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Cite this: eDIL s.v. bó or dil.ie/6201
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: boin, bou, bo, boin, baí, b, báu, b, bao, Báu, b, búaib, bai, báe, boin, boin, bó, ba, bai, baei, búaibh, b

n f. See GOI § 60 , § 72 , § 340 . a s. boin, Corm. Y 1103 , Vita Br. 24. g s. bou, Thes. ii 278.2 . bo, Vita Br. 24. d s. boin (cf. a mboi leó do bhú, Hugh Roe² 36.4 ). n p. baí, LL 33395 (TBFr.). ba, ML² 34 (see O'Rahilly, EIHM 462 n.2 ). b, Hugh Roe² 46.y . a p. báu, TBFr. 395. b, Ériu ii 20 § 1. g p. bao, Sg. 22b11 , Báu, LU 5373. b, Thes. ii 335.1 (Hy.v), bó, LL 33391 (TBFr.). d p. búaib, LL 22315. n du. di bai , Ml. 2b11 . a du. dí báe , TBFr. dā boin , Corm. Y 1082 (prob. a neologism, GOI § 340.2 ). b.¤ f., d s. boin, g s. g p. bó, n p. ba, bai ( baei: cnai, ex. 1623 ), d p. búaibh, a p. b, IGT Decl. § 86.

Ox, cow: inna mbao (innabao, MS.) gl. boum, Sg. 22b11 . bō nomen de sono factum suae uocis .i. ainm arna dēnam d'foghar in gotha uodēin, Corm. Y 134. b.¤ gl. vacca, Ir. Gl. 159. buachaill b.¤ gl. bubulcus, 583 . bō a boue .i. is coitcenn aní as bós, ut est duo juga bouum, non enim uaccas dixit , O'Mulc. 161. domaincheass ainm do boin .i. dammainchess .i. mainchess bō, ar is cotcend do ceniul a mbos, 321 . dicitur . . . redg frisin boin mir, Corm. Y 1103. coro dart boin dia búaib, LL 22315 ( Dinds. 113 ). rocuinnig seom boin co B., Thes. ii 340.17 (Hy. v Comm.). blegon inna mbō fo thrī, 335.1 (Hy. v). co tucad na bu co Loch L. . . . dia mblegon, 334.43 (Hy. v Comm.). carais forglu inna mbō, 340.1 (Hy. v). bo blegar fri fit, bo co ngalur, bo ciss flatha no eclasa, bo brothcain, Laws v 260.2 - 4 . turcreic bo cona timtach tricha set, ZCP xiv 361 § 19. ite ainmead bo ara n-athchuir etc., O'Curry 250 (H. 3.18, 145a). trí aithgine in domuin: brú mná, uth b.¤, ness gobann, Triads 148 . eacmaing a bhái ana . . . do breith dolēic, ZCP xiii 172.18 . oc tabairt tānae b.¤ húait, Sc.M² 11. i rrechtaib b.¤ ┐ dam ┐ ech (rhet.), LU 8367 ( FB 24 ). rucad láeg mo bo fadéin . . . uaim-se, CRR 3. co mblighfidhe ó na buaibh / sáith f[h]er n-Ēirenn re h-aon-uair, ML² 138. cethracha b.¤ mbreithi mbalcc `forty strong milch cows', Celtica iv 12.21 . buachaill ag na buaib, Laws iv 86.3 Comm. gur f[h]āgaib gach bō 'gā bōthar, ML² 1255. no-chennachtís na bú, PH 4494. no-chennaigitis na bai . . . isin tempul, 4510. ar boin cach naidche ailes `for he deserves (i.e. claims) a cow every night', Laws ii 136.8 . ansom . . . bai briugad . . . teora bae i muin na trissi bo cows of a briugu (of interest due for use when given as pledge), v 400.20 . trí haige bruithi and, a dauim, no a boin, co na timthach di saill no charna, i 48.3 Comm. cuic ba imorro in gach indligedh athgabala `five cows . . . (is) . . . (the fine) for illegal distress', ii 100.4 Comm. in t-airi ard .i. da ba deg a eniclann, v 46.11 Comm. Bríg . . . is lé tomlachta na bae fothrí i n-oenló, Fél. 56.15 . cain Daire ga[n] bú do marbad, 210.33 . lenaid b.¤ odar eisium, ┐ corbo isin in Odor Ciarain (hence the name of the Codex Lebor na Huidre Book of the Dun Cow), 202.33 . intan dono no gesed in tarb bai ocaib no thiagdais ba in tire comfoco[i]s, Dinds. 142. ro ghad boin o Ciaran . . . ro innto an buin go Ciaran doridhisi, BNnÉ 109 § 38 . ní bhean boin do baintrebhthaigh, IGT Decl. ex. 509. luaith na b.¤ do bheith ar n-a hiodhbairt, TSh. 437. i gcuibhreann na mb.¤ fán bhféar (of Nabuchadonosar), 3464 . ó tharlais gan bhrat gan bhú, Measgra D. 27.34 . mairg nach tabhair bloigh na b.¤ / [san] chró [a d]taraidh 'n-a boin bheo alas for him who does not give (to God) a portion of the cow (i.e. some of his wealth) for it will be a whole cow in heaven, DDána 42.39 . ná bíodh aca choidhche, daimh, ba, ná tréuda cáorach = kyne, RSClára 108a . b.¤ sa bhoin `a cow for cow', Eg. Gl. 739. In legal contexts frequently a unit of value (Plummer MS. notes), see Binchy, Críth G. (p. 106 ): secht seoit sin da tecait ceithre ba .i. bo mór and ┐ se samaisce ar trí buaib, in bo riu, conid ceithri ba, O'Curry 195 - 196 (H.4.22, 8). naoi marg xxit do bhuaibh no darget `29 marks . . . in cows or in money', Trans. RIA xv (1826) 33.25 .

Of land: ined da boo deac di thir, AU i 288.11 (see Mac Neill, PRIA xxxvi 286 n. 2 ).

In phrr. in various applications: b.¤ bainne, Laws ii 176.16 Comm. b.¤ blicht, Lat. Lives 103.2 . ár mbadh bhí bleacht, ZCP v 214.368 (Midn. Court). in bo derba `milch cow', Laws ii 162.8 Comm. (`cow of the (milk)-pail' (Thurn.), ZCP xx 199 n.7 ). b.¤ ḟind óderg white red-eared cow `often mentioned in early Irish literature as a choice breed of cattle,' Bergin, Ériu xiv 170 and Peritia xix 239-55 : roerbad iarom b.¤ find audercc dia taiscid ┐ ba slan di, Vita Br. 5. bo find ó. leo, LU 4410. secht mba finna ō-derga, ML² 34. dobert a máthair dí báe déc dó assint shíd, it é finda óiderga, TBFr. 5. b.¤ bháthair a stray cow , IGT Decl. ex. 1354. Note also: bo fri blícht, Laws i 122.10 .i. i n-aimsir lachtha isin tsamradh, 126.19 Comm. bó allaid (`stag', Plummer MS. notes), perh. hind: tuc fer boin allaid leis dia hidpairt, LB 152a58 . b.¤ féich: tighail .i. (sic leg.) crīch dédenach tairic in bō fēich cow paid as last payment of debt due (?), O'Mulc. 862. b.¤ ḟeisi (see Bürgschaft 66 , 78 ): ised slan ngell .i. ba fesi gell, tricha a lin . . . ┐ diabludh fiach for bidbuid cows of spending the night (part of compensation payable by defaulting debtor to his surety, kept in captivity by creditor), Laws ii 136.5 Comm. cu nícand dech mbu feisi ┐ logh einech, O'D. 87 (H.3.17, 73). b.¤ indláeg see indláeg and, Ériu xx 231 - 2 . b.¤ gabála a (beef-)cow levied as a due (see gabál): bo g. .i. mart, no in b.¤ méth, ut est athgabail b.¤ gabala . . . .i. in bo marta nó atgabail gabair im boin marta, O'Dav. 284. b.¤ lethgabála (expld. by O'Curry, Manners and Customs iii 519 n. 580 as `rate in aid of a cow (perh. half the cow's value) levied to meet the requisition of the officer for the relief of the poor' (i.e. the huaitne fonluing, etc.). dlighidh . . . boin lethgab[ala], 519.17 . b.¤ marta beef-cow , see 2 mart. b. threlóeg a cow having had three calves: .i. cuinnid co hobonn boin treloegh , Bretha 42 § 33.6 . .i. ni truma na inni ata ina thoirsiugud umpu na bo trelaog , 44 § 34.9 . tri ba inlaega ar da m-buaib tre laega , Laws i 102.19 Comm . b.¤ thúir see 2 túr.

In nn. loc. (see also Hog. Onom.): Campulus Bouis . . . Ached bou, Thes. ii 278.2 . o Inis bo finne, Fél. 184.18 . Bernas ṁ Bāu (= Báu, LU 5373 ) Cūailnge, TBC-I¹ 897.

Compds. With nouns: cin boainmead without bovine defect(justifying, if present, the cancellation of a purchase, Plummer MS. notes), O'Curry 250 (H.3.18, 145). bó-ár name of a cattle-disease, RC xii 428 § 17. boár .i. sgamach nó maolgarb (see bódíth infra) no galur righín, O'Dav. 291. iar dteacht do bh.¤ nó do bhó-dhíth chuca i n-aimsir C[h]ormaic mic Airt, Ériu i 89 § 36. bóbard seventh class of sóer bard, IT iii 5.10 . bobard dō, suithi ndebidi scarta la sen etir fod ┐ cuimri, etir trebrad ┐ sned, 28 § 67 . aisti bobaird . . . .i. debidi nimrínd ┐ debide scailti etir fot ┐ gair, 45 § 66 . Dond Cúalnge . . . / co ndernsat imme in mbó-brait ` Cattle-Raid ', Metr. Dinds. iii 370.8 . screpul cach bóbotha ` cow-shed ', RC xiv 430 § 56. Dari [.i.] bóchana, fedb, Gorm. Nov. 2. Cf. cain Darí, cen bú do gait, Thes. ii 306.28 , see Thurneysen, ZCP xviii 386. ro metadh blicht cacha bo-cheathra, MR 100.20 . See bóchar. go ndeachaidh do chosnamh a bhóichreche orra `to protect his cows against them', AFM iii 224.6 . crecsluaighedh . . . d'ar comairmedh secht cata deg do bochrudh of property in cattle, AU ii 506.20 . leisin mbréid sróllchon sénta / bóchrodh téid dá thaiscélta, IGT Decl. ex. 71. bruach do bhiadhfadh bóchuingir a yoke of oxen, Ó Bruad. iii 88.16 . ? ba flaith os chuan cach curaich / fo bái slúag in bo-chumaid, Metr. Dinds. iv 338.8 . ina bai bit a mbodaingen `cows should be in a cow-fastness' (i.e. at nightfall), Laws iv 96.25 . See bódela. at crothle garmilíne / at búanaind bodelbae in the shape of a cow (?), LU 8366 ( FB 24 ). bodibad mor fo Erind destruction of cattle, AU i 470.22 . doroine bo-dhibadh mór (of an invad- ing chief), ii 118.21 . (as epithet) Bresal Bodibadh, MacCarthy 302.9 . bo-dhíth mhór ind Erinn, dá ngoirthí Maolgarbh `murrain', AFM ii 1044.11 . earrach an bhó-dhíthe, ALC i 494.15 . bó-dún see badún. moch i.e. bo-erge lit. cow-rising (gl. buaroch), O'Dav. 215 (see Ériu xiii 14.29 ). no sechmallad . . . in ṁbeoḟeoil `the beef ', RC xx 262.19 (ACC Comm.). co tuc boghabhail moir a great prey of cattle, AU i 526.4 . nía boidb bógeimnech (rhetoric), LU 5326 (TBC). bōger ` beef- lard ', MacCongl. 79.23 . bogeltach faithche .i. fer meite coimse na teit tar crich . . . bogeltach .i. fer fogelta a bu a faithce ar cach nach déis etar coin allta ime . . . ni dligh dire na saire ` cow-grazier ', Laws iv 344.5 , 352.18 , 21 Comm. bóguin, see Wortk. 146 : (g s. as epithet) Enna Bōguine (B. ōtāt Cenēl m Bógaine, v.l.), Corp. Gen. 163.2 . Cf. Boguinig `the descendants of Enna Boghuine' (note), MR 156.10 . co ro slecht in buar uile, co n-ebert: "Is bo-guine andso ┐ bid [sed] (?) ainm na benni[se]." Unde . . . Beann Bogaine `a cow- slaughter', Dinds. 142. ingen in righ .i. Boguine a ainm-siden, ACL iii 324.7 . sinum lactis .i. genus uasis .i. bomilge `of cows milk', Thes. ii 48.30 . boogam .i. lilgach ar aicme bethi . . gamnach ar aicme huatha . . . samaisc ar aicme muine, Auraic. 5759. bō-otrac[h] cow-dung , Corm. Y 196. conamailt saill ┐ bōṡaill foa corned beef (?), Corm. Y 883 (76.11) . ethar bec . . . bōshaille `of beef-fat', MacCongl. 85.10 . boseiche ` cow-hide ', Laws iv 148.19 Comm. it séoit bóṡlabra[e] direnatar dó, Críth G. 120. tri cóecait cét boslabraidh ` dower-kine ', RC xvii 214.4 (Tig.) = bó ṡlabhra, Keat. iii 2243 . bo-ṡlechta `the law concerning cows', Ann. Inisf. 810. rith cana boileachta `des Rinder betreffenden Gesetzes', ZCP xviii 383.14 . cain boiliuchta (i.e. `the law that treats of cow-killing, cow stealing, etc.' n. 1), Laws iii 110.4 Comm. seacht cumala lana for fer nurradais mboslechta .i. iar marba buachalla, no airamhain. No is comlaithred deisi iar ngait, O'Curry 2440 ( Eg. 88, 36 ra. ) ` cattle-tracking ', O'Gr. Cat. 97 § 42. bosluaiged lit. host of cattle gl. mammona, Ir. Gl. 300. botheach ` cow house ', Laws v 514.35 Comm. bótháin cow raid : rohir dam . . . .x. mbuachailli botana, Ériu ii 3.14 . ron-íurusa im chét mbó bódána, BDD² 267 = bóthána, LU 6763. co n-immad ech ┐ bótháinte, LU 3911 ( SCC 42 ). no geibed Flidais . . . do bóthorud of livestock, TBFlidais 88 . co tí in bo dia botreib, BB 397b2 . in a bo-tuar (`cow dung ', Plummer MS. notes), Laws v 464.13 Comm.

With adjj.: bo-abartach, abairt amail in mboin `behaving like the cow', O'Dav. 316 ( Ériu xiii 29.10 ). brucchaid bó-cédach, BNnÉ 137.9 `with hundreds of kine', Keat. ii 4682. Bernngal Bóchétach, Acall. 5322.

With bú-: ? maccaim beca buaigelta (buaidhghela, v.l.), TTebe 1372 . Cf. bógeltach. a ccreachghabhala cruidh ┐ cethra broide ┐ búalmha, Hugh Roe² 204.32 . for buageltach ṁBreg (of Cú Chulainn), LL 12569 ` guardian ', RC xiv 398 § 1 . Buagelltaig, LU 9084 ( FB 83 ), cf. BDD² 1209.

See bárach, bóaire, bóbath, bólacht, bómlacht, bóraime, 1, 2 búarach.

crúadbach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. crúadbach or dil.ie/13187

Forms: crodbach

n [o, m.] (cf. crúaid): noco chath na tuitt rí redg/ ar cruadbach ar comḟerg, LL 22704 `by hard-fighting', CRR 5 . a nnoe is cruadbach ina chreich (: Ruadrach), LL 4273 . ní geib o cleith a cruadhbhach (: uaimnech), Acall. 1587 v.l. Cf. re saigid co suabach / ba cruadbac do, Fen. 282.6 `successful', taken as crodbach.

darírib

Cite this: eDIL s.v. darírib or dil.ie/14681
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: daririb, darírib, dárírib, dharírib, doririb, dáiríre

adv daririb, BB 19 b 41 . Fen. 248 § 5 . Acall. 1392 . darírib, LB 274 a 27 . TSh. Donlevy xv. 4 . dárírib, Fianaig. 78. 12 . Donlevy 130. 25 ; 250. 8 ; 430. 22 . dharírib, Donlevy 230. 9 ; Bedel. doririb, IT iii 86. 13 (rhyming with mílid); cf. do ríreadh, Lhuyd. Also dáiríre, MPIS p. 142 , identical with Sc. da rìreadh. The stress falls on the middle syllable. To judge from the spoken language the first two syllables are long. The phrase seems to contain the preposition de and the dative (sg. and pl.) of fíre, compare the affirmative tria ḟírib: ocht gcéd don tsluagh churata dororchair liom tria ḟírib perished by me in truth Duan. F. 88 st 43 , and such phrases as ar fír, Acall. 5824 ; de ḟír in truth, ib. 4137 ; iar fír, 5606 , &c., but the origin of the first r is obscure.

Earnestly, sincerely; in truth, verily, really, actually, certainly : ceithri catha dég is da ḟichet: roḟearsad im Leacon (leg. imleacon) lór: im ceart Easpáini daririb: ga cosnam do Míle mór, BB 19 b 41 , ZCP x 373 . is rut a mílid a Málaind: do láim doririb ic Róirind, IT iii 86. 13 (BB). fer gráid da imchur ar sét: ní lám nech oili co hég: cid remi gan redg ó thig tene derg hé daririb a red fire it will certainly be Fen. 248 § 5 . dar lemsa ám a ócu is olc darírib in comarli dob áil lib do chríchnugud, LB 247 a 27 . SG i 55. 25 . fásaid ferg mór a nGúaire: re mac Bresail bratúaine: doráidh olcc daririb ris: tréna beirt ndírig ndílis, Acall. 1392 . dar lim arsé is dárírib atáit na fir út ag tabhairt catha dúin, Fianaig. 78. 12 . cibé adéaradh nách bí sneachta ná ruib...da ríribh i nifreann, TSh. 174. 23 . oibriughadh arna hanmannaibh da ríribh, ib. 174. 28 . tuigis A. assin gur mac duine é féin da rírib, 215. 16 . cibé aga mbí an grádh da ríribh ní heagal dó, &c., 225. 12 . ┐ nách fuil innti da ríribh acht buaile bháis ┐ iothlann éaga, 226. 19 . má uṁluighigh dom ghuth dha ríribh...beithí mar ionnṁus spécialta agam os cionn gach uile phobal, Bedel Ex. xix. 5 . bí marb da ríribh na anam do bhreitheaṁnas De. nogo gcruthuighid rena ngníoṁarthaibh go ndéunaid aithrighe da ríribh, Donlevy xv 4 . muna ndéunam dá ríribh díthchioll air... if we do not seriously endeavour ib. 130. 25 . rún do bheith aige an baisdeadh do dhéunaṁ dha rírib to confer the baptism in earnest, 230. 9 coṁartha cinnte aguinn gur mían leis dá ríribh beatha ṡíorruidhe do thabhairt dhúinn, 250. 8 . ionnas gurab éigion gur fíorthuatuighe dá ríribh iad muna feas dóibh cá ham is ionráidhte amen so that they must índeed be very idiots, 430. 22 . asé an ríghrádh dáiríre é, MPIS p. 142 . go righeam daríribh Tír na nóg, Laoi Ois. 216 .

MOD. (all districts): dá ríribh, dhá ríribh (O'R. also ra ríreadh): glacfad do choṁairle do chroidhe dhá ríribh (Kerry; cf. Séadna¹ 136. 21 ). an dá ríribh atáoi tú are you in earnest? do you mean it? In Munster also dáiríripíre (possibly from dáríribh fíre). Sc. da rìreadh, a rìreadh (with aspirated r-): am bheil thu a rìreadh? or: an ann da rìreadh a tha thu? tha e cheart rìreadh he is in real earnest; a cheart is a rìreadh in good earnest. da rìreadh = dáiríre above. Also Sc. da ríribh according to Macd. 762 b (thus always at Poolewe). M`Alpine's da rìdheadh (p. 210) is a mistake for da rìreadh, and the spelling d'arrighribh (p. 98) invented by himself.

2 fúath

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 fúath or dil.ie/24716

n u, m. (late development of 1 úath `horror'). Cf. 1 fúath (u, m.) IGT Decl. § 95 . Hatred, abhorrence. is aire ... dogairthe Uathach di side uair feoil lenam doberthe di co tabraitis na lenaim fuath di, LL 316c48 . tugsad fuath d'ḟailghibh `gave up' Aithd. D. 23.20 . ní thiubhra fuath d'éinní, TSh. 8056 . cion an fhuatha (one of the capital sins), Dán Dé xxxi 38 . diol grádha nó fuatha = an odio an amore dignus sit (cf. Ecclesiastes ix 1 ) TSh. 1155 . spioraid an fhuatha, Párl. na mB. 962 (= s. na fuatha, 3006 ). dúisgidh an f.¤ imreasuin, Proverbs x 12 . With obj. gen.: méad a ḟuatha ag ógbhaidh danar the hatred of the foreigners for him TD 16.47 . ... gé do chuir | a fhuath fá aicme Chellaigh `inspired C.'s race with hatred for [i.e. great discontent with] him' O'Gr. Cat. 365 ( Aithd. D. p. 36 ). f.¤ agallmha dislike of mere talk ZCP ii 349.26 . With DO: coimhéid do dhúthracht do Dia ┐ t'fh.¤ do chách (= odium) TSh. 3536 . a chnuic ..., f.¤ dot oirear im inntinn, Gofraidh Fionn, DDána p. 192 . IS F.¤ LIMM I hate: bá f.¤ le hArt mac C. é, ó romharbh sé dá brathair Airt, Cóir Anm. 167 , Keat. ii 4190 . (See another explanation s.v. 1 fúath). gach ní budh f.¤ lé, TSh. 6511 . grādh Taidg leis nach f.¤ sind who does not hate us (a litotes) ZCP viii 222 § 5 . Cf. lā sīde sin ... la firu Erenn ┐ ni bī neach a ḟuath [ = i bhf.] a chēili and `none is at enmity' Ériu xii 144.29 .

See 1 úath.

? Compds. fuathnél: fuathnell foirtchide a lowering cloud YBL 309b40 ( MR 240 ) (= 1 úath horror, dread ?). ¤redgach o-ā furious: fiadmil fuathréadgach fomórda fairgi, YBL 310b4 ( MR 248 ) (see redg , redgach).

1 in

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 in or dil.ie/28194
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: int, -nt, -(s)int, int, na, inna, inna, in, -n, ind, in, ind, int, ind, int, int, ind, s-, -ss-, ocin(d), immin, immun, indá, dundaib, -b, -b, inna, na, na, in, in, na, ind, in, int, inna, na, a n-, a, a, -(s)naib, -(s)na, -d, na, inna, in, ind, an, an t-, in, int, ind, ind, a n-, in, mbúaid, a, in, ind, in, in, na, inna, inda, ind, indá, inna, na, inna, na, na, inna, na, ina, inna, na, in, -n, in, in, in, in, in, in, in, isin, isin, ind, na, in, in, na, na, na, in, in, na, na, na, an, na, ind

def. art. the. See GOI § 467 ff . Zeuss pp. 210 - 217 . Paradigm in O.Ir. Masc. Fem. Neut. Sing. N. in, int ind', in', int a n- A. in n-, -(s)in n- in n-, -(s)in n- a n-, -(s)a n- G. ind', in', int inna, na ind', in', int D. in' -(s)ind', ind', -(s)ind', in', ind', int, -(s)in', -(s)int, -(s)in', -nd', -n' -(s)ind', -(s)in', -nd', -n', -nt -(s)int, -nd', -n', -nt Plur. N. ind', in', int inna, na inna, na A. inna, na, -(s)na G. inna n-, na n- for all genders D. -(s)naib

The forms int, -nt, -(s)int are used before ṡ, except int of n s. masc. which occurs before vowels.

The forms na, inna g s. fem., n p. fem. and neut., and a p. of all genders, geminate follg. consonants and prefix h to vowels (but this h is very rarely written in O.Ir. Cf., however, inna hirise, Sg. 209b24 ).

Before the dual the art. always has the form in, -n except ind da la, Thes. ii 33.21 (Bv.).

The dat. forms without preposition, in, ind, int, occur in the formation of advv., see II (a) below.

Irregularities are not uncommon, e.g. ind for int, int for ind, etc. See Strachan, ZCP iv 62 - 3 and Zeuss, loc. cit.

The original initial s- appears only in the dat. and acc. after prepositions which originally ended in a consonant, with which it unites to produce -ss-, e.g. cossin n-óin, Wb. 2a21 . isin anmim, 9c30 . The s- does not remain after OC though this does not lenite a follg. subst. TRE lenites a subst. but the s- of the art. remains, perhaps through analogy. After FOR, which did not originally lenite, occur forms both with and without -s-, those with -s- being the more usual: forsin dígail, Wb. 1d2 . fornaib gnímaib, 5a5 . After prepositions originally and in O.Ir. ending in vowels both the initial s- and the vowel of the article are lost: ón bunud, Sg. 33b2 . dind insci, Wb. 5c16 . dont lathur, ib. With OC occur ocin(d) (so always in Wb.) and ocon(d); with IMM, immin and immun.

In medial position -nd- had become -nn- by the O.Ir. period but in a few archaic examples, -nd- is written: indá érrend gl. stigmata, Wb. 20d5 (a prima manu). inda fodb gl. exuias, Thes. ii 47.24 (see Thurneysen, ZCP iii 53 ). dundaib abstolaib, Thes. ii 247.12 (Camb.). dendibh Airgiallaib, AU i 178.8 (A.D. 726) . After prepositions the -n- is single even between vowels: cosnaib, frisna, donaib.

Occasionally even in the O.Ir. glosses the first syllable of the dissyllabic form is dropped, and this becomes the rule later: na teora persana, Wb. 9c30 . na cétne tuisten, 21b4 . na cetnae rainne, Sg. 18b1 . For other exx. see below. In the follg. instances from Sg., in (acc.) seems to have dropped out after -r and before a numeral, leaving an eclipsing n. etar ṅdi rainn `between the two parts,' Sg. 2b2 . etar ṅdá n-ulla , 45b19 . far n-óeṅdeilb `according to the same paradigm,' 90b2 . for n-óin ṅdeilb, 201b6 .

The forms in -d (ind, -sind, -nd) remain only before vowels and before lenited f, r, l, n and, in Wb., sometimes also before lenited m and b.

In forms such as dinab fochidib, Wb. 11b4 , dinab gabalib, 13d33 , arnab uilib cumactib, 21a13 , the quality of the final -b of the article is assimilated to that of the following initial. d p. forms without the final -b developed from such examples as donaballaib, Wb. 12b2 , huana fochaidib, Ml. 54a18 , hona mainénaib, 69c5 , where the final of the article became assimilated to a following initial labial. These forms, however, are still infrequent in the O.Ir. period. Three times in the glosses the n p. fem. and neut. form occurs as masc.: inna leomain, Ml. 80a10 . na tri recte, Wb. 29a16 . na sothe, Sg. 64a14 (see GOI § 309 ).

The art. is regularly sg. before collectives and personal numerals.

When an ordinal numeral adj. follows the art., in the older texts the inflection is regular: na dechmaide bliadna, IT iii 54 § 99. inna treisi dūalchae, ZCP iii 25.35 (but see 2 tress). inna cōicthe dūalche, 26.26 ; but later it varied, the masc. form of the art. being somet. used before a fem. noun: n s f. in ochtmad taidbsi, PH 6716 ; but cf. in cethramad taidbsi, 6702 . is í so in t-ochtmad plāg, 7653 . g s f. na hochtmadi oesi, 3582 . i gcionn an treas bliadhna, Keat. iii 1919.

The chief changes occurring in the form of the article in Mid.Ir. are

(i) The n p. masc. forms ind, in, int gradually disappear and are replaced by the forms common to the fem. and neut., inna, na.

(ii) By 1000 A.D., a n- in the n s. and a s. neut. has virtually disappeared, the only certain examples in SR being: a lleth n-aill, SR 5152 , a mbé, 5974 (see Strachan, Phil. Soc. Trans. p. 7 ).

(iii) -(s)naib in the d p. gives way to -(s)na.

(iv) the -d forms are less common.

(v) the monosyllabic na tends to displace inna.

In Mod. Ir. in, ind > an, an t-.

I Forms (divided into (a) forms from O.Ir. glosses, (b) forms from other texts).

Sing.

nom.

masc.

(a) in fer, Wb. 22c9 . in corp, Ml. 22d9 . in ball, Wb. 12b11 . in senduine, 27b8 . int athir, 4b13 .

(b) int othrus, Críth G. 47. in sluag, LU 4563. in t-ara, 4507 . in cing, 347 . in fer, PH 92. in t-espuc, 25 . in slog, 7237 . an samhradh, TSh. 6345. an t-adhaltrach, 6482 . an ciste, 2951 .

fem.

(a) ind leire, Wb. 13d15 . ind nóibe, 9c30 . ind rún, Ml. 45a3 . ind fáilte, Wb. 16b2 . in fírinne, 9c30 . ind almsan, 17a3 . in ben, 22c9 . ind bendacht, 19b15 . in tol, Ml. 18c9 . in chiall, Sg. 27a8 . int ṡillab, 25a1 . cf. ind sillab, 26a4 .

(b) ind ḟlaith, Críth G. 573. ind ingen, LU 4525. ind rígan, 5205 . ind lánamain, 5403 . in tslige, 5077 . inn orcuin, BDD² 493. ind aimser, PH 5032. in eclais, 86 . in tslanti, 275 . in rīghan, ML² 45. an aislinge, 69 . an chiall, TSh. 985.

neut.

(a) a n-accobor, Wb. 3d3 . a mbás, 15b28 . a teg n-oiged, 4a7 . a ndede n-isiu, Ml. 62c3 . a laithe, 21c3 . a folad, Sg. 3a2 . a rrind, 70b7 . a nnu-iedniss, Wb. 15b2 .

(b) a n-ag, LL 112b31 (Sc.MMD). a n-ude, LU 4866. a llá-sa, 5039 . in laa, 5057 . a llathe, 9743 . a n-ainm, 6182 . in n-écosc, PH 6442. a sessed ngrad, 6246 . (Cf. in t-ochtmad grad, 6251 ). in ainm, 672 . in iach-lind, 381 . in ní, 897 . ind ni, 5251 . an ni, 6194 .

Acc.

masc. and fem.

(a) frissin popul, Ml. 46b26 . trisin recht, 46c20 . in digail, 40c3 . in soscéle, Wb. 18c10 . frisin n-iarfaigid, Ml. 20c9 . in n-almsin, Wb. 16d7 . tresin n-aimsir, Sg. 188a26 .

(b) fón slóg, LU 4654. lasin n-íngin, 4522 . in domon ndron, 3566 . in mbelra, PH 2619. frisin ṅdeilb, 125 . in anmain, 2068 . romolsadar in t-ardrīg, ZCP v 25 § 10. ro gab naire in t-airdrigh, Stair Erc. 1135. gurab é Dia ... do-rinne an bás, TSh. 1052. an cheist, 2855 .

neut.

(a) a mbúaid , Wb. 11a6 . tresa n-acomol, Sg. 32a8 . trissa ndede-se, Ml. 123c5 . cossa laa-sa, Wb. 23a17 .

(b) isa tír, Imr. Brain § 62. a fér, LU 4733. lasa comérge, 4880 . isin n-ármag, 4943 . issa sudiu, 9080 . isi[n] sudi, 9082 . in n-aicned doennai, PH 179. in mboimm, 2373 .

Gen.

masc. and neut.

(a) in betho, Wb. 1a3 . in cháich, 2b11 . ind lóge, 3c1 . ind rechto, 15a34 . ind fir, 13a12 . ind ḟolaid, Sg. 28b19 . ind apstail, Ml. 26a2 . int soirtha, 46b26 . (cf. ind senduini, Wb. 27b8 . ind ṡrotho, Sg. 35b7 ). int srotho, Ml. 93b11 . in tairmchrutto, Wb. 15b6 .

(b) in muilt, Críth G. 73. in tairb, LU 4610. in chon, 5013 . in pheta eóin, 5289 . ind ríg, 4757 . in rothclessa, 8844 . ind laí, 4858 . in locha, 9098 . ind athig, 4684 . ind fir, 4765 . in tṡeuin, 4508 . ind rig, PH 4365. an fhir, 1177 . in apstail, 1991 . ind ecraibthig, 6062 . ind imdibe, 5652 . in t-sacairt, 2508 . in slaníceda, 5146 . an fhedhma, ML² 20 . ind fhir, TTebe 1544 . and fhir, 2433 . inn eich, 2278 . en foulachtae, CMT² 60 § 133 . an bhrátha, TSh. 1014. an tsein-reachta, 404 .

fem.

(a) inna deacte, Wb. 5c16 . inna flaithemnachtae, Sg. 2a1 . inna aidche, Ml. 21c3 . na aimsire, Sg. 188a28 . inna hirise, 209b24 .

(b) na llongsi, IT i 77.3 . na mmucci, LL 112b43 ( ScM. § 8 ). inna conaire, LU 4710. na glassi, 4797 . na haidche, 9058 . ina óidche, PH 1490. na hindsci, 6213 . na colna, TSh. 947. na haithne, 1009 .

Dat. m., f. and n.

(a) isin chétne tuiste, Wb. 1a1 . forsind immarmus, 1d2 . dind fiur, 22c9 . dind failti, Ml. 21c3 . isin anmim, Wb. 9c30 . huant firinni, Ml. 57d8 . isind laithiu, 21c3 . dont lathur, Wb. 5c16 . isint saltair, Ml. 23c19 . isind salm, 50d4 . isin biuth, Wb. 12c16 . dind béstatu, 5c16 . don duini, 4b3 . dond macc, 7c13 .

(b) don chath, LU 4557. isin phupull, 4620 . iarsind frecra, 4772 . don tslúag, 4570 . don ṡlúag, 4748 . dond ríg, BDD² 99. don ríg, 85 . asind aimsir, PH 4928. isin eclais, 3181 . don tsacart, 3140 . assin sinagoig, 110 . asind lucc, 4099 . donn ītadhach, ZCP viii 215 § 75. don fhíréan, TSh. 1146. don pheacthach, 1137 . don tsaidhbhir, 954 . san bhioth, 832 . (cf. san mbioth, 837 . san Sabboit, 4114 ).

Plur.

nom.

masc.

(a) in phreceptori, Wb. 5a2 . in chnamai, Ml. 22d7 . in pecthaig, 55d11 . ind rig, 85d10 . ind apstail, 42b7 . ind fir, Wb. 5a5 . ind ḟilid, Sg. 162a3 . int soirthi, Ml. 19b11 . inna leomain, 80a10 . na tri recte, Wb. 29a16 .

(b) na trí maccáin, Fél. Aug. 2. inna druing-sea, Fél. Ep. 285. (All other examples in Fél. follow strict O. Ir. paradigm, Stokes). inda sacairt, Mon. Tall. 134.11 . in doíni, TBFr. 55. na doíni, 306 . in maic, LU 4900. ind eich, 4733 . na heich, 5070 . in tṡlóig, 4609 . inn óicc, BDD² 896. na heóin, 142 . ind eolaig, PH 7313. in augtair, 6944 . na noim, 3649 . na hapstail, 1826 . inda hapstail, 5371 . ind apstail, 6720 . ind ēcis uile, Anecd. iv 93.10 (Corm.). na tri coicait, LL 114a29 ( ScM. § 21b ). na trenmilid, TTebe 4478 . na cinn, TSh. 73. na haidhmillte, 6088 .

fem. and neut.

(a) indá érrend (gl. stigmata), Wb. 20d5 (a prima manu). inna briathra, Ml. 22c5 . inna ancride, 27b15 . inna anmmann, Sg. 28b18 .

(b) na tigi, IT i 74.7 . inna buidne, LU 4685. na bai, 5398 . na cenna, 4806 . na mna, PH 4997. na créachta, TSh. 1013.

Acc. m. f. and n.

(a) inna fíraingliu, Wb. 9c10 . frisna preceptori, 14d37 . lasna fileda, Sg. 63b4 . na rúna, Wb. 12c11 . lasna anmmann, Sg. 51b10 .

(b) na firu, LU 4626. inna heonu, 5159 . inna echraidí, 4712 . na pecdachdu, PH 3619. na briathra, 3660 . na cóic ṡéotu, Críth G. 162. inna .vii. sa, 307 . na teasta, TSh. 6771.

Gen. m. f. and n.

(a) inna ndóine, Wb. 5c16 . inna fer, 7c8 . inna mban, 22c10 . na n-abstal, 18d14 . na sacardd, Sg. 54a11 . na conson, 9a19 . na forcetal, Wb. 16a12 . inna rrath, 15c3 .

(b) ina ndescipul, Hib. Min. 54. inna muccaide, LU 4670. na nGalión, 4648 . na fíren, PH 437. na ḟer (sic leg.), 1017 . na mbeo, 3648 . na n-ilberla, 5484 . airdena ana cóic la ndéc ria mBrath, RC xxviii 310 § 1. inna fer, TTebe 1845 . na n-ánrad, 951 . na bpeacthach, TSh. 991. na sácramainteadh, 1561 .

Dat. m. f. and n.

(a) donaib ballaib, Wb. 7d14 . donaballaib ailib, 12b2 . arnab uilib cumactib, 21a13 . dinaib fochaidib, Ml. 19b11 . isnaib consonaib, Sg. 9a22 . donab huilib doinib, 189b9 . forsna huilib remṡuidigthib, 212a13 . ocnafothaircthib palnacdib, 217a4 . honai gabalaib, Ml. 54b25 . donab nemindithib, Thes. ii 33.28 (Bv.).

(b) oconaibh insibh, AU 851. donaib Galionaib, LU 4659. dinib collaib, 4937 . dona druídib, 5061 . dina lecaib, 5889 (H). forna bochtaib, PH 3603. dona noemaib, 3620 . donaib maithib ┐ dona holcaib, Ériu iii 2.13 . fornaib coic cathrachuib, ii 140.5 . dona hōgaib, ML² 173. dona daoinibh, TSh. 968. arna heasbadhaibh, 973 .

Dual.

(a) In the O.Ir. glosses, before the dual, the art. always has the form in, -n: Nom. m. in da fersin, Ml. 58a11 . f. in di bai, 2b11 . n. in da n-ainm, 34d6 . Acc. m. in da airdigtha, Sg. 77a8 . f. etir in dí ṡillaib, 59a17 . Gen. m. cechtar in da popul, Ml. 46b30 . n. cechtar in da leithe, Sg. 25b6 . Dat. f. isin dib bliadnib, Thes. ii 30.35 (Bcr.). n. isin dib desmrechtaib-so, Ml. 114b1 . ( ind da la occurs in the Vienna Beda, Thes. ii 33.21 .).

(b) Later the art. preceding the dual is sometimes na, but in remains more common: in dá erred (g.), LU 8057. na dá ech (a.), 8590 . na da ban (g.), 8375 . na dá Maine (n.), BDD² 106. in da gilla chétna (a.), TBC-LL¹ 677. túath in dá Maine (g.), BDD² 210. na da ánrath ┐ na da rind n-agha (n.), TTr.² 583. na dá n-ug n-urchoidech (g.), MR 110.4 . na dá neirrech (g.), Laws iv 336.16 . an dā rīg (na, v.l.) (n.), ML² 776. asna dib berlaib, Lec. 167d31 . don da thóisech, Ériu v 152.126 .

II Article used in formation of adverbs ( GOI § 251.3 and § 379 , § 382 . Zeuss 608 - 9 ).

(a) When nouns of time and manner are used adverbially in the dat. sg., they may be preceded by the article, e.g. in chruth as coir, Wb. 7b1 . in chruth sin, 7d16 . ind echt sa, 3a7 ; but cf. cruth ro pridchissem, 24c17 . inni rombatar riam hí tempul, Ml. 62b2 .

(b) In O. and Mid. Ir. the article (but see alternative explanation, GOI § 379 ) was used with an adj. in the dat. sing. neut. and with some participles in -de to form an adverb. The follg. list is illustrative only: in biucc gl. paulatim, Sg. 12b1 . in mór, Wb. 14b21 . in már gl. adeo, Sg. 8a2 . in deurb ` certainly ,' Ml. 70b2 . ind fír ` truly ,' Wb. 14c32 . ind ḟír, Sg. 106a5 . in demin gl. quidem, Ml. 37a13 . int soer gl. libere, 31b18 . int sainriud, 54a22 . in chomocus ` nearby ,' Sg. 188a19 . ind imdu gl. passim, Ml. 35b5 . in fortgidiu ` covertly ,' 30a3 . in chlidiu, 50c13 . in chotarsnu gl. e contrario, Sg. 17b9 . ind ulcc male, Hib. Min. 432. ind infholach secretly , PH 6085. in infholuch, 7998 . In a few exx. the form of the adj. is that of the nom.: ind utmall, Wb. 26b10 (but this form may also have been used for dat.). in madae, 19d16 . ind immdae, Sg. 26a5 . Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii § 419 explains this as being due to the similarity of nom. and dat. masc. and neut. forms in some adjj. Cf. also: in tsainrethaig, LU 5514.

With compar. and superl. of adjj. to form comparative advv.: ind ichtarchu gl. inferius, Ml. 24d30 . int serbu gl. amarius, 24c10 . in máam gl. primum, Wb. 1c20 . ind luindiu gl. commotius, Ml. 32d1 . ind feliu gl. uericondius, 58b1 . ind lugu gl. minus, 123c12 . in mó ┐ in mó, Trip.² 2108 , 2628 . in mor-mo, PH 3369 , 3605 . See GOI § 382.

(c) In the case of adjj. in -d(a)e (except imdae) and participles in -th(a)e (but see in fortgidiu, in chlidiu, above), instead of the dative a form in -id, -ith combines with the art. to form the adv. A few instances also occur of advv. formed in this way from substantives. From adjj.: in doracdid `in the Doric fashion,' Sg. 204b9 . in chorpdid gl. corporaliter, Wb. 27a12 . ind óindid once , Ml. 29a3 . int slanidid ` salutarily ,' 71a1 . in tuailngigthid ` deigningly ,' 78c1 . ind inchlidid gl. latenter, 100c7 . in tuasailcthid ` absolutely ,' 32d5 . From substt.: in mesid (<mess) gl. iudicialiter, Ml. 51c21 . ind frithoircnid (<frithorcun) ` offensively ,' 127c23 . in diglaid (<dígal) gl. ulciscenter, 62d3 . ind áirmith (<árim) ` numerically ,' Sg. 27a17 .

III Usage.

The article is always proclitic and is used before a substantive to express the definite character of that substantive unless this is already apparent either from the nature of the substantive itself, as in the case of proper names, or from some accompanying defining word or phrase, e.g. when the substantive is followed by a definite genitive, or preceded by a possessive adjective.

A Exx. of the ordinary use of def. art.: accaldam auctor ind recto `an address to the teachers of the Law,' Wb. 3c4 . risiu rocloammar in fogur `before we hear the sound,' Ml. 112b12 . intan labratar ind ḟilid `when the poets speak,' Sg. 162a3 . oc déscin na macraide, LU 4859. in trénfir ┐ ind láith gaile, 8104 . an cúigeadh cinéal, na mairtírigh, TSh. 4842. In: amal in scrissid .i. amal in n-altain n-áith `as a scraper i.e., as a sharp razor,' Ml. 72b8 , translate: as the scraper etc., regarding it as a type of instrument rather than a single instrument of its kind?

The article is used

(a) in the sense of each, every, also a single in such phrases as: ced fan fer, Stair Erc. 1471. 1532 . berad-sa anam a flaithess duit a n-agaidh an ruainde da fuil ad brat `for every thread in thy cloak,' BCC 358.14 . is assu duinni in fer cech laí andás a cét cach n-aidchi one man every day, LU 5622.

(b) sometimes with cách, when this is followed by a relative clause: ní lat in cách forsa mmitter `not thine is everyone on whom thou passest judgment,' Wb. 6b22 . úar in cách dodechaid úad, Trip.² 1198. congnamh lásan ccách nó chathaighfeadh dar cenn an chreidimh, AFM vi 2290.22 .

(c) with oen-, intensifying the idea of singleness: nabīd D. fut ind ṡamlāi oc breith na hēnbrethi `giving a single judgment,' ZCP xiii 179.1 . con-accai ni ... .i. in n-aenmnái for fertais in charpait, TBC-LL¹ 202. hespach do neoch a thríall acht dond oen ḟialluch, 415 .

(d) in speaking of two things (cf. Fr. l'un, Germ. der eine): focherded a líathróit ┐ focherded a loirg ... Níbo moo in band oldas a chéle one stroke was not greater than the other, LU 5006. timchillid a teach ón dorus colaile, RC xxiv 145.14 . dā ṡenrand ... dun rand díb ... don rund aile, Fianaig. 48 § 14 , § 15 .

(e) frequently, and particularly after verbs of seeing, before a noun which is logically indefinite to draw attention to it and to render the narrative more vivid (for an alternative explanation see GOI § 470 ): co facatar in tsentuinne they saw an old woman, Corm. Y 1059.43 . co n-acca ara chind in fer ┐ leth a chind fair, LU 4933. co n-aca Cú in n-ócben cuchi, 6082 . co n-acca in tech find, MacCongl. 67.12 . co n-accas na trí coícait ban co n-inaraib corcraib, TBFr. 258. rataiges in triar marcach dochom in tige, LU 6779. is and dosnarraid in fer máeldub, 6820 . doringni in mac bec in tres gním `eine dritte That,' TBC-LL¹ 1068. duscōtar īarum condusrulai isin mag n-ālaind co n-acatar an rīghrāith isin [maig], ZCP iii 459.18 . is iarum bert in Liath Macha na tri dergruathra, RC iii 181.36 .

(f) before nouns followed by the demonstratives so, sin, tall, ucut: in chrud sin, Wb. 13a6 . tarsin corp sin 15c16 . in teintide tall, ZCP v 25 § 7. isin tsalm tall, Ml. 58a11 . don mac so, BDD² 107. in tan sin, 130 . in triar ucut, 295 .

B The article is not usually used before

(a) personal names. In O. Ir. names of individuals take the article only when they are qualified by an adj. or a demonstrative, or when used as common nouns (e.g. á ṅIacob the name Jacob, Ml. 34d6 ): ol Duaid, Ml. 95d7 . mad la Cirine `according to Jerome,' 74d13 . ho Isaác, Wb. 4c7 . for érlam Patraic, Thes. ii 305.5 ; but: in Scip Emelendae gl. Emilianus Scipio Sg. 31a2 . in Caesar Octauienda gl. Octauianus Caesar, 31a3 . in Fiac sin, Thes. ii 307.3 . co tech in Dubthaig sin, ib. 9 . Exceptionally: Nabál sin slebi Carmil, SR 6307. In Mid. Ir. it is somet. used with anaphoric force: a n-Inis meic Uchen robai in Gartnan, Anecd. i 1.3 . in Cathal, MacCongl. 41.28 . iman Mormael, Ériu xii 190 § 23. do marbsad in tEochaid andsin, ZCP viii 274.13 . ba rí hi Temair in Fīachu Sraptine amal adrubrumar, 317.16 .

(b) place-names: i Corint, Wb. 14b5 . i nEgipt, Ml. 88a12 . téicht do Róim, Thes. ii 296.3 . co nōgaib Hérenn, 306.1 ; but: ind Róm fil hí Constantinopoil ... inna Rómae, Sg. 174a1 . In Mid. Ir. the article became more common particularly before a noun in the genitive, but the omission of the article was still much more frequent than its use: ind Eriu, LU 4042. íar sligi na Temrach, BDD² 131. do Themraig, 149 . fonaidm ṅgíall Temrach, 164 . sethnu na Hérind, 608 . i tír Hérend, 690 . i nOenuch na Crúachna, LU 2888. hi cathair Cruachna, 2886 . isin Taltin, 2894 . hi Taltin, 2896 . In Mod. Ir. some geographical names regularly take the article, e.g. an Fhrainnc, an Spáinn. Others sometimes take the article, but in the gen. only: Éire, i nÉirinn, tír na hÉireann. Alba, muinntear na hAlban; but cf. lucht cuarta Éireann, Dáil Éireann (Dinneen, s.v. Éire).

(c) names of peoples and patronymics: arindí atrebat Romáin and, Sg. 33a11 . atrebat Laitnóri and, 14 . di Romanaib, 33a10 . Romoldai, 31b4 . la Ebreu, Ml. 26c1 . di Iudéib, Wb. 27d4 . fri Saxanu, Críth G. 523. la hUltu, BDD² 977. do ríg Rómán, LU 6389 ; but: ind Romain, Sg. 31b5 . int Ṡabindai, 28a10 . forsna Egiptacdu, Ml. 96c11 . do choscc inna nIsrahélde, Wb. 5a16 . na nDéisi, Thes. ii 297.5 . in Galióin, LU 4656. co tríchait chét na nGalión, 4648 . The absence of the article would seem to be the earlier usage, cf. la Féniu (a phrase common throughout the law-tracts), Críth G. 125. chórus Féne, 588 .

(d) nouns that refer to things of which there is one only, or one outstanding example (these nouns approach in meaning to proper names): is samlid dano gniith demun, Wb. 21b2 . amal indocbáil dáe, 21a10 . as tualang deacht todiusgud Crist `the Godhead,' 13c15 . i tempul, 26a8 . hi fudumnaib talman, Ml. 40d16 . di chosecrad tabernacuil, 48b11 . gein maicc hua athair `the birth of the Son from the Father,' 85b11 . conapad firdía mac `that the Son should not be true God,' 21c12 . amal as toisegiu grián indáas laithe, 85b11 . o hescgu co grein, SR 113. o thosuch domuin, 517 . dochuaid diliu don domon, 2592 . co lluid trít co talmain, LU 5767. do diabul, PH 4889. nī dlig sāire ... i tūaith nā i n-eclais amongst the laity or in the church, Ériu i 218 § 2. roaithbeōaig Cairbri ō marbaib from the dead, ACL iii 225.v . Siuir agus Máigh ag gréin dá ngeimhliughadh, DDána 109 § 11. for fairgi, Corm. Y 1059.14 . fri tīr, ib. 15 . slánaigh le hóigh t'oileamhain `make good to the Virgin her nursing of Thee,' Aithd. D. 67 § 26.

Here belong the names of parts of the body: ho giun et ... hi cridiu, Wb. 5d14 . ind foisitiu i ngiun `the confession in the mouth,' 4d33 . a n-asberid hó bélib, 7d10 . a lleth o laim deiss `the half from the right hand,' Sg. 17b2 . risiu rocloammar in fogur hua chluasaib with the ears, Ml. 112b12 . anuas co imlind, LU 5780 ; but cf. intan citambí ind lám in terochraic, Ml. 36b1 . in geno gl. oris, 82c5 .

(e) a noun occurring in apposition to a proper name as a sobriquet: for Lomnae Drúth, BDD² 705. Suibne Geilt, Thes. ii 294.10 . for Tamun drúth, LU 6670. Cauland cerdd, 4975 . aided Redg cáinte, 5803 .

(f) the names of abstract ideas, virtues, vices, etc.; nachin rogba úall `that pride may not seize us,' Wb. 15d40 . is asse dúib maid do denum, 4a4 . inne maith ł uilcc, Sg. 39a32 . nephdenum neich di ulc fri nech dogní olc frit, Ml. 23c20 . dechair eter olcc is maith, SR 1255. erig, ... córu achāch duit mormenma, TBC-LL¹ 3978. ni rabi a samail ... ar maisse ┐ míne ┐ mórdacht, TTr. 621. ní fhuil nert agud gun techt lium, ZCP vi 48.12 . na ndenad (leg. denad) uaill na diumus, PH 4255. Exx. with the article are: ind huall gl. arrogantia, Ml. 51a11 . gl. elatio, 28a1 . frisin noibi ┐ in glaini, 98d2 . ised a nnert foirbthe imgabail cech huilc this is perfect virtue, 35d14 . immeradi a n-olc, 33d2 . a mundit[i]a .i. ōn gloine, Corm. Y 900. attach inísel ... tairnid in díumus `superbiam excludit,' PH 8035. sanntaiged in rig ... in fírinde, 4254 . ro coimnertaigiss an coir `thou hast strengthened justice,' Stair Erc. 429.

(g) a subst. followed by a definite genitive. (The article is used when the gen. is attributive rather than defining, e.g. á cenele ndoine, Wb. 5c16 . a llaa mbrithemnacte sin, 6b26 . forsa cenélae metir sin, Sg. 8a13 . in Briccriu Conaill Chernaig (name of a shield), BDD² 977. in Brug mna Elcmair, Ériu viii 175.9 . an Iodh Morainn, Keat. ii 3659. as an gCraoibh Dheirg Chonchubhair, ib. 3086 ).

The gen. is a proper name: ar iriss Crist, Wb. 25a10 . di doiri Babelon, Ml. 46b26 . ó Thuind Clidnai, BDD² 1087. la firu Hérenn, 123 ; or approaches in meaning to a proper name: precept soscéli, Wb. 1b10 . Exceptions are rare: in tṡlóig Herend, LU 4609. gol mo matharsa so ┐ na mban mBoine, TBFr. App. § 20 (= ... ┐ bantrochta Boínni, text).

The gen. is preceded by the def. art.: ar meinci inna indithme, Ml. 85d1 . ardlathi in betho, Wb. 1a3 . dar cenn ind Iudidi, 2a4 . tri hiris in cháich, 2b11 . fri bás inna clóen, Thes. ii 320.1 . for lorg in tslóig, LU 4782. lucht in baile, PH 49. In O. Ir. there are a great many exceptions to this rule but in Mid. Ir., comparatively few, and fewer still in Early Mod. Ir.: inna ndánae in spirito, Wb. 21c2 . in pian inna diglae, Ml. 28c19 . din chamull in diumsa, Tur. 60. in dluthe ind flechuid, Ml. 81c8 . in dán inna litredachte, Sg. 33a28 . an fír-thsochraidecht an bethadh suthain, Ir. Lit. 26.18 . leth in orba in athar, Laws iv 46.24 Comm. in prīm-cathraig mōrglain ... in dúnaid, MacCongl. 87.27 . an dara cuing an catha, Irish Texts ii 9 § 24. issind aurlaind in dúine, TBFr. 60. isin sinagoig moir na nEbraide, PH 48. na cuic cuicidh na hEirenn, ZCP xi 43 § 31. oc saigid na cána in domnaig, Ériu ii 208.15 . in mér medhon na láime clí, O'Gr. Cat. 270.29. in fer na tocla, TTebe 1601 . ingen in rig na nEberda, 4645 . In PH there are two cases where this rule does not apply (a) when the governing noun has a demonstrative suffix ¤sa or ¤sin, (b) when it is defined by an ordinal. Exx. (a) na scéla-sin in aingil, PH 2975. in rath-sa na n-ilberla, 5484 . cf. O. Ir.: don dlúim máir sin inna pecthach, Wb. 9d5 . in gnim sin in tengad, Ml. 31b24 . (b) in cetna mís na bliadna, PH 3516. isin tress uair ina óidche, 1490 . In TTebe, s.v. in , Calder notes that while a few instances of the double use of the article occur this is especially the case when the governed noun is followed by sin. The use of the double article when the governing noun is defined by an ordinal though very common is not invariable: cosin tres mac imlesan na hoensúla, BDD² 641. in treas rann sesgat ind uile, Laws ii 370.21 - 22 Comm. an tres gaisgedach na Tiabanda, TTebe 4879 ; but cf.: dorumalt Moisi ... | ann tresraind a aimsire, SR 3784. tres ṅdírime na tána, TBC-LL¹ 2656. i tres boin in brugad, Laws v 402.7 Comm.

The gen. is preceded by a possessive adj.: di foirbthetu for nirisse, Wb. 1a9 . lóg a pecthe, 1c3 . do thudidin do menman, 1c15 . do ind a oenláime, TBC-LL¹ 676. lín a teglaich, TBFr. 8. Exception: lasin flaith far mbretha ifos, SR 1215.

The gen. is defined by cech (Mid. Ir. cach), nach: du thuistin cech dulo, Ml. 85b16 . imfolang nach gnima, 80d2 . tri thesbaid naich baill, Sg. 5a5 . fo cosmailis nacha cat[h]rach, Hib. Min. 219. céol cach ḟir, LL 207a18 . cend cech ḟir díb, TBC-LL¹ 682. i tossuch cach dúnaid, 571 .

The gen. is defined by a further definite genitive: ó soilsi deachte Crist, Wb. 26a17 . irchre fla[tho] Román, 26a5 . co maithib fer nÉrenn, BDD² 1441. An exception is: dar fíartharsna in dunaid fer nÉrend, LU 6291.

C The article is optional before an ordinal adjective: isin chétne tuiste, Wb. 1a1 . cetnae accuis inso `this is the first cause,' Ml. 118d12 . co nómád n-aó `to the ninth generation,' Críth G. 327. cetna gnim gnisset, SR 4197. cethramad gnim, 4209 . (The omissions in SR are necessitated by the metre). Cf. in chethramad accuis, Ml. 118d18 . ón chétna duini, SR 7889. in tres gnim, 4205 . Cf. ll. 83 ff. col. 183 above.

D As a rule substantives defined by a relative sentence take the art. unless they are preceded by is é, conid é, is inunn, etc. (However, before words like airm, baile used adverbially the article is omitted: ría ríg Hérenn airm hi foí, BDD² 488. co ránic na díberga baili i rabatar, 647 . tancattar na hingena airm a mbói Hiruath, PH 905. bail hita a athair, 1380 ): dund óis nad chaithi cach tuari, Wb. 6c11 . a forcell doberam, 25d21 . isind huiliu labramar-ni, Ml. 31b23 (exceptionally: ra mbía ... carpat bas dech bess i n-Aii, LU 5587 ); but: is hé cruth inso áem no-s-messammar, Wb. 9c10 . is inunn chiall isindi as scit ┐ as nōuit , Ml. 114b1 . issí inne fil hi cechtar de, 114b1 . is he titul fil i ndreich ..., Hib. Min. 1. is é óencharpat insin nad foglentais dirmand na hecrada, LU 10177 - 8 . is tú láech as dech fil i nHerind, 5768 . is ed gen n-imarbága fil la firu Hérind, BDD² 1135. is é céadchrann tarla dhó, soileach, Keat. ii 2687. is é áit ar ghabhadar tír, i gCúan an Bhainbh, iii 5055 . is e recht ro buí isin Libia in n-inbuidh sin, Stair Erc. 1101. When the antecedent of the relative sentence is qualified by an ordinal the article sometimes occurs: fá hé Colum ... an céadduine do thógaibh mainistear i n-oiléan Í, Keat. iii 1344. ionnus gurab é an treas fear do chreid ..., ii 5372 . conidh e sin an cedcath do cuir Ercuil, Stair Erc. 966 ; but: gurab é C.C. céaddoctúir do chuaidh, Keat. iii 1347. is si sin cedmainistir caillech ndub ro buí isin Teib, Stair Erc. 890.

1 lúa

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 lúa or dil.ie/30750

Forms: lue, lue, luie, lue, lau, lua, láu, luu, lū, lua, lú, luí

n earlier lue (disyll.?) [io] n s. lue, Sg. 50a20 . a s. luie, MU² 959. lue, 963 . d s. lau (láu, lua, vll.), BDD² 929. láu, LU 9388. luu, LU 9699. LL 277a42 . lū, Cáin Ad. 23. n d. dha lua , ZCP iii 378.12 = dā lú , v 484.1 . Perh. orig. same word as luí, which, however, differs in gender and inflection. See also Études Celt. xxxiii 81-82 .

I

(a) heel, foot; hoof (in some exx. could equally be transl. kick, cf. follg. sections): sal nó lue gl. calx (`heel or kick'), Sg. 50a20 . tēora gāire mallacht for cech ferscāl nomuirbfeth mnái a deis nā clí ná lū nā tengaid, Cáin Ad. 23 . lúth mo da l.¤ (glossed mo choiss) `the vigour of my heels', Ériu i 72 § 1. In B. na f. dha lua is lethreann diobh go losg `two feet and one of them lame', ZCP iii 378. 12 = dā lú, v 484.1 . focheird úir da luib taris hooves, LL 8852 ( TBC-LL¹ 1491 ) (of the `Dond Cualnge'). Perh. also in follg.: ó mir nó ó dúrnn nó o l.¤ (lau, BDD2) `with a bite(?) or a blow or a kick', BDD 94. col-lūib ┐ co ndornaib `with kicks and blows of his fists', Ériu ii 24.12 . cin coisi . . . .i. in lua, Laws i 240.16 Comm .

(b) With verbs of striking etc. spurns (in lit. sense), kicks: dobert a luie frisin comlai colluid a chos trethe, MU² 959. atnaig a l.¤ frisin muine luachrái `he gives his kick to the rush-brake', Fél. 180.24 . doratas mo lua fris `I gave my kick to it', 27 . atacomcussa com láu/condarrala i mbrosnacha, LU 9388 . ata-biu com luu I will slay her with my kick, ZCP iii 216.5 (= LU 9699 , LL 277a42 ). dobered lua do `he would give him a kick', TTebe 259 .

(c) In phr. l.¤ fri: lue fri lūag (luige re lōg, v.l.) one who tramples on (spurns) his wages(?), Bruchst. i 29 § 64 . lua [fri] brot, Aen. 751 , cf. ba lua fri borb ┐ ba beim cind fri hall kicking against a goad, LL 225b38 ( TTr. 629 ).

(d) blow with the heel, kick : tuc C. lua da choiss friasi, LL 7491 . rabretha trénlua tarpech da choiss úad, 9847 ( TBC-LL¹ 2776 ). is dúaig in lua . . . sin, 11206 ( TBC-LL¹ 4411 ). a bedg, no redg, no lua `a start, or a fit, or a kick', Laws iii 180.17 Comm .

See 6 lúa.

redg

Cite this: eDIL s.v. redg or dil.ie/34925

Forms: ríodhg

n gender doubtful; treated as fem., LL 47a38 below. ridhg readhg m. and f. (g s. n p. -a), IGT Dec. § 95 (p. 127.19) . Mod. ríodhg f., Dinneen .

Apparently a sudden impulsive movement (inspired by anger, fear, etc.), a start, dash, spring, often of an assault or attack. bedg, no redg, no lua, no saebleim (of horses), Laws iii 180.17 ; cf. rer . . . inde dicitur rerg no redg frisin boin mir, Corm. Y 1103 . Cú na cerda . . . rob redg robda dar glasmhuir, Cóir Anm. 266 (of the hound of Culann, brought by his master from Spain; `furious', Stokes, but seems a noun: it was a daring dash across the sea ?). co n-érracht Lugaid Riab ṅderg | ropo thalchair a thren-redg , LL 129a40 ( MacCarthy 198 § 2 ). noí ṁbliadna Bressi na mberg | rapo mór tressia [leg. tressi] a thrén-redg , LL 128a28 ( MacCarthy 172 § 6 ). cath Torand ba fortamail | co tres rúad co reidg (: feirg), LL 47a38 ( RC xxix 212 § 19 `with a rush'). rucsad-sum da trenredg trice . . . i certchomhdháil a cheli (of combatants), MR 298.16 . ruc-sum tri trenreadga tinneanais d'imgabail na hirgaili, 234.15 . im Rus na redc `Ross of the rages', RC xx 136y (ACC Comm.). nocho chath na tuitt rí redg | ar cruadbach [is?] ar comfherg `a stout king' (?), CRR § 5 (prob. corrupt). ac righ na redg , SG 26.31 . ridhg anfaidh, IGT Dec. ex. 1687 . readhga fuara tinnis `fits of pain', Keat. iii 1852 .

? rerg

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? rerg or dil.ie/35136

ind rer .i. lon . . . inde dicitur rerg no redg frisin boin mir, Corm. Y 1103 . Ruad Rus rān rēire rerga, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 17 § 12 ( Rawl. 116b30 ).

rodba

Cite this: eDIL s.v. rodba or dil.ie/35414

adj io,iā. sharp, aggressive? redg robda tar glasmuir `aggress- Cóir Anm. 266 = rodba, BB 250a42 (see redg ). masat elta glenna garba | as na [leg. asa?] renna rodba pointed antlers (?), LL 265a14 ( MU 22.6 ).

saeb

Cite this: eDIL s.v. saeb or dil.ie/35877
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: sóibapstil, sáibapstalu, saibsacart

adj o, ā

(a) lit. crooked, aslant, askew : s.¤ .i. claen, Lec. Gl. 81 . dar sál fairrge sruthsóeba (saebsrotha, v.l.) `of the sea's treacherous waters', Metr. Dinds. ii 28.22 . in oculis eius ista obliquitas fuit .i. co s.¤ ro derc for a aite, Fél. 112.20 . gomadh saobh a rosc ┐ a radharc ag Iodh (result of a blow), ZCP x 295.30 . Cf. buille saebh forsna sūile (infirmity of old age), ZCP vi 268.16 ; saobh `blind', O'R.

(b) more commonly in moral sense perverted, perverse, froward. In late lang. oft. acquires added meaning of stupid, silly: sáib a n-iress gl. reprobi circa fidem, Wb. 30c19 . dinaib saibaib gl. adversariis, Ml. 38c20 . doini saibibem gl. peruersisimi homines, 3a5 (for form see GOI, p. 234 ). a chenél soeb!, PH 1384 . locc adnaicthi deorad ┐ doine sóim ṅdochenelach (of Aceldama), ZCP xvii 229.y . an dream is saobh slighthe = quorum viae perversae sunt, TSh. 1742 , cf. 5011 . trūag do sāebaib conar pity for those who follow evil courses (a sign of degenerate times), ACL iii 241 § 13 . teora saobha sanasa | Clainni Cuind `crooked counsels', BNnÉ 302 § 9 . dáoine . . . noch laibhéorus neithe sáobha, Acts xx 30 . blicht seirci sāib 'na hagaid (sic leg.) `a spell of false love' (?), Ériu iv 178.13 (adj. seems to refer to 2 blicht).

(c) of weather deranged, unseasonable : sīna sāebha, ZCP viii 196.2 . is gó flatha dober sína saíba for tūatha clóena, xi 82 § 25 . truaillnither . . . triasna sínaib saebu, PH 4241 . See Measgra D., p. 262 .

(d) false, misleading, unjust, ill-judged : co a sloind nít saéba sunna | mo raind chaema chutrumma `misleading', Metr. Dinds. iii 76.135 . bó as gach baile, ni saobh soin (of tribute to a monastery), BNnÉ 255 § 213 . in lá rucad, ba sóeb sin, | tressiu in mac indá a máthair, Metr. Dinds. iii 176.115 . s.¤ leam mo díchell don droing | do díchenn Mael seng Sechlainn I deem insufficient (?), Irish Texts ii 13 § 20 . ní s.¤ lib `you do not think it deceitful' (of using devices to avoid metrical faults), Auraic. 2065 . a nemghlóir as saobh re seal (of Ireland), O'Gr. Cat. 466.19 . ro hiorgabadh muinnter an filed. Indollais (= indar lais) biodh saoph it seemed to him an unjust proceeding (?), ZCP vii 305.3 . díomus do ládh 'nar leith-ne | saobh adhbhar a ainmnighthe `foolish is the reason for so calling me', Content. viii 26 . gleic na suadh saobh an cogadh sages in conflict, an unnatural war, xi 13 . saobh an ní fá dtugais láimh `stupid was your effort', xxvii 15 . mairg uaisligheas an éigse | saobh an cheard a coimhéid-se, xxx 1 . saobh nach aithnighe . . . | nach tráth dhuit dul ar díthchéill, DDána 1.15 . As subst. ní creidthe ód dhán | nach dearna saobh ná seachrán `foolish partiality', Content. vi 115 .

Compds.

(a) usually with nouns. ¤airde: dogéna sáibfirtu et sáibairde gl. signís et prodigís mendacibus, Wb. 26a20 . ¤apstal false apostle : amal dongniat heritic et saibapstil, Wb. 30b24 . sóibapstil, 8c19 . 17d10 . fri sáibapstalu , 16b4 . fobith inna soebapstal, 18d1 . ¤ben: do sní saomná ┐ a sás `foolish women', Aithd. D. 1.2 .

¤breith false judgement : i ssáib[b]retha, RC xxvi 40 § 214 (see under -recht infra).

¤chomairlige (-id?) false counsellor : niptar saobchomairlighe conacartha dosom, Anecd. ii 63.17 . ¤chreitem heresy, superstition : le shuperstition no saobhchredeamh = superstitio, Adtimchiol 149b6 . ¤dliged: in saeibhdliged sin ara roibi A. `wicked practice', Marco P. 13 . ¤fháid false prophet : ní n-erbba do shōebfháthib, ZCP xi 87 § 51 . druidi ┐ saebfhaithe, Anecd. iii 32.29 . i tig in tshaebfátha, PH 8402 . ¤fháitsine: anno cluined in s., Trip.² 801 . ¤fhiurt see under ¤airde. ¤fhorcetal false teaching : soebforcetul Símoin in druad, PH 1736 . sóifid cách a dán i sáibforcital ┐ i saibintliucht, RC xxvi 42 § 223 . ¤fhorcetlaid: na saebhfhoircetlaidi ┐ na bregaire sin, Lism. L. 1513 . ¤glés ( ¤chless) one of Cú Chulaind's feats (consisting of turning his body round inside his skin): rolae sāebglés dīberge dá churp i mmedón a chrocind, TBC-I¹ 1932 = TBC-LL¹ 2593 . Cf. nos-gabat sáebglés ndíberge forsna díbergaib, BDD 153 . ¤gaeth eddying wind : sitgail na saebgaithi, TTebe 1972 . ¤léim: bedg, no redg, no lua, no saebleim `false spring', Laws iii 180.17 Comm. ra lingestair saebléim isin ṁBoind, CRR 25 . ¤mám: nach mug . . . forsa tabarthar sáebmám isin domnach `wrongful bondage', Ériu ii 194 § 9 . ¤níam: nocon é in saeb-niam sar-nua `specious splendour', Metr. Dinds. iv 340.30 . ? ¤rath: ise fer inso dona timdibhenar a dhire cid saebratha, Laws iv 356.2 Comm.

¤recht: sóifither ecna i soibrechta, RC xxvi 40 § 214 v.l. (see above under ¤breith). for saigtib saoibrechtae, Anecd. ii 48.13 . corus marb i n-óenfhecht de | tria sáeb-recht súain serb-dige `sleep-bringing spell' (or for saeb-bricht?), Metr. Dinds. iv 14.24 .

¤ríagail: ac sidib co saebriaglaib, LL 27b49 . ¤shacart: saibsacart gl. seodopontifice, Ml. 75d3 . ¤shanas: in tres saobh-sanus Lethe Cuinn `one of the three crooked counsels' (expulsion of Mo Chuda from Rahen), BNnÉ 302 § 9 . ¤shruth: tar saebhsrothaib (sic leg.) sál, Hy Maine 92.15 . síon na saobhshroth treacherous streams, L. Cl. A. B. 144.167 . ¤shuidiugud false arrangement: trefocal . . . cen sáebshuidiugud .i. díalt ic frecra d' íarcomruc i n-urd bairdne, ACL iii 293.10 . ¤thonn: do sguiredar na saobh-thonna dā sibal `turbulent waves' (Gloss.), ML² 716 . ¤uisce: sōit srotha saebusci `eddies', Ériu vii 4.23 .

(b) with nouns to form adjj.: ¤derc squint-eyed : Sarán Saoibhderc, BNnÉ 231 § 142 ( Keat. iii 1827 ). ¤ruisc (g s.): Nindedh Saebhruisc, Lism. L. 4142 .

(c) with adjj.: ¤dall: súile saobh-dhalla `crooked and blind' (Gloss.), TSh. 6613 . ¤dían: sruth-aibhne . . . saeb-diana, MR 240.15 . ¤millte ( ¤milliud?): na siangártha sáebhmíllti sídhi so, Comp. CC 83.1 . ¤thim: ruire . . . nach saoibhthim, DDána 87.21 . ¤úar: dar tuind sáili sóeb-úair `cold and treacherous', Metr. Dinds. i 10.56 (= sóebruade, LL 162a19 ).

(d) with adjj. formed from nouns: ¤shúilech squinting : L. . . . saebsuileach, YBL 177a30 (= BB 257b23 ). ¤thonnach: tar na srothaibh . . . sáobhthonnach[a], RC xxix 110 § 2 .

See also saebchíall, —choire, —chuithe, —nós infra.

1 sain

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 sain or dil.ie/36008
Last Revised: 2019

adj i

(a) different, distinct, separate (from other things): s.¤ .i. égsamhail no neimhionann, O'Cl. saini gl. aliae, Sg. 6a16 . liter sh.¤ , 6b6 . alaill sh.¤ gl. aliud aliquid, 24 . hi personaib sainib, 28b2 . s.¤ gl. alia, 39b5 . gl. aliud, Ml. 3a12 . s.¤ póc ┐ pócnat, Sg. 46a3 . is s.¤ indí asidrubairt ┐ indí frisanérbrath gl. diversarum personarum, 220a10 . is s.¤ int soilse ┐ it saini inna rinn gl. aliud est quam ipsa sunt, Ml. 145d3 . s.¤ dán cáich `different (is) every one's gift', Wb. 5d7 . níp s.¤ a n-asberthar ho giun et a mbess hi cridiu, 5d14 . cosmulius tuib arataat ilsenman . . . is s.¤ cach nae .i. is s.¤ fri cath s.¤ fri scor, 12c46 . is s.¤ aní asberar indi et dogníther, 14c21 , cf. 28c1 , PH 7007 . nách s.¤ sollamain la hEgeptacdu ┐ la heclais in descirt, PH 6922 . nī s.¤ in fīrendacht ┐ Christus, ZCP v 498.6 . slicht s.¤ so (.i. sís) another (a different) version, LU 5211 = TBC-I¹ 733 . sliocht s.¤ sen-leabhair memraim, Geneal. Tracts i 50.12 . gen innile soine do cur an-aon cumusc ria ceile, Laws i 304.5 Comm . ropsat s.¤ ┐ ropsat suaichnid ó cách, MR 214.16 . ropsat saine sloinnti . . . cach deg-slua[i]g, 214.10 . cid at saine laithi i ttangator, Leb. Gab.(i) 118.28 . With FRI different from: is s.¤ dofhoirṅde són frisin roithnigud `what this signifies is different from radiance', Sg. 36a3 . ni s.¤ mo gnim frisaní no radim non aliter esse audeo quam dico, Ml. 47b13 . im chomalliud . . . forcetuil ba s.¤ fria fhor[c]etul fen, PH 6522 . is s.¤ a mbreithamnacht saidhi frisna frithib olcena, Laws v 322.y Comm . ba s.¤ frisin dorala do [d]reachtaib da sloghaibh i tirib ele isin doman fared differently, CCath. 2598 . As adv.: is s.¤ donadbantar sensibus ┐ amal bís it appears to the senses otherwise than it really is, Thes. ii 4.32 .

(b) peculiar, special (of a characteristic which distinguishes one thing from others): is s.¤ ordo dogní cechtar nái, Wb. 10b11 . s.¤ persan sluindes an aiinm ┐ in briathar, Sg. 189a9 . s.¤ gnīm fristēit cach narm úad, TBC-I¹ 70 = is [s]aingním, TBC-LL¹ 276 . is s.¤ dath ┐ écosc cacha húaire tadbat fair it has a different colour . . . each time, BDD² 998 (cf. Anecd. ii 6.3 ). is s.¤ cerd cech uí, LL 147a4 ( PRIA xix 546 § 3 ). ba s.¤ rindaigecht gach sceith dib, Ériu v 72.5 . is s.¤ coir cech oenduine | s.¤ aicned cech uilc every man has his own particular failing, every evil its own nature, LB 261b59 = is s.¤ cōir cech oendīne, s.¤ aicned cach luicc, ZCP xiii 28.3 . forcetul s.¤ don eclais ┐ do lucht in tsoegail one doctrine for the church and another for the laity, PH 1671 . ba s.¤ belra do Petar ┐ dona hIúdaidib, 3190 . secht mbliadna fichet s.¤ sluind | ro pa rí(g) Fland . . . `distinctly tell' (?), Arch. Hib. ii 94 § 27 . in cach lá ra seachtmain s.¤ `for a week set apart', Metr. Dinds. iii 16.191 . co saidbri s.¤ , ib. 199 .

(c) is s.¤ dom (limm) it is (I consider it) something special for me (i.e. something exceptional, an opportunity, privilege. Cf. sainemail and other derivv.). is [s]ain (s.¤ , LU) limsa ōn, ol in lōech. Bid s.¤ duidsea innosa isinn āth ucud, ar C. it will be a fine thing for you (ironically), TBC-I¹ 647 . bidh sain ní (sain-ní?) dōibsom . . . dianragabsa dībrugud isin (asin, LU) tailm, 1054 . ni sáin . . . laiss a tabairt, TBC-LL¹ 2067 (reference to Cú C. who has refused to give Redg a spear demanded by him). But in literal sense: is [s]ain lium ┐ na cuir dligtecha romainn `I consider them different from the lawful contracts mentioned above', Laws i 52.24 Comm .

As subst. with gen.: in dá ech . . . comaille acht nammá co sain delba ┐ datha, LU 9254 (leg. saine?). ? soin fearaind tuccadh ann, O'D. 2400 ( Rawl. B 506, 50b ).

Compds.

(a) with nouns (the more usual construction in attrib. use) different; peculiar, special (of that which is special to the individual), excellent (for this meaning cf. sainemail and other derivv.). ¤accuis: s. do duaid sech cách gl. sibi aliam causam esse quam gentibus, Ml. 36c11 . ¤amor (< Lat. amor): ba sainamor do cech oen atchid he was the special love of everyone who saw him RC xiii 221.6 , 226 (Scél Baili Binnbérlaig) . ¤bás: foircniter hua s. sech cách `by a special death', Ml. 73d7 . ¤buaid: ni clos i nErinn co se | do sainbuadhaibh aenoidhche so many fine triumphs (i.e. great events) taking place in one night, Anecd. ii 5.19 . ¤chais: ba saincais seom di Ailinn A.'s special love, RC xiii 221 = sainserc, MS. Mat. 472 . ¤chenélae: sainchenelae srogill, Wb. 17d3 . ¤chenélchae: ar shainchenélchi gl. specialis, Sg. 28b12 . ¤cherd: bíth a menmasam fri seilgg | mu menma céin im saincheirdd `my special craft', Thes. ii 293.15 . fo láim suad saincherda `some cunning craftsman', RC iii 177.19 . ¤chland: Gaill . . . ainm do sainc[h]landaib nō do saerc[h]landaib Franc particular tribes, Corm. Y 683 (55.z) . re tecmaisin sainclaindi (sic leg.?) re saine n-athar, Laws iii 400.2 . ¤choém: sainchóim ind ríg `the special favourites of the king', Wb. 28d5 . tricha fer di saincháemaib A., TBFr. 253 . ¤chomarde: a s. sin, Wb. 26b31 . ¤chor: tri nata[t] túalaing sainchuir `incapable of special contracts ', Triads 151 . ¤chrod private property: seisedh a saincruidh, Laws ii 386.3 Comm . ¤chron see separate article. ¤dán: cechtar nathar fria saindan his special art, SP ii § 1 ( Thes. ii 293 ). ba s. disi dál pouring out (the liquor) was her special function, LU 10894 . ¤delgna `secret spot', Metr. Dinds. ii 28.23 . ¤díles, ¤dílse see separate articles. ¤doíre: in doich bid saindóire dúnni et barnaip?, Wb. 10d1 . ¤écosc: s. noe `a peculiar species of ship', Sg. 69a24 . is hecen sainecoscc leosom for a ccrannaib innaní prechite pacem, Wb. 5a5 . ¤én eagle see senén. ¤eire: conaccasom in clerech oc buain a shaineri cutting his own special load, Ériu v 236.73 . ¤ḟer: sainfer muntaire, Ml. 61c2 . Gobban s. sluagda, Gorm. Nov. 5 . fa slōghaib sain[ḟ]ear srianbalcc, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 18 § 1 = sainser, ZCP x 42.17 . ¤ḟeth: ecosc no sainfeth individual aspect, O'Dav. 1417 . ¤ḟolad: sain folad cacha rainne `different meaning', Sg. 26b9 . ¤gaeth: sainghāeth fri dairbhribh Doire. ZCP x 339 § 14 . ¤gemm, Gorm. Sept. 19 . ¤gnúis see separate article. ¤intliucht: ní techta sain intṡliucht and feissin `it has no special sense in itself', Sg. 50a2 (non ab aliqua speciali significatione). ¤ithe: lassin tigerna ragas do shainól nó sh. . . . ar belaib a dámi `special eating', RC xxvi 42 § 223 (i.e. who has special drink and food for himself apart from his company?). ¤lind: brócoit .i. s. dognither do braich special drink, Corm. 7 brócoit. fri hól sainlenda, ib. bóge. ¤maicne: tri senoraig . . . do shainmaicne in lochta ro crochsat Crist of the very descendants of those who . . ., LB 159b24 . ? ¤mesaib (d pl.): a saillméth do s., ZCP vi 271.21 (perquisite of a monk or cenobite). ¤miscais: mac dia tabuir aithir sainmiscuis, Laws iii 62.12 (cf. miscais glé, 3 ). cen ingreim, cen sainmiscuis private enmity, ACL iii 320 § 90 . ¤muinter: ocht fichti fer mór do ṡainmuntir Ailella ┐ Medba retinue, bodyguard, household, TBC-LL¹ 4944 . cethri firu déc dia s. fessin, TBC-I¹ 1675 . sainmhuintir Uí Domhnaill, AFM v 1480.2 , cf. vi 1924.8 . co cóicc lanamhnaibh décc día sainmhuintír imaille friú of their own people, Leb. Gab.(i) 236.28 . ¤muinterus: is aroli sainmúinnterus bói dó fri tigerna na n-ech a special friendship, PH 4441 . ¤ól: tuccad cori cét . . . do loimm . . . dia shainōl don rīg `as a special drink', MacCongl. 107.18 . See under ¤ithe. co ng(h)abhsat occ s. for ar oile `to drink to each other', Hugh Roe 190.13 (51a ). ¤rann: co roselb i sain-rainn son | in slíab `as his special portion', Metr. Dinds. ii 54.15 . ¤ṡerc(ach) see separate articles. ¤ṡlabrae: at-chíusa . . . sainslabra sainigthi remib a special herd, BDD² 462 . ¤ṡuidiugud: ni sainsuidiugad it is not an arrangement different from the usual one, Laws iii 176.16 Comm . ¤techtad: airchinnech . . . cen s. feb `private possession of goods', Ériu iii 106 § 45 . ¤teglach: atúsa sund mo s. díb tríchtaib cét with my retinue, TBC-I¹ 178 . is é a s. sin na trí .lll. maccaem, BDD² 1142 . ¤tintúd, Ml. 60c2 . saintintud, 87b2 . ¤toirthige: ar saintoirthigi `for special fruitfulness', Ml. 83d9 . ¤treb: co riacht in sliab . . . ar ba s. di her own abode, LL 216b12 . saintreabh .i. treabh no teach áiridhe, O'Cl. ¤trebad: combi túalaing saintrebtha separate husbandry, Críth G. 78 .

(b) with adjj. generally in adverbial sense specially , with intensive force (but also peculiar to the individual): ¤airlech: abbair fris, níp sotal . . . s. Ar it ferr airli oldās airle self-opiniated (?), ZCP xi 86 § 42 (`er soll nicht nur mit sich selber Rat halten', Thurn.). ¤amrae: do . . . cumtaigib sainamraib, LU 8064 ( FB 3 ). co ndérgodaib sainamraib, 9049 (79) . ¤brecc: sról santbrecc (sic), TBC-LL¹ 3097 . ¤bres: fri sluag s. particularly brave, IT iii 40 § 36 = Bruchst. i § 3 . ¤dian: na sluag s., Arch. Hib. ii 61 § 46 . ¤díles see separate article. ¤dleith? co tart do Ádam iar sreith | fria danad cach sil sáindleith, SR 1922 (leg. saindil, Wortk. 129 ). ¤fhoichlech: sainfoichlech (sic leg.?) gl. concuriosus, Ml. 90b2 .

(c) with vb.: ¤mescaid: ní nomsainmescca ó mac Dé | dirairmescca mac Dé dia whatever sunders me from the Son of God, ZCP vii 269 § 13 .

tnúth, tnúd

Cite this: eDIL s.v. tnúth, tnúd or dil.ie/41028

Forms: tnúith

ind o and u, m. , ā, f. tnúith, ā, f. IGT Decl. §§ 39 , 45 , 46 .

(a) rage, fury: bam tarb tnúith isna tressaib, TFerbe 647 .

(b) envy, jealousy: cóir are re dígail Dé | mairgc romídhair bid fa t[h]núth, BColm. 100.5 . cen mebail cen mélacht cen t.¤ , LU 2296 . bai t.¤ mór oc Mugaind for Mairind, 4222 . bá sa hairthiur fofertais a tnútha, Ériu iv 163.3 . taom tnútha, v 78.18 . dogabh t.¤ ┐ formad í, 78.13 . na dena tnuth re duine diabhlaidhi, 126 § 17 . nī theilce Ultu di thnuthaib tairperta tarcoba a gāri, TBC-I¹ 1015 . ragaid dála i tnutha, Eg. 88, fo. 21 (22)a ( O'Curry 2280 ). maith an locht airdríogh óige | t.¤ cáigh ris is romhóide, DDána 105.1 . ní thóigeba t.¤ aoinfhir ... th'oirdned orra mar airdríg, O'Gr. Cat. 470.19. teacht fa mhúith a muigh neamhdha | do mhuin tnúith ré a Thighearna, Dán Dé xiv 13 . síol nEabha ag toibhéim tré th.¤ , xxvi 26 . nar ghnáthaigh taom tnúidh, PBocht 5.56 . creud as tnuth ann ? Doilghes fa mhaith na comharsan, Luc. Fid. 154.16 . As quasi vn. act of envying: ag tnúith rem aithgin eile, 475.20 .

(c) desire, greed: indi bíte fri tnúith ┐ adellad ilsétchi, Mon. Tall. 132.1 . coimpleit dúinne gabhaidh greim | i n-aghaidh tnúidhe mar thuirmhim, Dán Dé xxiv 4 . tig dún ... | tnúdh ré séadaibh saoghalta, A. Ó Dálaigh xxxix 6. iongnadh ár dtnúith ris an olc, ITS xi 6 § 11 . Cf. trebad tnúith avaricious, stingy service: marbhnat Dé - ní treabhadh tnúidh | garmac dúinn é - dleaghar dhínn, Dán Dé xxvi.2 . ní [dhlé] a bhos treabhadh [an] tnúidh, PBocht 7.2 .

(d) affection, love: led dhíol as tuar tnúdha `by thy merits which stir my love' A. Ó Dálaigh iv 6. flaith corónta chosnus tnúdh `who wins devotion,' Studies 1919, 75 § 18 . is tusa ar tigernai-ne (sic leg.) tnuidh, IT iii 80 § 55 . cainnt chiúin, radharc tnúith, aghadhghnúis iongantach uain, Hackett xxxii 2 . ato im thost im thnúth, PRIA xix C 548 § 26.

(e) act of striving for, seeking: ni cluintear tnúdh le cor gcosgair, DDána 110.54 . tnúdh re t'uilli a n-imresnaibh | as rún duine deighmeisnigh, IGT Decl. ex. 386 . acht amáin go bfuigbe a fher tnútha dá thréinmilled, Caithr. Thoirdh. 59.13 . is fada mé a g-cúmhaidh gan t.¤ le téurma, Hard. ii 32.4 . As vn.: atáid mná moighe hEamhna ... ag tnúidh faghála a bhfaghthaoi, L. Cl. A. B. 208. 8 . síad ag t.¤ mar theguid d'fhoraois | agha torrcha ó dtuismhid laoigh, xxxviii 117 . díol airgid le búir ag tnúith le na g-carrdus, Poets and Poetry of Munster, 2nd Series (1860) 20.3 . Hence act of expecting, expectancy: hi cuis tnutha `in a state of expectation,' Rel. Celt. ii 270.37 . atá t.¤ agam nach sgaoilfidh aon don cheathrar sin iad, Oss. iii 96.16 .

(f) act of emulating, contending; emulation: oc t.¤ imon tigernus friu, LB 121b15 . roeirig tnuth ┐ trenchosnum eturu im rigi na Tebe, TTebe 141 . bai imchosnum ┐ tnuth mor eter B. ┐ F. desin, RC xxiv 180.10 . níor ghar tnúdh [rem] thighearna, A. Ó Dálaigh lii 11. déanam tnúdh re tréidhibh Eoin | do dhéinimh eoil dúnn 'n-a dhiaidh, PBocht 27.11 . níor comhainm ris nach cóir tnúith, DDána 91.41 . i gcleas tnútha, i lúth nó i lámhach, Hackett xl 241 . mór mo thnúith-se lem thoil féin | ó thanag tar tuinn n-aigéin, lxiii 1 .

Compds. ¤bara fierce rage: s a tnuthbhara ag Manaind min, BB 53a9 . ¤burach ? : coná ro sguirsed ... do'n tnuthburach trascartha tren-fher, MR 256.12 . ¤chomarthach eager (?) : rucsad sum da tren-redg ... t., MR 298.17 . ¤gail fierce valour: is tríath tailc tnuthgaile, LU 8960 ( FB 71 ). ¤gort field of contention: méad mo cheanfhaghla i dtnúthghort na togharma `in the Field of Summons' (i.e. at Judgment Day), Studies 1932, 577 § 12 . ¤greis act of contending furiously?: is é crīch a ríghbais | bith 'sa cath ag t. (: glúnglais), Fianaig. 82.6 . ¤mer of swift anger: ni dligh tarbh tnuth-mear trodach a thesargain, MR 122.8 .

toirm, tairm

Cite this: eDIL s.v. toirm, tairm or dil.ie/41256
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: tarm, torm, torma, torme, toirm, tairm, ttairmcriotnughadh

n i, f. (Earlier torm, tarm, u, n.: torm ndil, SR 7821 . g s. torma, torme (sic leg. with MSS.), Immrama 88 § 28 , 90 § 46 .) toirm tairm, IGT Decl. § 14 (p. 69.4) .

I

(a) sound: co cloisind torm na tond tana | forsna cairrge, ZCP v 496 § 4 . sephain cogrinn ceol (sic leg.) ṅglain ṅgil, | bái a th.¤ dind fo secht nimib, SR 2160 . golaīs íarom, ba torm diartain, Immrama 62 § 75 . binnither t.¤ tét n-umi, Ériu iv 96.3 .

(b) noise, tumult, trampling: is and sin bias tairm adbul ... na n-anmand nglan ic céimnigud for deis a rrig, LU 2464 . metighter tairm tuinni treni i n-aimsir robarta ... seselbe na sochaidhe, TBC-LL¹ 5610 . tairm ocus glor na sochaide do cloistin, Laws iii 202.7 Comm. co t.¤ rig ┐ co seisselbe sochaide, RC xxi 154.8 . adbal gáir | la t.¤ teglaig co tromgráin, TFerbe 908 . ni torm teglaig domeso, Anecd. i 14.11 . ba trombalc a tairm, Todd Nenn. 142.4 . fá lán talamh dhá thairm agas dhá threathan, ML 94.13 . as mór tra an t.¤ ┐ an fothrom baoi eturra, TFrag. 190.x . gabtar cassa na n-each ann sinn ... bátar gan tsegh gan tairm tra, SG 26.20 . le tairm ngreagh srianbhuidhe seang, TD 8.6 . tairm na néal, foghar na n-uile ainmhidhe, Studies 1932, 142 § 17 . t.¤ gan treise, O'Gr. Cat. 556.16. Hence shock (?): sceinnis a chridi ... immar th.¤ tuinne trethan-glassi ra tír, CRR 12.17 . ni thainic riam tairm catha bud mó inas in cith dluithsnechta ro fear ann, RC xxiii 418.5 .

II report, fame: is glae thegdais, tórm rochlos, Thes. ii 292.17 . hi sídfhlaith ind altair | i mbí t.¤ cech thempuil, Fél. May 10 . t.¤ .i. molad, O'Dav. 1575. is éol dam ainm cach fir eím | a blad a thairm im thig thíar, LL 32a47 . oenmac mná, ba t.¤ truagi, | ba marb do bidc oenúaire, SR 7169 . fogur tuinni t.¤ Noisi | ba ceol bind a bithchlóisi, IT i 78.25 . a thairm ┐ a clu, CCath. 333 . lan da tairm Teamhair Mide, Celtic Scotland iii 454 19 . ainm uathi for tuind na tarma | dia sluind co calma iar n-a crad, RC xlvii 293.5 . ba t.¤ troch riana thrágud, Metr. Dinds. iii 412.31 . ní súail in tairm in tescul | ó fúair gairm is glan-gestul, 348.19 . desin atá, ni tairm tó | senchas Locha Léin iar ló, 264.49 . Fúat mac Bregoin ... | ba t.¤ dar tíre treboind, iv 164.34 . ail forsn-dessid a thairm tricc | rolen a ainm in aird-licc, 224.35 . mór tairm na bláithe buige | binn fogar na caemchruite, SG 108.25 . teid a thairm na tairm teinn-mhir, Top. Poems 84.11 . a bhuga as báthadh dá ttairm, Ériu v 54.3 . acht giodh teann tairm a n-iomráidh, Arch. Hib. i 96 § vi . Common in chevilles: t.¤ ṅglan, SR 2033 . t.¤ trén, 7897 . tarm trén, 5961 . torm tenn, 6771 .

? muinntear Baidhbh ina boithrind | mar gach tairm in Lochlaind lēir, Ériu x 84 § 77 . fear do tsil Erimoin uasail, | oirrdric Tigearnach in tairm, 85 § 81 . maidm locha Érne cen ail | tairm dar trocha rathócaib, Metr. Dinds. iii 462.28 . mod táire, ní tairm cen taig, ii 68 31 .

Compds. ¤chles noise-feat (cf. torannchless): tairm-cles nónbair .i. cles cait ┐ cles cúair, LU 9288 . ¤chloth great renown: tarmclotha in tigernais, MR 248.z . -chonflicht noisy conflict: loc do i tharmconflicht rolatar genti ann fri Patraic, O'D. 10 ( H 3.17, col. 10 ). ¤chres noisy shaking: la na ttairmcres .i. isin la in a mbia an ttairmcriotnughadh ar crechedh an aeoir, Leb. Gab.(i) 130 n. 4 . ¤chrith trembling, quaking, rumbling: tuitid na tiaga ... Sochait uili frisin tair[m]crith sin na leabar, Fél. 198.26 . tarmcrith nime ┐ talman, KMMisc. 144.26 . táinic t. mór ┐ torannchles ... isin cathraigh, SG 30.27 . t. mor do thiacht 'san aidheor, AU iii 624.4 . ¤chrithnaigid trembles loudly, rumbles: gur ob suaill nar tharm-chrithnaig in talam fa a thraigthib (of the approach of a warrior), MR 196.2 . Vn.: isin lá in a mbia an ttairmcriotnughadh ... .i. lá an braith, Leb. Gab.(i) 130 n. 4 . ¤chruaid noisy and hard: co tracht portaib tarmchruaide, MR 106.1 . da tren redg ... tarm-cruaidi, 298.16 . ¤gáeth noisy wind: ar trencheathaib ... tarmgáithe, MR 236.20 . 1 ¤gal noisy fighting: ri abhaisibh na n-arracht ri tarmgail na trogan, LL 409a20 . 2 ¤gal noise and steam: tarmgal na troimt[h]einedh, ZCP viii 212.5 . ¤grith noisy vigour (cf. armgrith): re tairmgrith a trenfher, MR 190.22 . ¤nime: dom chaomhna ar teinidh thairmnimhe, Aithd. D. 76 19 . ¤thren noisy and strong : eass ... tairmtren, MR 104.12 .

Cf. tairim.

tricce

Cite this: eDIL s.v. tricce or dil.ie/41915

n , f. (tricc)

(a) As gramm. abstract of tricc: is é tricci ┐ tarpigi ┐ trebarluas connagat na eich so swiftly do the horses drive, LL 189a16 . is é sin gliccus ┐ trice ... cingit na heich, Comp. CC 100.24 . ba he tricci ┐ imluas inn imdiubraicthi leo, CCath. 5659 . ba he t.¤ ┐ tindisnigi dothoet Finnchua a cath, Lism. L. 3182 . bai immorro da deini ┐ da tricci ro tuairgit, CCath. 5736 . a thrice romarbad in laech, TTr.² 1177.

(b) speed, activity, urgency: ar thuaichle t.¤ (: glicce), SR 1139 . trici na trénbéimend, TTr.² 1546 . ra tricci na dírma, TBC-LL¹ 3385 . a thrici tintothach uilc `his quickness (which) turns away evil,' BNnÉ 35 § 57 . da tren redg trice, MR 298.16 . ar threisi ┐ ar th.¤ , TFrag. 24.z . la tinnenus ┐ la trice na tograma (sic leg.), Hugh Roe 152.14 . a ttrice swiftly , Ir. Review 1913, 623 § 8 . ? foclaim is focalta fó trice tesairgne tened, Anecd. ii 74.5 .