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1 aire

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 aire or dil.ie/1883

n [] f. See Lochlann ii 221-2 .

(a) As vn. act of guarding, watching over, tending, caring for: a.¤ inna aithche huile gl. uigelando, Ml. 95d10 . ara mbethe ico n-airi co llocharnnaib (of guarding relics), Trip.² 2828 . mo arise duib innocht olse fri triar caém dia muntir . . . is amluid . . . robatar ocond a.¤ you guard me tonight, LL 282a36 . ba marb-sa da iṅgnais de / cen co ti-sium dam a.¤ , to tend me, TFerbe 485 . roḟitir Cormac ord n-a.¤ (na ha.¤, v.l.) the order of the watch, Ériu iii 137.55 . are in puirt na tora tascur don lir, Laws i 128.12 Comm. tú liaigh na hanma d'a.¤ , Dán Dé vii 20 . Of `waking' the dead: clérich H. dollotar d'airi P., Thes. ii 320.3 (Hy. ii). batar ic airi in chuirp isna aidchib, Trip.² 3008 . baí . . . acc a.¤ na ccorp co nonóir, AFM ii 780.2 . airet robatur sruithi E. ica a.¤ , Lism. L. 636 . Note also: a.¤ (.i. grādh nó troscud) na sanct ina fēil (B. na f.), ZCP v 486 § 9 . In hostile sense looking out for (in order to attack): do bhiodhbha is é t'fhear faire / . . . / an t-olc reimhe is é ar th'a.¤ on the look-out for you, DDána 10.8 . na cóig námhaid do ní ar gclodh / . . . / a n-a.¤ nó go ndeach dhíom / bíodh faire ar an dteach i dtám until I cease to look out for them (i.e. the five senses), Dán Dé ix 7 .

(b) notice, heed, attention: dobéer desemmrecht dúib . . . frissacomricfea far n-a.¤ `I will now give you an example which your attention will attain to', Wb. 12c35 . connach cuiread as a airi cathuchud na T., and he could not put the fighting out of his mind, TTebe 1257 . tóghbaidh sé a n-a.¤ dona neithibh saoghalta it takes their mind off earthly things, TSh. 9272 .

Used in a large variety of idioms with verbs and prepositions.

(c) With prec. prep. in sét atá form' a.¤ , `the path on which I am intent', Ériu vi 115.3 . ní suan fír baoith boi ar mh'a.¤ `that I was bent on', Mart. Don. Dec. 4 . bith ar th'a.¤ take heed, Ériu iii 145 § 24 . is aithnid damh-sa créd ata ar h'aire `I know what is in thy thought', ZCP vi 58.24 . ní beag do thír é ar a ha.¤ , TD 29.4 . is edh sin . . . tuccadh ar mh'aire-si gurbho gillae amhulcach ócc tusa, Irish Texts iii 15.9 . With do-cuirethar: doralus ar m'airi / gréschi occa ṅguidi, Fél. Prol. 15 . oebind na tarla ar m'a.¤ , LL 210a19 . is trén tárla ar a airi strongly was his attention engaged, Hy Fiach. 210 . diongna an ní tharla ar th'a.¤ `strange is the task you undertake', Content. xiv 4 . do-beir x do a.¤ pays attention to x, heeds x: is tabartha do airi . . . indus in cheneōil cosa tīagam, TBC-I¹ 327 . ní rabi d'esbaid . . . ar duni . . . ríam a ra tucad da ari acht co facced R. that he would heed, MU² 701 . tabrad cách dia airi co ticfa bráth, LU 2495 . in tan nach tabrai dot airi in senoir Anachis . . . dobeth isin gabad atait, Aen. 570 . tan nā taibret dia n-a.¤ / na pīana . . ., Ériu iii 29 § 2 . tabhair dot a.¤ . . . nách ccuirfe aonchuid don choimhthionól ad leith guarded, Desid. 6483 . tabhair dot airi . . . nách drochumhla atá agat mirad, 1971 . an dtabhair Aodh dá a.¤? does A. pay heed to? TD 4.36 . tug th'a.¤ nach breith le báidh / do thagra féin ar Niall náir, Content. iv 2 . Note also: antar frim a.¤ co n-accar in coimriti in fer isind airide, ZCP viii 120.16 . ? fáilte ni thaet imm a.¤ , LL 261a40 ( IT i 79 ).

(d) With follg. prepp. With DI: do chloinn dochoidh a n-a.¤ they had given up hope of children, DDána 27a. 10 . With DO: masa th'airi téit don brut . . . rot fia if your mind is set on the mantle, LU 3112 . mairg a.¤ do chuaid don gus alas that attention was paid to the fierce advice(?), MR 14.23 . do bhéar-sa a.¤ dhuid-se / tar cheann Torna san troid-se `on behalf of T. I will face you', Content. vi 2 . With FOR (AR): roloisc[s]et a mbar(a)ca . . . conapedh a n-a.¤ for teiched `so that they should not think of retreating', RC xii 58 § 9 . dá mbeith a n-a.¤ oram if they heeded me, Dán Dé xxv 10 . ní bí a.¤ ac lucht an oilein sin ar raed ar bith acht ar chogad `the folk of that island care for nothing . . .', Maund. 168 . od conncatar goill a.¤ cenél C. for an marcsluaigh `when the English saw that the attention of C. was directed towards the cavalry', AFM iii 320.y . bídh a.¤ mhór agom orra I take great care of them, Desid. 6356 . With prec. do-cuirethar: is air dorala a a.¤ on this his mind became set, RC xxxvii 348 § 57 . is í sin aimser a tarrla a.¤ ríg na hE. ar fad aontuma a ingine, ML² 492 . ón lá tarrla ar n-airi air `as long as we can remember', Ériu iv 220 § 34 . With FRI: cóir are re dīgail Dé it is right to beware of God's vengeance, BColm. 100.5 . bíd th'a.¤ frisin lá atbél `keep watch for the day of my death', Metr. Dinds. iii 212.37 . ó nach raib a n-a.¤ re himgabáil a dtáisig for they had no intention of . . . Caithr. Thoirdh. 40.5 . amhail na biadh a a.¤ fri a niarmhóireacht itir `as though he had no intention of pursuing them', AFM v 1852.11 . a fhiarfaige dé an roibe sa baili enní re roibe a a.¤ no suil aige `anything that he liked', L. Chl. S. 44.1 . t'a.¤ rum, a rí na mbreath `list to me', Aithd. D. 51.11 . ar n-aireine re hiath Cuinn / ag triath dhaighfhine Dhomhnuill `my thought of Conn's land belonging in future time to Mac D.'s brave host', 29.15 . With prec. téit: na dechaidh a hairi re commamdacht uad (she said) that her mind was not turned to wedlock with him, CCath. 1150 . dochoidh . . . cidh mh'airi-si m'oenar ria boin I had set my mind on a cow all for myself, Lism. L. 1582 . = imm boin, Three Hom. 78.13 . úair ní th-ari-siu téit ria since it is no concern of yours, Ériu i 134.4 . ní dechaidh a hairi-si fri feall furri do Ænias she did not expect that deception would be practised on her by A., Aen. 788 . ní mó téit m'a.¤-si rem' comfurtacht duid nor have I any hope that you will help me, ZCP vi 64.23 . With I N-: admhaim go dtéid mh'a.¤ inn / gach ní ad-chím 's ad-chluinim, DDána 60.24 . tuc a a.¤ 'sin ningin, ZCP viii 268 § 45 . With IMM: dochuaid . . . cid m'a.¤ si m'oenar imm boin I had set my heart on having a cow all for myself, Three Hom. 78.13 = fria boin, Lism. L. 1582 . ro bo lughaide a n-a.¤ . . . fá fhaillidhe in comuill `they less than ever were inclined to fail in execution', etc., Caithr. Thoirdh. 103.y .

(e) As interj. look, take care: are, in gai-se for Bude, ol C. LU 5798 ( TBC-I¹ 1326 ). th'a.¤ chugat, a Uí L. look out , Maguires of F. 21 .

Later faire q.v.

1 al

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 al or dil.ie/2852

Forms: ol, oll, all, ala, allae

Also ol, prep. folld. by accus. Earliest form presumably oll, later all, GOI § 825 . See also KZ xliv 375 , Ériu ii 87 - 8 . Also written ala, etc. Follg. mutation doubtful, see Celtica v 98 f. Appar. with demonstr. in olse , ibid. 95 ff. , see 6 ol. See also olṡuide, 1 suide. With suff. pron. 3 s. n. allae, see separate article.

Beyond. Cf. ind-oll gl. ultra, Sg. 220a6 (earlier form of innonn? Cf. GOI § 825 ). a.¤ gl. ultra (definitum), 217b14 . cath na Luacrai all Maig (sic) Slecht, ZCP xx 222.27 . midtir oim fri uatha almna almaca (almnai almacu v.l.) (rhet.), ZCP viii 565.1 ( Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 57 ). mairg d'Ulltaib madh ala Bóinn beid, Ériu xiii 20.5 (leg. al B., Celtica vi 226 ). ránic axalu la arbriu archangliu, LU 687 (ACC) to be read: roānic axal / ul(a) airbriu, Celtica vi 243 n.5 . ? crion cách ala methus melctheme, Ériu xiii 20.4 . Cf. p. 220 and O'Dav. 1228 . Perh. also (written ala) in the formulae in Irish Texts iv 14-15 , e.g. fir chometa co ala ait ochtmad, etc. (cf. 1 aile?). In etymological explanations: Almu .i. almóin .i. fri moin aniar, RC xv 308 . allaid .i. al-fid .i. ala[i] ri fid (sic leg.) on the other side of the wood, Corm. Y 298 . mag alcuing ... ar cuing a da cich dar derc a lened ... ┐ is friss conerbart mag alcuing, ZCP iii 245 § 52 (Tochm. Emire) (cf. alchaing).

Obsolescent even in O. Ir. period, and somet. confused with other prepp. For dar in: ac toidecht dam all muir móir, Ériu ii 88.4 = dar muir, Anecd. i 26 § 15 . ? For ar in n. loc. Síd al (ar, fer) Femen (-in, -un), Heldensage 62 etc. Sid al Femin, ZCP iii 16.2 . Note also leim alboilcc .i. suainem tar blái foa ndichet carpat nó léim dar ais dond aroid for rith, O'Mulc. 759 . See bolg.

For use as conjunction see 2 and 3 ol.

1 apa

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 apa or dil.ie/3855

Forms: apae

vn. of *ad-ben, see LEIA Cf. also Celtica i 337 § 6 . Orig. apae io, n. Later m. an t-aba, Bard. Synt. Tr. 17.16 . reason, cause: cid uma bfuilti dubach ? . . . a aba ┐ a adhbar againn, Acall. 963 . in t-aba ó ccantar Ceilbe, Metr. Dinds. iii 54.16 . cid són ar M. fail a morabba (damna v.l.) dam, TBC-LL¹ 149 . fail a mór abba ám dóibsium . . . ciarsat . . . torsig, LL 12066 . fil a abba dó, PH 1961 . cuirfidh go fada soir sinn / ni fhoil ar n-aba a n-Éirinn there is no reason for our being in Ireland, Bard. Synt. Tr. 17.17 . ? it e abbae donacht (abai danocht v.l.) C. . . . di A. i nErend, ZCP xiv 62.12 (cf. 72.7 ). aba .i. adhbhar, O'Cl.

In phrases. i n-a.: ata in aba duit-siu sin do radh you have reason to say that, BB 426b39 . ar a.¤ prep.and adv. phrase. Alliterates with vowel in classical verse (cf. ar aí s. 3 aí). As prep.phrase not to be used in class. verse with a poss. pron. except when a demonstr. follows, see Bard. Synt. Tr. 17.18-25 . Usually folld. by gen. or vn. clause, but may also be folld. by nom., Bard. Synt. Tr. loc. cit. Because of, on account of, for the sake of, etc.: ar a.¤ comruicc fri hēnḟer, TBC-I¹ 2438 . ara.¤ a māthar dīb because his mother was of them, 2247 . ar a.¤ chomlund (comlainn v.l.) oenḟir by dint of, TBC-LL¹ 3197 . foraba ḟledoil, LB 273b69 ( SG 54.28 ). ni arabba a hadartha, 235b1 . ar aba a ḟialusa fris, AFM v 1812.z . dá ngada dhíom ní dhlighe / síodh ar aba th'oirbhire, DDána 67.43 . ar aba an aba (? leg. adbair) shuthain / mór caomhna an chuirp fhréamhdhuthain, Aithd. D. 50.33 . ar aba a huilc, Studies 1921, 76 § 22 . ar aba anma aon deise `to save the lives of any two', ML 106.14 . ná bídh aire énduine . . . re anmuin ar aba ingabála dona huaislib in hopes that these nobles will quit the field, Caithr. Thoirdh. 103.12 . robtar subhaigh . . . ar aba a ttérnuídh tar gach mbaoghal, AFM vi 1922.11 . ar a.¤ a ndernais de drúis, Ériu vii 223 § 35 . Folld. by nom.: ara.¤ a fath tancammar because of the reason we have come(?), TBC-LL¹ 2136 . aicme gan aga ar a neart / an mhaicne ar aba a n-aithcheacht, DDána 60.5 . ? eisdeacht fada as fada dhamh / ar aba an eisdreachd abadh, IGT Decl. ex. 844 . leagar deoch ar áth aga / deoch ar aba cách chuga (sic leg.) he puts aside his drink because his foes are approaching him, Bard. Synt. Tr. 17.22 and notes. snáith t'oige ar aba iomrádh (: ngrádh), 141.20 . Folld. by vn. clause: nach fuighbead bo ar aba in chatha do chur as a result of fighting the battle, SG 50.13 . Note also: ar aba an cheathrair do theacht . . . níor beanadh etc. if the four had not come, Content. vi 89 . ge ead arabba sin tanic confad catha . . . `and yet for all that a rage of battle came . . .', TTebe 1599 .

As adv. phrase nevertheless, however . Perh. orig. ar apu, cf. ar-abu, MU² 1007 ( LU 1510 ). With possess. ara aba, ZCP xiv 214.6 (late). Also ar apaide (resolved by Zimmer, KZ xxx 5 as: ar a.¤ side. Cf. ar aí, araíde under 3 aí). ba mōr a uathmaire ind ḟir; fanōpair-seom araba, TBC-I¹ 467 (= ar apu; arapa, araba, arappaide, MSS, Stories fr. Táin 6 ). comalta ┐ fer bithchotaid dam Cūchulaind. Ragadsa ara.¤ ara chend imbārach, 1539 . nobered cach-ra-cluchi for C. . . . ar a.¤ , TBC-LL¹ 1812 . atbert ar abba a ádnocul uair ba rí he, LB 236a12 . cid ed ar abba is duine démnacdu he, PH 2688 . ba comlund cét cirthi cráeb / ara.¤ raforraig Aéd, Ériu v 223.60 (= Metr. Dinds. iv 360 ). ní fhuighe ar aba ní achd neamh, DDána 42.12 . d'fhuiling . . . anfadh fada, / armchladh é ar aba dóibh, Ó Bruad. ii 274.12 . ar apaide: ni[b]-farc[h]elsam a ócu olse ar apaide is mochen dūib nevertheless you are welcome, Sc.M² 5 . iss é óenfer ar apaide adroinni drochternam úadsom, LU 6079 (TBC). aropaidi (sic) roás ind n-imguin foraib, Ériu ii 30 § 15 . arapaidhe (arapaiti, v.l.) is menma comarba, TTr.² 182 . arapaidhe tra rosochtsat in churaid, Anecd. ii 56 § 18 .

3 ar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 3 ar or dil.ie/3904

Forms: ol

v variant of 6 ol says, q.v. See Celtica v 95 - 102 , LEIA s.v. ol `au-delà', Usually ol in O. Ir. glosses, but ar occurs at Ml. 44b10 - 11 , 44c20 . In Mid. Ir. also freq. or, for, far, bar (see 3 for). Original spoken form perh. arse (O. Ir. olse ), usually printed ar sé in editions. Cf. arse (sic Facs.) in gilla, LL 10243 (= ar se, in gilla `sagte er, der Bursche', TBC-LL¹ 3254 ). arse A., 307a26 . Cf. also arsé arAdam, SR 1306 , arsi ar Eua, 1554 , arse for Fer Diad, TBC-I¹ 2578 . Exx. of arse, etc. without noun in sense of inquit: ar sé, Sc.M² 6R . ar se, PH 2802 . ar sé, TSh. 2566 . ar sí, Sc.M² 3R . ar sí, TBFr. 356 . orsé, BDD² 452 . or sé, Sc.M² 4R . orsí, BDD² 61 . or si, LU 3590 ( SCC 30 ). With pl. ending or pron.: ar siat, Stair Erc. 697 . or cách, BDD² 215 . ordat meic Duind Désa, 891 . Exx. of ar etc. with noun subject: ar crist, Ml. 44b10 . ar [duai]d, 44c20 . ar M., Sc.M² 5R . ar F., TBFr. 321 . ar L., PH 1540 . or in t-aes uilc, BDD² 618 . or C., Sc.M² 20R . ar an t-aingeal, DDána 17.15 .

betha

Cite this: eDIL s.v. betha or dil.ie/5779

Forms: bethu, beatha

n O. Ir. bethu t, m., later f. (béo). See GOI § 258 , RC xxviii 204. beatha f., IGT Decl. § 7.

(a) life, existence: bethu suthin, Wb. 23b5 . ishe ar mbethoni far foirbthetusi, 25a24 . isin beothu itáa Ísu gl. uita aeterna in Christo, 3c2 . a bás i mbethith, 13d17 . a mbás tiagmeni doáirci bethid dúibsi .i. is ar bethid dúibsi tiágmini bás, 15b28 . is bronach a bethu `his life is . . . sad', Ml. 30d24 . is é conic bas ┐ bethaith `has power over life and death', Thes. i 4.29 . dun bethaid frecndairc gl. cum praesenti uita, Ml. 107c1 . drochet bethad bīd íssum, Thes. ii 350.17 (Hy. vi) ara tintarrad ō chlóen / tūatha Hérenn do bethu `from iniquity unto Life', 314.1 (Hy. ii). uas bethaig brig (= uas bethad b.¤ ), Snedg. u. Mac R 10 § 18. ní léicfet . . . bethaith dam ann will allow me no life there, Trip. 84.29 . crann bethad Tree of Life, SR 1384. eagna an bheathadh `worldly pru- dence', A. Ó Dálaigh xxviii 12. actailius (sic) uita .i. beatha ghneitheach, Laws v 22.14 Comm. i réim na beatha so, TSh. 108. ? baccaige ar na hechuibh do-geib b.¤ go moch ┐ is mocharracht, Celtica ii 42 § 31 .

In phr. i mbethu, mbethaid alive: lasnahí dofuircifea bráth i mbethu `with those whom the Judgment will find alive' (i.e. saved), Wb. 25b16 . i mbethaid, Thes. ii 298.22 (Hy. i Pref.). conná dechaid nach háe i mbethu ass, MU² 1001 . With poss. an gcéin do bhiadh-san na bheathaidh, ML 108.23 . Note also: cesacht cach bī ar beathaidh every living thing, ACL iii 241 § 12. In phr. fer, élúdach bethad, i mbethaid survivor, one who escapes alive, a fugitive: nīr lēig aon-duine bethad as dīb, ML² 827. fer bethad, LL 31378 ( TTr. 562 ). See élúdach. In phr. mac bethad see 1 mac.

(b) lifetime, (written) life of person: i mbethu maolrúoin, Mon. Tall. 129.16 . ni gaib dire a mic in-a bethaid `in his lifetime', Laws v 514.1 Comm. B. Colaim Chille = BCC. Bethada Náem nÉrenn = BNnÉ.

(c) In greeting, salutation . See R.A. Breatnach, Éigse x 96 ff.: Dia do b.¤ ! ( bethu, LU 4930 ) a phopo, a Fergais, olse , TBC-I¹ 445. gu rob Dia do b.¤, a imperi uasail, ZCP vi 48.5 . co mbethaid ┐ slánti ónd ríg, LL 12973 ( RC xiv 426 § 48 ). docuir . . . ingen an imperi betha ┐ slainti cugud, ZCP vi 31.19 . De do b.¤ (= aue), Smaointe B. Chr. 228. do fhágbhadar . . . iomairce beatha ┐ sláinte ag Giolla Íosa, Maguires of F. 84. See sláinte. In asseveration: dar mo bethaid on my life, SG 97.16 ( Acall. 137 ).

(d) food, nourishment; sustenance; maintenance: conróiret a mbethid `so that they may provide their livelihood', Wb. 29a9 . ar is [s]ruithe beo bethu tortha for cattle-fodder is more precious than (growing) crops, Laws iv 78.6 . taobh riu mar bheathadh without any other food, BNnÉ 165 § 39 . a bheatha nír bh'í a acmhaing / . . . gá bhanaltrainn `His nursing', PBocht 17.32 . dogebuir b.¤ aniugh agum-sa (said to a mendicant), ZCP vi 98.26 . b.¤ dhaonnaighi `ordinary food', Fl. Earls 226.18 . ag dubhshlogadh na beatha sin, PCT 649. fri beathaidh in pāpa `with the income of the Pope', Fl. Earls 178.32 .

(e) property, estate: (etym. gloss on fear mbidbad) fer bis a medhon a bethad neich eli .i. tige neich eli, Laws v 80.7 Comm. an drong agá bhfágbhaid a mbeatha tar a n-éis, mar atáid na hoighreadha, TSh. 4585. aiseag a bheathadh do thabhairt dó `to make restitution to him of his property', O'Rah. xxv 231.

1 cía

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cía or dil.ie/8965
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: cía, ci, cá, gá, cá, gá, cár, cá, cía, citné, cia, ciodh, cisne, cipé, cipé

interr. and indef. pron. Given in list of interrogatives, Laws v 6.1 ff. Comm. ; for forms permitted and prohibited in classical verse see IGT Introd. § 16 . See GOI §§ 456 - 460 , Strachan, Ériu i 6 ff. , Bergin, Ériu xii 205 ff.

A As interrogative.

I General form cía (ce, ci) (`unstressed or weakly stressed,' GOI § 456 ) without indication of gender. In later lang. freq. cá, gá (cf. gia, TBC-LL¹ 56 , giá, 730 etc.). who? what ? (in direct and indirect interrogation).

(a) With dependent verb (as conj. part. or in accordance with Bergin's Law). As subject of vb.: cia beir búar o thig Temrach who takes? LL 1566 . cía rét Brega?, LU 9306 . ? cia saig do rús Herind. . .?, LL 1787 . cía taisiu?, LU 6307 . cia bátar do bésa?, Tec. Corm. 7 . ní fitir R. cía-rraba / crích `whose was', Metr. Dinds. iv 4.45 . immoscoemorcuir ceptar hé, Corm. Bodl. 34.21 . As object: ce róich `how far . . . extends', Sg. 26a11 . cia roich eneclann?, Laws iii 536.1 . cia-roig dire? Ir. Recht 13 § 14 . cia fairneac?, Ériu xi 44.3 . cia acca whom didst thou see? LU 7135 . bec a ḟis duid cia do ordo, Anecd. i 7.5 ( do(o)rdo, SCano 198 `what I croon', Gloss.). So also in cíar(r)icc (separate article). Rarely cid in this use. Nom. cid dernad?, LL 251a18 . Accus. cid dernais?, LL 251a39 .

With inf. pron. usually cich-: cichib foruireth? . . . fon-roireth imned what has been caused to you? TBFr. 399 = ZCP iv 45.28 . cichib-roerad? what has been prepared for you (i.e. how have you fared?), IT iii 237.62 = cichib roér ol Bodb. Nin foruireth nammaith olse , LL 246b24 . mnā brataiter . . . cichi brata? cichi aig? cichi goin? who abducts them? TBC-I¹ 1081 (cicen, cíche, ciche, LU). ? ciche bárogell a regg / sonend ┐ dubdonend, LL 376a4 . Exceptionally: ar feisidh ciab dergeine `who has made you', Blathm. 91 § 6 . fir gontair, mnā brattar, bai agthar . . . cistabrata, cisdagata, cisdabeir? TBC-I¹ 2989 . See ZCP xxii 29 .

With copula: innaní asbertis cipad a déne ind hesséirgi `that used to say what would be the swiftness of the resurrection', Wb. 25b27 . conid fessed cia bed flaith inna diad, Ml. 89b7 . For cía ba chan see can.

Hence in various adverbial meanings. (b) how ? cia Ulto ána acca?, LL 13439 . cumma cīa-thōetsat imbi, Sc.M² 3 (`how', Gloss.). cía festa `how should ye know?' Metr. Dinds. iii 48.12 . cia ḟacci ar sluág?, TBC-LL¹ 223 . is cuma dó c.¤ eipli, Liad. and Cuir. 20.17 `how he dies', Contribb. 363 . With deut. form: cía dorochair Cróeb Dathi?, Metr. Dinds. iii 148.1 . Note also: cīa tairicc? Tairic hi cind teora mblīadna when? ZCP viii 312.29 .

(c) where ? In later lang. cá, gá (nasalizing), with narrative tense cár. cá `lochdach', IGT Introd. § 16 . Orig. with téit: ni fetatar cia deochaid where he went, LU 3329 ( SCC 12 ). nocon ḟess cia deochatar, LL 290a27 . With deut. form of vb. cia dochuatar ass? where did they go? TFerbe 565 . In later lang.: cá ngabhaid?, Oss. iii 232.5 . Keat. Poems 1545 . cá bhfaighion tú an raidhirc so?, ZCP v 215.419 . cā ndearnais do c[h]ēadc[h]reach?, Feis Tighe Chonáin 145 . cár ghabh, 490 . cá ar fríth é?, ZCP v 215.418 . carbh ail les dul, Stair Erc. 981 . With attá: ga ffuil maithe na Féine?, Duan. F. ii 322 § 15 (see iii 151). ga bhfuil suim . . . na naitheantadh `what is the abridgment?' Donlevy 52.22 . ro fhiarfaigh I. ca rabe A., Stair Erc. 25 . do f[h]iafraigdur dī cā raibhe sí whence she was, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1666 . Note also cia racha, ITS xvii 188.1526 etc.

(d) With fíu glossing Lat. quam, how (great, etc.): cia fíu .i. mór ní gl. quam admirabile, Ml. 17b12 - 13 . gl. quam (sollicite), 23a10 . ce fiu gl. quam maxime, Sg. 114a3 . See Dict. Fasc. fíu and compare cia fiú me bheith beó etc. how can I remain alive? ITS xvii 159.963 .

(e) With follg. noun (often as antecedent of rel. clause). With masc.: ciachruth gl. quomodo, Sg. 212a1 (see 1 cruth). cia dune ind inni-sseo gl. qualem . . . hominem, Ml. 35c33 . cia mod .i. imba do gres . . . `what measure', Ml. 100d4 . Perh. also in the follg.: dús cia port indib maith óigedacht `in what place', Wb. 26b24 . cia salmscribdid conicfed són `what psalmist?', Ml. 14a6 . amal nad finnatar sidi cia loc sainriud dia regtais, 99b10 . cia randdatu bis indi, Sg. 27a12 . cía cethrar? Rí ┐ brithem etc., Críth G. 536 . cia file ar secht ccumhaluibh dlighidh what poet . . .? Ériu xiii 18.4 . cia fot atúsa isin chotlud sa how long? LU 6359 . gá fad?, TSh. 1618 . ca sén dob ferr?, Ériu iv 224.13 . ca ræt in muirn . . . ar-at-cluineam?, TTebe 1901 (see crét). ca hinad?, LB 137b51 . gá cara don uile as fhearr?, A. Ó Dálaigh xv 5 . DDána 50.12 . gá fhios nach . . . (ḟ = bf?), O'Gr. Cat. 456.10 . gá chúis fá . . ., 12 . cár bh'iongnadh?, Hard. i 204 .

(f) With fem.: cia airm `what place', Wb. 12d18 (see cairm, cáit). ceseirc gl. quam caritatem habeam, 14d15 (differently GOI 289 ). ce meit gl. quanto, 33a1 . ce mét aimmser bes indi `what times may be in it', Sg. 25b16 . ce méit a[s] sinu aís quam A. `how much older', Wb. 34a5 . See méit. cia dú gl. quo, Ml. 40c7 . cia inni soas `how He turns', 123d8 (see note). cá huair díscáeilter in doman nó cá tráth thiucfus Dia?, RC xxiv 382.32 . ca delb rogabais? Ériu iv 104.15 . cia ben is mesa do mnáib?, ZCP viii 113.11 . cá slat is slimghile bas?, O'Gr. Cat. 332.27 . ga hobar dhíbh nach doiligh?, Studies 1921, 588 § 1 . gá breath rug féin ar an bhfear? Dán Dé xxv 16 .

(g) With neut.: cia eret mbete oc m'ingraimmim-se `how long?' Ml. 33a9 . cia airet bis micomus etc., Laws ii 186.6 . cia hairet, PH 1501 . See airet, cairet. anfis ca cinel aire nos beir etc., Laws i 188.6 Comm. cia forcenn doberthar foraib, Ml. 33a9 . na fetar . . . ca galar . . ro-t-básaig, CRR 3 . cia indas conaittechtatar a n-íc, Ml. 90b16 . décaid . . . a arm cia indas rundgabsat, 55c1 (see indas, cindas). cia leath reghma?, Anecd. i 2.9 ( SCano 25 ). cia tír, ZCP viii 318.33 .

(h) cía with follg. prep. and noun or pron. rendering oblique cases of Lat. pronn. (see GOI 228 - 229 ): cia ar neoch gl. ad quid, Sg. 217a5 . Cf. cia erneo gl. quam ob rem, Ml. 101a4 . ci erniu gl. quamobrem, 47b1 . cairhe biit, Sg. 242b1 leg. ciairneo = quamobrem, n . ciarrét gl. quamobrem, Ml. 48c2 . cide gl. de quo (cia de? cid de?), Sg. 3a9 . cia du neuch gl. ad quem . . .? Ml. 16a9 . cia dunaib hi do foirmsed gl. de quibus adderet? 35a17 . cia du forcunn gl. quem ad finem, 33a9 . cia du rét gl. cui rei? 121d1 . cia isnaib hí gl. in quibus, 49c13 . cia in n-erbirt ṁbiuth gl. in quem ussum, 46b28 . cia i n-olcaib gl. in quibus malis, 23b2 . ci onaibhi, gl. quibus, 47a10 . cio ainmnid dixnigidir gl. ex quo sit nominatiuo? Sg. 207b3 . ciofut gl. usque quo, Ml. 20a17 . 93a15 . ci ho fothaib són gl. quibus (dementiae facibus accensi sunt), 16b19 . ci o retaib gl. quibus rebus, 35c35 . gl. ex quibus rebus, 44d24 . cio thomus gl. qua libra etc., 55d16 . So also probably in later lang.: cia chuige a ndírighmid ar nurnuigh, Donlevy 364.16 . ca as a tangadar, Stair Erc. 1412 . casa ticit siat, Ir. Astr. Tr. 146.1 . Hence perh. in later phr. gá d'ulc what is the harm of? (see olc, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.z ). gá d'ulc bogur an bhása?, IGT Decl. ex. 758 . gá d'ulc mé gan mothugadh?, ex. 224 . gá d'ulc óigrí eslobar?, O'Gr. Cat. 470.9 . Cf. 2 cair. See Éigse xii 136 .

(i) In phrase cíadono why (then)? (see GOI 289 See further Éigse xii 136 .): ar cia dono gl. ut quid autem, Wb. 2d10 . hóre ro-n-ortigestar dia cedono tuidecht friss `why then?' 6a4 . ce dono rigne occo `what, then, is the good of prolixity in it?' 8d15 . cepu dono adrad dǽ do thabirt do Pool?, 7d16 . ciapu dono dún indarpe geinte `why should we then expel the Gentiles?' 19a14 . ? ēludh ann for romhuir / nícon fess cia dona, ZCP x 344.13 .

(j) In various constructions with adjj. In early legal texts with superl.: cia measom do cain ts.? `what is the worst of . . . ?' Laws ii 194.1 . cia dilsiumh d'ḟiledhoibh, Ériu xiii 31.2 . cía háithemh eó? acais dlighidh, etc., 25.6 . Prob. also: cia so do rinnibh etc. 20.30 = ciaso do ninnaib, O'Dav. 1289 . In later lang. in phrase gá beag is it not enough? ga beag mur ḟáth duilghis, IGT Decl. ex. 1057 . cá beag d'fhiadhnaise? Studies 1920, 97 § 2 . gárbh fhearr céim, 98 § 6 . gá bheag dhúinn dá dhearbhadh ort is it not proof enough for you? Content. vi 25 . Freq. with compar. in rhetorical questions. Cf. ga meisde ┐ ga c[h]an ┐ ca d'ulc, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.z . gá cruaidhe ceisd what more difficult question (is there)? DDána 12.1 . ga deacra ní do neithibh?, IGT Decl. ex. 938 . car doilge [le] inghin Taidg / éc Aodha aird . . . / inā d'Echtaigh a bás bróin / Corbmaic hūi Cuinn . . . , ZCP vi 269 § 4 . ca ferr duind ar mbeandacht do chur . . . go fer in liubair sea na a fágbail aigi?, LU 2769 (colophon). gá fearr m'áis-se ná m'aindeoin how is it better to get my consent than to constrain me? Dán Dé i 5 . ga feirdi me do m[healladh]?, Bard. Synt. Tr. 45.2 . cá bud fherrde, PH 7582 . gá misde don cholainn chriadh / an t-anam d'faghbháil ilphian what harm? Dán Dé xxv 41 . m'uabar gá mó mínáire?, O'Gr. Cat. 346.33 . do Mhuire gár mhó guasocht?, Dán Dé xx 47 . Note also: cá minic do chionntaidh sé `how often', Donlevy 320.28 . an lícc dimor uccat fil forsan tulaigh, cía mó atá i ttalamh dhi na uása how much more of it is in the earth than above it? BNnÉ 8.16 .

II Inflected (`more fully stressed', GOI § 456 ) cía, cisí cid, citné etc. In classical verse the forms cia and ciodh are stressed, see DDána 12.1 , 58.35 . `cía, can, cúich . . . were in direct interrogation used with the copula *esti (cf. mod. Ir. cé h-é) . . . ', O'Brien, Féil. Mhic Néill 88 .

With indep. form of verb (a) cía m.: cia beraid doib a remeperthe `who will refer to them the aforesaid?' Ml. 37a9 (perh. transition from I(a) above). Usually with rel. clause: cía rédes ruind?, BDD² 294 etc. cia dib gebus t'forba?, RC xxiv 194.1 . cía de as sru[i]thiu?, Críth G. 492 . cīa nād cūala?, ZCP xi 109 § 7 . Prob. also in follg., where there is no mark of rel.: cia con-icc ní dúun?, Wb. 4b11 . cia folínfea? 12d14 . cia dobera íc do Sión?, Ml. 34d5 . dús cia atrebea isin chathraig `to learn who will dwell in the city', 35b24 . cia de dogega `which of them I shall choose', Wb. 23b33 . dús cīa díb do-ngegad, Sc.M² 19 . caidi bad ferr la hUltu, a mmarb nō a mbeo . . . ?, TBC-I¹ 681 (cia dé, LU). do fiarfaidh A. de cia dá cloind do beith etc., ZCP xi 128.34 . quis est horum qui vicit . . . .i. cia ro blaiss bethaid?, LL 281a32 . cia aca is rogha leat?, Hard. i 274.y .

(b) cid n. (rel. frequently marked): cid aem no-dom-bera-sa cucuibsi, Wb. 1a8 . cid atobaich cen dílgud cech ancridi `what impels you . . . ?', 9c20 . nícon fitir cid asbeir, 12c22 . ro fitid cid aridfuirig a foilsigud, 26a11 . dús cid forchomnacuir indi `to learn what hath happened therein', Ml. 16c5 . cid du-gén-sa osme `what shall I do, even I?', 30b9 . ní fintar cid attrebthar and `what is possessed there', Sg. 200b13 . niconfetadar cid fodruair `they . . . knew not what had caused it', Mon. Tall. 147.13 . asbert nicon feddur cid fil do sirgabail na biaide I do not understand your continual singing of the Beati, 127.2 . cid dogén?, ZCP viii 113.9 . cid tuccais ō Guaire what hast Thou got from G.? ACL iii 2.10 . With subst. vb. in nasalising rel. clause what ails, what is the matter with? see attá. With copula: nad fes cid as maith no as olc [do] denum, Ml. 51b7 . dober Dia aithesc cid as denti no cid as imgabthi, 51b8 . cid as dech do mnáib? what is the best type of wife? ZCP viii 113.5 . Note the variation in: na cóig guthaidhe, cía dhíobh as glan no as neamhghlan, no ciodh as cáol no as leathan da bfeadhuibh oireaghdha, ┐ créd atá na ndefhoghrachuibh etc., IGT Introd. 1.10 .

With nouns in sense who is? what is?

(c) m. cía (also occasionally with other genders, and regularly with ainm, see Ériu i 9 ): cia haes esca?, SR 7964 . cía méit in gill?, Críth G. 282 . cía [a] míad sidi?, 586 . cia th'ainmsiu?, LU 10774 . cía hainm? what's your name? BDD² 264 . cía hainm dá mnaí?, 365 . cia n-anmand what are their names? TFerbe 357 . cīa cétliaigh robūi ind-Ēirinn?, ZCP viii 105.12 . cía bar lín-se is[in] indsi-se?, Ériu iv. 142.21 . nī hētur cia hainm in maic aile, ZCP viii 293.24 . cia don teora crannsa an chroch, Dán Dé iii 27 . cia an monghar mór-sa?, DDána 85.6 . cia an duine bhias beó = quis est homo? TSh. 3125 .

Forms in -so, -su etc. (cf. indic. pres. 3 s. of 2 cía. See Celtica vii 38-42 ): ciaso baili ata in crann?, SR 7931 . ciaso buaid duinne?, Bodl. Dinds. 27 . cia so gním what deed? TBC-LL¹ 958 . cíasu anmann bai for suidiu?, IT ii2 195.153 . nī fetar-sa ciasu adba etc., Fing. R. 969 . ciasa bas . . . do bean . . . in bas-crann?, Ériu iv 116 § 26 (`whose hand?'). ciasa fogealtad son? .i. miach cacha mis, Laws iv 106. 15 Comm. ím comirc doib ciasa hairm ín ro scuirsid, 106.22 Comm. ciasa run, Auraic. 5210 (císi, v.l.). ciarsat comainm celisiu what's your master's name? LL 9041 (TBC). carsat comainm?, Acall. 390 . ciarso choma no bértha dó?, LL 8937 (TBC). garsa gním sain?, 9990 (TBC).

(d) cía with pron. who is? cia tussu díxnigedar who art thou? Wb. 4c24 . cia hé nu-n-dixnaigther-siu gl. qui sis, Ml. 75c9 . ciahé gl. qui (sit), 14d14 . cia hé `who is it?' 46c17 . ce hé roscríb `who it is that has written', Sg. 197a19 . cinní sin frisnaiccai siu `whom dost thou expect?', Thes. ii 227.30 (from intí-sin, GOI § 460 ). cia so who is this? Anecd. i 8. 23 ( SCano 257 ). cía so?, Sc.M² R 10 . cīa and-so?, 11 (for inso?). cia tusu?, RC xxiv 200.9 . fochtuis Feilis scela de, ce he budein, ZCP vi 25. 18 . cīa pad cīa . . . acht . . . Condere . . . who should it be but C.? Ériu i 114 § 3 . beag a fhios agad . . . / cia misi d'fhearaibh Eireann, Studies 1924, 243 § 17 . With -so, -su: cía so thú?, LU 10768 = ciasu tu, Ériu xii 170.3 . cársa cúich thú?, Mer. Uil.² 90 . cársa cía[s]ib-si etir?, 250 .

(e) cía with follg. prep. as antecedent of rel. clause (cf. I (h) above): cia dia fiachaigedar gl. ad quem debeat, Ml. 44b3 . cia forsa tiagat? `on whom do they fall? Laws ii 178.3 . nicon-fes cīa ō-tucad, Sc.M² 3 . cia ar nach tug a thrócuire? Dán Dé xxv 46 . cor dib Painiel dian / Gabriel cia ar nach cor?, KMMisc. 254.14 . d'iomad rogha ag Día dá dhiomda / fola cía dá ttiobhra ar tós, IGT Decl. ex. 109 .

(f) cisí, ces(s)í with f. noun: cisí chomairle ǽm `what indeed is the counsel?' Ml. 34c18 . cissi slabrai in díscer sa? LU 5162 (TBC). cissi gáir seo?, 4475 . císí (sic) suillse mór sucut?, BDD² 591 . áil dūn a ḟis . . . cisī rāth so, Ériu viii 157.6 . Freq. with follg. rel. clause: cessi aimser hi rogbath `at what time it was sung', Ml. 24d10 . cisi aimsir hi for-comnactar in gnimai, 97a5 . cisí digal didenach dumberaesiu a Dǽ, 100d5 . co n-eperthae cia aiccent ┐ cisi aimser derb thechtas, Sg. 26a6 . cisi rann dogéntar di, 27a13 . cesí aram gl. ad quod genus uel numerum refertur, 197b3 . cisi chiall bís indib `what is the meaning that is in them', 217a2 . cisi muime bat tualoing what fostermother could have? Blathm. 100 § 32 . cisi mathair con bert / an geinsi? ib. (MS. cisi in, text). cisi gnuis . . . forta napsalmo?, Hib. Min. 3.76 . cise noail noclanna `by what oath shall it be settled?' Laws iv 142.3 . cisi airm hi tá L.? LU 3620 (SC. 31). rāidh frim cisé (ciséd, v.l.) dāil di ṡund dogénum, ACL iii 294 § 13 . cisi breth rucais?, Rawl. 113a2 . cissí dichuimni rod dall?, LL 21767 . fég darisse . . . cisi chonar dotháet `look again, what road is he coming', RC iii 183.33 . inderb . . . cisi uair no cisi aimsir regthair, Ériu v 120.3 . cisí hairle do beradh, Hugh Roe² 292.14 . With ellipse of rel. clause: tair limsa . . . co ndérais. Cisí dígal?, MU² 1034 . Also somet. with other genders: ciasi animnairme (ainm n-áirme) fil . . ., Hib. Min. 2.41 . ciasi ord fil forna psalmu, 6.196 . ra iarfaig . . . cissi log conattaig, LL 30975 ( TTr. 156 ). occa scrúdadh . . . cisi cruth no aithfedh, Hugh Roe² 96.15 . Note also: atbertsat cipsi magen i ferfaithe in cath, Dinds. 188 ( RC xvi 274 ).

(g) cid with n. noun. In sense what is? cid aes ṅ-esci? BCr. 32a9 . cidh dire Mac-ḟuirmidh?, Ériu xiii 25.27 . cid an ní seo?, BDD² 242 . cid damhna bar ndocesaid?, ACL iii 310 viii 3 . ciodh achd ar ghrádh no ar ghrádsa / clár págsa d'fhior ón Aodhsa?, IGT Decl. ex. 137 .

With follg. rel. clause: imrádat imráti cid maith as déntí `as to what good is to be done', Wb. 1d7 . cid ḟolad ṡluindes, Sg. 25b17 (see note). ce torad gl. quem . . . fructum habuistis? Wb. 3b29 . cid chenél gl. quod genus . . . refertar, Sg. 197b3 . Perh. also: cidechor (= cid dechor) gl. quae sit differentia, 23a2 . In difft. constr. (cf. II (c) above): ced torbe doib etarscarad . . . fria tola what does it profit them? Wb. 13c6 . ce torbe dúib-si . . . in fogur-sin, Ml. 12d5 . ced slīab inso thall?, TBC-I¹ 614 .

(h) cid with pronoun: ced ed tra `what is it then?' Wb. 3b28 . cid so?, Mon. Tall. 130.15 ; YBL 118a23 ; ZCP xiii 179.3 . cid sin?, BDD² 448 . cid ón `what is that?' RC iii 184.25 . ceadh sibh acht na seacht dtroighthe what do you amount to? DDána 53.21 .

(i) cid with DO. With follg. neg.: cid dait-siu . . . nád bod latt curadmir, etc. why shouldn't you have? LU 8139 ( FB 10 ). cid daib . . . nach mair[b]fed sib?, TTebe 1865 . cidh damhsa cen dul d'iarraidh a maithme why should I not go, etc.? RC xxvii 294 § 38 . Note also: cidh duibsi what think ye of it? (?), RC xxvi 366.13 . cidh dhúinn déanamh a bhfeasa `why need I tell of them?' Content. iv 27 .

(j) cid with DI: cid de ón what does that matter? LU 6361 . cid de-side why so? TBC-LL¹ 5580 .

(l) cid with prep. and rel. clause: cid asa fordailtea grád túa[i]the on what basis have the lay grades been laid down? Críth G. 6 . Sliab B. cid diata whence is it named? RC xv 301.5 . cídh día ndearnadh Adhamh, 23 E 26, 5.18 .

(m) In similar construction in meaning why? With AR: cid arind epur frit why do I say it to thee? Wb. 5a31 . cid ara ndluthid caratrad friu iterum?, 27a30 . cid ara todlaigther inso, Ml. 32a5 . cid ara fodaim int ais firian inna fochaidi? 55d11 . cid armad machdad etc.? Sg. 167a4 . cid arṅdid huathuislib ildaib disruthaigedar?, 198b3 . cid ar bad?, Thes. ii 227. 34 . cid ara n-eperr Críth Gablach?, Críth G. 1 . cidh ar a fhuil Cuncha ar in inadhso?, ZCP xi 40.35 . With DI: cid dia leícid cundubairt for drecht uáib?, Wb. 13b12 . cid dia n-éirena(i)tar?, Críth G. 121 . rofiarfaig . . . desim cid dia mboi fora iarrair, Grail 1522 . With IMM (later FÁ): finnaid . . . cid imma ndernad in t-id, LL 8053 (TBC). cidh ma tancais alé `why hast thou come . . . ?' Ériu iii 158 § 11 . cid 'ma n-iarthai?, TTebe 1700 . cid . . . 'mara loirgis, TFrag. 118.15 . ciodh far dhoilghe trí thairnge?, DDána 40.10 . innis dúinn ciodh fa ttánghuis, Duan. F. i 78.16 . ciodh fa ttiobhradh, IGT Decl. ex. 1311 .

(n) cid as adverb, why ? cid no mbetha . . . on what account shouldst thou be . . . ? Wb. 4c24 . cid na déccaid?, Fél. Prol. 201 . ced nach maith?, Trip.² 1968 . cid nabsin Fedelm-sa . . . cichsed, LU 8296 ( FB 22 ). Tond Chlidna cid aréracht?, Metr. Dinds. iii 214.54 . cid éige, a bean?, Celtica iv 16.154 . cidh tāi a[g] gul?, ZCP viii 559.5 . cid . . . na caithi do chuidich? Ériu v 36.19 . do chách ciodh nach aithréasda?, DDána 58.35 . cidh na ro chomaillis an gealladh doradais?, BNnÉ 295 § 22 . Cf. cid ane . . . meic na mbachlach . . . do chomram cucum what business have the sons of rustics to be contending with me? Sc.M² 12 .

(o) where ? whither ? With téit: co n-at[h]comaircter nde cid ted, RC xiii 222.5 . cid nothēigid ?, ZCP xiii 176.8 . co fesamar úait . . . cid thége whither thou goest, Ériu iv 140.5 . ní fedar festa cidh rachad, Anecd. i 77.9 . cid lotar ?, LL 12826 . cid ghébmoe ?, BDD² 245 . Exceptionally with attá: d'iar[r]aidh fhessa . . . cuith a roiphi in ingen where, TTebe 33 (leg. cáit ?).

(p) In phr. cid tra acht, see trá.

Plural forms.

(q) citné, citni (prob. from cia ata n-é ` who, what (is it) that they are?', Thurn., ZCP xx 372 , GOI § 456 ). assindet sunt tra citné cumacte diandid cóir infognam what are the powers, Wb. 6a9 . citne gl. (sí . . . quaeritur) quae (gentes), Ml. 16b13 . cit né briathra robatar `what were the words?', 61b7 . cit né robatar `what were they?', 8 . asindet ón ciné (leg. citné? edd.) fochainn . . ., 101a3 . citni rig reachta . . . / robatar 'sind amsir sin?, SR 2347 . citni trenfir dotiarmórsetsu?, LU 10261 . cit n-é uisce . . . do-ríadhad?, BDD² 456 . ni fetar citne briga / mo dul i teach cor-riga I do not know what good there is in my going into the house to kings, Ériu v 30.2 . citni cenela na fuillet, Rawl. 69a29 . indis . . . dam . . . / citne clerig notrefet, / citne oic notndeirget, Three Hom. 110.16 , 17 . citne tire in geinseadar?, Leb. Gab.(i) 234.20 = Keat. ii 741 . Without follg. noun: citné foruar what are they which He has prepared? Wb. 8b5 . citne and dī rott eblatar?, LU 10284 . citn-éisidi?, BDD² 555 . ? citne in ferand?, LL 15993 = Todd Nenn. 222.3 (ceisi urrand, v.l. 223 n.).

(r) cisne (described as an `iarmberla', Auraic. 1308 ): cis n-é amuis ata chórai?, Críth G. 578 . cisne lesa . . . tascnat . . . ?, Laws i 230.21 . cisne tri leaca robaid?, v 450.1 . cisne sgéith sguirde caithche?, Ériu xiii 17.15 . cisne trí gealla nád fuilled . . .?, 33.28 . cisne tri horba doranaiter la Féne? O'Curry 2167 ( Eg. 88, 5(6)a ). cisne a trí a nemtiger cléirech, O'D. 2209 (Nero A vii, 144b). cís ní doghair oes eiscí? IT iii 262.12 . cia on cotagair æsa escai?, 61.18 = cis non dogar eassa uiscci?, Leb. Gab.(i) 264.13 . Exceptionally with pl. ending: cisneíd side ? . . . baes ┐ aneolus ┐ eitges, ZCP xii 363.2 .

(s) cis (see ZCP xx 372 , Ériu xiv 140 ): cis tána? ZCP xx 372.19 . cis n-dithle `welches sind Entwendungen?', 17 . cis duirn díolmhuine dlighther?, Ériu xiii 23.5 = O'Dav. 584 . cis dúar dían drongaighther . . . ?, Ériu xiii 26.2 = cis [i] duar etc., O'Dav. 883 . cis daghmaine domain dingnaith? O'Curry 2460 ( Eg. 88, 37(38)c ). cis rechta na gaibter a fiadhnaisi? 2600 ( Eg. 88, 51 (52)b ).

(t) Phr. cis lir how many (are) ? See Bergin, Ériu xiv 140 ff. cislir .i. cia lear no lin na sochaidi, Laws v 4.x Comm. cis lir tairgsin cach fine `how many are the . . . ?', 463.13 . gabála báise cis lir `the ways of folly, what is their number?' Tec. Corm. 14 (24.2) (gabail, v.l.). With follg. noun and rel. clause: cis-lir fir for a nasgar how many men are there who are bound? Ériu xiii 31. 21 . cis lir lanamna docuisin la feine? Laws ii 344.1 . cislir fodhla fil forsan mbron?, Anecd. v 24.16 . With follg. rel. verb: cis lir ata chóra[i] do ríg do giull how many (things) are legal . . . ? Críth G. 505 . cis lir congellait? Laws i 230.3 . cair cis lir dos-liad . . . ?, Ériu xiii 30.33 . Rarely with pl. -t: cesc citlir topuir, O'Curry 505 ( H 3.18, 257 ). See 2 lir.

(u) c(i)ata: ciata glinni con-daigi?, MU² 65 . cata cuir con-daigi-siu?, 72 . ciata builg itir ón?, RC xiii 66 § 67 . ni fedadar ceta inada . . . no indsechtais, CCath. 776 . Note also: cialín nasluag . . . / . . . ceti arbair, SR 7907 .

B As indef. in a variety of phrases.

(a) cía with noun: cia port i mbai a mathair wherever her mother was, Vita Br. 4 . cía baili i ffod as iatt sin / oidheadha na n-ócc eistidh `whatever place they may sleep' (reading i ffaoíit with note), Leb. Gab.(i) 188.3 .

(b) cía with vb. (conj. and prot.): cia tīasam wherever we go, Thes. ii 299.30 (Hy. i). cia bronntar indi, Críth G. 234 . cia taccra(i) whoever may claim (them), 425 (see 398 n.). cía denar cia therar whatever I do, whatever I say, Ériu i 227.5 . nocha n-érlai asin chathraigh acht cía térnai do rind gai, TTr.² 158 . a n-athair rempu cia thé `where'er he went', Ériu iv 100.2 . In chev. with adverbial force: cia bé however it be, LL 382 , 15039 . cia bia, Rawl. 137a38 . cia de do teacomnacair whichever it happened to be, Blathm. 98 § 25 (see notes). Cf. ciade gl. uter, Sg. 242a1 . ? is derb ní báes cia 't bera, Metr. Dinds. i 36.95 .

(c) cía with indic. of attá: cia bai dia chalmacht . . . bái dia nertmaire however brave he was, TBC-LL¹ 773 . niconibdis bandai cormmai . . . cia bith ara tecmainged dóib `they used not to drink a drop of beer whomsoever they might happen to meet', Mon. Tall. 129.19 . ( Ériu xii 209 ). cipia frisa ferthar tnú whoever shall be an object of envy, Ériu v 211.69 ( Ériu xii 209 ). cía búi de `whatever came of it' (cheville), Metr. Dinds. iii 396.23 . cía baoi dhe .i. gibé dobhi dhe, O'Cl.

(d) cip, cib with noun: cib cenél tra diaro scribad ind epistil to whatever people, Wb. 3b20 . cip port i ndēntar, Cáin Ad. 36 . Usually with cruth however it be, at all events: cipcruth bíid páx libsi etc., Wb. 5d33 . cipcruth tra, 12d24 . ni confetor cib cruth ind aingel fa dia, Blathm. 100 § 31 . See cipindus.

(e) cecip with noun (see Contribb. s.v. cech ): cecip maighean i raegbadh wherever, AFM i 30.3 . cecib tan tiostaois, v 1552.4 . tre bithin gona, no fiabhrasa cecib diobh whichever it was, vi 2024.5 . cecib nech tairisnighes iniort an coimdheadh, 2126.1 . cecip cruth foghabhtais, Hugh Roe² 86.2 . In follg. the use is strictly speaking interrogative: ní feas cecip tucht i tudchaidh, AFM iii 286.3 .

(f) cipsi with noun: cipsi aitt i loich dosfail, Rawl. 127a44 . cepsi cruth, BB 22b13 ( for cip c.¤ , Ériu xii 208 n. ). cipsi cruth `no matter how', Hugh Roe² 290.22 . cipsi mbith dáil for congra, Hard. ii 292.y . airlim n-eicne cipsí whatever it may be, Laws iv 92.z .

(g) cissí: ro geall Sir Persaual di sin cidhsi cor ara fetfad, Grail 1979 . case chruth i mbet, TBC-LL² 348 .

(h) cía bé, cipé, cid bé etc. with noun ( Ériu xii 208 ): cia bé a mmet `however great it may be', Ml. 61b28 . cipé leth tiasam, Thes. ii 299.42 . gidhbe an smólach ní chodhlann `even the thrush does not sleep', Duan. F. i 84.30 . cipe cruth, LU 3870 ( SCC 38 ). cipé rí bes hi Caisiul, ZCP viii 315.27 . ce-b e nech and do-neth . . . , PH 478 . cipé tan bud ríg tusa for Érinn 'whenever', FDG² 11.327​ . cipé a léire baistither in duine however devoutly, Ériu i 218 § 3 . gidh bé neimhdhéine do neinn, Dán Dé xiii 8 . cidh bé dhíobh staid, TSh. 3986 .

(i) cía bé, cipé etc. with verb: ciphéade (sic leg.) asberam `whichever', Ml. 25d11 ( Ériu xii 209 ). cipé da mbad áil etc., MU² 560 . céb é uabsi comallas frimsa hé, LU 9013 ( FB 76 ). atú ar bhaois gidh bé nach fuil, Dán Dé ix 8 . gidh bé ara geall, 16 . cibé labhras, TSh. 1781 . acht gidh bé éistios riomsa, Proverbs i 33 . gidh be ar bith bheanas ría `whosoever', vi 29 . Note also: mairbt[h]eim coich bē a dīe, Corm. Y 419 .

(j) cipé as adv. at all events , etc.: cipé gl. ubilibet, BCr. 31c2 . do gessaib ríg T. . . . / . . . cocad ruind co bráth ce bé `howsoever it be', CRR 54 . fiū cōicait cumal cipē, Fianaig. 50 § 27 . is maith liom a theacht gidhbé, Oss. vi 166.12 . ciphe de, BB 398b6 .

(k) cíabed, bad, beith etc.: ciabed ammet inna fochaide however great, Ml. 39a13 . cia beith a lin na noged however numerous the guests, Vita Br. 7 . ce bad hé frisa ndénte to whomsoever ye should do it (so Ériu xii 210 ), Wb. 9c24 . ciabadh hé richt a mbeith `in whatever shape she might be', Ériu xii 154 § 18 (TE). cebedh si maigen . . . a mbeith `in whatsoever part of Ireland she might be', ibid. cé beth da lánáille, ZCP viii 208.29 (but see Ériu xii 206 ). ge do beith do méit a tindenuis, Mer. Uil.² 146 . ciabadh e, Blathm. 96 § 20 , restored as ciabad de `whichever it be'. cia beith no co bia-so fó mebail whatever happens, LMU 10 .

(l) ciped (see Ériu xii 208 ): ciped techtas nech `whatever it is that anyone has', Wb. 12d41 ( Ériu xii 210 ). gip ed no raditís, TBC-LL¹ 152 . cipead dommaire `whate'er befall me', Ériu ii 90 § 16 . gibedh o ttíosadh whencesoever they shall come, TFrag. 190.16 . ciped mac díb no gabad gasced, TBC-LL¹ 1089 . giped chuin at some time or other, 3338 . ciped laa . . . forsa m-be notlaic mór (cidped, cipe, gebe, cip, MSS.), Ériu ii 208 § 28 . cip ed de at all events, CRR 4 .

(m) cid: cidh urrunnus nodleisead in t-athair `whatever proportion . . . the father is entitled to', Laws iv 60.24 Comm. cidh dergoine daon, O'Dav. 585 = cib dergona daon, O'D. 2199 ( Ériu xii 206 ). cid dusgní whatever he do, BColm. 100.9 . Cf. cidh ead dogneth hEchtair do calma imon Troi whatever brave action . . . , BB 433b24 .

(n) cid cía: cid cía bes inti whoever be in it, BColm. 52.21 . seanfhocal súd solus a chiall / ciodh cia do chum, Ériu xvi 132 § 2 . cidh cia ro chodail and 'san aidhchi sin nochur' chodail Didho, Aen. 873 . cidh cía donī, ZCP x 51.7 . na cionnta gidh cia 'gá mbeid whosoever shall have (i.e. commit) sins, Dán Dé v 13 . ? gidh cia frí senadh atúaidh, Duan. F. ii 166 § 44 . Note further: cia bad cia dia theilcfead (sic) sop, Ériu v 34.8 . cid bé cia thú `whoever thou art', TTebe 4720 . ciped chia díb nomarbtha artús, RC iii 183.8 . gidh créd do íar Aitheirne, IGT Decl. ex. 1377 .

See 2 cía and 3 cía, 1 cóich.

Cite this: eDIL s.v. có or dil.ie/9790

particle in indep. neg. with ní nay : nico, a B., ar in Satan, Vita Br. 33 . ní có em, olse , LU 5958 (TBC). See níthó.

1 deithbir

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 deithbir or dil.ie/15289

Forms: dedbir, deidbir, deithbeir, deithbir, de(i)thfir, debthir, deithfir, deidbiriu, dethbiri, in d.

i, adj. and subst. (dí + aithber, lit. blameless ). dedbir, Wb. 3b30 , Trip.² 2028 . deidbir, Wb. 6a12 . deithbeir, 33c16 . deithbir, Ml. 38d2 . de(i)thfir, PH . debthir, Auraic. 178 . deithfir f., IGT Decl. § 13 .

I As adj. fitting, proper, reasonable, natural (both of that which is inherently right or meet and of that which might be expected under the circumstances): d.¤ .i. dí aithbir, Corm. Y 15 . d.¤ .i. dlightheach, O'Cl.

(a) Rarely attrib.: inna nnaimtine ṅd.¤ of the just enmities, Ml. 38d2 . ni thechtam serccai acht sercca dethbiri, Alex. 894 .

(b) Usually as pred. with cop. (often unexpressed): is deidbir moídem di suidib, Wb. 17d19 . cani d.¤ , Sg. 3b12 . dethbir dímicim do na hindmassaib talmandaib, PH 5878 . d.¤ ón (sin) that is natural; that might be expected (in confirmation of a preceding statement; often followed by an explanatory sentence introduced by ar, úair): for Cúchulaind uccot, olse, dochuaid rimsa for teithed. Deithber son, ol Medb, ma ranístais daghóic, ní gébad in sirite fri feta, TBC-I¹ 1263 . imsoítis a claidib friu . . . d.¤ ón, ar no labraitis demna friu dia n-armaib, LU 3236 ( SCC 2 ). Cf. TBC-LL¹ 1904 ; LL 30c8 ; PH 4825 , 5194 . is d.¤ dom it is right (proper, natural) for me: is deidbir deit á aigthiu it is reasonable (fitting?) for thee to fear him, Wb. 6a12 . is dedbir am duit thou hast reason, Trip.² 2028 . ba sodeithbir dó, Ériu vi 148.50 . is d.¤ limm I deem it right, fitting , Sg. 3b2 . Followed by appositional clause introduced by cia: is dedbir dúib cid mebul lib a taidmet it is reasonable that ye should be ashamed to call them to remembrance, Wb. 3b30 . deithbeir do ceith aneola that he be ignorant, 33c16 . is d.¤ . . . cid ansa don curp a congbal no wonder that it is hard for the body to contain itself, Mon. Tall. § 60 . d.¤ dóib cid mór a mbríg, LL 276a11 . d.¤ cidh airdirc an fód rightly is the spot celebrated, AFM 915 (poem) (ii 590.12). Followed by neg. clause: is deithber cen cop mór mo thua-sa, LL 275a6 . Compar. deidbiriu, Wb. 6a8 , 9c10 . dethbiri, FA 34 . Adv. in d.¤ gl. merito, Ml. 47b5 .

II As subst. reasonableness, fitness, hence reason, cause: ata dethbir saine sin (text?), Todd Lect. vi 46 . hit é tra dethbiri dosbera in plág fo thír n-Erenn .i. díth cretmi, etc. the reasons, RC xii 426 § 15 . In concrete sense matter: ó díscáiledh na ndethber ó fásann an folt ┐ in uair díscáilter na dethbir sin . . . ní leighester an folt, O'Gr. Cat. 178 .

2 día

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 día or dil.ie/15847
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: dea, dia, d, dáe, dæ, d, dia, dea, dia, dé, d, dǽi, deé, dia, dia, dea, d, dée, dee, dei, dea, déé, dée, deu, deo, deoa, dee, dea, dei, dea, de, dee, deao, déib, deib, deeb, Dia

n Also dea. Disyll., SR 1905 , 2033 , 2685 ; monosyll., 649 , 1917 , 1950 . Decl. (instances of sense (b) in the sg. are enclosed in brackets). n s. dia, Wb. 31a2 . Ml. 44d14 . ( LL 213b42 . Aen. 1225 . ) ( dea, Sg. 162a4 . Trip.² 584 . ) ( déa, LL 10a35 . Dinds. 85 . ) ( de, Corm. Y 31 . IT iii 62 . ) ( dé, LL 12b47 .) ( dee, Marco P. 37. . Maund. 202 . ) ( díae, Trip. 100 . ) ( dei, TTebe pass. ) v s. d, Wb. 5a7 . Ml. 87a2 . dáe, 43d17 . dæ, 54b19 . d, Wb. 5b9 . dia, RC xvii 143 . a s. dea, Thes. ii 247 ( Trip. 122 ). dia, Wb. 20d1 . Ml. 102d1 . Tur. 26 . g s. dé, Wb. 33c6 . Ml. 19c17 . Hib. Min. 10.324 . SR 1376 . d, Wb. 20d2 . Ml. 14c2 . dǽi, Wb. 22c10 (error?). dee, Thes. ii 247 . deé, ZCP ix 451.27 . dia, PH 301 , 433 . ( dea, LL 123b32 ; 227a20 ( TTr. 733 )). d s. dia, Wb. 14b13 . Ml. 39c7 . dea, Thes. ii 246 . n p. d, Sg. 39a22 . dée, Cóir Anm. 149 . dee, SR 8290 . LL 9a11 . PH 713.731 . Aen. 1494 . dei, TBC-I¹ 1751 ( dee, TBC-LL¹ 2419 ). ZCP vi 57 . Aen. 636 . CCath. 1013 (this form common in classical adaptions). dea, Aen. 817 . v p. déé, Acall. 5994 . dée, ZCP vi 57 . a p. deu, Wb. 8c11 . TBC-I¹ 1023 . deo, Sg. 217b3 . deoa, Alex. 905 . dee, RC xiv 406 . PH 740 . dea, Aen. 2956 . dei, Marco P. 32 . Aen. 1376 . g p. dea, Sg. 162a3 . TBC-I¹ 1750 . ( dee, TBC-LL¹ 2419 . ) LL 10b26 . de, LL 35a42 . dee, PH 1352 . deao, (facs.), Aen. 1025 . d p. déib, Sg. 39b14 . deib, TE 14 (Eg.) . deeib, PH 715 . deeb, Ériu ii 196 . PH 709 .

(a) God: intan durairngert Dia du Abracham, Wb. 33d10 . rad Dǽ God's grace , 21c10 . buaid Maicc Dé, Fél. Feb. 15 . fri Di[a] n-athir, Tur. 26 . cuir do smuaintigthi a nDia, SG 41.34 . Later Dia athar. Cf. BNnÉ 196 . a Dhe athar uile-cumachtaidh, Lib. Flav. ii 2vb 38 . Ísu Crist mac Dé athar, PH 8353 . Dia dia dídin may God protect it, BColm. 82 . ar Dia for God's sake: fedba irescha ar Dia, RC iv 254 . In salutations (but see Éigse x 96-102 ): Dia do betha hail! Aisl. Tond. p. 101 . Dia do betha a m'anum, a C., Acall. 7433 . Dé do betha, a ógh, 3 B 22, 70b21 . Dia do bheatha a Mheic Mhuire, A. Ó Dálaigh xliv 1 . narab Dia do betha a bháis, Ériu viii 92 . Dia beatha, ib. Dia beatha mo bhráthar, A. Ó Dálaigh xlvi 2 , 3 . Dia beatha i gclí dar gcabhair, 3 , 5 . Dia lib Dominus vobiscum, LB 262a4 . Dia lat, Todd Lect. vi 65 . Exclamations, etc.: a Dhē bethad! ba bēd bróin ēg ui E., BB 58a39 . ar Dia frib! lēgid uaib me! for God's sake, Anecd. iii 9 . ar Dia rit . . . abair th'fáisitin, SG 41.10 . teaccaisc mé ar Dia frit, ar espoc M. . . . adeirim rit ar Dia cáin pecadh na carat, 41.32 . Dia fris cena, is ingnad in gnim as God is witness, CCath. 3183 . Dia fris, as dall an t-aiccnedh don lucht lasar ferr fuil do thodhail . . . inas C. do clodh gan telccud fola, 4583 . Dia fris, cidh innso?, 4818 . Cf. perhaps, dia re na ccomal uaimsi, ol Meadhbh, ZCP x 277 . In n.pr. Cailleach Dē, ingen Huī Eidin, Lec. 392b26 .

Compd. ¤aithis blasphemy: as blasfeim eitricemhuil (sic leg.) .i. dia-aithis sin do radh le Dia, Luc. Fid. 358 .

(b) god, goddess, supernatural being, object of worship (cf. 3 Dea supra): dorigénsat . . . deu diib, Wb. 7d10 . dé nemdai gl. caelestibus, Sg. 39a22 . nomen do lestur bís oc edpartaib do deib, 56b7 . co fessed cia bad mó nert | a nDiasom no dia Egept, SR 3848 . dia catha . . . dianda nomen Mars , Corm. Y 892 . Net .i. dia catha, O'Dav. 1289 . am fisid (sic leg.) i cerdaib dei druidechtai, ZCP iii 236 = conidam fissid . . . hi cerdaib dé druidechta, LU 10304 . beandacht dea ┐ anai fort, olse. dei leosom int æs cumachta ┐ ana iint æs trebtha, TBC-I¹ 1750 ( TBC-LL¹ 2419 ). tongu do dia toingthe hUlaid, 3625 . atbiursa mo dee I swear by my gods, RC xiv 406 . dei ídal, O'Mulc. 469 . bá día talmhan dóibh é ar mhét a chumachta, Cóir Anm. 150 (i.e. the Dagda). inn a síthaib, in do deib dúib?, Trip. 100 . do rúmenutar ba dea in draicc, PH 6290 . a mordéé adhartha (exclam.), Acall. 5994 . seinser gacha duine as dia adhartha dhoibh, Marco P. 110 . demhna ┐ dei aerdha, 32 . na cuirp . . . d'edbairt dona deib adartha, TTebe 2219 . rot-bennachat do dei adurtha, CCath. 4036 . Ismen dei an srotha sin a mathair, 3573 . is dona deeib adartha chreidim, BCC § 87 . is iodhail uile dhée na ndaóine, Psalms xcvi 5 . dia dá mhaoin is mairg do-ní unhappy the man who makes a god of his wealth, DDána 22.2 .

tene dia St. Anthony's fire, erysipelas: efrempila .i. teni dhiadh, Thr. Med. Gl. C 133 . sacer ignis .i. tene dhia, 23 K 42, 323.19 . (acidula) as mór ḟoghnus a n-aghaidh na teine dhia, 330.z . (anthera) ceirin do ghéunamh dhe ┐ a cur ar an teine dhiadh, 355.15 (cf. 1 dé). an sugh do cur ar an teine ndiagh, 23 O 23, 21 b41 . ar tenid diath, 24b3 , 90a5 . Cf. tene dia gl. flemen, Sg. 96b1 . Perh. to be referred to 1 dé.

See 1 teine.

1 écndairc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 écndairc or dil.ie/19627

adj i

I Absent , opp. to frecndairc: amrad .i. ecnairc rāidh...ni rādh acht is amrādh....i. ni fri nech frecnairc rāidhim nī, ach fri nech ecnairc, H 3.18, 616a (gl. on Amra CC). aisndeis ecndairc indib huilib (tertiae personae) Sg. 161b3 . dég rombu écndaircc dó he was absent from him 148a6 . mairg in iath ecnaircc aerthiar RC xx 44.23 = LU 5b31 . tucfait o teorfégad spirtalla a mmenman na réta ata ecnairce dóib they will understand...the things that are absent LU 36az = RC xxv 248.5 . ēcndairc fri frecndairc, a fault in literary composition, viz. using address and narrative with reference to a single person in the same stanza (cf. faisnéis is agalluimh a n-énrann IGT, Introd. § 2 ), Auraic. 5171 , etc. Cf. Metr. Dinds. iii 54.9 , cited below. nir bu ecnairc (with gl.: .i. ni bu écnaigthid) Hy v 5 ( Thes. ii 327 ) is obscure.

II Absence: écndairc cian ut ille (gl. absenti) Sg. 138a2 . ecṅdairc ocus (gl. quasi absenti) 138a3 . nis n-ecnairc mogha midhiter dire .i. ni mesamnaighann an brethem eneclann...do neoch a n-ecmais a tochusa, Laws iv 378.20 . asbreth fri cechtarde i n-ecndairg araile to each of them separately Ériu iii 137.52 . g s. as attrib.: taiselbad n-ecnairce discovery in absence Laws v 328.24 Comm. aer-aicetal ecnach n-egnairce recitation of a slanderous satire in absence 228.27 . Esp. in formula i n-écnairc (with gen. or absol.) in the absence (of): a n-ecnairc meanman in the absence of full mental powers (of a minor) Laws v 510.5 . i n-aighidh a fir...a n-ecnairc in the presence of her partner ...in his absence ii 380.1 Comm. mad i n-ecnairc; mad i n-a fiadnaise, v 356.28 Comm. athgabail forniatar i n-ecnairc ne[i]ch, ii 124.28 C. éccnairc .i. an aimsir do-cuaidh thort the time which is past O'Cl. seems based on: frecnairc fri hecnairc anois | a lucht imdénma in ḟenchuis, Metr. Dinds. iii 54.9 , but the sense is not well supported.

III In the phr. ar écn(d)airc for the sake of (a common formula in prayer or adjuration). The earlier sense may have been instead of , a not unlikely, development from for the absence of. In: ar éicndirc ma frisaiccid Crist (gl. rogamus vos...per adventum Domini nostri) Wb. 25d24 the sense is doubtful; either = ar é.¤ Crist, ma frissidnaiccid for Christ's sake, if ye expect Him or (even) in His absence, if so be ye expect His coming.Cf. in macc amnas ro dasgāid | Brigtæ ar écnairc a rríg `for her King's sake' Thes. ii 336.2 ( Hy v 35 ); with gl.: .i. ar in rig i tai ecnarcus tabair ní...damsa, olse for the sake of the king who is absent from thee i.e. in whose place thou art (?). a Chríst cotamróither...ar écnairc do gérat, ib. Fél., Ep. 72 (cf. under 2 écndairc). ar écnairc Maicc Maire, 384 , 404 , 526 . arécnairc do martrae, 514 . ar egnarc a croichesium ...ar ecnairc a esergi, Ériu i 122.30 , 32 .

in-coisig

Cite this: eDIL s.v. in-coisig or dil.ie/28297

Forms: incoisce, incosaig, inchoissig, inchosaich, inchoisig, inchoisget, inchoisged, inchoisc, incoisc, incoisce, in- coississed, inchoissised, in-coisis, inchoisc, incoissegar, inchoisechar, incoisgedar, inchoisciter, inchoisecht, inrochosecht, incoiscthi, inchoiscid, incoiscid, inchoiscidh, -edh, ioncoisg, incoiscithur, hincoiscedh

v (in(d)-com-sech) indic. pres. s. 2 incoisce, Laws iv 108. 1 Comm. 3 incosaig, Sg. 208a9 . inchoissig (rel.), Ml. 59a7 . inchosaich, TBC-I¹ 623. ní inchoisig , Sg. 9a16 . pl. 3 ní inchoisget , Sg. 202b3 . impf. s 3 inchoisged, 9a16 . ipv. s. 2 inchoisc, Trip.² 1140. incoisc, LU 4864. subj. pres. s. 3 ? incoisce, Laws iv 144.1 Comm. subj. past. s. 3 in- coississed, Ml. 24c22 . rel. inchoissised, Wb. 2c7 . Ml. 56a13 . fut. s. 2 in-coisis, Bürgschaft 28 § 76b . pret. s. 3 ro inchoisc , Trip.² 1186. Pass. pres. s. incoissegar, Ml. 127d14 . inchoisechar, Sg. 198a3 . pl. incoisgedar, 29a2 . inchoisciter, PH 3066. pret. s. inchoisecht, Ml. 16c10 . inrochosecht, Ériu iii 142.233 . Part. pl. incoiscthi, Ml. 49a7 . Later declined as an i- verb, inchoiscid: indic. pres. s. 3 incoiscid, LB 251a3 . subj. past s. 3 co ro inchoiscidh (leg. -edh), RC xlvi 228.9 . pret. s. 3 ro ioncoisg , Leb. Gab.(i) 10.15 . Pass. indic. pres. s. incoiscithur, Laws ii 154.5 Comm. pret. s. ro hincoiscedh , TTebe 3589 .

(a) signifies, indicates, points out: conrobad inna chorp ní inchoissised tóbe uitiorum `so that there might be in his body something to signify ...,' Wb. 2c7 . a cétna n-etargnae inchoisechar per ille `the first cognition which is signified,' Sg. 198a3 . áram inchosaig dede `the number that signifies a pair of things,' 71a2 . suin do ṡlund ind úildetad inchoisget, 45b1 . dind intliucht inchoisget, 53a10 . incoissegar deacht ┐ doinacht críst tris in loc inna aisndísen, Ml. 127d14 . son inchoissised longud, 56a13 . is ed inchosaig a frecndarcus `it is that which indicates His presence,' 116d3 . atcoisged amal bid hi frecndairc nobeth `he used to point out him as though he were present,' 24c15 . is tremfeidligud suthin inchosig permaneo non sic maneo, 21d4 . ro inchoisc Pátraic dó altóir chlochtha ... fo talmain `indicavit,' Trip.² 1042. ro inchoisc Pátraic dóib cosmailius in luicc cona méur ó chill Garat, 1186 . incoiscsiu damsa ced leth atá Emain, LU 4864. crích íncoisce ail adrada `a district which a stone of worship marks,' Laws iv 142.16 Comm. crich insin nad incoiscet nach comarda ┐ nad cuindrighther senchaide, O'Curry 33 ( H 3.18, p. 13 ). gillfai ┐ in-coisis `dass du Unterpfand stellen und anzeigen (aussagen) wirst,' Bürgschaft 28 § 76b . is ed inchoisciter dúin-ne triasin ernaigti thrédai do-roine Ísu ..., PH 3066. conadh ime rofaid Dia an lucaist co ro inchoiscidh (leg. -edh) do ... that he might show him, RC xlvi 228.9 . ised inchoisces qāil ind ḟocail as locusta .i. loco sta , ZCP xii 370.12 . issed inrochosecht tre sodain (sic leg., Ed.) sladi muintire Coirpri what was signified was, Ériu iii 142.233 .

(b) teaches: incoiscithur do marcuighecht `he is taught horsemanship,' Laws ii 154.5 Comm. is amne íncoisce doib scor ann `thou instructest them', iv 108.1 Comm. as eadh ro ioncoisg-side doib, long do dhenamh, Leb. Gab.(i) 10.15 . cia ro incoisc dhuit sin olse mo druidh ol in righ who thus instructed you?, BB 210b30 .

6 ol

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 6 ol or dil.ie/33761
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: al, all, oll, oul, oldat, olt

defective vb. says, said, quoth. When folld. by a pron. as subj. the forms ol-sé, -sí, -siat (O.Ir. -seat) are used (in Mid.Ir. occas. é, íat); Quin argues that the second element is the stressed demonstrative pronoun , Celtica v 98 . For length of the vowel see Ériu liii 138 . In common use throughout the O.Ir. and a great part of the Mid.Ir. period. In Ml. Glosses the rival form ar appears ( Ml. 44b10 , c20 ); in Mid.Ir. ar (or, for, bar) are used side by side with ol (which is fairly common in CCath., rare in Acall.); in Mod.Ir. ar alone survives. There are a few traces of olsí with a pronominal subject in Mid.Ir. texts: olsi Cūchulaind, TBC-LL¹ 779 .

Spelt al, ZCP iii 234.3 , 252.4 , 254.6 ; all, TBC-LL¹ 5322 , IT i 144.15 ; oll, ib. 24 . oul, ZCP i 250.5 ( Marco P. 8 ).

Used like Lat. inquit in direct oration and always paren- thetical, generally after the opening words of the speech reported, in 3d pers. sing. or pl. (exceptionally with 1 s. pron.) and with force of present or past. In Glosses often used to refer to the speaker of words reported in the Lat. text. Often tautological, preceded by a vb. of saying introducing the quotation; occas. folld. by FRI. An analogical pl. formation oldat (oldait, olt) occurs in Mid.Ir.

(1 s.) `maith em' ols me friss, MacCongl. 71.17 .

(3 s.) with pron.: `cip cruth tra' olse , Wb. 12d24 . `bid fír aem' olsesom, Ml. 137b7 , cf. 32a5 , 58a11 . `nom-deithidnigther- sa . . .' olsem fria muntair, 29b7 . `madgenatar' olsi, 90b12 . `atconnarc ém' ol se `aislingi', LU 3331 ( SCC 12 ). `tair issin tech, a B.' all se fris, IT i 144.15 . is iarum asbert-som `is deithbir' ol se, Mon. Tall. 60. illa dixit `anda lim' ol sisi, 61 . `ainfait-se' ol suide, Laws i 250.22 . `Cisse conair deloud-sai?' al side . . . `Ni ansa' ol soide, ZCP iii 234.3 , 4 = ol si . . . ol se, LU 10244 , 10245 . `Dess imríadam dúib' or si. `Slán imreisc dúibsi' ol eseom, LU 10240. ol sé, CCath. 540. ol seisium, 4083 . ol sí, 4126 . With subst.: `anatammresa' ol Dia, Ml. 31c14 . `indaárben uáinn' ol Duaid, Thes. i 4.31 (Southampton Ps.). `is sochrudiu láam oldó-sa' ol coss, Wb. 12a21 . ól Ísu són (referring to words of text), 6c30 , cf. Ml. 46b27 , 56c14 . `primus psalmus' ol Beid `titulum non habet', Hib. Min. 11.369 . `is olc do menma' ol C. fria, SCC 6 ( LU 3268 ). `cia log' ol in nathir `ardomta-sa?', LB 110b29 ( MacCarthy 50.23 ) = ar in n., SR 1166. `denaidh eirge' ol Cesair, CCath. 5167. Acall. 2344.

pl. with pron.: `in medio' olseat-som, Sg. 201b11 , cf. Ml. 19d2 , 31b14 . `cristaige' ol siat `ros-dermait hi', PH 202. `a Ísa' oul siat, Marco P. 8. `coichu thussu?' ol iat, LU 3328 ( SCC 12 ). PH 755. With subst.: `guidmit-ne tusa' ol na démnu, PH 759. `is fāid guach in t-Issa' ol na geinti, Marco P. 8. `ni dideman om' oldat in fir, FB 75. oldat na flathe, Laws i 18.18 . oldaid fir Erenn, H 3.18 p. 358 ( O'Curry 757 ). `maith didu' olt ecnaidi na nEbra, Ériu ii 104 § 14.

Preceding the words quoted: ol Patraéc: a Brigit, a noeb- challech, MacCarthy 20.12 (introducing a poem).

In future sense: issed atbéra . . . `Inné corp ind náoimh-so occat?' ol sé he will say, BNnÉ 94.11 , ib. 14 , 16 .

teime

Cite this: eDIL s.v. teime or dil.ie/40369

n , f. (teim)

(a) In etymology of the placename Mag Muirthemne in Tochmarc Emire darkness: cid adgaibsid iarom olsi ni handsa olse di themi maro, LU 10245 = de teme marai, ZCP iii 234.4 . an conair asrubart de temheu moarai .i. de Moich Murteme. Ass aire adberar t.¤ marai do-sside ... teme marai .i. ditiu no foscemhiel marai, 240 § 34. Cf. Murthemne ... .i. temhe (?) in mara, Metr. Dinds. iv 294.17 .

(b) death: melg themi .i. t.¤ in báis, Corm. 28 melg. Cf. mairbt[h]eim coich bē a dīe, Corm. Y 419 . melg .i. as, ut est crin cach ala methus melg teme, teme .i. bas .i. as mbáis .i. fuil, O'Dav. 1228 , see Ériu xiii 20.4 . dibad ┐ bath ┐ baa ┐ bú ┐ cel ┐ bas ┐ macht ┐ ort ┐ teme de nomina mortis , Metr. Gl. 3 n. 2 . dibath ┐ bath ┐ ba ┐ bii ┐ cel ┐ teme ic sluind epilten ... fo líth doluid ar theme, RC xx 170.14 - 16 (ACC). temhe .i. bás ... Fó lith doluidh i temhe, O'Cl. See 1 deime.

1 tó

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 tó or dil.ie/41033
Last Revised: 2013

affirm. adv. used in reply to a question, yes, certainly: `in essar dam do ā ? '| `t.¤, mena, má mó á,' Corm. Y 70 . `ind raibi athcomarc lat ... ?' `t.¤' ol M., Mon. Tall. 135.29 . in failet hi focus ? olse; to, ar araile, LU 1868 . asbert fris in tairngeredh Adhamnan fochaidi d'feraibh Erenn ... T.¤, ol Colman, Anecd. ii 18.22 . in dartais do choibsena ? t.¤ or sí, SG 415.11 .

Cf. náthó, níthó.