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achtugad, echtugud

Cite this: eDIL s.v. achtugad, echtugud or dil.ie/217
Last Revised: 2019

n u,m. vn. of 2 achtaigid, echtaigid act of stipulating, making a condition; stipulation, condition : madh ro hachtaiged cinne airithe hecnairce ann, acht madh ro gabad an t-achtugad sin 'if a particular kind of ...prayer was stipulated and that that which was agreed upon has been recited', Laws v 212.13 . is achtugadh ro achtaighestur [leg. achtaighsetur ?]...na hicfaidis a cinuidh 'there was a stipulation...that they would not pay for his crimes', Laws ii 170-176 . co n-eachtugud erce ann fo cetoir, Cóic Con. 34 § 38 . da raib a.¤ orra is a nic amlaidh, Laws iii 152.16 Comm. ma ta a.¤ airithe air eturru `if there be a particular stipulation respecting it between them', 270.1 Comm. ┐ a.¤ ice uil and, ii 374.25 Comm. mas achtudh a coraib bel is a beth ar [in] achtudh sin, v 188.28 Comm. in clann ro rine rias in achtugadh `the children whom he begot before the stipulation', iii 309.24 Comm.

Cf. echtugad.

aicbéile

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aicbéile or dil.ie/751

n , f. (aicbéil)

(a) terribleness, fierceness: ra hacbeile a cned, TBC-LL¹ 3637 . re a n-aigmhéile mun mBaoill mbuig, DDána 95.13 .

(b) In Laws Comm. used (somet. with forcraid and etallas) of defects in various articles and transactions and translated `dangerous (nature)': slan dfir in carbait ce foglaid in carbat risium, acht na raib fis crine na etallais na haicbeille, iii 266.1 . madh si in chual ro fuachtnaig and iar na gnimugud ┐ iar suigigud ┐ ní roibe fis forcraide na haicbeile na hetfollais aice, 174.14 . na huile denta so . . . ó na [bia fis] forcraid no aicbeile no etallais . . . is slan iat, 166.19 . d'aicbeile na hoidida, 422.13 . is e fath fodera ar a aicbeile `because of its dangerous nature', 220.5 . ar a lasnaighe ┐ ar a aicmeile in duine `dangerous nature of the person' (of an epileptic), 508.19 .

ainfíal

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ainfíal or dil.ie/1340

adj (1 fíal) late form of anbal

(a) shameless: slige anbfial anailcech an tsaogail, Aisl. Tond. 105 § 1 . nech bus diumsach, fīrfercach . . . anfial, slatra, ZCP vii 311 § 12 . a angbaid anfhéil imresnaig (to Satan), PH 3930 . rurach cach n-ainfial, ACL iii 229.103 (cf. anbal cech rudrach, Tec. Corm. § 15.12 ). is ainfial dhuit bainecht do dhenamh, RC xxix 132 § 45 . rommain . . . ar in galar nanfial nolc, KZ xxix 374.z (Chalcidius 68b). Compar. ced ed no maidedsom a cless dorigniusa fíadu nipu anféliu dó it would have become him better (see Stories from the Táin, Glossary), LU 5743 = anḟēiliu, TBC-I¹ 1271 . As subst. shame, scandal: loi[s]cther . . . co na roib in ainbhfial (an ḟingal v.l.) foraind (of an incestuous birth), Anecd. i 19.3 = conná raib a n-anfíal is tír, LU 4407 .

(b) ungenerous, mean: ithamail anfhīal occurach ` niggardly ', MacCongl. 87.7 . comhartha a síl is sé riamh / ní díbh é dámadh ainfhial `ungenerous', Magauran 3799 . téid do mhnaoi ainbhféil is féil `she surpasses them all, the generous and the ungenerous', Aithd. D. 1.5 . Compar. nirbo anfélisium ond uairsin, LL 13564 = nirbo hanfeli indas gach duine, ZCP xii 399.6 . As subst. nársad diultadach um biad / nárab cumthach duit ainfhíal, Acall. 602 .

1 aire

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 aire or dil.ie/1883

n [] f. See Lochlann ii 221-2 .

(a) As vn. act of guarding, watching over, tending, caring for: a.¤ inna aithche huile gl. uigelando, Ml. 95d10 . ara mbethe ico n-airi co llocharnnaib (of guarding relics), Trip.² 2828 . mo arise duib innocht olse fri triar caém dia muntir . . . is amluid . . . robatar ocond a.¤ you guard me tonight, LL 282a36 . ba marb-sa da iṅgnais de / cen co ti-sium dam a.¤ , to tend me, TFerbe 485 . roḟitir Cormac ord n-a.¤ (na ha.¤, v.l.) the order of the watch, Ériu iii 137.55 . are in puirt na tora tascur don lir, Laws i 128.12 Comm. tú liaigh na hanma d'a.¤ , Dán Dé vii 20 . Of `waking' the dead: clérich H. dollotar d'airi P., Thes. ii 320.3 (Hy. ii). batar ic airi in chuirp isna aidchib, Trip.² 3008 . baí . . . acc a.¤ na ccorp co nonóir, AFM ii 780.2 . airet robatur sruithi E. ica a.¤ , Lism. L. 636 . Note also: a.¤ (.i. grādh nó troscud) na sanct ina fēil (B. na f.), ZCP v 486 § 9 . In hostile sense looking out for (in order to attack): do bhiodhbha is é t'fhear faire / . . . / an t-olc reimhe is é ar th'a.¤ on the look-out for you, DDána 10.8 . na cóig námhaid do ní ar gclodh / . . . / a n-a.¤ nó go ndeach dhíom / bíodh faire ar an dteach i dtám until I cease to look out for them (i.e. the five senses), Dán Dé ix 7 .

(b) notice, heed, attention: dobéer desemmrecht dúib . . . frissacomricfea far n-a.¤ `I will now give you an example which your attention will attain to', Wb. 12c35 . connach cuiread as a airi cathuchud na T., and he could not put the fighting out of his mind, TTebe 1257 . tóghbaidh sé a n-a.¤ dona neithibh saoghalta it takes their mind off earthly things, TSh. 9272 .

Used in a large variety of idioms with verbs and prepositions.

(c) With prec. prep. in sét atá form' a.¤ , `the path on which I am intent', Ériu vi 115.3 . ní suan fír baoith boi ar mh'a.¤ `that I was bent on', Mart. Don. Dec. 4 . bith ar th'a.¤ take heed, Ériu iii 145 § 24 . is aithnid damh-sa créd ata ar h'aire `I know what is in thy thought', ZCP vi 58.24 . ní beag do thír é ar a ha.¤ , TD 29.4 . is edh sin . . . tuccadh ar mh'aire-si gurbho gillae amhulcach ócc tusa, Irish Texts iii 15.9 . With do-cuirethar: doralus ar m'airi / gréschi occa ṅguidi, Fél. Prol. 15 . oebind na tarla ar m'a.¤ , LL 210a19 . is trén tárla ar a airi strongly was his attention engaged, Hy Fiach. 210 . diongna an ní tharla ar th'a.¤ `strange is the task you undertake', Content. xiv 4 . do-beir x do a.¤ pays attention to x, heeds x: is tabartha do airi . . . indus in cheneōil cosa tīagam, TBC-I¹ 327 . ní rabi d'esbaid . . . ar duni . . . ríam a ra tucad da ari acht co facced R. that he would heed, MU² 701 . tabrad cách dia airi co ticfa bráth, LU 2495 . in tan nach tabrai dot airi in senoir Anachis . . . dobeth isin gabad atait, Aen. 570 . tan nā taibret dia n-a.¤ / na pīana . . ., Ériu iii 29 § 2 . tabhair dot a.¤ . . . nách ccuirfe aonchuid don choimhthionól ad leith guarded, Desid. 6483 . tabhair dot airi . . . nách drochumhla atá agat mirad, 1971 . an dtabhair Aodh dá a.¤? does A. pay heed to? TD 4.36 . tug th'a.¤ nach breith le báidh / do thagra féin ar Niall náir, Content. iv 2 . Note also: antar frim a.¤ co n-accar in coimriti in fer isind airide, ZCP viii 120.16 . ? fáilte ni thaet imm a.¤ , LL 261a40 ( IT i 79 ).

(d) With follg. prepp. With DI: do chloinn dochoidh a n-a.¤ they had given up hope of children, DDána 27a. 10 . With DO: masa th'airi téit don brut . . . rot fia if your mind is set on the mantle, LU 3112 . mairg a.¤ do chuaid don gus alas that attention was paid to the fierce advice(?), MR 14.23 . do bhéar-sa a.¤ dhuid-se / tar cheann Torna san troid-se `on behalf of T. I will face you', Content. vi 2 . With FOR (AR): roloisc[s]et a mbar(a)ca . . . conapedh a n-a.¤ for teiched `so that they should not think of retreating', RC xii 58 § 9 . dá mbeith a n-a.¤ oram if they heeded me, Dán Dé xxv 10 . ní bí a.¤ ac lucht an oilein sin ar raed ar bith acht ar chogad `the folk of that island care for nothing . . .', Maund. 168 . od conncatar goill a.¤ cenél C. for an marcsluaigh `when the English saw that the attention of C. was directed towards the cavalry', AFM iii 320.y . bídh a.¤ mhór agom orra I take great care of them, Desid. 6356 . With prec. do-cuirethar: is air dorala a a.¤ on this his mind became set, RC xxxvii 348 § 57 . is í sin aimser a tarrla a.¤ ríg na hE. ar fad aontuma a ingine, ML² 492 . ón lá tarrla ar n-airi air `as long as we can remember', Ériu iv 220 § 34 . With FRI: cóir are re dīgail Dé it is right to beware of God's vengeance, BColm. 100.5 . bíd th'a.¤ frisin lá atbél `keep watch for the day of my death', Metr. Dinds. iii 212.37 . ó nach raib a n-a.¤ re himgabáil a dtáisig for they had no intention of . . . Caithr. Thoirdh. 40.5 . amhail na biadh a a.¤ fri a niarmhóireacht itir `as though he had no intention of pursuing them', AFM v 1852.11 . a fhiarfaige dé an roibe sa baili enní re roibe a a.¤ no suil aige `anything that he liked', L. Chl. S. 44.1 . t'a.¤ rum, a rí na mbreath `list to me', Aithd. D. 51.11 . ar n-aireine re hiath Cuinn / ag triath dhaighfhine Dhomhnuill `my thought of Conn's land belonging in future time to Mac D.'s brave host', 29.15 . With prec. téit: na dechaidh a hairi re commamdacht uad (she said) that her mind was not turned to wedlock with him, CCath. 1150 . dochoidh . . . cidh mh'airi-si m'oenar ria boin I had set my mind on a cow all for myself, Lism. L. 1582 . = imm boin, Three Hom. 78.13 . úair ní th-ari-siu téit ria since it is no concern of yours, Ériu i 134.4 . ní dechaidh a hairi-si fri feall furri do Ænias she did not expect that deception would be practised on her by A., Aen. 788 . ní mó téit m'a.¤-si rem' comfurtacht duid nor have I any hope that you will help me, ZCP vi 64.23 . With I N-: admhaim go dtéid mh'a.¤ inn / gach ní ad-chím 's ad-chluinim, DDána 60.24 . tuc a a.¤ 'sin ningin, ZCP viii 268 § 45 . With IMM: dochuaid . . . cid m'a.¤ si m'oenar imm boin I had set my heart on having a cow all for myself, Three Hom. 78.13 = fria boin, Lism. L. 1582 . ro bo lughaide a n-a.¤ . . . fá fhaillidhe in comuill `they less than ever were inclined to fail in execution', etc., Caithr. Thoirdh. 103.y .

(e) As interj. look, take care: are, in gai-se for Bude, ol C. LU 5798 ( TBC-I¹ 1326 ). th'a.¤ chugat, a Uí L. look out , Maguires of F. 21 .

Later faire q.v.

airesbaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airesbaid or dil.ie/1945
Last Revised: 2013

n (esbaid) lack, deficiency: do bennaigh an taobh budh des . . . do fháguibh [d']uiresbaidh bennaighthe an taobh budh tuaidh he left the north side without blessing, Mart. Don. 156.1 . gabhala Erenn gan uireasbhaidh conuige sin with no omission, BB 38a8 . go bhfhaca gan uiresbaidh / na fiana fa mac Muirne, LL 396.4 . roind an aird-rig can uireasbaid ag Ua Urain without a break, Hy Maine 86.z . crich comlan . . . gan uresbaid acu-sum `without diminution', MR 222.6 . ní hé budh uireasbhaidh linn `that is not a loss that would touch me', Studies 1921, 419 § 15 . ní fuil uiresbaid neich ar bith orra, Maund. 227 . ni fagbaiti nach n-uresbaidh fair, CCath. 5958 . o roairigh H. uiresbaidh a dhalta fair `the loss of his ward' (who had been kidnapped), ZCP vi 90.29 . persa d'uiresbaidh ar chēt `ninety-nine persons', Fl. Earls 14.z . atáid muca d'uiresbaidh orainn we are out of pigs, SG 6.8 . an aichnid dibh uiresbaid . . . oraibh?, IT ii2 123.24 . in fitir tusa . . . ind a.¤ fuil orainde?, Acall. 7498 . fuarttar sidi elang ┐ uireasbaidh ar an bprotexion `a flaw and defect' AFM v 1774.11 . da raib ní a n-a.¤ dóib if they lack anything, Acall. 7976 . nár eglaighemar uiresbhaidh 'yet were we not dismayed with any necessity' Ériu xv 40 [37b] .

airísel

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airísel or dil.ie/2133
Last Revised: 2013

adj (ísel) very low: is samlaid ra suidiged in tech hísein. lár ard tuard airisel, LL 3796 ( ┐ túaradh airiseal, RC xv 280 § 6 ). ar tulaigh urísil, CCath. 2281 . ┐ síad ar a nglúinibh, go huirísiol ar talamh 'and vpon their knees, prostrate on the ground' Ériu xv 94 [101a] . low in rank, ignoble, mean: na hoibreacha uirísli simplidhe, Desid. 2514 . sdaid umhal uirísiol, 1278 . an t-anduine uirísiol, Mac Aingil 5493 . d'uaislibh ┐ d'uirislibh, Hy Maine 140.1 . a láthair dháoine uirísiol before mean men, Proverbs xxii 29 . Superl. combad é a hór nō a hargat ba huirisle de the meanest part of it (of a diadem), Grail 2859 . Adv. co a.¤ in a low voice, LL 229b32 ( TTr. 923 ). As subst.: do na huiríslibh (`unto the lowly'), Proverbs iii 34 . In gramm. the form made by adding -aib to a word: fer . . . feraib a aurisel, Auraic. 1798 = fer . . . foreraib a aurisel, Goid. 73.24 (Dúil Laithne). ben, mna i n-ilur a aurard ni airecar a airisel .i. benaib, Auraic. 1847 . treḟocul . . . co raib and . . . a irard a irisel, LL 5015 .

1 andach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 andach or dil.ie/3470

n o, n. badness, iniquity; `worthlessness', GOI p. 544 . The meaning ardor, furor , Ascoli xxxix may be based on O'Dav. 71 cited below. Cf. LEIA annach .i. an-dag non dagh [.i.] non bonum , Corm. Y 91 . annag .i. non bonum , O'Mulc. 47 . a.¤ .i. ferg, ut est: na mórsleibe annaig (= na mórṡlébe andaig, Fél. Prol. 237 ). Nó annach .i. olc, ut est arsceith scél a annaigh / demain dama[i]r indel (= la sceith scél a annaigh (annaich, andaich v.l.), Fél. Feb. 16 .i. a ulcu, Fél.² xlv gl. 16 (3) ), O'Dav. 71 . a.¤ .i. fearg a.¤ .i. olc. andagh .i. olc no peacadh, O'Cl. reil foram brethir on ána.¤ immerordaisset, Ml. 90d16 . artroidfeasiu inna drochdaini a dǽ diananduch airis fechtnach an a.¤ mani erthroitar hua dia gl. ligabis, si quidem est felix malitia, 134d3 . ind andaig comerchloithi .i. . . . mor á n-a.¤ durigensat fris gl. coactæ malitiæ , 80b4 . indandig, 31a15 . coig anmand cinath . . . conlat ar andug, O'Mulc. 456 . sóifid annach i corraib bachall .i. i n-aes graid, RC xxvi 40 § 216 ( LL 188b 58 ). ni raib miscais . . . nā ēilned nā annach, ZCP vi 259 § 6 . no-s-marbann ar an annach, PH 4203 . co Pelium cend annaig ┐ diumsa in domain, LL 224a4 ( TTr. 493 ). būi M. . . . fo mūr annaigh oirgce slūaig, ZCP x 46.17 . na hí bíte fri handgaibh, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. v (1919) 93 § 24 . As n. pr. a Andaigh, Annaig, ZCP vii 301 §§ 6 , 11 . g s. Annaig mic Duibinsi, 300.y .

? As adj.: main a.¤ cach uisce worthless produce of every water(?) (in a list of things which within limits are public property, e.g. wild garlic, dry sticks in a wood, etc.), Laws v 482.24 .

arthraig(th)ech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. arthraig(th)ech or dil.ie/4335

adj o, ā (cf. arthraigid(ir)) apparent, evident: mairidh in colunn annsin ┐ tainic do re dini risb' artraigech (sic leg., Plummer MS notes) uire laeg do beith innte. muna mairind in colunn itir ┐ ni tainic do re dini ris (sic leg., Plummer MS notes) bu artraigech uire laeg do beith innte (dispute as to whether a cow was in calf or not), O'Curry 536 (H 3.18, 265b) = artraidhach . . . artradhach, 654 (ib. 317 ). ma ro bi amuig re re ris bu artradhach a hinnlaegais nocho nictar ni ann . . . maine raib imuigh re [re] ris bu hartradhach a hinnlaegus uirre, ibid. `i.e. there comes a time when the pregnancy of the cow is obvious; this time is a `ré díni', a period of protection (sic), because it releases the vendor from his guarantee', Plummer MS notes. in galar buna[id] . . . nocha nartreigtech and fo cedoir conad artraighech and iardain, O'Curry 1104 (H 3.18, 447b) = nocha nairtraighach .i. follus, O'D. 803 (H 3.17, c. 575-6). ? aspert co mbeith go hartraigtech (artraigech v.l.) dogres i cCluain Iraird an galar, BNnÉ 306 § 24 (`gouty' < Lat. arthriticus, Plummer MS notes).

attá

Cite this: eDIL s.v. attá or dil.ie/4927
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: attá, Fil, fil, faeilfit, fil, fil, atóo, attó, attóo, ató, -táu, -ttóo, -tó, atái, atái, -tái, adta, ata, at, atáa, attáa, ataa, att, -tá, -ta, -táa, -dathar, ataam, attaam, ataid, ataaith, ataaid, ataad, -taid, ataat, ataat, -tat, -taat, tathum, tathut, táithi, táthus, táthunn, taithiunn, tathuib, tás, fil, fil, feil, fel, fail, fil, file, fel, fele, feil, fail, biuu, -bíu, -bí, biith, biid, bíid, -bii, -bí, robīi, -rubi, -rubai, -ruba, bíis, biís, bis, bís, bithir, bither, -bither, -rubthar, bímmi, -biam, bimme, biit, bíit, robiat, -biat, -bíat, -rubat, bíte, -bíinn, -biinn, -bíid, -bíth, -bid, -bith, bithe, -bímmis, -bitis, -bítis, b, bíth, bíith, bíid, biid, bíd, bithom, biid, bith, biat, beo, beu, -béo, bee, b, -bee, robhe, beith, beid, bed, beth, -b, -bée, bethum-sa, rob, robe, rubé, rob, robbé, -roib, bess, bes, bethir, bether, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -bem, -robam, beithe, bethe, -beith, -beid, -robith, beit, rubet, be(i)t, -bet, -robat, bete, -beind, -beinn, -betha, nobed, nobeth, -bed, -beth, -robad, -rabad, -bethe, -bemmis, -beimmis, -bemis, -bethe, -betis, -[ro]ibtis, bia, bie, bieid, bied, -bia, -bia, -bia, -bía, bethiumm, bethib, bias, bies, beithir, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -biam, -piam, bethe, bethi, -bied, -bieid, biet, bieit, biet, -biat, -bíet, bete, beite, nombeinn, nobiad, -bíad, nobemmis, nobetis, b, -bá, bói, bái, -bói, boie, boithius, boíthi, baísu, both(a)e, botha, -both(a), bamar, bámar, -baid, bātir, -batar, batar, rob, -roba, -raba, rob, robói, rambái, robui, -robae, -robe, -rabae, romboth, rombod, -rabad, robámmar, -robammar, rubaid, -robaid, robatar, robbátar, -rabatar, -robatar, -rabtar, buith, buithi, atáu, atú, itu, it, atú, ataim, -t, -tái, -toi, taoi, -t, atá, attá, ata, at, atáthar, dáthar, atass, -das, itám, tám, ataum, ataim, atamaoit, atámaoid, atám, -taum, -dtám, atathai, atathi, atáithi, -táithi, -dathai, -taidh, itāt, atáit, ataut, táid, -táit, itat, atat, fil, -fhile, -fhuile, -fuili, -ḟoili, -ḟuile, fail, fail, fuil, -fail, -fuil, -uil, -ḟil, -ḟuil, -ḟoil, fil, fail, fail, filter, -fuiltear, fuilemm, -failmet, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, -bhḟuilti, failet, filet, fuilet, -failet, -filet, -fileat, -fuilet, -fuilid, failet, failet, fuilet, filet, bim, bím, -bím, -ruibim, -bi, bíd, bíd, -bí, -bíonn, -bind, bídh, -b, bither, -bithar, bímit, bídmaid, bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, bíth, bīd, -bíat, -bít, -bíd, bit, bít, bhínn, nobīth, robíth, bhíodh, bhíoth, bithi, -bithi, bithea, naboitis, nobīdis, beitis, bitis, bhítís, bhídís, bír, b, bīdh, bíodh, bíoth, bíom, bíthe, bídh, bidhí, bíod, ber, uér, beor, bheith, bur, -rabor, -rabhus, rabasa, bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, bé, beir, -rab(a)i, -rabha, -rabhair, -mbéis, -beis(se), -rabais, beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, beth, -b, -raib, -rab, -raibhe, rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, bess, beas, bethur, beme, bemmit, bemait, -bém, -beam, -ruibem, -rabum, bheam, rabham, bethi, rabthai, beit, -bet, -beat, -rabat, -rabut, -rabhait, -rabhaid, -rabheid, beinn, rabainn, beithi, beithe, bethe, beitheá, beith, nobith, mbeadh, -mbeath, -rabad, -bethe, -bette, rabtha, mbiadh, nobeitis, nobeidis, mbeith, bíat, biat, biad, bhead, bed, bét, bett, -biu, -bhiú, biad, -bi, bía, biae, biaidh, bía, -bía, bethair, bied, biaid, biáid, -bia, bíes, bés, bes, bess, bhias, biass, beither, beithir, bemit, bemait, -bem(ni, beimíd, -biam, -biaim(ne), -ben, bethi, beitte, bete, -bed, biait, biat, beit, beiti, beti, betit, beidid, -bīat, beidíd, beid, -bíad, no-béind, dobeind, do beinn, -beinn, bheitheá, biadh, -bied, bífad, rot-fiadh, biath, bhiadh, bethe, bheidīs, ro-bádus, bhádhus, bhí, -rabus, -rabhas, -rabadhus, bá, -raba, bádhus, -rabadhas, basa, bhádhuis, bhí, -rabadais, -rabhais, bhádhuis, -rabhadhuis, bae, bóe, baei, búi, -bae, -buí, robai, robae, robói, bí, robuidh, bí, bhói, bhaoi, -rubai, -roibe, -roibi, -roba, -raba, -raibhe, -rabha, -robha, bí, -raibi, baí, -rabha, -rabhustair, boí, bāi, būi, bae, buí, baí, boí, both, rombatha, robās, rombas, robás, -rabus, rabas, -bádus, -bás, bás, bas, -rabas, bas, bhás, bāmur, bámar, bhámair, -rabamar, robabair, -babhair, robadbair, bhábhair, -rabhuir, -rabhabhair, bādar, -bátir, badar, bádar, bídur, -rabadar, -rabhadair, baisit, -rabhsad, bátar, bátar, bheith, beitte

(ad-tá) subst. vb. is . The distinction betw. subst. vb. and copula is in the first place syntactical, and cases are found where there is no distinction of form. Cf. the type, common in ACC: boe sab he was a leader, ACC 26 . See further below, and the discussion by Bergin, Ériu xii 208 - 211 (cia taísiu, cia bé, etc.), who refers to cases like: is uera pictura ro bai sin, Thes. ii 6.32 as emphatic. See also Ériu xvi 46 , GOI 475 . For nimtha laám, Wb. 12a21 , nímptha fírion, 8d24 (copula ?) see GOI 487 . Note also the form of the pron. in (later): matait tall iat, Laws iv 86.8 Comm. , atá ar conair é, ACL iii 216.z . bí N. eices cecinit, RC xvii 175.14 is perh. a mistake. In follg. use of subst. vb. perh. due to infl. of Latin: mar nobéind athair doib = pater eram pauperum, PH 6107 . ata in innsci ordugud etc. = oratio est. . ., Auraic. 591 .

Apart from the ordinary indic. pres. all forms of subst. vb. are from a root beginning with b-. In indic. pres. the stem tá (in absol. position attá) is used in non-rel. sentences without conj. particle, after conj. particles with inf. pron. dat. and when the conj. particle consists of a preposition and rel. (s)a n-. Absolute inflexion of tá- is found in oldaas, indaas, etc. than (is), in meaning is angry, and with follg. suff. pron. The uninflected form fil (with accus.) is used after conj. particles where no dat. inf. pron. is present, in leniting rel. clauses and often in answers to questions containing subst. vb., and in archaic texts in absol. position in meaning there is . For fuller details see GOI 476 - 483 and exx. below. See also Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 419 ff. , Strachan, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899, 1 - 82 , Ó Máille, Ériu vi 1 ff. , Études Celt. xxxiv 143-44 . Forms of gaibid, do-coissin, díchsnigidir and 1 ad-cumaing also have the force of the subst. vb. in certain uses, see separate entries.

Note further that attá is usual after hóre (see Wb. 19a19 , 22d14 and compare GOI § 781 ) and occurs later after amal ( LU 7072 , Laws iii 90.18 ). Fil is somet. found in sense there is in mid. Ir.: fail crois d'ór in cach dorus, SR 361 . TBC-I¹ 2561 . Note also: fil derg it is red, Marco P. 173 .

The use of accus. after fil continues into the classical period, see IGT Introd. § 129 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 92 - 93 . A few exx. of forms other than fil with accus. occur: ni raibi deilb, TTr.² 1664 , ní raibi . . . mhnái, 370 , ní bhiadh mnaoi, Ó Bruad. ii 252.z (with assonance). Note also with inf. pron. rosṁbai inna tass, SR 5107 . ? nim tha maith . . . do chath fri firu, LU 3343 ( SCC 13 ). From the mid. Ir. period on fil takes personal endings except in 3 s., and occurs occasionally as an independent verb: faeilfit (fut. 3 pl. absol.), Caithr. Thoirdh. 120.26 . In rel. function attá is found side by side with fil from an early period: is heiside attá hi S., Trip.² 534 , a lucht atá istig, RC vii 298.131 , the form fil finally disappearing in this use.

In mid. Ir. fil occurs for earlier -tá with dat. inf. pron.: nichar fail tlacht, SR 1560 , ni-s-fil biad, PH 1310 . Also in rel. clause after prep.: bale hi fail, LU 7516 , fors fil, Imr. Brain 43 (see also Strachan, Stories fr. Táin 3rd ed. p. 1 note).

The consuet. pres. 1 s. conj. -bíu has in classical Ir. the force of a future: biad ní biú, IGT Verbs § 7 , see also TBC-LL¹ 882 , Acall. 6179 , Duan. F. i 43.4 .

Early forms (for fuller lists see Strachan loc. cit.). Indic. pres. 1 s. atóo, Wb. 12a21 . attó, 21c19 . attóo, 26d8 . ató, 26d17 . -táu, 32a10 , -ttóo, 17d24 , -tó, Ml. 92b8 . 2 s. atái, Wb. 5b27 . atái, Ml. 110d15 (sic MS, see Ériu xiv 30 ). -tái, 5b38 . 3 s. adta, Laws v 390.10 (see ZCP xxv 247 ). ata, Wb. 13c26 , at, 27a11 , atáa, 6a19 , attáa, 32a6 , ataa, 26b31 , att, 4b11 . -tá, 31c7 , -ta, 2b12 , -táa, 13a35 . Impers. -dathar (see GOI 477 - 478 ), Wb. 21c9 . 1 pl. ataam, Wb. 15a13 , attaam, 32a28 . 2 pl. ataid, Wb. 4a4 , ataaith, 20b16 , ataaid, 23c28 , ataad, 22d14 . -taid, 19d26 . 3 pl. ataat (trisyll.), Blathm. 471 . ataat, Ml. 55d11 , 37a10 . -tat, 42b10 . -taat, Sg. 71b3 .

With suff. pron. tathum, Metr. Dinds. iv 284.3 . tathut, Fél. July 24 . táithi (tathai, v.l.), Críth G. 197 . táthus, Fél. Feb. 5 . táthunn, Prol. 217. taithiunn, Thes. ii 293.19 . tathuib, Rawl. 88b51 .

For rel. s. without preverb (taas, tás) see atás, indaas, 4 ol.

The form fil, etc. As conj. form: fil, Wb. 16b9 , Ml. 92a8 , Sg. 193b7 . feil, Wb. 24c4 . Ml. 60b2 . fel, Wb. 3c38 , Ml. 27d10 . fail, 44b10-11 , Sg. 32a1 . As rel.: fil, Ml. 121c8 , file Wb. 23a5 , Ml. 51d11 , Sg. 151b7 . fel, Wb. 4c1 , fele, Ml. 93c7 . feil, Wb. 33b18 . fail, BCr. 18c4 .

Consuet. pres. 1 s. biuu, Wb. 16d8 . -bíu, 20a3 . 2 s. -bí, Ml. 135d1 . ACL iii 312 § 4 . 3 s. biith, Wb. 29a26 . biid, 4d33 . bíid, Sg. 150b4 . -bii, Wb. 28b25 , -bí, Ml. 103c3 . With ro: robīi, TBC-I¹ 1730 . -rubi, Wb. 11c17 , -rubai, Ml. 20d4 , Sg. 7b3 . -ruba, 3b28 . Rel. bíis, Wb. 13a12 . biís, 28b28 . bis, Ml. 61a33 . bís, Sg. 140b2 . Impers. bithir, Ml. 56b15 . rel. bither, 108b4 , -bither, 100c21 . -rubthar, cited GOI § 784 . OIPG 69 . 1 pl. bímmi, Ml. 15a4 . -biam, Wb. 16a8 . Rel. bimme, Wb. 12c11 . 3 pl. biit, Wb. 29a28 . bíit, Sg. 217a1 . robiat, 138a5 . -biat, Ml. 59d7 . -bíat, Sg. 148a4 . -rubat, 138a5 . Rel. bíte, Wb. 9d28 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. -bíinn, Ml. 108b1 , -biinn, 58d9 . 3 s. -bíid, LU 5080 (see Ériu xvii 121 ), -bíth, Sg. 148b6 . -bid, Ml. 33a5 . -bith, Vita Br. 12 . Impers. no bithe , CCath. 3971 . 1 pl. -bímmis, cited GOI § 785 . 3 pl. -bitis, Ml. 86d6 . -bítis, Sg. 5a15 .

Ipv. 2 s. b, TBC-I¹ 2391 . 3 s. bíth, Wb. 10a8 , 25 , bíith, 8d9 , bíid, 5d33 , biid, Ml. 74d3 . bíd, Wb. 3a14 . With suff. pron. bithom, Fél. Ep. 404 n.17 . 2 pl. biid, Wb. 23c11a . bith, 22b26 . 3 pl. biat, Ml. 51d13 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. beo, Wb. 23b41 . beu, Ml. 53b8 . -béo, Fél. Prol. 273 . 2 s. bee, cited OIPG 70 and see GOI 482 . b, ZCP viii 311.z (see xxiv 122 ). -bee (perh. absol.), ZCP vii 494 (Enchir. Aug.). -bē, Fing. R. 82 . With ro: robhe (restored as ro-bé), Blathm. 92 § 9 . 3 s. beith, Ml. 108a11 . beid, Wb. 14c23 . bed, 3c10 . beth, Thes. ii 245.34 (Cambr. Hom.). -bǽ, Wb. 22b14 . -b, Sg. 29b14 . -bée, Wb. 12c43 . With suff. pron. bethum-sa, Fél. Ep. 384 n.14 . With ro: rob, Wb. 5d30 , robe, 18c4 , rubé, Ml. 20d4 , rob, Wb. 28a23 , robbé, Sg. 169a1 . -roib, Wb. 16c24 , Ml. 118c5 . Rel. bess, Wb. 5d14 . bes, Ml. 77d3 . Impers. bethir, Wb. 5d33 . rel. bether, Ml. 107d8 . -bether, Wb. 10a18 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 31c11 . beimmi, 19a16 . -bem, 24a10 . -robam, 26c10 . 2 pl. beithe, Wb. 18b16 . bethe, 24b13 . -beith, Ml. 46a10 . -beid, Wb. 27c9 . With ro: -robith, Wb. 26a28 . 3 pl. beit, Wb. 10b5 . rubet, 26a23 . ro be(i)t , Vita Br. 35 . -bet, Wb. 9d27 . -robat, 11d9 . Rel. bete, Wb. 10c22 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. -beind, TBC-I¹ 1856 . -beinn cited GOI § 787 . 2 s. -betha, Wb. 4c24 . 3 s. nobed, Wb. 3b10 . nobeth, Ml. 27b1 . -bed, Wb. 9d1 . -beth, Ml. 88b15 . -robad, Wb. 17a13 . -rabad, 34a4 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . 1 pl. -bemmis, Wb. 9a3 . -beimmis, 29d23 . -bemis, Vita Br. 23 . 2 pl. -bethe, Wb. 9c20 . 3 pl. -betis, Sg. 138a9 . -[ro]ibtis, Wb. 28a1 .

Fut. 1 s. bia, Ml. 137b7 . 2 s. bie, cited GOI § 788 , OIPG 70 . 3 s. bieid, Wb. 4d6 . bied, 14c1 . -bia, 5d35 . -bia (disyll.), Blathm. 572 . -bia and -bía, GOI § 788 . With suff. pron. bethiumm. Ériu xiii 20.6 . bethib, ZCP viii 316.5 (see xxix 174 ). Rel. bias, Wb. 23b38 . bies, Ériu iii 102 § 32 . Impers. beithir, TBFr. 248 . -bether, MacCongl. 61.4 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 9c10 . beimmi, 21b7 . -biam, 15a1 . -piam, 30b17 . 2 pl. bethe, cited GOI § 788 . bethi, Trip.² 1589 . -bied, Wb. 9a21 . -bieid, 26d26 . 3 pl. biet (disyll.), Blathm. 472 . bieit, Wb. 4c40 . biet, 9d27 , Sg. 198b6 (also bíet, GOI § 788 ). -biat, 9c28 . -bíet, 40b14 . Rel. bete, Wb. 13c26 . beite, 4c40 .

Condit. 1 s. nombeinn, Ml. 59a22 . 3 s. nobiad, Ml. 32d5 . -bíad, Wb. 9d1 . 1 pl. nobemmis, Ml. 134b3 . 3 pl. nobetis, Ml. 100c7 .

Pret. 1 s. b, LU 9407 . 2 s. -bá, cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 , see perf. 2 s. below. 3 s. bói, Wb. 31c18 . bái, 27a16 . -bói, 17d17 , Ml. 78a4 . Rel. boie, Thes. ii 242.11 (Ardm.). boīe (MS. ba), Ériu xvi 46.10 (see n. 0 and Celtica vi 223 ). boíë (MS. baoí), Ériu xxvi 67, 85 . Cf. cech nóeb bói, fil, bías, Fél. Ep. 289 (where six sylls. required). With suff. pron. boithus, IT i 137.8 = boithius, 21 . boíthi, Sc.M² 3 . ? baísu, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 37.5 . Impers. *both(a)e, postulated GOI § 789 , botha, TBC-I¹ 1572 . -both(a), Vita Br. 33 . 1 pl. bamar, SR 1558 . bámar, 3286 , Imr. Brain i 48.5 . 2 pl. -baid (baïd ?), cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 . 3 pl. bātir, TBC-I¹ 217 . -batar, Ml. 55c2 . Rel. batar, Ml. 123b5 . See GOI § 789 .

Perf. 1 s. rob, Wb. 28a9 . -roba, Ml. 44c4 . -raba, TBC-I¹ 3068 . 2 s. rob, LL 14442 . 3 s. robói, Wb. 5c10 . rambái, 2c13 . robui, Ml. 93c3 . -robae, Ml. 41a5 , -robe, Wb. 18d7 , -rabae, Ml. 28d3 . Impers. romboth, Wb. 19a9 . rombod, 5b31 . -rabad, Ériu iv 146.4 . 1 pl. robámmar, Wb. 20d12 . -robammar, Ml. 105b16 . 2 pl. rubaid, Wb. 3b19 . -robaid, Ml. 46a8 . 3 pl. robatar, Wb. 24c5 . robbátar, Sg. 57b1 . -rabatar, Ml. 100c11 . -robatar, Sg. 45b1 . -rabtar, Ml. 37a16 .

Vn. buith.

Vbl. of necess. buithi.

Later forms (see also Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish, Ériu vi 1 ff. ; Mulchrone, Verbalformen der Vita Tripartita, ZCP xvi 440 ; Falconer, Verbal System of LU Táin, Ériu xvii 116 ; Strachan, Verbal System of SR, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1895, 1 - 76 ; O Daly, Verbal System of LL Táin, Ériu xiv 80 ; Mac Eoin, Verbalsystem von Togail Troi, ZCP xxviii 125 ; Sommerfelt, Le système verbal dans In Cath Catharda, RC xxxviii 41 ; Nuner, Verbal System of the Agallamh na Senórach, ZCP xxvii 272 ; PH Glossary; Lloyd, Impersonal passive forms of the Irish substantive verb, Ériu i 49 ff. ; TD Introd. lxxv ; IGT Verbs § 7 ).

Indic. pres. 1 s. atáu, Trip.² 1412 . atú, 2578 . itu, SR 1187 . it, TBC-LL¹ 434 . atú, IGT Verbs § 7 . ataim, Fier. 14 . -t, Acall. 4516 . 2 s. -tái, SR 3102 . -toi, TBC-I¹ 937 . taoi, TD 15.48 . cia doaisiu mac?, RC xxvi 30 § 128 . 3 s. -t, Trip.² 744 . atá, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. attá, Trip.² 534 , ata, SR 7708 etc., at, Acall. 429 . Impers. atáthar, TBC-LL¹ 3316 . dáthar (: máthar), IGT Verbs ex. 99 . atass, Ériu iv 114 § 17 (:as). -das (: as), IGT Verbs ex. 104 . 1 pl. itám, SR 1727 . tám, 3493 . ataum, PH 1556 . ataim, TBC-LL¹ 874 . atamaoit, TBC St. 121 . atámaoid, atám, IGT Verbs § 7 . -taum, PH 1506 . -dtám (: ár), IGT Verbs ex. 111 . 2 pl. atathai, PH 2734 . atathi, 597 . atáithi (: fáithi), IGT Verbs ex. 105 . -táithi (: sáithi), ex. 96 . -dathai, Alex. 190 . -taidh, Ériu ii 118 § 53 . 3 pl. itāt, TBC-I¹ 3132 . atáit, CCath. 1215 . ataut, PH 1064 . táid, TD 8.5 . -táit, CCath. 1701 . Rel. itat, Trip.² 882 , atat, SR 7949 . For later forms in meaning than (is) see atás, indaas, 4 ol. See also II (d) below and daas.

The form fil. 1 s. ni ḟuilim, ni ḟoilim, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. -fhile, PH 8116 . -fhuile, 3335 , -fuili, Acall. 3217 . -ḟoili, -ḟuile, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. fail, TBC-I¹ 60 , SR 353 etc. ro fail , TBC-LL¹ 263 , fuil, 3072 . -fail, Trip.² 2764 , -fuil, 872 , -uil, PH 3181 , -ḟil, Acall. 3709 . -ḟuil, -ḟoil, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. fil, Trip.² 842 , fail, SR 392 , no fail , 933 . With impers. ending: filter, MacCongl. 31.25 . -fuiltear, TD 2.42 . 1 pl. ra fuilemm , TBC-LL¹ 2971 . -failmet, SR 6320 , -ḟuilmíd, Acall. 5101 . -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. -bhḟuilti, Acall. 962 . 3 pl. failet, SR 345 . filet, 477 . fuilet, TBC-LL¹ 4739 . -failet, Trip.² 1119 . -filet, TBC-I¹ 1848 , -fileat, CCath. 1270 . -fuilet, 427 . -fuilid, TD 7.23 . Rel. failet, SR 400 . ra failet , TBC-LL¹ 5225 . fuilet, 4709 . filet, PH 435 . See also do-fil.

Consuet. pres. 1 s. bim, PH 6393 . bím, -bím, IGT Verbs § 7 . ? -ruibim, SG 373.29 . 2 s. -bi, SR 2035 . bí, ní bí, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bíd, TBC-I¹ 1453 (LU). biid, SR 4537 . bíd, 4588 . -bí, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bíonn, TD 22.12 . -bind, RC xlix 37.13 . bídh, -b, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bither, PH 7441 . -bithar, Laws iv 234.2 Comm. 1 pl. bímit, Acall. 886 . bídmaid, 5481 . bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bíth, Acall. 6139 . 3 pl. bīd, TBC-I¹ 1075 (bít, LU). -bíat, TTr.² 330 . -bít, PH 4189 , -bíd, TD 5.5 . Rel. bit (= bíït), SR 7259 . bít, TBC-LL¹ 1320 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. do bhínn , TD 23.7 . 3 s. nobīth, TBC-I¹ 593 (nobíid, LU cited above). robíth, TBC-I¹ 1903 (LU). do bhíodh , TD 14.23 . do bhíoth , 26.12 . Impers. bithi, Auraic. 5286 = -bithi, RC xx 150.y (ACC Pref.). no bithea , Acall. 156 . 3 pl. naboitis, TBC-I¹ 855 LU (nobitís, Y). nobīdis, 3621 (Y). bítís, 1898 (LU). no beitis , LL 407a27 . ro bitis , PH 1957 . do bhítís , Acall. 830 . do bhídís , TD 15.18 . Rel. tri cnuasa bítís ann, Acall. 455 .

Ipv. 1 s. bír (: gním), IGT Verbs ex. 94 . 2 s. b, Parrth. Anma 3871 . 3 s. bīdh, ZCP vi 271.z . bíodh, TD 16.2 . bíoth, 17.1 . 1 pl. bíom, Dán Dé xiv 17 . 2 pl. bíthe (: -chíthe), IGT Verbs ex. 95 . bídh, ex. 109 . bidhí, Luc. Fid. 3430 . 3 pl. bíod, TD 16.19 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. ber, SG 172.15 . uér, Ériu ii 92.9 . beor, v 222.46 . bheith mé, TD 8.9 . -ra bur , TBC-LL¹ 1112 . -rabor, ZCP xii 401.30 . ? -rabhus, ZCP v 523.27 = rabasa, Ériu xii 144.12 (TE). -rabar, ZCP iii 32.37 . bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bé, SR 1607 . beir, BNnÉ 288.29 . Acall. 592 . -rab(a)i, BDD² p. 80 . -rabha, Irish Texts iv 75 § 16 . -rabhair, Fing. R. p. 13 note 86 . -mbéis (: Céis), IGT Verbs ex. 100 . -beis(se) (: meise), Dán Dé xiv 20 . -rabais, Fing. R. 86 , BDD² 363 (see ZCP xxvii 75-8 ). beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. beth, TBC-I¹ 270 (beith, v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 101 . -b, TBC-I¹ 1671 . -raib , Trip.² 2753 . -rab, TBC-I¹ 1430 . -raibhe, Parrth. Anma 2616 . rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bess, TBC-I¹ 1104 (beis, Y). beas, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bethur, Laws ii 36.20 Comm. 1 pl. beme, Snedg. u. Mac R 9.14 . bemmit, TBC-LL¹ 2137 . bemait, Acall. 5478 . -bém, CCath. 1124 . -beam (: leam), Dán Dé xii 10 . -ruibem, SR 5540 . -rabum, PH 7899 . bheam, rabham, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 1233 . rabthai, PH 1977 . 3 pl. beit, Trip.² 1653 . -bet, TBC-I¹ 1053 . -beat, Lism. L. 4702 . -rabat, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. -rabut, PH 994 . -rabhait, BNnÉ 269.4 . -rabhaid, Parrth. Anma 2836 . -rabheid, RC xxix 136 § 51 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. do beinn , do rabainn , IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. no beithi , Trip.² 2972 . no beithe , 2983 = no bethe , Trip. 252.21 . do beitheá , TD 1.44 . 3 s. no beith , Trip.² 2967 . nobith, TBC-I¹ 3543 . dá mbeadh , TD 29.6 . -mbeath, IGT Verbs ex. 97 . -rabad, RC iii 184.24 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . -bette, Metr. Dinds. iii 382.19 . rabtha, TBC-LL¹ (C) 1675 . 1 pl. dá mbiadh sinn, TD 28.25 . 3 pl. nobeitis, SR 7855 . nobeidis, TBC-I¹ 3557 . dá mbeith siad, TD 26.36 .

Fut. (see Bergin, Ériu ii 46-8 ) 1 s. bíat, TTr.² 89 . biat, PH 1244 . biad (bíatt v.l.), CCath. 5137 . bhead, Parrth. Anma 6378 . bed, ZCP vi 41.10 . bét, 69.2 . bett, BNnÉ 52 § 42 . -biu, TBC-LL¹ 882 . -bhiú, Dán Dé xiv 20 . biad, -bi, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bía, Trip.² 1593 . biae, SR 1599 . -bíai, BNnÉ 291 § 2 . biaidh tú, TD 1.26 . bía, -bía, IGT Verbs § 7 . bethair, ZCP ii 225.4 . 3 s. bied, LU 10362 . biaid, Trip.² 1071 . biáid, TBC-I¹ 169 (LU). biaidh, -bia, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bíes, Trip.² 2671 . bés, CCath. 300 , bes, 657 . bess, PH 4666 . bhias, TD 3.50 . do biass , L. Chl. S. 1 . Impers. beither, Acall. 5259 . beithir, ZCP x 415.11 . 1 pl. bemit, LU 9753 , PH 1501 . bemait, CCath. 1467 . -bem(ni, LU 9753 . beimíd, -biam, IGT Verbs § 7 . -biaim(ne) (: siairni), ex. 108 . ? -ben, BCC 396.19 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 3083 . beitte (: eiti) (beththi, bete v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 102 . -bed, Trip.² 1590 . 3 pl. biait, Trip.² 2665 , TBC-I¹ 2057 (beite, LU). biat, Trip.² 1288 . beit, TBC-I¹ 80 . beiti, TBC-I¹ 2078 . beti, SR 8157 . betit, SR 853 . TBC-LL¹ 246 , TTr.² 760 . beidid, ZCP x 338 § 1 . -bīat, TBC-I¹ 1132 . beidíd síad, BCC 290.12 . beid, -bíad, IGT Verbs § 7 .

Condit. 1 s. no-béind, PH 6107 . dobeind, 7489 . do beinn, -beinn, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. do bheitheá , TD 19.13 . 3 s. no biadh , CCath. 3754 . -bied, TBC-I¹ 504 . ro bífad , TBC-LL¹ 5112 . rot-fiadh, IT iii 320.4 ( Cóir Anm. 70 ). do biath (: sgiath), IGT Verbs ex. 97 . do bhiadh , TD 2.54 . Impers. no bethe , TTr.² 533 . 3 pl. do bheidīs , Parrth. Anma 5227 .

Pret. and perf. 1 s. ro-bádus, PH 699 . do bhádhus , TD 23.6 . do bhí mé, 5 . -rabus, Acall. 7913 . -rabhas, 1584 . -rabadhus, 356 . do bá , -raba; do bádhus , -rabadhas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do basa ( : bádusa; proscribed form), ex. 103 . 2 s. ro bhádhuis , CCath. 553 . do bhí tú, TD 28.6 . -rabadais, PH 3725. 8121 . -rabhais, Acall. 123 . do bhádhuis , -rabhadhuis, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bae, SR 7608 . bóe, 6265 . baei, BDD² 127 . búi, CCath. 95 . -bae, SR 4975 . -buí, Trip.² 1505 . robai, SR 2229 , robae, 2262 . robói, PH 2572 . ro bí , CCath. 1302 . robuidh, Ériu iii 198 § 22 . do bí , CCath. 278 . do bhói , Acall. 58 . do bhaoi (: draoi), Dán Dé xii 22 . -rubai, SR 1241 . -roibe, BDD² 498 , -roibi, 1393 . -roba, 251 . -raba, 1533 . -raibhe, TD 2.25 . -rabha, 8.36 . -robha, 1 . do bí , -raibi, do baí , -rabha, IGT Verbs § 7 . With depon. ending -rabhustair, BNnÉ 322 § 31 . Rel. boí, Trip.² 626 . bāi, TBC-I¹ 1277 . būi, 630 . ro bae , Trip.² 288 . ro buí , BDD² 287 . ro baí , 1451 . ro boí , 1517 . Impers. both, Trip.² 2264 . rombatha, Ériu ii 20 § 3 (-a added later). -rabad, iv 146.4. robās, TBC-I¹ 2147 . rombas, SR 7564 , robás, TTr.² 151 . -rabus, Trip.² 54 . rabas, Laws iv 212.22 Comm. , -bádus, MacCongl. 43.22 . -bás, 61.3 . do bás , do bas , -rabas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do bas (: as), ex. 98 . do bhás (: fhás), Dán Dé xxvi 9 . 1 pl. bāmur, TBC-I¹ 399 . do bámar , Acall. 1283 . do bhámair (: Ádhaimh), Dán Dé xv 17 . -rabamar, TBC-I¹ 2495 . 2 pl. robabair, Anecd. ii 14.9 . -babhair, Blathm. 23 (see notes ). robadbair, TBC-I¹ 2502 . do bhábhair , TD 22a.1 . -rabhuir, Acall. 114 . -rabhabhair, TD 22a.2 . 3 pl. bādar, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bátir, TTr.² 1308 . ro badar , CCath. 573 n. ro bádar , Acall. 75 . do bídur , 5942 . -rabadar, TBC-I¹ 3108 . -rabhadair, TD 26.10 . ro baisit , O'Dav. 728 . -rabhsad, TD 16.21 . Rel. bátar, Trip.² 591 . BDD² 505 . ro bátar , 543 . Vn. an bheith , IGT Verbs § 7 . Vbl. of necess. beitte, TD 28.30 .

Cf. cenmothá, íarmothá, óthá.

Used in meaning is in a large variety of contexts. Normally replaced by copula (see 1 is) in certain fixed syntactical patterns (classification, identification, etc.), and when used in these cases exceptional (see above and II below).

I Expressing existence.

(a) Used absolutely is, exists, there is, etc.: ata in coimdiu gl. Dominus in cælo sedis eius, Ml. 30b27 . nabad hed a méit nádmbǽ `let it not be only that it is not' gl. nec nominetur in uobís, Wb. 22b14 . ní fil aimsir nad mbed ref. to fuit et est semper, Ml. 17a15 . ní torménmar-ni ara mbetis in gnimai sin gl. præter spem nostram, etc., 115b1 . ni fil chumtubairt gl. indubitabilia, etc., Sg. 154b2 . ma nubed `if it existed', 31b21 . ro baoi siomh re tuisdinsiú `he existed', Blathm. 632 . as e as soithcerndomh fil, 773 . ma rombe is maith if it is, it is well, Laws iv 2.14 Comm. ni rabi uair . . . nad ro bai `there was no hour . . . that He existed not', Ériu ii 106 § 16 . a cin for athair .i. uair na bí mac, Laws iv 240.16 Comm. Columb [ro]baoi, Columb bīaas, ZCP viii 198 § 20 . tar ēis a mic . . . / nī raba acht dā aenbliadain `was alive only two years', Ériu iii 198 § 24 . as a rad ata a nadmaim cin co be by saying there is a covenant though there is not, Laws iv 52.30 Comm. ni tha . . . ní a ngeimre in winter there is nothing, 90.1 (with petrified inf. pron. 3 s. n. in dat. sense?). ní bía terca bíd there will not be a scarcity of food, BColm. 52.5 . bid dno maith, ┐ ni bi derrscugud de `yet there is good, and nothing to surpass it', Auraic. 703 . is tré ómun bíid serc, Ériu i 195.1 . céin beti neóil im gréin ngil, Metr. Dinds. ii 38.z . i céin raibh nemh is talamh as long as . . . endure, BNnÉ 314 § 8 . bai cocad mor etarro, RC xxiv 186 § 19 . In phrase (acht) atá ní (chena) but, moreover, see 1 ní (e).

In periphrasis when emphasis on some element other than the verb is required: bieid nach dréct diib hícfider, Wb. 4d6 . bieid bes ferr de, 32a13 . do budh cusmail rit co robuis uair ecin, ┐ co n[d]ingenta rét feramail `that thou wert once such an one that thou couldst . . .', ZCP vi 87.13 . ba-sa tan / nī folabrainn ilach gamh, Ériu ii 95 § 3 . ata[a]t .iii. cáini nad chumgat comarbai do chumscuchud, Ériu xvii 68 § 9 ( Laws iv 210 ). Note further: atāit teora brīathra / ata lōgmaire for nim, ZCP vii 312 § 25 .

With words expressing time: bieid aimser nad creitfider, Wb. 28c14 . aidchi robuī `one night', Ériu ii 222.25 . fecht robai `once', Mon. Tall. 147.2 (§ 52) . biaidh uair 's . . . a time will come when, Dán Dé vii 31 .

Introducing a statement: cia beith ara rogba bóairechas riasíu ropo chúairddulchach though it be that he assume, Críth G. 67 . dá mbeith fós go mbiadh an Fhraingc comh líonmhar ┐ adeir seisean `granted that', Keat. ii 933 . má tá go seachnoid síol Éibhir . . ., TD 29.7 . ci(d), gi(d) bé whatever, whoever (see Ériu xii 210 ): ria flaithaib, .i. rias na flaithib, cibe flaithe iat `whatever chieftains they be', Laws iv 154.17 . gidh bé lá cheannghar an chairt, Dán Dé xiv 17 . cidh bé do bhean díbh an dúthaigh, DDána 26.1 . bíd (ipv. 3 s.) co n- although: admhuim . . . mo pheactha . . . bīodh gomadh é mo mhīan a bhfolach though I should wish to hide them, Parrth. Anma 4625 . bīodh nach gcaoifithea go spesialta fá gach peacadh though you might not weep specially for each sin, Mac Aingil 235 . bíth gur gheallas . . . though I promised, Ó Bruad. ii 212 § xiv . In constr. manibed x ní bíad y were it not for x y would not be, see má II (b).

(b) The subst. vb. is usual with predicates consisting of adverbial phrases of all kinds (prep. and noun, adjj. and nouns used adverbially, etc.) and thus enters into a large and varied corpus of idioms. A select list follows. Reference should in all cases also be made to the nouns, adjj., adverbs and prepositions concerned.

With CO: atáthar sund chucut your adversary is approaching, LL 10300 ( TBC-LL¹ 3316 ).

With CO N-: atúsa com thegluch there is myself and my household troop, TBC-LL¹ 437 .

With DI: im chaingin robui de muintir Tamlachti friss `about a business that arose between the monastery of Tallaght and him', Mon. Tall. 157.7 (§ 72) . masu de chlaind Echdach aird / atāi, ZCP xi 108 § 1 . ní bia debaid . . . de, Ériu iv 108 § 69 . Of materials: an crann dobí na sesam ... dobí sé do cepresus was a (lit. of) cupressus, Maund. 9 . In phrase a.¤ di such is: roboi du meit a pecthae `so great were their sins', Ml. 98c6 . má beth tra do hūaite ind āessa gráid `if the ordained folk be too few', Ériu i 220 § 13 .

With DO: biid do anmmaim cathrach `(Samnis) is as the name of the city', Sg. 104b5 . nád robatar suin do ṡlund in dúildetad inchoisget `there were not words (enough) to signify . . .', 45b1 . manusbeth tenga dia relad `if (the sun) had a tongue', Ériu ii 126 § 81 . ata eric a fogla do dul a ruradh o duine, Laws iv 50.5 Comm. Expressing possession, etc.: con roib core dúib fri cách so that you may be at peace with all men, Wb. 26b30 . in fochricc file do i nnim, 29b29 . cach ngrád asid n-ísliu bíid dó i céilsini, Críth G. 374 . robi timna in ríg don Comdhe, RC xviii 182.5 . nico mbái dó acht bás there was nothing for him but death, Vita Br. 32 . fecht robúi damsae domchaomnacuir `once it happened to me', Mon. Tall. 144.7 (§ 45) . atá damhsa ris an dáimh / gan ísliughadh neith dá gcáil it is my duty in regard to the sages not to belittle . . ., Content. xiv 8 .

With FOR (later AR): as ṅdath glas roboi forsind sl[é]ib the mountain was green, Ml. 84d4 . cech dath is maith ré neach bid forro, RC vi 183.9 . cēin beó ar in mbith mbuide, Ériu ii 92.16 . nocha cuinnghim bethaid mbí / ōtú ar sīth mo Rīgh amuigh since I am outside the palace of my king(?), ZCP vii 301 § 10 . scríbend menmman .i. robbói for a inndṡliucht-som `it had been in his mind', Sg. 178b4 . in sét atá form aire on which I am intent, Ériu vi 115 § 6 . a mhacnas orm gidh eadh raibh though I greatly desire to do so, Dán Dé xix 6 .

With FRI: nobiad fri femen `it would be (used) with the feminine', Sg. 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them', 215a5 . ni humhal robabair rim cen erghe rónn you were not submissive to me, Anecd. ii 14.9 . ba [mait]h ro mboth friu they were well treated, TBFr. 145 . is throit ra bass risin fer út that man was quickly dispatched, TBC-LL¹ 2986 ( LL 10035 ).

With I: is hi tuaisciurt slebe sióin ata in chathir, Ml. 67d8 . ataam ar ndiis i cuimriug, Wb. 32a28 . is and . . . bieid finis, 13b29 . is sunt bia-sa i n-eilithri, Ml. 137b7 . nach dú i mbí isnaib salmaib iustitia, 109a2 . bēti a scēla illāidib, ZCP iii 37.32 . dēna torba airm i mbī, vii 311 § 9 . ro-bas i lurg an madma la clannaibh Néill the Clanna N. pursued the rout, xiv 234.16 . adh bes fiu da trian na samuisce atá isín focreic, issed ata isin fogail doníther ris na ferandaib cétna i fuacht an geimridh `a calf which is worth two thirds of the `samhaisc'-heifer which is paid for the rent, it is it that is paid for the trespass', Laws iv 92.16 Comm. cínta do niad na cethra . . . leth a mbia ina nairlim isedh bias ina tairsci `half of that fine which lies for their `airlim'-trespass . . .', 74.8 Comm. cod a midídar ruire trachta ┐ raite? Nin; co rabadar ocht nurcora dec and do fhleascach, 138.4 Comm. ní bhíadh na ghoin é d'oighedh / toil Dé muna deónaighedh His wound would not be enough to cause His death, IGT Decl. ex. 378 . Common in form with suff. pron. 3 s. n. ma beith nech and tra labrathar ilbélre if there be anyone, etc., Wb. 13a4 . ar atá brithem and cenut-su `a judge is there apart from thee', 6b25 . ataat alaaili interiecta and it coitchena do cach ceniul, Sg. 10a1 . attaad teora bliadna and. Niconcomracamar díoblíonaib `it is three years since we two had intercourse', Mon. Tall. 134.26 (§ 21) . For phr. cid fil and trá see trá. In idiom tá sé i n-a fhear he is a man (see Dillon, ZCP xvii 307 ff. ): is amlaid . . . atá in rigsudi sin inna chathaír chumtachta, LU 2005 ( FA 7 ). cidead bes ina bibdaid `even though he be a caitiff', Ériu v 22.20 . gu raibhe 'na cholum ghel, Acall. 1080 . ce raib se i n-a fhír, PH 7324 . do bí 'n-a mnaí grádaig ac Find, Acall. 2018 . do rígh gion go rabhthá id mhac, DDána 91.15 . Note also: tuc . . . aithne gurbh e righ Eirenn do bí ann that it was in fact the king, Ériu iii 152 § 6 . ro innis do gur 'uo he Isu ro ui ann, RC xii 344.15 .

With IMM: ni baitir, ni loisctir cein beit immo `he is not drowned or burnt as long as they are on him', RC vi 183.8 .

With LA: gan bheith le Dia is ann bhus aithreach if we are not on God's side, Dán Dé x 27 . Expressing possession and related ideas: is lib atá a rogu, Wb. 9a23 . is derb lium attá latsu gl. certus sum autem quod et in té, 29d14 . ainmm ninchoisc cenéuil issed file la laitnóri, Sg. 30b8 . is airi nobíth digaimm leo ante ρ. sin, 9b10 . ni fil bríg laisiom hisind accobar sin `he considers that such desire is no great matter,' Mon. Tall. 151.13 (§ 62) . is dé atá lem, fobíth, etc. this is why I think so (of an assertion), TTr.² 343 . itá a rīgan la cach ríg sund, TBC-I¹ 190 . fail leis secht nimi, SR 629 . ar ní ḟil acht oenlám lim, LL 14150 .

With ó: báoi alaile anchoire antuaid o sláne `there was a certain anchorite from Slane in the North', Mon. Tall. 159.8 (§ 77) . cech lennánacht fil isin domvn is úadhi atá originates with her, TTr.² 370 . Bressal Ó Tressaig ō' tāit / Hī Tressaig `. . . from whom are sprung', Ériu ii 50 § 7 . ni fil[et] o neoch ┐ ni filter uaidibh `they are not derived from anything, and nothing is derived from them', Auraic. 1507 .

With OC: ar notéighed dīa sathairn init co mbídh oc Cnocc Droma Coblai, ZCP viii 106.29 = Trip.² 2858 . ma no bith . . . mo c[h]laideb acom if I had my sword, TBC-I¹ 3543 . co rabat aidmi oc cech altōir . . ., Ériu i 219 § 9 . in ti ac na biat ba, Laws iv 36.10 Comm. in fhil biad ocaib sund? PH 6709 . ná raibh agad ar n-éra `refuse me not', Studies 1918, 99 § 16 . In impers. constr. cindas atathar occat? how are affairs with thee? RC xxvi 368.9 . a.¤ y oc x x has the power to do y: ní bhía . . . ag boigṡín / mo chor tar creich Phádraigín, Ériu ix 163 § 7 .

With adverbs and adv. phrases: céin bett abus `while they are here below', BColm. 98.28 . ní rubai nach cruth ailiu `it cannot be otherwise', Sg. 7b3 . ataat ám in chrut sin, 140b1 . hóre nád robe Tit ar mo chiunn, Wb. 14d29 . na muindtire bís id choimidecht `of the monks that live with thee', Mon. Tall. 128.8 (§ 3) . dá rabh mé ar éanmhagh is í, Dán Dé ix 12 . is bether go hīsiul de, ZCP x 51.6 . bidh co mín michuir ret c[h]airdibh, vi 272 § 3 . is samlaid insin robói a flaithemnacht indibsi, Ml. 18a8 . nī hamlaid beitid na nāimh . . ., ZCP xiii 9.26 . dobadus co subhach rompa, KMMisc. 319.27 . léig mar atāit tall, ZCP viii 202.4 . trath atusa sund, TBC-LL¹ 2379 . ionmhuin uan nar fhás ó mhnaoi / do bhás go truagh ar a thí, Dán Dé xxvi 9 . Note also: dá mbem a-moigh `if we win forth', Ériu ix 162 § 2 . With interrogatives: ceth leth atā E., TBC-I¹ 376 . can ata? whence is it? Hib. Min. 8.270 . cāit atā do t[h]igerna?, TBC-I¹ 789 . ciatā inso?, ZCP viii 311.13 . a Findtain, arse, ┐ Éri cía gabad ca rabad inde? `where have things been therein?' Ériu iv 146 § 23 .

(c) Used with inf. and suff. pron. to express possession. With inf. pron.: rosmbia a lóg `they shall have payment for it', Wb. 5d35 . ind indocbál no-b-tá in futuro, 14c16 . ro-n-da-biad cech maith, Ml. 33b13 . rombia-sa la dia . . . a day will come for me when, Vita Br. 12 . roborbē (roburbe v.l.) which is yours, Cáin Ad. 27 . nīmthat asnai I have no ribs, TBC-I¹ 2871 . gell cóic sét di neoch rodmbí `of whatever he has', Críth G. 283 and n. uair nach tá tír dia fhulung fri re napuidh because he has no land to support him (?), Laws iv 30.19 Comm. rom be nem may I have heaven, Snedg. u. Mac R 14 § 76 . Femen intan rombai rí . . . when it had a king, RC xvii 148.19 . cia luag nomtha?, SR 1165 . rombí lethbairgen, Anecd. i 73 § 211 . atbert Cathair nimthasa ní dhuit I have nothing to give you, LL 386b22 . Note also: nintha do imtecht liumm `I have (lit. we have) no news', RC xiii 222.20 . With cumang (or similar word) and prep. DO has the power to: nímtha cumachtæ ṅdo, Ml. 140b7 . ní-s-ta som . . . cumang domm orcuin-se, 60d3 . nísmbói didiu do chumacc a mmbo do imain they hadn't the strength to, Vita Br. 24 . sáerthar lat in domnach cech cumang rotbé (rodbe, rotbia, v.ll.) dó `with all your might', Ériu ii 204 § 22 . nícom thása cumang dia tabair[t], TBFr. 302 . apraind nachimbai-si nert do theacht cucu alas that I had not strength . . ., TBC-I¹ 3439 . Used independently is able: nīmt[h]a a dechmad d'indisin / nech doní do maith `I cannot tell a tithe of all the good he does', BColm. 70.6 . nimta-sa sin . . . uair da caithius mo dan re sciathaib Ulad I cannot do that . . ., Ériu v 72.8 . Note also: ango dano for Ingcél adfía basa lecht bas briscium `peradventure I shall be the frailest corpse', BDD 102h ( RC xxii 211 ) = at-mbia basa lecht bas brisceam, BDD² 716 (leg. ro-t-bia?).

With suffixed pron. taithiunn . . . / ni fris tarddam ar n-áthius `we have . . . something to which to apply our acuteness', Thes. ii 293.19 . táithi caire umai he has a bronze cauldron, Críth G. 197 . tathum rūn, TBC-I¹ 848 . bethib sūirsi lim-sa dano ye will enjoy freedom with me, ZCP viii 316.5 . tathat lim logh do áes, logh do sinnsire thou hast with me = I accord thee, xii 365.13 . baíthium anfud mílach mend, LU 3018 . tathuib comram, Rawl. 88b51 . tathum o día praind, Anecd. i 64 § 120 . tāthud ochtar la suidiu / airm hi fail a crōlighe `thou wilt find eight men . . .', Fianaig. 12 § 16 . tathai eolus maith, ZCP vii 310 § 1 . tatos subhae `they have happiness', Blathm. 82 . Pleonastically: tathai erouidh . . . bithbron `Herod . . . has eternal sorrow', 83 .

(d) In nasalising rel. clauses to denote has something the matter, is ailing: ced das in ben maith? `what ails the good woman?', Thes. ii 329.48 . cidh tás do sūil, a clērich? what is the matter with your eye? RC xxvii 280 § 35 . Oengus mac in Dagdai hisiurcc di bliadan. Cid tas or Bodb, RC iii 345.9 . ra[fh]etur sa . . . an daas ind ingen what is wrong with the girl, Vita Br. 5 . ni fetarsa cid no-tó I do not know what is the matter with me, ZCP viii 176.5 . cid no-taí? Sc.M² 3 . roḟetarsa a n-attath[a]i. Ni taam ni or Cano, Anecd. i 9.25 ( SCano 293 ). cid tāthaí, a maccu? . . . oc imresain atām . . ., Ériu viii 157.16 . ni confetatarsin cid rombui hissennath, RC iii 344.10 . dia ḟis cid robái (rombui, v.l.) grían to find out what was the matter with the sun, Ériu iv 140.13 .

With prep. DO feels (inimically) towards, is angry with, worries: propter incredulitatem fracti sunt .i. cani airi .i. badochu lem són is [hed] romboth doib that is the fault found with them, Wb. 5b31 . cren dímsa m'ingin . . . Cid dathir di? . . . Is dichmarcach what cause of annoyance has she given? Vita Br. 13 . fiarfaig Conchobar scēla dō. —Cidh tāi di ṡodain? ol Bricriu why do you bother with it? ZCP v 502.15 . cadai-siu duind?, TTebe 424 . In good sense treats in a special manner: ca tāthar dúin do domnach des / sech gach laithi lāndiles? `why do we hold Sunday above . . .?' Ériu iii 143 § 7 . With added prep.: cidh 'ma bfuile dam? ZCP x 10.11 . ná bí réd chathrachaibh dhúinn `talk not to us of your forts', Content. vi 31 . See further s.v. daas. Frequ. in class. verse in phrase gá dtá, dás (acht) what is the use? in short. Either gá dtá or gá tá may be used to suit alliteration, see Ir. Syll. Poetry 86 . fogus orchra don éigsi / gá ttás cur ré coiméidsi `how can she be saved?' Studies 1923, 421 § 1 . gá dás luadh imdheachta an ḟir? `what need to recount', TD 13.40 . gá dás mé dá mīrbuile / acht sé d'fás ó ÓghMuire, IGT Decl. ex. 200 . gá dtám? —acht torchuir bu dheas in short, TD 3.10 . With follg. prep.: gá dtám ris . . . / acht meise féin foidhidneach, TD 3.41 . ga dtú ris, a rí L.? / ort chuirim mo chomuirghe, 30.12 . ní bhiú ris acht, Dán Dé vi 31 . ní fhuilim dó, xi 30 .

(e) With words indicating number, quantity in sense of accompanied by, having: bí[i]th a th[a]urchreicc cóic ṡétaib, Críth G. 71 . baei Conairi a ceithri cairpthig il-Lifiu, BDD 12 (a cethror cairpdech, v.l.). itó-sa lín do gona, TBC-LL¹ 434 . denam d'ḟiadach na muice in lín Feinde atámait, Acall. 2223 . atáthaoi líon a n-ithte, Keat. iii 4439 . atú-sa caegait fer, MR 248.17 . Later: bed-sa ┐ mili ridiri maraen rium ad diaig, ZCP vi 41.9 .

II Expressing state, condition, kind, etc. with pred. consisting of noun, pron. or adj. (usage more usual with copula, see introd. section above).

(a) With noun pred.: boe sab suithe cech dind, ACC 26 ( RC xx 168 ). boe saegul sneid, 24 . boe dind oc libur leigdocht, 27 . biait betha airchind they will be chieftains of the world, Rawl. 125b9 . With subj. standing between the vb. and pred.: atá dia atach ṅ-dún-ni ais dethrebo God is a refuge to us the people of the two tribes, Ml. 66d1 . bói Fíachnae Lurga athair Mongáin, Imr. Brain 42.1 . Cf. Sg. 20b3 .

(b) With adj. pred.: boe seim sáth, ACC 25 . biat slana, SR 4167 (copula?). feib atam nocht, 1347 (copula?). bía slan, LU 3344 ( SCC 13 ). Cf. habe . . . (.i. sana sis .i. slán bee), Enchir. Aug. 82a ( ZCP vii 484 ). dlegar doibsium na be lobtaigh cor ( ar dlegar doibsium na bed lobthaig cor, O'Dav. 1191 ) (Atk. in Glossary emends to be[t]), Laws iv 54.10. atámait ainmfesach, RC xxiv 371.7 . bítíss meth (leg. methi, ed.) occ tinntúd, IT iii 235.z . co filim garbliath i rricht, LU 1272 . ro boísium imnedach i tossuch a bethad, LL 7305 . ro-bádus-[s]a dronnach, PH 2788 . céin beorsa beó as long as I am alive, Ériu v 222.46 . is follus co fuilti eaclach, Fier. 69 . maith dīghōltar ant andlocht / bethar taoblom tarrnocht trūagh folk will be, ZCP xii 395.23 . With subj. betw. vb. and pred.: is trissa ndede sin biid duine slán et fírian, Wb. 4d33 . amal mbís tegdís fás [amm]edón ┐ scópthe gl. sicut domus uacans et scopata, Tur. 14 ( Thes. i 485.23 ). arrobói a rígthech lán de rígaib, Imr. Brain 1 . amal no beithi féin béo and, Trip.² 2972 . co mbatar na hádnaicti óbéla, PH 676 . bis an puls tonnmur lethan, Rosa Angl. 272.8 . oir dobi se crodha do laim ┐ mor do mét, Fier. 2 .

(c) With part. as pred. Immediately follg. vb. (see GOI 475-6 ; OIPG 147 ): amal nombemmis érchóilti gl. tanquam morti destinatos, Wb. 9a3 . biid ersoilcthi ar chiunn for ríg `be ye opened before your king' (of doors), Ml. 46a7 . co rabais (rabhdais, v.l.) marbtha mudaigthi, TTebe 854 . With subj. standing between vb. and pred.: ataat mesai Dǽ nephchomtetarrachti the judgements of God are incomprehensible, Ml. 55d11 . céin nombetis inna saigtea tuidmithi inna feuil `as long as the arrows were fixed in his flesh', Ml. 58a9 . órobatar ind liss dúntai, Imr. Brain 1 . co ra-bi in uli demnaigecht fomamaigthi dó, PH 2796 .

(d) In sentences where the vb. stands in a nasalising rel. clause and refers to a pred. expressed in the principal clause: is faittech rond-boi som, Ml. 21d4 . ni ba cian mbias in pecthach, 56c22 . fer . . . nadip romar bed a sommæ a man . . . whose wealth should not be too great, Thes. ii 241.9 . is-gáibthech atátur i-sin-magh sin, RC xxiv 378.12 . is trog robas isin chotlad sin, Ériu v 34.z . ní cás duid madh diomdhach raibh / grása Dé . . ., Dán Dé xix 22 . [is] slán do bhaoi an brat-sain, xii 22 .

(e) In the type of sentence where the description constitutes an independent sentence with copula: ego sum uermis et non homo .i. atāim-si conad cruim mē ┐ nāch duine, Corm. Y 211 . ro boi Victor co mbo ḟortachtaigthid do Pátraic, ACL iii 10 § 8 = Trip.² 217 . unus non est . . . .i. nochon fhil int aen co mbad airim, acht ata conidh fotha airim, Auraic. 689 . dom dóigh . . . robadhuis uair ecin ┐ roba díl anora tú `it seems to me . . . that there was once a time when thou wert worthy of honour', ZCP vi 99.5 .

banscál

Cite this: eDIL s.v. banscál or dil.ie/5362
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: bannscál

n o, n. and ā, f. (ben + 1 scál). Also bannscál. (a) warrior woman (?) Éigse xxxi 31 : ní raib fénid (fer fe(i)ne, v.l.) ná banscál ´sind loccán i mbíat `warrior or woman there should not be in the place in which they dwell´ Ériu iii 104 § 37a . (b) woman, female, laywoman: banscal niresach, Vita Br. 24. bete banscala occar timthirect gl. mulierem sororem, Wb. 10c22 . digbala áis bainscáil, Sg. 63b5 . is aoi lobair aoi gach banscaile, O'D. 540 (H. 3.17, 433). trilis na bandscāile, Cáin Ad. 3. conid Líadain congairiu / cach b.¤ nád athgniniu, Liad. and Cuir. 16.4 . indtan mbís galar míostai for bandscal, Mon. Tall. 132.30 (§ 14) . iss í b.¤ rotathbēogedh . . . Smirgat, Cáin Ad. 9. maith sin, a b.¤ , BDD² 545. con-accatar a n-oen-bandscáil do dorus na Bruidhne, 536 . in b.¤ , LU 1655. rocólutar a scrit inna banscalai, Harl. 5280, 54a (cited from Meyer Contribb.). etar fheidhb ┐ bannscail `widows and ordinary women', Stair Erc. 442. orphāin na heguilsi . . . eitir fer-scāil is ban-scāil `including boys and girls', Fl. Earls 176.13 .

búadarthae

Cite this: eDIL s.v. búadarthae or dil.ie/7203

Forms: búaidertha, buaidirthi

io, iā part. of búaidrid. Also búaidertha.

(a) troubled, confused, disturbed, tormented: it [t]orsig . . . ┐ it búadartha (sic leg.) na pecdaig, LU 2070 (FA). ro bo . . . bailedhach buadhartha, O'Dav. 297. na sluaig bristi buaidirthi, TTebe 964 . tonn sceóil brégi buaiderthi a wave of false and confused (?) report, Ériu iv 214 § 7. go raib a spiorad buaideartha, Gen. xli 8. Adv. co bristi buaidirthi , TTebe 952 .

(b) Of water, etc. turbid, muddy: din tsruth buadarthu gl. de turbulento riuo, Ml. 2b3 . combo buadartha in t-áth día chacc, LU 6076 (TBC). i n-athaib buaderthaib, LL 13794. dona deochaib buaideartha reamra millsi = turbidos, RSláinte 1142. fual derg ard ina dath ┐ buaiderta ina folud, Rosa Angl. 14.20 (turbulosa, 23 K 42 , 129.19 ). uair derg, uair glas, uair búaiderta ┐ uair ele tiugh (a well), Maund. 103. an uair bis in aimsir co fliuch buaiderta ag techt = ante pluvias et tempora turbida, Rosa Angl. 328.20 .

1 búan

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 búan or dil.ie/7263

adj o, ā lasting, enduring; constant, firm, persevering: biothbhuan ` everlasting ', Eg. Gl. 729. clár nderccóir bithbalc buan, Blathm. 435. in grian b.sa `lasting', Fél. Prol. 302. din bith b.¤ sa `enduring world', Ep. 19. do fir in berlai buain .i. inna canoni naími, LU 9792 , cf. bérla bán, etc., s. biait. o gein De buain, MacCarthy 434 § 6 . is b.¤ / huli hi fola luimne `all is lasting in a cloak of sackcloth' (to a student poet beginning his studies), Imr. Brain 52.19 ( LU 11003 ). trī rátha / robsad buana bith ghnātha, ML² 2084. [tri leaca] robaid .i. ro-buana (referring to immemorial laws or rights), Laws v 450.6 Comm. is b.¤ in bes, LU 3712 ( SCC 33 ). is mé Fintan, am beó b.¤ `I have lived long', Ériu iv 160.17 . bidh buán a dochar `perpetual shall be its misfortune', Cog. 92.9 . an gcein robadh buan a fearg while his anger lasted, TBC St. 3738. rob būan slūag richeid dia rēir continue to be (?), ACL iii 308 § 32 `may the host . . . be for ever at his behest', Measgra Uí Chl. 155 § 32. tre aithighidh na n-olc mb.¤ `constant evils', Studies 1919, 75 § 22 . buan fám thuaraim taom ón triar continual . . . is the attack (of the world, the flesh and the devil), TSh. 2145.

In chevilles: buan a mbladh, ML² 134. buan in cusc, Laws v 40.21 Comm.

With beirid: ní dom breith buan `not to save myself', Dán Dé xxvi 41 . an síltí go mbéarainn buan that I should be able to escape, Hackett ix 1 .

Equat. búanidir fér in Broga `fresh as the grass about the B.', Ériu iv 96 § 16.

Compar. ní buaine / ná ceo, Dán Dé viii 2 . níor bhuana dhóibh, Content. v 25.

Adv. go buan ` constantly ', Donlevy 62.29 .

Compds. ever-, lasting (freq. as mere alliterating prefix). With adjj. incl. adjj. derived fr. nouns: cethracha . . . ar secht [m]blíadnaib būanad[b]lib, BColm. 14.5 . trí locha bord-ghlana buan-áille, ML 96.2 . im Bh. mbuanbhladhach `of lasting fame', Dán Dé xxv 64 . folt . . . búanchlechtach `ever-curling' (Gloss.), MU² 762. Baiscenn buaineascrach, Caithr. CC 80. bloisg-easa beann-gharbha buan-gháibhtheacha, TSh. 6629. sech a bráithribh buanmasa, Leb. Cert.² 160.16 . gluaisit rompu ina mbuidhnibh . . . buanoglacha (sic leg.) (ocla), Feis Tighe Chonáin 1885. pecud būanoll brath gach mbī, ZCP x 47.25 . nárbat buainscélach brégach, SG 107.19 . go buainsheasmhach steadfastly , TSh. 2232. seacht m-bliadhna bláthmhura buan-torthacha, ML 6.16 . an basgaire buantruag (of Doomsday), RC xxviii 318 § 33.

With nouns: Clanna B. in buan-áig `of the ceaseless strife', Metr. Dinds. ii 78.14 . ruc . . . Lasair a bhuidhe ┐ a bhúanaltughadh sin risin ccoimhdhe `eternal gratitude', Ériu v 84.21 . gusin mbúanbrath `till doom', Duan. F. i 66.2 . trí lá ro bhatar somh ag buanchaithemh an bhaile `they continued battering, etc.', AFM vi 2030.14 . rucsat . . . / i Crích B. in ṁbúanchend `the long remembered head', Metr. Dinds. iii 398.26 . ag a mbuancesad a carcair . . . itfrinn, RC xxviii 318 § 36 . bledheda ┐ buancopain ailli, Aen. 371. fer bagha ┐ buancosanta Lethi Cuind, RC xviii 285.6 (Tig.). na fineadha ag báidh dá bhuan-dhíochur `for his perpetual banishment', ML 80.22 . fa borb buainferg, LL 396.5 . a bachla ┐ a bhuainmionna `enduring relics', BNnÉ 236 § 160 . deighenach a bethadh ┐ a bhuan-tsaogail do bheith cuicce `of his length of days', 265 § 228. nit-raib brig do buanseilbe (rhet.) `have thou no worth of thy goods', Dinds. 21. an tí do-ghéana buainsheasamh go deireadh (= qui perseveraverit usque in finem, Matthew xxiv 13 ), TSh. 2235. an Buainsheasamh (= Span. perseverancia, Gloss.), Desid. 2951. go Banba d'a buantadall `to permanently occupy it', MacCarthy 314.18 . im brat no im biadh no im buan-tiodhlaicthibh `fixed contributions', BNnÉ 266 § 234 . do bhuantoil `thy unfailing kindness', Ir. Review 1913, 625 § 21 . do biadh ┐ do buan-toradh, ML² 83.

With verbs and part.: fiche bliadhain buan-fhoirfe, Content. xxx 11. cathracha ina mblodhuibh brisdi, buanrebtha, ZCP vi 103.30 . Benén co becht rabúan-scríb `B. prescribed . . . for ever', Metr. Dinds. iii 18.22 . gur bhíogadar ┐ gur bhuain-sginneadar, Atlantis iv 148.9 .

cairde

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cairde or dil.ie/7887

Forms: cáird, cairte, c., c., chairdi, cairdiu, cairdea, c.

n io, n. (1 cara). See GOI 169 . Later m. and f., IGT Decl. § 1 .

(a) pact, covenant; peace : In O.Ir. glossing pactum (foedus, Ml. 18d8 ). cáird, Thes. i 5.18 . cairte, ii 7 ( Acr. 17v ). c.¤ , Ml. 91c1 . a s. c.¤ , 91c9 . g s. in chairdi , 110a4 . d s. cairdiu, 18d8 . n pl. c., 91b13 , 104a2 , cairdea, 93c17 . g pl. c.¤ , 105a2 . na fir ris a mbí cáirde dhuit, Ériu xiii 45.20 . cuir ┐ c.¤ , 31.11 . atbert pa haoncairdiu fon Eilg, ZCP vii 305.4 . it lóig, it úain co ndath / co cairddi, cen immarbad, Imr. Brain 38 `at peace', Murphy Lyrics 39.6 . dognid c.¤ , Anecd. i 57 § 56 . cáirde .i. síth no cairdeas, O'Cl.

Legal. Of peaceful relations or pact either within a particular territory or between two or more territories; local peace , as opposed to cáin the general law. See Críth G. p. 80 . nocho dlegar c.¤ do denam a naen triucha céd dogres, acht itir da trichad ced; . . . is i aithne in ch.¤ a denam itir da thuaith trichad ced, O'Curry 1005 - 6 ( H 3.18, 428ab ). aos cáirde .i. an drong bhíos fon statúid síothchána da ngoirthear cáirde; sith no riagail ordoighid lucht críce no da etc. eatorra féin, ┐ bí cáin fo Eirinn uile ┐ cach ag adradh dhi, Mac Firbisigh Gloss. cited O'Don. Suppl. gell slógad, gell rechtge, gell cairddi (of king pledging his subjects at an óenach), Críth G. 507 . i n-inchaib smachta cana nama . . . eiric c.¤ , Laws v 442.5 Comm. i cain no chairdde, 422.2 . muna tabri cain no c.¤ `cāin or treaty', BCrólige 43 . slan c.¤ [rig], Laws i 230.23 .i. eneclann don rig i mbrissidh a cairdi, 232.16 Comm. giall fri cain, aitire fri cairddi (of securities), 260.17 . traethad c.¤ la rig ┐ tuaith, 50.29 .i. . . . trentimarcain na tuath don rig fo smacht cana no c.¤ , 52.14 Comm. bo biata na flatha in tan bis oc denam [cánu ┐] cairdi tara cenn, 134.35 Comm. See also under cáin. oc in cet cairdi do gneth itir Ulta ┐ Feniu, dia mbai urbagh nUlad, O'Curry 805 ( H 3.18, 373a ); cf. O'D. 2303 - 4 ( Rawl. B 506, 30a) . cis lir c.¤ docuisin ? Ni ansa, a tri. C.¤ nairdbige . . . ┐ c.¤ nimdilsi criche . . . ┐ c.¤ feine, O'Curry 524 ( H 3.18, 262b ). c.¤ urradais, ib. See airdbide, imdílse, aurradus. See also ZCP xv 326 . in c.¤ righ, mí gacha raithe do sidhe; masa c.¤ tuaithe tri caecadhais doibhsidhe in cach raithe acht i ngeamhradh, ┐ ceithri caecadhais daibh is in geamradh; . . . cid fodera conidh sia c.¤ na tuaithe ina c.¤ in righ ? . . . measu a n-eacmhaing re himthecht ria, dia turbroither hi ina acmaing in righ, O'D. 2303 ( Rawl. B 506, 29d ). cain criche (.i. cáin Patraic), cain cáirde, O'D. 560 ( H 3.17, 439 ). c.¤ ro buí ac na dainib andsin ar dús, ┐ táinic cain cuca fuí, O'D. 1603 ( H 5.15, 11a ). In transfd. sense of territory with which pact etc. exists (see Críth G. p. 80 ): fácabar fri dénum n-échta i cairddiu co cenn mís (of aire échta), Críth G. 259 . beirthius . . . co cenn cairdi to the limits of the allied territory, 366 .

(b) respite, truce, delay : ni baí tra carti dóib la C.C. iar tain, LU 5882 (TBC). ní forcraid c.¤ dano aní sin (of respite of three days and three nights), 8755 ( FB 56 ). tuccsat do an c.¤ hisin, Mart. Don. Apr. 17 . rogáid díb . . . / c.¤ co arnabárach, Metr. Dinds. iii 446.82 . c.¤ dún co matin dō `grant us a respite for him till morning', MacCongl. 29.4 . tainig bhur gc.¤ your time is up, Prolegomena 54.12 . gan cháirde gan choigilt, RC xiv 30 § 10 . is briathar dam-sa guma gerr an c.¤ sin, CF² 892 . gé madh gearr c.¤ na comha, IGT Decl. ex. 108 . mo ghēnair ghabhus c.¤ (with play on c.¤ and cairde friends), O'R. Poems 2077 . a grás nocha ghabhann c.¤ `tarries not' (of Mary), PBocht 4.26 . c.¤ aithghearr is eadh fhuarais (from grave), DDána 43.4 . a ch.¤ `to leave him out', Content. ii 29 .

With gen. of length of respite: cardi in lae-sin `a truce on that day', Ann. Conn. 1249.9 . c.¤ bliadna `a year's truce', TTebe 815 . cardi mís `a month's truce', Cog. 118.26 . With descriptive or obj. gen.: cardi chlaidib for C.C. cessation of hostility, LU 5834 (TBC). óen-chairdde in óenaig `unbroken truce of the fair', Metr. Dinds. iv 152.69 . ar eagla ch.¤ an bais `differre nolentes mortem', Smaointe B. Chr. 3970 . c.¤ comhlainn, Oss. iii 295.4 . Prov. go mad ionann mo ch.¤ / ┐ c.¤ Mic Coisi an unlimited respite, O'R. Poems 2123 and 2077 n.

(c) In phrases. With prepp. cen ch.¤ immediately, quickly : innis dúinn gan ch.¤ anuis, Anecd. i 26 § 12 . do dhealbh gan ch.¤ . . . / fairge, Dán Dé xxxi 5 . lucht fóirthe cneadh gan ch.¤ (viz. physicians), Studies 1920, 567 § 16 . dá anmain . . . gan cháirde / díon na n-aingeal, Keat. Poems 543 . As quasi-adj.: cath can chardi unremitting, LU 3204 . do dhúais gan cháirde, O'R. Poems 3269 `incessant gifts', Gloss. for (ar) c.¤ as quasi-adj.: ar c.¤ a-tá a thóraidheacht (of a raid) postponed, Aithd. D. 21.12 . .iiii. fichit bó . . . dā fichit ar cairdi co belltaine, BColm. 92.2 . With follg. prep.: c.¤ do thabhairt do Dhál Riada gan dul da n-argain to defer raiding the D.R., Keat. iii 1506 . um ch.¤ bliadhna do thabhairt do Mh. . . . gan a ndíbirt, 1910 . c.¤ fan síoth ní sirthear delay concerning the peace, PBocht 21.10 . is frit mo ch.¤ I have a pact with thee, Fél. Ep. 534 . dobertsom cairdi friusom granted them a truce, TBC-I¹ 2900 . conom raib cairte latt frim budin, LU 5539 ( TBC-I¹ 1057 ). do muin cairdi fris `on account of his affinity to him', Expugn. Hib. 9 . d'iarraidh cáirde re comhairle `time for counsel', ML 20.13 . ro íar síad cárde le cómharle air Gholl, CF Eg. 223 . eadh ┐ c.¤ do lēcud dō fri hiaraidh in scēoil sin, ACL iii 4.15 . cairddi mán ṁborrama co lluán, LL 306b12 ( SG 385.13 ). c.¤ im ní . . . / ní chuinngheann `he does not ask for delay about giving', Magauran 2912 . fada a ch.¤ im chóir a ghon `long is the respite . . . to atone for His wounds', Aithd. D. 67.15 .

With verbs. fo-ceird for c.¤ , fo-ceird c.¤ for, léicid for c.¤ puts off, delays, neglects : in rí rom-cuir ar cairdi / nimléicfe fo bith mairgi gave me length of days, Acall. 1856 . cuirthior . . . / mo dhán . . . / ar c.¤ mbronnaidh go haimsir d'áiridhe `delaying my reward for some time', Aithd. D. 19.3 . beag nár bhfearr a cara ar c.¤ , IGT Decl. ex. 15 . nár chuir aonfhear ar cáirde `who never put off any man', Oss. iii 295.18 . nách cuirfe an aithríghi ar cáirde, Mac Aingil 1347 . Cf. ní dam cuirfe ar choir cairdi, Acall. 802 . na cuir cairdi air, Ériu v 136.108 . ar chách ná cuir c.¤ `put not off the pardon of the world', A. Ó Dálaigh iv 9 . ar c.¤ ná leig do lón `delay not to make provision', PBocht 7.7 . da léiccthi ar cáirde gan a sccriobhadh do lathair `be neglected', AFM i lvii 1 . With ellipse of vb.: ní dúal c.¤ ar creich ngeimhil `it is unfitting to postpone a raid for captives', Ériu ix 162 § 1 . ar m'fhoghnamh ní huair ch.¤ , DDána 11.5 . ní gnáth c.¤ ar a chrithribh, 24.18 . téit ar c.¤ tarries, is delayed : ar eagla go rachadh an bas ar c.¤ , Smaointe B. Chr. 3920 . an ceart dochóidh ar c.¤ , DDána 48.5 .

In chevilles: adbul cairdde, LL 16031 ( Todd Nenn. 233 ). gan cairdi cealgaígh, BB 29a3 .

cairem

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cairem or dil.ie/7914

n n, m. leather-worker, shoe-maker : c.¤ gl. sutor, Sg. 156b5 . cairemain ┐ toscairi, LL 3666 . cairemain maiss murigi / co munteras chóir, 3754 . cairemain cirpsi[ri] `the leather-bottle makers [and] the brewers', Ériu xix 83 § 11 . tornoire, ┐ na nascaire, ┐ cairemain, Laws v 106.17 .i. coir-fuaiprid na paiti corra, 20 Comm. = coirfuaigid, YBL 204a32 . cairemain is cirmairi `cobblers', Metr. Dinds. i 26.174 . nī raib uáid acht cairem[ain] ┐ cirmaire (a curse), BColm. 66.7 . caireamhain .i. grésaighthe, O'Cl.

cathar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cathar or dil.ie/8369
Last Revised: 2019

n (1 cath + 1 fer, RC xxiv 204 ): Cóemgen . . . cáin c.¤ (caithfer, v.l.) `fair warrior ', Fél. June 3 . secht nderbbráthir cathir (cathfir, v.l.), June 27 . Eochu art (.i. uasal) arachridethar (.i. noail) cathrai, AID ii 22 § 1 , Wortk. 43 . co tucsat leo a cathḟiru in da rig, Dinds. 57 . da bur cathraib `to your fighters ', RC xxiv 194.8 . cech æn ba nesa / da cat[h]raib calma, ZCP viii 110.32 .

círmaire

Cite this: eDIL s.v. círmaire or dil.ie/9209
Last Revised: 2013

n io, m. ( cír, : see Celtica xxi 232 ) comber or fuller of cloth; comb-maker : ciormhaire .i. fúcaire, O'Cl. cirmairi .i. cirait na hetaidi no do niat na cira, O'Curry 2131 (H.4.22, 86½). mac in ch.¤ a llus chír `let the comb-maker's son follow combs', Ériu ix 49 § 33 . nochon uaras a gealughudh / co n-arm caembuide cirmure comber , IT iii 104.27 . mesce chīrmairi, Bruchst. 30 § 66 . cerdda ┐ c.¤ ┐ cennaige esinraice, LU 2217 ( FA 29 ). aird an ard re ceardcae ciormhaire, TFrag. 222.y . ro chuir an ciormhaire (glossed fúcaire) a congna amach, z. tréde neimthigedar c.¤: coimrith fri coin hi[c] cosnum chnáma, adarc reithi do dírgud . . . , dichetal for ochtraig co rathochra a mbí ina íchtur for a úachtar do choṅgna ┐ cnámaib ┐ adarcaib, Triads 117 . cerd cīrmuire, ZCP viii 208.19 . cairemain, ┐ cirmaire . . . saeri fir midbad doib, Laws v 106.18 . c.¤ .i. doniad in cirmairecht, 20 Comm. cairemain is cirmairi, Metr. Dinds. i 26.174 . nī raib úaid acht cairem ┐ cirmaire `let none spring from him but shoe-makers and comb-makers' (curse), BColm. 66.7 .

cláen

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cláen or dil.ie/9306
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: Cuilín

adj o, ā

I

(a) uneven, crooked, sloping; aslant, bending, stooped; curving, curved : dosroraind . . . cona deilg. Sīa īarom rosīacht a dealg ūaithe sair a bēlaib oldās dar a hais sīar. Is aire is clōen ind less, Corm. Y 502 . clóen ind ráth dind leith adiu, RC xiii 462 § 65 . in chuirn chláoin curved(?), IGT Decl. ex. 356 . a bheith claon nochar chás duid `its laying low troubled thee not' (of a severed head), PBocht 14.35 . ? Fig. mo chiall ata claon, Atlantis iv 180.31 .

(b) Freq. of hair waving (?) flowing (?): folt claon, DDána 96.33 . ciabh dhaghcruinn n-a cuaichleirg claoin, Magauran 1001 . is camarsach claon . . . / a carn-ḟolt, Keat. Poems 65 .

(c) Of eyes, squinting: Finan Cam . . . .i. cloen a rosc, Fél. 112.23 , Gorm. Apr. 7n. dā mac imleasan . . . ┐ sīat clǣna, TBC-I¹ 2612 . gura bhris in suil claein, MR 36.13 .

As epithet: a trian ro charsat Conall Cloen batis cloín cot acallaim, LL 13522 (Thurn., ZCP viii 72 ff. q.v., would translate hump-backed ). Conghal Caoch, no Claon, AFM an. 624 . co tard beach . . . a neim for mo leth-rosc-sa, gura claen mo ṡuil. Congal C. mo ainm ar sin, MR 34.12 . an Giolla claon Ua Ciardha, tigherna Coirpri, AFM ii 1092.11 .

(d) In moral sense, iniquitous, perverse, unjust, biassed: cil .i. claon no cutruma, O'Dav. 467 (? leg. écutrumma). nate ni clóin gl. (numquid iniquitas apud Deum?) Absit, Wb. 4c17 . in miscuis clóin, Ml. 46d10 . inna mbritheman cloin, 103b17 (brithem, MS.). adbar inna combartae cloine, 71c6 . is gó flatha do-ber sína saíba for tūatha clóena. ZCP xi 82 § 25 . scítha láma indrosc (sic leg.?) cloína unjust demands(?), LU 10884 (TE rhet.). ingena cloína Cain, LL 17437 . nírbat santa[ch] immun mbith / nō for ind nim (leg. indiub) chlóen, ACL iii 312 § 6 (indium, in nem, v.ll.). gan beith fa chomadaib claena `unjust conditions', MR 120.26 . freasdal a gcor gclaon `crooked wiles', Aithd. D. 52.3 . ainic nach claon do chathaoir `lest your poet's chair be partial', Content. v 186 .

(e) c.¤ fri (chum, do) prone to, inclined to: atá ar gcolann claon ré déanamh an uilc = prona est ad malum, TSh. 2916 . an drong beirthear faoi stiúradh na plainéide so bíd . . . geala, claon chum beith fionnchrothacha, Corp. Astron. 70.8 . biaidh an bhliadhain sin claon chum síothchána, 3 . na peacaidhe is mó d'a bhfuilmíd claon, nó tugtha, Donlevy 270.24 . atá sí laig-bhrígheach ┐ claon chum uilc, 210.26 .

(f) In metrics, uneven; without accordance, imperfect : is airi didiu asberar clōinrē, fobīth is clōen ma doberthar um nī, ūair it troma a trī oldati a dóu, ar it chōic dīalta fuilet a clōinré, amail rongab fīanamailechar, Corm. Y 447 (p. 37.21) . dunadh c.¤, amail ata . . . ar Muiri ┐ ar Martain (final line of a poem which began with `tangadar'. -tain does not adequately echo tan- therefore the conclusion is c.¤ or lochtach), IGT Met. Faults § 145 . áenghuthaighe is í fa dhó ... bidh cláen 'the same vowel occurring twice ... it will be incorrect', Celtica xxvii 58 § 3 . See also cláenaid and comardad (c).

Adv. in fer fodrácaib co claen the man who has left it crooked, uneven (of a house), LU 8391 ( FB 26 ) (opp. to co diriuch). is amlaidh ata Stodiaca gu claen ┐ an speir lan mor go direach, Ir. Astr. Tr. 126.13 . an tṡlat iarainn ṡaighes go claon `which goeth ouerthwart', RSClára 125a .

II As subst. o, m.

(a) stoop, slope, slant, inclination : sleagh do chur 'na chroidhe, / claon do bheith 'na bhrághaid (of Our Lord), Ir. Syll. Poetry 36 § 17 . do filleadh call tar a chláon, IGT Decl. ex. 910 . is binne donál na bhfaol / ná gach claon chuireas tú id ghuth (to a snoring bed-fellow) every twist(?), Measgra D. 5.24 . for c.¤ slanting, inclined : is for clóen in pars ochtarach for laim clii `the upper part is inclined on the left hand', Thes. ii 254.19 (Stowe M.).

(b) iniquity, obliquity, deception, injustice; perversion, error : inda leu som nis roissed imned na erchrae dogrés a soinmigi a cloinaib `though they are wicked', Ml. 39c34 (cf. Pedersen, ZCP ii 379 ). ara tintarrad ō chlóen / tūatha Hérenn do bethu `from iniquity', Thes. ii 314.1 ( Hy. ii 18 ). tír . . . / inná ráiter gó ná cloen, LU 3742 ( SCC 34 ). etarscara fri cach claen `severance from every obliquity', Laws v 118.7 . dia scarad fri clóen fri col, Metr. Dinds. ii 14.72 . ar cech óen ro chí / a chlóen for bith ché `his wrongdoing', Murphy Lyrics 27.6 = a chin, ACL iii 232 § 6 . bī-siu do rēir Chrīst cen claon, 313 § 9 . dia mbat rī bit rīghcerdach / ní oirdni nach claen, 314 § 30 . bothan derrit diamarda / do dilgud gach claoin, Ériu i 138.3 . ní bhí claon na cheirt-bhreathaibh, A. Ó Dálaigh xxxi 9 . gan claon n-agra tar eolus `without partiality of argument in violation of fact', Content. viii 7 .

(c) Very common in names of metrical faults in the sense of any departure from the correct form: na lochta is coitc[h]eand teagaid in gach aisdi don dan .i. c.¤ comhardudh ┐ c.¤ uaitne ┐ ataid na claenreanda romhaind . . . ┐ c.¤ airmh[e] ┐ c.¤ airde ┐ c.¤ comhaimsearda ┐ c.¤ crichadh loc[h]tach ┐ dunadh loc[h]tach, IGT Met. Faults § 1 . trefhocul gan chlaen dona trí claenaib .i. c.¤ creiti .i. . . . c.¤ cuibdiusa . . . c.¤ ceille, O'Curry 1031 ( H 3.18, 433 ). Cf. cobfighe celli .i. co rob inunn ciall día nasneis o thosach co diaid in raind .i. na raib claen and, IT iii 30.7 . c.¤ áirme an irregularity in enumerating : c.¤ airmhi, amail ata . . . a tri no cuig no ceathair (because of the perversion of the natural order), IGT Met. Faults § 31 . c.¤ comardud a faulty internal rhyme: c.¤ comhardudh (leg. -daidh? Or claenchomhardadh? ed.), ann seo: Nocho n-oil agh ara orcur / re grain act ge cromthar ceann (i.e. the rhyme between agh and grain is faulty and it is the presence of the `i' in grain that makes it so), § 2 . c.¤ creitte error in the framework of the stanza: c.¤ creite i ndian oireng, amail ata: flaithe niamdha / daine sgiamda cland Conchobair. Lochtach sin, uair ní dleseadh focul beith edir sgiamdha ┐ Conc[h]obhor, § 39 . (On cláen creitte see Stud. Celt. ii 178 .) c.¤ cuibdiusa faulty end-rhyme: [trefhocul] can cloen cuibdiusa. Gabiam la seise soirche / Seotu sochraide soirthe / Ria ndul issin fargge / Gleam ar lessu re n-aidche. .i. soirthe ┐ aidche exemplum, Auraic. 5086 . c.¤ senchais error in historical fact: c.¤ seanc[h]ais, amail ata o Cuind no o Colla no o rRoigh no o Nell no o Duach do dhenaibh do righ d'fearaibh Muman ach duine beas gael riu. O Mogha no o hEmir no o Cais no o Bloid no o Tail do denaibh do dhuine do Leith Cuind acht do dhuine bheas gael riu, IGT Met. Faults § 98 . nir chan gó na c.¤ senchais (sic leg.) riam, MacCarthy 408.8 . c.¤ úaitne error in consonance: c.¤ uaitne, amail ata Bean do gebhadh ara gradh / geal a lamh leabhar a lem. C.¤ uaitne sin ┐ idir lam [leg. gradh] ┐ lem ata, ┐ edhudh claenas re n-ailm, ┐ i lem ata, IGT Met. Faults § 3 .

(d) With other qualifying genitives: airbert cin [cil-]ceill .i. do denum / cen claon ceille, O'Dav. 49 . tuccus cath, gēr c[h]lāon cēille / do fhlaith Temhra a departure from good sense, Ériu ix 178 § 11 . ar fochal-cae, ar claen conair, Laws v 470.27 Comm. saor dhiongbhas claon na córa perversion of justice, DDána 48.28 . gan chláon n-irsi `pervert not my faith', Ériu ix 6.67 . níor áirmheas le claon sligheadh `in perverse method', Content. vi 140 .

(e) Of people, iniquitous, unjust person : oc ingrimmim inna cloen `the persecution of the wicked', Thes. ii 247.14 (Camb.). fri bás inna clóen `of the wicked', 320.1 (Hy. ii 59 ). ni aurfóemha dana na cloen `the gifts of the unjust', O'Dav. 1610 . a claín trúaig . . . ro scáig do gal, LU 8569 ( FB 43 ).

Compds. With nouns. i gcéibh na gclaonalt `curling hair', Aithd. D. 11.6 . bellum for Cloenath, AU an. 704 (see Ériu xiii 176 ). croidhe gan claon-bheart, ZCP v 208.117 (Midn. Court). Attrib. g s. gan cionnta claon-bhirt, 209.180 . in tan no beiredh claonbreith unjust judgement, Laws i 24.13 Comm. (opp. to breth ḟīr). imon cclaoinbhreith rucc Diarmait ar Colom Cille im liubar Findén, AFM i 192.z . breitheamh breabóideach . . . rug claoinbhreath, TSh. 6788 . ¤-chaingen: claenferta í ngaeldais aíndre / claenferta na claencaingne, BB 351b32 . ¤-chéimm: can ethar nā chlōenchēmim / cingid tar cech ler `without . . . a false step', Ériu iii 14 § 5 ('na chlóenchéimmim `in their perverse path', Murphy Lyrics 17.5 ). linfaid cloencheo cairechda / cech rind reil co rian ruided, SR 8095 . le claoinchealgaibh an aidhbhirseōra, Beatha S. F. 1962 . earrla na gclaoinchleacht waving tresses, Magauran 965 . ni ellastar cloenchleir, LU 1002 (ACC) (.i. . . . na cliara ni-dligtecha, `for indligthecha', edd.). ¤-choma unjust stipulation : cisdi coimeta celg . . . ┐ claenchomhad, MR 260.2 . Eoganachta . . . Áni Loch Léin Casel Cloendabair, LL 16124 . ¤-derc (2 derc): an uair éagfair-se . . . / claonfaidh do chlaon-dearc, Keat. Poems 342 . i comarddus na Cloenfertai tuascertchi, LL 3876 . ataat na dí Chloenḟerta fri Ráith Granni aniar, 3877 . ro marbtha uili i Cloenglais, 28840 . Cuilen na cláenglaise, RC xviii 303.8 (Tig.). claonglonna in gille `wicked deeds', Metr. Dinds. iii 58.65 . Cloenloch. Unde nominatur. Cloen mac Iṅgair, LL 22459 . Cath Claenlocha, RC xvii 136.5 (Tig.). a chionnta ┐ a chláonmhianna, Párl. na mB. 3210 . ¤ míl hare (?) : tosessa lais clóenmíla Cernai, LU 6748 (BDD). geis dō clōenmīla Moighe Sainb do tophand 'it was taboo for him to hunt the hares (?) of Mag Sainb', BDC 106.30 . claennadmanna tolla, O'Curry 1069 ( H 3.18, 441 ). ōn chlaenrāith co Cenannas, Fing. R. 732 (? leg. Chlaen-). dul . . . do Cathair na claenratha bodes, Acall. 6387 . 1 -ré (see 1 ré) wicked life : ciambad lonnbrass digal Dé / fornn ba comadas friar cloenré, SR 3618 . (Cf. Lochlann ii 51 .) 2 -ré (see 3, 4, 5 ré) word or verse of five syllables (so called because it cannot be divided into two equal parts): it chōic dīalta fuilet a clōinré, amail rongab fīanamailechar, Corm. Y 447 (p. 37.x) . claenre . . . is a dho ar indara leith ┐ a tri forin leth n-aili, Auraic. 1422 . clóenré dā inso sis: A rí oirdnide / uasail atamhra / bet suairc do comairli / cuairt cen balamna, IT iii 21 § 63 . See Lochlann ii 51 - 2 . ¤-recht (see 1 recht): concertfa c. for iathu Banba, SG 254.29 (rhet.). ¤-rind (see 1 rind) incorrect end-rhyme : c. i ndebide sgailti, amail ata Mor in sgel Don[n]- do dhul / i nErinn is a nAlbain / bedid mna Gaidheal c[h]adh is Gall / ga c[h]aineadh arna comraind. Ataid da c. ann sin .i. c. isin leathrand tosaich . . . edir dul ┐ Albain ata ┐ c. i[n] deridh edir Gall ┐ comraind ata . . ., IGT Met. Faults § 85 . c. i [n]debhi[dhe] imrind, amail ata . . . righ (g s.): Cuirín, fín (a s.): Cuilín, § 86 . rand idir c. ┐ drochgaidhilg Ata triar conchar ag Cund / Niall is Donnc[h]adh is Domnall (i.e. Cund: Domnall is a faulty rhyme but Domnull would be ungrammatical), § 140 . ataid na claenreanda romhaind, § 1 . ¤-ró (see 1 ró): noem in chotaig ni cloenró it was not an excess due to partiality(?), LL 25382 . claon-rosc, Keat. Poems 319 . ¤ṡirite: cidh don cláenṡíridi ṡiabardha mo ṡárugadh do dhenamh, TBC-LL¹ p. 251 n.3 . Cormac a clōen-Temraich sloping Tara, ZCP viii 264 § 22 . ó phór chaithreach claoinTé, DDána 121.32 . ¤tinn d s.?: tug a cainnt dá chlaointinn ghéir `let loose the bitter tongue of his iniquity', Ó Bruad. iii 212.18 . ¤úall (1 úall): cēim cen chlóenúaill ō Dīabul `without wicked pride', Ériu ii 64 § 7 .

With adjj. th'fholt cas claonbhuidhe, DDána 114.25 . Conall Cloentruag t'ainm festa `the wicked wretch', ZCP i 104.18 .

With adjj. derived from nouns. dfheólaibh . . . ccethnatmolt . . . cclaonadharcach, Hugh Roe² 284.15 . Conall Claenbhraigdech Cernach, Cóir Anm. 251 . egoir Calcuis corpthi claenbhreathaigh unjust in judgment, Stair Erc. 2041 . a Shabhdain colaigh, claenbreathaigh, ZCP vi 59.19 . daoine . . . malluighthe claoincheárrdach `having an evil way of life' (Gloss), Párl. na mB. 1835 . Creon claencholach perverse sinful C., TTebe 4655 . cosin cathraig claincolaig, 251 . ¤dairech of bending oak-trees: san adhbha chlaondairigh ós Bóinn bhraoinealaigh, DDána 109.18 . ó Éirne . . . challghloin chlaondoirigh, Ir. Syll. Poetry 74 § 9 . ar a ccorpuibh corpthe cláonmhíanacha having evil desires, Párl. na mB. 2579 . ar Īsa in ḟuilt c[h]laenrāthaigh, ZCP viii 563 §27 . ó chéimniughadh chealgach chlaonrúnach of evil intent, TSh. 8301 .

With verbs. do-s-claencoraigenn icin aclaid `who makes a false representation at the suit', Laws v 462.13 Comm. claonmharbhfaidh mé m'ainmhianta `I shall mortify', Donlevy 190.16 .

With vnn. claonchorrughadh beag suarach don aithrighe, Trompa na bhF. 2433 . ¤díbirciud: drochcostud . . . do chloīndībircthib la drochdaīni, Sc.M² § 17.4 . iomshlán na míorbhuilleadha . . . do chlao[i]ndhéanamh to counterfeit, Trompa na bhF. 2630 . go ndéin an tsúil amharc aindlightheach, ┐ an chluas claoin-éisteacht biassed hearing, TSh. 3039 . gach cosg ┐ claon-mharbhadh na colna `mortification', Donlevy 126.14 .

cloc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cloc or dil.ie/9540
Last Revised: 2013

n o, m. (Late Lat. cloc(c)a, otherwise GOI p. 87 )

(a) bell : clocc ┐ menstir ┐ bachall, Thes. ii 241.16 (Ardm.). na gobaind ócc dénum na clocc, Trip.² 2959 . es .i. ēcc; unde eslēne ┐ clog estechtae knell, Corm. Y 573 . an clog mairb, ZCP viii 559.17 . ceall o teit c.¤ ┐ salm, Laws v 118.5 . issi in faithchi techta la Feine ni ro saig guth cluicc no gairm cailig cercc, iv 194.2 . do tiscail a chluic aire, 364.7 (a form of outraging a bishop). aistreoir . . . ic buain cluig ┐ ic oslugud tempaill, v 22.7 Comm. clog cloigtige (opp. to lam-clog), 22.8 Comm. im ch.¤ focain cethra .i. focanus im braigit na cethra, i 126.3 ; 142.13 Comm. ma[d] cú foilm[n]ech bid urfogra cluic nó clothra fo a bragait, O'Dav. 471 . co clug taitnemach, IT i 39.22 . or[oit] do Domnall U Lachlaind lasi ndernad in c.¤ sa . . . ┐ do(d) Chathalan . . . do maer in chluic (inscription on a bell-shrine), Christian Inscriptions ii 109 . nocha tēigim fo guth cluic (said by one lying ill), ZCP vi 263 § 10 . ro escain in clerech Conall co mbenta ix.iii. ceolán fair atberait aroile is duine fogeib clúgu Conall, conid de sin rolil C. clogach, LB 238[d]a10 . duirtech . . . áit a cclunidis clucca, BNnÉ 317 § 6 . c.¤ tinōil `the chapter-bell', MacCongl. 31.22 . clocc proinne the dinner bell, BNnÉ 301 § 7 . caillech fri clog `a nun as bell-ringer', MacCongl. 73.14 (in a list of useless things). a rún thuigeas teangtha clog `that understands what church-bells say', Aithd. D. 97.29 . glór an tsionnaigh ris an gclog (proverbial saying?), Content. xxvii 4 . benad clog oibre `they may ring unto worke', RSClára f. 116b . comhluath is chluinid comhartha an chluig, f. 99b . ciombal .i. clog, Eg. Gl. 154 . By synecdoche of the church: ná bí ar tí chagaidh ar chlag `be not inclined to war against the church', Studies 1924, 244 § 27 .

For powers attributed to saints' bells see V. SS. Hib. clxxvi f. and: gach teidhm . . . thiocfus in bhar ttír, díneach mo cluicc . . . da díochur eiste, Misc. Hag. Hib. 44 § 65 . a bhroicseach borb, na druid aníos, / anal mo chluicc im cend do cráis, 40 § 58 . trí fáoidhe mo cluicc romhaibh a ccath, 45 § 66 .

Used in cursing: ben clucc ar Cellach Carmain / co raib i talmain rīa ciunn blīadna, Cáin Ad. 18 . tucait gáir c.¤ ┐ esgaine ┐ mallachtan don méirrlech, SG 45.14 . do fuaras gáir clog ┐ caindell ┐ mallachtain fírénach (i.e. was excommunicated), 43.27 . Cf. also: do tabairt clocc ┐ mionn da cele imma ccaradradh do comall `had taken vows by bells and relics', AFM iii 426.15 .

Many bells had proper names. See V. SS. Hib. clxxvii n.16 and perh. also: nī ruc Adomnān claideb les dochum in chathai, acht clocc na fferce Adomnāin .i. cluicīn mēsi Adomnāin, Cáin Ad. 17 . in Clog Padraic (.i. in Udachta), a bell supposed to have been bequeathed by St. Patrick, RC xxiii 404 § 12 . Solamh Ó Meallán maor cluig an edhachta, AFM iii 608.13 . do rat Patraicc a chlog feisin do Chaillin . . . Clog na rig nomen in cluig sin, ar is mór di riguib Erend ro baisted as, Fen. 232.7 , 12 . trí lán chluig na righ d'offráil airgid (given to the comarb of Caillin), ALC i 364.19 .

Attrib. g s bell-shaped : in cua[dh] cluic, Laws i 134.5 Comm. at cluic gl. galea, Ir. Gl. 26 .

? cetna gnim gnisset mar chloc / dabach humai istudloc, SR 4197 .

(b) Used to indicate the hour, hence clock (but see Stud. Celt. x/xi 312-13 ): a cinn cúig mbuilli don clog `at five o'clock', Stair Erc. 2093 ; 'at five strokes of the bell (or clock)' Stud. Celt. x 312 . dā uair in chluig riassan lō do shoillsiugadh, Fl. Earls 130.16 . ar a thrí do chlog i ndiaidh mheadhóin laoi, TSh. 10247 .

Compds. With noun. ¤thech belfry (used of the round towers often connected with Irish monastic buildings. See Petrie's Round Towers): cloicthech Sláne do loscadh . . . Bachall ind erlama ┐ cloc ba dech di clocaibh . . . do loscadh, AU an. 950 . cloicthech Mainistrech . . . co n-a lebraibh ┐ taiscedhaibh imdhaibh do loscadh, an. 1097 . leim tar chloicech (in a list of impossible conditions), O'Curry 981 ( H 3.18, 423a ). clocthige ós chella, LL 308a16 ( SG 388.31 ). cloictheach Thelcha nIonmainde . . . do dluighe do chaoir theineadh ┐ cloch do sgeinm as an ccloictheach isin, AFM ii 1012.y (A.D. 1121). By extension of a tower used merely for defence: doronsat cloicteach dhoibh fein ana coideldais ar ecla ilphiast in fhasaigh, BLism. 119 va25 . With Vn. foghar sailm-cettail Ruadhain . . . ┐ a claicc-beim . . . occ esccaine fair bell-ringing , BNnÉ 324 § 38 . With adj. co h-I cloigbinn, KMMisc. 320.4 .

críne

Cite this: eDIL s.v. críne or dil.ie/12954

n , f. (crín) senility, old age; decay . Of persons: crini . . . ┐ sentath, LU 1240 . cen gabháil n-orbai . . . co críni, Críth G. 70 . marb do chrine, ZCP xi 44 § 53 . co d[t]ēged cech fer ēc crīne ūade `died of old age', Otia i 121.7 . ro comleath ceo crini thairsib (of eyes), TTebe 2705 . tosach crīne gallruighe, Anecd. iii 16.12 . is ē airrdhe na c.¤ / díbe, delus is déine, ZCP vi 268.15 . c.¤ an chuirp, DDána 25A.14 .

In other contexts: slan dfir in charbait . . . acht na raib fis crine, na etallais provided he does not know it is worn out, Laws iii 266.1 Comm. crech fiallach . . . no difoiche de, no crine `decay' (of cattle), 368.18 Comm. Of trees etc. an choill do baoi ar crioth don c.¤ , KMMisc. 168.15 . co rolá a duillebar de ar ch.¤ , Ériu iv 134.10 .

cuntabart

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cuntabart or dil.ie/13952
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: cunntaberta, chuntubarta, cumtubairt

n ā, f. (see O'Rahilly Ériu xiii 146 - 8 ; Bergin xiv 30 n. ; Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 467 , LEIA C-293-94 ). Also cumt-, cumd-, cunnt-, con(n)t-. Always with -n- in Wb., -m- in Ml. and Sg., and in all three with variation betw. -t- and -d-. Later n s. -airt. g s. cunntaberta, AU iii 496.11 .

(a) doubt, uncertainty, perplexity : masuchundubart, Wb. 4d28 . cen chuntubarta without doubts, 23c26 . in cumtubairt gl. ambiguum, Ml. 27c10 . dogní doidgni ┐ chumdubairt . . . issí inchumtubart ┐ indoidgne, 37a10 . cid dialeícid cundubairt fordrecht uáib de resurrectione , Wb. 13b12 . cenchuntubarta gl. sine . . . hessitationibus, 23c26 . ni cumtubhart (chev.), Blathm. 212 . niba cumtabairt, LU 9537 . ma derb . . . no ma cunntabairt, Laws i 94.21 Comm. cundtabairt eter dechnaid ┐ randaigecht mbic, IT iii 86.1 . faind-ires ┐ cunntabairt Tomais, PH 6737 . isin cumhtabuirt sin, Laws i 280.6 Comm. iar ṅdíchur . . . cecha cunntabarta, PH 6741 . anches quasi anceps .i. cuntabairt, O'Mulc. 45 . dá chor ó chonntaphairt = ambiguity, RSClára 81a .

With follg. indirect question or noun clause: nifil chumtubairt ata nanmman sidi `there is no doubt that these are nouns', Sg. 154b2 . bacumdubart in étaste fanaic `it was doubtful whether . . .', Ml. 43d20 . is cumtubart cia he, 46c19 . inchumtabart ón inícfider fanacc, 96b11 . is cumtubart ced dogní angenitiu gl. haec ancipitis genitiui, Sg. 99a2 . is cunntabairt cia o'r cindistar, Laws v 454.1 Comm. is cuntabair[t] in térnatar na oegaire, LL 36610 . as chumtabairt esergi dona náedenaib, LU 2539 .

In phrases. cen c.¤ certain(ly), with certainty: creid can cunntabairt, Celtica ii 121.14 . dar cend . . . / . . . madma gan contabhairt a decisive victory, Fen. 194.20 . as í gan chonntabhairt, Parrth. Anma 1100 . With copula: is c.¤ la (fri) x x is in doubt: incuntubart lib inso gl. an ignoratis?, Wb. 3c3 . indí . . . lasinrubu chumtabart indabiad torbae fa naic, Ml. 102d4 . is cundubart leu indat bii inna corpaib gl. qui . . . se uiuere nesciunt, ZCP vii 482.12 (Enchir. Aug.). nicumdabairt fricirine, Hib. Min. 6.187 . ni cunntabairt lind . . . co n-id . . . , PH 3188 . Cf. aní itáa cuntubart libsi .i. esséirge, Wb. 13a35 . Attá c.¤ for x there is doubt concerning x: ní raibh contabhairt ar an dtrócaire, ZCP iv 448.31 . menic bis conntabairt for aisneis na faithe, CCath. 4213 . With prep. I N-: do beith i cúnntabairt umam, PH 1800 . ta i n-a chunntabairt cia da nderna it is doubtful, Smaointe B. Chr. 1524 . ná raib cách 'n-a chumtabairt (c.¤, v.l.), Metr. Dinds. iii 66.8 . ionnsa an chealg i gcontabhairt that the treachery be in doubt, Aithd. D. 34.3 . ro bhui in cath sin oc (leg. a?) cuntabairt gan brissed, ZCP xxx 135.43 . cuirid i c.¤ doubts : méala a char i gcontabhairt, Aithd. D. 32.15 . fear nár chuir a gcunntabhairt / nach mair . . . , O'R. Poems 1109 . dá cuired nech a cuntabairt, O'Gr. Cat. 247.31 . nach cuirthe i gconntabhairt go . . . , Keat. ii 240 . Also cuirid cuntabairt i n-: cibé chuireas conntabhairt i bPurgadóir = qui de Purgatorio dubitat, Keat. ii 5876 . conntabhairt do chur a n-éunphonc, Parrth. Anma 1132 . contabhairt do chur 'na chreidiomh, Desid. 4656 . Note also: ná cuireadh . . . conntabhairt . . . ort, Desid. 4746 . bith cunntaphuirt agut asi[n] nduine aithenus tu be mistrustful, Ériu v 136 § 93 .

(b) danger, peril : gúas, baoghal, cunntabhairt, Eg. Gl. 382 . ? robói . . . isin chuntabairt sin céin robo beō `doubtful state', Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 8.10 . do-berim mo anmain tara ceand a cumdtabairt, Grail 2080 . do chor a gconāich a gconntabairt `imperil their success', Fl. Earls 10.29 . ? ar eagla conntabhairte an bhreitheamhnais, TSh. 1151 `the doubtful nature or result', Gloss. tre iomad docra, contabharta = daungers, RSClára 87b . cin cuntabairt n-anma, Grail 1290 . cundtabhart báidhthe, Mac Aingil 833 . Fl. Earls 76.11 . a contabairt báis, O'Gr. Cat. 111.19 . a gconntabhairt a bheathadh, Rial. S.F. 151 .

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