborthar , ZCP vii 311 § 14 . pl. tabraiter, TBC-I¹ 1471 (LU). Indic. pres. s. doberr, Wb. 3c1 ; 28c4 . dober, Ml. 56b11 . do-berar, 60b19 . TBC-I¹ 1160 . duberar, Ml. 105d6 . doberair, PH 2161 . dia tabarr , Wb. 17a3 . Corm. Y 32 . ara tobarr , Wb. 12d29 . forsa tabar , Ml. 54a2 . pl. dobertar, Wb. 10d20 . tobertar, Ml. 25b6 . ni tabartar , 101d6 . Impf. s. doberthe, Ml. 115a14 . Wb. 10d16 . dobertha, Corm. Y 391 . intan na tibirthi , CCath. 1496 . pl. dubertis, Ml. 89a2 . dobertis, Tur. 110c . Corm. Y 48 . Subj. pres. s. doberthar, Wb. 13a3 . TBC-I¹ 1579 . pl. do-m-bertar, Ml. 45b5 . cia dopartar , Todd Nenn. 216.13 . Subj. impf. s. ceni tabarthae , Ml. 40d20 . trissa tabarthe , 36a1 . pl. dubertis, 84c9 . dobertais, 90a14 . Fut. s. dobérthar, Wb. 16a13 . dubérthar, Ml. 72d18 . ni tibérthar , Wb. 18b11 . pl. intan dum bērtar , Ml. 69b1 . Condit. s. dia tibertha , FB § 90 , cf. TBC-LL¹ 159 . pl. ni tibertais , Ml. 15c7 . Pret. s. dobreth, IT i 131.8 (LU); 138.15 (LU). Hy. v 85 . tobreth, IT i 130.23 (LU). hi tubrad , Hy. i 3 . co tabrad , TBC-I¹ 1637 . ni tobrad , 1536 . pl. dobretha, TBC-I¹ 3072 . TBC-LL¹ 2587 . ZCP viii 312.21 . Part. tabart(h)ae. Verbal of necess. tabarthi. Vn. 1 tabairt.

Perfective forms.

A From *to-rat-. Indic. pres. 3 s. manid tarti can give, Ml. 51b7 (see GOI p. 345 ). 3 pl. ni tartat , Thes. ii 2.32 . Impf. 3 pl. nad tardatis , Ml. 85d5 . Subj. pres. 1 s. ara tart-sa , Wb. 14d17 . meni dord-sa , Rawl. 156b20 . co tartar , Ériu v 240.129 . conas-tarddur, TBC-LL¹ 943 . 2 s. co tarttai , BNnÉ 302 § 10 . 3 s. durata, Ml. 57a13 . dorata, ZCP vi 266 § 10 . arna tarta , Wb. 11b18 . condarta, 28b31 . ni tharda , SR 2727 . 1 pl. fris-tarddam, Thes. ii 293.19 . 2 pl. dorattid-si, Wb. 16c11 . dia tartaid-si , Ml. 83b11 . ni tharddaid-si , LL 279a31 . 3 pl. acht doratat , Mon. Tall. 141.16 . conda-tardat, Ml. 131d16 . Impf. 1 s. condartin, Sg. 209b26 . 3 s. condardad, Ml. 77a7 . co tarddad , SR 2836 . muni thardad , TBC-LL¹ 4310 . 3 pl. co tartaitis , TBC-I¹ 1461 (LU).

Perf. 1 s. doratus, Wb. 8c6 . SR 1866 . doratas, Trip.² 1056 . ni tharddusa , RC iii 185 . dia tartus , Ériu vii 219.13 ( LL 209b ). 2 s. doratis, Ml. 56a15 . doratais siu, 43d18 . duratais, 56b24 . duratis, 80b2 . donrátais, SR 1756 . in dartais , SG 415.11 . ni tharddais , TBC-LL¹ 484 . 3 s. dorat, Wb. 4b10 , etc. doratastur, ZCP vii 320 . nícon tarat , Ml. 36a1 ; co tarat , SR 2193 . condadarat, TBC-I¹ 1875 (LU). dia tard , SR 2811 . 1 pl. doratsam, Wb. 13d15 . LU 2331 . doratsamar, 2333 . tartamar, ZCP viii 213.27 . 2 pl. daratsid-si, Wb. 24b21 . doratsaid, LU 2326 . ni thardsaid , 2345 . 3 pl. doratsat, Ml. 115b8 . SR 3664 . LL 256a43 . doratsatar, SR 3508 , 3401 , etc. ni tartsat , Wb. 24b20 . LL 254c23 . na tardsat , CCath. 5119 . AFM i 16.13 . conda-tarsat, Ériu iii 141 . co tartsatar , Hy. v 53 Comm. ( Thes. ii 340 ). ní tartisset, Wb. 1b17 . Pass. subj. pres. s. doratar, Rawl. 107b17 . dorattar, Anecd. ii 32 . Lism. L. vii 28 . ara tartar , Wb. 15a19 . condartar, 20c24 . pl. dorataiter, IT iii 53.3 . co ndartaiter , Trip.² 1294 . Impf. s. ara tarta , TBC-LL¹ 1547 . mani tartha , BColm. 88.14 . Perf. doratad, Wb. 4a18 . doradad, 23c16 . doratath, Sg. 7b18 . ara tartad , Ml. 90a7 . con dardad , 98b8 . forsa tardad , 80d4 . SR 6251 . pl. dorata, Ml. 54c17 . LL 282b7 . doratta, SR 6745 . nad tarta , Ml. 40a13 .

B From *to-ucc- (in meaning brings ): Ipv. 2 s. tuic, Tec. Corm. § 18 . na tuic , Wb. 10a30 . do-n-uc, ZCP iv 42.16 ( TBFr. 283 ). tuc, TBC-I¹ 1333 , 2287 , etc. 2 pl. tucaid, LU 8197 . TBC-I¹ 323 . 3 pl. tuicet, LU 7873 ( BDD 145 ). See ZCP xxiv 123 - 4 . Indic. pres. 2 s. dofuci, LU 1558 . do-t-tucai, IT i 208.21 . duduccai, Ml. 27d23 (see, however, GOI § 678 ). 3 pl. tucait, IT i 226.30 (LU). Impf. 3 pl. dofuctais, SR 4524 . Subj. pres. 1 s. conos-tuc, SR 1665 . conda-tuc-si, TBC-I¹ 1589 . conda-tucc, 464 . tucar, Imr. Brain i 67.23 . 2 s. dia tuicce , TBC-I¹ 1580 (LU) = tuigi (YBL). da tucair , ZCP vi 272 § 7 . 3 s. dia tuca , TBC-I¹ 1589 . rel. tuccas, SR 2384 . 1 pl. conos-tucam, SR 3979 . Impf. 1 s. mani thucaind , TBC-I¹ 798 . 3 s. nacha-tucad, Ml. 125b7 . 3 pl. conna-tuctais, SR 5651 . Perf. 1 s. do-n-uccus-sa, Wb. 30a11 . 2 s. tuicais, Ml. 56a13 . dofucais, TBC-I¹ 3385 . rothucais, Ériu iv 138.18 . tucais, ZCP viii 109.24 . 3 s. amal do-n-uic , Wb. 10d37 . Ml. 16b12 . du-n-uic, d-a-uic, Ml. 118b6 . duuic, 84c24 . duic, 25d18 . tu-n-uic, 51c26 . tuicc, 98c11 . tuic, 30c5 , etc., Wb. 21d1 . ni tuic , Wb. 23a10 . Ml. 51d2 . da-uc, Ml. 38c1 . duuc, 36c1 . tuc, 40c17 . Wb. 24b25 . doḟuc, SR 7296 , cf. 4426 , 5179 , etc. domfuc-sa, Ériu iv 140.3 . ? doruc, ZCP vi 28.18 . rodatuc, TBC-I¹ 3584 . tucastair, TBC-I¹ 2495 . tugasdair, Todd Nenn. 32.14 . 1 pl. dofucsam-ni, RC iii 185 (LL). da-b-ucsum, Lism. L. 3825 . tucsam, SR 6319 . ni tucsam , Wb. 29b14 . tugamar, Ériu i 22.105 . 2 pl. tucsaid, TBC-I¹ 1320 (LU). tucsabair, 2492 (YBL). 3 pl. du-nn-ucsat, Ml. 92d1 . dofucsat, SR 5041 . tucsat, 1360 . TBC-I¹ 42 . tucsatar, Metr. Dinds. ii 100.5 , etc. Pass. indic. pres. s. ni tucthar , Wb. 27d22 . Subj. pres. s. con-ducthar, Sg. 200b13 . mani thuicter , TBC-I¹ 1239 . pl. in duccatar , Wb. 9b19 . Impf. s. co tuctha , SR 6567 . TBC-I¹ 1331 . Perf. s. ducad, Ml. 56c11 . tuccad, Wb. 24b26 ; 28a3 . tucad, Sg. 202b8 . SR 3289 , etc.; dia tuiced , Wb. 12b12 . pl. fofuctha, SR 3263 . tucait, CRR 13 , TBC-LL¹ 65 etc.

Vn. 1 tabairt.

Forms of do-ucci understands. Indic. pres. 1 s. hi tucu , Thes. ii 293.25 . dofuca(a)im, PH 1792 . tuicim, 1779 , etc. 3 s. do-sn-ucci, Wb. 22c1 . dusn-ucai, Ml. 42c12 . ? dorucai, SR 7983 . tuicci, Wb. 12c26 . air thuccai , Ml. 42c8 . ni tucci , Wb. 12d6 . ní tucai , Ml. 42c7 . tuice, PH 2369 . 1 pl. do-uicim-ne, PH 750 . tuigmít, ib. 2 pl. dofucaid, SR 7984 . 3 pl. do-nd-ucet, Wb. 8a14 . ní thuccat , 12c20 . ní thucat , 15a34 . thuicit, PH 7300 . tuigit, 7738 . Impf. 3 s. cona tucad , SR 2763 . 3 pl. tuctais, Ml. 125d13 . Subj. pres. 2 s. ara tuicce , Wb. 28d7 . condid-tucce, 30a19 . 3 s. ara tucca , 27b27 . 1 pl. do-nd-uccam, 24a22 . 2 pl. ara tucid , 32a3 . -tuccid, 21c11 . conducaid, 21a8 . Impf. 1 s. nis-tuccin, Wb. 12d25 . 3 s. dos-fucad, SR 3228 . arna rothucad , Trip. 396 . 1 pl. condid-tucmis-ni, Wb. 20d17 . Fut. 2 s. tuicfe, PH 2037 . 3 s. tucfa, Wb. 12d12 . dofucfa, RC xxv 248 . ní tucfa , Wb. 12d3 . 2 pl. da-ucbaid-si, Wb. 21c12 . 3 pl. tucfait, RC xxv 248 . Condit. 3 s. nodafucfad, RC xx 134 = dofucébad, LU 386 (ACC). Perf. 1 s. ní tucus-su , Ml. 91c1 . 3 s. rothuic, PH 4437 . nír thuiccestair , BNnÉ 323 § 33 . 2 pl. ní tucsid-si , Wb. 12a3 . 3 pl. do-tuicetar, BCC 127 . ni tucsat , Wb. 15a32 . nad tuicset , 15a29 .

Pass. indic. pres. s. duucthar, Ml. 51c24 ; 55a10 . dohucthar, Sg. 210a4 . tuucthar, 42c2 . ní tucthar , Wb. 12c46 . pl. ní tucatar , Wb. 12c43 . nad tuctar , Ml. 112d7 . Subj. pres. s. du-n-ucthar, Ml. 79d2 . Impf. s. conducthe, Ml. 51d1 . Fut. s. ni tuccfither , Wb. 8a5 . IGT Verbs § 71 .

Vn. 2 tabairt.

I

(a) gives , with DO of recipient (somet. with dat. inf. pron.); glosses Lat. dare, Ml. 25b12 , Sg. 163a3 , 209b26 . ní cuinginn is doberainn, Tec. Corm. § 7 . ni tobair ní i n-aiscid he never gives anything as a gift, Lec. 460c47 . ba ferr lin dobertha oldaas a bith tarngire I had rather it were given than constantly promised, Mór M. 262 . cen co tucaind ar áis, doberaind ar écin, TBC-LL¹ 150 , cf. 132 . duine is mō dobered d'etach ┐ d'innmus i nErind, RC xvii 407 . más for óin doratadh in fearann if the land has been let for hire, Laws iv 132 Comm. doberae maith tar æsi n-uilc, Ml. 106c1 . doronus dóibh dua[i]n mbinn mbairdne . . . ni tardad dúas dar a héisi, ACL iii 296 . dobēr . . . otha mo glūn co m'imlinn I will give my love, TE § 10 . dotberae eislis he will treat thee with contempt, Mon. Tall. 142 (for constr. see KZ xlviii 48 ). donbert ingantas mór méd a delba his size inspired us with great wonder, Ériu iv 138 . nicon fail ina sealba ní nā tibre dam, Corm. Y 698 . cia chondesin far súli, dosmbérthe dom, Wb. 19d24 . doradsad mōr do maith do they had shown him much kindness, TBC-I¹ 3542 . a n-ōl meda dí dobreth (.i. tucad), Hy. v 85 . dobeir pōic di gives her a kiss, RC xxiv 198 . duber-som ainm claidib donaib briathraib he gives the name of sword, Ml. 77a2 , cf. Sg. 156b6 , Wb. 20c24 . doratsat fir nÓlnécmacht in riastartha do anmm do C[h]oinc[h]ulaind gave the name . . . to C., TBC-I¹ 1455 . ni tardsad cís nā cāin dōib, Todd Nenn. 72 . gach manach nach tiubrae | a edbairt don ecclais, BNnÉ 309 . dobēra in prímfáidh nemh d'anmain gach aoin, Duan. F. i 10 . ni tardai do rūn do mnāi tell not thy secret to a woman, Anecd. v 9 . ba Patric dubert baithis du C. who baptized C., Ardm. 18b1 ( Thes. ii 242 ). doratta duit . . . do guide thy prayers are granted, Thes. ii 318 ( Hy. ii 50 Comm. ). dobert R. altugudh buidi do Dia, BS 4 . dorattar doibh an bennacht, Anecd. ii 32 . go nach dtiobhraidh aon neach ceannas dá chéile not one will yield supremacy to (i.e. come short of) another, ML 6 . do Dia doberat edil offer prayers, Corm. Y 513 . cia freacra dobērad an t-eicsine dō, 825 . dind fortacht durat Dia do, Ml. 40b8 . nach tiobhraidh foidhide do neach will not show patience, TSh. 9038 . cid ara tarat in bēist . . . onoir do Brigit, Hy. iv Pref. dobēr-sa do breath fēn duid I will give thee thy own award, Lec. 156c38 . úar na tabrai rēir d'Adam thou dost not obey, SR 848 . cid bé ainder mná dobéra toil don fhior gráid shall love, SG 47 . cia doberad eolus dam-sa co Mag R.? who would guide me, MR 276 . dorad failti do ḟileadaib welcomed, Lec. 286b5 . ní tart termann do Themraig gave not protection, Metr. Dinds. i 26 . ni tharad (tharat, LU) menmain do thuus na conaire paid no heed, TBC-I¹ 233 . nā tabhair h'aire doib heed them not, BCC 190 . cidh tuc duit-si mh'aithne-si? how dost thou know me?, BS 138 . mor . . . in dimiad tuc mac mo mathar damsa, Lec. 613b6 . deargruathar Tuathail . . . sochaidi da tuc imned, 590a10 . dobertsat a milid frit[h]bert amnus dosum, CCath. 3255 . amail . . . na tard tograim nā toruighecht do mhacaibh Israel did not give chase to, Leb. Gab.(i) 200 . ni thucsat claonadh don scēl they did not distort the affair, Fl. Earls 62 . dobert buille don c[h]ip struck, Corm. Y 690 . dobertsad frais d'[ḟ]ōidib doib hurled at them, Lec. 617a24 . tucsadar dāil bāis don rig, 603a14 . tucsat d'Assal écomnart, Metr. Dinds. iii 280 . doratsatar féin dond ríg | a ndoíri gave themselves up as slaves, SR 3405 . thug iad féin do chraosól gave themselves up to drink, Eochairsg. 3 . dobreth ingen Fhoraind dó was given to him (in marriage), Todd Nenn. 230.1 . ni rag-sa, inge mad doberthar Findabair dam, TBC-I¹ 1244 . With vn. or subord. clause as obj.: tucsamar dó . . . labrad remonn we have yielded him (the right) of speaking before us, Ériu iv 108 . tuc do cach thúaith beith cen síd, Imr. Brain ii 301 . tabair do na dóinib cu rafhógnat daitt, PH 7914 . surrenders, gives up: co tucsat in cathraig, ZCP i 398 . tucsatt an barda an baile, AFM v 1846 . In extended sense: cid dobir na cōic seōtu do eneclann in boairech? what causes?, Laws iv 308 Comm. itchonnarc-sa fén hi . . . ┐ dobēr co follus duib-si hi I will make it plain (cause it to be plain), PH 100 . tuc in péist fiacail do (i.e. bit him), SG 252 . tuccadh droch-cuit d'Ua R. don mhígníomh sin a share in this misdeed was ascribed to O'R., AFM v 1826 . d.¤ teist: combad sissi doberad teist dimsa who should bear witness of me, Wb. 18a3 , cf. 15d8 (but: dobiur teist n-airi, 14a20 , cf. 28b31 ). d.¤ cath, etc. gives battle: dobéraind-sea cath do Choncobair, LL 254a22 . tobert tress ndó, Fianaig. 24 . tucatar in gleo . . . dá chéile, SG 271 . doberar in cath i ndorus ind lis, Anecd. v 15 . buadach in tres tucsabair, SG 37 . By analogy: is na flaith tucad in Tāin, Lec. 363b29 . conad impi tucad Tain Bo Fliguis, 387a38 . Cf. further: thugadar dóibh a Fán . . . gur romhuidh ar Ghallaibh they gave battle to them (cath omitted?), Ériu i 78 . d.¤ grád, etc. DO: ni taibrem seirc donaib rétaib frecndaircib, Wb. 15c19 . mairg dobeir seirc do duni, SCC 44 ( IT i 224 ). dorat Ossin gradh mór dind ingin, RC xiii 9 . co tabraitis na lenaim fuath di used to hate her, SG ii 457 . d.¤ . . . do (dia) aire, etc. takes heed: ni thartsat dia n-airi a n-ebairt in drui, LL 254a23 . is tabartha do airi indus in cheneoil the character . . . must be observed, TBC-I¹ 327 . tren doratus do menmain, SR 1866 , cf. 1945 . ní tarat F. do mod sain paid no heed to that, SG 405 . a ben trebar dos-beir mod his prudent wife is astonished, ScM. 3 (see 1 moth and ZCP xxii 29 ). dobeir di óid aní sìn he gives heed to, LU 9826 ( PRIA xix 532 ). an tan tucsat dia n-uidh e when they noticed it, AFM vi 1898 . Saúl ná tabair d'eislis do not overlook S., SR 6110 (see éislis). do thuatha fadéin tuc dot réir ar tús, KMMisc. 260 . Cf. phrases d.¤ aire, menmain, réir do quoted above. Cf. thug sé a dhaoine don chloidhiomh put . . . to the sword, Psalms lxxviii 62 .

(b) do-beir fri = d.¤ do; orig. FRI is used to introduce object or final purpose of action, cf. ind lēire doratsam fri sechim gníme, Wb. 13d15 ; ni fris tarddam ar n-athius, SP ii 3 ( Thes. ii 293 ); in ingen . . . nochostibrea re cétluth, TBC-LL¹ 3502 . Later indicating recipient: cia risa tibre theidm? to whom wilt thou deal ruin?, RC xx 12 . bean fris tabar coibche . . . ┐ fer dobeir coibche mor fri baidsig, Laws iv 56 ( Stud. in E. Ir. Law 116 ). dobert-som cairdi friu-som granted them a truce, TBC-I¹ 2899 . dobretha ratha fri Laigniu, LU 9797 . a ratha dorat fri Laigin . . . co tart-som gréin ┐ esca friu, MacCarthy 396 . doberim bríathar ris, Fianaig. 82 (see below (j)). dobreth a fír fer fris he was given fair play, Ériu iii 137 . co tartar glinne ┐ enighe frinn, TTr.² 1803 . dobheirim buidheachas re Dia, Donlevy 434 . trom, trén . . . fris tibhre a fhercc, BNnÉ 35 . The follg. might equally be referred to II: doratad crích fri Mumain, Metr. Dinds. iii 202 . dobert drumain di fri cech cóiced he assigned a ridge of it to every province, Ériu iv 152 .

(c) dobeir (ní) ar gives in exchange for, pays for: amal bid lōg mór dubertha erru, Ml. 130d15 . tuc ar Ioseph . . . trichait leth n-unga n-argait, SR 3151 . is ed lóg doberar ar sáerad in domnaig, Ériu ii 196 . nitad tabartha bui duit ar dartaib thou must not give thy cows for strippers, TBC-I¹ 2856 . dorattsat a milettacht ar miodhlachas exchanged their warlike spirit for cowardice, AFM vi 2298 .

(c 2) do-beir ar makes for, attacks : tuc cóic droch-bachlacha duba | ar tairrsech mo thigi 'five bad malevolent churls made for the threshold of my house' Celtica xxv 23 § 3 .

(d) dobeir (ní) i n-, id. (with notion of compensation or retribution): dobértar dá boin 'sa mboin ┐ dá cháirigh 'sa gcáeirig two cows shall be given for one, Fianaig. 72 . is í eraic doradad ind, Corm. Y 690 . inní doberar isin ní fogeilus . . . what is given for that which (the animal) consumes, Laws i 270 Comm.

(e) do-beir uad gives, gives away ; in Mod. Ir. ó with the reflex. pron. is used when the recipient is not expressed; in older lang. somet. accompanies DO and recipient, e.g. dorat Ianothán . . . huad a heirriud do Dauid, SR 5933 ; tabraid uaib airmitiu glan | dom chomdeilb-si, 1823 , 2881 . dorad Ioseph aichni uad orrtha, YBL 64a45 . dobered huadi-si imchomrac na mac bethad, Mon. Tall. 150 . tabhair cúntas do ghabháltais féin uait, TSh. 229 . dobheirit imat almsan uaidibh, Fl. Earls 100 . an tan mhallaighthear sinn, do bheirmaoid ar mbeannachd uáinn, 1 Corinth. iv 12 .

(f) d.¤ immach gives out, gives away, dispenses: int aenmacc ríg . . . is mō fuair ┐ tuc amach, ZCP viii 111 . nech thinóilfios ó fheraib Eirenn immuig 'na tibra-sum immach, SG 400 . cion do chur i nDruim Lethan | do rioghaibh . . . ni thiubar amach go brath I will never concede, BNnÉ 288 . in éiricc dobéra duine amach, Laws i 76 Comm. dā nōi [mbliadna] dorat smacht amach exercised sway, Lec. 44b40 . dlegur an diet do tabhairt amach nisa mó (= alimenta copiosiora sunt exhibenda), 24 P 3, 73.8 .

(g) Of an author cites, adduces: ní tabair desimrechta hic , Sg. 214a5 . tobertar desmrechta . . . dia rēlad, Ml. 25b6 . is do thucad exemplum for this an example has been cited, Sg. 77b5 . in testimni donucsom riam, Tur. 39 ( Thes. i 486 ). ni tucsam dind lín-sin | acht ríga na sluag-sin we have mentioned only the kings, Fél. Ep. 31 . húare nad tucus acht aní rupu thascide I have set down [in my book] only what was necessary, Thes. ii 225 . dobir in brethem cosmailius don chaingin ima fuiglither cites a parallel case, Corm. Y 611 . it mathi na dūla dorata and the elements which have been mentioned, LL 282b7 . ? dobheirid sgrioptúir . . . dá áitiughadh they quote Scripture to prove it, Eochairsg. 107 .

(h) yields, produces:? caera dona caeraib dobert trefuilngid fora craeb, RC xv 419.19 . nicopé lán-torath dobéra, ZCP xi 94 . ionnus go dtiubhradh sibh toradh, John xv 16 .

(i) utters, pronounces (oft. folld. by ar (ós) aird): dobert a srém caurad asa brágit, TBC-I¹ 1781 . tug A. a ossnam ass, TE 7 (Eg.). dobeir a mairg eisti she laments, SG 254 . dorad a guth n-ard bur aird, ZCP viii 553 . na gáre dosbertatár ar aird, TBC-I¹ 1783 . tugsat gáire . . . ós aird, Fianaig. 88 . doberat nāi ngrecha . . . os ard, RC xiii 6 . go ttug G. osnach éccomhluinn ós áird, ML 138 . dusrat gach aon scret ┐ eigem . . . os aird, Fl. Earls 140 . ag tabhairt a dhocra fein os aird, BS 90 . In absol. constr. (obj. being the statement follg.): imtusa na nGrec doberar os aird it is reported, TTebe 1714 . iomthusa Eoghain, dobhearar ós áird, ML 116 . dāla mac Milead immorro, dobearar os aird . . . dobrisidur cath, etc., Lec. 568a17 . a thabhairt ar aird cia dorinne, IGT Introd. § 1 . cach ní . . . na tuc ar aird which he had not made known, Laws i 208 Comm. Cf. na leabhair sin . . . tuigidh ar aird ma táid libh produce them if you have them (?), Content. xviii 31 .

(j) d.¤ bréthir (luge, etc.) promises, (swears): is andsin dorad Fergus in lugu-sa, TBC-I¹ 3546 . doberim mo breithir . . . conad taesca, etc., RC xxiv 198 . is mór in briathar-sa dobheir an laech that is a mighty vow the warrior makes, CF 139 . dorat a minna took his oath, Fl. Earls 132 . dorat Dauid a theist . . . nā roaentaigset fria mnai swore, YBL 297a33 (cf. CCath. 6154 : dobertis testa an talman do lucht a ḟiadnaisiu they would call the earth to witness). With transference of obj. to thing sworn by: nā salaig ainm do Dia .i. nā tabair d'éthech he do not swear falsely by him, PH 7626 . ná tabhair ainm Dé gan fath, Ó Héodhusa 125 . tabhair an Céolán nár ghoid tu an chulaigh swear by the `Ceolan' (name of a bell), Ériu v 98 . dobhér dhó . . . grian ┐ easga, ML 104 (cf. exx. quoted under (b) above). acht cheana tuigim-se na dei nar-ua cedughud dom vadein I swear by the gods, TTebe 2031 . ná tabhraidh neamh . . . ná tabhraidh an talamh swear not by heaven . . . by earth, Matthew v 34 , 35 ; xxiii 6 . With transference of obj. to statement sworn: tucc E. dá bhréithir . . . nach béardaois, etc. E. pledged his word, ML 134 . doberim dom bréthir ris, Fianaig. 78 . dobermáit dár [mb]reithir, SG 241 . dobeirim fám' breither . . . go ndigeolainn, MR 278 . tugas féin fóm' bréithir nach diongnainn . . ., ML 114 .

(k) d.¤ bréic, etc. imm deceives: na taibred cách úaib bréic imm alaile, Wb. 27b12 . bréc dorat in ben imond the woman has deceived us, IT i 132 . ní tartat sensus breíc im anmin the senses cannot deceive, Acr. 5d5 ( Thes. ii 2 ). na comarthadha na tardsat breicc immum riam, CCath. 5119 . co tartaitis ceilc immon slóg, TBC-I¹ 1461 . dobera muin n-immi he will be taken in, IT i 144 . See also s.v. 3 muin and muinbech. Different constr. in TBC-I¹ 1595 ( LU 6067 ): dober (leg. doberr) brēc imon n-ingin who is beguiled about the girl (?).

(l) d.¤ agaid (cúl, druim, etc.) turns: nach fuil nech dobera a agid formsa who will face me, CRR 44 . dorat a agaid fri muindtir neime, BColm. 70 . ná tabair cúl dot chétmhóid turn not your back on your first vow, O'Gr. Cat. 402 . nach tug cúl re béim a bíodhbhadh, Ó Bruad. ii 264 . tuc a druim re grian do ┐ a bél a n-airde, CF 358 . nā tabrad a druim fria Ríg, BColm. 100 . na tabair lāim frim do not resist me, SR 3182 . doberat a lām fri hEtail they skirt the coast of Italy, Aen. 137 . dorad a láimh ndeis re dúnadh righ he left the fortress . . . on his right, BS 100 . contardad tóeb fri muir keeping along the sea, Fianaig. 36 . óc in mac . . . dober bond ri Banba ṁbind `who sets foot on Banba's soil', Ériu vii 224 . ní thard troig teichidh ré n-uathad ná ré sochaide he never fled, SG ii 487 . dobeir tóib fri (do) trusts: fri corpthadid doberat Iudai tóib, Wb. 15b2 . ná tabair toeb fri Saul, SR 5956 . is trén an tigerna | rise-tabram taobh, ZCP viii 203 . See taeb. dobeir láim ar (fo) takes in hand, sets about: thug C. lámh ar imtheacht, ITS i 140 . nistibrea liaig laim fom leiges-sa, PH 423 . mór in feidm fa tucais laim, MR 202 . olc in gnímh fa tucus laimh, ZCP x 415 . Note also: tucsat lámh co foiréignech inn they laid hands on him, SG 30 .

(m) With expressions of time spends: taréis a n-aimsire do thabairt dona hAlbanachuibh after the Albanachs had completed their term of service, ALC ii 406 . tucatar in chétsel don oidche re hól . . . tucatar in tres shel re suan, SG 268 . . . . iarla ná tug bliadhain dá shaogal acht ag snoidhe a chnám, etc., O'Gr. Cat. 565 . gearr an seal thugsad fa chion, Content. v 106 . In later lang. folld. by ass: tucsat as in oidhchi-sin co himsnímach, Fianaig. 52 . dá fheabhas dobhéara duine a bheatha as, TSh. 33 .

(n) With various other nouns: i maigin hi tabair th'úal (= ubi mingis), Thes. ii 248 . dobeir [an gerrán] a mún ann, SG ii 484 . dobérat huili a coibsena will make confession, Wb. 6b27 . co tarat cach díb a chobais dia cēle, Hy. v 33 Comm. ( Thes. ii 335 ). is ris doberead a comairli with him he used to take counsel, Ériu v 236 . dobēram comairli fair-sin we will take counsel on that matter, RC viii 152 . acht int hé na tibri cert who does not deal fairly, SR 1659 . senad sruithi . . . dofuctais recht is canóin who used to deliver (promulgate), 4524 . fer dobered mór ndeg-breth, Metr. Dinds. iii 36 . na hécóire dobertha i taoib araile díob the foul play that was being practised towards, SG 325 . tucsat a bfeidm i n-einḟeacht `made their attack', MR 272 . ? doradadh sin in gnim do geallus doib the dead . . . has been accomplished, ZCP x 303 . o dorat Mártain ní i ḟertaib when M. had done something in the way of miracles (?), RC iii 392 = Lat. Lives 92 . tuc airrdhe na croiche, 94 (perh. taris is understood). a chēim co imthréith ni thard never took a feeble step, LL 140b50 . nach tug céim ar gcúl i ngroidghleo, Ó Bruad. ii 52 . ba hé luas ind ērma do-n-ucsad iar mBregaib the course they made, TBC-I¹ 675 . tuc se leim assan luing, BCC 195 . tucsat a rith robalc | in chonart the hound-pack bore its impetuous course, Metr. Dinds. iii 408 . ní roan don ruathar sin tucustair, Ériu v 242 . tucsat na siabra side made an onset, Metr. Dinds. ii 66 , cf. AFM vi 2114 . rathaigis in slog indas in toichime dombert (i.e. noticed his gait), TBC-I¹ 2939 . tugastair tulgad don mhanaois gave a thrust of the spear, ML 88 . tuccsat a ttaisbenadh fein don dá tighearna sin showed themselves to those two lords, AFM vi 2080 . mairg mathair dorad m' idhna who suffered birth pangs for me, CF 97 . intan dorata na etarnaidi ara chinn ó Loegaire when the ambuscades were laid for him, Hy. vii Pref . ( Thes. ii 354 ). ní tuc urcor n-imraill riam, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 32 . dobir Colmán . . . tí da bachaill makes a circle with his staff, BColm. 62 .

(o) causes, brings about, effects: cid dober th' orfailtius? CRR 18 . fer . . . rodatuc for longes who caused your exile (?), TBC-I¹ 3584 . ní heasbaidh eoluis . . . tug don choirneach mo chrostáil that caused the tonsured friar to censure me, Ó Bruad. ii 208 . tuc mh'eg it has caused my death, BS 26 . súaill nach ttuc mh'oididh, 28 . iarfaidh Dia fort gach aon tucais a malairt (but perh. = i m-malairt?), RC xxxiv 312 . dorat imarbaigh hi tig Guaire, Ériu v 26 . doratsat creidemain gur uo firbriathra . . . gach ar chan in senóir `these showed that', Fl. Earls 128 . dorad Conn sneachta mór tre draoidheacht, Keat. i 116 . a cumuilt don cend ┐ dobeir in folt it promotes the growth of the hair, 24 B 3, 97.3 . Freq. in pass. in sense of occurred: Finachta .i. snechta fína thucad ina ḟlaithius, Lec. 445b9 . noco tucad cith cruaid clochshneachta, MR 236 . tuccadh ár Laighen, 110 . Folld. by vn. phrase or subord. clause: gorab e secrān eagna tuc an baramail sin da tabairt, Ir. Astr. Tr. 30 . cred dober gan comlann éinfir d'ḟagail do?, CF 449 . dober sin nech gan beth dub nā gel, 24 B 3, 103.7 . fiarfaigid Ipocras cad dober gurob faidi an aimser, etc. asks why the time is longer, 23 P 10, 17a30 .

(p) Folld. by adj. or equivalent as complement of pred. makes, renders, causes to be: dosrat inna ligu laid them low, Hy. ii 62 Comm. fer . . . | dober in cosmail cach leirg who renders every slope the same (?), TBC-I¹ 71 . cid donrat samlaid? what has made him so?, CRR 1 , 2 . ri dosrat . . . indara huair blāith . . ., ind uair aili ainbthechae who has made them (the winds) at one time calm, at another tempestuous, SR 93 . dobheir mé duilbhir doirbh, Ériu i 95 . Clann Morna fa líg 's fa lecht | tugais comlomm thou hast brought to bareness, 16 . cid dobeir gan mnái tú?, Ériu iii 152 . domrat Dia cen derbráthair, SG 58 . tug teinn tréith mé, O'Gr. Cat. 527 . intan tucad máthair í when she conceived, SG 391 . dobeir deghdatha í gives it a good colour (the face), O'Gr. Cat. 191 . tug sé minlinnte ina muir, 451 . don tréad tug mo rádh bréagach who have given the lie to my word, Ó Bruad. iii 142 .

II Puts, places, sets: co tarat il-láim na cumaile put it into the c.'s hand, Hy. v 72 Comm. dobertatar in lucuirp luibe do-som ina cluasa(ib) `gave him herbs (to put) in his ears' (put herbs in his ears?), Ériu xvi 38 § 4 . tucad a tosuch fo diu[d] its beginning has been put at the end, Sg. 202b8 . doridne Dia in talam ┐ tuc muir ina thimchell, Lec. 527b12 . dorat in cloidem triasin mbrat ran the sword through the cloak, RC ii 388 . doberait a tri sligi trit, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 40 . tugsat Saxain sceana eturra ┐ a m-maelana hid knives in the soles of their shoes, Todd Nenn. 102 .

Frequent with prepp.

(a) with FO: tarat a bragait fon cungai (of a horse), Hy. v 55 Comm. ( Thes. ii 341 ). ? maccán sē mbliadnae déac intan dobreth fo déraib, ii 3 ( 308 ). loscset dún Cláre . . . tucsat fo thenid etrocht, LL 27b9 . rí dosrat fo thalman tói, Metr. Dinds. ii 40 . dosmbéra fo chumachta in maicc, Wb. 13a30 . ni hed domthabair fo grād which confers dignity on me, SR 3301 . dorad iathu Erenn . . . fo smacht flaithiusa Muman, RC xxiv 186 . dosfug fo baithis ┐ creidim, Todd Nenn. 78 . dosrat fo chlaidiub, SR 4148 . mór do ros-gaibh ban mbáidhe | doradus fo eccaoine have I made weep, BS 130 . ni fuath . . . tug fúm aigneadh athraightheach `that has given me a discontented mind', KMMisc. 242.15 . dorat Dia fo a menmain had inspired them to do it, SR 3704 . dorat Duid bindius foaib (of psalms), Hib. Min. 156 . tucadar dá chapall . . . futha mounted two mares, Imr. Brain i 68 . dobir a anail fóithib, Trip.² 597 . mairg fa ttabhraid mna menma on whom women set their fancy, BS 112 . d.¤ fo dera, see fo-fera.

(b) With FOR (and accus.)

(i) of local relations: intan dobered nech a mēr for a ētan, Corm. Y 48 . roradsat T.D.D. temheal forsan gréin, BB 32a52 . fri hōl . . . dobertis na lestair-si forsna tibradaib, Corm. Y 48 . Eremon fēn dorad fōt furri buried her, Lec. 569a33 . co tarat a tech forthu knocked down the house upon them, Ériu v 212 . tucsat a curach fursan muir, KMMisc. 322 . co tarat fein teinid fair set fire to it, Anecd. iii 34 . doberthar F. for a deisreth let F. be placed on his right, TBC-I¹ 1579 . doratad cumrech forru they were put in bonds, Hy. iv Pref . ( Thes. ii 323 ). dorigni tech ┐ ní tardad (thárrad, v.l.) simin tuga fair, Trip.² 1816 . tabraid-si ar bur menmain bear in mind, CCath. 5142 .

(ii) With vnn. etc.: tucad for altruim he was put out in fosterage, SG 391 . far ṅDia do forfuc for brath your God has betrayed you, SR 4679 . tuccastair an baile for a cumus placed . . . in his power, BNnÉ 264 . dobert a máthair Corc ar faesum na hamaidi placed C. under the protection of, Lec. 443a32 . cidh rottuc ar gealtacht thú? what has driven thee mad?, BS 102 . co ttucsat misi ar fáoineal ┐ ar foluamhuin, ib. cenco tucad grian for rith cose though the sun was not yet started on its course, Lec. 527b4 . doratad fort sheilb it has been given into thy possession, PRIA xix 546 ( LL 147a 9 ).

(iii) In sense lays upon, confers on, imposes on, inflicts on (both in good and bad sense); in Mid. Ir. often taking the place of an O.Ir. construction with DO: is airi sin doratad foir a n-ainmm sin, Sg. 31a6 (doratad dó is the usual O.Ir. construction). dobretha ainm fair o anmum in tsrotha, RC vi 177 . parrthus talmhaidi doberta for an n-istadh sin, ZCP i 252 . ni taibre grad for nech do not ordain, Wb. 29a22 . co tarda grád fair, 'until he ordains him [king]' Trip. 2303 , PBA lxviii 128 . dobēr indus fair I will reconnoitre it (a route), TBC-I¹ 378 . ordd abgitir dorat forsna consona, Sg. 23b5 . isí roinn tucsat fair the division they made of it, D IV 2, 77 rb 9 . is mait[h] int anocul tuc for na heocha it is well he has spared the horses, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 36 . go ttarad D. aithne fair recognized him, BS 16 . doberat adrad Dé foirn worship us as Gods, PH 2060 . dobeir barr for sluagu `puts a top on' (i.e. forms a climax, crowns), Fél. Nov. 30 , cf. Mar. 31 . ara tardda bendacht for anmain in truagáin, Thes. ii 257 . arin altrom dobertais[s]iu form-sa, ZCP viii 553 . dober-sa fortacht fair, TTebe 1918 . combad iarsin ḟrecra doberad-si for Meidb, TBC-I¹ 279 . ní thug-san iomagallamh air did not address him, RC xxix 116 . doratsat impidi fair, FB § 27 . ina hetarguíde doberait na nóib fair, PH 6386 . nicon tibre etech form he will not refuse me, Corm. Y 698 . ar son na héra tucais fair, SG 28 . gach tenga . . . forsa tardadh rath, Ériu iv 238 . SR 7143 . rí dorat sobarthain sláin | for ciniud n-amra nAbráim, 7433 . cia ar a ttiobhra [Críost] breath?, Parrth. Anma 93 = Luc. Fid. 49 . dobertis cech n-olc form, Ml. 54c30 , cf. 89a2 . dorat brón for sochaide, Fianaig. 66 . tucatar . . . buaidred ar buidhnibh, 90 . ar ná tucca nech crith fort, Tec. Corm. 46 . ni tarda tusliud form may it not cause me to stumble, Hy. vi 12 Comm. ( Thes. ii 352 ). co tardta bricht suain fair, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 28 . rí fors tardad gūforgall, SR 7752 . tabraidh in adhaidh doberdáiss orainn orra fein, Expugn. Hib. 17 . dobertsad ár adhbhal forra, AFM 1172 . tuc bleith mulind forthu, CRR 25 . ní tuc laech dibh-sin guin air, CF 789 , cf. 129 . ní tabur a chin ar nech blame does not accrue to anyone, Ériu v 26 . tobert a chin forsin fer he charged the man . . . with the injury, Laws iv 178 Comm. ní tharda fornn . . . digail seirb, SR 2727 . ni tarda dínsium for a n-abraim-si do not despise what I say, CF p. 89 . tucsat esbaid aonmeic (sic leg.) ort, a Dé they deprived Thee of Thy only Son, ACL iii 243 . iarsin fingail doratsat for sóerchlandaib Erenn, ZCP xi 63 n. 10 . dobērthar in mor-martra ann for sil Adaim, SR 8179 . ná tabhairthear éigion fair, BNnÉ 28 . dorat forrán for Tamár forced, SR 6710 . dobert-sa gén fort I have made you a laughing-stock, TBC-LL¹ 1893 . dobērat maldachtain form-sa, TBC-I¹ 23 . dorat cúrsachad mór forra, SG 89 . dobérsa miscaid fair, Ériu viii 156 . tabarr pian forsna hí, Ml. 104b2 . ní thabhair Dia orumsa | pian, BS 138 . bóthar na Muilte . . . thug sgís ar mhórán do mhnáibh, Ériu i 101 . uair mian moltcharna doradadh d'á mhathair for Oilill Molt an gcén robhaoi n-a broinn O. M. got a taste for wether-mutton from his mother, Hy Fiach. 96 . Also freq. with ammus, fóbairt, sidhe, maidm, etc., q.v.

(iv) enjoins upon, compels, instigates: dosbēr-sa fort-sa do Dia féin do fácbail, PH 2060 . doradad fair géim drúith do dénam, RC xxiv 54 . is e dorad foraib-si in bréag do cantain, Todd Nenn. 94 .

(c) With FRI: conducthar nomen fris until a name is put to it, Sg. 200b13 , cf. 42b7 , 63a17 . dobreth coirthi fria chenn ┐ araile fria chosa, TBC-I¹ 419 . dobert aigid fri aigid, Fianaig. 36 . tucastar sciath fri sciath, CRR 45 . ise naidm dorad Corc mac L. ria lāim Conaill the compact which C. made with C., Lec. 410a29 . ar des rīg is ruirech | doradsad frit lāim, TBC-I¹ 2270 . dobheirim m'ainm ré n-abraim I put my name to what I write, Content. xxi 1 . dober frit a l[ín] lae o thus bliad[ne] `thou puttest the number of days' (gl. computa dies), Thes. ii 36 . Of fig. relations: nathir . . . donrat fri saeth tria aslach who has brought us into trouble, SR 1342 . dosrat fri sním, 5797 , cf. 5867 . manip fri toil Dé dosmerat unless they lead him to oppose the will of God, Mon. Tall. 144 . Cf. also under I (l) above.

(d) With IMM: dobeir a dī bois ima dī lecain, Corm. Y 756 . dobert in rígan brat ngorm imbi put on , TBC-I¹ 726 . dorat nél impu, SR 3963 . tobert C. beoil ima heim smeared grease on its hilt, Corm. Y 883 . tuc urrcur de uimpe struck him against it (i.e. the boulder?), CF 221 , cf. tuc béim de immun corthe, TBC-LL¹ 1027 .

(e) With I N-

(i) Of local relations: dobert (.i. tuc) díllat i criol Ronchinn, Hy. v 84 ( Thes. ii 347 ). dabir it béulu thou puttest it into thy mouth, Thes. ii 249 . ni thardad dantmir i mbeolu in chind, Corm. Y 1018 . dobeir a láim il-láim tigerna, CRR 11 , cf. SG 90.29 . dorad a mhér a suainemh na sleighe, BS 10 . co tard a fiacla inn, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 28 . baile i tartad in degben was buried, Metr. Dinds. iii 40 . a n-as tardtar ana hūir what is laid in its clay (of a graveyard), Lism. L. 3505 . tucad a talmain la [a] mac was buried, Lec. 580a32 . dorad misi it chumann-sa | mallacht Ronáin R.'s curse has thrown me into thy company, BS 82 . domratad i slabraid I have been put in chains, ZCP vi 263 .

(ii) With abstr. as obj.: gurub faill tug 'n-ar tegmáil he has neglected our quarrel, Ériu iv 216 . mairg thugas neamhshuim a dteangainn a dhuthaoi féin, O'Gr. Cat. 219 .

(iii) I N- folld. by abstr.: ní thibér-sa tusa i n-áirem I will hold thee of no account, PH 1804 . ni tabar a n-uimir cenel acht cined dā mac dib nama the descendants of only two sons are counted among the races, Lec. 67b14 . doberr don dligud-so i frithcheist gl. huic opponitur, Sg. 163b10 . doberr hi cotarsne do gl. obiicitur, 21b5 . amal duberad nech do hi ceist as though someone had asked him, Ml. 56a13 . conda-tardat hi coibsin may confess it, Ml. 181d16 . taibred hi cobsin di anmcharait, Ériu vii 158 . na peacaidhe thug duine i ndearmad, Eochairsg. 108 . ar nachat-tarda nech i n-éislis lest thou be neglected, Tec. Corm. 46 . ní thard ó D. na sgéla sin i foill, Hugh Roe 118 .

(iv) With pers. obj., brings, puts (into a state or condition): as é domrad a n-ainriocht, BS 42 . as Dia dudnuic issa n-imned, Ml. 44d14 . dosbér uili i mbás i mbath I will destroy them, SR 2431 . ó dotrat i socht, i sním, Ériu vii 225 (impers. use of vb.?). dosrat a snim mor sloigh na nG. um an ni-sin the hosts of the G. were sorely troubled about that matter (cf. prec. ex.), Ériu v 146 . do naemaib Eirenn tuc sadaile na bethad-so i dtarcaisne who spurned this life's luxuries, O'Gr. Cat. 638 . Cf. further: a flaith . . . dosrat hi ceathra ranna fichet, Lec. 45b40 . Cf. I (p) supra.

(f) With TAR: ronfialadar .i. dorata a fial torund may He put His veil over us, Hy. i 1 Comm. ( Thes. ii 299 ). tardad dícealtar tairsib, ZCP viii 103 . dobert láim dara agid, TBC-I¹ 1841 . co tarat láim dar hiffern (of Christ harrowing Hell), SR 7772 . tabraiter láma tairis let him be seized, TBC-I¹ 1471 . dorat sighin na croiche tairis crossed himself, RC xxxiv 322 . dobér-sa . . . a crosa dar m'aigidh, ZCP viii 110 . fuilt dar a tabar, it liat[h]a upon which it is poured (of a well), Todd Nenn. 194 . co tabrad usce dar a lámu, RC ii 400 . dorad Dia dilind tarsin n-uili doman, Lec. 534a31 .

(g) sends: tabar fer for āth damsa (a challenge), TBC-I¹ 1482 (where senses give and put are both implicit). dobretha Medb techta for cend Fir Diad, 2210 , 2212 . co tibred aingliu i m-agaid-si that he would send angels to encounter me, PH 1786 . dobretha C. nonbor úad . . . do chuingid mna do Ch., LU 10168 . comadh iat a daltadha doberta ar amus Sencháin dús cia dhib, etc. who were sent to S., ACL iii 5 . doradad Paladius a papa C. do progecht soscela do Scotaib, BB 10a26 .

III Brings, leads .

(a) fedar .i. . . . dohucthar (referring to Lat. ferri), Sg. 210a4 . donfé .i. donfuca may she bring us, Hy. iv 2 Comm. ( Thes. ii 325 ). dodfetis .i. dobertis, Hy. ii 13 Comm. ( Thes. ii 312 ). ní fitemmar can doberr whence it is brought (of a variant reading), Sg. 32b5 . dobreit[h] dobarchi isin comhbreic (the word) `dobarchi' has been introduced into Cymric, Corm. Y 311 . is é Nothelmus tucastar epistil ó Griguir, Anecd. iii 64 . in rí thuc inn arcc forcūl who brought back the ark, SR 5505 . ba i ngataib dombertadar a l-loegu, TBC-I¹ 912 . in scian tucad dō a tirib Alban, Corm. Y 698 . Fig. brings, deduces, traces (of a sequence, genealogy, etc.): is amlaid sin tugasdair ar senoir-ne geinilach Breatan a cronicib na Romanach, Todd Nenn. 36 . o Róba . . . tugus co cróda an caithréim | co Codnaig, Hy Fiach. 278 . tucus lim . . . o Chloind Maelruanaid . . . co craeib Luaraid, 214 . With co: tabram ar roisc ┐ ar indfhethium co Dia let us raise our eyes and our thoughts to God, PH 8067 . fén douc a bantigerna chuci, Hy. v 25 Comm. ( Thes. ii 333 ). tuccastair a mac féin cuice d'fir took to her as husband, MacCarthy 288 . ceadh ima ram-tugadh-sa chugaibh?, RC xiv 258 . doberar a drai co Brian, RC xxiv 180 . tug C. clann Cruithnigh do cobraid cuci called in the Picts to his aid, BB 370a42 . caisil . . . .i. cís dobertha o feraib Erenn cosin luc sin, Corm. Y 391 . With DOCHUM: cenis-tuca-su chucud dochom betad hi though thou bring her not to life, Mon. Tall. 144 . tuc na heochu chum beathadh dorísí, SG 25 . dobēra mo des-sa Aenias dochum bāis will put (lit. bring) to death, Aen. 2895 . nis tibritis dochum in carpait they could not bring (the Grey of Macha) to the chariot, RC iii 175 . nír fhác senmóir riam nach tibredh duine dochum creidme, SG 44 .

(b) With LA referring to subject (the usual construction in later lang.): donfuca leis, Hy. i 1 Comm. ( Thes. ii 299 ). co nostucam lenn i mbrait, SR 3979 . tucus mo sheotu lim ┐ mo indili, TBC-I¹ 1612 . In fig. relations: in tucsam Temraig lind? have we taken in Tara in our course? (lit. brought with us), SG ii 492 ( LL 329a5 ). clanda Gaeidil . . . thucsom a n-imthechta lind o . . . thur Neamruad ille we have followed their adventures from the tower of N. onwards, Lec. 565b10 ( BB 38a11 ); cf. Hy Fiach. 214 quoted under III (a). dia tarta nech leis na cōic fa dhó if anyone multiply the five by two, Lism. L. 4618 . With abstr. obj.: tug leis feirg n-adhbhal n-anba | dom athchur he brought with him, i.e. displayed, BS 6 . abradh fris co ná tardad gráin ná hirfuath leis ina dochum, ACL iii 5 . indas na luinde ┐ na barainde . . . tucsat leo isin chath, LL 403a25 .

(c) d.¤ anuas brings down, humbles (mod.): dobhéuruinn a náimhde anuas go haithgheárr, Psalms lxxxi 14 , cf. xviii 27 . Cf. A. Ó Dálaigh xxxii 3 : maor nach tug sároghadh síos `who has not taken down my offences' (?). See Desid. Gloss. (anuas) .

(d) d.¤ suas brings up, rears, educates (mod.): nech . . . tuccadh suas i Saxoibh as a óicce, AFM v 1752 . mar neach tugadh suas ionna ḟochair as one brought up with him, Proverbs viii 30 . degh-thabhartha suas well-educated , Rel. Celt. ii 206 .

IV Gets, wins, takes: an extension of meaning brings folld. by certain prepp. such as AS or Ó. Mostly in Mid. Ir. with confusion of do-rat- and do-ucc-, see above under forms.

(a) dorat mac Lonán ar a dhán ó fheraib Eirenn ní nach lugha iná a tuc Guaire immach won for his art from the men of Ireland an amount no less than G. had given away, SG 400 . in tan bes glainiu in anim rop and dos ucca Día may God take the soul when it is purest, Ériu vi 116 . rofāssaigh machaire na Muman . . . co tard iltáintiu carried off, RC xviii 50 (Tig.). tuchta tāinte treabh-clann | la Cremhthand, Todd Nenn. 136 . is ua dobeir cheird who adopts a calling, PRIA xix 546 . cinged issin sliab co tabrad fiad `to fetch a deer', Arch. Hib. ii 70 . tuccusae comarleccud I obtained permission, Mon. Tall. 136 . is iad dobeiredh gach buaidh, SG 34 . dobertatar a búaid they gained the victory over him, ZCP ix 192 . nipad andsu Cuchulaind acht tuctha a c[h]leitine aire provided his javelin were taken from him, TBC-I¹ 1331 . dobered leth brandaigechta ┐ fi[d]chillachta fora thigerna used to win, 2327 . dobered-sum lethcluiche forra, RC v 199 .

(b) With ASS: nicon robae rann di rannaib in domain as nacha tucad Dia, Ml. 125b7 (where meaning is still brings); cf. 94d4 . dotuc ass, a gillai (take thyself off?), LL 117a31 . asa Iubdain tuc mé as `I.'s sandals bore me through undrowned', SG 252 . ond uair doratus[s]a menmain ind, ní thucus as from the time that I set my mind on Him, I have never taken it from Him, Hy. iv Pref . ( Thes. ii 324 ). dobeir Cuchulainn in ṅgai ass draws out the spear, RC iii 178 . dia taltar in cloch as do chind . . . mani tucthar ass, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 8 . romarbsat he . . . ┐ ni tucsat banne fola as did not draw a drop of blood, Hy. v 65 Comm. ( Thes. ii 343 ). dibeir coicait Breasal la gach n-ernaighthe a hiffern takes fifty (souls) out of Hell, ZCP vii 306 . dusfuc Patraic . . . a taig Diaboil, ACL iii 303 . rí dofuc brait hiffirn uair | a pēin, a crithfeidm, SR 7777 , cf. 3961 . rocumdaig Dia int asna dorad a hAdhamh, BB 16b26 . dorat an t-oglach brodchú as a choim, Imr. Brain i 60 . saighit na sluaigh an chathair, co ttartsat a seoit . . . eiste, Leb. Gab.(i) 84 .

(c) With DE takes from: dothuc do Adaum a chenn | co ruc co Hierusalem, SR 2235 . dobēraind-sea a c[h]eand de, TBC-I¹ 824 . is he Tuathal tart a cindu dona coiceadaib cut off the extremities of the provinces, Lec. 594a10 = tall . . . dena c., LL 295b13 . co tuc a mind dia chend, SR 6727 . tair . . . fein don craunn | tuc de oen-ubull, 1262 , cf. 1285 . do naimdib doberar `from enemies it is taken', Laws i 228 Comm.

(d) With Ó: dobert secht multu uade carried off seven wethers from her, Hy. v 36 ( Thes. ii 337 ). cid tuccais ó Guaire? what has thou got from G.?, ACL iii 2 . ised tucsam o Máolrúain (the teaching) we received from M., Mon. Tall. 137 . da fuc Michol o Alathis took M. from A. (her husband), SR 6571 . dorad giallu o Findachta . . . ri Laigen, Lec. 138b43 . dorat mallachtain don tí . . . dobera[d] a mainc[h]ine ó Chiarán, ACL iii 226 . dorat buar iomdha uaidhibh, AFM 1263 (iii 392) . co ttarat a réir uadhoibh obtained his demand from them, 705 (i 306) . tuccais an éccsi nglain | ón mnaoi mérghil, ót máthair, ZCP viii 109 . in uainn tucadh? was it taken from us?, Laws i 74 Comm.

(e) d.¤ mnái takes a wife, weds: nā tuic seitchi gl. noli quaerere uxorem, Wb. 10a30 . regat-sa . . . co tuc a ingin, SR 5827 . an adhaigh tuc Mongán Dubhlacha, | tuc Mac an Daimh [a com]alta, Imr. Brain i 63 . co tucas-sa in mbé sáir sláin, Ériu iv 154 . dofuc-som ingin Aithechda, Hib. Min. p. 77 . nach tibrad mnai dogrés dia nustuccad nech ali remiu he would never wed any woman if another had wedded her already, TE 2 (Eg.). ca ben dobér? what woman shall I marry?, ZCP viii 113 . gēba flaithius ┐ dobēra rigan, Aen. 1248 . Fithir álainn . . . in ben dorat rí Berba, SG 360 . co tarat Eochu . . . in n-ingin ba siniu .i. Fithir, LL 294b48 ( RC xiii 36 ). amser i tibred Alax . . . mnái do Grecaib illánamnus, LL 229b34 ( TTr. 925 ). tabhair m'inghen-sa. —Ní thiubhar-sa í, ITS v 148 . annsa n-eiséirghe ní thabhruid fir mná ┐ ní tugthar mná d'fhearaibh, Matthew xxii 30 . With DO: tuc Hiruath ingin Aristopuil ... do mnaí, Ev.Inf. (LB) 381 § 104 . isé in Nemhnall sin dorad Finmaith inghen Carthaigh do mnáoi, BNnÉ 25 § 15 .

(f) d.¤ immach wins, captures (most freq. with vn.) (cf. I (f) above): an ben rucadh uaim-si . . . nach tuitfe fer d'Ulltachaib impe ag a tabairt amach in recovering her, Imr. Brain i 67 . ag tabhairt bhailte móra amach ó na nāimdibh, Rel. Celt. ii 206 . do chuir sídsi 'ma chaislén ┐ níor chinn leis a thabhairt amach, 178 . d.¤ istech id. : tuc A. sin isteach (of land), AFM iv 974 .

V Occas. do-beir appears as an intrans. vb. folld. by FOR or other prep. or adv. in sense makes for; falls on, attacks ; perh. from an orig. reflexive use, cf. dosfucsad dias laech do Laignib for Chond ┐ rosfobairsed Conn threw themselves on C., Lec. 598a46 . dober P. for N. ┐ non-gon, BB 440b32 . imatarla doib . . . co tarat indt aoinfer for firu Erind, Anecd. v 11 ( Sc.M² 8 . See Celtica iii 267 ). ise dorat forru co brath attacked them, ZCP xiii 348.9 . co tuc fói fell upon him (?), LL 260b50 . dorat cách co dúr ┐ co díchra risin debaid betook himself to the fray, 256a43 . doberait a muinter co dichra a n-agaid A., Aen. 2636 . doradsat co dichra 'sin cath, 2859 , 2612 . Follg. ex. is perh. an extension of this use: is andsin tucsad na tuatha-sin rigi do thabairt do S. made a move (decided) to give (?), Lec. 447a39 .

VI

(a) comprehends, understands ; gl. intellegere, Wb. 21c11 . intendere, 15a29 . hi tucu cheist ndoraid where I understand a difficult problem, SP ii 8 ( Thes. ii 294 ). ni tucai cách dib belrae alaili, Ml. 42c7 . duucthar tria rosc aní nolabraifitis, 55a10 . ara tuicce ar-rolegais, Wb. 28d7 . ara tucca cach a canas, 27b27 . ní tucsat cia chruth conrerortatar, Ml. 75d10 . nad tuicset rúna, Wb. 15a29 . ní tucid féin ní da n-abraid, RC xxviii 314 . do neoch dorucai mo rí | bec dofucaid ní dia grés of what my king can comprehend ye understand little (?), SR 7983 . ni frith dó . . . dia drúidib nech dosfucad, 3228 , cf. 2763 . ní ragaib acht nem . . . do cach oen nodgēbad ┐ nodafucfad etir cēill fogra, RC xx 134 . nír thuiccestair an mbreithir atbert R. fris, BNnÉ 323 . do tucsat cēlmhaine na ndruadh, ZCP i 398 . ní tucenn aenduine in briathar-sin uaithe, vi 291 . cindus rothuiggisi in berla ebraidi uaithib ┐ tu fen it' gregach?, YBL 141b22 . Folld. by vn. clause: ni tuccai nech anfoirbthe buith fo riaguil, Ériu i 202 .

(b) perceives, observes, is aware of: tucim nár bé chóir, TBC-LL¹ 4083 . douicim-ne ┐ tuigmit conid mog do Dia tusa, PH 750 . dofuicind Dia . . . co n-oslaicfither bar ruisc (= scit Deus quod aperientur, etc. , Gen. iii 5 ), Lec. 530a10 = dofuicfind, BB 16b53 . ar na rothucad Pátraic cia dia ṅdernad int immun, Trip. 396 . doucad in tan ticfad sonend ┐ donend, LU 823 ( ACC 58 ). dofucfa cách 'na mbia fo menmain a chéli cen a falsigud o briathraib, RC xxv 248 . tuigedh gurab ar gealtacht robháoi an bhen, BS 108 . ní thuigfinn m'imshníom ná m'olc | ar ghualainn mhic C. I should not be conscious of, O'Gr. Cat. 453 . o rathuic corba corp dia adnocul, tuc airrde na croiche, Lat. Lives 94 . o rathuicistair . . . a mbeith nocht (= cum cognovissent se esse nudos, Gen. iii 7 ), Lec. 530a21 . In ipv. oft. folld. by la + refl. pron., tuic lat observe, note , know (common in med. texts): tuic leat gurob comartha bāis, 23 P 10, 3b10 ; 7a1 ; 30a56 , etc. With OC: tuig agad cindus bis tiacht amach an tsile take note how the flux issues forth, 10b26 . Folld. by AR, perceives, knows (by looking at): atcífe diabul ┐ tuicfe a olc fair, PH 2037 . dothuigisdar ar in ablainn ndiatha . . . bí eder a lāmhaib an tsaguirt (sic leg.) . . . co roibi pecadh folaidhthi aigi he knew from the consecrated wafer . . . that he (the priest) had committed some secret sin, Lib. Flav. i 33 rb 12 . tuigim ort go saoiltear libh, etc., Content. xiv 53 . Folld. by ASS knows (from), infers (from): tuicim-se as a tuarascbail, TBC-LL¹ 5660 (St.). issed rotuiccedh as sain, na huilc tháncatar `hence men presaged the evils', SG 406 . tuicter as sin nach fedann laeighi ara taebhaibh it is a sign that he cannot lie on his side, 23 P 10, 3a30 . Vbl. of necess.: is tuicti na comartha-sin do bheith go holc, 24 P 22, 105.13 . is tuigthe dhaoibh . . . gur ab iad sin clann Abraham, Galatians iii 7 . as tuigthe dhúinn as so gurab decair, etc., Ó Héodhusa 15 .

(c) thinks, opines, considers: nihil medico conducibilius censeo . . . .i. ni tuigim go bhfuil ní, etc., 23 K 42, 184.4 . ní thuigim go dtiocfadh rum etc., I do not think that I could agree, Content. ix 5 . cé bé duine nach biaidh leinn . . . tuigmíd gur duine i n-ar n-aghaidh in duine sin, O'Gr. Cat. 468 . do thuicc drong dona hughdaruibh . . . gurab must as ferr a n-ionadh an fhíona, 24 P 32, 52.6 ; 211.9 .

(d) means, signifies (usually in pass.): cennsa tuicther tresin snechta is symbolized by, PH 3386 . triasan uiscce tuicther popul na creitmech, tuict[h]er Críst triasin fín, RC xxxvii 346 . a toghaide tre-uillech, trésa tuicthear in Trinōid, MR 92 . an sextuarius adubramar . . . as é sextuarius an uisce thuigmid we mean a s. of water, 24 P 32, 94.1 . adeir G. . . . antan aderar eiliborus . . . go tuicter eiliborus geal antan sin that white hellebore is meant, 23 P 10, 31b46 .

(e) In certain cases folld. by prep. DOCHUM, DO, FRI (LE), understands (of), applies or refers to (freq. in pass.): species .i. gnē ┐ termin uilidhe ┐ tuicther duine ┐ leomhan chuige sin (i.e. `man' and `lion' are referred to, are examples of a species), 24 P 3, 304.23 . as iad so na daine da tuicter so .i. na daine bis a n-āis .x. bliadan .xx. this applies to persons of the age of thirty, 23 P 10, 8a10 . ni do lucht na paralisi amain tuicter an rādh so this saying applies not to paralytics alone, 44b46 . an spic[a] adubramar, as d'olaidh an spica .n. thuigios Mesué í the `spica' above-mentioned M. takes to mean oil, etc. , 24 P 32, 156.8 . re fiabras coididiana contineoideach is coir sin da thuigsin ┐ re fiabras coididiana nach contineoideach do tuigeadar siad-san he this rightly applies to continuous quotidian fever, but those authors understood it of intermittent, 23 P 10, 163 vb 27 . is amhlaidh bhíos an tslat . . . geal go hiomlán, do chomhartha na firinne lé dtuigthear an ghile in sign of truth with which whiteness is associated (i.e. of which it is a symbol), Keat. iii 151 . creud thuigeas tú lé maitheadh na bpeacadh? what do you understand by forgiveness of sins?, Donlevy 44 .

do-slí

Cite this: eDIL s.v. do-slí or dil.ie/18463

Forms: tullim, do-sli, doslíi, toslui, tuille, tuilli, dosliat, dusliat, tuillet, tuillit, thuilled, doruillet, toroildind, do-sn-uilliub, doruilli, rothuillisem, tuillem

v (* to-slí-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 631 ) Indic. pres. 1 s. ni tullim , LU 10300 . 3 s. do-sli, Laws i 242.1 , ii 78.19 , etc.; PH 8380 . doslíi, Laws iv 336.4 Comm. toslui (?), ZCP xiii 23.4 . ní tuille , PH 8380 ; Laws v 272.3 . ní tuilli , 384.8 . 3 pl. dosliat, iii 492.11 etc. dusliat, v 138.10 . ni tuillet, 404.17 . ni tuillit , 160.2 . Impf. 3 s. ni thuilled , LL 217a44 . Subj. pres. 3 pl. doruillet, Laws iv 196.1 . Impf. 1 s. co toroildind , Mon. Tall. 136.27 . Fut. 1 s. do-sn-uilliub, LL 284b24 (= dosnuillib, Fél. p. 154 ). Perf. 3 s. doruilli, BB 400b32 (?). 1 pl. ní rothuillisem , Wb. 24d6 . Vn. tuillem.

In Mid.Ir. treated as a simple vb. with root tuill- and somet. confused with tuill- finds room (see 2 do-alla); cf. Eg. Gl. 590 : tuill ` contain, deserve '. IGT Verbs §§ 71 - 73 .

Deserves, merits, earns, is entitled to, incurs (in good or bad sense). Freq. in Laws (text). is mo doslí oldaas a on húare doslíi lóg a enech it entails something which more than offsets the insult, Críth G. 551 . sellach dosli leth-fiachu, Laws i 242 . dosli tri seotu cachu dechmaidi, v 340 . iss mo do thorbu dosli cach ben bes druinech olldāite cid rīgna, 382 . dosliat fiacha, 138 . dusli fiacha bar ccoimchionadh, Leb. Gab.(i) 32 with gloss .i. do tuillebair fiacha. cain aigillne ┐ giallnu, cid dosli what does it entail? ZCP xiv 338 § 1 ( Laws ii 222 ). ní thuille fochraicc acht doslí péin, PH 8380 . co toroildind bendachtain, Mon. Tall. 136 . mo bennacht . . . mogenair nech rostuillenn, ZCP xii 386 . nīr tuillset m'esccaine ná mh' oirbire riam, BNnÉ 267 . cor' tuiltis a tuarastal, Metr. Dinds. iii 70 . gach clú d'ár thuill Beannchar Uladh, Keat. i 52 . O Gormgail nár thuill tabeim, Hy Fiach. 186 . riamh nír thuillebair masla | i n-am chatha, O'Gr. Cat. 504 . an té . . . dorinne na neithe do thuill buillidhe, Luke xii 48 . mūir na faitchi, feib dasli, | rosdelbtha do findruini as it deserves it, i.e. as is fitting (? impers.), SR 417 . co ḟuigh be cach aen mur thuillfes lá na brethe do maith nó dh'ulc, ZCP ii 230 . Followed by ó of pers.: muna iodhlaicit . . . tuillit ó Maodhócc mallacht they incur the curse of M., BNnÉ 259 . M. . . . nar thuill (thill, v.l.) ó énneach anaoibh, 289 . co tuillem bendachtain ón Spirut Náem, ZCP viii 214 . dogénainn mar in gcétna fortsa dá dtuillteá uaim é, SG 338 . ? do thuill ón reacht bearnadh ball, Ó Bruad. ii 270 . With vn. phrase as obj.: rotuillis bās d'fagail I deserved to die, ZCP vi 27 . mac nar thuill a lí do luisneadh who never had cause to blush, Ó Bruad. ii 186 . gur tuilleadh leis an bás do bheith i gcinneadh dhó, TSh. 514 . galúin ime mar cháin . . . ar gach cūiger da ttuillfe cassaoid do dhenamh orra dona buannadhaibh that gives the Buonaght cause of complaint, Ulster Journ. of Arch. vi 61 . Cf. further: sibh féin fo thár ná tuillse, Content. xxiii 6 . Followed by DO of pers. brings (on), earns or incurs (for): ni thulli fochraicc do neoch acht dofairce péin . . . for nech, PH 8377 . do thuill sé dhó féin ┐ dá chloinn é (sc. an bás), TSh. 2541 . t' ḟine féin dar thuill sibh diomdha . . . fear bhfuinidh on whom you have brought the anger, Content. xvi 195 . maith do thuill a mbéasa dháibh | a bhfuairsead uatha d'anáir, xiii 7 . nachar thuill tusa so dhuit féin?, Jeremiah ii 17 . cuibrech caich iad . . . da ttuillter a ttroim-deabhaidh they will be a hindrance to whosoever incurs their enmity (of halidoms), BNnÉ 245 . With extension of meaning: ba mor tuath . . . rotustuillsit fo chísaib ┐ bés ┐ dán ┐ dliged dóib many princes had they brought under tribute . . . to themselves (?), Alex. 381 = mortuath . . . robai ic imtecar na sét sin, etc., IT ii2 97 , cf. BB 444a35 .

With change of obj.: faendlid cach fiadh dosli faille who incurs (the charge of) neglect (is guilty of), O'Gr. Cat. 80 . gibe thuilles na tri gniomh whoever commits these three acts, BNnÉ 262 . ar grádh Dia . . . na tuill diumga ana timche[ll] so be not vexed, O'Gr. Cat. 116 . fuil ríg-Gheruilt | nár thuill goradh do ghrád chruid `that never warmed to love of pelf', 392 (but perh. that never merited censure, cf. ni tuill a gruaid do goradh, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1919 v 92 § 4 ).

With ellipse of obj.: ar ḟoglaimm tuillfes dóib bodéin which will serve them, Mer. Uil. 111 . ar ḟoglaimm nach tuillfed dún do dénum which would be of no use to us, 109 . robsad comhdaltacha sinn ag Sgathaigh, uair is aice rothuillmis ar ndis served our apprenticeship (?), ZCP x 289 . ? ro chertus for Lagniu | lánéraic . . . | ní moídet in n-ammus, | tarras is ro thuill, LL 18650 ( PRIA xix 552 ).

do-slí buide di (fri) is subservient to; cringes to, curries favour with: ni rothullius buide, ropom tuire tend, PRIA xix 550 ( LL 147a42 ). ní rothuillisem buidi do neuch, Wb. 24d6 . ní tullim budi do neoch acht do Conchobur, IT i 325 ( LU 10300 ) = ni tuillim buidi di nech, 142 (Eg.). ná tuill buide mblāith | fria duine nach dlúith, KMMisc. 274 . ní tuille buidhe fri nach ríg, MR 54 . rí uathmar croda diumsach . . . ni thuilled buide fri nech, LL 217a44 . ní tuillead buidi fri duine | im ṡaigi (leg. suide) no im laighe, Anecd. i 47 . ni tuille[d] buidhe fria nech (of Caesar), CCath. 354 . ni tuilled buidhi re Sabhdán nā re tigerna, Maund. 49 (cf. Eng. version they dread not the Soudan). See O'Rahilly, ZCP xvii 206 ff .

eter-diben

Cite this: eDIL s.v. eter-diben or dil.ie/20809

Forms: etirdiben, etirdiben, etirdib(n)et, etirdibnitis, etirdibet, etardamdibet, itirndadibed, etirrudib

v (be-n-) destroys: pres. ind. s. 3 etirdiben (gl. interimit) Ml. 42a17 . etirdiben soegol, ZCP iii 453.13 (etardiben v.l.). iterdiben amail faebar, ZCP iv 243.23 = et diben Ériu, iii 6.14 . pl. 3 etirdib(n)et (gl. perimunt) Ml. 15b6 . impf. pl. 3 etirdibnitis, 99a7 . pres. subj. pl. 3 co etirdibet (gl. ut perimant) 114c8 . co etardamdibet sa (gl. ad interficiendum me) 44c31 . past subj. s. 3 oldaas itirndadibed (gl. quam perimeret) 45c6 . perf. s. 3 lasse etirrudib (gl. perimendo) 123b10 .

étrén

Cite this: eDIL s.v. étrén or dil.ie/20909

adj o-ā (neg. of trén)

I Weak, powerless: ro theich, ba hairde étrén a sign of feebleness Metr. Dinds. iii 396. 14 . eidhme amluatha etréna `cries of distress and helplessness' ZCP vi 67.20 . go mbí an cholann éidtréan aimhneartmhar, TSh. 2918 . Compar. (a) fortét cech cenn bes tressai inní bes étressa `every chief who is more powerful takes precedence of him who is less powerful' Laws iv 330.18 Comm. Pirr mac Achíl, nád étrese oldáas a athair, TTr.² 1749 . Menelaus ┐ N. nidad ettresi ina Aicil ┐ Díomíd..., BB 441a7 . ni ḟuil persa dhíobh as treise ná as éidtreisi iná chéile, Ó Héodhusa 25.17 . (b) (with de) dob éttreinitte Albanaigh...an ionnsaicchidh sin the Scots were the weaker for that attack AFM v 1566.14 .

II As subst. weakness: clann É...an tráth fuarais i n-éidtréan, Content. xvi 130 . cosmhail re Cloinn Isra-hél | thoir san Éighipt ar éidréan enfeebled, helpless Measgra D. 54.66 . mín re héidtréan teann re tréan, Ir. Monthly 1927, 594.40 .

fadéin, féin

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fadéin, féin or dil.ie/20990

Forms: cadéin, céin, fad—, fod—, bad—, bod—, bud—, cad—, fad—, bod—, cad—, feis—, fadessin, fodessin, fessin, —dessid, féssin, fadéin, féin, céin, faden, féin, fade(i)ssin, fadesin, fadesine, fe(i)ssin, fé(i)sin, fein, cadessin, fadisin, fadeissne, feisin, féisin, fessine, feisine, feisne, féisne, fanis(s)in, fesin, fesine, fésine, chanisin, fadisin, fadéisne, fesin, fésin, féis(s)ne, fadesin, fedesin, fade(i)sine, fadésne, fes(s)in, fesine, fésine, feis(s)ne, féis(s)ne, cades(s)in, cadésin, cadessine, fadisin, fanisin, fadéin, ba—, bo—, bu—, fadesin, fes(s)in, fesne, faden, fadesin, féin, fadéin, fodéin, —dén, fadessin, bo—, bu—, fes(s)in, féin, fén, féin, péin, fodéne, ba—, bu—, féine, fessin, fodeisne, feisne, budein, budeisin, badeisin, fadesin, fesine, feisne, féin, fesine, feisne, féisin, cadéin, cade(i)s(s)in, césin, céin, f—, cadessin

cadéin, céin, etc. adj. and pron.; fad— (later fod—, bad—, bod—, bud—) is taken by Pedersen Vgl. Gr.(i 271 , ii 153 ) to be an element of the verb to be. For cad— see below. The stress falls on the second syllable in the forms beginning with fad— (fod—, bod— etc.), cad—; in fan—, can— the position of the stress is undetermined. In feis— it falls on the first syllable.

The following forms are found in the Glosses. The absence of the mark of length may be accidental in some cases. The following rimes have been noted: fadessin: sessir ZCP iii 43 § 11 . fodessin: dessid (perf. of saidid) SR 1388 . fessin (with masc. poss.): —dessid, Metr. Dinds. ii 4.38 . féssin (fem.) : dēiscin, SR 2138 .

1 s. fadéin, féin, céin 2 s. faden, féin 3 s. m. n. fade(i)ssin, fadesin, fadesine, fe(i)ssin, fé(i)sin, fein(?), cesin, cadessin. 3 s. f. fadisin, fadeissne, feisin, féisin, fessine, feisine, feisne, féisne. 1 pl. fanis(s)in, fesin, fesine, fésine, chanisin. 2 pl. fadisin, fadéisne, fesin, fésin, féis(s)ne. 3 pl. fadesin, fedesin, fade(i)sine, fadésne, fes(s)in, fesine, fésine, feis(s)ne, féis(s)ne ( fēin, LU 159 , SR 4466 ). cades(s)in, cadésin ( cadesne, LU 1773 , cadessine, Rawl. 118b47 ).

There is no certain instance in the Glosses of 1 s. fade(i)s(s)in. In Ml. 66d13 the edd. of Thes. say that `fadesin' seems meant for `mea', but it is more likely that it belongs to `exercitui.' Cf. iudicio .i. fadesin, 51b16 . In later documents we have noted: ni fliuchaim fadesin ..., TBC-LL¹ 1307 . missi fodessin, 1005 . corbom gaeth fodeissin, BDD 15 . See also II (f) below.

The forms fadisin (3 s. f. and 2 pl.) and fanisin (1 pl.) are early lost; fadéin (fo—, ba—, bo—, bu—), fadesin and fes(s)in or fesne continue in use throughout Mid. Ir., but lose their specific characters, being employed indifferently in all persons and both numbers and genders. In Auraic. 650 the form faden is given for sing., fadesin for pl., in combination with a pers. pron.: me faden, etc., sinni fadesin, etc. During the Mid.-Ir. period féin comes more and more into use in all persons, genders and numbers and finally survives alone in the mod. language. In PH fadéin (—dén, fodéin, —dén) occurs 37 times and fadessin (fo—) 14 times, besides corresponding forms in bo—, bu—; fes(s)in 37 times; while féin (fén) is very frequent. LB favours the spelling fén instead of the more usual féin (LU, LL); dom péin occurs LB 134b30 . Other Mid. Ir. forms are fodéne (bo—, ba—, bu—) and féine.

I As subject of copula clause:

A (from Glosses): ni arddu feisin quam a chocéle, Sg. 161b9 . cf. uilc féssine `evil themselves' (gl. errantes 2 Timothy iii 13 ) Wb. 30c26 .

B (from later MSS): ansruth a athir ... ┐ ansruth fadesin, Bürgschaft 13 § 45 . roptar scítha som fadessin, TBC-LL¹ 3619 . cf. corbom gaeth fodeisin `that I myself may be wise' BDD 15 (Y: badessin St.).

II As emphasizing pron. or adj. ( my, thy, etc.) —self. The exx. below are arranged in each section under persons (1 s., 2 s. etc.) and under each person instances of the longer forms are given first. For A, B see above under I.

(a) referring to subj. of vb.:

1 s.

A fadéin (gl. ipse) Ml. 23c1 . in tain ronicub féin when I myself shall come Wb. 18b14 .

B bet fessin i n-aentaid in Athar ..., MacCongl. 41.15 . dogén féin mo chomtocbáil, SR 854 . na dern féin forcraid 1583 . forglim féin, LU 10271 . itchonnarcsa fen hí, PH 99 . atchonnacsa feine F., ZCP xiii 169.13 . Cf. muna beinn badh dheine were it not for me Duan. F. i 192 .

2 s.

A im ní nad techtai féin, Ml. 56b33 .

B coiste fadein (impv.) SR 1151 . nosnicfae fadein, Bürgschaft 27 § b . dia ndingbaitea fessin he, LU 5962 . oldá-su fessin, MacCongl. 23.21 . troisc-siu fessin (impv.) MacCongl. 61.14 . tair-siu féin, TBC-LL¹ 106 . do neoch tharradais féin, Bor. 95 . na ciniudha rogabhais féin, CCath. 563 . mid fen pass judgement thyself PH 609 . in tan tucais fén tú isin croich, 172 . an t-ech ro ainciss feine which thou thyself hast saved BColm. 90.14 .

3 s., m. and n.

A ní doromlad fadesin, Ml. 36a29 . oldaas fadeissin, Wb. 33d9 . tuicci feissin, Wb. 12c26 . daucci feissin tantum, 13a8 . indaas cech terchital dunairc[h]echainn som fesin (contr. with `nach fáith aile') Ml. 64c22 . oldaas fessin, Wb. 24c15 . foilsigthi feisin `it demonstrates it itself' Sg. 211a8 . See also under II (c). (cf. bristi fadesin, Ériu vii 148 § 13 ; hicthi fadesin, Bürgschaft 33 § 3 ).

B pendeth (impv.) fadesin, Ériu vii 168 § 12 (Penit.), dogeni fadesin ind tiuglagin allae sin, Mon. Tall. § 52 . cf. dessid mo rí reil | fodessin, SR 1388 . luid sís fadessin, LL 116b19 ( RC viii 56 ). tucc fadessin a thēig ... chuca, MacCongl. 13.6 . co n-epert budessin, 21.21 . saidis foden, MacCongl. 65.4 . amal chomaides-som fodéin, PH 5310 . co rabe fesin lomnocht, SR 1316 . dorairgertsom fessin dóib anísin, LU 1960 ( FA 2 ). diluidsiom feisin ar a cend, Anecd. v 10 = ticseom féin immach, LL 112b8 ( ScM. 5 ). irbbad (impv.) fessin (f.) fair, TBFr. § 21 (fodesin Y. fodeisne, ZCP iv 42.17 ). cusin aimsir sin a mbui feisne (m.) Anecd. ii 43.1 . amal asbert féin, LU 4067 . ni thic do neoch acht mad doneth féin, LU 2021 . rogab fein for dian-aithrige, Bor. 100 . sáidis fén in crand, MacCongl. 29.11 . ruc fen breith fair he himself has passed judgment on himself PH 603 . ni dlig feine eneclann, ACL iii 223.21 . ro tinntó féin docum na Rómha, CCath. 146 . gach fer ... no aisnedheadh scela C. d'araili dobered fen fuillead friu, 765 . cristaidi nochanadh fein fris called himself a Christian Marco P. 64 .

1 pl.

A runsluinfemni didiu cene fanisin, Wb. 15a4 (cf. b below).

B as diliu lind oldammit fadessin dearer to us than ourselves TBC-LL¹ 199 (= ina sind fen St).

2 pl.

A daberidsi féissne you yourselves give it Wb. 24c16 .

B cinnus doghníthi fēin fiadhach ?, Acall. 884 . ní thibér ferann dáibhsi, cosnaidh fein ferann dáibh `win lands for yourselves' (O'G.) Acall. 372 .

3 pl.

A (for Glosses see cadessin below).

B atchonncatar buden, PH 108 . nach feadadar fen, Bor. 129 (Lec.). rothomailset fén ní, MacCongl. 31.7 . cuirid féine a gceart ar gcúl, TD 26.15 . amhail do-rónsad féin, TSh. 154 .

(b) referring to a foregoing infixed pron. (when the latter is reflexive this case is not always easily distinguished from the preceding).

1 s.

B nimfogluasfind féin, LU 5960 .

2 s. B toing ... not-geibhid [leg. —gēbe] fadein frisna gnimusin, Bürgschaft 23.1 . dadotfail fodein, SR 1747 . lepaid ratfiasu féine thou shall have a couch LL 297a45 . uair nachat filsiu fein hi cutrummus, LU 8823 .

3 s.

A amal nach fuar fessin inneuch as I found not himself in anything Ml. 57d3 . darrat fessin hi croich, Wb. 28b4 . adidnopair fessin du Dia, Ml. 66b4 . adcomla friu fessin he joins himself to them Wb. 3c13 . nodmoladar fesin who praises himself 17b21 . amal ronsoír fesin soírfed cách crettes and, Wb. 32d13 .

B farrolaig ... Cruitine fadeisin i maig, Corm. Y 825 (fadesin, Bodl.). o chanasca (cutnasca v.l.) fadesin, Aipg. Cr. 18 ( ZCP iii 451 ). nech nothoirc [leg. nodnoirg) fadesin, Ériu vii 166 § 5 . ronoirnecht fadesin ib. rasgeoguin fodessin (his arrow) wounded himself PH 6306 . dia nustarda fadéin ingáibthib, 4859 . cf. falloing túath fadessin, Críth G. 599 cited below under (g) (β) B.

3 pl.

A nístuarascbat feisin cen gutai they do not express themselves Sg. 7a11 .

B nísfáelsad féin nach in curach, LU 1888 . in [ḟ]oirend rosmarb buden who killed themselves Aen. 1364 .

(c) ref. to suff. pron. (?): 3 s. gníthisium fadesin `he makes himself' Ml. 30b20 (but the correct transl. is more probably he himself makes him and the ex. belongs to II (a).

(d) With independent pron. (cf. Auraic. 649 : etargoire n-inchoisc persainni, me faden, tu faden, sinni fadesin, sibsi fadesin, siatsom fadesin. The corresp. text 3271 ff . has budein in sg. and budeisin, badeisin in pl.):

1 s.

A is me féin asbiur i tossuch (gl. per me et Silvanum) Wb. 14c30 . amal bid me féin notheised cucut (gl. suscipe illum sicut me) 32a17 .

B missi fodessin, TBC-LL¹ 1005 (= misi am aonar, St.). ni ba nech aile ... acht me féin, LL 296b22 . messe féin, 304a25 . na hadair dee bréci, acht me féin, PH 7310 . me fen nicon tibér `as for myself, I will not give it' MacCongl. 33.5 . misi féin as meallta, Acall. 982 . do Gaidhealuib mé fene, BCC § 278 .

2 s.

A cani tú féin, Wb. 8d27 .

B tussu fadéin, LL 247a44 ( IT² 208a ; fodein v.l.). tu fodén im fail-sea, MacCongl. 57.12 . in tú féin, LL 300b45 . tú féin, Acall. 353 . cia thu féin ?, 877 .

3 s.

A ni he fessin dobeir grad fair, Wb. 33c3 . he fesin as choimsid, Thes. ii 294.3 . f. sí feisine (gl. L manet per se) Sg. 165b3 .

B amhail bid e feissin, Corm. Y 825 . conid hé féin mac Dé, LU 1426 . ┐ hé fein eturru, LL 298a47 . conid rig he fén, PH 2586 . gur ferr é fein iná thusa, Acall. 2365 . tabhuir armgaisced mh'athar dhamh. dobhér ..., dōigh ba fialnár ... hé féin, 2012 . ba lan d'omun hé fein ┐ a righa, Marco P. 129 . diultadh se e fein, BCC § 4 (= dhó féin, Matthew xvi 24 ). med an tshaethair do bi se fein d'fagail uatha BCC § 33 . f. conid si fein ro innis, LU 2968 (H). i rraba sí fein, Thes. ii 337.33 ( Hy v 38 Comm ).

1 pl. B da deirbṡiair sinn féin, Acall. 398 . nach cumhachtach sinn féin ris aní se do chuireamair romhainn do chríochnughadh, TSh. 30 .

3 pl.

A nandat hae fessin, Ml. 130a8 .

B eter a feraib ┐ siat fesni, LU 8419 . iad féin, TSh. 5492 .

With nech oneself: B a mesrugud do neuch tra buddesin one should regulate it for oneself Mon. Tall. § 63 . faisidin na pecadh nach dernadh nech féin d' faisidi, RC xxviii 320§ 43 . nech féin go mór da mholadh | céim as lór da lochtoghadh, 23 L 17, 149a .

(e) With prep. and pron. suff.:

1 s.

A erum féin, Ml. 86b1 . form féin, Wb. 7d15 . 8d26 . leim féin, Sg. 209b30 . uaimm fein Wb. 11c1 .

B immon ní is leamm fodén, MacCongl. 45.4 . uaimm fodén, 111.7 . damh bodéin, RC xxvi 370.13 . damsa fodéni, IT i 125.19 . formsa fein, LU 5963 . damsa féin, LL 302a31 .

2 s.

A det faden, Thes. ii 258.22 (bis). deit féin, Wb. 28d15 .

B deit fadéin tantum, Mon. Tall. § 37 . duit fadéin LU 11011 . let fessin, LU 8831 . fort féin, TBC-LL¹ 1187 . SR 6258 . ocut fen, PH 2350 . lat fén, MacCongl. 61.8 . can deitt fén 75.5 .

3 s. m. and n.

A do fadesin, Ml. 61b17 . friss fadesin, Wb. 6c18 . tarais fadeissin, 33d10 . de fessin, Ml. 65a1 . dó fessin, Wb. 23c16 . do fesin, 23c13 . etir fessin et doíni, 28b3 . foir feisin, Sg. 209b12 . fris fessin, Ml. 12d11 . fris fesin PCr. 59a2 . and feissin `in itself ' Sg. 50a2 . ind fessin (gl. in se) Ml. 129d18 . lais feisin, Sg. 153b7 . tríit fessin, Sg. 43a3 . triit feissin, 73b7 . huad fessin, Ml. 108b17 . huaid fessin 35c23 . uad feisin, Sg. 209b12 .

B dó fadeisin, Críth G. 73 . dosom fadesin, Mon. Tall. § 4 . cf. cono fadesen ` inclusive ' BCrólige § 39 . lais fodēin, SR 6859 . fris fudein, Ériu vii 144 § 26 . uad fodén, MacCongl. 31.19 . do fadéin, PH 5972 . chuige fodéin, 6169 . dó féin, LU 8920. 2310 . Acall. 920. 1216 . ind féin, LU 2584 . fairseom fessin, 2279 . úad fessin, LU 10167 . dó féine, TD 34.9 . nach ann fein do bi a anam acht a mbethaidh in Tigerna, BCC § 7 . nech...do derrscnugud de féin, CCath. 277 . rocinn aici féin nach rachadh, 396 .

3 s. f.

A lee fadeissne (gl. anima patitur) `by herself' Acr. 11c1 . forrae fadisin, Tur. 79 . huadi fadisin, Ml. 133c10 . di feisne, Sg. 199b6 . inte feisne, 159a4 . friae fessine, Ml. 130c9 . di féisin, Sg. 199b10 . fuiri féisin, 209b34 . fuiri feisin ib. 28 . trée feisin, 25b14 .

B forri fadeisne, Bürgschaft 26 § 74 . anas dír dí fadesne, Ériu vii 138.3 (Penit.). di fodéin, PH 5918 . cruit ar timpan sin, nó cruit uirri bodein YBL 204a40 = BB 347b32 .

1 pl.

A frinn fanisin, Wb. 17b10 . dunn fanissin, Camb. Hom., Thes. ii 245.7 . frinn fesine, Wb. 17b12 .

B triund fodesin, LU 9241 . ca tir trebfaither linn fesin, CCath. 605 . dún fessin, MacCongl. 29.4 . din féin, Acall. 228 .

2 pl.

A triib fadéisne, Wb. 3b22 . duib fadisin, Ml. 68b3 . airib féisne, Wb. 27c19 . diib féisne, 13a26a0 . lib fesin 9d11 . uaib fesin, 27d6 .

B tucabair fuath dib fein = teipsum odio habuisti BCC § 18 .

3 pl.

A dib fadesin, Ml. 31b10 . doib fadesin, 72c14 . intiu fadesin, 53b11 . dib fesin, 129c18 . doib fesin, 53b11 . intiu fesin, Ml. 53d17 . 61b17 . leo feissin, Sg. 71b3 . leu fessin, Ml. 91a10 . treo fesin, Sg. 4b4 . uadib fesin, 188a20 . forru fesin, Ml. 73b17 . friusom fesin, 54c18 . samlaib som fesin `like themselves ' Ml. 57c5 . uadib féissne, Sg. 144a1 .

B fer dib buden one of themselves PH 141 . cech óenchéol ... dibside fessin, LU 2035 . intib féin, LU 2557 . 2633 . forru fein, for a sluagaib, SR 4466 . etarru fein ┐ eter a tuisechu, CCath. 254 .

(f) Following a subst. preceded by poss. pron. (exx. are arranged according to person and number of pron., but the adj. occasionally seems rather to agree with the noun, e.g. Wb. 33c5 (a doenacht fesine), and at least for some of the forms this may be the original usage. See Pedersen, Asp. i Irsk 93z ).

1 s.

A mo slántu fadéin ┐ slántu amicorum , Acr. 6b1 . mo saithar féin, Wb. 7a1 . im augtortas féin, 9b5 . manid chretim a esséirge et mo esséirge féinn, 13c10 . mo muinter féin, 14a5 . dofuthrisse a buith im gnáis féin ara hireschi (gl. quem ego uolueram mecum retinere) 32a9 .

B mo derbmbleoghan budhessin, ZCP iv 31 (scribe in Eg. 1782 , Flower Cat. 261 ). tar mo chend uodessin, YBL 327a39 . form ḟeoil fodein, SR 1542 . com thrichait chét fadéin, LU 4648 . mo ainm fodéin, TBC-LL¹ 1053 . láeg mo bo fadéin, CRR 3 . dim glinni fadein, LU 4696 . form dreichsea fodéin, 3892 . mo chuit fodéin, MacCongl. 95.2 . m'ainmsi fodén, 79.3 . mo thustidi féin LU 1682 . m'ainmse féin, 334T0 mo chubrendsa fein, LL 303a43 . mo chrod féin, 304a20 . mu rath féin, Acall. 371 . acam athair féin, 2270 . mo lebar fen, BCC § 34 .

2 s. B im do bruinnedalta uadhessin ; imot noebmathair uadhessin ; im do noebapstalu uadessin, YBL 326b33 ; 36 ; 53 ( Otia ii 94 § 9 , § 11 ; 95 § 19 ). im do noebhdisciplu fadein, Otia ii 95 § 19 . a forus do thigi fadein, Bürgschaft 27 § c . fogéba do dun fadéin, LU 208 . do brathair fadéin, LL 112b32 . cia hainmsiu fodén ?, MacCongl. 77.25 . do thorba fadeine, ZCP iii 29.28 . ni bé dot réir fodéne, Ériu i 197 § 15 . do gnima fessin, LU 10270 . dit daig fesni, 3372 . lessaig do sluaig [sic] fein, SR 3843 . dot imdegail féin LU 5027 . molad do gnima feine | tathair gnima do cheile, Ériu ii 228.5 . do mhathair feine, ZCP viii 109.11 .

3 s.

A ho[a] degnim som fadesin, Ml. 20b3 . a senchassom fadesin `his own tradition' Wb. 30c17 . ara foirbthetu fadesin, 6c19 . a chorp (acc.) fadesin, 13d20 . ho[a] faithsini fadesin, 33c17 . duarbaid a noibi fadessin Ml. 46d15 . dobert goiste imma bragait fadesin, 23b10 . is a indocbál fessin condieig cách acht Tiamthe, Wb. 23d5 . na cuinged a thoil fessin `let him not seek his own desire' 11b18 . mad cumme imned á cheli et a imned fessin, 20c6 . ni as a persain fessin rogab in salmso `it was not in his own person that he sang this psalm' Ml. 90b15 . nítat á airiltin fessin donarbaid in popul, 108b8 . taiccéra cách dara chen fessin, Wb. 6b28 . di hilib a cheneiuil fessin, Sg. 40a8 . a ai[n]mm féssin, 6a7 . di hilib a cheneiuil feissin, 40a6 ; 7 ; 11 ; 17 . as máthir a ṡotho feissin cach n-óenchrann, Sg. 65a6 . ni bu fua reir fesin boi som, Ml. 14b13 . nadndechuid ... huadsom dochum nDae acht duintarrae inna ucht fesin iterum, Ml. 54d3 . issa thorbe feisin són nammá `it is his own profit only' Wb. 12c25 . diróscai di hilib a cheneiuil feisin, Sg. 40a18 . inna aicniud feisin `in its own nature' 209b35 . a folud feisin, 211b3 . a ancride feisin immeḟolṅgai césad dó, 209b18 . ni a doenacht fesine rudanordan acht deacht, Wb. 33c5 (fem. agreeing with doenacht, Ped., Asp. i Irsk 93z and Thes. Suppl. Cf. 28d21 cited below under 3 pl. ). (f.) a ggnim feisne its [lit. her] own action Sg. 199a2 .

B fria menmain fadesin, Mon. Tall. § 21 . ina insi fadessin, § 4 . for a anmain fadesin ZCP iii 451.25 . a setig dano do pennait tar a cend fadesin ┐ dara cendsom that his wife also should do penance on her own behalf and on her husband's Mon. Tall. § 86 . an tíi connessai a pectha fadesin, Ériu vii 170 § 18 . tara thúaith fadesin, Críth G. 28 . a thir (a less) fadesin, 251 ; 252 . cóic ṡeóit a thige fadessin, 395 . nan inraic nech ina chais fadesin, Bürgschaft 21 § 62 . a charpat fadessin TBC-LL¹ 771 . lucht a chrichi fadessin, LL 262a14 ( MU² 42 ). cf. a sretha sét fadessnei, Críth G. 244 (poss. seems to refer to `āith' kiln). .l. ban a mná fodéin, LU 8375 . fó a réir fodein, 8622 . a gilla fadéin, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 6.23 . co dún a athar budhéin, Acall. 1199 (verse). o[a] chotib fadén, MacCongl. 51.1 . ina beol (beolu) fodén, 65.9 ; 65.19 ; 67.9 . tria thóebán fodéne (fadéne, bodéine, budheine, v.l.), Fél. 352 . gaibid dó a chlaideb fessin attacks him (viz. Goliath) with his own sword SR 5874 (deibhidhe rime with : sin). a ara fessin, LU 8805 . coa mnaí fessin, 3267 . a aicned fessin, 9792 . tanic ... coa ferand duthaig fesin 3199 . tuargaib a tech ... co riacht a dirgi fesin inna cetna 8402 . dia argat fesin, AU 963 . roráidset ... a muinter féin fri Dauíd, SR 6358 . go rogaid Moisi ... forsin Ríg ... | coro léiced dó a chosc fein | 'sa timargain dia uagréir, 4127 . dia brathrib fein, 3147 . a chommaín féin, LU 2286 ( FA 34 ). béim da bíail féin, LU 8028 ( FB 77 ). a n-aimsir a bais fen BCC § 34 . fer a inaid fein, § 27 . cindus do beidis ... ina diaidh fen, § 33 . rena beo fen ib. (f.) a derbhráthair féin , Acall. 541 . a cuit féin, 2341 . léna muintir féin, 2162 . a cóir féine her own rights TD 24.1 .

1 pl.

A cf. ara[r] pecthaigi dano fesin, Ml. 105a4 .

B diar lessugud fodein, PH 6121 . dar ndeoin buden of our own free will Aen. 1575 . láeg ar mbó féin, CRR 5 . ar n-athair féin, Acall. 398 . asar ndúchus féin, CCath. 607 .

2 pl.

A for n-airchinnech féisne, Wb. 5a11 .

B do for feraib fodeisne, LU 1777 (= do for fer fodein, YBL 4b29 ). far n-ósarbráthair fodéin, SR 3587 . for n-eitteire féin SR 3504 . bhur bhfir féin, Acall. 976 .

3 pl.

A ised asbertis ba [a] nert fadesin immefolnged choscur doib ni bu Dia, Ml. 95a5 . dia luc fadesin, Sg. 154b1 . cen tíchtain á tíre fadesin, Ml. 34d12 . a rriuth aicneta fedesin, BCr. 18b12 . fo a réir fadésne, Wb. 5b3 . nach du Dia ... acht is dia neurt fessin, Ml. 46d10 . inna n-aicniud feisin, Sg. 188a18 . in teist dorat a fili fésine, Wb. 31b19 . a mmuintire fesine `of their own household' 28d21 (her ? Ped. takes fesine as fem. here, Asp. i Irsk 93y ). acuit inna forciunn feisne on their own termination Sg. 213a8 . is sairiu doib fognam dona ballaib ailib doib oldaas cid a fognam féisne, Wb. 12b2 . a tola féisne, 30d8 .

B a ndochoisci fadesin, Aipg. Cr. § 18 ( ZCP iii 451 ). inda leth fadessin, Mon. Tall. §64 . im rennaib ... a n-arm fodessin, LU 6287 . a n-echrada fadesin, 10591 . a n-indmassa dilse fadeissin, PH 6132 . do reir a n-uird uodessin, 336 . re comalta bodéin, Acall. 2145 . dia fíadnaib fein, LU 8550 ( FB 40 ). triana sualchib ... féin 2393 . assa corpaib fodéin, MU² 276 . ara bferaibh féin, Acall. 988 .

(g) After subst.

(α) preceded by article:

A act in duine fadesin (gl. quis enim scit hominum ... ?) Wb. 8b8 . in popul fadesin, Ml. 34d7 . in doini adordais inna idlu nō ind idail fadesin, 36d16 . ind nime fadesin `of the heaven itself' 51c27 . caingníme na forcitlaide fadesine `of the good deeds of the teachers themselves' Wb. 31d17 . as in talam fessin `from the earth itself' Ml. 45d13 . is dund salm fessin is ainm lessom `titulus', 74b1 . it hé inso boill ind senduine et is hé in senduine fessin, Wb. 27b8 . don chrunn fésin is nomen `buxum' ... ni don torud, Sg. 61b13 (cf. do chrunn fessin 61b8 ). atbelat sidi ┐ inna soinmecha fesin, Ml. 57a3 . tresin n-aimsir feissin .i. amal bid ind aimsir feisin, Sg. 188a26 . Cf. is nomen du[n?] chathraig fissin, Ml. 131c3 .

B forsin duini fadesin `the man himself' Ériu vii 138.4 . in file fodhesin, IT iii 96y . ar chairiguth ind uilc fadesin `to correct the evil itself' Ériu vii 162 § 5 . do laim in choimded uodessin PH 4770 . in Fathliaig fodessin, MacCongl. 93.7 . is i so in anamhain fodhen, IT iii 97 § 157 . lucht inotachta na cathrach badhdein those who enter the city itself Fl. Earls 100.6 . in cepp i mbai ind inneoin | is ind indeoin fodēine (: nārfēile), Rawl. 139b27 ( Ériu iv 110 = ┐ ind i. féni, LL 35a6 ). slān uaim don bith budhdēine | la Rīgh ngrēine os mithid, RC xxxvii 352 § 13 . fáilte in Comded fessin, LU 2125 . tri la ria samfuin ┐ tri laa iarma ┐ lathe na samna feisne, 3223 . in Comdiu féin, 2757 . forcraid cech baill do thinól ... corop isin bul[l]sa fein fogaba ciped ... dliges, 2584 . cidat falsi araile di ruinib na esergi ar is todochaide n-airchend ind esergi fein, 2614 . pl. Tuadhmhumha ... d'orccain lá Conchobhar M. ┐ la Gallaibh. na Goill feisne do theacht leis co Ross C., AFM iii 68.15 .

(β) without art.:

A (cf. qui in rectum non iudicio (.i. fadesin) ducuntur Ml. 51b16 , where the meaning may be `their own judgement or reason,' i.e. that of the mules ( Psalms xxxi 9 ); the ex. then belongs to f). cosmil fri Crist fessin a athir nemde, Wb. 13d13 . ol Priscien feissin `saith P. himself' Sg. 40a12 . i fogur Dae fessin, Wb. 25b19 . foirbthetu neirt fesin, Ml. 128d18 .

B airecht fodesin, one of the five `cenéla airechta': airecht fodesin, is a suidhi bīt brethemain co sē līnaib deec airecta umpu, ZCP xii 360 ( O'Curry 74 < H 3.18, 57b ). bairdne fadessin name of a metre, or a class of metres: IT iii 14 § 27 . admall ..., is bairdne fadeisin a ruidles .i. blogbairdne ┐ brecbairdne, etc. 22 § 67 . cf. 43 § 52 ( ar bairdni fesin, 109.17 ). duan fadesin name of a metre: duan fadesin ┐ duan cenélach ┐ forduan, etc. IT iii 12 § 18 ( duan fen, § 21 ; in 22 § 67 , 41 § 46 , this is simply duan) : cf. rii tuaithe, di feraib deacc do lessaib tuaithe folloing tuath fadessin fria taiscedhi `a king of a tribe, twelve men are supported by the territory on his excursions for the good of the territory' Laws iv 338.21 = Críth G. 599 , where the ed. reads: folloing ... thaiscidi, and renders `the tuath maintains himself (the king alone) for his private affairs' Mac Neill renders: `whom the tuath itself sustains' PRIA xxxvi C 306 . With npr., etc.: im Pettar fadheissin, Otia ii 95 § 23 . íasacht ṁbliadna do Dund Cualnge, ┐ ragaid lóg a íasachta dó ... .i. coíca samaisci ┐ Dond Cualnge fadessin, TBC-LL¹ 93 . Concobar fodessin, LU 8205 ( FB 15 ). is Día fadesne chuirius nech i bpianaibh, Aisl. Tond. 106 § 6 (= as e Dīa fein cuires pian ar duine, 132 ). bid marb Iacob fodein, SR 3603 . ro iarfacht Forainn fadein do | fiad in tṡlúag, 3293 . cortrascair grianan Bricrend ... co torcair Bricriu fodein ┐ a rigan, LU 8379 ( FB 25 ). Bricriu fodein LU 8178 . atrachtatar Ulaid im Chonchobar ... luid Conchobar fodein ... co D., MU² 191 . ro gaet Connla ic Ath leathan ocus Áth lethan bodhéin ... is Dun E. ... caidhi fochaind a claechlóigh?, Acall. 1189 (verse). Dia fa dhéin, , Dán Dé xxvi 39 . intan baí ic deiscin na n-én | Eua féssin, SR 2138 . Medb fessin, LU 8840 ( FB 62 ). marbais in Liath M. ... ech Ercoil ┐ noscengland Cu Ch. Ercoil fessin, LU 8929 ( FB 70 ; similarly LU 8922 ). Cu Chulaind fessin ┐ a ara, 10176 . Mac Dathó fessin, ScM. 6 . Forgall fessin, LU 10265 . fri tressaib Forgaill fessin, 10267 . pl.: iomaireacc ... eitir Chonnachtaibh féisin , AFM i 402.8 (= inter Connachta inuicem AU 798 ). Adam fein, SR 1303 . gaisced Conchobair féin LU 5048 . Dia féin, PH 7378 . ro chuirestair Eochaid eclacha ... d'iarraidh a mnae. dochuaidh Eochaid fein iar sin d'iarraidh Etaine, IT i 129.14 . adubairt Find féin, Acall. 1401 . fian Conáin. fian Oisín ... fiann Find féin, 1399 . pl. D., ri Alban, do marbad la hAlbanchu fein, AU 966 .

III In sense even: na cnuic fen even those hills BCC 18.4 . ar laoidh féin ni fagthar dath not even a poem is credited Content. vi 13 . aniu féin even now xxii 11 . With demons. : ni beith an dinite sin féin even that dignity BCC § 1 . an talam ud fein, § 26 .

The forms cadéin, cade(i)s(s)in, césin, céin, etc., are explained by Pedersen Vgl. Gr. (ii 153 ) as containing cia or cid with pron. and demons. They disappear early. In tabulating the forms according to usage the arrangement of the f— forms above is followed. The rendering even, also suits several of the exx.

I As subject of (virtual) copula clause:

3 s. B baí brathair laiss Long mac Ebonis cadessin, LU 6107 . Cf. is amlaid no imthiged Medb ┐ nói carpait fóthi ... da charpat rempe díb ┐ da charpat na diaid ┐ da charpat cechtar a da táeb ┐ carpat eturru ar medon cadessin, TBC-LL¹ 697 (Windisch supplies (a) before the last `carpat' and renders `ihr eigener Wagen in der Mitte zwischen ihnen'; the meaning will be brought out better if we add a comma after `eturru' and render and (her) chariot between them, that (was) in the middle).

3 pl. B Dal Cormaic Luisc in tres primslonnud eirrid cadesin Dál C. L. the third principal stem, these were chariot fighters Rawl. 118b42 (= errid cid in sin, LL 312a11 ). Ethne mathair ... Cormaic ┐ Niad Chuirp ┐ eirrid cadessine ib. 47 (= errid chatha sin, LL 312a17 . Cf. oldaas cid a fognam féisne, Wb. 12b12 . ro ergiset Conall ┐ Eogan. & cid iatside ropsat láma in net nathrach, LL 304b19 ( Bor. 113 )).

II

(a)

1 s.

A fuachaidsem ... fuachimm chein, Thes. ii 293.23 .

B atchí Bran | lin tond ... | atchiu cadéin (budhen v.l.) ... scotha, Imr. Brain 35 .

3 s.

A caraimse fos ... oc mu lebran ... caraid cesin a maccdán, Thes. ii 293.17 .

B dagéini dano Lethan fora áth ... anais cadessin ara chind Con C., LU 5314 . guitter dano Lath ... ara chend ... datuitside dano cadessin, 5986 . imtéit cadesin, Críth G. 601 . asbeir cadisin, Bürgschaft I § 53 . crich ína coisce guire noise ... adsuighe crích cadesin, Laws iv 142.24 . cf. ad-suide cadeissin, ZCP xvi 212.7 . indfine co .vii. firu dec: conranna [leg. —t ?] cadeissin finteda, Laws iv 284.7 .

3 pl.

A [cf. ni comalnatsom cid feissne recht, Wb. 20c22 ].

B imcomaircid na fāithe ele ... ┐ asbertatar cadissin: ticfa, etc. ZCP viii 312.32 . foíte días día thabairt ass ... fecsit cadesne for coí, LU 1773 . Cf. doforbartatar in dunat cadeissin, IT iii 239.145 .

(b) ref. to preceding infixed pron.:

? 1 s. B fritamgair céin, ACL iii 294 § 11 .

(c) ref. to suff. pron. 3 s. A gabsi cadessin abbaith `took himself as abbot' Thes. ii 242 ( Ardm. 18b1 ). But possibly the subj. of the verb is emphasized and the ex. belongs to II (a).

(d) in apposition to independent pron.

1 s.

A [cf. os me chene, Thes. ii 293.25 ].

3 s.

B [cf. laech uathmar ... folt dondchas fair, ossē lethgloir cadissin, TBC-I¹ 3302 (om. LL).

(e) after prep. pron.

1 pl. A is comadas duun chanisin, Thes. ii 246.4 (Camb. Hom.).

3 pl. A indib cadesin, Sg. 150b2 . ataat tuisil indib cadésin, 188a2 .

(f) after subst. preceded by poss.

1 s. A mu menma céin, Thes. ii 293.15 . im lín chéin ib. 21 . for mu mud cein, 294.4 .

3 s. B 'na mennat ceisni (: Feirtsi), Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1919 v 93 § 54 (an archaising form on pattern of cadessin, Ed.).

1 il

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 il or dil.ie/27239
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: iliu, hil, n-ili, il, lia, lia, il, ilága, il, il, il-

adj i (orig. u, GOI § 358 ). As subst. a p. iliu, O'Dav. 621. LL. 119b50 . Sg. form of adj. with pl. noun : nidat glain for n-adbai hil (: dil), SR 7996.

With a noun in pl. many, numerous: atá n-ili dána in spirto `that the Spirit's gifts are many,' Wb. 12a11 . it corp in boill-sin cit íli, 12a13 . arnaib réib ilib, 22a8 . inna leri ili gl. operas multas, Ml. 28c2 . os ní ili `we many', 43a6 . rugil (gl. nonnullo= rug-il `sehr viel'), ZCP vii 488 § 41 , cf. GOI § 366. co mmárbuidin martrae | naptar ili lochtae, Fél. March 18. fertae amrai ili | dogénatar airi, ib. Ep. 175. it ile imda mo anmandsa cheana, BDD² 554. ili insi Mod ... ili tonna mara : liä dāma Domnaill, Bruchst. i § 12 . bātar ili Cothraige | cetharthrebe dia fognad `many were there whom C. ... used to serve,' Thes. ii 309.3 . do flaithib ilib echtrandaib, Laws ii 308.17 . di each dec diamut ili sealbu `if they have belonged to various owners,' v 242.10 Comm. robdar úaite a n-éolaig ┐ robdar ile a n-anéolaich, Ériu iv 126.10 . fíad andrib ilib, LU 3902. ili ceanna, ūatte enech, ZCP viii 195 § 10. bid uaite bar n-airchisechtai, bidt ile bar námait, Alex. 223. go ro chaoininn m'ulca ile, Measgra D. 42.27 .

With a noun in sg. manifold, much, great: cosin taidbse il gl. cum multa ostensione, Ml. 30b11 . in tomais il .i. in toimseo truim (gl. multi ponderis), 20a21 . bith cen ṡeotu | arlicud il | ilar carat `much lending,' Tec. Corm. § 14.29 .

As subst. many, a multitude: tresa n-íccatar híli `through which many may be saved,' Wb. 27c20 . do ṡlund hile `to signify many,' Sg. 28b24 . ní derscaigi in comparit di hilib a cheneiuil feissin, 40a6 . a n-il gl. multum, Ml. 43d23 . aisnefimit uáiti do ilib dib `de multis pauca perstringemus,' Lat. Lives 45.7 . togaethfaid sochaide soifid iliu, LL 119b50 . gellfat-sa de fīad ile in the presence of many, ZCP x 41.22 . co ttangattar ili diabhal ina thimcheall, BNnÉ 6 § 19. tidhnacul mbīdh ... coemthach n-ile, ACL iii 296 § 41. fechtas for iliu oenfer `which one man wreaks upon many,' O'Dav. 621. ar ilib ... ┐ ní ar na huilib dóinib `pro multis .. non pro omnibus,' PH 5227. dú in ro marbhadh íle, AFM i 440.9 . cf. ile .i. iomad, no iolardha, O'Cl.

Equative: con bús lir bommanna ega, TBC-LL¹ 5949. comtar lir gainem mara ... a lleithchind ┐ a llethchloicne ..., RC iii 177.29 . For compar. : comtís lir a mmairb anda a mbí, TBC-LL¹ 6006. at lir turim thrá frassa na saiget past counting, LU 2212. With compar. ending for comparative : is liriu feoir no folt fidbuide `more numerous than ...,' Ir. Gl. p. 70 n . Compar. lia more, more numerous, greater: nabad lia diis no thriur `let it not be more than ...,' Wb. 13a4 . lia gl. plures, Sg. 41a9 . air robtar lia sidi ol mbatar maicc israhel, Ml. 123a8 . ce beth lin is lia do crichaib eturru `a greater number of territories,' Laws i 222.z Comm. lia ceasta canoine nā canoin, ocus lia aicned inā udaras, iii 32.8 Comm. at líu luibni fidbad fann | no ruibni rinndglan retglann, SR 7291. is lia indisi ┐ epirt a ndo ligdath doadbat `beyond telling,' Ériu ii 114 § 39. is lia turem tra ┐ aisneis ina mboí dí degmnáib and, LU 8416. ni ḟil nech is lia seóit ... andú-sa, TBC-LL¹ 59. níba lia in rí is taig andā-side `the king had not more people ...,' ZCP xii 272.30 . bid lia a mairb lais na hoirgne andáta a mbí, BDD² 801. longes ba liu andasaide, Cog. 228.14 . ar mhodh nach liadh da a gceannuibh ina da gceudfadhuibh (=quot capita, tot sententiae), Luc. Fid. 333.4 . iomdha fochuinn as a bfoil | fearg ag Chríosd re cloinn Ádhaimh | ... lia tobar na trócuire ` stronger ,' Dán Dé xxi 12. is lia ná soin daonnacht Dé greater , x 12 . am lia d'ḟios is d'ealadhain `I am richer in knowledge ...,' Content. xiv 10. Ír, ní raibhe laoch ba lia `no warrior was greater,' Keat. ii 747. With de : nocha liauite in biadh `the food is not the more plentiful,' Laws ii 28.17 Comm. is liate in da urlabra `the more lengthy,' Auraic. 635. indar leosom gach imat cruth bias fora ndee is liai-di a cumhachta, Marco P. § 152. liaide duine ag dul 'n-a teach | cor na gcreach ar Muire amach, DDána 21 § 16. lía assa lía more and more numerous: lia sa lia an t-aos ealodhna, Ériu v 52.10 . lia sa lia treablaid is teadhma, Dán Dé xii 2. cóir cungnamh as lia sa lia, DDána 34 § 9. lía assa chách more and more numerous: ┐ ni lia 'sa cach iad ┐ ni huaiti, YBL 85a23 . Superl. issē mac dian lia eōlas i nĒrind, Ériu viii 156.7 . ar an leirg bhus lia duine very numerous ?, DDána 24 § 8. corn lán as lia trócuire, A. Ó Dálaigh ix 1. fód as lia iasg ar abhann, Gleanings from Irish manuscripts 8 § 3 v.l. an tráth as teirce an fhéile | 's as lia lucht an toibhéime, L. Cl. A. B. 64.154 . lia toimhdeadh atá don fhior very many , 174.61 .

Adv. ind il greatly: multum .i. is ind il as ferr iudeus quam gentilis, Wb. 2a4 . With de : is lia de creitfess `the more ,' 23b7 .

Compds. il is most commonly compounded with plur. nouns, but may also be compounded with nouns of a collective or abstract character, e.g. il-chésad, il-chonách, il-ecor, il-ḟodlaidetu. ¤adbai many dwellings: dia n-ergnaib, dia n-iladbaib, SR 7264. ¤adbara many materials ? : ri secht nimi, rí talman, | ardruiri na n-iladbar, 7734 . ¤ág manifold combat, many fights: g. (? s. or p.) airm ilága , TBC-LL¹ 4105. ¤aicdi many materials: rasilsat i. adhamrai ann .i. nemaind Locha Lein, Anecd. ii 6.6 . ¤aicmi many races, many families: nicon fogail hilltuathai ┐ hilaicme fear talman, Alex. 236. ¤airdbe many slayings: bé dia mbiat ilardbe | eter Ulto erredaib, IT i 69.9 . ¤airm many weapons: dia n-ilarmib, SR 732. ¤anman many names: ilanman domber doib du(a)id 'many names which David gives to them', Études Celt. xl 65 ( Ml. 48c34 ​). ainmnigud oen folaid húa ilanmmanaib, Sg. 30a5 . ¤arda many heights: dor-riagat ilardae uisscib indberaib, BDD² 455. ¤átha many fords: for ilathaib Boinde, YBL 173b52 . m'oenur dam ar ilathaib, TBC-LL¹ 2336. co mensat (leg. memsat, Ed.) ort forsna ilathu, LU 6097. ¤baill many limbs: dorígeni dia corp ... ó ilballaib, Wb. 12a29 . ¤bélrae, ¤bérlai, ¤bérlada n. later m. many languages: is ferr precept oldaas labrad ilbéelre, 12d7 . ni labrátar uili ó ilbélrib, 12b22 . do fogluim na n-ilberla fon doman, Laws i 20.7 Comm. iar cumasc na n-ilbérlae `after the confusion of tongues,' Ériu iv 140.21 . eoin ... cantai ilcheolu i n-ilbelraib, ii 118 § 54 . áit ionar thiodhnuic Día ilbhérladha an domhain do Neamhrúadh, IGT Introd. 3.12 . ¤benna many horned animals: il-benda, Laws i 64.9 . ¤berta ` many burdens,' many tasks ?: gessa ┐ i. bítis for Coinculainn, RC xiv 398 § 1. ¤blassa see blas. ¤blátha many blossoms: forsnig inna hilblátha, Imr. Brain § 6. ¤blíadnai many years: ecmaing bátir ilblédni, § 62. demun oca himluad fri hil-bliadnu, PH 1990. ¤brecht(n)ugud great diversification, great variegation: hilbrectnugud retland roglan i n-aidchi réoid, TBC-LL¹ 5048. ilbrechtnugud cech datha inti, Acall. 5454 n. ilbrechtugud, 7168 . ¤brechtrad, ¤mrechtrad manifold variety: adiecta cona n-ilmrechtrud, Sg. 29b6 . hilbrectradh ndath n-éxamail na cathsciath, CCath. 1728. as lais tuccadh ilbrechtradh gacha datha i n-edighibh ar tús, AFM i 42.z . ¤bríathra many words: mrechtrad inna n-ilbriathar, Ml. 122d11 . ¤brugai (see mruig) g p. imtiagad breatha ilbruige `the judgments on the various farms vary,' Laws v 466.15 . ¤búada many victories, many outstanding qualities: dia n-ilbuadaib, SR 716. ra bátar ilbuada ilarda ... for Coinculaind, TBC-LL¹ 660. innisidh a iolbhuadha, DDána 67 § 23. ¤búaid great excellence ?: lat mac n-oebind co n-ilbúaid, SR 2864. ¤buidne many bands: na hilbuidni airridrici, TTebe 1444 . ¤chaingni many affairs, many troubles: ba mertnech Moisi ... fri hi., SR 4542. ¤chatha many battles: fri frithalim n-i., 5058 . ¤chathraig many cities: Sg. 13a2 . a n-ilchathrachaib tíre Iúda, PH 3675. ¤chelga many treacheries: a fhír-indilltech na n-il-chelg n-exsamail, 8174 . ¤chella many churches : et fundavit il-cella i nDáil Araidi, Lat. Lives 34.13 . ¤chenéle many kinds: ataat i. bérli isin biuth so, Wb. 12d4 . ¤chennadacha many provinces: do luid ri Eoganachta for creich ┐ innrudh ilchendadhach, YBL 1a16 . ¤chenna many heads: tolaib ilchend (of a beast), SR 882. ¤chéola, ¤chéol many melodies, many harmonies, manifold music: binnithir ilcheólu in domain ..., LU 2034. co srethaib ... ilchéolaib, SR 992. parrthus cona thairthib ┐ cona il-cheolaib, YBL 157a16 . binn leisna harcainglibh ilcēol na hēnlaithe, ZCP viii 199 § 5. seinn i., Studies 1919, 611 § 1 . ¤cherda many crafts, many accomplishments: batar hi. inganta leo, PH 889. go ráith bhfódsgoraigh na n-ilcheard n-éagsamhail, DDána 70 § 14. ioldanach .i. duine lan d'ealadhnaib no d'ilcheardaib, O'Cl. ¤chésad ` act of torturing in various ways' : go raibhe dá il-chéasadh ann (i.e. in Hell), TSh. 564. ¤chéta many hundreds: tríasna hilchéta blíedne, Imr. Brain § 65. co ruc il-chéta bó as, RC xvii 363.8 . ¤chethrai many cattle, cattle of various kinds: isin cumusg n-ilcethra `in the intermixture of various cattle,' Laws ii 4.y Comm. imtar imdai a n-i., SR 4662. ¤chíalla many meanings: na ilchialla asind óinrainn, Sg. 197a17 . o oin inna n-ilchial, 154a1 . ataat ilchialla isint sun ebraidiu, Ml. 37a10 . ¤chinéla many races: na hilltuatha ┐ na hilchinela, LB 122b39 . ¤chlessa many tricks: a ilcleasa neme ar indell aicci, TBC-LL¹ 3931 (Stowe). i n-árach a n-il-chleas `varied tricks,' TSh. 528. ¤choin many hounds: airm i mbiat i. géra, LU 2418. ¤chomarbas manifold heirship: can forbeir coimaithces ? A il-comarbus `from several heirs,' Laws iv 68.19 . ¤chomraic many encounters, many combats: nipa frithenech debtha hit ilchomraicib, LU 3495 (SC). ¤chonách : dochuaidh ilconach do Césair `manifold prosperity,' CCath. 2368. ¤chuir many turns ? many circles ? : línib hilchor (a cheville), SR 166 ¤chrícha many territories: i n-ilchrīchaib comadais, ACL iii 218 § 7. ¤dála many delays: a ben, ná bi ic hildalaib, SR 1698. ¤dána many gifts, many arts, many accomplishments ; sg. ¤dán varied skill, manifold science: nítat ildáni do óenfiur et ní óen dán do sochuidi `it is not many gifts to one man ...,' Wb. 21a16 . tormaigid eneclann du neoch il-dana du beith aigi, Laws v 108.16 Comm. In sg. : fairenn cach ildāna of every varied gift, Ériu iv 163.14 . ? used as adj. iar n-eladnaib ildánaib, SR 2226. ¤dath, ¤datha sg. and pl. many hues, varied colouring: Emne co n-ildath féle, Imr. Brain § 60. co mbrechtaib cach illdatha, SR 56. Loch Riach ..., illatha de gach n-aenlā dath gorm, dath buidhe ..., ZCP v 24 § 14. Attrib. gen.: i mbeirtibh óir ioldatha, TD 7 § 26. ¤dechraib d p. many differences: isnaib i., Ml. 125d7 . ¤delba many shapes, varied shapes: rí rodasgni ... i. na n-anmanna, SR 7270. ¤dírib d p. many fines, many compensations: slan enech ecmaing in il-dirib i n-ordaib il-grad ecsi, YBL 179b13 . ¤draídechta varied enchantments: na hildraidhechta ┐ na hileicne ro imerset draithe Cormaic orro, RC xliii 58 § 58. ¤dúili many elements: trí accomol n-ildule `through the conjunction of many elements,' Ml. 145c4 . ro chainset na hilldúile, SR 7760. ¤échta many slayings, many slain: re himad na n-ar ocus na n-ilécht, MR 240.8 . āra ┐ ilēchta, TTebe 2856 . ¤ecor much decoration, much inlay: etaigi caema ... arna n-ilecur do snath alaind orda, TTebe 2214 . Attrib. gen.: ruithean na cathbarr n-orda n-ileagair, 917 . cloidim cru[a]idgher ... ┐ se ordhuirn ilegair, Aen. 1955. ¤ḟaebair, ¤ḟaebra many weapons, varied weapons: na hairm ┐ na hilḟaebair, Acall. 2031. ní geibhtis renna ná ilfaebra he, RC xliii 46 § 45. gé bhrisim ... beirn le beagán iolfhaobhar, DDána 82 § 2. Metaph. armtha lé hiol-fhaobhraibh na haithrighe, TSh. 10816. ¤ḟodla many divisions: nos deocraigitt i n-ecsamlus na n-ilfodal fil forsin mbairdni, IT iii 6 § 4. ¤ḟodlaidetu manifold division: cid i n-airecar ilfodlaidetu forsin cetardu sin (viz. na cethri primfodla filed forsin bardni), IT iii 6 § 4. ¤ḟolta : fri slond n-ilḟolad `to signify many substances,' Sg. 28b22 . ¤ḟuirech much delay: ní bad muilleóir duit fer ilḟuirig `a man of much delay,' Tec. Corm. § 34.5 . níbat ilḟurig im írad n-echtrand `do not often delay ...,' SCC 272 (= LU 3471 ). ¤gáiri, later ¤gáirthe, ¤gár(r)tha many cries, much clamour: a cuirdís óic ilgáire, Acall. 3094. fodord mor ... ┐ ilgaire troma fergacha, LB 151b37 . iolgháirthe gan méid do mhair, IGT Decl. ex. 1983. iolgháirthe badhbh is brainéan, TD § 31. iolach ┐ iolgarrtha, RC xxix 122.7 . ¤gáirdes much joy: cūis ilghairdis, Fl. Earls 238.10 . ¤gáirdiugud much rejoicing or merrymaking: ticdiss ... d'ilghairdiugadh inntinne dōip `to make amusement for them,' 58.15 . ¤gessa many spells, many enchantments: mar mhná na n-ilgheas oile, TD 1 § 17. ó do imdhigh a n-ilgheasa `their great prerogatives,' Aithd. D. 45 § 3. ar eól amhra i n-ilgheasaibh, Hackett l 8. ¤géill many hostages: a p. huaire do-foxla ilgiallu, Laws iv 330.4 Comm. ¤glésa many arrangements, manifold equipment: im thalmain co n-ilglessaib, SR 90. re hil-gles a hoirfideach, MR 102.17 . ¤gné many kinds, varied appearances: bieit i. indi són, Ml. 97a1 . Lucifer linib hilgne, SR 1690. nocon fetarsa indat ilgnae do-chuirither in folt fair fo indat trí fuilt failet fair, BDD² 1125. ¤gníma many deeds, various deeds: nicond ailet il-gnima `various works,' Laws v 414.x . a ghríobh na n-ilghníomh n-orrdhuirc, DDána 92 § 40. soidheach il-ghníomh n-amhghlan inn, Aithd. D. 73 § 3. tar eis na n-ilgnim sin do denum, Stair Erc. 1223. ¤gotha : ba uisse ce notectad ilgotha ` many sounds ,' Sg. 197a11 . ¤grád(a) many orders, many grades: ni do thoimsib na n-hilgrad, SR 714. cona ecalsib i n-ilgradaib, ZCP iii 223 § 4. ¤gréssa many ornamentations, many illuminations (of a MS.) : in sgribenn n-amrae ... cona ilgresaib aillib examlaib, Fél. 90.6 . ¤imad very many, a great quantity: maille re hiolimad dona págánachaibh, Ériu v 192.530 . ioliomad édála léo, 194.564 . fer saidhbhir ... co n-ílimad gacha maithusa, RC x 187.14 . Ionas, Iob, ┐ il-iomad oile, TSh. 8434. go n-ilimat bād ┐ ethor, Fl. Earls 86.12 . ¤innéirge : ilinnerghe ineragar o ecluis bunuidh `many desertions are made from an original church,' Laws iii 64.20 . ¤intliuchta : sluindes ilsésu ┐ ilintliuchtu `that signifies many senses and many meanings,' Ml. 37a10 . ¤lanna many blades: ar fich arm il-land ngorm, LL 43a13 . ¤liuna a p. : arna tormastar fort iliuna len lighe `lest there be added to thy numerous sorrows the sorrows of a sick bed,' Ériu viii 173.30 . ¤litre many letters: ar it lia sillaba o illitrib quam ó oinlitrib, Sg. 71a18 . ? ¤lúamand : ? roīr dam ... deich tallima taroeda il-luamand, Ériu ii 28.31 . ¤luicc many places: dorata i. dáib, Trip.² 1185. ¤maicni many tribes, many families: frisna iltuathaib ┐ frisna ilmacnib ┐ frisna ilmílib, TBC-LL¹ 453. ¤maín(e) much wealth, many treasures, many gifts: ladiri ocus ilmuine mic Dé `manifold powers,' Laws i 22.22 Comm. ar id ilmaoine moighter comarbaib, iv 266.24 . fuath lais ór is iolmhaoine, Aithd. D. 20 § 21. do bhronn d'filidh ilmhaíne, IGT Decl. ex. 1173. Fig. (see maín (c)) ; im ṡeirc Dé ba hilmain, Fél. Feb. 11. taimthiu Ióib ilmain (? in app. to taimthiu), June 30 . ¤mara many seas: tíre is iolmhara eadroinn, Studies 1918, 453 § 15 . ¤mairb many dead: ro-thóduscastar hil-marbu ... lais a bás, PH 3747. ¤míana many desires: cin nach n-uiressbhaidh dia n-ilmianaib, Stair Erc. 624. ¤míla many animals: Adam, sruth is ilmílaib, SR 1642. cona huilib hilmilaib, 1632 . ¤míli many thousands: i fil ilmíli brecc mban, Immrama 11 § 19. bíaid ... cath for ilmilib, IT i 131.39 . cid oenfer do hilmilib, SR 4024. co ruca hilmíle lett dochum Nime, Lat. Lives 82.11 . do caithedar ... ilmilti do liagaibh lámh, Stair Erc. 1549. ¤mílid many soldiers: in coica curad ... ┐ na hilmili[d], TTebe 3259 . ¤mná many women: cell a ndentar imot adaltrais ri hilmnaib, Laws v 122.6 Comm. ¤moda many ways: roptar cosmaile hó ilmodaib .i. Moyṡi ocus Pátraic, Trip. ii 474.20 . ¤nathraig many snakes, various snakes: co n-immud a hillnathrach, SR 4684. ¤phairti many parts: cor bloidh in cathbarr a n-ilpairtibh, Stair Erc. 354. ¤phectha many sins: acht ro pennead a n-ilpeacta, Laws v 448.2 . a lloss ilpeacadh cloinde n-Adaim, Leb. Gab.(i) 8.11 . ¤phersain multiplicity of persons, many persons: ní tre ilpersa sed per filium dei (? leg. ¤persana, Edd.), Wb. 32b2 . ¤phíana many pains, varied pains: coro innithmigtís hiffer[n]d cona ilphíanaib, LU 1960. ag ingheilt ar il-phianaibh ifrinn cropping the varied pains of hell, TSh. 1963. ¤phíanad act of torturing in many ways: tuc co port Rig da riagad | na hiuidail, da n-il-pianad, Metr. Dinds. iii 416.34 . dá il-phianadh go síordhaidhe, TSh. 9165. pl. varied tortures: imat ilpianad itfrinn, RC xxviii 320 § 37. ¤phíasta, ¤phésti many or varied beasts, many reptiles: eisc ┐ ilpiasta ichtair in aiceoin, Ériu v 20.12 . no-chodlad a oenur eter na hilphiasta ┐ ni erchoitigitis do, PH 875. tearc ann do na hilphiastaibh, DDána 112 § 16. ¤phíast, ¤phéist (= oillphíast, see s.v. oll) s. monster, serpent: an dubh-loch ... irraibhe an il-péist fraochdha, BNnÉ 135. iiib. 14 . ilphiast 'na hinbhearaibh, TD 13 § 10. ¤ranna many parts, various parts: comsuidiugud o ilrannaib uil composition from all the many parts, O'Mulc. 100. ¤ratha many graces, many blessings: is liriu feor nó folt fidbaide i. in marbnaid noeb siu, ZCP iii 225.4 . ¤rechta many shapes: is de atberthe in siriti ara met no delbad i n-ilrechtaib, LU 9009 (FB). domrat ... rí na nuli i n-ilrechtaib, 1290 . ar a immat d'ilr[e]achtaib a téiged sí, Acall. 2402. bean bhroit úaine a n-ilreachduibh, IGT Decl. ex. 1587. ¤rechta ? : fiu a heire éara dá hilreachtaibh, DDána 83 § 1. ¤ríana many paths, many ways: a n-ifurnd na n-ilrīan, ACL iii 216 § 3. échta ┐ ilriana in ármhuighe sin, MR 318.30 . ilriana urbadacha eli ic fostad ... fhoirne dá n-ógbhadhaibh, 316.28 . many floods, many seas ? : atraachtatar a róin ... ┐ a chenandain ┐ i. in mara, CRR § 10. ¤rind many stars: firmiminti na n-i., SR 274. ¤rith manifold course ?, many courses ? : srethaib ilretha rétlann, SR 718. ¤rúna, ¤rún many mysteries, varied mystery ? : ri rooirdnistar mac Nún | Essu, co n-immud hilrún, SR 5006. d'aisneis ocus d'ḟiadhnughadh aignidh ocus illruine na n-oghbriathar, MR 92.1 . ¤ṡailm many psalms: it ilsailm hi tadbadar foisitiu a pecthae do duaid, Ml. 32b18 . ¤ṡésu a p. : sluindes ilsésu ┐ ilintliuchtu `that signifies many senses ...,' 37a10 . ¤ṡelb many possessions: ag nach fuil gradh ilṡelba, Imr. Brain 88.5 . ¤ṡenman : cosmulius tuib arataat ilsenman `many sounds,' Wb. 12c46 . ¤ṡétchi many wives: adellad ilsétchi `that frequent various mates,' Mon. Tall. 132.1 . ¤ṡlúaig many hosts : a p. inna ilslogu, Tur. 110a . is mortcend do ilslúagaib, LU 8958 (FB). ¤tegdaisi many dwellings: ... catrach ... ┐ iltegdaisi i medon indde, Hib. Min. 221. ¤tintudai many translations: ataat i. leu cene, Ml. 3a14 . ¤tíre many lands: for túathaib, for iltírib, SR 6620. ¤toimtin many meanings: de dliguth inna n-iltoimdden, Sg. 26b7 . ¤tóisigh : dorochratar i. rothréna di cechtar na dá ṡlóg, TTr.² 1120. ¤treba : etir iltrebu `between many tribes,' Ml. 37d10 . ¤túatha many peoples: for hinnilib na n-iltuath, SR 2346. fo hill-tuathaib in domain, PH 6452. na hilltuatha ┐ na hil-chinela, LB 122b39 . ¤uisci many waters: amal tondgur n-iluisce, SR 608.

With adjj. It has been found convenient to take together adjj. compounded with il- and those derived from compound nouns of which il- is the first element, e.g. ilchenélach, ilainglech, ilmíanach, as it is not always easy to distinguish between them. There seems to be a distinction in meaning. il-, in the true compounds, having for the most part merely intensive force, e.g. il-bind, il-chrúaid, il-gránda. With those adjj. which clearly derive from compound nouns no hyphen is used here. ¤adbal very vast: ō Muir Icht álaind iladhbail, ACL iii 231.21 . ilainglech surrounded by many angels: co ríg n-il-ainglech n-ūasal, Thes. ii 300.8 ( Hy. i ). ilarmach many-weaponed: ger'bo raith óc i., Acall. 2741. ¤bind of manifold sweetness: sluag ... i., ilchaem, ... co claiscedal aingel, YBL 163b17 . ¤blasta very sweet, very tasty: cruithnecht i., LB 139a52 . ¤bras very eager, very quick: a bil-[l]aburthach ilchlesach i., PH 8181. a il-geranach ... il-ceolach i., YBL 162a20 . ¤brecc much variegated, very spotted: inar do s[h]rōll ilbreac ingantach, ML² 1471. ba hi in nirmamint ilbrec, Cog. 178.19 . forsna sciathaib ilbrecca, LB 152b31 . na haquili ... ilbreca `the speckled eagles,' CCath. 4927. ua (= ba) hilbrecca illathach na moigi ... risna cethaib comgela cubair, TTebe 2340 . As subst. : díallait órdha co n-ilbrecaibh, Imr. Brain 68.21 . ¤brechtach much variegated: sciath oirderc ilbreachtach, TTebe 3576 . ¤brén very foul: slog mor dub dorcha i. ... do démnaib, PH 8101. hi tégdais ... tenntige il-brein, 8297 . ¤brethach of many judgments, critical: an fhlaith ríoghdha il-bhreithech, RC xliii 280.z . il-geranach imchosaitech i., PH 8180. ¤bruthach very fiery: slog ... i. ... do démnaib, 8102 . ¤búadach of many victories, having many outstanding qualities: a nda sciath ailli ilbuadhacha, CF 295. conaca in tiprait ... n-ilbúadaig `endowed with many virtues,' Ériu iv 100 § 34. clanna ilbuadacha na hErend, Cog. 52.2 . gluaisis mac Ruaidhrí an ruathair iolbhuadhaigh, Aithd. D. 4 § 3. As an epithet : Oscar ilbuadhach, CF 786. ¤chaem very beautiful, possessing many charms: sluag ... il-bind i., YBL 163b17 . ilchenélach of many races: na hAdam-clainni ilcenealaichi, Cog. 166.6 . ilchenélaigthe peopled with many races: clanna ... na hErend ilcenelaigthi, 52.2 . ilchennach many-headed: in pheist irdairc úathmar i., LU 2429. pesti ... ilchennacha, RC xxviii 318 § 36. ¤chéolach of many melodies ?, very melodious ? : fail coll n-écsi n-ilcheólach ` music-haunted ,' Metr. Dinds. iii 286.24 . i nÉirinn ilcheolaigh, Aithd. D. 4 § 5. ag éisteacht ré hoirfideadh il-cheólach, TSh. 10916. uttering many complaints ? : a ilgeranach ... ilceolach ilbras, YBL 162a20 . ilchéolta : in fhailti ilceolta `many melodied,' RC xxviii 322 § 49. ilcherdach skilled in many crafts, very skilful, skilfully made: ionann iomorro ioldánach is ilcheardach, Keat. iii 666. ón mhúr ḟoirbhthe ilcheardach, TD 16 § 40. ilchessach : glic an éigse ilcheasach `of many problems,' Dánfhocail § 66. ilchíallda of many meanings: focail i., Content. v 43. ilchlannach having many descendants, having many divisions: clann .i. fodhail, ut est ro clui aicme ilclannaigh (v.l. ilclannach) `a tribe of many subdivisions languished,' O'Dav. 350 (? read he overthrew a tribe ...). go hAdhamh ... n-ilchlannach, MR 98.9 . possessed of many qualities or qualifications ? : iar n-urd eolais ilclandaigh, Leb. Cert. 236.7 . is ferr aicni ilclannach as a mbuaidh bretha berdar .i. asa mberar in brethemnus co buadach, O'Curry 2276 (< Eg. 88, fo. 20c ) = aiccnedh i., O'Curry 1610 (< 23 Q 6, p. 5b ). ilchlessach of many feats, of many tricks: an fear fionn iolchlesach, TBC-LL¹ 5466 (Stowe). Aengus ilclessach, Acall. 2732. a bil-[l]aburthach il-chlesach il-bras, PH 8181. ag aimsighthibh ilchleasacha an aidhbhirseóra, TSh. 10489. ¤chlóen very wily ? : as subst. : co Sencha mac Coscra, co ilcloin, Ériu i 116 § 5. ¤chodach ? : i. airchetail, IT iii 105 § 208. ¤chonda very wolfish, very fierce: cāinḟāel i. `ein ... vielgrimmer Wolf,' Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 25 (a) . ¤chossáitech very quarrelsome, much given to complaining: a ilgeranach, ilchossaidech, YBL 162a19 . ¤chráibthech very pious: betha Fharannain iolcraibtigh, Anecd. iii 1.5 . ¤chréchtnaighthe having many wounds ?, very badly wounded ?: cuirp ... ilcrechtnaigthe, LB 207a16 . dofuit ... M. ilcrectnaigte la hAicil, BB 439a21 . ¤chrothach very shapely ?, of many shapes, of varied beauty ? : ba hingen cumachtach i. hi (of Caer Ibormeith who had power to change into a bird), Aisl. Óeng. 19.7 . i mmag n-Árach n-i., Metr. Dinds. iv 28.46 . na heoin ailli il-chrothacha, KMMisc. 316.15 . i [bh]feidhm eolais ilchrothaigh, Leb. Cert. 236.3 . A common epithet of Juno : Iunaind ilcrothach, TTebe 2621 . in t-anmann ilchrothach-side (of Juno transforming herself into many shapes of animals) `this many-formed animal,' Stair Erc. 87. in rigan og alaind i., 929 . ¤chrúaid very hard: iombualadh ... iolchrúaidh, Atlantis iv 212.y . ildánach very gifted, skilled, accomplished, having many gifts or accomplishments (frequently used as subst.) : is amlaid bái in Dond Cualgni dubdond diumsach...illanach, IT iii 245.77 . ioldanach .i. duine lan d'ealadhnaibh no d'ilcheardaibh, O'Cl. Of the heads of crafts appointed by the ollamhs at the Feis of Eamhain ┐ the Feis of Cruachan to preside over the industries of the country : do gairthí ioldánaigh dona saoithibh-se. Ionann ... ioldánach is ilcheardach, Keat. iii 664 - 6 . tráighfidh muir ... go hiongantach ioldánach, DDána 29 § 6. fear ... ioldanach i lLaidin, AFM v 1584.9 . ioldánach `a jack-of-all-trades ,' O'R. As sobriquet of Lugh Lámhfada (cf. Samildánach) : ó armmuib in Illdhánaigh, Anecd. i 31 § 49. Superl. amail is illdanaighe dofuaramar according to the most expert knowledge we could find, BB 38a9 . ildathach many-coloured: co n-étaigib ildathachaib, TBFr. 36. in tuaig nimi n-illdathaig, SR 2628. cóeca ingen [n-]illdathach `arrayed in many colours,' SCC 803 (= LU 3980 ). meirgi ard ill-dathach, ML² 1181. barr i. in talman, O'Mulc. 201. a hearr iol-dathach (of a peacock), TSh. 2352. Name of a mythical country , as ā, f. : techt in-Ildathig i.e. nomen regionis, Imr. Brain § 24. ildathaigthe many-coloured: meic ... Israeil na thErend illataigthi, Cog. 160.18 . ildelbach having many shapes, adorned with many figures; beautiful ? : Emne i. fri rían, Imr. Brain § 19. amal cach scrin n-ildelbaig, SR 4212. issind dluim chruind ildealbhach `in the round, multiform cloud,' Ériu ii 108 § 22. in maccamh óg ildealbach, Acall. 1680. lēine il-delbach ōr-s[h]náith, ML² 1690. treabh na n-earradh n-ildealbhach `with varied vestures,' TD 21 § 26. saorchorn óir ildealbhaigh `of variously wrought gold,' 31 § 7 . ildelbda many-shaped: hilerda na n-anman n-án | is na n-i. ndermár creatures of varied shape, SR 310. ildionnach many-hued ? : don mhoigh eangbhláith i. (: Teamhrach), TD 24 § 37. ildírech : beas ill-danach, bid ill-direach he will have many fines (of one to whom because his honour-price is high, large fines are due for injury suffered), Laws v 108.12 . Aurard ilgradhach ildanach ildirech, Anecd. ii 65.6 . ¤ecairthe much adorned, adorned in various ways: cathbarr ... d'or alaind ilecairthi, TTebe 3205 . ilḟaebrach armed with many weapons: don druing fhuiligh iolfhaobhruigh ` sharp-sworded ,' Aithd. D. 3 § 17. ilḟoclach containing many words: in gach aen ebert ilfoclaig, Auraic. 1558. ilgáirdeach agreeable, pleasing: ru-s-taispein ē fēin go supailceach ilghairdeach dōib, Fl. Earls 38.x . ba lūthghāireach ilgairdeach lasin rīg ..., 222.25 . ¤geránach : a il-geranach `[thou soul] full of complaints,' PH 8180. ilgessach possessing many powers or enchantments: an líg n-ilgheasaigh n-áluinn ` many-virtued ,' TD 22a § 41 . ilgnéthech of many kinds: ilghnétheach, iolradh, eugsamhla ` Divers ,' Eg. Gl. 416. ilgnímach skilled in the performance of many deeds: uair nirb óc, rop i., Metr. Dinds. iii 242.12 . ind Aige ḟíal i., ii 66.8 . ilgnúisech ? : firmarius (read formarius) .i. ilghnuiseach ` many faced ,' Auraic. 811. ilgonach many-wounding: ardcomrac aigmeil i., CF 666. ilgothach many-voiced: re haltrom én [n]-ilgothach, Ériu i 39 § 3. ¤grádach very distinguished: Aurard ilgradhach ildanach ildirech, Anecd. ii 65.6 . As an epithet : Eicsi il-gradhach inghen Dána, 50.16 . ¤gránda very hideous, very ugly: led dhoirr n-iolghránna n-aidhbhsigh, Content. xxii 19 n . ilgrésach adorned with much ornamental work: chóig imlenda āilli ilgrēsacha `variously wrought,' Fianaig. 58.22 . fā Bera uasail ilghrēsaigh of varied accomplishments, ML² 578. ¤imda very numerous, manifold: ciarsat ailimda a clanna, Cog. 52.1 . deacair foghnamh do thoil dá thighearna | foghnamh iliomdha soin ..., Studies 1932, 140 § 1 . ilmaínech very wealthy, possessing varied treasures: Uisnech álainn iolmhaoinech, ZCP viii 221 § 44. don árus fhairsing ... iol-mhaoineach, TSh. 2729. ¤míanach very covetous: ní bad rannaire duit fer i. `a man of many desires,' Tec. Corm. § 34.4 . ¤níamach very splendid, very bright: na n-edaighi n-ilniamach, Stair Erc. 224. ilphíastach abounding in monsters: ar muir úathmuir ilpíastaigh, Anecd. i 32 § 57. glend aigméil, ilpiastach, uathmar, BNnÉ 131.17 . i gcarcair il-phiastaigh ifrinn, TSh. 802. goibél úathmhar ilphíasdach, IGT Decl. ex. 933. ¤rathach abounding in grace: it riched ilrathach, Fél. Ep. 466. ¤rechtach many-formed ? ; very frenzied ? : is i. in tí 'sa tuarascbáil, MU² 635. is and so cétríastartha im Choin Culaind co nderna úathbásách n-i. n-ingantach ... de, LU 6443. do-rinne fuath n-i. n-anaithnid de, Comp. CC 102.17 . To a woman who had changed appearance : is ilreachtach sin, a bean, ol in mac, RC xxiv 200 § 15. i Ráith ilreachtaigh Eochuill, TD 40 § 21. ilríanach : san éigse il-rianaigh `in the mazy land of poesy,' Content. xxii 14. ¤ṡínach with much bad-weather: gamh ilṡíonach, gaethach ` changeable ,' AFM ii 1100.12 . ¤tairthech very productive, very fertile: morthír ... iltairthech, SR 4702. ¤tríathach very lordly, very princely: mac Edlicon iltríathaig (v.l. imtriathaich) `head of many chiefs,' Metr. Dinds. iii 276.6 .

2 ? imguin:

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 ? imguin: or dil.ie/27596

ind ba ferr a comaitecht ocus a n-i.¤ ocus tuidecht dóib dochum a tíre oldaas a tuitim la náimtiu, IT i 75.7 .

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