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ad-tluichethar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ad-tluichethar or dil.ie/585
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: atluchur, atlochur, atlochor, atluchedar, atluachathar, adluigethar, -atlaigethar, atlochomar, atlóch[a]tar, atlaigthe, atlaiged, atligid, atluchfam, atluchestar, atlugestar, atlaigestar, altoighte, attlugud, atlaigid, altaigid

v (* ad-tluch-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 650 ). Indic. pres. 1 s. atluchur, Wb. 3b19 . atlochur, LU 9939 . atlochor, 2998 . 3 s. atluchedar, Ml. 128c3 . atluachathar, ZCP iv 242.11 (= atluchatar, Ériu iii 2. y ). adluigethar (MS. atluidethar ), 13 (= atluchetar, ibid. 4.1 ). -atlaigethar, 18 (= atlaighedar, ibid. 6 ). 1 pl. atlochomar, Ériu iii 2.1 . 3 pl. atlóch[a]tar, ZCP iv 241.5 . Ipv. 2 s. atlaigthe, Thes. ii 318.5 (Hy. ii). 3 s. atlaiged, ZCP vii 311 § 8 . 2 pl. atligid, Wb. 27b24 . Fut. 1 pl. atluchfam, Wb. 17a2 . Pret. 3 s. atluchestar, Mon. Tall. 150.17 . atlugestar, LU 10930 . atlaigestar, 10787 . Vbl. of necess. altoighte, O'Gr. Cat. 469.5 . Vn. attlugud.

Later as simple vb. atlaigid, altaigid.

(a) gives thanks (generally with buidi) to (DO): atluchfam buidi do Dia, Wb. 17a2 . atluchedar buidi do Día, Ml. 128c3 . altaigis a buidi do Dia, Ériu ii 186.26 . altaigis buide dia Art, ZCP viii 103.8 . an duine adluigethar buidhi a deghmaine do Dhía, ZCP iv 242.13 . With ellipsis of buidi and accus. of thing for which thanks are returned: atluchur do dia ce rubaid fo pheccad nachibfel, Wb. 3b19 . atlochur do Dia i n-etad / innocht dom ḟeis óenfeccad, LU 9648 . atlochur dom ríg / . . . / bith dom churp co sáim, LU 9939 . atlochur dom chumachtaib ar Conchobar rothascair etc., LL 12983 . ro altuighsium fo Dhia inad a reclésa dh 'foillsiugud dó, Lism. L. 4744 . dlegar duit a flaíth / altaig cech maith dó, KMMisc. 276.4 . ad-lochar don fhlaith rom chum / a ndearnadh d'éigceart orum, Aithd. D. 74.7 . innmhe as altoighte d'fior an estate to be thankful for, O'Gr. Cat. 469.5 . ro chuala nicon ro atlaigestar m'athairse a chuit riam I have heard that my father never gave thanks for his share, LL 279a2 . altaigid a proind, ZCP vii 311 § 8 . caithit tuara ┐ dig, atluiget iar sin, xiii 30.2 . beiridh a bhuidhe ré Dia a theacht / ┐ altaighidh a éisteacht `and be grateful for having heard him', Atlantis iv 148.19 . Folld. by FRI (LA): atlaigim fri Dia ar forclid aile imalle frind ic foillsiugud na noem corp sin, PH 1579 . altaigim mo grassa re Dia I give thanks to God, Fier. 123 . níor altuigheas rem Airdrígh, DDána 46.5 . altuigh an troimthiodhlacadh sa léd thigherna, Mac Aingil 4983 . altaigit ina huile poipleacha la Dia . . . na mōrmīrbaili forcaomnagair `gave thanks to God . . . for the great miracles which had been wrought', Fl. Earls 140.28 .

(b) rejoices at (with accus.): atlaigestár bethaid a brathar he rejoiced that his brother was alive, LU 10787 (TE). atlugestar a céli a ndogéni friss her husband rejoiced at what she had done for him, 10930 . ro attlaigestar E. in scél sin, TTr.² 80 . cech met ro atlaigset ┐ forbailigset crochad Críst, LB 154b8 . roatlaigh a scaradh re hiffern, ZCP iii 33.24 . roatlaigset a naigenta ┐ a nimraiti ar torachtain a forba . . . fen, Ériu viii, 20.3 .

(c) For do-tluichethar: atluidestar comruc friu she gave thanks for having met them , ACL iii 326.8 . Cf. tothluigim .i. altaighim, ut est, tothluigim techt i tegh co righ, O'Dav. 1565 (= tothluighther techt, Ériu xiii 40 ) ( athlochar techt, IT iii 51.6 ).

cubaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cubaid or dil.ie/13383

 

Forms: cuibdi, -e, cobaid, cobaidh, cobfid, cobhuidh, chobaid, cubaidh

adj pl. cuibdi, -e (com + fid, GOI §§ 128 , 345 , 830 ). cobaid, Ml. 14d11 . cobaidh, Laws i 136.10 Comm. cobfid, Auraic. 957 . cobhuidh: soraidh, DDána 114.4 .

I

(a) harmonious, in accord, agreeing : nir chuibde ciar chomlabra `they [shrieks] were discordant though uttered together', RC vii 298 § 137 ( LL 29226 ). cuibdius c.¤ / ac na helaib, ZCP vii 309.21 , `tuneful music', Murphy Lyrics 30.2 . nidat cuibde a comanmand `their names are no sweet symphonies', MacCongl. 7.16 . ceōla cuibdi na n-aingel, ZCP viii 114 § 9 . re cliathaib crithre, cuibdi, comraitecha ciuil, MR 110.y . ar nirbat cuibdi a cocrícha cían remi, LL 31032 (`their boundaries had not been harmonious', TTr. 213 ). imon crích . . . / níptar cuibde comrainne `were not agreed in partnership', Metr. Dinds. iv 16. 8 (Dubthir) = rapdar . . . , LL 30526 . roslechta leis . . . / .uii. maige certa cuibde, 2196 . Cheville: ainm c.¤ , Auraic. 2117 . Of physical activity or action concerted; agreed upon: imram . . . c.¤ comaontadach, ML² 657 . mat cuibdi ┐ fer laime . . . Manbet cuibdi (`if there be accomplices', Plummer MS notes), Laws i 244.1 , 3 Comm. ? cia biat cuidbi aen érce. Munub cuidbi aen érca is secht cumula cacha láimhe can cinnedh, O'D. 517 ( H 3.17, 420 ). See cuibdius. equal, (with) (in), matched: na tri Aedana ardda / ropsat cuibdi comṡelgga, LL 28804 . cidat cuibdi comriata inn echradsin nídat comdatha well-matched , LL 13906 . bāmar cuibhdhe cōim-t[h]rēna, ML² 2080 .

(b) fitting, meet, becoming; proper, right : áile suidhe n-árd n-esartha. i mbí clúmh chubhaidh cosartha (request for a dwelling), Ériu xiii 40.12 ` suitable ', Murphy Lyrics p. xiv (note). m'itche c.¤ coir `meet and fitting prayer', Ériu xix 3 § 4 . do mac cóir ch.¤ Cherbaill, LU 4324 . ro-po ch.¤ co ro-cloitea o mac na hóige .i. Crist, PH 2022 . nocho chert na c.¤ , CRR 22 . na ceithre comhfhocail cuibhdhi `the four fit . . . maxims', MR 90.4 . Clann Onc[h]on c.¤ comlān ` righteous ', BColm. 52.6 . caillecha dubha / craibhtecha, cubdhe, 'na chill, BNnÉ 152.12 . cubhaidh = comely , Isaiah iv 2 . F. ab cubaidh Ardmacha `legimate abbot', TFrag. 140 note p . an chanóin chubhoidh (of scripture), DDána 20.31 . ro bud cubuidh dire do beth doib ina setuib `would be meet', Laws ii 402.29 Comm. c.¤ desidhe gemadh he trian na codach etc., iv 198.4 Comm. guin daighfhir cró níor chubhaidh `was not meet', RC xlix 169 § 5 . fuair tríonn créachta nar chubhaidh, DDána 40.17 . neach nār iomchair an umhla mar budh cubhaidh, Beatha S. F. 2167 .

With following prepp. DO, FRI (LA): is ulcach Cú Ch. is c.¤ do niaid comrac fris (`it is fitting for', Faraday), LU 6133 (TBC). frepuide cuibde di cech pheccad `appropriate remedies for every sort of sin', Rule of Tallaght 80 § 59 . ro-po c.¤ duit, etc., PH 2345 . ceit[h]re trīr . . . / cuibde re gach les, Ériu i 39 § 6 . gēb-sa lethrand dūs in ba c.¤ frissa ṅgēba-som to see if it fits yours (a half-quatrain of verse), Fing. R. 119 . ni mó na re bochtaib tróga bud ch.¤ beth innte, Todd Lect. vi 44.5 . re chéile isad cuibhdhe they suit each other, DDána 98.29 . ni cubhaidh lena nadúir cennaighecht `trading does not suit his nature', Ériu v 172.157 .

Compar. concinnore .i. as chubaithiu, Ml. 145b3 . ga craebh coibhneasa as cuibhdhe do cheastnughadh `fitter', MR 98.1 . As superl. is friu as cuibhdhi sin fria drochdhainib, Lism. L. 4058 . duit as cuibhdhe cró do shean most befitting, DDána 74.60 . Adv. in chobaid gl. concinnenter, Ml. 14d11 . go cubaidh , ZCP viii 114.22 . co c.¤ comaontadhach, ML² 682 .

II As subst. = cuibdius.

(a) In metr. sense: cid a chubhaidh ? . . . coibhḟiodh ann sin ar an ní as ionann fiodh airegdha benus an dá ḟocal in imḟregra; ar gé ni dleghar dona bardaibh eolus i ffedhaibh . . . dlegar doibh a cubhaid techta do urmuisi, ┐ do aithne fria cluais, ┐ aignedh, Ériu xiii 43.y - 44.2 . Cf. O'Dav. 771 . rann . . . as ionann c.¤ a imfregra ina leth toisioch, ┐ ina leth dhéghenach (following ex. shows a: b, c: d), Ériu xiii 44.7 . con-ricce a chubhaidh fri araill (of comharc bairdne), 43.31 . O'Dav. 48 . cach da thæbomna ar fid hi c.¤, cach da cobfid i c.¤: is ed is c.¤ iarum co robe an fid cetna beas isna foclaib in imfreccrai, ┐ co rob inand a lin du tæbomna beas intib, ut est, bas ┐ las, etc., Auraic. 957 . cubhaidh comfada (one of the sixteen parts of poetry), IT iii 29.21 . In name of metre: debide doceil a c.¤ , IT iii 17 § 43 , Murphy Metrics 65 `which conceals its rime', p. 78 . See ánchubaid, salchubaid, de-chubaid

(b) In general sense: congbhaidh do chubhaidh `maintain thy sway', Oss. vi 148.7 . ? focheil Bé san tulaig the / dagné fon ch.¤ Ceilbe ` suitably ', Metr. Dinds. iii 58.56 .

follus

Cite this: eDIL s.v. follus or dil.ie/23139
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: follais, foilse, foilsi, falsi, failsib, faillsem

adj u, o-ā (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 116 ). d s f. follais, Ml. 124d13 . g s f. foilse, 30d14 . pl. foilsi, 25b6 . 112b10 . falsi, LU 2613 ( RC xxv 242 ). d p. failsib, Trip.² 20 (= failsi, Trip. 4.1 ). Superl. faillsem (gl. luculentissimam) BCr. 40a1 ( Thes. ii 28 ).

Manifest, evident, clear, open (to senses and esp. to understanding) : gl. evidens Wb. 32a2 . apertus Ml. 42d6 . manifestus 18c16 . O'Mulc. 301 . publicus Ml. 30d14 . 124d13 . is peccad f.¤ do neoch cen aíne do dénam, PH 4981 . na co rup f.¤ do chach fair a pheccad , 5319 . is f.¤ gné mbroin fairseom, LU 2279 ( FA 33 ). cidat demni ┐ cidat falsi araile di rūinib na esergi, LU 2613 ( RC xxv 242z ). tria ingrintidib fállsaib = per apertos fidei adversarios PH 5868 . mirbaile follusa, ALC i 388.16 . Freq. with cop. in formula : is f.¤ (do) it is evident (to ...), folld. by clause : is f.¤ ad drogduine siu it is manifest that thou art a bad man Wb. 1c10 . is f.¤ dunni ... as firdia, 2d8 . is f.¤ rundgabsat, Ml. 74d7 . is f.¤ dún file choibnius etir ..., Sg. 151b7 . is f.¤ isnaib dobriathraib so ata comsuidigthi it is clear that they are compounds 201b14 . is f.¤ isindí nachim rindarpaise it is manifest in that he has not cast me away Wb. 5a18 . is f.¤ nandat foirbthi Wb. 6b3 . conid f.¤ ... comdar gu-forglide, PH 3150 . The clause is not always formally dependent : is f.¤ as for ng[n]imaib ni dligthi comardad fris it is plain from your performances that you do not deserve to be put on a level with him LU 8551 ( FB 41 ). is f.¤ tancatar aingil (= ecce angeli accesserunt) PH 4923 . co mbad fh.¤ triasin dánatus-sin ... tairisnecht do beith dó-som, 5137 . Cf. also Wb. 1c10 above.

Adv. : ind f.¤ (gl. coram) Ml. 61b19 . hí f.¤ fiad chách (gl. superficie) Ml. 24c19 . hi f.¤, hi clith openly ACL iii 318 § 61 . hi tarchet Crist co f.¤ `wherein C. was manifestly foretold' Thes. ii 253.2 . ni lamad labra ... co f.¤ friss openly PH 62 . Compar. rochairig ... ni is foillsi (= manifestius arguit) 5132 . an chuisle as reime ┐ as folluise = vena grossior & apparentior R.Sláinte iii 9715 .

As subst.: ? cach f.¤ cunu foltuib (.i. in rath no in set turcluidhe) `every reward with its returns' Laws ii 286.14 (24) . ( SM Facs. 34a ; `... an jedem klar Bewiesenen mit seinen Objekten' ZCP xiv 373 ). hi cech ḟollus 'in every clear [testimony]' Ériu li 185 .

Compds. (with adj. in adverbial sense = ` plainly, manifestly '). blogha ... follasbhrisde, ML 132.17 . leibhionn ... follas-chiorrbhtha, 86.4 . guth ard fh.¤-glan, ZCP vi 42.17 . mirath f.¤-gnéthech manifest bad luck MacCongl. 13.17 . fiorta f.¤-mhóra, ZCP x 4.3 . in f.¤-pectach openly sinful Lism. L. 3755 . oc tabach císa ... na ḟ.¤-phecdach, LB. 145a61 . (of Matthew, perhaps = Lat. publicanorum). fer faebhrach f.¤-réidh ` candid, placid ', Miscell. Celt. Soc. 332.3 .

1 for

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 for or dil.ie/23272
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: for, far, bar, fuir, AR, FOR, AR, forsa, fora, fara, forsin[d], forsa, forsna, farsin, barsin, barsan, forin[d], forna, fornaib, forsn, forin, forna, formu, form, fort, fort, bard, fora, forar, forar, f., forar, f., form, fórm, formsa, fórmsa, forom, foromm, forumsa, foromsa, forum, ḟorum, orum, orum, orumsa, formm, ormm, fort, ort, fortsu, foir, fair, ḟair, foirsom, foirsem, fairseom, fairsem, foir, for, foir, fair, ḟair, ḟairside, faride, forrae, furri, ḟurthi, uirre, fuiri, furi, fuiri, furri, fuirri, fora, forra, fuirri, fuirre, uirre, fornn, fornd, ornn, fornni, forunni, forni, forund, forond, foirn, foirnn, foirnd, oirn, oirnd, foraindi, foraind, forainde, oraind, orainne, forn, forinn, orainde, foirib, forib, fuirib, furib, fuiribsi, furibsi, foraib, foraibh, foraibse, foirb, foirbsi, oraib, forru, forrusom, forro, forra, orru, forthu, fortho, forta, forib, foraib, forib, foraib, forroib, forru, forthu, foraib, for, ar, fair, air, AR, FOR, orat, orad, airiut, erut, AR, AR, f.

prep. with acc. and dat. See Thurn., Gr., and Fraser, ZCP viii 34 ff . Lenition of the obj. occurs once in the Glosses: for chenn, Ml. 44d29 , possibly a scribal error. Even in the modern period non-lenition is regular in some expressions after AR representing FOR, cf. the alliterations: feall ar filidh IGT, 24 P 8, 190.5 ; nā bí ar filidh go fortuil ib. (= Studies 1924, 245 ).

Forms: for (in Mid. Ir. MSS usually denoted by f surmounted by horizontal stroke) Glosses, pass. and later; occasionally far: Wb. 5b3 . Ml. 82d10 . Sg. 90b1 , 2 . Thes. ii 39.28 , 29 . TBC-LL¹ 3782 . LL 176a7 ( CRR 34 ), LL 268b20 ( MU² 860 ). bar, LL 265a39 ( MU² 452 ). TBC-LL¹ 2820 . 3613 , etc. fuir, Thes. ii 39.22 .

In later MSS. gradually replaced by AR. This appears occasionally in LU, more frequently in LL. In Maund. FOR still appears though AR is commoner.

With rel. part. forsa n-, fora n-: fara n-: forsa taith, Wb. 20b6 . forsa robae, Ml. 82d10 . forsa n-airisedar, Sg. 139b1 . forsmbeth, SR 1364 . forstā, 1839 . forsnaicci, Imr. Brain § 38 . forsmbí, § 43 . forsmbīd, Metr. Dinds. ii 42.2 . fora sernte Wb. 18c8 . fora taibre, 29a23 . fora n-idparar, 5b6 . fora mboí, Tur. 60 . fora ṁbi, Thes. ii 41.27 . forá mbí ib. 17 . fora mbiat, LU 2639 . fora taí, SR 3096 . farsa n-immér TBC-LL¹ 5961 . barsa mbatar, 3738 . fara mbí, Thes. ii 40.32 .

See Strachan, ZCP iv 63 ; 488 - 9 .

With article: forsin[d], forsa (n-), forsna, etc., Wb. 1d2 , 9d5 , 32d2 ; Ml. 22c12 , 46c3 , 48a21 , 84d4 ; Sg. 8a13 , 207a6 ; LU pass. farsin, Trip.² 1948 , barsin, TBC-LL¹ 4553 . barsan 3387 . Without -s-: forin[d], Ml. 60b14 , 94b11 , 120d7 . forna Ml. 51d19 . 69a11 . 138a6 . fornaib, Wb. 5a5 . Ml. 27d22 . See Strachan l.c.

Rarely with elision in sg., as in: forsn uscisin, SR 4632 .

In Mid. Ir. MSS. maintenance of -s- is the rule, though it is occasionally dropped by some scribes, e.g. forin, PH 3594 . forna, LU 2552 (H). CCath. 2574 . Marco P. 64 .

With poss. pron. 1 s. formu naimtea, Ml. 86c10 . for mo namtea, 88a8 . for mu mud, Thes. ii 294 . for mo menmuin ZCP x 338 ( Laud 615, 104 ). for mo thir ┐ for mo thalam YBL 113b47 (= form ... form, LL 270b46 . for mo chuit ..., Rawl. 134a4 ). form ḟuil, SR 1542 . form thigerna, 3188 . form laim ┐ form gail, LL 121a12 . See KZ xlviii 55 . 2 s. fort athair, Trip.² 1759 (= fort ha., Trip. 150 ). fort cheniul, Trip.² 1760 . bard, TBC-LL¹ 3230 . 3 s. and pl. fora. 1 pl. forar ndail, SR 3633 forar morsluag, 3974 . (cf. fer ruc breith for fis ... | for ndís bámar i cumriuch, SR 3286 , where f. is possibly a contraction of forar). 2 pl. f.¤ far naimtib, TTr.² 1775 .

With pron. suff.: 1 s. form, Wb. 8d26 . Ml. 2a6 . 59a18 . 104d2 . SR 1584 . fórm, LU 5669 . formsa, LL 224a28 ( TTr. 513 ). fórmsa, LU 4507 . forom, SR 1404 . foromm, TBC-LL¹ 3752 . forumsa, Ml. 44b29 . 89a2 . TBC-LL¹ 3750 . LL 234a34 ( TTr. 1278 ). foromsa, LL 223by ( TTr. 488 ). forum, Acall. 3357 . ḟorum, LL 234a13 ( TTr. 1261 = orum, BB 426a47 ). orum, Acall. 304c . 6994 . orumsa, 7696 . formm, LB 8a52 . ormm, LB 246b55 ( PH 7807 ).

2 s. fort, Wb. 6a14 . 28d9 . SR 6258 . LU 4789 . 6252 . ort LU 6097 . fortsu, Ml. 113d11 . LU 6593 .

3 s., m. n., acc. foir, Wb. 4d15 . 28b30 . Tur. 85 . 110c0 . Ml. 2a6 . 41a5 . 53a19 . 54c16 . Sg. 209b12 . fair, Wb. 7c4 . LU 6299 . LL 227b30 ( TTr. 777 ). ḟair, LL 220b ( TTr. 262 ). PH. CCath. pass. foirsom, Wb. 8c1 . foirsem, Sg. 209b12 . fairseom, LU 6239 . fairsem, CCath. 1803 .

dat. foir, Wb. 6d6 . 10b9 . Tur. 123 . for (older form, GOI 275 ) LL 49b19 ( Hail Brigit § 4 ). YBL 12a10 (cf. foir Ériu ii 55 § 3 = i 138 where rime with tol is required). fair LU 2051. 7554 . LL 98a34 . 99a40 . Acall. 89 . ḟair, LL 224b5 ( TTr. 533 ). ḟairside, LL 235b13 ( TTr. 375 ). cf. faride TBC-LL¹ 5173 .

cf. acc. forrae, Tur. 79 . furri, Acall. 6437 . furri, LL 224b39 ( TTr. 556 ). ḟurthi, LL 230a41 ( TTr. 968 ). uirre, Acall. 1253 .

dat. fuiri, Wb. 3d34 . Sg. 4b9 . Ml. 95b6 . furi, 45c9 . 118d6 . fuiri sidi, Sg. 199a5 . furri, LU 3918. 4512 . 7993 . LL 218a32 ; 221b19 ( TTr. 90 ; 323 ). LL 66a39 . LB 7a40 . fuirri, LU 4517 , SR 3108 . Marco P. 10 . fora (v.l. forra, fuirri), Imr. Brain § 3 . fuirre, Marco P. 12 . uirre, CCath. 1947 .

1 pl. fornn, Wb. 2a13 . 8d18 . 30b2 . Ml. 46b26 . 119d6 . fornd LU 3254 . 5220 . 6780 . 9244 . ornn, PH 6865 . fornni, Wb. 14b15 . Ml. 77c6 . 88a4 . 90d17 . forunni, 111c13 . forni, LU 1674. 8554 . forund, TBC-LL¹ 2974 . forond, LU 8620 . foirn, TBC-LL¹ 617 . PH 2060 . 7848 . foirnn, 1502 . foirnd, CCath. 648 . oirn, PH 6863 . oirnd, 8063 . CCath. 652 . foraindi, TBC-I¹ 3578 . LB 162a62 . foraind, Acall. 4867. 6165 . forainde, LB 34b56 . 162a53 . oraind, Acall. 2996 . CCath. 1679 . orainne (v.l. forn. forinn) 1659 . orainde, Acall. 5074. 7655 .

2 pl. foirib, Wb. 14c40 . 21d5 . Ml. 46a14 . forib, Wb. 6a17 ( ZCP xvii 223 ), 27c11 . fuirib, 14d17 . 20b2 . furib, Ml. 115b8 . fuiribsi, Wb. 7a4 . furibsi, 18a18 . foraib, Trip.² 1589 . LU 7233. 7755 . LL 239a15 . CCath. 3569 . foraibh, 610 . foraibse, TTr.² 119 . foirb, SR 5534 . Trip.² 1651 . foirbsi, SR 3116 . oraib, Acall. 7539 , YBL 376b42 ( Aithd. D. p. 158 ).

3 pl. acc. forru, Wb. 1d3 . 10c5 . 28c3 . Ml. 53d13 . 73b17 . 127b6 . LU 4784 . 5309 . LL 66b10 . 241b88 ( TTr. 1859 ). CCath. 3738 (Fr.). ḟorru, LL 223d27 ; 242b2 ( TTr. 438 ; 1908 ). forrusom, Wb. 9c10 . forro, LU 5796 (M). 5836 (H). Acall. 5317 . 7117 . CCath. 1237 (S) (in dat. meaning Acall. 2458 . 3501 . 3745 . LL 223b21 ). forra, CCath. 1640 (H). 3754 (Fr.). fortha, CCath. 3599 (Fr.). orra, CCath. 1237 . 1488 . orru, Acall. 3299 . forthu, SR 3942 . fortho, LU 2556 (H). fortha, CCath. 3599 (Fr.). fortu, forta, 1488 (v.l.).

dat. forib, Wb. 4d2 . 29b20 . foraib, Ml. 121a5 .

dat. for acc. forib, Wb. 28c4 . foraib, 4c35 . Ml. 49b6 . 54a4 . 54b30 . 90a25 . 118d19 . forroib, LU .5608 .

Cf. fortus.

In Mid.Ir. MSS forru (forro, forthu, etc.) and foraib are often found without distinction of case. In the Laud-Lismore text of Acall. pretonic for is very rare; it is regularly replaced by ar. But with suff. pron. 3 s. m. n. fair is predominant; there are very few instances of air. In the other pronominal forms those with and without f- seem to share the field equally.

In classical verse the pretonic form is AR, but the pronominal forms are regularly those of FOR without f. an exception is orat, orad (beside ort). Cf. O. Ir. airiut, erut from AR. See 24 P 8 (McKenna, Tracts).

Synopsis of meanings:

I Of local relations:

(a) on, upon , expressing both contact and relative position ( over, above ) also of mere external contact or position.

(b) of approximate position juxtaposition. on, at, by .

(c) in sense upheld, supported by; being worn or carried by .

(d) after verbs of placing, hoisting, over, up .

(e) of things attached to or forming part of the body, etc.

(f) in, amongst; forming a portion of .

(g) with acc. after verb or verbal noun implying motion on, over, to, towards .

II Of quasi-local relations, and in abstract and fig. expressions:

(a) of form, appearance, hue, etc.

(b) of arrangement, state, process; division, classification, naming .

(c) of point of time; coincidence of occurrence .

(d) on (of that by which something is evident, known, recognized, etc.).

(e) with words expressing quality, talent, success, etc. , indicating the possessor of these.

(f) over, of rule, sway, superior might .

(g) upon, in addition to; in succession to, after .

(h) on i.e. affecting, afflicting (of emotions, physical or mental states or conditions).

(i) governing object of blessing, cursing, punishing, etc.

(j) (existing) on, by means of (a food, diet); relying on; depending on .

(k) with abstr. or verbal noun, also with adj. in (a state or condition).

(l) at (an occupation or task).

(m) to express the dativus incommodi, the person adversely affected by the action.

(n) expressing constraint, compulsion: ata f.¤ is incumbent on; owing from (see 1 fíach).

(o) expressing worth, value .

(p) phrases.

(q) after adj.

III In verbal construction.

IV Replacing AR.

I Of local relations: on, upon , expressing both contact and relative position ( over, above ); also of mere external contact or position.

(a) on, over, above: buith f.¤ ochtrach, Ml. 129c2 . a mbís f.¤ altoir ind idil, Wb. 10a6 . ind altóir fora n-idparar, 5b6 . cen chaille f.¤ a ciunn (gl. non uelato capite) Wb. 11c9 . den chamull fora mbói, Tur. 60 . Conall ... forsin Deirg mounted on LL 122a34 . bretha ind óic ... f.¤ fúataib immach were carried out on biers LU 1595 . contuletsom f.¤ a ndergodaib 1829 . suidfid ... f.¤ a chathair, 2319 . luid ... co raba f.¤ a úaitni, 1723 . is fota a chubat f.¤ lár his measurement is long (when he is stretched) on the ground 1605 . fochartatar grith imme co mbátar f.¤ lár in tige, 7560 ( BDD 109 ). See also s.v. lár. Often = in: co mboí f.¤ medon ind lis, LU 1608 . cach óen creitfes ... f.¤ nim ní bá tróg, LU 9495 . cid f.¤ tír cid f.¤ usci cid f.¤ fidchill cotrisam whether it be on land or on water we contend, or over a chessboard 1674 . dia ḟagbáil i fid no i fidbaid, f.¤ tír no usci, LL 220ax ( TTr. 237 = ar muir na ar tir, BB 414a37 ). co forcongrad lais ... | na beth f.¤ crích n Israhél, SR 6216 (cf. atat cinedhaigh ar an fásach sin dianad ainm B., Maund. 49 ). co ra churet cath forsinn [ḟ]aithchi sin co torsed fuil formna fer furri, LL 221b18 ( TTr. 323 ). Cf. coro airet ... lá n-air ar inn [ḟ]aigthisea, LL 221b15 ( TTr. 320 = ... isin f.¤ , BB 415a23 ). atchiu fer ... for sin maig, LU 4564 . cid fó cid for ... beme whether we be above or beneath YBL 12a10 . in fú talam no f.¤ talam?, Trip.² 1118 . iarna bádhadh forsan abhainn `after she had been drowned in the river' Cóir Anm. 255 . ind uisci f.¤ ind nim anúas (gl. super caelum) Ml. 120d7 . domarfás and ... mothur ... ḟairside anúas, LL 235b14 ( TTr. 1375 ). cíid f.¤ in mac weeps over the child ZCP viii 311.14 . ro chí f.¤ a muime, Trip.² 115 . No chanta ór fírindi fair used to be chanted over him BDD 11 . banchuiri f.¤ colaind Fraích, LU 5236 . a fuini f.¤ grís to bake it on the embers SR 3903 . a scéith f.¤ a cennaib dia sáerad, LU 5888 . f.¤ bith, f.¤ domun, f.¤ talmain, freq. in sense above ground, anywhere on earth, in existence: in dia as dech f.¤ bith buan, SR 3973 . in t-én as luaithiu luamain f.¤ bith, LU 2477 (cf. ní boí isin bith ..., 3377 ). cenco beind acht óenlá f.¤ domun alive 5060 . ni raibi forsin domun ingen bid chaime ..., YBL 189b3 ( RC xxiv 198 ). (cf. ni fuil ní ar doman ina esbaid acht fín, Maund. 159 . ni fuighbither ... ar bith ná ar doman, CCath. 262 ). cech mil beo baí f.¤ talmain, SR 1930 . See also s.v. fot, 2 fúait, 2 ed.

Of wounds, bruises, etc. cned f.¤ corp, Laws ii 156.20 . facbait .l. cned fairseom, LU 4967 . co lín crechta f.¤ a chnis 4547 .

(b) Of approximate position, juxtaposition, on, at, by: ... file cuimrecha formsa, Wb. 23a5 . ata árchú lemsa ..., tri slabrada fair, LU 5001 . buithe f.¤ dese Dé on God's right hand Ml. 128a3 . ani f.¤ laim deis `that on the right hand' [side] Thes. ii 255.8 . Fergus ... f.¤ láim Ailello isin phupull ... M. f.¤ a láim aili do Alill, LU 4619 . Cf. O. ar a láim clí, ┐ M. f.¤ a láimsein, ┐ E. ara láimhsein, Acall. 2256 . (but: bachla f.¤ láim, SR 3915 corresponds to tenentes baculos in manibus Exodus xii 11 . See lám). dún ..., dorus umaide fair, LU 1793 . batar ... da dorus forsin uaim, PH 6316 . dorus ... as nesu ille is fair ro sudiged M., LU 2084 . ra sudigit ... secht ṅdorais furri, LL 227a ( TTr. 737 ). conéracht Glaiss C. fríu ... féotár fuirri (.i. f.¤ a bru), LU 5363 . cath f.¤ brú Derguist, 224 . f.¤ brú puirt G., LL 219b marg. inf. ( TTr. 142 ). f.¤ a mbeulu (gl. prone cadentium) Ml. 131b6 . form dreich sea facing me LU 3892 (see 1 drech). dofessid f.¤ gualaind C. seated himself beside C. 8076 (but in 5293 , 5294 , 5295 the literal meaning `on the shoulder' is probably intended). See 1 gúala. sléchtaid ... f.¤ díb traigthib ind noeb, Ériu ii 204.9 . Cf. is ar bordaibh cuirid iat they put them (sitting) at tables Maund. 39 . fon domun f.¤ cech leth (gl. longe lateque) Ml. 53b9 . tho ḟolt scailti ... f.¤ cach n-óenleth, SR 1602 . biait ar mná ... f.¤ bróntib at the querns (i.e. grinding corn, cf. II l) LU 5610 . nírb áelid dóib ar buí in slúag forro for cech leth, LU 1441 .

Cf. the fig. expressions: f.¤ belib (gl. in caritate non ficta) Wb. 15a37 . f.¤ bréthir (oppd. to in corde) 15d5 . indí forsa n-airisedar in gním (gl. in quem fit actus) Sg. 139b1 . is mithig forchenn fair, Ml. 118b6 .

Of pregnancy: in tan robtar lán a n-noí mís f.¤ Cormac when she had carried C. for nine months ZCP viii 310.31 . Cf. ba torrach f.¤ C. ib. 29 . See torrach. Possibly this use belongs rather to II.

(c) Freq. in sense upheld, supported by, also being worn (esp. of weapons, ornaments; IMM is regularly used of clothes) or carried by: Crist co crunn a cruche foir fesin (i.e. carrying it) Tur. 123 . acht robed arma Dae foirib, Wb. 22d15 . gaibid armma Dae foirib, 22d11 . día mbeth gaisced foraib if they carried arms LU 7296 ( BDD 94 ). fotalsceith foraib, LU 4491 . sciath f.¤ a chliu, LL 241b34 ( TTr. 1856 ). scíath ... f.¤ a muin, LU 10664 . claideb f.¤ a ṡliastaib, 9269 . claideb ...f.¤ a chris, 6561 . dulend f.¤ a bruinnib, 9267 . ticfat da dam ... ┐ tabraidsi in carpat foraib (= harness them to it) 3124 . ro inled a carpatt forna echu, Trip.² 2852 . ro loisc ... in cherdcha forro `set fire to the forge in which they were' (cf. II (m)) RC xxiv 194 ( YBL 188b ). f.¤ óenchoiss (standing) on one leg LU 6983 . atchiat insi ... f.¤ óenchois on a single pillar LU 1936 (cf. II j, 2).

(d) after vb. of placing, hoisting, over, up: focress a phupall f.¤ Ailill, LU 4618 . Claitir in fert fair, ZCP viii 560.33 . tuargabsat T. idnaid catha forru, LL 225a37 ( TTr. 552 ). toccbaid for mergedha foraibh, CCath. 610 . ro toccbait a fainbreiti siuil forta, 2870 . ra tocbait a eoin gaithi ... ḟurri `its vanes were uplifted' (of a ship) TTr. 140 ( LL 219a8 ). (fig.) tuárgabad fornn aire fochide, Wb. 14b22 .

Cf. la turcbail a mátan fair, LU 6560 , where the prep. evidently refers to the performer of the action. Similarly: tócbaid in derba fair ┐ dobeir bulli in [sic] cend na mná 4357 .

(e) Of things attached to, or forming part of a body, etc., as, parts of weapons; hair, limbs; leaves of trees, etc.: manais f.¤ crúnd midsing, LU 4491 . folt buidi furri 4512 . mong ... fair, 10795 . in folt ... ro asair furri 4231 . tri cruindberrtha foraib, 7139 . ni lugu bís finn fo a dernaind oldās fuirri anúas (of a hare), Bodl. Corm. s.v. pattu. a chend féin f.¤ ind ir út, LU 460 . cēt muinēl furri ┐ cét cend f.¤ cach muineol, 2430 . cét bass ... cét n-ingen f.¤ cach oenbaiss, 888 . .l. torc ... co cruib eich foraib = having the hooves of a horse Ériu xii 176.9 ( TE III 9 ). rethi co n-olaind ordai fair, LL 218a36 ( TTr. 93 ). lia nat luibi f.¤ maigaib, SR 935 . nach crann fors mbeth duilirath, 1364 . ásfaid ind oland forsnaib cairib, LL 291b26 ( RC xiii 462 . Cf. olann ... mar bis ar caerchaib ..., Maund. 181 ). di lus bís forsnaib caircib, Tur. 115 . lir ... fér f.¤ faichthi, LU 7233 ( BDD 89 ). lir ... dulli f.¤ fidbaid, LL 120b33 . Cf. dorigni cúach cera da gnúis ┐ da agid fair, LU 6453 . brisfed mo chend formsa, 5275 . co mmebaid a chend fair, 5300 where the prep. apparently imparts precision or emphasis, but cf. II (m). co tarla a di bond bána fair (= he became a corpse) LU 1497 ( MU² 987 ). a mbuind banai forra iarna trascrad RC xii 90 (see 1 bonn). Cf. techtaid delba ... fair, LU 2701 , cited II (a) below.

(f) In, amongst; forming a part of, mixed with: Colman diata Clann Colmáin f.¤ Feraib Li (i.e. belonging to F.L.) ZCP viii 293.31 (= a quo Cl.C. hi F.L., Rawl. 140a18 ). Mail D. a quo sil M.D. f.¤ Huib Echdach, Rawl. 140a21 = ZCP viii 294.4 . bátar Cristaidi forna cathaib sin diblínaib in both those battalions Marco P. 64 .

(g) With acc. After verb or vn. implying motion on, to, towards: intí do thuit foir, Wb. 4d15 . for a mbeulu (gl. prone cadentium) Ml. 131b6 . dosfuit f.¤ lar, SR 1719 . techt f.¤ nem, Wb. 15c22 . lotair f.¤ muir, LU 1697 . amal no théigtis suas forin drochet, 1794 . dofutitis écne ... anúas f.¤ talmain, 1916 . berthair uaimse f.¤ altóir A., 1932 . ro díbairgsi certli forsin luiṅg, LL 221b46 ( TTr. 344 ). ní cían ro saig mu suil forsa muir not far doth mine eye reach over the sea Trip.² 1312 (114) . na taít f.¤ culu, Wb. 25c14 . in grían do thecht ... f.¤ culu, Ml. 61a13 (see cúl). cingid ... di cach biur f.¤ araili, LU 5733 . téit ara chend forsin taulaig, 5759 . saidsíus f.¤ medón na glassi, 4797 . timachtatár taris ... la crand f.¤ scíathu by (beating) shafts against shields 5828 . do theged fian ... do seilg fairsium, 6138 . benaim beimend ... f.¤ slóg, 6171 . Cf. nicon tetarraid béim ... fair, 5977 . ní lamar fuligud forrosom, 4960 . Also fig.: léim ... dind tinchosc ... f.¤ aisndiis di thuiste dúile, Wb. 5c16 . ni tāinig cride neich fair no one had pity on him RC xxiv 48 (see do-icc).

In late MSS. the dat. pl. is common here: guro tuitseat f.¤ fanglenntaibh na tiri, CCath. 866 .

Across, by way of: nachab ticfed for rí ... do imthecht foirib a doirsea, Ml. 46a14 . f.¤ sligi M. dochoidsi, LU 5788 . issed dollotar ... .i. f.¤ Muicc C. ... f.¤ Crond, hi Cualngi across Muicc C. ... across Crond, into Cualnge 4593 - 4608 . tiat A. ... f.¤ Midlúachrae. ragmaine ┐ F. f.¤ Bernas nU., 5396 . comergit ... ara ammus, araill dib f.¤ less, araill f.¤ doras liss 5017 . fócoislé f.¤ forlés in tige, 10910 (cf. con-acca in n-én forsin forléss a ddochum, BDD 7 ). co tánic a inchind f.¤ a chlúasa, LU 5286 . co ndeochaid f.¤ a béolo sair, 6026 . docoised ferchend fora beolu, 5919 . maidid a loim fola f.¤ a beolu LL 273az .

See also under the verbs of motion referred to in III below, and such words as leth, 1 lorg, 1 selg, slicht, etc.

In follg. ex. the meaning is not clear: ro túaslaicthe f.¤ aicned na ndūl dia ndernta, LU 2518 (`according to the nature' Stokes, RC xxv 237 ). Cf. ro tuaislaiced fo aicned na ndula `was resolved into the original nature of the elements' PH 6980 .

II Of quasi-local relations, and in abstract and fig. expressions:

(a) of form, appearance, hue, flavour: delb a bais som form, Wb. 24a8 . delb anmandae foraib, Ml. 130a3 . ecosc n-abstal forib, Wb. 24a25 . condarbastar gné fírinne fuiri Ml. 95b6 (cf. delb domárfas fair, LU 4576 ). atá comarde fuirib, Wb. 21a5 . (Cf. the lit.: bíth comardae f.¤ a mbudin LU 5540 ). techtaid delba ┐ gnei écsamla fair, LU 2701 , cf. I (e), end. is follus ... gné mbróin fairseom, 2279 . datha na flesc ... hed nobid forsna huanaib, SR 2964 . na treoit ┐ dath óir f.¤ a n-alaind, LL 218a45 ( TTr. 99 ). sruth ... co rath somailse foir, Ml. 89d3 . bieid rath somailse f.¤ a belru 89c15 . secip blas bá mellach ... fogebed fair, LU 1788 . tintud Septin ... is he fil forna psalmaib (= the psalms are translated from the Septuagint version) Hib. Min. 10.334 .

(b) of arrangement, state, process; division, classification; naming: inna imthanad .i. fele [ = file] forsnaib ráthib, Ml. 93c7 . ataat .uii. ngne forsin chombug `the confraction is of seven kinds' Thes. ii 254.7 . oengles foraib huile, SR 92 . ataat deora erndaili forsin canoin, Hib. Min. 3.63 . atat cetri gnuse forsin canoin ib. 78 . cis lir rann fil f.¤ crū? Ériu i 214.12 . atat tri altai leusom f.¤ ind gabail (of singing the Canticles), Mon. Tall. § 33 (= atad dá mhodh ara n-abairthear íad, Rule of Tallaght 102 ). cia ord bias forru, LU 2575 . is diall femin file fair it is of the feminine declension Sg. 93b2 . doralsat óenclár catha foraib dia tobairt, LU 1478 ( MU² 955 ; `formed themselves into a solid phalanx' SGS v 30 ). daringsetar comraind slúaig forru, LL 224b30 ( TTr. 550 ). ni rabi cumsanad forsin chathugud sin ... the fighting did not cease LL 242a3 ( TTr. 1873 ). conach bui nach tairisimh f.¤ a n-urcoraib occo, CCath. 5660 . ro tṡeindestar C. a timpan ┐ tuc nuallorgan sidhe fuirri, Acall. 4620 . ro dercsat na moli ... for fogluasacht, ┐ ni facadar seoladh no iomramh fortó they saw the ... masses in movement yet they did not see them being sailed or rowed CCath. 2655 . Of names: nipa far n-ainmsi bias forib, Wb. 4d2 . da n-ainm fuirri, ZCP viii 106 § 5 . roboí ... oc iarraid a anma do bith forsin cnuc, LU 3150 . combad de sin nobeth Almu furri 3145 . Mane f.¤ cach fir díb ┐ forainm f.¤ cach Mani, 6847 . a ainm do bith forsin luing ┐ f.¤ a fairind, LL 219a30 ( TTr. 158 ). atá Dún tri liacc d'ainm fair, Acall. 1178 . See also s.v. for-tá.

(c) Of point of time; coincidence of occurrence: fēli ... do curither for dardain no mairt, Rule of Céli D. 9 ( LB 9b ). do toscelad aiss aesci far caisc `to ascertain the moon's age on Easter' Thes. ii 39.24 ; 27 . cid lae sechtmaine fora mbí Kl. Ian., Thes. ii 41.17 . calainn Enair for dardaín, ZCP viii 111.6 . Ann. Conn. 1226 , etc. Kl. enair for Domnuch ┐ xuiii furri New Year's day on a Sunday and the 18th of the moon on it [lit. her, calann, f.] Ann. Inisf. 43c (1206) = ALC i 234 . in la forsmbi bisex, Fél. 78.11 . ind naob asa feil bís for ind láo, Mon. Tall. § 8 (= sa feil do biodh ar an la sin, Rule of Tallaght 42 ). for cach ló every day CCath. 358 .

(d) on (of that by which something is evident, known, recognized, etc.): rēil f.¤ a mbrēthir ōn a n-andach imme ro[r]daisset `is clear from their word' Ml. 90d16 . is reil fornn ... condrancamar fria morolcc, SR 1347 . follus f.¤ th'erlabra fén do pheccad , PH 5169 . ni ro airigsium fort ... .i. f.¤ do gnímrad ... ailcius dula dochúm nime ocut, 8213 . is follus f.¤ suidhichthibh na Roma conad docra ... congbail in cadusa ina fogbail in ratha, CCath. 803 . Cf. ba follus a n-anádh [sic leg.] fein f.¤ na Romanchaib the ill-luck of the Romans was manifest 810 (cf. e). Cf. ba mor in galur di, dael oca diul ... ni fitir nech sin furri, Fél. 44.1 (possibly = she showed no sign of it, though also it might = no one knew she was so afflicted). Cf. also: ni fitir nech dib f.¤ araile a n-imchossait do B., LU 8251 . Cf. (m) last cit., and see 1 ráthaigid.

(e) With words expressing quality, talent, success, etc. indicating the possessor of these: is foraib bíaid búaid in tslóig, LU 4631 (`it is to their credit the victory of the hosts will be' Faraday, Cattleraid of C.). ní fair bías a nós nách a allud nach a irdarcus acht is fortso, LU 6376 (cf. is oraibsi bias a nós ┐ a allud ┐ a urdarcus, Acall. 3575 Fr; R). itát tri búada formsa .i. búaid roisc, etc. I have three talents, i.e. the talent of sight, etc. LU 4791 . rath fortsu ... ina lōg sin, 3114 . bátár teóra búada aradnachta forin n-araid in lá sin, 6407 (cf. buaid lamaig ort!, Acall. 4809 ). ba ferr leo a mudhughudh innas a somain f.¤ a naimdib `they preferred to destroy them than to benefit their enemies there with' CCath. 2484 . Cf. ni fil do chonāch formsa in fer sin im fiednaisi, 3576 (testem hunc fortuna negavit Luc. Phars. vi 159 ).

(f) over (of rule, sway; superior might): a cumacte f.¤ a mogaib, Wb. 27c16 . mu chumachtae forna doini, Ml. 56b2 . bit flathi f.¤ cāch, 85b2 . a cumachta f.¤ dúlib, LL 218b6 ( TTr. 106 ). doratsat rīgi ... | do Dauid ... | f.¤ túathaib, SR 6620 . i n-aimsir Cinaeda ... f.¤ Albain, 2350 . Temair ... cen rechtgi ríg furri, LU 3440 . mairg forsa mbía do thigernu demon, 2225 . ro gab tra nert Saxan f.¤ Bretnu ... ┐ rogab O. rige forru, 277 . bui rí amra f.¤ Érinn, BDD 1 . bai rí f.¤ Ultaib, YBL 114b6 . co raghbhaitis oénrig forru, TTr.² 1339 . (cf. rí ar gach tír, Maund. 243 . Eogan mac M. ... ar tsil nA., 6 . Magidoin ... is uirri sin da bí Alaxander na ríg 21 ). tussu ... do giallud forni, LU 1674 . ropada[t] trēn f.¤ ōcaib, 6720 . ni fríth fornert nacha fini foraib cosindiu `never until to-day did any tribe oppress you' TTr. 1645 ( LL 239a13 ).

(g) upon, in addition to (see do-formaig): fair anuas in addition to it Cáin Ad. 25 . cach ae f.¤ alaill (gl. cumularentur) Ml. 96b4 . cumal f.¤ a secht eight cumals Laws iv 330.8 ( Críth G. 464 ). óen f.¤ trí secht twenty-two Metr. Dinds. iii 98 . sé scripuil f.¤ unga an ounce and six scruples Cáin Ad. 44 . mis f.¤ bliadain a year and a month ACL iii 3.9 . ro marbhadh fer f.¤ a deich diobh, BNnÉ 107 § 25 . fer f.¤ leth Connacht `more than half the C.' Cóir Anm. 251 (cf. treab ar leth Alpan, IT ii2 123.32 . duine ar leith fer nErenn, SG 20.36 ). tercda arro tuilled da forsin focul cert where `da' has been added to the right word LU 462 ( ACC 2 Comm. ). dobeir Dia traig cacha bliadna f.¤ a lethet adds a foot to its width LU 1843 . ind forcraid fil f.¤ aicniud what exceeds nature 2559 . a nduesta día aīs som co ndigsed f.¤ áes a maicc, Trip.² 1268 . Cf. da beind f.¤ tri fichtib rend, LU 1271 (`Two antlers with three score points' Imr. Brain ii 297 ).

forib nó sech na huili predicta (gl. super omnia autem haec) Colloss. iii 14 ) Wb. 27b20 .

From this use arises the sense in succession to, after , the development is plain in the earlier exx. quoted below: du fuairthed ní leu f.¤ a sāith din main = some of the manna used to remain over when they had had their fill Ml. 97d10 . a canar ... for sen `what is chanted ... thereafter' Thes. ii 253.14 (Stowe Miss.). loim f.¤ sāith, LU 3610 ( SCC 30 ). cleirech ... lasmbí ní f.¤ a leortu who has more than suffices him Ériu vii 156 § 10 . doformagar a dligid ... forsanní doruirmisem over and above what we have enumerated Ériu i 220 § 15 . in biat forsa canar immon Muiri `the Beati after which the Hymn to Mary is sung' Mon. Tall. § 30 (corresp. to: don bhiaid le n-abradh I.M., Rule of Tallaght 90 ). ind bi[a]t forsa ndene ind crosfigild `the Beati after which he performs the cross-vigil' ib. (corresp. to: le ndeunamh an chr., Rule of Tallaght 90 ). canair magnificat furri ib. (= Cantar M. uirre, Rule of Tallaght 90 ). cétbliada[i]n f.¤ bisex ... bliada[i]n tanaiste f.¤ bisex the first year following leap-year ... the second year ... RC xviii 296 - 300 . cf. it bliadni fuir bissext, Thes. ii 39.22 (cf. Ann. Inisf. 1101 ). ind ráithe dothét foir .i. samrad ZCP viii 175z . forsind ochtmugait bliadnae són `over the eighty years' (gl. supra uotum uiuendi) Ml. 111b22 .

In the follg. exx. we have a slightly different development of meaning; in addition to, along with: oc ool usci ... do dig forsna glasluibib, SR 1894 = ... fér in talman do chaithem ... ┐ usce do dhig fair, LB 113a26 (cf. superbibere). Cf. further: o duillib in crainn sin d'ól ar uisque , Maund. 160 .

(h)

(1) on, i.e., affecting, afflicting (of emotions, physical or mental states or conditions, joy, sorrow, fear, anxiety, sickness, pain, hunger, etc.; see also under words expressive of these): comadas lobre et immomon forsin mug, Wb. 8b1 . ni bi nach dethiden foir, 10b9 . ata dethiden fuiri cene, 3d34 . sním fora menmain, Ml. 89b7 . is e for snimsa fil formsa `it is care for you that I feel' CCath. 5148 . dond imniud roboí forsin popul, Ml. 103b9 . ni baí imneth foraib, LU 5832 . nicon robae ni form acht failte, Ml. 104d2 . biith galar ... fortsu, Wb. 29a26 (cf. mina roibh cosachtach air, Rosa Angl. 288.10 ). cia rodbatar tirbithi aili fornn, Wb. 14d13 . boí toirrsi f.¤ a muime, Trip.² 156 (cf. ni do thabirt toirse fuiribsi anísiu, Wb. 14a14 ). atā ēcen mōr fornd, LU 1562 . in machdad ... roboí forsnaib doirsib, Ml. 46a19 . in cóe ... boí f.¤ sluagaib I., SR 5806 . intí forsa mbeith ítu mór, Mon. Tall. § 48 (= damadh mor an ita do bhiadh ar neach, Rule of Tallaght § 98 ). bo geis don filidh anfis do beith fair, ACL iii 4.20 . Cf. i n-ítaid, i ngalur, etc. LU 2350 - 51 . cen ainbthini foraib (gl. fluctus ... in stationes suas rediunt) Ml. 121a5 .

With adjectives: arnap trom fuirib for n-oínur Wb. 14d17 . trummu foraib som imram ... quam techt ..., Ml. 126a4 . ní réid fort you do not find it easy LU 4789 (cf. ro étrummaigset doíri forna cenela, Ml. 113c8 ). ni ba mór forumsa sain, LL 234a34 ( TTr. 1278 = BB 426b42 ). ni mó formsa ... cid fiala a flaithe, ACL iii 296.38 . See also s.v. bec (beg). Some exx. with 1 esbaid, esbud may be mentioned here although in O.Ir. it takes 1 ar of person deprived : na raib form esbaid, SR 1584 . cen essbaid nacha maithiusa foraib, LU 2042 ( FA 12 ).

(2) of purpose, attention: scríbend menmman .i. robboí f.¤ a inndṡliucht som `it had been in his mind' Sg. 178b4 . in sét atá form aire on which I am intent Ériu vi 115 . Cf. nicon fil f.¤ menmain damsa sin, Ériu viii 156.22 .

(i) governing object of blessing, cursing, punishing, etc.: mallacht ... for a n-apaid, LU 2436 . mallacht fort beolu, LL 272b2 . dígal ... forru, Wb. 1d3 . conicc dígail forib, 6a17 . ni dechudsa cucuib ... do aidbiur foirib, Wb. 14c40 . bendacht Dé f.¤ Díchuin, Trip.² 387 . bendecht f.¤ Firu Cúle, 2157 . bennacht dé ┐ ande fort, LU 6852 . bai a mbennacht f.¤ Iosiaph, SR 3552 . ní ó gothaib ... dogénat ... in molad sa f.¤ Dia, LU 2676 .

(j)

(1) existing on, by means of (a food, diet): ros altatar f.¤ carnaib mac ṁbec reared her on Rawl. 132a5 ( Expuls. 8 ). adbert nad ebalta lee hē f.¤ lacht, BB 497a17 (= Dinds. 142 ). teora bliadnai f.¤ usciu ┐ bargin, Ériu vii 140.5 . secht mís ... f.¤ usce ┐ bargin, RC xv 489z ( ar usci ┐ b., 491.1 ). rosáeth linni do bithsiu f.¤ uisciu, LU 6051 . Cf. xl dies f.¤ doborfiit forty days on water-diet Thes. ii 38.29 (see PIT, and Thes., p. 67 ). roboi si f.¤ suidiu co cend mbliadna she was on that ration for a year Mon. Tall. § 60 . dā cēd bliadhain doib f.¤ iascc, f.¤ enlaith, Leb. Gab.(i) i 30 . conid furri [ = forsin chloich] buí sásad dó etir biadh ┐ digh (of a stone placed in his cheek), Cáin Ad. 12 . Cf. coro rosind mo ṡáith f.¤ t'acaldaimsiu, Mon. Tall. § 25 (= mo shaith cainnte d'fhaghail riotsa, Rule of Tallaght § 81 ).

(2) a similar use is relying on, depending on; sometimes = content with (some of the citations however seem to approach the meaning under k): do berar mac an righ ... f.¤ aoncois ┐ aonlaim ┐ aonshuil (i.e. having the use of these only, cf. the corresp. passage: Rex ... habebat filium qui erat c[a]ecus, claudus et surdus V. SS. Hib. ii 146 ) BNnÉ 185.14 . Cf. .ccc. fear f.¤ aencossaib ┐ f.¤ aenlamaib ┐ aensuilib, BB 372a45 ( Dinds. 41 ). See also I (c), end. cethri coicid E. form laim ┐ form gail ┐ form gaisced do aurscartad di Maig M. `on my hand and my valour and my weapons it rests to sweep the four-fifths of E. from M. M.' RC iii 179 ( LL 121a12 ). Ni horum ata, acht forma tuismidhtoraib (= it is not for me to decide), Stair Erc. 932 . mád día loga bemitni f.¤ a breith mani loga ... ni bemni forsind recht sin if he forgives we will abide by his judgment ... if he does not forgive we will not abide by that law LU 9753 . foemuis ... oirisium f.¤ dliged a sen, Marco P. 25 . on tsaeibhdliged fora taithe, 24 . bid inund comairle f.¤ a mbiat, LU 2639 . ni bar óenscéol atát na druid the druids do not agree LL 265a39 ( MU² 452 ), a airm f.¤ congbail ina laim grasped in his hand CCath. 3546 . conimragba f.¤ greis. ┐ dītin ... dom imdegail ar demnaib, YBL 327a16 ( Ir. Lit. 34 ), see 1 greis(s). See also commairge, fáes(s)am, etc. Here probably: bid maith a ana f.¤ cethru his wealth in cattle ZCP x 225 § 2 . dogegaind | anad sunn f.¤ bicc ḟeraind, Trip.², 1273 (= content with ?). Cf. also Corm. Y 211 cited supra, col. 192.3. appraind ná bása f.¤ mo nirt would I had been in my strength ! LU 6370 . Cf. in tan roboí Mac C. f.¤ a áltaib isind ármaig when Mac C. lay wounded on the field LU 7964 ( BDD 162 ). Cf. far diall tanaisiu of the second declension. Sg. 106b20 . is fuire side daroine O. in Félire in this (metre) O. composed the F. Fél. 4 .

The uses illustrated, respectively, in the two sections following are not always easy to distinguish. The principal difference is that (k) usually expresses passivity rather than activity. Some of the exx. there might possibly be assigned to (j), while in (l) action, purpose is implied. For later exx. see 1 AR, where the absence of lenition in these uses betrays the original prep.

(k) With abstr. or vn. , also with adj. in (a state, condition) : amal mbīs rothmol ... f.¤ bithimpud, SR 200 . f.¤ tuili doib they were in flood 2523 . sruth ... f.¤ teibirsin, Marco P. 5 . sornd tentide f.¤ lassad blazing LU 2101 . ina lócharnaib f.¤ lassad, 2055 (but : secht míle ... oc lassad 2057 ). aithinni f.¤ derglassad, CCath. 903 . co togrennitis ... inna heonu f.¤ luamain, LU 5159 . co mbui f.¤ foluamain imma chend, LL 225aw ( TTr. 600 ). batar na Desi f.¤ fainnel as cach inud na chéli, LU 4433 . f.¤ fainiul a lluc i lluc, 249 . foendul ┐ sechrán, PH 1909 . co rabatar lestra ... in tige f.¤ snám, Trip.² 114 . co rabhadur na botha ... f.¤ snam `floating' CCath. 2347 . o ro linad ind arc ... robaí in digal f.¤ imluad SR 2510 . a mbatár ... f.¤ imluad forsna tonnaib, LU 1864 . Rí ... ro horddaig in nUan iarsin tsleib f.¤ a imluad, SR 594 ( Rev. xiv 1 ). Cf. na bi f.¤ snim th'aislinge, SR 3282 (= na tab- hi snim, LB 115b46 ; nacatabrad imsnim, BB 238a24 ). f. Cf. f.¤ othrus, f.¤ folach, BCrólige 26 ff . f.¤ longais in exile Ml. 93d3 . cia bemni f.¤ longais, LU 4861 (= f.¤ loinges riam TBC-I¹ 371 ). cach oen fil f.¤ loinges ┐ teched, PH 460 . Cf. ba hé a lín f.¤ a longais, SR 6276 . boí f.¤ merogod, LU 1642 . rabaí f.¤ merfaill ┐ merugud ic iarraid a aite, LL 220a41 ( TTr. 233 ). bith deitsiu f.¤ merogod tige oiged, LU 6757 ( BDD 27 ). f.¤ aig thaig, SR 3477 . forsin reim sin, LL 232b ( TTr. 1239 ). f.¤ comrorcain in error PH 6602 . f.¤ fírinne in the right 2671 . is fír forstā Lucifur, SR 1839 (j ?). anmanda ... bis f.¤ cennsacht ┐ pettacht `tamed and petted' CCath. 2453 . conacca dá ech f.¤ sgur unharnessed ZCP viii 106.23 . roboí F. f.¤ altram la hAni, LL 165az (= Dinds. 142 ). boí leis f.¤ cui LU 10941 (see cáe, fecht). dind riuth forsa taith, Wb. 20b6 .

connfaca na tri leogain ... f.¤ dasacht ina ndocum, Stair Erc. 389 . sccuiridh don dasacht fora taithi the madness which possesses you BNnÉ 7 § 23 .

Cf. dā fercoin ... fur an dath cētna of the same color ZCP vi 29.18 (rosg ar dath gloine guirme, GF. DDána 234 . ar chruth ┐ ar dheilbh Dé, TSh. 1329 ). With adj. f.¤ cloen inclined Thes. ii 254.19 . ni bia lamnad f.¤ cōir normal delivery ZCP viii 111.25 .

After verb of motion : docoid O. ... dochum Poil f.¤ longis `had gone to Paul into exile' Wb. 31d19 . di[a] luid D. f.¤ longais, Ml. 55c1 . tiagat f.¤ teiched, 54b12 . ar foít f.¤ techtairechta, Wb. 15a15 . téit f.¤ teched, LU 4917 ( tíagait ar teched, 4965 , both in hand of M). tigc ceo ann ... ┐ do luid an ri f.¤ merugud, BColm. 70.28 . ria ndula doib f.¤ a fecht, SR 3505 (see fecht). In : téit ina ndíaid ... f.¤ echlascad, LU 6786 ( BDD 32 ) the meaning is almost `by dint of' (cf. j). Cf. tainic ina dhochum ... f.¤ a tuitmennaigh `came ... stumbling' CCath. 2199 . ni far maid rosnuicc `it has not brought them to good' Wb. 5b3 . ní thaudchaid a brú f.¤ cóir LU 6078 . ní téighedh béim ... f.¤ dimaín `no blow was delivered in vain' CCath. 2012 .

See 1 téit, do-tét.

(l) At, engaged in (an occupation or task) : cach la sel dún f.¤ imrádud Dé, in sel aile f.¤ precept, Wb. 15d9 . f.¤ foigdi 25b11 . basa f.¤ a imcabail I was avoiding him LU 1244 . ma beith nech f.¤ a iarair if any one be inquiring about it Rawl. 70a44 . cia f.¤ a tai iarair ? whom art thou seeking ? SR 3096 ( co ndechos f.¤ iarair Etaine, LU 10644 ). frisin coais f.¤a robae som, Ml. 64a12 . ... inna ndrochgnímae f.¤sa robae, Tur. 60 . buid f.¤ tectairecht hó Isu, Wb. 13b5 .

This construction is widely extended : mí dhóibh forsin fleighsin they spent a month at that feast Marco P. 88 . go rabhattar f.¤ a bproind at their meal BNnÉ 9.10 (cf. similar use of Engl. `over'). airet batar ... f.¤ a trealmaibh diubraicti `so long as the hosts were discharging their missiles' CCath. 5662 . a mbatar ... f.¤ a mbriathraib `as they were speaking' Ériu xii 182 § 14 (= LU 10895 ). ro uhatar tra for [sna] himdigluib sin cēn romarsat `they kept up these mutual retaliations' ACL iii 2.15 .

(m) To express the dativus incommodi, the person adversely affected by the action, = in despite of, to the detriment of. (Cf. the apparently similar use of AR in : ducer airi airitech ind ríg `he let fall the king's drinking cup' Lism. L. p. 324 = Irish Texts i 10 § 32 ). cf. atbath airund, LU 593 ( ACC 14 ): fó'n missi ro briss recht ... | foirb ? or was it I that broke the law to your hurt ? SR 5533 . arna bristé fír fer f.¤ Coin C., LU 6259 . conbocht fír fer fairseom, 6239 . gabais B. ... in n-insi sea forsna cenela robátar inti, LU 1343 . atraigsetar ... L. do gabail in tiri sin forro di cach leith, LU 4390 (see gaibid). dobersa ferand duib ... la Osraige ... ┐ is cet duibsiu a forsingud foraib, 4439 . iar togail Duin S. furri, 5823 . congair ... immá tech dia gabáil f.¤ Ulto, 1506 ( MU² 1003 ). Tancatar a námait ... do gabáil tige fair, RC xiii 86 ( LL 304a17 ). luidh A. ... do irghabhail a chathrach fair, Marco P. 7 . do choll etha na hindsi sea fair to injure him by blighting the corn Dinds. 18 ( BB 360a15 ). tarraidh Hectoir baegul f.¤ Achíl, LL 244a16 ( TTr. 2029 ; see báegul). co tairsedh cach dib a mídúthracht ... f.¤ araili, CCath. 255 (see tárrachtain).

In some instances it is difficult to distinguish this use from the local meaning (I c), e.g. ro línad fair in sliab di énlaithib = graues aues fuerunt erga illum Trip.² 1300 .

Cf. also: ní tae dám i tech fort, BDD 16 . is aurgart ... corr colpdai do brisiud fair hi tig, Ériu vi 136.85 is taken in this sense by the editor (fair `in his despite' 141n .), but cf. I (e) end. In : ro foilghiusa sin ... ┐ ní fitir nech form cusaniu, RC xxvi 366 (= ní fitir nech in folach sin cusandiu LB 260a20 ) this sense seems implicit, though at first sight the ex. might seem to belong to (d).

Cf. use with 1 do-fich (togal), do-gní, fellaid (fell).

(n) expressing obligation, constraint, compulsion (see 1 fíach; do-beir) : nech forsa tabar a denum `one who is compelled to do it' Ml. 54a2 . folach f.¤ fer nad fuic `where a man who injures not has to maintain' BCrólige § 15 . aithgin fuirre i mbās in case of death she is liable for restitution Laws v 146.6 Comm.

(o) expressing worth, value (late and rare.Cf. IV a) : dá cét punt f.¤ cach n-eoch, Marco P. 9 .

(p) for phrases such as : f.¤ aird, f.¤ cel, f.¤ cúl (cúlu) f.¤ enech (inchaib), f.¤ fáesam (comairce), f.¤ son, etc., see these nouns.

(q) after adj. gov. obj. of emotion, faculty (rare) : ni pu f.¤ seotu santach, Hy v 7 ( Thes. ii 328 ). nirbat santach forsin bith | nach f.¤ innem cloen, LB 261a8 (= imman mbith, YBL 407a17 ). isam eolach sa f.¤ a muintir, Aisl. Tond. 113.2 .

III With a number of verbs in regular syntactical construction or in special expressions. It indicates the indirect (in some cases the direct) object (pers. or thing) after verbs of asking, entreating, seeking; tempting; discussing, meditating; fighting, attacking, routing, defeating, overthrowing; blessing, cursing, censuring; suing; enjoining, commanding; estimating, judging, punishing; giving, bestowing; binding, pledging; putting, placing, throwing, etc., etc. For exx. of use see especially : ad-cobra, ad-cota, ad-eirrig, ad-fét (as-indet), ad-slig, ad-suidi, aithnid (ad-noí), beirid, bris(s)id, 1 ceisid, con-dïeig, dáilid, 2 do-alla, do-beir, 1 do-cain (díchetal), do-cuirethar, do-éccai (1 dercaid, fégaid), 1 do-ella, 1 do-fich (dígal), do-gní, do-icc, do-indnaig, do-léci, do-scé(u)lai, do-sluindi (diúltad), do-soí, do-tét, do-tuit, dúnaid, feccaid, feraid (ferthain), foaid, fo-ceird, fo-coisle(a), fo-dáli, fo-luigi (see II above), for-congair, fo-ruimi, fothraicid, fúabair, fóbair, gaibid, guidid, íadaid, íarmi-foich (íarar, íarair), imm-beir, léicid, liïd, lingid (léimm), maidid, midithir (1 mes(s)), moídid, nascid (ar-naisc, fo-naisc), 2 nertaid, roínid (sroínid), saidid, 1 saigid, soïd, sreid, 1 téit, 1 tráchtaid.

Cf. IV below.

IV In Mid. Ir. MSS. sometimes misused for O.Ir. AR, especially in verbal constructions (see III) :

(a) on account of, because of, for the sake of: foracsabairsi foromsa cach maith, LU 2397 (H). císsi lóg conattaig f.¤ a eladain, LL 219a27 ( TTr. 156 ). tabuirsiu f.¤ do soīre give [it] for the sake of thy freedom Anecd. iii 30 = ar do sh., Lism. L. 190 . ni accatarsom cinnas boí ... a huachtur túas f.¤ a hairde, LU 1927 . ni f.¤ crabud léce do miltnidecht uait, acht ar omun in catha, LB 59b62 ( RC ii 388 ). in fath forar crochad Isu, PH 2877 . Cf. na huile noebnoidenu ro damatar marttra forut [ = erut] YBL 327a2 ( Ir. Lit. 34 ). combad f.¤ Martain dogneth Dia in mírbuil for M.'s sake LB 60a4 ( RC ii 388 ). dia n[d]erntasu formsa if you would do as I tell you TBC-LL¹ 1802 . ni dearnnsad fair they did not obey him Dinds. 79 (= BB 390a39 ). ni dernai E. ḟurri anisein, LL 222a6 ( TTr. 351 ). dorónadh fairsium sin, CCath. 2896 . See do-gní. ro oentuigset in ní sin f.¤ Chaillin according to C.'s advice Fen. 178.7 . ic attach in Choimded ... f.¤ animmib na ndoine on behalf of PH 6393 . ro guid M. in Coimdid forru, LB 61a5 ( RC ii 398y ).

(b) Freq. with indirect obj. of verbs of concealing, delivering, rescuing (e.g. ceilid, do-essuirg, fo-luigi, saeraid, q.v.). In : gan nert cobharta forra fein incapable of helping themselves BNnÉ 5 § 11 , FOR replaces FRI, or direct acc. (= gen. after vn.). (But cf. use of f.¤ with fortacht, and AR with the late formation foirid, fóirid) : cid ara n-anci in laech ḟorrum, LL 284a13 ( TTr. 1261 ).

(c) in some phrases : f.¤ bélaib (= ar b.) SR 4568 . f.¤ a n-inchaib, CCath. 2407.3633 . f.¤ cend, LU 5954 , 5958 (H). f.¤ cind, 5890 (H). f.¤ tús, LB 61a5 ( RC ii 396x ). FA 3 LB (= ar thús, LU 1967 ). Cf. f.¤ dus (v.l. f.¤ tus), CCath. 303 . See also under these nouns.

V ? Adverbial use of 3 s. neut.: na for aircella echdrund n-aircend 'nor in addition does it take away the definite property of another' Peritia iii 446 (Text II) .

frepaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. frepaid or dil.ie/24293
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: frepaid, freptha, frebaid, frepthi, frepaidtig, freptha

n i, f. (vn. of 1 fris-ben) healing; curative treatment, remedy, cure: n s. frepaid (gl. cura) Ml. 123c3 . dognith a ḟrebaid, LU 1588 ( IT ii2 213z ). in phrepaid, Laws v 308z Comm. g s. freptha, Laws i 268.7 (300.26) . d s. do frebaid .i. du íc (gl. [locus] remedio) Ml. 58a4 . n p. frepthi, 123c4 . do ḟrebaid Fergusa to cure F. LU 1593 ( IT ii2 214 ). iar f.¤ fosisedar derosc `after cure which [a leech's] verdict acknowledges' BCrólige 60 . fer freptha (.i. in fer bis isin freptaidh [< frepaidtig ?]) the patient Laws i 268.7 (300.26) . re frepta do liaig a time for treatment v 308.19 . re na frepaidhi .i. an ḟrepaid mór na teora mbliadhan ┐ na tri mís, O'Curry 2308 ( Eg. 88, 23b ). cuin[d]gidh freapta i fritagaidh ecca (of a hopeless undertaking), CCath. 4400 . In moral sense: in aine ... is f.¤ sin do leigius a chinad PH 4980 . de frepuid na coibsen `the healing effect of that confession' Mon. Tall. § 78 ( Rule of Tallaght 28 ). eolas ... frepuide cuibde di cech pheccad , LB 11b48 ( Rule of Tallaght 59 ). ma doberar a f.¤ cōir, LB 10b6 ( Rule of C.D. 28 ). pennatoir ... frepthae cech pecthae, Ériu vii 135 ( ZCP iii 24.30 ). it e in so freptai ind etraid, Ériu vii 138 = freptha, ZCP iii 25.27 .

immarmus, immormus, immorbus

Cite this: eDIL s.v. immarmus, immormus, immorbus or dil.ie/27761

 

Forms: immormus, immormus, immormussa, n-immarmus, n-immarmossae, immarbois, imarbos, imarbhas

vn. of imm-ruimdethar. u, m. later decld. in gs. and gp. as `o' stem. n s. int immormus, Wb. 10c11 . a s. cen immormus , 11d5 . g s. immormussa, 14a15 . d s. ré n-immarmus , 9b16 . g p. inna n-immarmossae , Ml. 105a2 . Cf. g s. immarbois, SR 4994. g p. imarbos, SR 1448. imarbhas m. IGT Decl. § 38.

transgression, sin (esp. applied to the Fall): dar timne recto dognither int immarmus, Wb. 3c36 . do asdud pectho no immarmussa foir, Wb. 29a15 . amal durolged dia aithrib iar n-immarmus, Ml. 124b3 . iar nimmarmus iudae `after the crime of Judas,' Thes. ii 254.12 . (Stowe Missal). áit inna bí bás nó peccad na imorbus, LU 9997. fir is mná míne fo doss | cen peccad cen immorboss, Imr. Brain § 41. robai in nim ria n-imarbos, SR 814. cid fo dera co tabuir logud don duine o do rigne pecad ... ocus nach tabuir logud don aingel o darigne imarbas `after his rebellion,' Laws i 10.9 Comm. adbathadar tresin niumarbus uile thorad parrathais ar Adam, iv 266.14 Comm. temel imorbais Adaim, IT i 133.6 . peccad craind an imarbois, PH 2448. ní fríoth leis ionta i n-éinchéim | ... | d'airdhibh uilc no iomarbhais, TD 7 § 11. srían rea corp in gach corgus | oc riar na n-ocht n-iomarbus (of the capital sins), BNnÉ 282.28 .

Followed by the prep. i n-: hore is immarmus hí crist anas olcc lasin brathir, Wb. 10c11 . ru-p follus do chach ... a pheccad ┐ a imarbus i nDia, PH 5319.

2 in

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 in or dil.ie/28195

 

Forms: im-, in, in, in, in, an, in, in, in, in, in, in, in, imb, imp, in

interrogative particle. im- before b-forms of the copula and substantive vb. (but: in biam, Wb. 15a1 . in ba maten, in ba fuin, Murphy Metrics § 19. in budh geall re oirechus ..., ML² 1420 ). Causes eclipsis of following initial except when it contains the copula. n generally doubled before vowels (but not in Wb.), especially before pronouns é, í, ed: Folld. by dependent form of vb. and neg. particle and by Class C forms of infixed pron. Later Mid. and Mod. Ir.: an.

(i) In direct questions: in coscramni `do we destroy?,' Wb. 2b20 . in digén bullu mertrige diib, 9d4 . in cumgubsa .i. non gl. num ... potero, Ml. 49c5 . in intsamlammar-ni `do we imitate,' Wb. 11b16 . in intain rombói in circumcisione, 2c5 . in anfossigid, 8d5 . in ed fodera báas domsa ..., 3c33 . in dia in doichside do `is it God? is it likely of Him?,' 4b14 . uidesne .i. in n-aci, Sg. 15b6 . in n-íírr `wilt Thou slay?,' Ml. 77a10 . inned insin furuar dait `is it that that caused it to thee?,' 44b10 . in forcmaither áes sainrethach dond ḟi[u]r midboth ...?, Críth G. 32. ind (leg. in) hí lanamnus atái béus `art thou still in the married state?,' Mon. Tall. 134.24 . inn é so Muinremor?, ScM. § 12. ceist, in n-éláfa limm?, TBFr. 162. im bui (bia, v.l.) tesorcud na nDéisi innosa?, Ériu iii 140.179 . in creti Dia fodechtsa, LU 9281. inn ébairt-sium frit-su in chóma sain, TBC-LL¹ 1772. in anad dogníthi-si?, Mer. Uil. 187. an edh is áil lib ... imbualad oidhchi do dēnam?, ML² 1501. an faicend tu Tit, TTebe 4886 . in ro berbais in saill, IT i 41.12 .

(ii) In dependent questions in is used (a) alone meaning whether , or (b) preceded by duús (do ḟius) to know if, if perchance:

(a) nebmess for nech im maid fa olcc `whether he be good or evil,' Wb. 8d26 . asrubart sum fri mmaccu Israhel imbói di oinachdaib leu, Ml. 43d1 . ro ḟíarfuigh sceula dib, an fúaratar sgéulu Midir, IT i 129.30 . co finnad inn uaitsiu ro siacht fis dó, LU 3659. dóig innar tised Cúscraid, TBC-LL¹ 823. a innisin duind ... an mberam coscur dona Tiabandaib, TTebe 1214 . aitheantar ... an é flaitheas Dé is dúthaigh dhó, TSh. 1776. ní feas do neoch an díol grádha nó fuatha é féin, 1155 .

(b) duús in comalnid arru-pridchad dúib `if perchance ye fulfil what has been preached to you,' Wb. 14d23 . doairfenus doib dús imbed comrorcon and `if perchance there might be error therein,' 18d7 . iarmoracht M. do M. dus imbad lór whether it were enough, Mon. Tall. 133.8 . dús in faigbitis nech bad toga leo dia tibertis rígi nErend, LU 3438. With loss of n: rochindset dul co Teamhraigh dūs a ccaomtais fuaslugudh Fiachra to see if they could ..., ZCP xiv 256.17 . In Mod. Ir. an ro> ar by the assimilation of n with r: do fhiafruigh dhe ar choimhéid na miasa gan osgladh, TSh. 3592.

(iii) Double interrogation expressed by in ... in , more frequently by in ... fa (or ba), in ... fa in , and later by in ... no in ... (im, imb, imp=in+3 s. pres. subj. of copula): imb i nógi imb i lánamnas `whether in celibacy or in marriage,' Wb. 10a12 . imbem i mbethu imbem i mbaás bad lessom, 25c12 . sechip hé im do día im do pheccad , 3b15 . ceist in tre prois fa in tre metur roceta ..., Hib. Min. 175. cid dogēn fri firu Arddae? imba hāilgine ... bá 'ma (=imba) garge?, ACL iii 293.z . imb i céin fa i n-accus beo-sa, Wb. 23b41 . is inderb im mascul fá femen ..., Sg. 61a9 . imba bás ba bethu `whether it will be death or life,' Wb. 23b32 . cía de as sru[i]thiu, in ríi fa thúath?, Críth G. 492. is cumtabairt cia crocann in rúon nó in cethra, Trip.² 815. in oc urnaidi Con Culaind bía ł in limsa doraga, LU 4012. dus cid dodentais fri h-Iacop .i. inn e a marbad ... no inn e a phiannad, LB 151b40 . in sith no in debaid fuil agaib? Aen. 1838. 'ca imradh an cath rocomorfad no an sid ro-sirfead, TTebe 1184 . Triple interrogation: in i comsuidigud fa hi comasndís bíit fa a ndíis `whether they are in composition or in apposition or in both of them,' Sg. 217a1 . in ... fa nacc whether ... or not: in tree áem didiu fa nacc `is it through it then indeed or not?,' Wb. 2c4 . imb anacol dom fa nac `whether it be protection to me or no,' 23a6 .

(iv) Negative interrog.: innád cualaidsi `have ye not heard?,' Wb. 5a21 . inná tecta cumachte gl. an non habet potestatem?, 4c28 . innad n-accai dost thou not see?, Ml. 17b17 . dús innad n-utmaligetar, Thes. ii 4.34 (Acr.). cest ina raibi Gaedelg resiu rotobaidhe `did not G. exist ... ?,' Auraic. 13. In Ml. the neg. interrog. is frequently expressed by in ní nad is it that ... not: inní nad ṅdixnigedar is it a thing that it is not?, Ml. 55c9 . inní nadnimcai ate immaaccai is it a thing He does not consider? Yea, He considers it, 114a15 . inní nad roilgisid `have ye not read?,' 17b18 . inné nach foghnann duit duine ele, BNnÉ 179.4 .

(v) The object pronoun (indirect object in the case of sul st. verb and copula) is infixed between in and the verb, and in the case of the copula, between in and the predicate: in da hierr `wilt Thou slay them?,' Ml. 77a16 . inab-testa-si tesbuid a hEmuin?, IT i 144.19 . inn dathgnitae would you recognise them?, 21 . inum-biasa úair coibligi lat?, BDD² 48. innut tarfás ní? has anything appeared to thee?, LU 9233. indad fil slondud bas derbu?, 5602 . indat mebhair-siu?, TBC-LL¹ 3552. in dóig inar tísed C., 815 . in-dat sochenel no dochenel?, PH 695.

1 is

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 is or dil.ie/29104
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: nídam, nída, atar, atin, ammi, bem, be, combin, is, am, im, isam, isim, sam, isam, am, isam, nidha, nis, indat, n-iat, cenita, coich, citné, cisné, cis, manid, minad, minid, munid, minap, munab, béso, bésu, gon, gion, indid, inid, inad, ina, 'nar, díand, díanid, díanad, dían, díanda, dían(d)at, dána, dán, darab, bad, ba, ba, badat, ba, -bo, -p, -b, cid, -rop, -rup, -rub, ropond, ce, cía, cit, cía, ce, bed, bad, pad, bud, ba-da-, bádam, ma, matis, diambtís, bé, biam, bum, bid, bith, beith, bed, bud, -pa, -ba, nípa-dn-aidrech, -ba, -pa, -bo, -po, -bu, -pu, -b, -bad, -bud, bit, be(i)t, bat, biat, bidat, -rsam, -rbam, -bi, ropsa, rupsa, ropsat, robsat, ropat, robat, ropot, ropdat, -rbsat, -rsat, -rsa, -rbat, nārsat, ba, bu, bo, be, fa, fá, fo, bad, bud, ba-id-n-, fa, fá, -pu, -bu, -po, -bo, -p, nip, nipu, -rbu, -rpu, -rpo, -rbo, rba, -rob, -rb, -ra, -r, -rsa(t), -rso, -rsa, -rsad, rsam, -rsat, -rbtar, -rptar, -rtar, -rbat, -rpsat, -rsat, -psat, -bsat, -psatar, gomsad

v copula (see Strachan, Substantive Verb in O.Ir. Glosses ( Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899 ); Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish; Dillon, Nominal Predicates in Irish ( ZCP xvi , xvii ) ; GOI § 814 ff. ; Ó Nolan Studies in Mod. Ir.).

USAGE.

The copula is alway unstressed and proclitic. The normal order of words is vb.+pred.+subj., e.g. is cele dae in fer hisin, Ml. 30c3 . is bésad inna flatho doem et dofich (i.e. to protect and to avenge is a princely custom), Wb. 9d2 . Prec. by asyntactic nom.: fáilte cáich bad fáilte dúib-si, Wb. 5d24 . mad i n-aeclis tra in choss is hé óis achtáil `if then it be in the church, the foot is the practical folk,' 12a23 . Frequ. in verse: Illand mac Scanlain is marb, Anecd. i 12.24 . andar la fer bis a cein | Inber Cindbera is reid, 15.1 . a comrádh bind nocho brég, 35 § 81. An inversion of the usual order (see Ó Máille, op. cit. p. 74) occurs in: nī bu ṡanctBrigit ṡúanach (v.l. sanctbrigit suanach) `Saint B. was not drowsy,' Hy. v 21 (see GOI p. 476 and n. 168 ). is tria chin mban | bit fernai fer dlochtai, LU 8430 (FB, rhetoric). Common in rel. sentences in Fél.: mórṡlúag A. | dia mbu Demon dubach `from whom the Devil was sorrowful,' Fél. April 2 . súi diand Ériu inmall, Sept. 10. manach | asa díthrub dubach `whose hermitage is gloomy,' Prol. 98 (but: S. | ata soilsi slechtae, Sept. 7. Carissim ... | asa rúamdae relic, Ap. 16 ). Where the predicate is a compound phrase the subject is introduced into the middle of it (Strachan, op. cit. p. 49.30), e.g. is irlam ind anim do thuil Dée, Wb. 5c18 . nirbu samlaid són doibsom, Ml. 90c27 . nibo mór a mbríg linn, Wb. 18d10 .

In O.Ir. when the subject of the copula was a personal pronoun it was, as in other verbs, implicit in the verbal form: am irlam, Wb. 13c8 . at fechem dom, 32a21 . combed adultera `so that she should be a.', 3c9 . nirbu choimdiu `he had not been a lord,' 33a5 . bad carthi `let him be loved,' Sg. 148a2 . nítat ainmnidi `they are not nominatives,' 189a10 . amal bemmis bibdaid, Ml. 114d4 . It was frequently strengthened by a pronominal particle suffixed to the pred. not necessarily to express emphasis, nor to distinguish between persons: niba dimicthe-se libsi `I should not be despised by you,' Wb. 21d3 (but: nida apstal apstil `I am not an apostle's apostle,' 18c1 ). massu rath-som, 5a30 . ciasu i colinn am béo-sa, 19a20 . it firian-su, Ml. 55d11 . ammi cland-ni doib-som, 101d9 . ropsa huallach-sa, 49b12 (cf. GOI § 811 ). nimda scál-sa ┐ nimda aurdrach, ZCP xiii 373.11 .

The logical pred. of the copula may be (a) an adjective ; (b) a prepositional phrase; (c) an adverb; (d) a pronoun ; (e) the substantival demonstrative í; (f) the subject of a relative verb; (g) a clause introduced by as n- `that it is' ; (h) a substantive.

At all periods of the language the predicates (a), (b), (c) and (d) immediately followed the copula.

(a) In O.Ir. the general rule was that the predicative adj. agreed with the subj. of the copula in gender and number (see Dillon, op. cit., for development from O.Ir., of which he cites as type: it moírb in boill sin, Wb. 11d11 , to Mod. Ir.: is mór iatt, is saidhbir na tírtha so, Maund. § 138 , §227 ).

(b) amal as o spirut, Wb. 15b7 . ciaba beo bid do precept anme Crist, 23b29 . is occ maid atáa, 6a18 . condib tria n-uile mbethaid ón, Tur. 71. is fria binn aníar atá t'esérge, Thes. ii 242.3 (Ardm.). is airi asbersom ..., Ml. 126c10 . cid tre étged rop othar, Críth G. 61. nochon ara omun cena, TBC-I¹ 2364. gonadh uime sin adeir I.¤ ..., TSh. 4816.

(c) níp and nob irpaid, Wb. 8b2 . hóre is amne atáa, 12d7 . is samlith is comadas dúun ..., Thes. ii 246.3 (Cam.).

(d) mad hé á luum, Wb. 4a14 . bad hé for n-ere `let Him be your burden,' 9d12 . rupu sí a rreilic, 33a22 . is tú is diliu limsa diib, IT iii 83 § 69. ionnus gomadh é féin bud ughdar réna bheathaidh, TSh. 3406.

When the logical predicate of the copula was either (e) the substantival demonstrative í or (f) the antecedent of a relative verb, or (g) a clause introduced by as n- `that it is' a pronoun was introduced immediately after the copula to act as grammatical predicate while the logical predicate stood in apposition to this pronoun.

(e) matu hé ata horpamin indí rochomalnisset recht, Wb. 2c14 . bit hé magistir dongegat indhí asindisset a tola féisne dóib, 30d8 . it hé in toirthi amal sodin inna hí adfiadatar hi testimnib file isint salm anuas, Ml. 46c14 .

(f) is hé didiu in tecttaire maith condaig indocbáil dia thigerni the good envoy is he who seeks his lord's glory, Wb. 8d20 . it hé inimici lessom qui fraudant et qui iniuriam faciunt , 9c25 . it hé gními epscuip asmbeir sís the works of a bishop are the things he mentions below, 28b20 . is he in firfindbathach no in firion atcobra na huile beatusa the truly blessed ... is he who desires all the blessings, Hib. Min. 429.

(g) is ed asberat ind heretic as laigiu deacht maicc indaas deacht athar, Ml. 17c7 . ni ed a met as n-etarcnad dun `not only that it is known to us,' 138a12 . is ed asberat as ndu deacht ... rogabad in salm so, 24d29 . is ed adfet a legend as ndath glas roboi forsind sléib fo chosmailius saphirr, Ml. 84d4 .

(h) With indef. noun as pred.: condib dídnad domsa foirbthetu hirisse dúibsi, Wb. 1b1 . combad notire rod-scribad cosse, 27d16 . mástat carait ... mastat námait, LU 9090 - 1 . níor ghníomh meirbh, DDána 91 § 24.

With def. noun as pred.: in O.Ir. and early Mid. Ir. a definite substantive can immediately follow the copula. Even in O.Ir. however a pronoun is frequently introduced immediately after the copula as grammatical predicate, the logical predicate standing in apposition (cf. (e), (f) and (g) above). This is the normal construction in the later language: ni a doenacht fesine ru-da-n-ordan `not his own Manhood has dignified Him,' Wb. 33c5 . ni in cholinn donatháira acht is a n-accobor, 3d3 . is athir-som innaní techte foirbthetith `he is the father of them that possess perfection,' 2c11 . mad Ānlūan no-beth is'taig, ScM. § 16.8 . is Duid a oenar rochachain inna psalmu, Hib. Min. 134.

With pronoun: bit hé na precepta cétni no pridchob doib, Wb. 17b20 . is hed a trede sin foloing, 29d17 . is hé in peccad rogéni a n-uile comaccobor, 3c25 .

After the introduction of the pronoun, the normal order of the sentence seems to be that in which the predicate follows the pronoun but this order does not appear to be fixed and the predicate may be put at the end either for emphasis or for the better balance of the sentence, e.g. a predicate which is the antecedent of a relative verb is most usually placed after the subject. Predicate and subject can only be distinguished by means of the context and the distinction, it would seem, is by no means as clear-cut in Irish as in other languages.

Predicate immediately following pronoun: ní ceilsom tra as n-é Crist in lie, Wb. 4d16 . issí ind ainim as airlam do chomalnad recto Dé ní in corpp, 3d11 . measaim gurab é an bás, an marcach úd, TSh. 37.

Subject following pronoun: mate nama anfolaid in cele falla frithgnama `if neglect of service was the only disqualification of the tenant,' Laws ii 324.6 . ar is he besad felsub etarcert di dúlib et saigid forru et nebchretem a n-adiadar di crist, Wb. 27a10 . it he caeli la suide ind apstail soscelae, Ml. 42b7 . is ed mind n-aingel Crist mac Dé, LU 944. measaim ... gurab í an chathair úd Ierusalem an domhan, TSh. 708.

In O.Ir. where the subject of the copula was a pronoun of the 1st or 2nd person, it required no other expression with an indef. pred. than that supplied by the 1st or 2nd person of the copula: at macc ríg, Trip.² 970. itib ingena ríg talman, 1138 . am dún díthogail, IT iii 53.26 .

Cf. Mid. Ir.: is descipul ... tu-su, PH 2768. conid mog De thú, 510 . is gadaige thu, 7781 . is clann én athar ┐ én máthar sind, 7501 .

With def. pred. the usage in O.Ir. is not certain (? at lūam in gaiscid grind (but: v.l. at tualaing gaiscid grind), Bruchst. 12 § 20 ). In the saga literature the normal expression is: Setanta ... atomchomnaicse, LU 4892. Rí Alban atomchomnaicse, RC xiii 446 § 31.

Cf. Mid. Ir.: is me Oengus céle Dé, SR 8009. ni thu Issau semnach na slóg | acht is tú int engach Iacób, 2876 . is mesi Ísu mac Dé, PH 3732. misse Marcellinus, comorba Petair, 612 (but cf. Tuan mac Cairill mesi, LU 1219 ).

At all periods of the language the expression of the copula in the 3rd persons was not obligatory at the head of a principal sentence: alind á óiph in forcitil, nemnech immurgu a inne, Wb. 7c1 . faelid-sem ... | os me chene am faelid, Thes. ii 293 § 6 ( SP II ). cride hē, | ... | ōcān ē, Bruchst. 69 § 160. ili insi Mod | ... | liä dāma Domnaill, 9 § 12 . Aed Ailig, inmain lim hé, ACL iii 304 § 1. Andreas ard a ordan, Fél. Feb. 6. glē la cāch immorro ba for teithed luid C. remiseom, TBC-I¹ 1260. móra a molta, Gorm. March 5. Fer Loga mo lennān-sa, ScM. § 20.12 . gnáth tromthóir dhoirbh 'na dheaghaidh, DDána 85 § 30. ionann sin ré a rádh ..., TSh. 2826.

SPECIAL USES.

In periphrasis (see Strachan, op. cit. p. 49): nitat huili robtar uilcc filii Israhel `all f. I. have not been evil,' Wb. 11a23 . is do immarchor chóre dotíagat ind fir so, 5a5 .

Elliptical: demes .i. mess dēde and, ūair it dá scín lais there are two blades ..., Corm. Y 438. is dos didiu isin blīadain tānaisi in fochlac .i. it ceitheora duillne fair, 423 . nī ba comairle aile acht a c[h]rochad, MacCongl. 19.4 .

Manibad were it not for , etc. with follg. accus.: mainbad éicin, Wb. 4a20 . manipad taschidetaid ind metir, Ml. 136c2 . manibad trocairi ndáe, 111b28 . manipad do chrúass, Trip.² 1370. menbad bíth einig F., TBC-LL¹ 1855. Later replaced by subst. vb.: meni beth in clessín ingantach, 2063 . ropsar marba ... | meni beth Find, RC vii 302.183 .

To express an obligation: praind do tomailt la marb hi tig ... is a hurcul `to eat a meal with a dead man in the house is forbidden,' Mon. Tall. 153.4 . ma dorat(d)a forcraid ngill is lóg a enech ... do aisiuc, Críth G. 288. ma ro-achtaigh comain airithi ina setaib, is a beth do, ┐ masa comain do rer dligid roachtaigh, is a beth air `soll es ihm werden ... soll er es bekommen,' Cóic Con. RE § 13.106 .

On sentences of the type ceso femmuin mbolgaig mbung, see Bergin, Ériu xii 197 ff .

Confusion between copula and subst. vb.: gérbho soicenelach hé iar ccolainn ro bai soichenelcha iar menmain, RC xxv 390 § 3 (? or read ro ba). dogniind ... airchisecht dib, mar no-béind athair doib `as though I had been their father,' PH 6107. Frequ. in ACC: boe (bui, bái, boi, v.ll.) sab suithe cech dind .i. ro bo sab daingen no soad cech ndimus, RC xx 168 § 26. boe saegul sneid .i. suail nó bec nó garit a saegul, § 24. boe seim sáth, § 25. boe dind oc libur leigdocht, § 27.

FORMS

(a) from O. Ir. glosses and texts in Thes. Pal. (for further exx. from O. Ir. glosses see Strachan, loc. cit.). (b) from other texts.

In Mid. Ir. the forms of the copula in the 1st and 2nd sg. and in all persons of the pl. fell to a great extent into disuse, their place being taken by the 3rd sg., of the tense required with a pron., corresponding in form to the O.Ir. infixed pron. or to the poss. pron. of the person and number to be expressed, infixed between it and the following predicate. Occasionally the inf. pron. was added to forms other than sg. 3, e.g. nídam for nída (s. 1), atar, atin (pl. 3+ inf. pron. pl. 1) for ammi, bem for be (fut. s. 1). These forms while at first used impersonally as already occurred in O. Ir., e.g. issum ēcen, Wb. 10d24 , isat dílmain-siu, Ml. 55d21 , diandam thísed mucc ḟonaithe robad-am béo, Stories from Táin 5.16 , later came to be felt as simply the copula, as is shown when plural forms are folld. by pl. adjj., e.g. nibar troig, SR 3641 , gurdar síthaig, Hib. Min. 82.23 , acht co mbadar maithe díblínaib, TBC-LL¹ 35 ; and by such instances as: gidar comaltai, ib. 3680 . ropdhar fir chomdeirgide, ib. 3535 . As it is not always possible to discover whether a particular writer regarded this combination of copula + inf. pron. as such or as copula only, all such examples have been grouped together, so that, for instance, all the forms under subj. past s. 1 below should be taken not necessarily as being, to the mind of the writer, that particular form but rather as being his way of expressing what would in O. Ir. be expressed by combin, etc.

Examples of the 1st and 2nd persons are found both in Classical verse and in Early Mod. Ir. prose but the more commonly occurring forms are those of the 3rd sg., number and person being expressed by independent pronouns: is ort iarraim gidh óg thú, DDána 67 § 3. is fearr mé iná thú, IGT Introd. 22 § 90. t'fhearg, a rí, ... | re searg dí bu fhearr inn-ne, DDána 10 § 22. ag an druing ... rénar milis briathra borba, TSh. 1568. do bhríogh nach cumhachtach sinn féin ris aní se, 30 . is beannuighthe sibhse, 5669 . do bhríogh gurbh fheasach thú gurbh amadán mé, 9638 .

Indic. pres.

A. Absolute

s. 1

(a) am: am tualang dano a hétarcerta, Wb. 12d22 . is airi am cimbid-se, 27c22 .

(b) am, im, isam, isim, sam: am senóir ┐ am lobur, Trip.² 2045. am caemsa ... am maccam, TBC-I¹ 583 - 4 . amm eolach, TBC-LL¹ 1750. uair am aithrech, SR 7824. (cf. isam aithrech, 7789 ). im fáilid, Ériu v 224.73 . as me Ulltán ... im fili, im faidh, BNnÉ 257 § 214. From early in Mid. Ir. period the form isam (<is s. 3+ inf. pron. s. 1) occurs, side by side with am. In follg. exx. it must already have been understood as s. 1: uair isam bensa curad caín, LU 8440 (FB). issam ingen ríg, TBFr. 163 = im, ZCP iv 38.11 . asam senoir, CCath. 5495. issim meabrach, Acall. 3115. orsam (=ór isam) heolach, SR 1786. sam crochta gan cionadh réil, Ó Bruad. ii 132.11 .

s. 2

(a) at, it: at fechem dom, Wb. 32a21 . air it firian-su, Ml. 55d11 .

(b) at, it, ot, isat, asat: at meirb, Fél. July 19 . at ferr do lāech indó-sa, ScM. § 16.8 . fobīth ad ōegi, TBC-I¹ 507 (YBL) = dáig ot áegi, LU 4996. it gilla co ngicil, TBC-I¹ 2667. id file, Content. iv 2. isat lac, Bruchst. 30 § 67. isatt áil-siu dam-sa, SCC 739 . isit aneōlach, MacCongl. 122.9 . isat duni dána, TBC-LL¹ 3057. asat tretholl-sa, TBC-I¹ 3632.

s. 3

(a) is, rel. as`: is samlith is comadas dúun, Thes. ii 246.3 (Camb.). is hé céetne fer ceta-ru-chreti, Wb. 7b11 . is ferr ainm do denom de, Sg. 26b5 . is cele dae in fer hisin, Ml. 30c3 . Freq. written iss before vowels: iss uisse, Wb. 22c21 . iss i rráe choir immumruidbed, 23d30 . iss ed inso nád chumaing, Sg. 209b13 . Freq. written together with a follg. initial s, one s falling out: isuáichnid, Wb. 23d30 . isamlaid, Thes. ii 11.40 (Bcr.). rel. brothchán as chóir duib, Wb. 33c15 . as choimtig, Sg. 54b8 .

(b) is(s), as, us, es, rel. as`, is` (it is not clear when lenition ceased to be used after the cop. used relatively. It is less often marked than not in TBC, see Ériu xiv 90 , 93 , 94 ): is túath oirdnither ríi[g], Críth G. 493. is toirthech int inber, Trip.² 370. is gabtha na eich ┐ iss innilti in carpat, MU² 49. is cosmhail Samson ┐ an bás, TSh. 763. iss a miad neich dogniat mancuine, BCrólige § 50. iss messe rorecsabair, SR 3636. i[s] slān in fear, Laws iii 156.5 . isaer ém domrimgartsa, LU 10307. as iat na fir[a] fola no saraigthe, Cóic Con. H § 59. in ti do beir ... as e do ron, Laws iv 32.19 . as do hIddomdaib do, PH 6946. In TSh. `both abs. and rel. are written as in MSS.,' TSh. Introd. xx n. 3 . es dilmain, Anecd. iii 23.5 . es coitcend, ib. 2 . essed dobeir ..., 26.24 . es bec trá ná comráncatar inn a mméur ocus a coss, CMT² 58 § 132 . es de boí inn nem-sin fuirri(r), CMT² 60 § 133 . ar us aire isperar ..., Laws i 264.7 . ar us merle cach n-indligiudh, ii 70.25 . Somet. the vowel of IS is dropped: ┐ síad bhīos ag coimhēad, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1341. rel. as chóir, Mon. Tall. 146.27 . as chórus, Críth G. 223. a n-us tol lat-su, MacCongl. 33.9 . ? With class C inf. pron.: forband ... as-dom moo airli, Echtrae Chonnlai 121 § 6 . After constructions which take rel. n- the predicate of the copula is eclipsed (where the first word of the predicate is unstressed the usage varies): do thaidbsiu as n-iress nóibas, Wb. 19b14 . as ndia side gl. doceo, 13a18 . as n-é tairrchet, 6d6 . as ndirruidigthe a n-animm-sin, Sg. 56b10 . as ndí Assaraib ... rogabad in salm-sa, Ml. 35a10 . asberat as ndu deacht ... rogabad, 24d29 (but cf. adciam ... as ar chenél cruche adrímther ..., Thes. ii 246.25 (Camb.)). amail is n-adētchide in flesc, Corm. Y 606.8 . In Mid. Ir. rel. n- dropped out: uair ... as inann nadúir don duine ┐ ..., PH 7433. amail as diaisneisi in Coimdi, Ériu ii 144 § 159. in tan is indligthech iat, Cóic Con. H § 14. amail as crom craobh fo chnoibh, BS 54.15 . Very early the non-rel. form IS is used for rel. and vice versa, see above: cía dit maccaib is diliu latt ?, Trip.² 1774. mer is laugu, Corm. Y 809. is ed is chonar fugill ann ..., Cóic Con. RE § 24. intí is cosmail do Dia, PH 6266. ní íar chána is ḟairbrígh d'ḟir, IGT Decl. ex. 980.

pl. 1

(a) ammi, ammin, immi: ammi techtiri árt-phersine, Wb. 24d9 . ammi irlaim ... do dul martre, 4b21 . amminn imdibatai-ni ┐ ammin dilachtai, Ml. 83c3 . airmi (leg. airimmi, Ed.) ardu-ni, 23d23 .

(b) ammin, ar, dar, atar, isar, atin: is olc ar mblāth amin gorti, TBC-I¹ 1614. amin mairb, BDD² 330. ar troig ... dot' impartain we are wretched, SR 1482. ar n-idain fiad testaib Dé, 3583 . fortgellam Dia ... dar slana on chinaid-se, 3612 . cid einech rígh rontidnaic | atar dimdaig ..., Hib. Min. p. 82.x . isar scítha énirti, CCath. 2562. `atin budig de' ar an oicc, Anecd. i 5.18 (cf. batin aithrig, Ériu i 68 § 3 ).

pl. 2

(a) adib, idib, adi: adib cland Abrache, Wb. 19c20 . adib oís muntire, 21c4 . adi mmaicc, 9a13 . hóre adi ellachti, 21c17 . ar idib maithi, 16b9 .

(b) itib, at(a)bar, atfor: ár itib ingena ríg, Trip.² 1138. itib lía andú, BDD² 412 (= dáig abtar (leg. atbar) lia andúsa, LU 6870 ). ┐ itib degdoene, LL 281b28 . atabair ecen, LU 8097 (FB). is dásacht a ndognithi-si ┐ atbar dásachtaig fen, LB 212a10 . atabar glana-si, PH 5262. 5264 . apraid fris at for n-aithrig do debaid fris, Cymmr. xiv 118.11 ( Rawl. 132b29 ).

pl. 3

(a) it, at (once only in non-rel. sense), rel. ata`, at, et: it carit domsa, Wb. 5c7 . it dássactig, 12d36 . it coitchena, Sg. 10a1 . air at cuidi tirmaidi sidi, Ml. 123d3 . rel. in mairb ata thestis, Wb. 30a11 . it sib ata chomarpi, 19c20 . do retaib ata chosmaili fri fír, Ml. 51b8 . it hesidi at inbésa, 45d1 . it hé sidi et inbéso, 27a9 . confitetar són ata ndoini, 91c18 .

(b) it, at, isat, isid, rel. ata`, at: at remra na loeg ┐ it buidig na hoegid, Hy. v 25 Comm. it é inso trá gníma bóairech, Críth G. 183. it móra, Trip.² 1291. isat úathe dó ilib, 3096 . it cadlai dí ingein A., Fél. Dec. 9. at bidbaid, IT iii 502 § 10. isat bána, 514 § 7. hit imṡláin, SR 194. at mora, 3625 . id mesa indád demno, Anecd. iii 27.4 . at aena `these are of one day,' Laws i 156.y . at móra glonna Medbi, TBC-I¹ 1668. it cāema, 583 . cf. is mōra na comada' ... `isad mōra,' 2233 - 4 . i n-ifern isid bronaigh, Anecd. iii 55.29 (Síaburcharpat) = at brónaig, LU 9462. at cotarsnai, PH 711. isat lána, 5870 . rel. it é ata érlama, Trip.² 1539. amuis ata chórai, Críth G. 578. dí gérait at glainiu, Fél. May 7. saire ada lugu, Laws v 102.6 . laích ata dech, BDD² 757. adad dech, 1159 . seoit ... ad adhailge daib, Anecd. ii 53.3 . áos ata etromae cinaith `whose sins are lighter,' Mon. Tall. 158.7 . dāine ata maige imarīadam `on whose plains we would drive about,' Otia i 122 § 4.

B. Conjunct.

I Neg.

s. 1

(a) níta`, nída`: nita chumme-se friu-som, Wb. 20c25 . nida apstal apstil, 18c1 . sech níta aidlicen, Ml. 70b7 .

(b) nída`, nídam, nídom, nímda, ním, níam, níom, níum: nída choimsech mu ṡoíre, Trip.² 2976. nida (nidu, v.l.) dīr dermait it is not fitting for me to forget, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 16 § 1. nidha bheo-sa, TBC-LL¹ 6080 (fut. sense). nīdam macc, TBC-I¹ 645 (= nimda, LU 5129 ). nīdom sāitheach, TBC-I¹ 507 (= nimda, LU 4996 ). nīm láech cen lāmach, TBC-I¹ 2260. nidam dermatach, LU 10286. nidam snímach, SR 2382. nim dana, 2069 . nimda scál-sa ┐ nimda aurdrach, ZCP xiii 373.11 . nidom athair do duiniu, viii 561 § 2 . ni dam ben-sa fós do, Caithr. CC § 93. nida Christadi, Irish Texts i 2 § 4 . nidom chuchtach, BS 30.1 . níom tualaing suan, TSh. 2144. ní um claoidhte re a gcionnluas (ní um chl., v.l.), Ó Bruad. ii 138.6 .

s. 2

(a) No occurrence.

(b) nída, nídad, nídat, nít: nida tūalaing mo ergairi, Ériu i 116 § 6. nidad dichumaing, Anecd. i 11.13 . nít marbdae for tercphit, Fél. Sept. 8. nīt mess methchrainn, Bruchst. 17 § 33. nít firlaech-su, TBC-LL¹ 1343. nidat doss ós duss, 3460 . nidat mac-sa, FDG 718.

s. 3

(a) ní (geminates the follg. consonant, e.g. is rad dáe ... ni mmarilliud `(it is) not my merit,' Wb. 21c20 ): ní cuman lim, Wb. 8a3 . ní cuit broto acht is dugrés, Ml. 32c10 .

(b) ní (a form nís occurs once in ACC and may possibly be archaic: hua Airt nís Neill co nert `not with N.'s strength is he,' RC xx 406 § 128 ): ní rí Caisil co rón-ordnea, Trip.² 2302. ní tiamdae tim-som, Fél. Prol. 259. ni cosmail smachta cacha raithe, Laws iv 78.4 . ní segda, LU 1655. ni fír, PH 2715. ní críonna an tí nach tuigeann, DDána 35 § 2. ní hiongnadh an meas soin do bheith ..., TSh. 243. The follg. exx. from TBC show lenition after ní but they may be scribal errors: ní ḟlaith Ulad nod chosna, 2788 . ní ḟurusa, 3050 . In Mod. Ir. ní prefixes h to a fully-stressed word but not to a proclitic: ní ag cnúasach bó am theagh atá, Éigse iii 168 § 9 (and see note). With inf. pron.: nímdil cid dīthrub Temair (glossed: ní hinmain lem T. cid fas), Hy. ii 44. ním-nert acht mac Dé I have no strength but ..., LL 133b8 . nin-fissid frisbered omnu huain `not to us is the Knower who used to avert fears from us,' RC xx 164 § 16 (ACC). nin forcetlaid, ib. § 18.

pl. 1

(a) nítam`, nítan`, nídan`: nitam toirsich (sic leg., Ed.) gl. non angustiamur, Wb. 15b21 (a prima manu). nidan chumachtig for n-irisse, 14c41 . nidan chosmili, 14d37 . ar nitan reprobi-ni, 18b9 .

(b) nidar: nidar n-idain, SR 3626. nidar glain, 1609 .

pl. 2

(a) nítad, nídad (see OIPG p. 66 n. ): nitad lib fésin `ye are not your own', Wb. 9d11 . nidad óegid, 21b14 . 14a8 . ar nídad ferr-si, 8c7 .

(b) nibar, nifor: nibar troig, SR 3641. ni for gliccu ... inda oen na n-ánmanna, 1235 . is tróg niforn-intliuchtach (? leg. -aig), 1238 .

pl. 3

(a) nítat, nítaat, nídat, nít, nis: nitat cosnama domundi, Wb. 7d12 . ar nitaat cosmuli, 9b17 . nídat chummai, Ml. 115b3 . nit derachti, 128d1 .

(b) nídat calaid, Fél. Jan. 17. nít mórdai fria ngudi, March 1. nītad tabartha, TBC-I¹ 2856. nídat námait, LU 8264. nidat glain, SR 7996. nidad tlaithi, 1571 . nidat carpait, MU² 374. nit righ os ro-chathaib, LL 386a18 . nīdat cuibde, MacCongl. 7.16 . In ZCP xx 371 f. , Thurneysen gives the follg. exx. of a 3 pl. form, nis, occurring in Law texts: acht nis cosmailsi comarba[i] `aber Erben sind nicht von Gleichheit,' Laws iii 42.25 . atait tri comurba la Feine, nis comsaer a cuir, 46.18 . nis dilsi acht a tri, ZCP xiii 21.17 . nis cuir bel dilsi, xii 365.1 . nis maithi dam log n-aisi, logh sinsire, log fognama, ib. 8 .

II With dependent negatives:

(a) nád who (or which) is not, that (it) is not (see s.v. 1 nád, 2 nád, 3 nád and Strachan, loc. cit. l. 1007 ff.).

(b) nant, nan that (it) is not (see s.v. nan and Subst. Vb. l. 1011 ff .).

(c) nách that (it) is not (see s.v. 3 nach, 4 nach and Subst. Vb. l. 1018 ff. ). For nícon, noco, nochon, etc., see s.v. nícon.

III With interrog. particle in-:

s. 1

(a) inda: inda apstal `am I an apostle ?,' Wb. 10c20 .

(b) ? anom (=indom) adbar gascedaig, Ériu xiv 89.2175 (= TBC-LL¹ 1186 ).

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) indat: indat creitmech, Trip.² 917. indat ómnach ?, Lat. Lives 90.0 . indot eolac[h], CCath. 2883. indat sochenel, PH 695.

s. 3 For both (a) and (b) the interrog. particle alone is used, i.e. in (later an) :

(a) in cuntubart lib inso, Wb. 3c3 . in ed fodera báas domsa, 3c33 .

(b) inn a síthib in do déib dúib ?, Trip.² 1114. co fessur ... in he [Is]sau no inne Iacob, SR 2884. an beó do thigerna ?, BDD² 1519.

pl. 3

(a) indat: indat mbriathra ? `is it the words ?,' Ml. 44b9 (cf. sechitat n-é (sic MS.), V below).

(b) indat: nocon fetarsa indat ilgnae do-chuirither in folt fair fo indat trí fuilt failet fair, BDD² 1125 - 6 . indat facsi don purt are they near ...?, LU 1873 (ICM). indat pettai sút no indat éoin chena, TBC-LL¹ 1328. Later the interrog. particle without pl. suffix is used also for pl.: co findara in n-iat tanic, PH 440.

IV With neg. interrog.

s. 2 (a) cenita: cenita chumgabtha-siu `art Thou not exalted ?' Ml. 84c3 .

s. 3

(a) cani, cini: cani doich, Wb. 5b35 . cani messe immoforling cretim dúibsi, 10c18 . cani mebuir lib, 20a5 . cini glé lib ..., 12d4 . cini inonn, 18a16 . caní románda .ó., Sg. 49b23 .

(b) cani: Ōengus do guin ... cani ōin do decraib Dē ?, Bruchst. 50 § 110 .

These forms were early replaced by nách q.v. s.v. 5 nach (nách).

Interrogative sentences containing cía, cid who, what (is). etc.

(i) The copula is not expressed after cía but that it is implied is clear from the follg. rel.: cinuid mic n-altrumu, cia forsa tiagat ?, Laws ii 178.3 . cia roblaiss bethaid ┐ na faicfe éc (qui vivit ┐ non videbit mortem), LL 281a32 . cia tir ass as[s]am lat do thabairt dúinne, ZCP viii 318.33 . gá cara don uile as fhearr, A. Ó Dálaigh xv 5. cia in fear sin ?, Anecd. ii 9.22 . cía can duib ?, Trip.² 1113. In gen.: coich úainn hí ? to which of us will it belong ?, 811 . íarfaigset dó ... cúich he, LU 1838. With verbal ending added: cóichet na heich se ?, 8522 (FB).

(ii) cid (see Thurneysen, GOI § 466 ): cid as dénti frisin, Wb. 12d41 . cid as maith, 12d12 . ní tucthar cid frissa-sennar, 12c46 . cid is conair ... is sed is conair ..., Cóic Con. H § 138. cid ara n- why ? : cid ara ndéntar pecthach díim, Wb. 2a10 . cid ara cuinchi-siu sein ?, Thes. ii 307.12 ( Hy. ii Introd. ). cid ara n-eipenar ?, Laws ii 194.2 . cid ara cuirther do trise ina lesa so ?, i 236.9 . cid how ? cid na déccaid uili how do not ye all see, Fél. Prol. 201. cid ēcōru mo beithse and anās ..., TBC-I¹ 2224.

pl. 3 citné (`gekürzt aus ci ata n-é ,' Thurn., ZCP xx 372 ): assindet sunt tra citné cumacte diandid cóir in fognam `what are the powers unto which the service is proper,' Wb. 6a9 . citné briathra robatar `what were the words ?,' Ml. 61b7 . citné robatar `what were they,' ib. 8 . citne a nanmand na soerbard (caidet, v.l.), IT iii 5.8 . ceitni trī seōit fūair C. ?, ZCP xiii 5 § 19. citni rig ... robatar' sind amsir sin ?, SR 2347. The corresponding form in the Laws is cisné: cisne lesa do na ibh sen tascnat treise `what cases of these extend to three days ?,' Laws i 230.21 . cisne tri biada na tuillead leaptha na hapta, v 438.14 . cisne trí ana soitcedach `what are the three wealths ...,' Triads 239. Sometimes cis immediately precedes the noun : cis formmenn écndaircc doslíat dílsi ?, ZCP xii 366.25 . cis ndíthle do trebaib na tuillet dire ?, 26 . cis forcsen fola la Fēne ?, BCrólige § 65. cis lir how many: cis lir congellait for tresi, Laws i 230.3 . cis lir lanamna docuisin la feine ?, ii 344.1 . cis lir chuir dochuisin ?, iii 4.5 . cis lir fodlai filet forsin mbairdne ?, IT iii 6.13 . cf. cit lir fodlai ..., ib. 20 .

V With various conjunctions.

(i) cía, cé, ci although, that.

s. 1

(a) No instance.

(b) ciam, cidam : ciam toebnocht, SR 1540. cid am laech-sa, TBC-LL¹ 1677. misi gedam foidhidech, ZCP xii 393 § 10. gidh im c[h]rochbán-sa, BS 138.y . giodh am midhiongmhala, Parrth. Anma 333.18 .

s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) cíasa, cidat : cíasa lobur, no rega, Trip.² 1282. cidat fír-Dhia ... ro-gabais colaind ndoenda, PH 163.

s. 3

(a) césu, céso, cíasu, cíaso, cíasa : cesu threde in tummud, Wb. 21d13 . ciaso ḟolud ... sluindes, Sg. 211b7 .

(b) césu, céso, cíasa, cid, gid : césu réid ar lebrán, Fél. Ep. 133. ciasa (ceso, v.l.) femmain [m]bolgaigh [m]bung (see Ériu xii 197 ), Corm. Y 1059.64 . ciasa díthrub, Metr. Dinds. iv 42.2 . ciodh olc an bás nádúrtha, TSh. 987. gidh ionann atá ..., 2900 .

pl. 1

(a) No instance.

(b) cíammin, gidar : cíammin bí, BDD² 329. gidar comaltai, TBC-LL¹ 3680

pl. 2

(a) cenuded', cenotad' : cenuded issidi (=ḟissidi) `although ye are knowing,' Thes. i 713.25 (Tur. Cod.). cenotad maic-si raith, Wb. 33b8 . cenutad suíre, 4a10 .

pl. 3

(a) cetu', ceto' : cetu chummascthai, Sg. 62a2 . ceto écintecha, 203b10 .

(b) ciato', cetu', ciat, cidat : ciato chomṡruithi, Críth G. 493. cetu cummai a feba, Bruchst. 39 § 94. cíat ísliu fíad dáinib ... bit áird, Fél. Prol. 153. cidhat (cit, v.l.) ili fuile, Corm. Y 975.39 . srotha in dithruib ... ciat serba slassa, SR 4071. cidat mora, 446 . cidad mōra, TBC-I¹ 2235. ceat olca, ZCP vii 269 § 17. Ériu ii 122 § 63.

cía + neg. s. 3

(a) cinid, cenid : cinidlúith (=cinid dlúith) lib, Wb. 12b9 . cinith mút, Sg. 5b4 . cenid ed, Ml. 85b11 .

(b) cenid, cini : cenid mé in murgelt, LU 3022 (H). cini di sīl Chuind dóu, ZCP xiii 375.10 .

(ii) má (ma) s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) masat (masae, v.l.) : masat mac Dé, PH 4708. masad acuraig, CCellaig 449 . masat eólach, ZCP xiii 3 § 5. másat (masae, v.l.) geilt, BS 100.13 .

s. 3

(a) masu', maso', masa' (see Thurneysen, KZ xlviii 60f .) : masu chundubart, Wb. 4d28 . masa choimdiu, Ml. 108c16 .

(b) masu', masa', mas' : see s.v. 3 má (ma). Add : masu ar oítid, Trip.² 1483. mása thol, 584 . a Ḟir diad masa thú, TBC-LL¹ 3659. massa anfisac, Laws iv 36.25 Comm. mas da fis, 22 Comm. mas é Dubthach, TBC-LL¹ 2780. masad (massa, v.l.) ḟír, Mór M. 266.15 . mása thoil leat, TSh. 8093. más é is críoch, 1366 .

pl. 3

(a) matu : matu hé ata horpamin, Wb. 2c14 .

(b) masat, mástat : masat elti, MU² 399. mástat carait ... mastat námait, LU 9091 (FB).

ma + neg. s. 3

(a) manid : manid fír, Wb. 13b14 . 17b32 . Ml. 21a11 .

(b) manid, minad, minid, munid, minap, munab : manid caindleóracht, LU 9196 (FB). minad hé, BDD² 1287. minid hé, 917 . mani daig, 593 . munab follus, TSh. 5164. See s.v. 3 má (ma) and TSh. Introd. xxi n. 3 . The form béso, bésu is used as a subjunctive (for its origin see Thurn., KZ xlviii 60.f .) : bésu dagduine cini estar túari `he may be a good man,' Wb. 6b23 , 24 . massu ed béso mó a fius dúibsi, 19b11 .

(iii) co n- so that.

s. 1

(a) conda : is rad dée immum-forling conda apstal, Wb. 13b6 . conda marb, 19a17 . 17c10 .

(b) conda, conam, conadam, conidam : domāncatar-sa uile | conda eōlach a n-achne, Otia i 127 § 29. conam torsech co haithbe, 128 § 33. rom ebail Sencha ... conidam trén, LU 10285. 10304 . conad am lista liumm fadén ┐ nach am inmain frisnach āen, MacCongl. 95.4 .

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) condat adbartnaigthi-siu, PH 1795.

s. 3

(a) condid, conid : condid flaith do in coimdiu, Wb. 9d2 . tremiberar ... conid ainm dun chrunn, 8a5 . condid di thetacht in spírto ... profetauit , Thes. i 496.26 (Ardm.). conid e epscop insin cita-ruoirtned, ii 241.15 (ib.). conid femen, Sg. 123b2 . condid étrummu, Ml. 90a11 . connid ed, 91a19 .

(b) condid, conid, conad, cunad, etc.: condid ann, AU i 434.22 (A.D. 916) . Hib. Min. 25. conid eiter a lamaib ..., Mon. Tall. 153.12 . conid edh, AU i 538.6 (A.D. 1015) . conid soillsi, Corm. Y 426. LU 10931. 10306 . PH 2245. 720 . conad dēach ainm gach sillaibe, Corm. Y 500. PH 1371. 6132 . Laws iv 18.2 Comm. cunad fír, MU² 284. cunid soillsithir, 554 . condad leis Aidhne, Ériu i 46.32 . conodh i, Ériu iii 141.206 . conud e, RC vi 184.19 . gonid lór, ACL iii 306 § 1 . gonadh aire sin ..., Ó Héodhusa 51.1. TSh. 1824. 5960 . conid was replaced by gurab (gur), gura originally a subjunctive form : corop Tuigi im Thamon and sain, LL ii 9911 . gorop de atá Cruachna Áe, ii 12397 . innister curab pecthaig ..., RC xxiv 378.17 . gurab droch-duine ..., PH 7682. corub iat, 445 corab í so, 7334 . gurb i luaithreadh ..., TSh. 300. gur bréagach a bhreathnughadh, 395 . gurab é an bás, 37 . gurab tearc, 94 . er co ra mian leisin nádúir maith do dénum, PH 7394. gur tú mo Chruthaightheoir, Donlevy 406.5 . gur ionmholta, 132.10 . do-fedar gura tú C., ZCP viii 546.26 . Cf. also : casmail lem gom (=co mba) e in mac beg, 538.15 .

pl. 1

(a) condan : hóre ronsóirni ... condan fírianichthi, Wb. 2d14 . immunrordad condan maicc togu non naturae , 20d10 .

(b) No instances.

pl. 3

(a) condat : condat anman som, Sg. 188b3 . condat reli inna aicsin hisin, Ml. 51d15 .

(b) condat, condot, cundat : condat e tri decmainge in domain a d[t]indtud, Laws v 426.3 . condat cora, SR 296. SCC 320 . PH 736. cundat marthanaig, MU² 310. gondat Ulaid, TBC-LL¹ 704.

(iv) With cen co (not found in Glosses) :

(b) s. 1 gon com (gen gob, v.l.) maith-se oc immarbáig, TBC-LL¹ 3219.

s. 3 gion go glan mo sgáth, DDána 24 § 30. gion gur caomh a dhreach, 91 § 6.

(v) With no :

s. 1

(a) nonda', nunda' : amal nonda thorisse `as I am trustworthy,' Wb. 10a28 . a nunda thinnachtae-se, Ml. 126d12 .

s. 2

(a) nonda', nunda' : lassaní nonda brithem `when Thou art judge,' Ml. 92a15 . a nnunda chocuibsid-siu, 58b6 . 38c27 .

pl. 1

(a) nundem, nundan : oire nundem membur uili du Dea, Thes. ii 246.5 (Camb.). á nnundan deeth ní, Ml. 120b3 .

pl. 2

(a) nondad : amal nondad maicc cóima, Wb. 27b16 .

(b) These forms did not survive O. Ir.

(vi) After the co-ordinating conjunctions sech and noch the absolute form is used. See under 2 sech and 1 noch. sechi whoever, whatever probably contains cop. s. 3 : sechi é cretes `whosoever believes,' Wb. 15b1 . sechi hed bás són `whatsoever death ...,' 13c1 . sechi dú nu-t-soe-siu, Ml. 112b6 .

pl. 3 sechitat hé ` whoever they are ,' 49a19 . sechitat hé (né, MS.) ` whatsoever ,' Thes. ii 25.38 (Bcr.). (Cf. indat mbriathra, III above).

VI With various prepositions in relative clauses.

(i) i n- (in many exx. has the force of a conjunction, see Ériu i 12 ) :

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) inda : cid at-chí dúnd, inda fisid `since thou art ...,' BDD² 545.

s. 3

(a) indid, innid : cia airm indid immaircide do epert amén, Wb. 12d18 . ind labrada innid eula nech, Ml. 42c4 . indid mailliu a tuile `by which the flood is slower,' Thes. ii 14.35 (Bcr.). 20.41 (ib.).

(b) indid, inid, inad, ina: indid Niall ... ro malart since it is N. ..., AU i 438.26 (A.D. 918). indid Alend is dún fás, Hail Brigit § 14. inid mo athair ... ortabairsi, BDD² 737. Bruchst. 47 § 105.3 . inad gilla óc ... tarfás dúnn, BDD² 161. PH 5029. do Maig Mell inid rí Boadag, LU 10004. aít init sruithiu dliged oldas naidm, ZCP xiii 23.1 . inad ina fairsingi in cathuir, Maund. § 75. eccla ifirn ... 'na minic fóidh guil, ACL iii 216.17 . Forms originally perf. and subj. came to be used as pres. indic. : sé céimeanna 'nar cosmhail ré chéile iad, TSh. 1231. ní fhuil ainm oile ... ionarb (ionab, v.l.) éigean sinne do shlánughadh, 2088 . neg. traigle i nach ūathad uidre, Bruchst. § 88. teagh is nach uathadh urra, DDána 119 § 23.

pl. 3

(a) indat : indat iudei itirroscar[sat] fri hiris n-abarche since they are Jews, Wb. 5b34 . cid ind aimser indat sláin ennaic som, Ml. 76a6 .

(b) in am indat slána, TBC-LL¹ 952. inat ṡlana, 1386 .

(ii) día n- :

s. 1

(a) No instances.

(b) díanda, díanam : Chríst dianda chéle `whose servant I am,' Fél. Ep. 307. an rí díanam gilla, ZCP v 497 § 12.

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) díandat : cia díandat céliusiu ?, TBC-I¹ 1382.

s. 3

(a) díant, díandid, dían : intí diant ainm discessio, Wb. 26a5 . in rét diant torbach ..., Ml. 121d1 . dian-did nomen hiber, Sg. 100b1 . in son diandid tintud ..., Ml. 37a10 . dian duthoig Liphe, Thes. ii 295 § 4 ( SP v ). neg. di nach follus (=dunach, Edd.), Thes. ii 8.35 (Acr.).

(b) díand, díanid, díanad, dían, díanda, dían(d)at, dána, dán, etc.: dianid opair oen laithi, AU i 342.22 (A.D. 839) . Corm. Y 825.2 . fer dianid comainm Labán, SR 2944. diand sanctlethan slondad, Fél. June 12 . April 22 . indī dianda coimmēid, Corm. Y 269. 892 . dianad ainm clí, 275 . PH 5180. 5494 . mí diandat (diando, MS., dianid, v.l.) ainm Marsiius, Corm. Y 892. cid dianat maith ind uair si ?, Hib. Min. p. 50.6 . Cū dīan comainm Culand, TBC-I¹ 2263. dianaid rī, 560 . dian serb cach sruith, ZCP vi 267 § 2. cia dana céile thusa ?, viii 545.2 . Ériu ii 229.19 . drem dīb dan eōl, ZCP viii 216 § 78. Laws iv 60.12 . ACL iii 237 § 15. na nathrach neimhe danadh ainm tyrus , TSh. 8973. Pres. subj. and perf. forms used as pres. indic. : darab ceann sgríbe an chríoch dhéidheanach, TSh. 725. cia d'ar ceart, Donlevy 106.7 . neg. airchindech do nach diur adhultrus, Laws i 58.22 Comm. do neoch do nar bo chotlud, TBC-LL¹ 2962. cia dánach feasach ... ?, TSh. 6401.

pl. 3

(a) neg. : donnatdet adblama inna esiu (leg. inna hísiu, Edd.) `to whom these things are not ready,' Thes. i 713.23 (Tur. Cod.).

(b) díanat, díandat : amail rondeiligthe sinethae dianat anmanna dela, Corm. Y 431. Metr. Dinds. iii 312.116 . bó ... díandat slána a secht mbliadna, LU 8122.

(iii) ara n- :

(a) arndid : cid arndid ísliu aesce quam sol , Thes. ii 22.41 (Bcr.). in di accuis ... arndid coitchen ..., Sg. 200a13 .

(b) ara n- : is ed sin ara n-amra `arcu fuin' `for which a.f. is admirable,' ZCP vii 312 § 26.

(iv) ó n- :

(a) óndid, ónid : in sians ondid accobor limsa ícc cáich, Wb. 12d23 . honid techtae molad Dáe, Ml. 51c2 .

(b) ón, óna, ónab : díles Néill ón cunnail cell, Ériu iv 92 § 1. toirt[h]igi in lā | ōnab lēir feadha, ACL iii 235 § 21. gním óna mó ar dtachrádh, IGT Decl. ex. 412.

(v) frissa n- :

(a) frisin : dochum cétnidetad frisin cosmil `to which it is like,' Sg. 188a13 .

(b) frisnid, ren, rena, renab, renar : inmain samail frisnid cosmail a n-adchīusa, TBC-I¹ 2875. nech risnid [andsa], LU 4004. drem ren dothroide ar ndeabhaidh, IGT Decl. ex. 1167. is dona neithibh renab usa truailled do gabail cuigi, in baindi, Rosa Angl. 112.8 . dream ... réna deacair, TSh. 4665. ag an druing ... rénar milis, 1568 . 711 .

pl. 3

(a) No instance.

(b) frisndat : inna ferta sa ... cía beith nech risndat móra araide isat úathe dó ilib, Trip.² 3096.

(vi) lasa n- :

(a) lasin : intí lasin format, Ml. 129b3 . lasin n-accubur, 53c16 .

(b) lasnad, lenab : intí lasnád ecul `who fears,' PH 2411. lasnad ail, 1421 . cibé lénab mór a n-abraim, Keat. i 76.44 .

(vii) oca n- :

(a) No instance.

(b) ri ind lochta hicnad suithi a n-ord, RC xx 174 § 38 (ACC). co flaith Dúrlais, 'cán mór mé, Hy Fiach. 284.5 . sdéd gan dóigh urraim na n-eillteadh, IGT Decl. ex. 1177 = gán, 662 .

(viii) fa n- (O. Ir. imm) :

(a) No instance.

(b) fán, fána : a cCionn Coradh fan léir magh, ZCP viii 225 § 42. fáth fána doilghe ... an bás, TSh. 1132.

(ix) asa n- :

(a) No instance.

(b) asarb : briathra asarb iontuigthe ..., TSh. 5664.

(x) forsa n-, fora n- :

(a) No instance.

(b) forab : o sheircc in domain-sea forab airchindech diabul, PH 7118.

Cons. Pres.

s. 3

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) bid : bid coitchenn dliges cach ngrád ... i córus othrusa, Críth G. 50. bés bid cethrar nó chóicer bíte hi comarbus bóairech, 146 .

Conj.

(a) -bi, -pi : nipi cían a masse in choirp, Wb. 28c25 . 12c12 . air nibi eulach, Ml. 42c9 . 128d3 . níbí cian, 91d2 . combi remib rethith iarum, Wb. 13b13 . indhí lasmbi accobur, 30c23 . imbí hinun folud whether the substance is the same, Sg. 188a6 .

(b) -bi, -pi : nī bī clōen in t-ere, Corm. Y 447.16 . ni bi briugu nad bi cedach, Laws v 76.10 . i ngait nádbi aí `which is not his,' Críth G. 218. ben las(a)mbi cuma cip cia las fia, BCrólige § 44. is bec a ain iphthi compí sāitheach, ZCP vi 257.y . i tig as mbi eggna suillsi, BDD² 175. dīa mbī dīn Cūan Caill, Four Songs 20 § 4 . pl. 1 (a) ? isin chruth-sin bimmi nóib-ni 'it is thus that we become holy' Wb. 3 d 27 , ZCP xxxii 120 .

pl. 3

(a) No instance.

(b) bit : imscarad dotluigigter flaith fri aigillni na bit anfolaid in ceili gaibter ann `a separation which the chief requests from the tenant not on account of any disqualification of the tenant,' Laws ii 316.z .

Ipv.

s. 2

Abs.

(a) ba' : ba chuimnech dilguda duinni, Ml. 46b29 .

(b) ba, bat : ba faitech ar nā ba fīachach, Anecd. iii 13.10 = bat fattech, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 14 § 3.1 . bát umal ... bat cumnech, LU 3490 - 1 . bat cúimnech, PH 1208.

Conj.

(a) -ba', pa' : naba thoirsech, Wb. 29d19 . napa chondarcell, 31c22 .

(b) -ba, -bad, -b(a)dat, -rbat, -rab, -rsat : nā ba lonn frim, TBC-I¹ 1210. nad bad lond-so, TBC-LL¹ 1045. na badat, 1106 . nabdat dolam, SR 1253. narbat (marab, narab, v.ll.) timtheirc tais, KMMisc. 262 § 9. nárbhat dian, Acall. 587. nárbat bronach-su, FDG 397.

s. 3

Abs.

(a) bad', bed', pad' : bad chore dúib friu `have peace towards them,' Wb. 27d11 . bed chuimnech, 33d5 . pad glicc far n-intliucht, 5c21 .

(b) bad, ba : arān Mochue ... ba hé dobertar dúin, Mon. Tall. 128.25 . bad and sein not adnastar, Trip.² 2991. bat (bá, v.l.) tusu bas ara, 2580 . bad (bud, bidh, bu, v.ll.) sonairt ar n-airle, Fél. Prol. 261. bad uallach, ScM. § 4.11 . ba (bá, LU) maith blāth in claideb, TBC-I¹ 934. bá[d] sí riar Aengusa, Ériu xii 146.2 (Tochm. Ét.). nech atcobra bithbethaid ... bat umhal, ZCP vii 312 § 23. With inf. pron. s. 2 : badat cuman remember, Rawl. 72b39 .

Conj.

(a) -bad' : nábad chotarsne fri bar n-ícc a nno-gessid, Wb. 24b3 . nabad do réir far colno beithe, 6b4 .

(b) -bad, -bud, -pa : ná bad ead do-gneth, BDD² 411. nábad olc do menma, LU 3271. na pa machtad amh libsi, Mon. Tall. 157.20 . nā bud sgēlach, ZCP vii 311 § 9.

pl. 1

(a) ban', baán' : ban chossmaili friar tuissech, Wb. 33b20 . 29b17 . baán tairismich do irnigdi, 5d22 .

(b) No instance.

pl. 2

Abs.

(a) bad', bed' : bad chensi fri cách, Wb. 24b1 . bad treúin i n-iriss, 27a6 . bed adthramli .i. gaibid comarbus for n-athar, 9a14 .

(b) No instance.

Conj.

(a) -bad' : nabad anfoirbthi-si, Wb. 12d26 .

(b) ? nadib leisc, SR 7843. narbar dúrcridig, 4842 .

pl. 3

Abs.

(a) bat' : bat chosmuli frinni `let them be like unto us,' Wb. 17c5 .

(b) bat, bad : bat menci do dalai, Ériu viii 173.8 . bad sgrībt[h]a a sgēla, ZCP viii 110 § 10.

Conj.

(a) -bat : bad armatura dei bess lib nábat nacha arm aili, Wb. 22d14 .

(b) No instance.

Impf.

s. 3

(a) No instance.

(b) bíth : nicon ibdis bandai cormmai i tír Cualand, cia bith ara tecmainged dóib `whoever it used to be that they used to meet,' Mon. Tall. 129.19 (tr. Bergin, Ériu xii 209 , q.v.).

pl. 3 (see Bergin, Ériu xii 225 f. ).

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) batis : a trian rocharsa[t] Coin Culainn batís [d]aill ... batis clóin ... batis guit, RC viii 60.15 ( LL 117a7 - 10 ). ? batis gnatha ar buadhuiph band, Anecd. ii 70.8 .

Conj.

(a) No instance.

(b) -btis : imrethitis a da thraigid ┐ a n-adbrond comtís luathidir ruathar funemda, Ériu iv 30.2 . comtis scítha, Snedg. u. Mac R § 27. dabertis T.D.D. lubi ... for aibnib ... comtís brecca ... na srotha díb, TBC-LL¹ 4213. comdis fliuch iad do deraib, TTebe 3711 . comtis, 2884 . nībtis omain neich `they used not to fear any man,' ZCP iii 38.25 (tr. Ériu xii 225 ).

Subj. Pres.

s. 1

(a) -ba : ciaba deróil la nech, Wb. 18a7 . 23b29 . niba dimicthe-se libsi `I should not be despised by you,' 21d3 . mainba aecne lib, 17c10 .

(b) -ba, -pa, ropom (ropa, v.l.), -rbom, -rbam, -rba, -bam ; with ma, madam : ni reg-sa assin chruachán-sa co mba marb, Trip.² 1294. nipá pene na régi, Mon. Tall. 131.17 . riasiu ba marb-sa, ZCP i 105.25 . acht ropom (ropa, LU) airdricsa, TBC-I¹ 571. im-caemros[s]a do gaethaib corbom gaeth fo-deisin, BDD² 167. díamsa saithech bíd when once I am satisfied, LU 8469 (FB). nírba cintach `may I not be guilty,' Ériu vi 116 § 3. dīa mba bēo-sa, KMMisc. 208.y . corbam cruithnecht it' it[h]lainn, Ériu iii 31 § 24. narbam crimnach, SR 3202. nīrbam utmall anbsaid, a meic mo Dé, ZCP vi 260 § 10. madham buidech-sae, CCath. 4210. madam beō-sa do-gēba luach a taisgedha ... minbam beō imorra ..., ML² 1495.

s. 2

(a) -ba' : armba cháinchomraccach-so, Wb. 30b23 . cia ba loingthech, 6c9 . ciafa firián, Ml. 36a32 . comba soilse-siu, Wb. 22c3 . Ml. 54b19 .

(b) bat, -ba, -pa, -bat, -pat, -rba(t), -rbot, -(b)sa(t) : with cía, cidat ; with ma, madat : ni ba dicheoil, SR 2197. nipa frithenech, LU 3495. ní pa, Ériu i 198 § 16a . nibát athboingid ar narbat aithrech, LU 3502. nibat comromach ar nábat miscnech, 3503 . nirbat díscir ... nibbát ecal ... nipát tairne ..., 3467 - 9 . ba hēmich corbad sercach, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 14 § 3.3 . bat umal corbot ūasal, ib. § 3.7 . nírba chreccach, Ériu i 200 § 22. nirba truag, SR 3295. doroimle corbat cétach, ..., LU 8796 (FB). atraí coropat mor, 3533 . céin bat béo, 3919 . nirbat ancretmech ... acht corbat cretmech, PH 6776. diamba breiteam arafeser ... `if thou be a judge, thou shouldst know,' BCrólige § 66. diambat rolabar, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 18 § 7.16 . ZCP vii 298.17 . diamsa coemainech, IT i 70.2 . diamsat fissid, iii 488.352 . BS 86.25 . nírsat bidbha oirechta, Acall. 597. 598 . toich duit cidat rī, toich duit cidat druī (to a child), PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 546 § 3 ( LL 147a ). cidat lond im gním garta, IT iii 508 § 1. madat fīrēn flaith `if you be a just prince,' KMMisc. 262 § 15. madhid trēn, ML² 1437.

s. 3

I Forms without ro-.

(i) Abs. The form ba appears to be used only as jussive subj. :

(a) ? bá tualang cách forcital alaili `let each be fit ...,' Wb. 6d13 ; ba samlid dúib `be ye thus,' 19d29 , but in both instances the editors would read bad for ba.

(b) do Chríst ba mór do gaire, Ériu i 200 § 22. ba i n-ómun ba i n-incridiu | gudem Críst let it be in fear ..., 195 § 10 (but ? cf. 1 fa).

Conj. (ii)

(a)bé (see Bergin, Ériu xii 208 ff .) : cia bé a mmēt adae `however great it may be,' Ml. 61b28 . cip hé ade asberam, 25d11 .

(b) cip hé gellus dít, Trip.² 1626. cibbe noda saraigfed, 789 . cipe a isle, ciape a huaisle, Laws v 386.15 . secht tellaige ... nad erenaiter cidbe indola, 206.2 . cidbe fine dib dibus, Cóic Con. H § 69. cebé baile no beth, LU 365. cipé tí, TBC-LL¹ 1768. cipia frisa ferthar tnú, Ériu v 211.69 . gidh bé haird iona dtuitfidh, TSh. 3985.

(iii) -bo occurs in the Glosses seeming sometimes to be the jussive subj. (neg.) and once after in whether , but these exx. may perhaps be pret. (but see (iv) below) :

(a) ní bo comitesti (rectius chomitesti, Ed.) dó `he should not be indulged,' Wb. 1c12 . nibo intain no mbeid ar súil tantum `it must not be when ye are before (His) eye,' 27c9 . rofitir side imbo ho chridiu fa nacc, 27c11 .

(b) No instance.

(iv)

-p, -b :

(a) níp tarisse lat `trust him not,' Wb. 30d24 . nip sain a n-asberat et immarádat, 28c1 . nip crú cruach, Thes. ii 250.11 (Stowe M.). arnáp hé som ..., Wb. 6c7 . ar nab laigiu, Sg. 179b1 . imb anacol dom fa nac, Wb. 23a6 . immaid (=imb m.) fa olcc, 8d26 . im fochróib bá chían, Sg. 151b2 . sechip hé ... `whosoever it be,' Wb. 3b15 . sechib grád i mbether and, 10a18 . cip cruth bíid páx libsi fri cách `howsoever it be,' 5d33 . cib cenél tra dia ro scribad ind epistil so, 3b20 . mainip in chrud-so, 10a5 . manip hinunn etargnae, Sg. 188a12 . Ml. 14d10 . cenib fír, 24d22 . cenip ho étrummugud inna n-olc, 59a23 . cinip hond sémigdetu, 59a23 .

(b) -p, -b, -pe, -be, later -ba, -bo ; with día, díam : acht nip inbleoguin, Laws ii 98.17 . bés níp aill do dáinib, Fél. Ep. 417. níp anchobrai, LU 9663. bes nipe nessu éc do suidiu oldás daitsiu, 9210 . mad ben urnadma na be cetmunnter, Laws ii 380.25 . ar n[a] himirbera neach na be hai, v 476.z . diam dlaí di chi[u]nn adairt, Críth G. 229. BCrólige § 38. diam chuibse cataid `to whom veneration is due,' Laws i 10.24 . mairg ... diam cara Colco, Anecd. i 7.11 . cach fuil druith dinnap inna ramot techtai torai, BCrólige § 64. cid nabsin (? = nab sí in) Fedelm-sa ... cichsed, LU 8296. nabbsin, 8318 . air nā ba (v.l. arnab) sothuissledhach, Corm. Y 434. arnapa dimicnithi, Trip.² 2048. sechib dán di[i]b, Críth G. 323. sicip hé dígbas ..., Trip.² 751. secip blas bá mellach, LU 1787. PH 1428. mad iar stair cip indus, Trip.² 33. BDD² 655. cip magen inda tecmai `in whatever place,' BCrólige § 40. cidh be manach doda-goad ┐ cib can a cinel whencesoever, Anecd. i 44.8 . cecip ní foillsighfithir daitt ` whatever ,' Aisl. Tond. 96.9 is fīach dia blīadnai dō īar sin d(h)inap (sic leg.) turbuith deithbire dothnairp dia nephthairiuc 'it becomes for him a debt [payable only] in a year’s time unless a legitimate excuse excuses him for his non-appearance' Bürgschaft 17 § 53 , Ériu xx 230 . dinnap ina ramot techtai torai 'unless it has accrued in a lawful way (?) ' Ériu xii 52 § 64 , xx 230 . manip do Chonchobor, ScM. § 3.16 . PH 2080. manib tualaing, Anecd. iii 23.12 . maniba t'ainmnet ..., Trip.² 859. manab ac oen flaith beit, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. munab neasa, 44.4 . DDána 76 § 24. munob cunntabartac[h], BCrólige § 14 n. 1 . munup, Laws iv 26.13 . menip, SR 3597. Cóic Con. RE § 23. minub, BCrólige § 23. FDG 389. minap, TBC-I¹ 795. PH 1542. minab, 6035 . munbo cairnech in craidhe, ZCP vi 268.12 . munba, ib. 11 . IGT Decl. ex. 352. cinip mór do bríg, Trip.² 1888. LU 1435 (MU).

The form arimp in the Glosses always has a final sense except the doubtful ex. in Ml. 130b8 (see below). The ex. from Críth Gabl. is also final, the others all express an indirect command or wish (cf. airndip, see (v) below) :

(a) arimp áigthidiu-de `that it may be the more dreaded,' Wb. 23d23 . 32a2 . 15c4 . arimp díthnad ... dúibsi foditiu fochide dúnni, 14b17 . arim tairismech, 25a9 . ised as maith la dia airimp (? leg. airndip) isin gess ... `this God would have ...,' Ml. 130b8 .

(b) arim túalang gabála[e] ríg, Críth G. 187. cach ōen comaldathar in cāin si ... arim sírsaegul ... ┐ arop airmitnech fēith, Cáin Ad. § 30. abbair fri Feradach, arim remḟissid arad sencharpait `er solle ein vorauswissender Lenker des alten Wagens sein,' ZCP xi 83 § 27. nach oirecht ... árim (corob, v.l.) cáin domnaig cétadéntar ann, Ériu ii 210 § 33. The usual way of expressing a wish or exhortation is rop (see section II below), but cf.: adair ... do Dia ┐ co mbá dó a aenur fhogna, PH 4724. searc Íosa ... go mba hé th'arm DDána 20 § 7. goma, 93 § 37 . in cū ruad ... coma taīseach cāemc[h]uaine, CCellaig 463 . With cen co : cen cop foccus a gcairdiss, Anecd. ii 62.2 . MacCongl. 39.27 . PH 3100. cin cob aire doronsat, 3237 .

(v)

(a) -dip, -dib : condip slán á anim, Wb. 9b9 . condib cumme, 24a22 . is tacair arndip samlid it is meet that it be thus, 22c11 . airndip maith a forcell `that the testimony may be good,' 25d21 . airndib ecmailt, Tur. 71 (airndip may have either final or consecutive sense, see note on arimp in (iv) above). duús indip fochunn ícce do, Wb. 26b27 . dús cia port indib maith, 24 .

(vi) With ma (má),

(a) mad : mad cumme imned á cheli et a imned fessin, Wb. 20c6 . 12a23 . 4a14 . mad cétnide a n-animm, Sg. 197a2 . 3b19 . mad du rúin `according to the mystic meaning,' Tur. 103.

(b) mad, mád : mad a dligiud ḟénechso (Corr., Ed.) is menbu, Críth G. 11. mad nóeb arid-léga, Fél. Ep. 178. Corm. Y 1233. mad na mna `if it belong to the woman,' Laws ii 402.1 . mádh táesca dhuit iná dham, Anecd. i 32 § 54. mád, LU 9216. madh peacthach é, TSh. 4315.

(vii)

With cía although, that ,

(a) cith, cid : deithbeir do ceith aneola, Wb. 33c16 . cith etarṡuidigthe, Sg. 68b4 . Mon. Tall. 159.2 . cid accobrach, Wb. 4c34 . cid doib doarrchet `though they were prophesied unto,' 5a16 (here the sense appears to be indic., see GOI § 793 ). cid comsuidigthe, Sg. 201a10 . Ml. 2d12 .

(b) cid, gid: cid ē marad tarm ēisi, Corm. Y 180. cid diabal fod foirge, Laws iv 18.19 . cid sain na conairi (pl. subject). Cóic Con. H. § 43. gid rogāeth nī rogand, TBC-I¹ 2596.

cid ed nevertheless: (b) cid ed nī rochotail, TBC-I¹ 2512. gidh eadh ní híad as andsa, KMMisc. 352 § 6.

cid ... cid, cid ... nó whether (it be) ... or ...:

(a) ma gorith locc cith ine chuis nú ine láim, Thes. ii 245.36 (Camb.). cid maid cid olcc la nech, Wb. 30d6 . cach réit cid precept cid labrad, 13a29 . Sg. 2a7 . Ml. 26a8 . cid ho deacht maicc nó ho deacht athar arafoima doinacht maicc aní arroet, 17c3 .

(b) cid cóem cid díchóem, Críth G. 225. Corm. Y 1167. SCC 679 .

cid cia whoever it be: am chind cid cia raib, KMMisc. 254 § 4.

cid though it be has also the sense even , in which sense its verbal content must early have been forgotten so that it may be folld. by plural noun or pronoun, and by a dependent vb. in indic. instead of subj.:

(a) cithisse `it is even he,' Wb. 22a7 (a prima manu). corrici cith besti béoa, Thes. i 4.31 . ceith cenmathá in tegdais n-ucut `even besides,' Wb. 33a4 . cid ind fochith follongam `even the suffering which we endure,' 14b15 . ceth Máolruoin, Mon. Tall. 135.24 . co seichetar cid a comroircniu, Sg. 1a2 .

(b) coire ... no suigfedh cid Erind, Corm. Y 323.8 . ní dénaiter cid clocha fotraicthi díb, Trip.² 873. ni cuma dono cid cach mis disuidiu, Laws iv 88.19 . ní thibrind i tindscra cid Meidbi insin, TBFr. 185. cid mecnu, LU 10560.

II Forms with ro-.

(i)

(a) rop, rob, ropo' (the form rob occurs only before b and m): rop corae doib fri dia `peace be with them ...,' Wb. 20d1 . rop scīath dún diar n-imdegail, Hy. i 20. rop fír, ib. 39 . nicon fil bas sciith lim act rop ar crist, Wb. 18a2 . acht robronach (=rob bronach, Ed.), Ml. 86d12 . act ropo cho n-etarceirt, Wb. 13a26 . act ropo cho torbu, 27 .

(b) rop, rob, ropo': rop múr ar cech merblén' Babill, Fél. Jan. 24. rob hí ascaid connaga, Ériu iv 106 § 59. rob dimbríogh gach tonn dá ttuil | gach imshníomh sonn rob soruidh, Studies 1921, 76 § 25 . DDána 122 § 21. acht rop la forcomet, Mon. Tall. 161.27 . Trip.² 2941. acht rob tol dait-so, ZCP viii 312.8 . riasíu ropo chúairddulchach, Críth G. 68.

The form robo, robu and with inf. pron. rodbo, rodbu occurs in the sense either, or (cf. Fr. soit ... soit). The editors of Thes. Pal. (i 433 n. ) say it `seems to be regular in the first of two or more alternatives.' It is so used in the great majority of cases but in Wb. 14c24 and Ml. 58b11 (see below) it precedes the second alternative. Pedersen ( KZ xxxv 404 f . q.v.) suggests an original meaning `was es sei' and the loss of the demonstrative pronoun a n- or aní before robo. Thurneysen ( GOI § 886 ) believes it to have been a potential ro- subj. It is found somet. where in the Lat. uel .. uel .., or Lat. aut .. aut ... occur:

(a) rodbo dia adroni ... ł. is hé-som adroni ... either God has committed ..., Wb. 29d29 . 16d7 . fo chenéle lugi [i]ssiu rodbo chosmi[liu]s `as a kind of oath ... or a similitude,' 14c24 . robo intí forchain gl. siue qui docet, 5d10 . robo folad diles ł. doacaldmach, Sg. 197a1 . 200b6 . robu óenlitrib gl. uel singulis literis, 28a12 . robu cho adersetar gl. uel emendentur ... (uel ...), Ml. 30d11 . robu a caratrad gl. (uel necessitudo) uel (familiaritas), 58b11 (but Eds. suggest on p. 721b : `as robu regularly refers to the former of two alternatives, gloss 11 may gl. uel necessitudo'). robu a nnu mothaigtis gl. aut stupentes, 44c6 . 109c3 . 121b6 .

(b) rodbu forcetail ł. scribend ł. uaimm n-etaig, LB 11b13 . innahí rohaisneid dó N. .. rodbo o littrib no a himaccalmaibh, ZCP ii 321.y .

(ii) -rop, -rup, -rub:

(a) corrup mithich gabáil ferainn do, Wb. 19d3 . corrop hed mo indeb Crist, 24a6 . corop he to menmme, Thes. ii 255.14 (Stowe M.). Wb. 7d10 . Sg. 40b7 . corub mebuil leu, Ml. 138c8 . See also Subst. Vb. l. 1389 ff.

(b) -rup, -rub, -rob, -rop, -rab, -rap, -rip, -rp: corup messu de dún, Trip.² 2592. TBC-I¹ 1577. PH 5319. corob gel in mag, Trip.² 555. TBC-I¹ 2455. corrom mé (=corrob mé) nosn-orr, BDD² 721. corab meisi, Trip.² 1360. Laws iv 62.18 Comm. Anecd. i 17.17 . curub cutruma cuit cach fir dib, Cóic Con. H § 102. co rāssa in cū hīsin ┐ corip ingnīma, TBC-I¹ 539 = corop, LU 5028. acht corp dall, SR 2900. āgusta dō gurab trū, Corm. Y 1238. ní rop áilsed `let there not be neglect,' Fél. Ep. 522. nī rob do soinmige ┐ nī rob do fechtnaidi dō, TBC-I¹ 640 = nipo ... ┐ nirop, LU 5125. arnarap galar doib, Mon. Tall. 147.23 . arnā rob olc, Corm. Y 425. fégad cech aen uaib ... ná rob dáll ... hé, PH 4666. Sometimes the final b or p dropped out, at first before initial b or f: arnara fochand báis dóib, Mon. Tall. 146.29 . 152.11 . curu bēl ainmnech urnaigthech, ACL iii 234 § 9. luiget ... co ro bréc, PH 2685. co ro huain doib, 4997 .

rel.

(a) bes`, bas`: níi bes chotarsne diar n-ícc, Wb. 11a24 . bes chossecarthae, Ml. 63a6 . bes miniu, Thes. ii 254.14 (Stowe M.). céin bas mbéo, Wb. 10b23 . a mbas cete, Thes. ii 17.34 (Bcr.).

(b) bes`, bas`, bus`: nech bes ardu, Críth G. 115. lin bes coir, BCrólige § 48. ni bes epiltiu, Mon. Tall. 152. 31 . dírimm bas choímiu ná bess áiniu, TBFr. 47. ontí bass formbthi, Mon. Tall. 141.19 . dís bas ḟerr, BDD² 1222. ríasiu bus lá, MU² 322. neich bus chomgrād dó, Ériu i 219 § 7. i llaim neich bessa set `of the person whose property it is,' Laws v 376.4 . do cach besa ai whose it is, ii 398.z . iv 28.5 . i 264.18 . A pron. may be infixed between rel., and its pred.: doeim dano in clī innī besidn-īsle, doemar som ōnnī besadn-ūaisliu, Corm. Y 275. set inna muin cachae besid fiu, Laws v 384.z . 382.8 . ech beissid fiu, 406.9 . cenn caich ... i fine besid sruithe, besid n-uaisliu, ZCP xiv 369 § 31. ailid .iii. seotu bes da fiu, Laws v 408.7 .

pl. 1

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) ropond: ropond bēo for deis mic Dē may we be alive, ZCP viii 106 § 9 (ropo-nd = 3 s.+inf. pron. pl. 1).

Conj.

(a) -ban`: co comalnammar a pridchimme et comman (=co m-ban) dessimrecht do chach, Wb. 31c11 . a numman aircheltai, Ml. 27b10 .

(b) -ban, -rdar, -(r)bar; with cía, gidar: is am comman tairisiu `'tis time that we should be ...,' Fianaig. 26.14 . an biucán gurdar síthaig, Hib. Min. 82.23 . gidar comaltai, TBC-LL¹ 3680. co mbar commaithe, 35 . tiagam ass con (f)acamar na milchonu ...┐ corbar (go mbat, v.l.) scithu oco, TBFr. App. § 16.

pl. 2

Abs.

(a) bede: conicfid-si bede preceptori uili `ye will all be able to be teachers,' Wb. 13a10 .

Conj.

(a) -bad: combad accomalti-si limsa, 23a26 . arnábad toirsig dim chuimriug-sa, 27c34 . arna bad huilcc, 5d38 . dia mbad mathi, 16a13 . ma[nba]d irlaithi, 27c11 . ? To this: annambaid (anambaid, MS.) buidig `when ye are not content,' Ml. 115b10 .

(b) nibur n-ecnaigid, SR 4871. nibfor cétludaig, 4872 .

pl. 3

I Forms without ro-.

No absolute forms occur without ro-.

Conj.

(i)

(a) -bet`, -pat`, -bat`: mainbet mathi, Wb. 11c5 . nó innabet o nach ainmm-diu etir `or whether they are not from any nominal form at all,' Sg. 56b1 . arnapat toirsich, Wb. 26d21 . combat irlamu-de ind ancreitmich do chretim, 12d29 . armbat eolig, 31d15 . armbat chosmaili, Ml. 130a12 . a mbat n-erchoissi, 73c9 . cinbat huili, Wb. 4d6 .

(b) -bet, -bat: im damu nad be tairchesa (leg. bet airchesa), Laws i 184.14 . iv 54.10 . mat cuibdi ... manbet cuibdi, i 244.3 . adubairt ... conod brathair iat cen go bed, Celt. Rev. x 36.18 . acht conbat beoda, TBC-LL¹ 39. combat sithamla, PH 4015. 6746 . manibat óga a frithḟolaid, Ériu i 219 § 9. menbat allmaraig, MU² 517. diamat glain, SR 1461. cenibat fiu, Laws ii 316.20 .

(ii) With ma,

(a) mat: mat hé na briathra-sa forcane, Wb. 28c21 . mat anmann adiechta emnatar and, Sg. 189b4 .

(b) mat, madat, mádit: mat comaithi a folaid, no mat comolca, Laws ii 362.25 - 6 . mat e ... anfolaid in cele falla frithgnama, ZCP xiv 387 § 53. madat comlūatha, ZCP viii 217 § 2. mádit (sic leg.) creidmech, KMMisc. 146.4 .

(iii) With ce, cía although ,

(a) cit: cit imdi far forcitlidi, Wb. 9a12 . 4d4 . 12a13 . cit comsuidigthi, Sg. 207b11 . 190b1 . et muscreitfet cit hésidi `even they,' Wb. 5c2 .

(b) cit, cidat, ciambat: cit lir, Mon. Tall. 156.26 . Fél. Prol. 245. cith (leg. cit) lir cétuib, ZCP viii 195 § 7. cidat (cid, v.l.) créchtnaig, BDD² 1347. KMMisc. 268 § 41. ciambat ilardai, SR 4833.

(iv) With cía, ce who, what ,

(a) No instance.

(b) cit: indid damsa cit n-armand | hi fil chend erred Ul[ad] tell me what are the places ..., LU 11056.

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) ropat`: ropat choin altai ... adcear, Thes. ii 293.7 ( SP i ). acht ropat ṡaini tertpersin, Sg. 199a1 .

(b) ropat`, robat`, robet, ropsat: ropat lir a tellaig, Trip.² 2571. ropat óin dom ṡnádud `may they be one,' Fél. Jan. 21. robat mo cuirn coidin midc, Otia i 126 § 24. robet ar seilb an ōenfir, BColm. 54.10 . ropsat idain dīan-báis ám, KMMisc. 210.3 .

Conj.

(a) No instance.

(b) -rbat, ? -rsat: ciarbat mara a treba, Hy. ii 60 Comm. curbat úagṡlá[i]n, BColm. 54.11 . nirbat ile a liberna, LU 1035. girbat linmara, TBC-LL¹ 4196. garbat discailtig, 544 . apair ó brethir namá corbat bairgin na clochasa, PH 4918. ciarbot maithi, KMMisc. 266 § 32. ? gorsat lir a mmairb andas a mbí, TBC-LL¹ 6015.

rel.

(a) beta`, bete`, bata`: beta téit `when they are wanton,' Wb. 29a1 . beda fiscina baptizerium, Thes. ii 226.29 (Pcr.). donaib hí beta cheti, Ml. 126c4 . ni cumcat bete gentilia, Sg. 33a16 . a mbata n-aersigthi, Ml. 127a4 .

(b) beta, bete, bida: mad aile da lina beta olca [a] folaid, Laws ii 366.11 . itir na ceithre comaichaib beda neasa do, iv 116.2 . tech sruithi bet (leg. betc) fuirbthium, Mon. Tall. 136.23 . tri haidche bede cora, Laws v 438.24 . cusna belltenaib bida nesom, ii 390.20 . trian de don ḟir bed a (leg. beda a) beich `whose bees they are,' iv 116.1 Comm. Cf. do fir bede heich, 106.1 Comm.

Subj. Past

s. 1

(a) -bin, -benn: commin inricc dó `so that I may be worthy thereunto,' Wb. 24a11 . combin cosmail, Ml. 91b7 . arnamtomnad námmin duine, Wb. 17d23 . nombin dermatach, Ml. 20a4 . toimtin armbenn duine, 130d4 .

(b) -badim, -badam: abraind nā badim (? sic leg.) slānsa ... ropad rēill mo tholcsa and, TBC-I¹ 3532. bad cháined dom ḟir co mbadim ferr-sa, TBC-LL¹ 34. damadam (sic leg.) rig (dia mbam airdrí, v.l.) for Erinn if I were , FDG 519.

s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) -badat: da mbad in lāsin, nī epertha co mbadad (leg. mbadat) ferr do lōech annā Cū., TBC-I¹ 2503. is é in claideb dobéraind ... menbadat (sic leg.) aide, RC xiv 426.25 ( LL 111b4 ).

s. 3

I Forms without ro-.

(i) Abs.

(a) bed`, bad`: arna tomnathar bed foammamichthe deacht don dóinacht `that (the) Godhead is subject,' Wb. 13c2 . dommuinfide bed n-ísel intí dia, Ml. 40c17 (in these two exx. we have the type of sentence in which bid occurs in Wb. 25c12 , see (iii) below). din dínit bed ṡástai, Sg. 39b11 . ni arindí bed leth ngotho nobed indib, 5a4 . dóig linn bed n-acuit, 30a8 . bed chuintechti, Ml. 92a17 . ni robe nech bad huaisliu, Wb. 33d10 . aimser ba (leg. bad, Edd.) chomadas dó, 21a1 . cia bed a mmēt inna fochaide `whatever the greatness of the tribulations might be,' Ml. 39a13 (see Bergin, Ériu xii 208 ff .).

(b) bed`, bad`, pad, bud: ba dóig leó bed a sídaib dí, BDD² 42. nech bed chomalaind dó, LU 1667 (ICM). nad baí baili bád cuidbiu dó, Trip.² 429. lāech bad chāime, TBC-I¹ 3242. BDD² 79. mad mē bad chend ..., Ériu iii 140.183 . cīa ragas ...? Cīa pad cīa ... acht Condere `who should it be cut C.', i 114 § 3 . muc bud grátu, Corm. Y 118. ní bud ṡíre, BDD² 138. ciped mac díb no gabad gasced, TBC-LL¹ 1089. With inf. pron. s. 3: tegdais adchondarc indiu | ni fa[il] ba-da-crichidiu (? leg. bad-da-), Thes. ii 292 § 1 (Ml. Poems). marbān badid n-ingnathar, Bruchst. 45 § 102. coich bia beo badid [n-]amradair, RC xx 260 § 65 = badib amradair, LU 873. badid-rédithir ... badid-némithir, RC xxiv 56 § 17. s. 1: nī faigebasu curaid ... bádam fiusa, LU 3913.

(ii) Conj.

(a) -bed`, -bad` (mainbed (minbad, manibad) is regularly folld. by acc.): mainbed maith latsu, Wb. 32a11 . combed chiall ainsedo ildai and, Ml. 67d24 . ni bed uilliu, 54b30 . is cumme nibad móidem `it is the same as though it were not boasting,' Wb. 2b14 . amal nibad fiu, Ml. 63d2 . mainbad éicin, Wb. 4a20 . Hy. v 32. manibbad hinunn, Sg. 17b8 . manibad trocairi ndáe, Ml. 111b28 . manipad taschidetaid, 136c2 . arnábad rómár, Wb. 11c7 . conapad firdía mac, Ml. 21c12 . diambad mathi, Wb. 16a13 . combad choitchen, Sg. 72a1 . Ml. 21d1 . combath chomlan rith lunae , Thes. ii 33.27 (Bv.). na epred a menme armbad ferr són, Wb. 10a16 . arimbad and furruimtis a praintech, Thes. ii 242.4 (Ardm.).

(b) -bed`, -bad`, -pad, -bud, -bod: ised bud cóir laisim combed de laim anmcharat ..., Mon. Tall. 146.25 . Trip.² 2246. ní ... tresambed elned do, Mon. Tall. 164.7 . manipad lor, 128.15 . manipad do chrúass, Trip.² 1370. minbad in mbáin mbic, MacCongl. 107.7 . cid daitsiu nábad lat in curathmír, LU 8112. diambad Chú, 3752 . dámadh linn, TSh. 5962. combad chennach, LU 4296. bá cubaid cíapad tussu bad dall, Trip.² 1516. dūs imbad lór, Mon. Tall. 133.8 . mun budh le druimm cáein Cesrach, Anecd. i 32 § 60. minbud thu, ii 4.11 . ar na bud ed, PH 3074. ? go nach budh rí ar Israel tú `ne sis rex,' TSh. 8330. cid daitsiu ... nád bod latt curadmir Emna, LU 8140. cía lasmboth scīth ┐ lasmboth laind techt int slōgaid, TBC-I¹ 154.

(iii)

(a) bid (this form, which Thurn. ( GOI § 806 ) suggests may be an unstressed form of vn. buith, occurs regularly after amal, oldaas, is cumme, in doich, in comparative and equative clauses and in a few other instances. This would suit an ex. like Thes. ii 294 § 3 below but does not explain phrases where bid follow amal, is cumme, etc. It survives into Mid. Ir. but is somet. replaced by bed or bad, and in a few cases spreads to other types of sentence (amal bid is regularly folld. by acc. cf. mainbad, above): amal bid dia as though he were God, Wb. 26a7 . amal bid claind noclantis, Ml. 63b9 . amail bith ball di crist, Thes. ii 255.14 (Stowe M.). amal fid na derscaigthiu, Ml. 37b22 . amal bid inn accaldim deithidnig (leg. nd.), 35c27 . is cumme doib bid idalte domeltis, Wb. 10c3 . in doich bid saindóire dúnni, 10d1 . is nessa do inni lemm oldaas bid ar n-áinsem, 4b17 . ní lugu ... indáas bid praeceptóir asidindissed, Ml. 42b18 . arna tomnitisom bid do irgairiu cotulta, Wb. 25c12 (see above under (i) where this type of sentence occurs with bed in Wb. 13c2 and Ml. 40c17 ). ni meite bid machdad forgare forru, Sg. 161b12 . ba coru tra bid adnuntiabit nobeth híc , Ml. 45b14 . soilsidir bid hi lugburt, Thes. ii 294 § 3 ( SP iii ).

(b) amal bid oc caíned ... [no beth], Trip.² 87. amal bid do thecht secha, IT i 72.14 . amail bid a haongiun, Corm. Y 1059.37 . amal bid fótrond ..., LU 9099 (FB). ba doich lind bid din lucht forācaibset som, ZCP viii 313.25 . ba hé mo líthsa bid é do-chorad and, BDD² 494. asberat alaili bid di lucht na luinge ..., ZCP viii 313.23 . In a type of sentence where it did not occur in O. Ir.: flaith athuigh na bid flaith a athair whose father was not a chief, Laws ii 200.21 . nā tānic rīam nā īarum bīd (leg. bid) errdarcu, MacCongl. 45.28 . ar cend neich bid (budh, v.l.) éolchu ┐ bid síne andás, Ériu iv 126.15 . ingen bid chaime tochim, RC xxiv 198.24 . In the follg. exx. O. Ir. would show bid: amal bud he Crist, PH 129. mar bud, 4098 . amal bad a domun aile thíssad, TBFr. 278. is cumme lem bed (bid, v.l. App.) i taulchubu fhína no beth mo chend, TBFr. 47. in dōig bad ē Conchobur, TBC-I¹ 2758. (cf. also: ba doig bed n-ingcert, Ml. 61b15 ). dōig leam bad i ndiamraib ... nobeith, TBC-I¹ 884.

(iv) With ma (má),

(a) mad: mad mo ríar-sa dognethe and, Wb. 9d25 . mad forcenn libuir, Ml. 2d1 .

(b) mad, mád: mad meise con-ísed mo chomairle, BDD² 708. mád ina ṡláinti ind fir fil sund robad chomairche ar Ultaib ulib, LU 3303.

(v) With cía, ce although ,

(a) cid: ni pu imdu do in mann cid trén oc tecmallad `though he were,' Wb. 16c25 .

(b) cid: cid fín bárc do-téised treut, BDD² 740.

II Forms with ro-. ro- is rare with past subj. The instances are:

(a) act robad tairismech linni, Wb. 18d11 . ní ar maith friu ... act is corpad mithig lessom inducbál dia nóibaib, 4c37 .

(b) ? ingé (read perhaps itge, Ed.) ropad limsa ol sésim adpand do seinm tr. `I would crave a boon, said he, to play a tune,' Mon. Tall. 131.28 . acht corbad maithi a gnima, Ériu v 124.76 . amal ro bad pheccad leo as though they considered it a sin, PH 3232.

pl. 1

Abs.

(a) bimmis, bemmis : amal bimmis octarche `as if we were dregs,' Wb. 9a7 . amal bemmis bibdaid, Ml. 114d4 .

(b) amal bemís marb, PH 2967.

Conj.

(a) -bimmis : amal ni bimmis cutrummi frib, Wb. 17b16 . Ml. 63b1 . commimmis ecil hi fochidib, Wb. 29b16 . commimis less huili, 6b21 .

(b) -badar : acht co mbadar maithe díblínaib, TBC-LL¹ 35.

pl. 2 No instance.

pl. 3

Abs.

(a) bitis, betis: nírbu mou leu bríg a tobai indate bitis cranna doiscairi dufubaitis `than though they had been cutting down common trees,' Ml. 92d6 . donaib déedib betis chloithib, 131d11 . amal betis degmaini, 90a14 .

(b) bitis, betis, batis : amal bitis chóic ṡutralla, Trip.² 1448. ba bindithir ... ┐ betis téta mennchrot, BDD² 189. TBFr. 27. amal betís margretai, PH 2445. dicunt betis secht maic, ZCP viii 314.34 (Laud Gen.). asberat araile batis trī brāthir, ib. 331.14 (ib.). doruimenatar bádis fir ṡīthe, Trip.² 1112.

Conj.

(a) -btis, -ptis : comtis indbaid i n-iris, Wb. 10d33 . conabdis apstil, 5b15 . comtis ainmmnidi, Sg. 7b2 . coniptis erlama, Ml. 100c24 . maniptis mu charait, Ml. 73d1 . Sg. 120a1 . ni aisndet duaid airmdis hé iusti indí ..., Ml. 54a12 . airmtis ní etir, 79b11 . amtis forbristi ind ríg, 85d9 .

(b) -btis, -ptis : comtis secht maic, Trip.² 901. PH 7013. comdis sidhaighthi, ZCP xiii 254.12 . comtís comarda síat, TBC-LL¹ 5015. ba cóir ceniptis árdda do chongbala-su, Trip.² 1564. naptis messaiti, Ériu iv 24 § 10. diambtís rátha iat, MU² 376. diambtís craind, 434 . ciabtis cosmaile, SR 2892. ciapdis ganna, Anecd. ii 69.8 . ciamdis dimolta, i 21.5 . With amal betis under (a) above, cf. marbtís máirb as though they were dead, LU 9761. immarbdais meic do, 4097 .

With ma

(a) matis : matis huili conabdis apstil tantum `if it were all (the Jews) and not the apostles only,' Wb. 5b15 . matis mu namait, Ml. 73b1 .

(b) matis is replaced in Mid. Ir. by diambtís q.v., supra.

Fut.

s. 1

Abs.

(a) be : be sóir mo brethre `I shall be free as regards my word,' Wb. 4c18 . bé (biam, bum, v.ll.) sóir cech inbaid, Hy. iv 8.

(b) bea, bem, bam, bíam, bidam : bem (bea, v.l.) torbach[u]-sa duit-si oldās ..., Corm. Y 1059.30 = bam tarbach sa deit, Anecd. iv p. xiv.y . in hed bam beo, SR 3187. Ériu iv 142.z . bam tarb tnúith isna tressaib, IT iii 510 § 4. Anecd. i 12.7 . bam anoraigti-sea oc Dia, PH 2428. biam tigerna os cech drung, SR 855. bíam cúsa ... dot imdegail, LU 5027. bidam chusa, TBC-LL¹ 1049 (v.l., Eg.). bidam bithchuimnech, RC xvi 46 ( Dinds. 95 ). CCath. 3348. bídham tigerna fer an domain, 4046 .

Conj. (a) No instance.

(b) -pam : ni pam slán-sa ... conid n-accur, IT i 72.1 . nípam comchirtisea do neoch, LU 4248.

s. 2

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) ba, basa, bat, biat, bidat : ba baeth, SR 5955. ba bruiden ban ndérach, Metr. Dinds. iii 96.19 . bása bec bíaid úair | basa már iar tain, LU 9854. bat neirt ar do lochnamtib, LU 10423. bat (ba, v.l.) fornocht, Metr. Dinds. iii 96.4 . bat (ba, bad, v.ll.) dín ar gád, ib. 9 . bát nimidech, LU 9633. biat rīsiu co derb, PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 546 § 8 . § 15 . biat forscailtech, ib. § 17 ( LL 147a ). bidat úallach, ZCP vii 298.17 . LB 151a48 . bidhit neimedach, BNnÉ 93 § 204. toīsechu bia marb oldās bia meirb, PRIA iii 546 § 8 ( LL 147a9 ) (this is really the form of the subst. vb. but seems to be intended as copula, cf. biat, above).

Conj.

(a) Strachan ( Subst. Vb. l. 1316 ) gives : co mba soilse-siu, Wb. 22c3 (gl. inluminabit tibi Christus) but translates `so that thou mayest be,' Thes. i p. 639 which is probably correct.

(b) -ba, -bat : adbert fria drai ... ni bam rai (? leg. niba-m-drai) badechtsa mene dingba ..., BB 407a1 . da lecea tú Ísu ass, ni bat cara do Cessair, PH 2815.

s. 3

Abs.

(a) bid, bith : bid héet lib-si geinti do bith in hiris, Wb. 5a13 . bid cumma et riam, 18a13 . bith sechmadachte, Sg. 147b3 . bith flaithem intí Solam for saint, Ml. 90a9 .

(b) bid, bith, beith, bed, bud : bid nath n-airec fordarc, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 16.6 . bidsom fria toil `it (heaven) will be at their pleasure,' Mon. Tall. 141.17 . bid misi, Trip.² 1963. Laws i 6.z . bid calma, TBC-I¹ 2469. bid hē lā a phennati, MacCongl. 29.6 . PH 4032. ata lasna tuati beith lór dóib do ascnam nime acht doratat ní dona hanmchairtib, Mon. Tall. 141.15 . rochrúfemne ... ind pennit bes chóir fortsu. Bed cet ol D., 130.23 . With inf. pron. s. 2 : bidat eigen dola, Aisl. Tond. 101.x . ammarach bud maith do threóir, Anecd. i 39 § 114. ib. 17.18 . RC xxiv 194.7 . budh hē bērus an bāiri, ZCP xiii 17.27 . budh iomdha ann fós arracht ag eagcaoine, TSh. 4068.

Conj.

(a) -pa, -ba : nípa cosmuil frisin titacht tóisig, Wb. 25d13 . níba cuit adíll, 14a8 . níbbá i n-anus regaid int diruidigud, Sg. 36b1 . in corp i mba flaith in coimdiu, Wb. 9d3 . With inf. pron. s. 3 : nípa-dn-aidrech, 5c9 .

(b) -ba, -pa, -bo, -po, -bu, -pu, -b, -bad, -bud : níba ed bias de, Trip.² 453. BDD² 58. niba fír, ScM. § 11.2 . nipa mor do brig lais, Mon. Tall. 142.4 . admat na ba tíamdae, Fél. Prol. 294. nīpa mise, TBC-I¹ 2141. níbá fír sin, LU 8199. ár | día[m]bá lán Mag F., 3368 . With inf. pron. s. 2 : níbat écen nach n-aill, MU² 1037 (LU). ? nib amles, LU 3325 (tr. `it will be no harm,' SCC 117 ). toingimsa ... corob misi cētfer roficfa (b inserted later, Ed.), TBC-I¹ 2243. mani thuaslaicea isind chaisc nipo assa doib iarum, Mon. Tall. 132.17 . nipo fócrach, Ériu vii 219 § 2. nībo dirsan dait, TBC-I¹ 1048. nipu sén maith itir ... ni fu líth don fleid, FDG 121. nī bu inmuin, Bruchst. 60 § 134. níbu shirsan, TBFr. 370 (= nipi siursan, App. § 26 ). nī bad (ba, v.l.) fāilid, Bruchst. 40 § 95. bat righ uili iat gin co budh comṡaeglach, Anecd. ii 1.15 .

rel.

(a) bes`, bas` : in hed bes chobuir dó, Wb. 20c10 . bes lintae, Ml. 44d7 . hore bas fír quod dicam, Wb. 17d20 .

(b) bas`, bus` : Marcán ... bas dech do Uíb Garrchon, Trip.² 2191. félire bas (bus, v.l.) certu, Fél. Ep. 148. ro-fessar ... bas n-olc, LU 7566 (BDD). ni-sn-idnus sund nī bus siriu, TBC-I¹ 3104. inní bus comairle [lat-sa is sí bas chomairle] linne, Anecd. i 41.3 - 4 . cīan bus chumain, ZCP viii 119 § 4. an feadh bhus cumhain leó iad, TSh. 1256.

pl. 1

(a) bimmi ?, bemmi, bammi : isin chruth-sin bimmi nóib-ni, Wb. 3d27 (but see ZCP xxxii 120-21 ). 12c9 . bemmi caelestis, 13d15 . isamlid bami coeheredes , 4a17 .

(b) batin: batin aithrig is tír thall `we shall rue it,' Ériu i 68 § 3 (this is from a poem, occurring in H 3. 18 and LL, which Meyer ascribes to 9th cent. Perhaps one should take it as : ba don-aithrig it will be a matter of regret to us, but cf. atin budig de we are content, Anecd. i 5.18 = YBL 129b23 ).

pl. 2 ? folaich in mac, bar bibdaith bāis ind dia fessara Mac Con, ZCP viii 311.5 , CMMucr. 69 .

pl. 3

Abs.

(a) bit : bit hé na precepta cétni no pridchob doib, Wb. 17b20 . bit comṡuidichthi, Sg. 4b1 . bit comlin fri fér, Ml. 90b8 .

(b) bit, be(i)t, bat, biat, bidat : bit coirmmgnáithi do chomarpai, Trip.² 1565. bit fūaitne fīanna lib Luigne, Corm. Y 1018.46 . bit lia mairb ... andate a mbí, LU 7187 (BDD). bit lir bomand ega ... for lethchind, 7233 (ib.). beit fir móra ar macáin bic | ...bid daim ríata laíg ar mbó, LU 9587 - 9 . bed glana chenai, Mon. Tall. 130.1 . bet imnaraig, Anecd. ii 55.4 . bat mairb fir, IT iii 470.105 . bat lana, TBC-LL¹ 1055. ? in dóig bát dom éligudsa ón ? that they will be a cause of accusation to me (?), LU 3277 (obscure, perhaps bat is s. 2). biat mathi do chland, PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 546 § 9 ( LL 147a10 ). bidat gai géra, ib. 550 § 31. bidat marthanaig, LU 1998. bidat mo na huilc innas ..., CCath. 988.

Conj.

(a) -pat, -bat, -bet : nipat ferr, Wb. 12d28 . nibat litre, Sg. 6b23 . níbat briathra, Ml. 68c10 . a mbat n-airbirthi buith, 94d1 . anambet ecailsi, 15d7 .

(b) -pat, -bat, -pdat, -bad : nipat ili anmand eissi, Trip.² 934. ní bat buana, TBC-LL¹ 1692. nipdat duthaine, SR 8355. airm inbat budig do bēoil, MacCongl. 77.4 . im bad tíre ┐ feranna, Anecd. i 42.1 . ní bad sgíotha dot sgéulaibh | na Burcaigh, Studies 1919, 439 § 10 .

rel.

(a) beta` : beta hícthi, Wb. 3d29 . beta messi, Ml. 70a9 .

Sec. Fut.

s. 1

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) badam : cid andib badam slansa mad ail duitsiu, Ériu xii 166.13 (Tochm. Ét.).

Conj. -badam : [ba] meti nibadam beo d' ingnais rig M. `I were not likely to live,' Ériu x 190.16 ( LL 276a41 ).

s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) ropadat, badat : díambad curadmir do chosnam i nEmain duit, ropadatren (for ropadat trén, Edd.) for ōcaib Emna, LU 6720. ar badat slanchommairgi-siu bar Ultaib, TBC-LL¹ 1165.

s. 3

I Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) ropad`, robad` ; ar ropad maith limsa labrad ilbelre dúibsi, Wb. 12c29 . Sg. 90b2 . robad bethu dom dían chomalninn, Wb. 3c28 . roppad diil tanaisi, Sg. 111b2 . dorairngred dano rombad oirdnide a chland, Wb. 2c12 .

(b) robad`, ropad`, rubad`; robud` : robad chongbail ... dó, Trip.² 1731. robad chomairche ar Ultaib ulib, LU 3303. asbert fria rubad torrach húad, 10601 . robud sía, ACL iii 304.16 . ropad chora, PH 2593. robad was later replaced by dobad : dobadh cōir, Feis Tighe Chonáin 130. dobudh aisg ar m'fhine tar m'ēisi sin, ML² 1413. dobudh mór an éagcóir, TSh. 4845. 2718 , which in turn gave way to the modal pret.

Conj. No conjunct ro- forms occur.

II Forms without ro-.

Abs. These are rare in the Glosses and do not occur in independent sentences, but become more usual later.

(a) bed` : conidfessed cia bed flaith inna diad, Ml. 89b7 . bed messe gl. ratum fore, 105b14 .

(b) bed`, bad`, bud` (bud seems not always to have been folld. by lenition, see ex. below from TSh.) : asbert fri Cassan bed n-ann a eiseirgi, Trip.² 828. ní bad toisigiu dún something that would be ..., Trip.² 117. Corm. Y 473. cia bad chōir do thabairt, TBC-I¹ 2203. BDD² 126. cia de bud ferr la hUltu ..., TBC-I¹ 692. ní bud fiú sain, Anecd. i 28 § 28. budh urlamh, Studies 1921, 75 § 15 . an bél dúnta as eadh budh ḟearr, IGT Decl. ex. 1285. budh dual, TSh. 1584. In independent sentences, where O. Ir. would show robad : bád maith limsa, LU 3354. faicthear 'n-a dhorus a dheilbh | 's badh solus aitreabh Ifeirn Hell would be radiant, DDána 60 § 37.

Conj.

(a) The forms without ro- supply the conjunct of both bed and robad. -bad`, -pad` : na bad eola inar cintaib, Wb. 33b21 . asbertis cipad a déne ind hesséirgi, 25b27 . níbad ṡamlaid, Sg. 4b4 .

(b) -bad`, -bud` (in the latest exx. there seems not to have been lenition) : imrāidset ... nīpad andsu, TBC-I¹ 1330. ni bad chained, TBC-LL¹ 34. na bud chalmu, 2063 . adubart-sa ... comadh fearr, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1132. ní bud liacha, BDD² 493. fá bud chasmail, PH 7544. nī bud cobair, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1919, 93 § 36 . do bhríogh gomadh cosmhail, TSh. 4766.

pl. 1 and 2 No instances.

pl. 3

I Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) robtis, roptis : epert ... robtis maithi for mbésa-si, Wb. 16b19 . roptis imdai piana donaib anmanaib, Ml. 15c8 .

(b) robtis, roptis : roptis fola ocus cro | mo der do marb Imblecho, AU i 138.15 . asbert roptis gallraig, Trip.² 2786. roptis ferra, Anecd. ii 53.14 . robtis (roptís, LU) do renga, TBC-I¹ 1182.

Conj. No instance.

II Forms without ro- :

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) be(i)tis, beidis : robad do chland-su betis comarpai ind, Trip.² 1710. beitis lir leamsa cendae fer ..., TBC-I¹ 3543. bad dōig lim beidis hē fir Themra, 3371 .

Conj. -btis, -ptis, -bdís : asbert P. nabtis toirthig, Trip.² 2455. connaptís bí, LU 9519. nibdís aingil diada, PH 1787.

Pret.

s. 1

I Forms without ro-.

Abs.

(a) basa : basa iudide ó écosc `I was a Jew in appearance,' Wb. 10d34 .

(b) ba(sa), bam(sa), basam : ba-sa cāem, Corm. Y 883.53 . ba-sa cu-sa tairdbi buiden, Anecd. iii 53.13 and 15 (Sia- burcharpat) = basa chausa ..., LU 9328. ba-sa cathach, Tec. Corm. § 8.8 . basa chúsa, LU 9326 , 9328 . bása chomrar, 9335 . bassa collid giallasa, 9318 . bam-sa cu-sa, Anecd. iii 53.10 . fam rí (bainrith, v.l.) ar énlaith Érenn, i 36 § 87 . ba-sa maoth fri maithi, ba-sam imnedach frimm tair, iii 53.20 . basam (bam-sa, bam-siu, v.ll.) dalta tair[i]si, ii 71.7 .

Conj.

(a) -psa : nipsa iudide ó béssaib, Wb. 10d35 . 17c2 . hore am apstal ... cainipsa sóir ce dognén cach ngním, 10c16 .

(b) -psa, -bsa, -ba, ? -bam, -msa, -sam : nipsa chúsa gabála lis, LU 9325 = nipsa cu-sa ..., Anecd. iii 53.10 . nipsa cell cin chlocc, ii 60.4 . nipsa (nirsam, nipsam, v.ll.) condirclech, Ériu ix 45 § 2. ciapsa reithenech, ib. (geinsam, ciamsam, robsam, rosam, gersam, gerbam, gerbhum, v.ll.) ciapsa duine ciapsa bled, LU 3003 = ciarsam ... ciarsam ..., Fél. 52.37 . domgní mūichnech ingnais Ērenn | diamsa cuimsech for which I (myself) was accountable (?), ZCP vii 309.24 . i mbsa dechenborach ... i mbsa fichtech, Tec. Corm. § 8.6 - 7 . imsa nāidi robsa nā[i]r, Ériu ii 16 § 5. nimsa cu-sa imlo[m]tha fuidhel, Anecd. iii 53.13 and 15 = nipsa cháusa ..., LU 9327. ? cach crích ar bam cend `where I was head,' PRIA III (3rd ser.) 550 § 35 ( LL 147a ). pecdach mé ósam macám, IGT Decl. ex. 376.

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) rupsa, ropsa, robsa, rob : rupsa frithortae-se, Wb. 33a12 . doménarsa ropsa beo, 3c27 . Ml. 49b12 . durumenar romsa dia ┐ rom bith-béu, 49b13 .

(b) ropsa, robsa, ropsam, robsam, robsum, robam, ropom : an airet ropsa béo, Trip.² 1434. ropsa altra dia aithair, Anecd. ii 71.4 . imsa nāidi robsa nā[i]r, Ériu ii 16 § 5. robsa ceile si do Ch., ZCP viii 545.7 . ropsam aithrech isin ngním-sin, PH 701. robsam fíadnaisech fodeirc, Ériu iv 153.4 . robsum flaith, BS 126.6 . Metr. Dinds. iii 310.85 . robam céle comadas, LU 3972. ropom tuire tend, PRIA III (3rd ser.) 550 § 35 ( LL 147a ). robam rí ar ó ngelChuind, IGT Decl. ex. 537.

Conj.

(a) -rbsa, -robsa, -rupsa, -rubsa : nirbsa dagduine i tossuch, Wb. 18c14 . anarbsa fuillectae-se, Ml. 127c17 . corupsa lán diib, 104d3 . annarobsa bithe, 45d6 . arromsa cumscaigthe, 46b9 . arrumsa immainse-se, 62c9 .

(b) -rsam (-rbsam) (the sense is very frequently pres. indic. a survival of the original perfect sense), -rbam : is mise Fintan fili, | nirsam écne óen-lindi, Metr. Dinds. i 4.42 . níorsum duine do éra, ML² 1959. nirsum drochlaech, ZCP viii 548.18 . níor sum (níor soim, níor shámh, ní rabhus, v.ll.) taithleach na n-each riamh, Ériu i 100.23 . gērsam snímhach Fiadat find, Ériu ii 95 § 4. gearsom glic nīr chrainn um ní, KMMisc. 350 § 7. corbam tualaingse, Anecd. i 10.17 . ciarbam treórach, nírbam timm, Metr. Dinds. iii 312.131 . Aisl. Tond. 96.4 . gerbham sáeirfher séimh, BS 28.10 . Brethnaigh níor bham caroid-si, Duan. F. i 87.y . or bham nóidiu since I was, LL 282a12 .

s. 2

I Forms without ro-.

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) ba, bat, basat : cia bátar do gníma intan basat (v.l.) gilla, Tec. Corm. § 8.2 . bat dín ar gád 's ar guba | bat fál is bat fidruba, Metr. Dinds. iii 96.9 - 10 (bad, ba, v.ll.). a chlaidib Cherbaill ... bát menic ac cur chatha, RC xx 9 §1 ( LL 47a50 ).

Conj.

(a) No instance.

(b) -bi: cot-ráncamar ó bim (órbat v.l.), BDD² 1173 (Ed's. note : `read ó bi mac (D), where bi seems pret. s. 2').

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) robsa, rubsa : huare romsa ugaire doib `because Thou wast a shepherd unto them,' Ml. 96d1 . arrumsa dite-siu, 103a4 .

(b) ropsa, rupsa, ropsat, robsat, ropat, robat, ropot: an tan rupsa Etain Echraidhe ... ba misi do cetmui[n]ter, Ériu xii 170.6 (Tochm. Ét.) (= ropsa, LU 10771 ). intan ropsa (ropsat, basat, v.ll.) gilla, Tec. Corm. § 8.2 . ropsat slan o chianaib dia fesmais `thou shouldst have been healed,' Ériu xii 166.12 (Tochm. Ét.) (= ropdat slán, LU 10746 (sec. fut.)). uair ropsat cara, PH 3099. LL 343d53 . intan robsat Cernach-sa, ZCP i 104.36 . ropsat fraechda, RC xx 12 § 16. ropot álaind ó chíanaib, IT iii 514 § 6. is derb ropat degairle, 482.280 . robat cara do cech cléir, 482.277 .

Conj.

(a) No instance.

(b) -rbsat, -rsat, -rsa, -rbat : ro-t-rathaig narbsat fírgaeth that you were not, SR 1318. nirbsat meirb, RC xx 12 § 16. nirsat neóit, TBC-LL¹ 43. lēir dam ... | nārsat cara do Chellach, CCellaig 447 (where the sense is pres. indic.). gérsa maeth-macámh ... i tús lai o chianaib thu, ZCP viii 529.12 . cot-ráncamar órbat (v.l., see n.) mac, BDD² 1173.

s. 3

I Forms without ro-.

Abs.

(a) ba, bu (once in Tur.) (gemination occurs after ba, see below) : ba frithorgon dó frithorgon cháich, Thes. ii 246.18 (Camb.). ba calar do galar caich, ib. 16 (do.). ba uissiu són quam inflatio , Wb. 9b1 (modal). 29d8 . ba hed ón ba chóir, Wb. 10b9 . aní ba choitchen, 50a3 . a mba cloithe `when he was overcome,' Ml. 32b2 . a mba ndiuscartae, 19c15 . ar ba P. dubert baithis du Chrimthunn, Thes. ii 242.9 (Ardm.). ba em carat `it were, indeed, the part of a friend,' Thes. i 3.4 . ar ba mmadach, Ml. 135a9 . ba mmo, 86d6 . (cf. ba mmebul lee, TBFr. 136 ). air bu ainm leusom maledictus do c[ec]h óin ..., Tur. 136.

(b) ba, bu, bo, be (once), pa, fa, fá, fo, bad, bud : ba slán iarom, Trip.² 1517. bá cubaid, 1516 (modal). ba lith mor la Colum cille, Mon. Tall. 156.7 . ba di Bretnaib di, Trip.² 707. rofitir in ben ba o Lomnae rofes, Corm. Y 1018.26 . Fél. Nov. 5. ba ferr a comaitecht ... oldaas a tuitim, IT i 75.6 (modal). ba mese ba sacart oc baistiud ind anma-sin fora athair, ScM. § 12.9 . nip sī sin adaig ba sāmam (rectius sh-) dōib, TBC-I¹ 211. BDD² 423. co torchratar bond fri bond ... ba sí tiget ind áirbaig such was the denseness of, TBC-I¹ 1996. cach nech ba siniu ┐ ba so, PH 104. in ti ba (?=ba a) tir `the person whose land it was,' Laws iv 4.29 Comm. With inf. pron. s. 3 : ba-id-n-imomain-side he was greatly afraid, TBC-I¹ 786. With suffixed -ch (= Lat. -que) (see Thurn., ZCP xiii 299f .) : do-luid tar feart a cedteallaig bach for fine forcomal `und es war eine gewaltsame Besitzergreifung gegen die Sippe,' Laws iv 16.22 (tr. Thurn., loc. cit.). bach ri Temrach, 178.13 . 16.22 . nī ticc dīa ēissi bu duilgi āer, MacCongl. 9.5 . ar bo fortachtaid dó día mboí i moxaini, Trip.² 254. bo ferr, BDD² 1320. a mbo ṡeiscc dind ḟolud, TBC-I¹ 1127. is aice bo doigh a mbith, no is e bo doich da fagbail, Laws iv 36.8 Comm. be sé sin trian macraidi Ulad, LU 5907. ol pa immaircede leis Loch nEchach, Trip.² 1956. pa menci, K. and H. § 1. pa hamru delp Fothith, ZCP xx 401.3 . The earlier instances of fa are mostly rel., but later it becomes freq. in non-rel. use. fá is the regular form in TSh. : is mé fa hairdbrethim binn, Anecd. i 28 § 30. 36 § 91 . curob é fa ri Connacht, v 21.25 . im orgain fa togaidhi do Ingcél i nHérinn, BDD² 423. as í fa banchele dó .i. Eithne ... fa díl ... leis hí, Ériu iii 150 § 1. beathadhach fá cosmhail ré mathghamhain, TSh. 1025. 3264 . (Cf. fa gairit limm beth ar Bóinn, Anecd. i 26.15 . Ériu iv 116 § 24. fa hadhbail re innisin an toran[n], Feis Tighe Chonáin 1841. IGT Decl. ex. 861. fá héigean, TSh. 2489. 5559 . 3715 ). ised sin fo lucht dō, Ériu ii 20 § 1. ri fo ferr sith, Ann. Conn. 1224 § 2. issed bad doig la C., Mon. Tall. 161.22 . ? bat (? bad) ead indas ind troiscti sin, 155.35 . bád chumma rom altsat Ulaid uli, LU 10305. do bríogh gurab é Eóin budh teó grádh, TSh. 10328. do bhríogh gurab é Ádhamh budh ceann fine, 9 .

Conj.

(a) -pu`, -bu`, -po`, -bo`, ? -p` (elision of vowel before initial vowel) : nípu accobor leiss, Wb. 14a22 . nípu séit samil, Thes. i 495.26 (Ardm.). Hy. v 7. nipu nach dernainn-se áem, Wb. 8a5 . Thes. i 495.4 (Ardm.). cepu ed adroilliset, Wb. 4c35 . ar nibu thacair, 33b13 . nibu techtae (`rectius: thechtae, but cf. 34c17 , 53d6 ,' Ed.), 100b22 . níbu machdath, Sg. 65a1 . conepertis ón nadmbu choir, Ml. 136b4 . in loc diambu thabarthi ermitiu feid, 22a4 . nipo chóim, Wb. 4b12 . nípo úaib act ba o apsatalib, 13a20 . napo chenéel, 5a14 . nibo cen fochidi, 24c19 . ? nip (`leg. nipu ? or is it subjunctive ?,' Ed.) ar irlami far cúrsagtha, 26b23 . 5b3 .

(b) -pu`, -bu`, -po`, -bo`, -p`, -b`, -ba`, -fa`, -bad (as lenition was somet. marked we may assume it was regular) : rofitir P. nípu chian, Trip.² 2866. LU 4974. Fél. Sept. 27. nīpu samlaid, TBC-I¹ 1280. napu díb lamaib, LL 123b2 . asrubart M. nibu moo, Mon. Tall. 133.10 . ni bu cād, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 40 § 17. ni bu chul serci, IT i 77.2 . nī bu ṡanct-Brigit ṡúanach, Hy. v 21 ō bu becān, Ériu viii 164.7 . cíid iarom P. combu [ḟ]liuch a agad, Trip.² 1305. nabu cert, SR 3673. nīpo rom, TBC-I¹ 1728. dalēici sōn C., cobo (LU combo) thairis docher, 1737 . ni bo chomailt, AU i 110.8 . Fél. Prol. 114. BDD² 549. abaind letain nádbo domain, LU 1747 (ICM). combo chomsolus lá ┐ adaig, 8056 . iarfaigis dó cia diambo cheli, 8535 (FB). nī fo cīan, TBC-I¹ 485. nipsī sin adaig ba sāmam dōib, TBC-I¹ 211. nip seoit fo-fhiallach, Anecd. ii 57.z . ba fae leo nip n-ēn comadus ina n-ēill, Corm. Y 1059.18 . nīb sī t'opar comadhas, TBC-I¹ 785. nib sam, Anecd. i 13.14 . roluited ind scīn co nāb ālaind īarnamarach, Corm. Y 883.32 . níba s[h]uthain, TBFr. 5. comba samalta ┐ snāth ōir, TBC-I¹ 2027. comba comsolus lá ┐ adaig, LU 10125. co mba fliuch, BDD² 885. FDG 615. comba taí tastadach for Ultaib, MU² 119. PH 1082 (there is no instance here of lenition marked after comba). taitned fria in grían co bba forderg, BDD² 12. diamba Cholum coemdalta, LU 752. ni fa si do conair, YBL 174b14 . co nebairt co mbad mac don rig he, FDG 724.

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) rupu`, rubu`, ropu`, robu`, ropo`, robo` : rupu sí a rroilic, Wb. 33a22 . aní rupu thascide, Thes. ii 225.17 (Pcr.). rubu fer-som muintere, Wb. 33a5 . Essu rubu thoisech hi suidiu, Ml. 63b5 . ropu thol les a dénom, Ml. 71b2 . hore rombu thoissech, Wb. 33a20 . ar robbu digaim, Sg. 17a5 . robu foirbthe, Tur. 33. ropo thróg laiss, Wb. 21b5 . ropo thol, 14b3 . ropo chobair dond Érinn | tíchtu Patraicc, Hy. ii 15. amal rombo chuimse, Wb. 22a2 .

(b) ropu`, robu`, ropo`, robo`, rupa`, ropa`, roba`, rop`, rob`, rap`, ro bud ; do replacing ro : do bo`, do ba`, do bu`, dob`, do bud ; dorob (where the final vowel has dropped out the copula is nearly always folld. by a vowel or ḟ) : rob e a n-immed conna ... `such was their multitude that' ..., Thes. ii 298.9 ( Hy. i Introd. ). sádid echlaisc and ropu dos iarom, Trip.² 1851. TBFr. 11. ind ingen robu ṡiniu, Trip.² 1116. ropo cridiscél, Mon. Tall. 136.23 . ropo thír cāich, Hail Brigit § 2. ropo suthain, LU 1077. PH 1673. robo maith, Corm. Y 31. nirbo chucumsa ... robo chóir dál, LU 8750. ar rup[a] la Coirpre Crích Conaill, Trip.² 1724. ropa anaichnid, PH 5287. Mon. Tall. 136.20 . (asbert) ... romba si sainserc samdine hé, Mon. Tall. 150.14 . an romba (arrombúi, v.l.) dech do thimthagail, Corm. Y 1059.12 . is ar a deirc ... ro-ba buidech Dia do Abél, PH 5882. rop nem thened tír Hua Néill, BDD² 240 (= ropo, LU 6743 ). rop é fochond ná dilend, LU 129. rofidir ... rop si Etain, Ériu xii 154.2 . rob aille leo, Corm. Y 503. ScM. § 240. PH 1590. túaith rob ferr icht, Metr. Dinds. iii 310.88 . PH 68. uar rombi (ro-m-bī) ind fit cetne, Mon. Tall. 147.14 . rap aithrech, Ériu vii 229 § 75. dobo mana crimb chnáma, Anecd. i 31 § 50. dobo cléguin, Ériu iv 112 § 2. doba díchur flaithesa dō, ML² 1422. doba ferr linn, KMMisc. 320.4 . doba dhainmidh dhó a ndermad, IGT Decl. ex. 1180. dob áil, PH 7584. dob fhíor, Feis Tighe Chonáin 72. fa chloinn Uisnigh dob ḟearr clú, KMMisc. 356 § 4. dob fhearr liom go n-eagnuighidís (utinam saperent), TSh. 6857. 4957 (both modal). do búdh tusa cnoc na cclíar, KMMisc. 346 I § 2 . do budh [de] chloind Cuillinn ..., Feis Tighe Chonáin 1161. adharc ... dobudh faide ionā an adharc oile, TSh. 22. dorob ingnad in cuairt crecht, Ériu v 246.228 .

Conj.

(a) -r(o)bu`, -r(u)bu`, -rbo` (the exx. in which the vowel of ro is not syncopated are all from Ml.) : nírbu faás foruigéni, Wb. 13b7 . nírbu chuman leu, Ml. 124b5 . hóre nárbu bae, Wb. 5b12 . Ml. 60a12 . donarobu gnath techt for culu, 129d3 . corbu écen, Wb. 32c17 . Ml. 31b16 . corrobu bec, 131b12 . conrubu chrín, 99a2 . indí ... lasinrubu chumtabart, 102d4 . 131d11. nírbo sar leu ar cocéilsine, Wb. 19a1 . nirbo chuit eperte, 24c5 .

(b) -rbu`, -rpu`, -rpo`, -rbo`, rba`, -rob`, -rb`, -ra, -r`, -rsa(t), -rso : nírpu sía léu oldaas oenuair, Trip.² 2054. nirbu chían, LU 1756 (ICM). corbu réill, Trip.² 2136. ciarbu tholgdae, Fél. 125. fer fial ... diarmbu (sic) lan Temair, AU i 394. 13 (A.D. 878) . nírpo o chridiu, Trip.² 1562. nír bo thoirneach ..., BDD² 191. LU 915. corbo chonair letartha, TBC-I¹ 1887. gérbo tri haicmedha íatt, Anecd. v 20.25 . nírba maith, LU 315. nirba choir, Anecd. i 20.14 . PH 3078. adeirdis corba mac, Corm. Y 896.8 . gurbha (gur fa, v.l.) héigean dó, TSh. 2484. órba cindti forba a bethad dó, BColm. 96.4 . nī rob urāil, Bruchst. 37 § 87. nirb oróil, MacCongl. 111.7 . nírbh é, IGT Decl. ex. 1274. níorbh fheasach, TSh. 2973. nocorb áil, Trip.² 397. aided narb inmain, ScM. § 24d . ainm ... ionarb éigean sinne do shlánughadh, TSh. 2088. níra míad leo dul assin chrích co mbetís aidchi longphuirt inti, MU² 843. nīr mīad ... leis ind ūaburdelb ... tārfas dōib, TBC-I¹ 2020. nīr cōir, ACL iii 221.24 (modal). nir thim a ḟer, Ériu v 244.211 . Feis Tighe Chonáin 1203. níor ghrása na bronntanas na grása ... dá mbeith ..., Donlevy 214.y (modal). níor chían, TSh. 2479. cinnas nachar chomtig, LU 10316 (modal). créad is iontuigthe as sin, acht gur dhearbh leó ..., TSh. 653. cíar adbol a ndrong, LU 9395. ger mhór in ail, Anecd. i 29 § 36. teagh ar ar lia fear faire, PBocht 12 § 26. drong ... rér mhaith deighmheas do bheith ag an bpobal orra, TSh. 8926 (? modal). ón tráth fár dhearbh leis é féin d'éag, TSh. 2800. draig ... ór doilghe dul, Ériu ix 6.51 (modal). ónar thana lucht loingsi `by whom sea-roving crews are thinned,' Duan. F. i 81.9 . The ending -rsa, -rsad may have arisen on the analogy of the 1st and 2nd sg. -rsam, -rsat (qq.v. above) : derb leo nírsa meath don mac, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 44 § 2. nirsa monar maca[i]n maith | dingbail in laich, 44 § 1. ailtir in mac ... gursa hoglach mor, 43.13 . carsa dúal don aithech-mhadudh ... tocht ... d'imrisin risin árchoin ?, ZCP viii 553.29 . ciarso thucait ro-dos-foglúais, LL 133b16 . TBC-LL¹ 1935. ciarsa dam `though it were a bull,' CRR § 5. brugaid ... darsat (? leg. darsa) comainm C., ZCP vii 307.17 , but cf. oglach darsad comainm E., viii 549.10 . Cf. pl. : carsad comhadha sin ?, 544.22 .

pl. 1

I No forms without ro- occur.

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) robummar : robumar cuindrichthi gl. erecti sumus, Ml. 43d6 . huare robummar bibdid-ni dait-siu, 62b5 .

(b) ropsar, ropar, robdar, robatar: ropsar marba meni beth Find, RC vii 302.183 . ropar cocle cridi. ropar caemthe caille. ropar fir chomdeirgide, LL 10510 (MS ropdar with d expunged) = TBC-LL² 3071-73 ; robdar TBC(C) 2127-29 , RC xi 29 § 54 ; robatar, TBC St. 2903 ; robadar, RC xi 29 § 54 .

Conj.

(a) -rbommar : nírbommar utmuill ... nírbommar tromdi gl. non inquieti fuimus, Wb. 26b14 .

(b) -rsar : cid sinni nirsar malla, RC vii 294.81 .

pl. 2 No instances.

pl. 3

I Forms without ro-.

Abs.

(a) batir, batar : iarsindí batir inricci du báas huili, Wb. 5c14 . batir athissi ... dait-siu, Ml. 90d17 . air batar carait, 31a3 . 23c16 . Hy. ii 6.

(b) batir, batar, bat : batir banbrugaid sōn ┐ batar maithi, Corm. Y 1018.14 . batir faelti, LU 10585. batir hé iarom bátár im Ch., 8161 . BDD² 398. bátir (batar, batir, v.ll.) Érenn ardae, Fél. June 25 . LU 1699 (ICM). bátir īalla bātar inde, MacCongl. 89.26 . forsin fer batair bech whose bees they were, Laws iv 178.15 . batar sinde rīadatar it was we, Corm. Y 698.37 . SR 4072. BDD² 19. batar imtholtanaig, LU 3244. bátár hé sin a imtechtai, 11030 . bāttar dóini carsam-ne, Otia i 122 § 3. § 4 . bat comluatha dana fri conaib, IT i 72.11 . bat failid uili de sin, RC xliii 24 § 22.

Conj.

(a) -btar, -ptar : nitat pecthi ... indechtso cebtar hé riam, Wb. 4a8 . ciaptar mora a pecthai-som, Ml. 98c5 . a namtar tuidchissi, Sg. 6a13 . amtar mbati `when they were drowned,' Ml. 84d5 .

(b) -btar, -ptar, -btor, -tar, -but : céptar bailci bressa, Fél. Prol. 74. ciabtar glain, SR 2421. cíaptar áilli, Fél. Prol. 133. níptar ecnaig, ib. Nov. 9. níbtar dermaill, Corm. Y 398 . nibdar dimdaig, SR 3550. BCC 66.8 . imtar láin ..., | imtar ilerda, SR (Greene) 4659 . amdar suidigthi ... forsin teinith, Trip.² 131. comtar mairb, SR 5111. LU 8373. PH 5479. comdar slána, Trip.² 157. immuscomarcair cibtar hē asked who they were, Corm. Y 1059.58 . gu mbut ōga a n-ocobair till their desires were fulfilled, ACL iii 3.12 .

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) robtar, roptar, robatar (Ml. only), robdar : nitat huili robtar tuicsi, Wb. 11a21 . hore romtar óis teglig, 7b13 . robtar beca, Ml. 90c25 . déde hí roptar bibdaid som, 124c2 . inna hí ruptar ardda, Thes. ii 11.42 (Bcr.). is follus romatar bibdaid som, Ml. 125b9 . 78b12 . rocretset ... romdar tosge maith doib nanní ..., 96b5 .

(b) robtar, roptar, raptar, robdar, robdur, ? ropat : ar robtar cosmaili, Trip.² 1297. Corm. Y 690.4 . robtar auctair in dana sin, Trip.² 328. LU 9602. SR 3449. robdar druid co mōreōlus, TBC-I¹ 835. Anecd. i 46.12 . ar ropdar mebhra laiss iat, ii 43.3 . arinni robdur ceithri uidhi, Laws i 262.4 . ropat móra do berta (? or leg. ropsat), IT iii 484.281 . ropsat comchuibde ar ceta, Ériu i 72 § 4. RC vii 294.82 . MR 214.16 . FDG 557. rapsat irlama, MU² 149. TBC-LL¹ 3243. Ériu i 72 § 4. robsat athlumha, BS 18.26 . robsad buana, ML² 2084. ZCP viii 539.17 . ? To this : na sluaig remi rosatr[i]uin (? leg. ropsat triuin), SR 3983.

Conj.

(a) -rubtar, -ruptar, -roptar : isuaignid ni rubtar gáitha for comairli, Wb. 18c6 . conruptar fadirci ind usci, Ml. 40d16 (MS. ɔ possibly for co L in which case ruptar could be abs., Ériu lvi 40 n. 56 ). ceruptar enartu, 49a17 . arrumtar doirthi, 34d10 . déde hí roptar bibdaid som, 124c2 .

(b) -rbtar, -rptar, -rtar, -rbat, -rpsat, -rsat, -psat, -bsat, -psatar : nírbtar humail fris, Trip.² 1976. Corm. Y 179. nírptar fáilti, BDD² 337. nirdar subaig, TBC-LL¹ 3242. ciarbat ile, PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 548 § 23 ( LL 147a ). garbat discailtig, TBC-LL¹ 544. gurbat daitinigh, RC xliii 75 § 75. Leb. Gab.(i) 118.1 . corbhat foithe, RC xliii 84 § 85. nirbat sathig (nirbot, nirbad, nirbo, v.ll.), Metr. Dinds. iii 78.24 . nirpsat [m'] airm[-si] can ulaig, Ériu i 72 § 2. nirsat tualaing a dhinghmhail, v 158.210 . nirsat methol a n-athól they were not a band in the second drinking ?, BCC 290.28 . a mbrughaidh nírsat bronuigh, Ériu iv 116 § 24. gursad luatha, RC xiv 28.12 . cersat mor, PH 250. da ghadaige ... darsat comanmann Dismus ┐ Iesmus, 2852 . cārsat comadha sin, ML² 1387. carsad, ZCP viii 544.22 . ciapsat guir fri crabud nglé, SR 8007. nibsad adbul a ḟir bain, Anecd. i 13.15 . batar gnima erred lat-sa, nipsatar gnima con, Anecd. iii 53.8 . In : gomsad daerbhesacha macneda Uladh. ZCP viii 546.7 . the form is pres. pl. 3 but the sense calls for sec. fut. pl. 3. Cf. 545.21 .

On buith as vn. of copula see GOI § 817. Cf. mo bith lomnocht, SR 1336. maso ḟír ... | for mbith iarmui do Abram, 3498 .

maithid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. maithid or dil.ie/31445

 

v i. The orig. meaning may be grants, concedes ; cf. Sg. 28b5 : a folad issed maithess in coitchennas in nomine , gl. appellativum commune est multorum quos eadem substantia iungit (`this is what abates (?) the commonness in the noun', Thes.; `was gestattet' Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 575 , cf. Ascoli ccclxxv ), and Aen. 460 : mathmait a anum do = vitam damus, Aeneid ii 145 ; this sense is implicit in many exx. under (a).

(a) remits, excuses (an obligation, penalty, etc.), with DO of person. mathid-som salmu aurnaigti do chetal he excuses the singing of the psalms of prayer, Mon. Tall. 30. ro maith ind riġ a chis do Patraic, Lat. Lives 49. in maithenn se ni dona comadhaib? does he let (us) off any of the conditions ? ZCP viii 549.1 . Finachta . . . ro maith mor don naem, | tri cóecait cét bó, etc., RC xvii 214.3 = Keat. iii 2242. noco ro maith biad . . . don cele excused the tenant from food-dues, Laws ii 224.26 Comm. maithbet a tinnscra na hingine duib, ML 160.15 . ní mhaithfidh sé bonn do chlann Luterius will not yield a jot to Luther's people, Hard. i 34.

(b) pardons, forgives (an offence): ni ro mathius a olc do thrén, LL 149b42 . ro maith Dia a pheccad dó, PH 683. maithmid duit marbadh na ridiri, ZCP vi 279.3 . muna maithi in dorn if thou forgive not the fist-blow, Acall. 1431. gidh misi do maithedh sin . . . ni maithfedh Dal cCais tescadh taibh a ttigherna, Cog. 104.9 . mataidh-si [maithid v.l.] damsa in fuirech, CCath. 5129 (= veniam date bella trahenti, Luc. Phars. vii 295 ). maith dhamsa mo fhreagra ort!, Content. xiv 70. With DO of thing: maithim dod dhóigh dhíoghraisigh I excuse thy anxious state, A. Ó Dálaigh lii 1. part. nec. na pecaidh . . . do chur a bfaoisidin, ma taid maite if they admit of forgiveness, Luc. Fid. 65.7 . In oruib ro muid in cath? ar E. Is oraind am, ar C., ┐ ni maite doib sin `that will not profit them' (? it shall not be forgiven them), Ériu viii 38 § 42.

The follg. construction is obscure: ros-mbia lóg a sithichtho . . . ni mathi nech doib (gl. qui [potestati ] resistunt, ipsi sibi damnationem adquirunt), Wb. 6a5 ; `He does not forgive any of them', Thes. , but perhaps nech is subj.

(c) remits, i.e. abates, withholds: mac De nimhe ni maithi a cedmaoine cach laithe never lessens . . . day by day, ZCP xii 296.6 . a ndoberó ar Dia . . . sech ni maithe ni maide not only do not fail to give it, but boast not of it, Ériu ii 172 § 4.

(d) gives up (claim to) ; renounces , with DO of thing ; common in late lit. maithim d'iathaibh Eorpa acht duitse, a dhuthaigh Chuinn, Hackett xliv 37. maithim don tsaoghal mhalartach, D. MacCarrth. 48.35 . maithim choidhche do ṡíol Eoghain I give up all hope for, 19.160 . ní mhaithim do Mhíchéal, A. Ó Dálaigh xxxvi 11 , cf. xii 11 .

no co, na co, nó co

Cite this: eDIL s.v. no co, na co, nó co or dil.ie/33229

 

Forms: na co, nó co

part mod. Ir. nó go until . The orig. form is na > no, but exx. of nó occur fairly early, e.g. LU 9225.

Acc. to Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 318 - 319 , a development of O.Ir. na co n- used with the subj. mood to join a conditional clause to a neg. main clause, the orig. sense being ` unless ', passing by degrees into that of ` until '; the development was prob. influenced by the independent use of the conj. co n- `until'. During the Mid.Ir. period na co (no co, nó co) comes to mean simply until and to be used with an affirm. main clause, and with the indic. mood (generally with a pret. to denote an actual fact which occurred at the end of a period indicated in the main sent.).

(a) with subj. follg. neg. main clause: na co risat fir hErend . . . ni ricub sa arís in fer I will not go to the man again unless (until) the men of Ireland go, TBC-LL¹ 2890 = nogo ccomhraicit fir E., St. Conchobor ní thic immach | na co raib a lín sin chath (= until he has a sufficient force), 2394 = no go mbé sé lin don chath, Eg. 93. tiur-sa brethir . . . nachas-idnaidiub-sa ní bas mó ná co clórat fir hErend mo chomergi-sea I will not await them longer until (unless) the men of Ireland hear, 4939 = no co ccluinit, St. dothuṅg mo deo . . . na co mbérat (leg. mberat) ar écin samlaid nacha mbérat ar áis that until they get [the bull] by force, they shall not get it as a gift, 143 = no go mberit, St., Add. ni ba crecha gairdi | na co roisset ḟairggi, | na co ndernat airgni until they reach the sea, until they wreak ravages, CRR 22 (p. 30.12) ; cf. connach gēb-sa . . . na co raib, 20 . noco chreitiub-sa duit-siu . . . nó coro dusce Coin Culaind unless (until) thou awake C., LU 9225. nocha nfuil eneclann do neoc[h] dib . . . no co ndernat in coindelg, Laws iii 142.21 . na ro eschoitchennaigter nech . . . ón eclais na corup follus a pheccad (= donec peccatum eius clarescat), PH 5319 , cf. 7732 (no co), 7646 (no go), 7734 (nó go). nocho n-īb . . . no co n-eba-so for tús unless thou drink first, RC xxiv 178.15 . no co n-airimther ganim mara ni hairēmthar ar marbad do macaib ríg, xviii 173.12 .

(b) with indic. follg. affirm. sent.: iss and no adnaictís clanna Heremoin . . . no co tánic Cremthand, LU 4072. no érnitís cís dúinne . . . no co ranacais-[s]iu chucaind, PH 3918. co tard . . . bruid imdha lais, no co tard in mbruid do Dia, RC xviii 37.3 . nó gur ghein eo na dtrí dtobar | do bhí ceo ar aṅ gcreideamh, Dán Dé xii 4 . go raibhe amhlaidh sin . . . nó gur thuig sé cumhacht Dé, TSh. 3467. Folld. by pres.: nó go ndéanann mo chlí cionnta | ní fhéagann sí a dtiocfa tríd until my body commits sins, Dán Dé x 5 . ag seargadh . . . nó go dtuiteann 'na luaithreadh as a chéile, TSh. 4191.

The subj. is still used to denote contingency, purpose, etc.: biaidh mé san phéin se nó go bhfógra tusa, TSh. 5044. dénaidh bhar ndána [sic leg.] no go faichdis mo t[h]eadlach until (in order that) my household see (them), Ériu iv 178.16 . glacam ar sáith grádha nó go ttí an mhaidin, Proverbs vii 18.

1 sen

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 sen or dil.ie/37090
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: sean

adj o, ā old, ancient, long-standing : is airei caruim fer sean, ZCP xiii 266 § 12 . aidche samna co sós s.¤ , Metr. Dinds. iii 280.61 . do thuitsiod saoithe seana, ML² 1975 . rachat gidh am s.¤ , Irish Texts iv 86.52 . cid sean, ZCP viii 113.33 . a dhá chaomthach re feadh bfaghla | cáolshruth sean is adhbha fhúar, Studies 1919, 75.21 . crich Erne na n-iubar s.¤ , Irish Texts ii 54.36 . tulach géiggeal na ngort sean, TD 4.17 . iath . . . na gclár sean, Content. xxv 3 . long (of life): do gheubha sí saoghal s.¤ , L. Cl. A. B. 213.67 . dia ndénae-su a n-uile-se, ainfe co mba s.¤ `thou shalt live to be old', Ériu iii 108 § 54 . Maelsechlainn slemna rop s.¤ | for trebchlaind Temra is Talten, LL 133a45 . rop s.¤ in flaith . . . | tairnec i nAiliuch oebind `long live the chieftain', Metr. Dinds. iv 68.157 . Of a weapon in long use, proven: Sil cColla na ccolg s.¤ , TD 8.41 . A. na narm s.¤ , Rel. Celt. ii 224.18 .

Compar. is siniu in fer . . . quam mulier , Wb. 28b16 . ce méit asinu aís quam abracham `how much older in age he was', 34a5 . intí asiniu .i. isáu, 4c14 . úair ba siniu oldás C., LU 9080 ( FB 83 ). airmitiu d'Adam . . . | ar im siniu, ni thibér, SR 842 . siniu sencuimne co buiresc in betha, O'Dav. 308 . ní sine . . . a chach he, PH 1970 . robo sine arai n-aisi, CCath. 931 . an chuid is sine ┐ is óige don fhéar, TSh. 2645 .

Superl. cethrur gelda . . . | . . . | sinium saegul os cach maig | batar 'sind aimsir toisig, SR 2251 . mású ar aís m'athar as sinem and Éndae Cromm, Trip.² 1485 . issē ba sinem dīb, BColm. 8.1 . sioneim fedha iobair, Auraic. 4300 .

As subst. o, n. and (of persons) m. sean m., IGT Decl. § 65 . that which is old: tucad s.¤ cacha lenna duind ┐ nua gacha bíd, Acall. 5061 . do-súa in fer go colba Crúachna | s.¤ corma is núa lúachra leis, IGT Decl. ex. 685 . Most frequently of an old person : s.¤ gl. senex, Sg. 49b6 . is alind s.¤ sobrich, Wb. 31b35 . ni théid óc ann ré sén (siun, v.l.), TE 48.26 . bat cumnech coisc ót senaib, LU 3491 ( SCC 26 ). ní aisnébet sin ná seanchaid dul damsa ónd orguin, BDD² 720 . airdri domain . . . as giliu grianuibh as noibiu cach s.¤ , Ériu ii 98.5 (cf. is sanct cach s.¤ , Éigse ii 184 § 1 ). a ḟir fadlas sós na s.¤ , Metr. Dinds. iii 270.1 . mar samlait sin, 274.55 . atchuala ra senaib sund | ferr molad na cech mod, LL 306b24 . comcuimne da tsean .i. in da eolach, .i. cinnus do bearar in cuimne ón tsin don tsin eile, Laws i 36.15 Comm . isedh innisit na sin, 154.22 Comm . sin ┐ sacairt ┐ oirchindig in popuil, PH 2956 . fáid cach s.¤ | sean cach ecnaid, ACL iii 228.81 . dligidh sean sogaire, RC xlv 34.21 . marbhuit a sin ┐ doniat gialla da n-ócaib, Marco P. 10 . an súntach bar sin nō in urlam bar n-óig doc[h]um in c[h]atha, ML² 1487 . an sean ní fhidir ná an t-óg | ceadh as fhód idir don éag, Studies 1933, 140 § 15 . feirrde dhuit nach sibh an sean, | cuid an tsin ag an tsóiser, L. Cl. A. B. 60.27 . doiligh oighidh gach ḟir óig | na sin d'oighidh ní hurchóid, IGT Decl. ex. 1490 . co na roibi d'óg na do shin andsin, TTebe 1137 . In phr. eter ṡen(u) ┐ óc(u) both old and young, all: itir ṡenu ┐ ócu, Tec. Corm. § 29.3 . eter shean ┐ ócc, PH 4292 . eter ócc ┐ shen, Irish Texts iv 86.50 . offrála . . . | . . . | dlighitt eter s.¤ is ócc | d'fior ionaid miadhach Maodhócc, BNnÉ 258 § 218 .

an ancestor : ba handsin dorala chuice Lóchine Lond s.¤ Hua Lonáin, RC xiii 60 § 55 . Cairthenn macc Blait s.¤ clainne Tairrdealbhuigh, Lism. L. 497 . Lōegaire Lorc, s.¤ Laigen ┐ Osraigi, ZCP viii 292.4 . Eochaid tirmcharna s.¤ síl Muiredaig, SG ii 471.6 . is eisen s.¤ Fher mBolg, RC xvi 80 § 128 . cró a shean mur Eunna Aighneach | do-bhéra asteagh go tuillmheach, L. Cl. A. B. 72.21 . crann corcra slánuighthe ar sean, DDána 54.25 . a bhfuarais d'ulc ag troid fá iath do shean, Hackett xiv 5 . tír a sean d'ḟagháil ón ḟior, TD 13.22 . go leanfadaois sompladha a sean ┐ a sinnsear, TSh. 5335 .

Of time antiquity; old age: is hó siun co nuie dam far sercc, Wb. 4b29 . dobi se co s.¤ `it endured to old age', Metr. Dinds. iii 356.15 .

Compds. (sometimes merely intensive or for alliteration).

(a) with nouns: ¤áes: seníum .i. senáis, Ir. Gl. 735 . ¤argat old money : s. fil agot . . . Cidh doghni s. de? I n-aimsir Deic . . . dorignedh, Fél. 184.7 . ¤ben an old woman : sein-bhean na ríogh, Ráth Cruachan, DDána 92.19 . ¤breth an old judgement, a precedent : cia ro bai i sein breithaib, Laws iv 98.13 Comm . ¤chell senior church (?) Stud. Hib. xxxiv 48-50 : Senella Cella Dumiche 'Senchell Dumiche', The Patrician Texts in the Book of Armagh 140 § 23 . dochóid Pátraic do Thopur Mucno ┐ ró insaig (ró insuidig, v.l.) Senchill = fecit Cell[am Se]nes, Trip. 1249 . o cleirc[h]ibh na sein-cheall, Rule of Tallaght 20 (Teagasg Maoil Ruain) . ¤chenél old, original people : cethir chenel (.i. sencinela) fichet batar isin tir, ACL iii 22.26 . ¤chin an old-standing offence : s., uair damad nua cin ro ba sechtmaidh, Laws i 200.9 . an dream dá leanann sal na sein-chion, TSh. 5247 . ¤chomairbert: inna senchomerbertae biuth pecthaige `of the sinful old way of life', Ml. 65d4 . ¤chomrorcon an old error : roásaiset drissi inna senchomrorcan tar sodin, 2a6 . ¤chríonacht prudence : ag saothrughadh na saidhbhreas tré shein-chríonnacht shaoghalta, TSh. 9474 . ¤chrith: mo lám ar sionachrith, othar me faon-lag `tremulous as with eld', O'Rah. xiv 58 . ¤fhairrge: ag siubhal na senḟairge, Ériu v 184.392 . ag silledh na senfhairrgi, Stair Erc. 1405 . ¤fher an old man : epscoip Cille Tidil | na sinḟir co sárgrind, Gorm. Nov. 1 . ¤fhala an old grievance : a sean fholta ┐ a nua fholta, AFM iv 1176.6 . ferr senfīacha senfala `better old debts than old grudges', RC xlv 21.11 . ¤gabair old (i.e. proven) horse: gabtar ar sengabra latt ┐ indliter ar sencharpait, CRR 15 . ¤gaill old English (i.e. Anglo-Normans): ar neach do shliocht Gaoidhil Ghlais | . . . | ná ar Sheanghallaibh fóid na bhFionn, Studies 1919, 440 § 11 . ¤goídelg: ealg ainm do mhuic isin tṡen-gáidhilg, Cóir Anm. 243 . cua ainm na claine isin t-sengaidilc, TBC-LL¹ p. 495 n. 1 . ¤gom old vexation : coro bhethaidhsiot beóghrís a sengomh, AFM vi 2054.2 . ro chuimhnigh cách díobh a seangoimh ┐ a nua-fhola dia roile, AFM iv 1204.20 . ¤laech a veteran : a senlaíach, BDD² 1517 . na senóraig ┐ na senlaich, CRR 15 . ní mó iná trian a scél innisit na senlaeich út, Acall. 298 . ¤lebar an ancient book, Scripture : sen lebár sin, Laws i 240.13 Comm . i n-ar sennlebraib, LB 137b16 . litir in sen libair, más inann ní fogabar ann ┐ isin maclebar the original MS. (as opposed to the copy), O'D. 1581 ( H 5.15, p. 7a ). do fhéagh sinn i seinleabhraibh, Aithd. D. 44.17 . an gcluin sionn an seinleabhar `do I pay heed to Scripture?', PBocht 19.18 . ¤les old or ordinary fort of residence: dul ó faithchi in senlis for airgi, Laws i 132.13 Comm . ¤muinter original people : Senach . . . do ṡenmhuinntir Find meic Chumaill, Acall. 969 . ¤ pheccad old, inverterate sin : an dream bhíos dall ó shein-pheacadh na leisge, TSh. 9359 . a thaiscid sen-pheccaid (of the body), PH 8226 . ¤rád a proverb : seanráite Sholaimh `the book of Proverbs', Proverbs i 1 . ¤ridire an experienced knight : gur ferr na senridirdha isin cath naid na ridirdha oga, Fier. 10 . Sir Uuilliem Stanlui, s. saigdiūirthe Saxanach, Fl. Earls 52. z . ¤rúa an old person : mac Senbath s., LU 1253 . Cámha gan mac is gan húa | dorála conadh s., Acall. 46 . s.¤ṡaille matured bacon MacCongl.² 192 ; old hard-cure Peritia xv 320 n. 54 : for thócht sen-s[h]aille, MacCongl.² 100 . ¤scél ancient legend : ni maith senóir gan seinsceoil, Acall. 1385 . nach doilig sin ge senscel, Irish Texts ii 28.25 . ¤scélaige reciter of old tales : Suanach . . . senscélaidi Find, Acall. 5297 . ¤scríbend original document : senscriband deóda, Bürgschaft 21 § 62 . amal frith i seinscribheannuibh na petarlaici, Lism. L. 3672 . ¤ṡlicht an old family : do bhí sí ag seinṡliocht Cholla, TD 24.38 . do ug a huan síoth dá seinshliocht, PBocht 4.19 . ¤ṡruith: oc comrac fri senṡruthe, LU 1292 . na sen sruithe ro-batar rompa-som, PH 256 . ¤tintúd early translation : lasna sen-tintuda (recte -tintudu, Edd.), Ml. 107a3 .

(b) with adjj.: ¤brisc. As subst.: senbriscai salcai móra impi `old faded things upon her', Cóir Anm. 70 ( IT iii 320.1 ). ¤buide yellow from age : a c[h]naim senbuidi (of an old tooth), Trip.² 1625 . ¤ché: buidhne an bheatha ṡeinché, DDána 46.43 . ¤chiathaidi?: rabenastar a seicheda sen-tascidi s. dí, TTr. 966 ( LL 230a38 ). ¤fhoclach proverbial : in snáithi . . senfoclach ro fagbadar na hugdair a slechtaib a senbhriathra, MR 158.10 . ¤fhaltanach: so mar nid na trí naimhde sean-fhaltanacha-so `the three inverterate enemies', Donlevy xx 1 . ¤garb: susta senta sengarbha, Lism. L. 3653 . re táebh gacha seiche sengairbhi, Comp. CC 98.10 . ¤lethan: dá shleig shéta shenlethna, SG 260.16 . ¤óc ever young, or perh., both old and young (dvandva compd.): s. (epithet of the Deity), ZCP iv 243.32 . ¤ṡaeglach: a ṡeanṡaoghlach áith ḟionnḟuar `seasoned' (of a weapon), TD 33.10 . ¤tascide: rabenastar a seicheda sentascidi senchiathaidi dí, TTr. 966 `old-hoarded, long since laid by,' ibid. Gl.

For other compds. with sen see separate articles.

síl

Cite this: eDIL s.v. síl or dil.ie/37503
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: silta, sīlta, siltaib, sīltaib

n o, n. Later m. In Mod.Ir. dental forms in pl.: n p. silta, ACL i 326 § 46 . a p. sīlta, RSláinte 1160 . d p. siltaib, Irish Texts v 1.3 . sīltaib, RSláinte 5062 .

The seed of plants and animals : s.¤ gl. hoc seminum, Sg. 63b9 . s.¤ gl. semen, Ir. Gl. 1009 . is a chorp fessin arafoím cach s.¤ .i. mad grainne cruithnechte foceirr is diass cruithnechte rl., Wb. 13c24 . a s.¤ inrolad hisin mais nécruthaigthi gl. creaturae seminibus, Thes. ii 10.19 ( BCr. 18a1 ).

(a) of plants: Abellanium, is as tucad sīl n-aball leo, Corm. Y 1272 . is dilsi in air cona ṡil `the tillage and the seed are forfeited', Laws iv 132.26 Comm . ceithre meich fichet do sil brach[a], ii 200.26 Comm . coconidium .i. sil lauiri `laurel-seed', ACL i 332 § 48 . luibi cach shīl | shīlas ar gach slicht guidheasun, iii 235 § 23 . do shilaib ┐ do thorthib ┐ do chethrib na tuath, PH 6288 . gnáth folamh síol na sligheadh the seed by the wayside, PBocht 12.3 . sil cnaibi, Irish Texts v 6.15 . moluim sīlta osglus na dūinti do bearbad ar na sīrōipib sin, mar atāit so, .i. sīl melones ┐ cucurbita . . ., RSláinte 1160 - 1 . ag cur ṡil sowing, Mart. Don. Sept. 9. 60 boirilli sīl, Cín Lae Ó Meall. 33.17 . toradh an tsíl do chuir tú, ┐ toradh na fíneamhna, Deuteronomy xxii 9 . Freq. used figuratively: síol glan ní hionchuir im fhearann, PBocht 4.29 . iomdha a thoradh tearc a dhuille | dlúth a ghéaga glan a shíol (of Franciscan Order), 1.22 .

(b) metaph. cause, origin : sila ┐ adbair in chatha, CCath. 3852 .

(c) small amount, trace : torsig, truagaig, cen sil foiss `wearying, wretched, without germ of rest', MacCarthy 58.25 . cen sīl n-úabair nā haincceiss 'without a trace of pride or wickedness', SR (Adam and Eve) 30.1126 . do-rimnai Día ... a cosc cen sīl comairge 'God commanded ... that they should be punished without any ounce of pity', SR (Greene) 4153 . cen sīl ndogra 'without a trace of sorrow', SR (Greene) 6131​ .

(d) the semen virile : ó oínsíl rogénartar da macc de `of one seed have been born two sons of him', Wb. 4c12 . immefolngar dund s.¤ ferdu, Ml. 44a10 . intan dofuissemar sechtair a sil sin ┐ gainethar hon mathir is and is ainm do fructus, 44a11 . teistiu int s.¤ immefolangar tri . . . peccad, 71c6 . a shíol do dhórtadh tré na chionta féin, Donlevy 94.4 .

(e) very freq. in sense of race, progeny, descendants : dar cenn peccati . . . s.¤ Adim, Wb. 15d20 . fognífi do s.¤ do sílaib do bráthar, ┐ nocho [bía rí dot sil co bráth], Trip.² 740 . re s.¤ dálach dóine `before men's multitudinous race', Fél. Jan. 1 . toisech sil nAnmchada, AU i 516.x (A.D. 1006) . mairc ócán dom s.¤ | asa holc donruá, LU 9907 . s.¤ a féola the issue of her body, Laws iv 44.7 . isedh i tabuir duine a fearunn . . . do s.¤ a cholla, iii 46.28 Comm . in s.¤ ro sílaig Neimed, LL 7a20 . ní roclos fri sīl fri cath | nōnbor nodasáraiged, ZCP viii 333.6 . Síol gConaill ag teacht tharainn, DDána 113.29 . sgaoilid síol Eóghain ag Aodh `at Aodh the seed of E. divide', TD 26.15 . do bhi a síol ó sin i le | ag leanmhain luirg na deise, 26.11 . íarsma degsil na ndeich righ, Irish Texts ii 35 § 31 . ba medithir re hArcail mac Amphitrionis ar met ┐ ar mesnig in milid sin, uair ba da s.¤ do, TTebe 2557 . a síol fá dhruing ndanardha (of Ireland), Keat. Poems 1184 . Of a single individual (viz. Níall Noígíallach): do dhiúlt Corc . . . | do shíol mhór (do mhór shliocht, v.l.) Chuinn Cheudchathaigh, L. Cl. A. B. 108. 198 . Freq. in sept-names, see Hog. Onom. s.v. síl.

(f) of animals, offspring, breed; act of breeding (?): sil cethra do luad .i. na cethra siles ac neoch do cennach doib, Laws ii 358.4 and 28 (`Kauf von Samen vom Vieh', Thurn. Stud. in E. Ir. Law p. 23 ). saithe . . . do sil bech, Laws ii 122.1 Comm . bliadain a dtuisten, bliadain a seoil, bliadain a sil `the year of their breeding' (of bees), iv 164.3 . .iiii. fir eich ┐ da ban each riata cenmotha a groig uair dlegar do a da cutruma fri sil do groid, O'Curry 239 ( H 3.18, p. 133 ). culén do shíl in chon út, TBC-LL¹ 1048 . nī hē sīl in maigri maill | āsas a hiuchra ālaind, ACL iii 238 § 3 .

Compds. ¤aicme race, descendants : i síol-aicme Ádhaimh, TSh. 3261 . ? To this: ¤búalad act of threshing (?): ruc ruathar fuatha . . . da silbhualad `to utterly smash them', CF 683 (`with sil- Professor Rhys compares W. chwil- in W. chwilfriwio', Meyer). ¤cháith chaff, husks : nocho gran seang silcaith slethcraiti, IT iii 89 § 116 . dā óibell tened i mmedón suipp sílcátha corcca, MacCongl. 15.2 . ¤chur act of sowing: gurab é an diabhal do-ní síol-chur ar na coirthibh i n-aigeantaibh na ndaoine n-urchóideach, TSh. 6334 . ná déantar libh síol-chur idir na dreasaibh = nolite serere super spinas, 10475 . aimsir an tsíolchuir, Gen. viii 22 . Metaph. silcur na tragha ona fearaib 'na faenluighi, CF 810 . aimsior tháinig Pádruig . . . do shíolchur chrábhaidh ┐ chreidimh, PCT 27 . Hence: sílchuirid sows, propagates : an ithir go n-a harbhar | . . . | ós libh do síolchuireadh soin | críochnuigheadh sibh an síolsoin `as Thou didst sow the seed', Aithd. D. 50.32 . mar gur síolchuireadar craos i n-áit an troisgthe, Eochairsg. 3.15 . do bhris sé síos an chathair ┐ do shíolchuir sé í le salann, Judges ix 45 . síolchuiridh sé imreasuin, Proverbs vi 14 . ¤ pheccad original sin : bheith damanta trés an síl-pheacadh sinnsir, TSh. 3260 . ¤treb descendants: Naoi 'na fhíréan 'na shíl-treabhaibh féin = in generationibus suis, 3181 .