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3 art

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 3 art or dil.ie/4323
Last Revised: 2013

 

n (Gr. ἄρτος Akten Bonn 125-26 ) explained in glossaries as god: a.¤ .i. dīa, unde dicitur Eochaid Find Fūath n-Airt .i. fūath dēa fair ar a chāime, Corm. Y 26 . domemaid A.¤ uasal .i. dīa ūasal, ib. is inann a.¤deus (.i. día), Cóir Anm. 167 . a.¤ .i. potens, ut dicitur domemaid a.¤ uasal .i. deus , O'Mulc. 55 . Cf. 4 art, 1 ard (f). altaigis buide dia Art antī Angal, ZCP viii 103.8 = a.¤ a buidi do dia anti A., Ériu ii 186.y . cartōit im Art (.i. Dia), ZCP v 486 § 8 (B. na f.).

commus

Cite this: eDIL s.v. commus or dil.ie/11534

 

Forms: cumas, comas

u, later o. Vn. of con-midethar (see GOI 450 ). cumas, comas m., IGT Decl. § 53 .

(a) act of controlling, arranging, directing : c.¤ termuind do chathrach . . . co Droma B. limits of sanctuary, Trip.² 2766 `power', Trip. 235 (perh. `extent', note). cosin sechtmad mac imlessan . . . do ch.¤ a ruisc isa tech to direct, LU 7055 ( BDD 71 ). fri comus a mbesa `to assess their tributes', Ériu xii 162 § 2 (TE). dáig a gaili da chomus to restrain his valour, MU² 682 . deogh cen c.¤ immoderate drinking, ZCP iii 25.7 . con-a atmaille can ch.¤ , LL 16106 ( Todd Nenn. 252.8 ). līn a rē / fri c.¤ in chōicid-se `the length of their reigns over this province', Ériu xvii 46 § 38 . ? C. gan churu commais, LL 2621 .

(b) Usu. power, ability, capacity : comos .i. compos . . . é nō commes leis for cāch, nō commesrugud coda dōib, Corm. Y 330 = coimmess, Corm. 12 . commos .i. a compos graece .i. potens , O'Mulc. 234 . comus gl. potentia, Thes. ii 236.15 . ad coimse mo chrod dot chainmacniu, Fing. R. 485 `you are capable (of taking) my cattle', n., where Ed. compares at comsa mac F. frim, Sc.M² 15 . fotrochess ot'mórchoimsib who deprived thee of thy great powers SR 1746 . lat-so na huile comse olchena `all other functions . . . are yours', Ériu i 44.12 = choimsi `powers', RC xxvi 372.22 . ? ar scís a comasaib gaile, LL 30618 = oca scél-baile, Metr. Dinds. iv 26.24 . eochair chomais coinnmed, ZCP vi 270 § 6 . marcach na ndūl / danī dar c.¤ comsidib, ACL iii 235.7 ( Aithd. D. 61 ). bar sairi ┐ bar c.¤ féin, CCath. 5071 . i cceardcha cliste an chumais (of a síd), O'Hara 3440 . do ní deilbh fa dheilbh chumais, Dán Dé xxviii 38 `agent', notes. solāthar do dhénamh dóibh do réir . . . chumais na háite = according to the possibility of the place, RSClára 21a . lucht cumais, Keat. Poems 492 .

With obj. gen.: comus miodhchuine, Ériu xiii 25.7 . commas pende ara faoendel `to fix any penance for such straying', Mon. Tall. 62 (151.20) . ni léo atá c.¤ t'anma the power of life or death over you, LU 6379 (TBC). comus nime `the power of bestowing heaven', Laws i 14.6 Comm. tucad . . . na gillai con ┐ comus fiadoig do, ZCP xiii 254.16 . let fein comus t'ingine, RC xiii 9.17 . cumas m'anma d'ionghaire, DDána 21 A.4 . do chumus féin self-rule, Aithd. D. 79.2 .

With follg. FOR power over: ni bia c.¤ for foglaid, LU 9748 . ni fuil comus [di] for immenn, Laws ii 386.9 Comm. gin comus marcach na srein forro (of panic-stricken horses), Marco P. 113 . ? ó tá [a] chumes ar Dhia thall, Celtica iv 135 § 78 `influence with God', Gloss.

With prec. prep.: cen chummus gan cetugud do in spite of his efforts, TTebe 2493 . tathbeim ┐ beim co cumus a controlled (powerful?) blow, IT i 273.z ( FB 40 Eg.). faebarbéim co c.¤ , TBC-LL² 1651 ( TBC St. 1692 ). Goill . . . dá mbeadh dod chumas, Aithd. D. 26.30 . ní bfuilim féin dhom chumus `I myself have not the power' (I cannot control myself?), Ériu i 20.76 . béimm fo ch.¤ `a well-measured stroke', Triads 118 . tuc urcur fo comus dó `a powerful throw', CCath. 2961 . cen bá Ailill / fót ch.¤ tabairther, LU 5477 (TBC). fo ch.¤ ┐ fo chumacta P., LL 32591 ( TTr. 1795 ). dibertsat fou cumus C.C. a rige, Ériu viii 172.6 . no leicead na husce estibside fó a chomus in tan ba laind leis as he wished, LB 235a58 . roleigedh as . . . fo chumus was released under restrictions, AU ii 408.11 . bud for bar comus a cathcharpait at your disposal, Alex. 232 . do-ratsat in tir fora comos, Grail 1033 . a-tá ar comus don choimdhigh / gan m'éra it is in the Lord's power . . ., Bard. Synt. Tr. 37.12 . maith na cruinne ar chumas damh, DDána 37.29 . acht go mbia Caitir-íona / ar cumas díona mh'anma able to protect, Measgra D. 25.68 . ceinbes ichomus coirp ┐ anme, Thes. ii 244.30 (Cambr.). Compd. cumasónna weak, Measgra D. 32.13 .

cumachtach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cumachtach or dil.ie/13789

 

Forms: cumachtaig, cumhachdach, lasnacumachtgu

adj o, ā (cumachtae). Later also com-. powerful, mighty; invested with (magical) powers; ingraintid c.¤ gl. persecutor . . . potens , Ml. 54b19 . gl. potitus, 67c15 . cumachtaig gl. potiti, 69a3 . nírbu ch.¤ som, 72b4 . nidanchumachtig fornirisse gl. non quia dominamur fidei uestrae, Wb. 14c41 ( GOI 159 ). an fleasc c.¤ (of rod of Moses), Blathm. 83 . imón comdid c.¤ , LU 1990 (FA). a caraid cumachtaigh his fairy friends, TBC St. 4912 . fer c.¤ (Fergull Monach) with magical powers, Cóir Anm. 205 . luibi cumachtacha, TTebe 1156 . is c.¤ í a naigid flux na fola, O'Gr. Cat. 227.11 . comhchumhachdach so ar Dhia, Rial. S.F. 611 `influential with God', Gloss.

Compar. cumachtchu gl. potior, Sg. 39b3a . masa cumachtachi e, RC v 199.29 . is cumhachtuighe thú . . . ná sinn, Gen. xxvi 16 . Superl. rí . . . as cumachtachom, BDD² 1071 .

As subst. cumhachdach m., IGT Decl. § 22 . mighty one, ruler; wizard : amal bidalaili chumachtaig gl. alicuius potentis, Ml. 42c19 . lasnacumachtgu, 59d7 . dinaib cumachtgaib echtrannaib `foreign powers', 26b20 . cumachtgu ón gl. superiores, 101d7 . ni bí c.¤ cenpeccad gl. pro potentibus peccatores possuit, 103c3 . arnaib cumachtgaib ón, 7 . ca c.¤ rap ḟerr? (a chief), LL 3221 . ol na fil c.¤ lib gid do cumscudud gid urd aen laithi, Laws i 22.23 Comm. mo chlaidem . . . is c.¤ dam, TTebe 4064 . cumachtaig maithe wizards, ML² 724 . a Chómhachtaigh aoird (of God), Celtica iv 105 § 3 . a chomhachtaigh, a Cholmán, Bard. P. 16.14 . ar ba c.¤ si ┐ bantuathaid ` witch ', RC xxiv 178.19 . Cf. bandrai ┐ banc.¤ , ZCP xii 252.15 .

ingrentid, ingraintid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ingrentid, ingraintid or dil.ie/28713

 

Forms: ingrentid, ingraintid, ingrentig, t-ingrinntidh, ingrénntig, ingrinntidhe, hingrintidi, ingreinnte, n-ingrinnti, ingrintidib, ingrinntibh

n i, m. (in-greinn) n s. ingrentid, Wb. 18d4 . ingraintid, Ml. 130c4 . ingrentig, PH 1067. an t-ingrinntidh , BS 122.15 . a s. ingrénntig, LB 151a3 . n p. ingrinntidhe, AFM ii 914.16 . a p. frisna hingrintidi , Hib. Min. 317. g p. ingreinnte, BNnÉ 23.29 . na n-ingrinnti (? ingrinntidi, Ed.), 24.y. d p. ingrintidib, PH 5868. ó ingrinntibh , AFM ii 796.13 .

(a) a persecutor, a pursuer: Pól ingrentid is preceptóir nunc fidei , Wb. 18d4 . ingraintid gl. exsequutor, Ml. 130c4 . comba ingraintid cumachtach donaib hisin a dae gl. et persecutor es potens . 54b19 . fri Saul fri Abisolon frisna hingrintidi olchena, Hib. Min. 317. ingrentig na Cristaige dian ainm Déicc, PH 1067. ro thog Dia Saul ingrénntig corba Pól apstal hé iarum, LB 151a3 . nar fféde (leigedh, v.l.) se an t-ingrinntidh sin do ionnsaighe na heagailsi dia hingreim doridhisi, BS 122.15 - 16 .

(b) a plunderer, a harrier: an Finnfoideach Pattraicc do orccain ó ingrinntibh, AFM ii 796.13 . i ttorcrattar ingrinntidhe Arda Macha `the plunderers of A.', 914.16 .

nertad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. nertad or dil.ie/33117
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: nerta, nertae

u, m. vn. of 2 nertaid. g s. nerta (< *nert'tha), Wb. 31b11 . g p. nertae, Ml. 34d1 . Somet. by analogy treated as neut., see ZCP iii 25.25 below; n.¤ n-óg, BColm. 100.8 (n s.).

Strengthening ; nearly always in fig. or moral sense: gl. corroboratio, Ml. 66d7 . díar nertad-ni hi fochidib, Wb. 6c31 . asbert in gilla oc nertad Con Culaind encouraging, SCC 28. ro raid na briathra-sa do nertad a apstal, PH 1611. oc nertad neich ro pri[d]cad dúib-si confirming what has been preached, Wb. 7b12 . nertath n-irisi, ZCP iii 25.25 do nertad irsi doib, Mon. Tall. 62. Exhorting, urging , with obj. gen. of thing urged: gl. adhortatio, Ml. 79b1 . exhortatio, 53a18 , 34d1 ; cf. Sg. 161b6 . is tualáng a nerta act rachomalnathar (= potens exhortari [in doctrina]), Wb. 31b11 . nertad den[ma] maith an exhortation to do good, Ml. 35c11 . in sidh do nertadh to advise peace, Aen. 2766. im nertad in catha fair, CCath. 539. ? With FRI: nertad fri recht n-aicnid 'reliance on the law of nature', QML xiii 4 § 1 , see also ZCP xvi 178 . Rare in physical sense: dobretha F. nertad forsin ṅgabail exerted all his strength (?), TBC-LL¹ 760.

2 nó, noe

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 nó, noe or dil.ie/33205

 

Forms: nau, naue, noa, noib, noe, nae, noí, noi, naoi, nau

n ā, f. (in O.Ir. a w-st., Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 93 ). O.Ir. n s. nau tholl, Thes. ii 294.27 ( SP iv 1 ). g s. naue, 272.8 (Adamnán). noe, Sg. 69a24 , 132b1 . a d s. (Mid.Ir.) noí. n p. noa, Ml. 67d23 . d p. noib, 122a3 .

In Mid.Ir. the n s. is variously written (see exx. below); the forms noe, nae point to pronunciation noí. Occas. treated as a d-stem. Early obsolete, surviving in compds. in later Mid.Ir.

A boat (generally a small one, propelled by oars):

(a) filius navis . . . scoticâ vero linguâ Mac Naue, Thes. ii 272.8 (of Colum Cille's maternal grandfather); cf. ingen Díma maic Noee, LB 31a55 (of his mother) = Dimai meic Naei, Lism. L. 810 . sain écosc noe a peculiar species of boat (gl. celox), Sg. 69a24 . nai a naue [ = Lat. nave] dicitur, Corm. Y 985. noe co lin seasa a boat with a number of benches, Laws v 474.10 . fo imrim noe no leasdair, 474.8 . oin nae for muir the loan of a boat, 278.3 . long fri huath . . . no fri muin, Auraic. 6134 (name of the letter m in `Ogam n-eathrach'). loiscter in nóu, Lism. L. 4303 . lá ina tinnscanad nae, RC ix 458.21 . a d s: co mboí isind noi . . . .i. isin churuch, LU 10055. cimbith quasi cimba [ = Lat. cymba] .i. on noi oen-ṡeiched, Corm. Y 229 , cf. O'Mulc. 225 and see Ériu xi 97. a noi niamduinn tar ler londruadh, Anecd. i 52 § 19 (naoi v.l.). marbhan i nnoi a corpse in a boat, AFM i 272.4 (poem), see Bruchst. i § 96 . in naoi , Lism. L. 4298 (a s.).

(b) coro laad i nnoid oenṡeched for muir é, LL 22b28 . issind noid credumai, 168b6 = isin naid, BB 374a6 . intí ga rabus bádud . . . is slan dō ge no deachsat fora ech no 'na noid, H 2.15A p. 46b ( O'D. 1187 ). asa naoed, ib. fer na noad . . . fer na noededh . . . fer na noedhe, ib. ( O'D. 1188 ) = f. na naeead, Rawl. B 506 f. 61d ( O'D. 2453 ).

pl.

(a) imdi noa occai, gl. navium potens , Ml. 67d23 . ? mebdatar a nnói, ZCP viii 313.35 . lēgiss cairptiu, carais noö he forsook chariots, he loved boats (i.e. became a pilgrim across seas), 198 § 19 (of Colum C.). ra batar . . . ina nóib fora n-iarraid, LL 232a18 .

(b) co mbetís nóthe ┐ longa ┐ lestair erlama léo, TTr.² 568. conacutar . . . nóethi beca cruinde . . . for in sruth, Alex. 689. is amlaid tangadur gan eathra gan naethe, BB 32a32 ( Ériu viii 25 n. 1 ). tarclam lucht .iii. noad do techt tar muir, Dinds. 5 ( RC xv 294.4 ). luid trí nóithib, Metr. Dinds. ii 26.13 .

Compds. ¤airchinnech: d s. dund nau-eirchinniuch, gl. naviclero, Thes. i 498.21 ( Ardm. 188b1 ). ¤coblach a fleet of boats: nocoblach mar di Gentibh oc Loch D., AU 913 (i 428.13) . for fairinn nochoblaigh, 912 (i 426.10) . coimhleang nóchobhlaigh for Loch Ribh, AFM ii 622.4 . ¤combádud shipwreck: is e foroerlangair in noecombádad fo thrí (of St. Paul), PH 1654 , cf. 1660 . nochombadud, 7043 . co facadur in naoi for nóchombáthad, Lism. L. 4298 . nocombadadh, CCath. 793 v.l.

See noedin.

oc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. oc or dil.ie/33397

 

Forms: oc(c), ac, oc, ac, ic, ag, ocin, ocind, ocon(d), icon(d), con(d), ocna, ocna, icna, ocum, acum, icum, agam-sa, ocut, acut, acot-su, icot, occo, occa, oca-som, ocae, occai, oc(c)o, oc(c)ae, aci, aice, aige, occai, occae, occi, occai, acci, aicce, aice, aici, ocunn, ocainn, acainn, ocaind, oc(c)aib, acaib, ocaib, occo, oc(c)a, oc(c)u, acu, aca, octhaib, oc, oc, ocom, icom, 'com, occ, oc(c)ot, ic(c)ot, cot, occa, occo, oco, oc(c)a, ic(c)a, coa, ca, ga, occar, coar, cár, oc, oc, ocabar, icabar, co, ga, occa, ocua, ocaó, ica, coa-ta, ica-t, ca-tá, ga-tátt, gán, cán

prep. governing dat. O.Ir. oc(c); ac, Ml. 22a5 , 82d11 . Mid.Ir. oc, ac, ic. Mod. ag. Causes no change in initial of a subst. immediately following. In Mid.Ir. often loses initial vowel in composition with art. or poss. pron. With art.: s. ocin bathis, Tur. 68 ; ocind oipred, Sg. 190b3 . Mid.Ir. ocon(d); icon(d); 'con(d). pl. ocna fothaircthib, Sg. 217a4 . Mid.Ir. ocna, icna.

With pers. pron.: 1 s. Mid.Ir. ocum, acum; icum; agam-sa, TBC-LL¹ 2207. 2 s. Mid.Ir. ocut; acut, LU 3917 ; acot-su, 4016 ; icot. 3 s. m. & n. occo, Wb. 5a26 . occa, Wb. 8a11 , Hy. i 36 T . oca-som, LU 9019 ( FB 77 ). ocae, Ml. 41d3 . occai, Hy. i 36 F , ii 55 . Mid.Ir. oc(c)o, oc(c)ae, aci, aice. Mod. aige. 3 s. f. occai, Ml. 67d23 . occae, 89c16 . occi, Sg. 7a2 . Mid.Ir. occai, acci, aicce. Mod. aice, aici. 1 pl. ocunn; in Mid.Ir. often with palatal final, ocainn, acainn; ocaind, LU 8829 ( FB 62 ). 2 pl. Mid.Ir. oc(c)aib, acaib. 3 pl. ocaib, LU 3243 , 9166 . occo, 8874 , 9018 , 9094 . oc(c)a, oc(c)u, acu. Mod. aca. octhaib, Ériu iv 144.1 is a late analogical form.

With poss. pron.: 1 s. oc mo, Wb. 26c2 . oc mu, Thes. ii 293. 16 . Mid.Ir. ocom, icom, 'com. 2 s. occ t'adrad, Wb. 5a25 . ac du guidi, Ml. 22a5 . oc(c)ot, ic(c)ot, 'cot. 3 s. occa, Wb. 24c13 , 28d10 . occo, Sg. 67a10 . oco, 213b4 . oc(c)a, ic(c)a: 'coa; 'ca: ga, TBC-LL¹ 5713 , 5720 . Mod. ag a, 'gá. 1 pl. occar n-, Wb. 4b16 , 10c22 . coar n-, SR 1500. cár, PH 1849. 2 pl. oc far n-, Wb. 5d33 . oc bar, 25c16 . ic for, SR 1246. ocabar n-, PH 2669. icabar, LL 238b34 . co for n-, LU 5244 (H). ga bar, LB 110b57 . 3 pl. occa n-, Wb. 16c5 , 20c3 . ocua n-, Ml. 18b4 . ocaó n-, LU 4630 . ica n-.

With rel. pron.: nearly always folld. by subst. vb.; no exx. in Glosses. coa-ta, TBC-LL¹ 1236 (2 s.) co ata, Rawl. 152b38 (3 s.). ica-t, TBC-LL¹ 1616. ca-tá, 120 . ga-tátt, BColm. 80.29 (3 pl.). ca mbia, IT i 190.15 ( FA 30 LB). oca mbaí, TBC-LL¹ 3516. coa rabi, 785 . gá farcgaib, 786 . gar cumad, ZCP viii 114 § 13.

Isolated exx. occur with cop.: pres. sdéd gan dóigh urraim na n-eillteadh, IGT Dec. ex. 1177 = gán, 662 . cán, Hy Fiach. 284. pret. on curi car terc sluaig, Metr. Dinds. iii 418.20 . As preverb, only in composition with ben- (subst. vb.), see ocuben.

In general sense denotes proximity, local or figurative (always of rest in a place or state).

I In local sense

(a) at, beside, close to: oc na fothaircthib at the baths, Sg. 217a4 . occi (gl. iuxta se), 7a2 . imdi noa occai (gl. Tarsis potens navium), Ml. 67d23 . cáingrían ocon tṡléib sin, Fél. Oct. 20. icon dún . . . .i. oc Dún Mac N., TBC-LL¹ 1225. in fetar-su cia fil icond áth?, 1157 . oc cros ind-dorus lis by the cross in front of the hostel, Mon. Tall. § 62. dessid Ísu ic meis, PH 5035 , cf. dessid ocon muicc sat down (to carve) the pig, IT 100.22 . oc Ierusalem, PH 485. fert Fergusa . . . fil ic Findloch i Connachta, ACL iii 5.4 . cantairecht do tocbail agun altoir, ZCP viii 115 § 27. gom thoigh at my house, 219 § 9 . tair ic taurcbáil na gréne in the quarter of sunrise, IT i 129.9 . Cf. is e fil oc mo gerran-sa who is in charge of my nag, Ériu v 30.9 . Exceptionally after vb. of motion (in fig. sense): do impo se na Lumbardaig . . . oc creidium na heclasi, ZCP xiii 184.2 .

(b) in fig. sense, beside = compared with (Germ. neben): luin oc elaib, Corm. Y 69 , cf. gloss in LU 330 : .i. deróli na luin i farrad na n-ela. marbāin inna bliadna so, | nirbo chuīnti nech occo there was none worth bewailing compared with them, Bruchst. i § 96 = níbo caointe ní occa, TFrag. 60.15 .

(c) folld. by demonstr. pron. so, sin, sút and a subst., form- ing an elliptical sent. here (there) is (are) (= Lat. ecce, Fr. voici, voilà). The form ac is always used in this construction, which is unknown in O.Ir. The orig. constr. is prob.: oc so (sin) atá . . . , the prep. governing the demonstr.; but later ac so (sin) comes to be regarded as a compd. adv. and the follg. subst. is sometimes in acc. case. See IGT Introd. § 128 , where ag so, ag sin and ag súd are said to be followed either by nom. or acc., `ag sin bean gheal' and `ag sin mhnáoi ngil' being both correct. ac so me here I am, PH 638. ac so uan Dé, 3794 . ac sin chucut do ríg (= ecce rex tuus venit tibi), 4376 . ac seo in corn-so dúib, LL 301b3 ( RC xiii 62 x ). ac sin bar n-usci dhaibh, Ériu v 158.220 . ag soin . . . an mbunnainn, IGT Dec. ex. 561.

Ac so, ac sin are freq. used like Fr. voici, voilà to indicate respectively a following or a preceding statement, enumera- tion, etc. ag so an tres gniomh diobh . . . fer a ionaid do dermat, BNnÉ 263.1 . ethech ┐ bréga ┐ luigeda dímaine . . . ac sin brissed na cet-aithne, PH 7604. ac sein duit ocht fichit cest rá ernisem, LL 145a52 . ac sin a n-oidid éicin chloinde crōda Cennēidig, ZCP viii 120.7 . o Gabrann co Cnamchaill . . . ag sin in gnathrainn, Ériu ii 50 § 4. ag sin agat . . . slighe na ndeich n-aithne, Dán Dé vi 11.

II Of the time or occasion at or during which someth. takes place (often = Germ. bei):

(a) sulbaire degbelrai cen tognam n-occae (gl. gratia illaborata), Ml. 89c16 . nin-fortéit-ni in spirut oc suidiu the spirit helps us not herein (i.e. when we pray), Wb. 4a27 . bale i rrabe oc na clessaib engaged in sports, FB 43. an cetharlebar sosceli do aurlegund oc praind at meal- time, Mon. Tall. 29. crosfigild iarum oc domine probasti at (the words) `Domine p.', § 30. dia mbatar icon choibfhleid, PH 5048 . doratad anmunna forru icon bathis, 970 . fleadh gá sgaoiltir sgéla, IGT Dec. ex. 1051. (For: ic abardorcha, CCath. 1090 , read i cabar-.) Further extensions of this use: cid ar nach sechend ind eclais Crist ic timna na himdibe? why does not the Church follow Christ in the matter of circumci- sion? PH 5765. atbert Esaias oca césad when speaking of his passion, 2275 . atá an ghealach níosa lugha . . . mar deirim aice fein as I state when I deal with it, Corp. Astron. 88.18 .

(b) with 3 s. n. pron. used as advb. = at it, thereat, engaged therein, on that occasion, etc. ní torbe precept . . . mani dénatur ḟerte occa, Wb. 8a11 . oín-menme lib occo (gl. ut unanimes honorificetis Deum), 6d3 . huisque prius in calicem ┐ issed canar occo (i.e. while the water is poured into the chalice), Thes. ii 252.5 ( Stowe M. 64b ). Celestinus . . . isé ro herlig gráda fairseom, Germanus ┐ Amatho . . . ar aird occo G. and A. being present, Trip. 30.28 . ro baí munter P. oc búain orba . . . ros-gab íta mór occai, 236.2 . praind do tomailt . . . is a hurcul acht sailmchetal ┐ aurnaigti occo to eat . . . is for- bidden unless it is accompanied by psalm-singing, Mon. Tall. 65 . cudnód ind prainde arnā bether ocu nach cein that no long while may be spent over it, § 89. dā biait do cetol i crois- figill cen tairnem lama occa, RC xv 489 § 17. ma doragbus ní d'uabar . . . cluinte mo nuallan acai `hear me wail for it', Ériu ii 56 § 15 . nis-fil do plaig . . . nachus-bera sin for culu, acht corup léir guidter Dia occai, RC xii 430.6 .

III Folld. by vn. (strictly a case of II).

(a) after subst. vb., taking the place of a pres. part.; corre- sponding to the older Engl. gerundial construction `to be a-going'. ataat oc timthirecht apastolorum they are serving, Wb. 14a30 . ce rudbatar iudei occa thindnacul-som though . . . were delivering him up, 4b13 . Cf. is occ maid atáa he is engaged in good, 6a18 . itu ic frithalim na n-anmanna, SR 1187. bui- siom oc huamim sewing, Mon. Tall. 60. mor fer ro boí com iarraid many men have wooed me, SCC 44. ata mog Dé icot gairm is calling thee, PH 1369. tic Euá asin tsruth, bai for tir co [leg. coa or ca] tirmugud, SR 1686 = oca tirmugud, MacCarthy 66.7 . ro batar . . . duile De coar n-airmitein, SR 1500 = oc ár n-a., MacCarthy 60 z . ata Dia ic for togáes, SR 1246 = ga bar togaethad, MacCarthy 52.18 . ata drong . . . ocabar n-aithceód, PH 2669. ro bátár a cruti ocaó n-airfitiud playing to them, TBC-LL¹ 168 ( LU 4630 ).

Note the irreg. constr. in the follg. exx. in which oc accom- panied by rel. pron. governs a vn. in a rel. clause: fogéba . . . aní coa-taí iarair you will find what you are seeking, TBC-LL¹ 1236. fúr na fleidhi oca rabhadhuis denumh damsa which you were making for me, Lism. L. 2357. fírinde ina núfhiadnaise icca rabatar tairchetul of which they had been prophesying, PH 5768 . With prep. do inserted before vn.: do dhemnaib ca tai d'adrad whom thou worshippest, PH 634. is e so in t-Ísu oca raba Hiruath d'iarraid, 2841 .

With ellipse of vb., in function of pres. part.: cid tu dana icim dail? who art thou that comest to meet me? IT i 127.4 . ingen oc ambrán singing, PH 889. siat oc slechtanaib . . . ┐ oc ádrad Ísu, 2615 . espuig ag adhaltras, ag meallad a ngraidh bishops adulterous, belying their orders, ZCP viii 209.29 . sib-si icc iarraid bar leicctiu don cath ┐ misi ica-for [accabur v.l.] fostadh, CCath. 5129.

After subst. vb. in impers. construction: cia bethir oc far n-ingrim though they be a-persecuting you, Wb. 5d33 . céin both oc taisbenad na flede dóib while they were setting forth the feast, FB 13. is and ro bas oca caíniud lamentation was made for them, 77 . atathar com breith don Teibh they are taking me to Thebes, RC x 180.35 . ru fitir níb uc denam a lessa ro bass and, RC iii 176.18 . The follg. ex. offers an analogous construction: os gar ndola con lō so since we are going to this battle (?), RC xxxvii 352 § 9 .

(b) with other vbs., referring to subj. of sent.: conid oc accaíne sin atbert in rí, PH 4268. ro-bar-n-élned oc adrad cloch ┐ crand by worshipping, 1707 . a fhuair [do máthair] do galar acut breith, 7390 . dorala Cairend doib ic tabairt usci do Temraig as she was bringing water, RC xxiv 192.17 . muna derntaí maith icabhur cosnum, Acall. 5141 = ocabar, Fr. Esp. used idiomatically after vbs. of beginning, continuing, desisting: forópair oc dogru, SCC 44. fecis Ailill oc cóí began to weep, IT i 127.17 . ro gab ac midem ┐ ac mórdescain, CRR 25. gabais Gabriel ga guidi, ACL iii 244 § 11. fuabrais ic troscadh for Ciaran, 5.2 . nā han ag atach Righ nimi cease not to beseech, ZCP vi 272 § 14. Analog. with abstr. noun: fos oc etli `per- severance in holiness', Mon. Tall. 19.

(c) referring to other member of sent. than subj.; imba immalei dō occa[r] taithchricc et occar n-áinsem? will he be at the same time redeeming us and accusing as? Wb. 4b16 . bliadain . . . dō ga hiarraidh he spent a year seeking her, IT i 129.15 . cen fial impu oca n-imdíten, MacCarthy 56.9 . doro- chair ecla forsna huli anchretmechu oca fhacsin sin, PH 2164. coro indisetar don rí cách uli oc édpairt dona deeib that all were sacrificing, 979 . ro brised in cath . . . ar Oilill ┐ ar Mheidb . . . oc tabairt tána bó cuȧilngi, RC vi 178.134 .

After the obj. of a vb. of seeing, hearing, etc., often as complement: otchí Isu in ṅduine ic comallnad a thimna when Jesus sees a man fulfilling his command, PH 4607. itcualamar in t-aingel oc comrád, 2968 .

(d) introducing an absolute adverbial phrase: issed aspered M. oca aurail do neoch fairsiom guidhi Dé laisiom when any one enjoined on him to pray God for him, Mon. Tall. 75. boi ingreimm mor forsna Cristaigib . . . oc eráil forru édpart do génum dona deeib, PH 962. is aire chanait . . . don anmain ic escómlad di asin churp, 8139 (= ica escomlad asin churp). ag clos linn . . . do fhreagra, Content. x 21. The follg. con- structions are mixed: gu rabha oc dul a anma ass he was at his last gasp, Irish Texts i 43.27 . nech lasmbad oc dil occorso do cheli Dē who was wont to satisfy the hunger of a servant of God, Ériu i 46.2 .

(e) after an adj.: it mathi side oc aslug these are good at seduction, Wb. 30c13 . it mathi inna ganema oc óul ind lenda (gl. bibulae), Ml. 129d14 . nitat soír oc tintuúth skilled in translating, Wb. 12b23 . cid trén oc tecmallad . . . cia bo labor oc tecmallad mighty . . . weak at gathering, 16c25 , 26 . nidam maith-se oc immarbaig, TBC-LL¹ 1676. Cf. bid gadhar tafaind Ailill oc iarraid crich ┐ ig cosnum mennato, RC xxiv 176.3 .

(f) the vn. following oc is often used in a passive sense, being in this case always preceded by a poss. pron. In Mod.Ir. g(h)á, d(h)á are used in this way. crann immua-mbiat [inna lestrai] ocua ndenum round which (vessels) are made, Ml. 18b4 . ita in cath oca ferthain indiu the battle is being fought, SCC 33. tintud septin . . . is hé ro malartad occo tintúdh [sic leg.] asind ebre isin ngreic which was corrupted in being trans- lated, Hib. Min. 10.335 . binnidir téta mendchrot aca seinm, TBC-LL¹ 209. atú-sa icom mess ona dib rigu I am being judged, PH 1407. dorigne in himaigin . . . co mbeth aice hi oca hadrad, 61 . gair ban ┐ mac aca milliud, TTebe 2155 . fuair se dias do muindtir E. aga ndicennud he found two . . . being be- headed, ZCP vi 281.26 . é féin aga imchor . . . a gcathaóir being carried, Fl. Earls 172.25 . iomad teach n-aoidheadh 'ga ndéa- namh ┐ leabhar da scríobhadh, Keat. iii 3037.

IV Of persons.

(a) with, among, denoting generally not mere proximity but some kind of association , corresponding to Lat. apud, Fr. chez, Germ. bei; often = at the house of, in the country of; used of an author in whose work some statement occurs, etc.

robem occa i mbithbethaid may we be with Him, Hy. i 36. ní n-accathar nech aile occut let no one else see it in your possession, FB 59. is acainne ḟuarais crích ┐ ferand among us (i.e. in Connacht), TBC-LL¹ 5944. nico raga do chorp-sa i n- ádnocul ocainde, PH 3693. iar n-a gabail doibh for creich occo after he had been made prisoner by them when he was raid- ing amongst them, MacCarthy 396.11 ( BB 48b ). ocut-sa dogním in cháisc (= in thy house), PH 5032. an agum-sa 'gud leig[i]us stay with me for thy healing, ZCP vi 37.12 . cid mís no bheinn gun ríg thess though I should spend a month with, ACL iii 304. 21 . anais octhaib .xl. láa he stayed with them, Ériu iv 144.1 . eoangelium ic grecaib, bonum nuntium . . . ic auctoraib na Roman the Greeks call it euangelium , ZCP viii 113 § 5. `amen' . . . is é a etarchert ic Aquil `fideliter'; is e imorro a etarchert oc Cirine `uere', PH 7982. ata tuaruscbail er in peccad-sa ic Solam i nEcclesi[asti]co , 7769 . léaghtar ag Iul Caesar isan seiseadh leabhar d'á stáir, Keat. i 72.95 . Esp. after fo-ácaib, of leaving someth. with some one: facbaid mallachtain aice ┐ berid mallachtain uada, PH 8289. fáccbais comarbus na cille sin ag Urcain, BNnÉ 264 § 226. iar faccbail [sic leg.] imcho- mhairc occa chele after bidding each other farewell, 328 § 56 . ó Ghuaire . . . gár ḟagaibh dámh mór mbennacht, ZCP viii 109.22 Cf. mod. `slán agat!' said by a departing guest in response to the host's `slán leat!'

In many cases oc in compos. with a plural pron. and follow- ing an interrog. or indef. pron. or numeral is used almost in a partitive sense like ó (see 1 ó vii); in early exx. there is a difference in meaning between oc and ó in such cases; in Mod.Ir. ag is freq. used in partitive sense. cia nod-máid acaib-si sin? who among you makes that boast? TBC-LL¹ 1974. cia bad chóir da ḟúapairt Conculaind accu which of them ought to attack C., 2077 . cach mac gaibes gaisced acaib, IT i 101.5 . denum tuidecht cen comlabra do neoch fri araile ocaind with- out conversing with each other, MacCarthy 64.5 ( LB 112a49 ). gach laoch aca-sumh, ML 132.2 . gá méad aca how many of them, Dán Dé xvi 23.

(b) with subst. vb. to denote (temporary) possession: ata x ocumm I have (am in possession of) x; to be distinguished from: is limm x x is mine (belongs to me).

uccu .i. aicci a oenar ata se (i.e. a man's choice rests with himself alone), Corm. Y 1295. árchú fil ocom, TBC-LL¹ 1003. a mboi de ór ┐ argut oca all the gold . . . they had, PH 999. nech ic nach fil almsa, 4974 . do thorad in chroind ic ata fiss uilce ┐ maithusa, MacCarthy 52.20 ( LB 110b58 ). is aigci ata cach maith, . . . ic mac mo Dé, BColm. 100.16 . dā mac dēc ic Coscrach . . . a hocht diib co-ata sil who have posterity, Rawl. 152b38 . ni fhuil ag fissid ar ndil, acht ag Rig na rígh our destiny lies not with the seer, ZCP vii 301 § 9. cia aga bhfuil dúil i lúth? who has any desire for, Keat. Poems 522.

Note follg. constructions: ni boí occo-som do chumachta a mbith beó iarna ndichenned it was not in their power to remain alive, FB 77 (the subj. is the vn. a mbith). duine ga raibe dolás a ngar dó to whom sorrow was nigh, BCC § 147. Occas. atá ocumm folld. by vb. nearly = I am able (to): indar leosom bai aici-seom a sechna he would be able to avoid it, TBC-LL¹ 2208. ata oen-ní ocund do denum `I have yet one expedient', PH 1192 .

Often with ellipse of vb.: bél aicce i tallfad cú, Ériu iv 100.14 . proinn aige da gach aoidhidh, ZCP viii 109 § 4. tucad claideb . . . ac Pilasceius . . . do Plicigias `a sword which had belonged to Pelasgus', TTebe 2499 . ni fhetad duine biad folaig ece [= aice] ann none could have any hidden food, LB 155b59 . ni muirbither mac mna lium cen chin aice, PH 401. uchán! gan againn oinniuin is gáirleog alas that we have not, Keat. Poems 1245.

(c) in sight of, in judgement of (cf. analogous use of la): ro bámar-ni fecht co cátaid acut, SCC 43. ni lia esbaid daim acaind . . . nā esbaid laich the loss of an ox is not more to us than the loss of a warrior, CRR 4. ar bam anoraigti-sea oc Dia dia fhódmar martrai honoured in the sight of God, PH 2428. co nachat anmand uaisle . . . noemait nech icon choimdid, 5087 . nach fil clerech is amru ac Día oldas-[s]om, BColm. 102.13 . olcc occo-som máthair Néill they disliked N.'s mother, Ériu iv 92.11 . inn edh dobeir fort-sa [sin] ar n-etairisine acut? CCath. 634 (= is it because you deem us disloyal that you act thus? = deeratne tibi fiducia nostri? Luc. Phars. i 362 ). co flaith Dúrlais 'cán mór me (= who thinks much of me), Hy Fiach. 284.5 . ní hé as daidhbhre ag Dia, Dán Dé xxxi 22.

(d) used with reflex. pron. after vbs. of saying, observing, thinking, etc.: atrubart aice fén he said to himself, PH 1046. déchaid-si acaib fén masa me see for yourselves if it is I, 3108 . is tria úmla ro chind aice a chlood that he had resolved to vanquish him, 4814 . ro imraid aice ina menmain deliberated, ZCP v 502.8 . do smuain sé aige gumadh ferr leis, Maund. 268. mesait ┐ tuicit aca badhdein, Fl. Earls 228.2 .

The vb. gaibid is similarly used; nā gebed nech aicce fén combad, etc. let not any one conclude, PH 4954. nā ragbam accaind ar dhíles na hindmusa doratait dúin let us not count as our own property, 6123 . Similarly techtaid possesses: ni ro techta occut feirg harbour not anger, PH 4094. is aen-athair techtmait-ne uli ocaind, 6004 : cf. 4025 .

(e) almost in sense of agent, cf. analogous use of la. Strictly, oc indicates, not the agent, but the quarter, group of indi- viduals, etc., in which the action takes place or has its origin. With pass. often employed instead of do where that prep. is needed in another sense. (In Mod.Ir. ag is commonly used to denote the agent after a part. in periphrasis for perf. tense: atá an litir scríobhtha agam I have written.) co torchair acu iarsin iar cur a n-āir he fell at their hands after slaying many of them, ZCP i 105.31 = co torchair leo, ib. 10 . idrochadar sin uili ic feraib Muman, Cog. 22.17 . is dethbir det-siu cia fogabad mor d'imned ocut-sa it befits thee that he should meet with much tribulation from thee, PH 3828 (Satan addresses Hell). co coí n-étarbaig ic anmannaib na peccdach ica pianad oc na slogaib na ndemna, 8306 . iarna marbad ocin rig (i.e. by order of), 6650 . ni lamtís beos icon rig Crist do adrad co follus `through fear of the king', 1016 . ídpairt inn uain oc macu Israel, KMMisc. 144 § 4. With pass.: ra cruthaiged comairle acu, TBC-LL¹ 702. ro benait na cluic ac na cleirchib, ACL iii 225.23 . ro hádnaiced in cend oc Herudiátis by command of H., PH 916. cia coa ndernad in chet-long? by whom was the first ship made? ZCP iv 236.6 . oilén R. atá a laim muindteri Eoin Baisti arna thabairt ac in imperi dóib, Maund. 35. Grigair . . . 'gar cumad in cantairecht (= who was the originator of church music), ZCP viii 114 § 13. gabhthar . . . gá n-aos ceoil . . . laoidh, Gofraidh Fionn iii 46 ( Ir. Monthly 1919 ). is é ní ar ar fanadh againn what has been decided on by us, Maguires of F. § 17 .

Here may be placed the use of oc after vbs. of learning, hearing, etc. (strictly local): ros-fóglaim ocumm nu [leg. mu?] gnímu-sa, PH 1790 , cf. 281 . co ccualaidh féin ag an ccleirech an fís sin `from the cleric's mouth', RC xxv 396 § 13. fear ilchleasach do hoileadh ag Scáthaigh, Keat. Poems 527.