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cáin

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cáin or dil.ie/7786
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: cānae, cánanda, cánann

n i, f. Later also with dental and velar inflection. Note also g s. cānae, Cáin Ad. 48 . IGT Decl. § 201 . n p. cánanda, ibid. g p. cánann, ex. 2162 . See Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 193 , O'Brien, Celtica iii 172 .

Law, regulation, rule; fine, tax, tribute. Precise legal significance difficult to define. Appar. regarded as statute law (a law imposed by a king, perh. by an over-king) or by the church ( Ériu xii 69 , Ir. Hist. Stud. xiii 101 - 3 ) in contrast to aurradus customary law. It is always more severe than the latter, ZCP xiv 339 . See Cóic Con. pp. 65 - 66 . Frequ. glossed by ríagail ( Laws ii 222.3 Comm. etc.). The wider meaning written law undoubtedly derived from the numerous monastic ordinances issued in the 8th cent., Thurn. ZCP xviii 396 . By annalists appar. equated with lex (see AU 733 , 736 , 766 and Index s.v. Law). In legal commentary, denotes the law as recorded in old books in contradistinction to aurradus which denotes current law ( The Irish Jurist xxxiii 359 , Literature and Politics in the Celtic World 199-200 , Ériu lii 136 n. 39 ).

(a) law as a system, set of regulations : c.¤ a canoine .i. regula , O'Mulc. 200 . cis lir cain i tir, na bi imaclaid la Feine?, Laws v 480.8 . ro suigideadh (? leg. for-suidigthea) na cana so o tosach domain, 480.22 . ata[a]t .iii. cáini (caine, MS.) nad chumgat comarbai do chumscuchud `there are three rules (servitudes) which heirs are not capable of changing i.e. three types of servitude to which one's land may become subject by adversative prescription', Ériu xvii 68 § 9 and note. c.¤ cach uisci thairidne .i. riagail inn uisce . . . , § 8 . comdire cach fri aroile i nnos chana, BCrólige 5 and note. it cetheora arag . . . fris-tobngiter na ceithri aur[r]athais: athgabail fri brat[h]a Cai, giall fri cain, etc., Bürgschaft 75.16 . adarbetar a cain ┐ rechtgi echtca sin, O'Mulc. 368 . Of the regulation for exacting satisfaction for injury (see (b) below): techta cana caich la derbfine .i. dliged na riagla tobaig caich, Ir. Recht 34 § 36 . fer cána the cáin lawyer: ca heiric bhias i nguairiuga[dh] cána, uair nar innis fer cána éiric inn i c.¤ , O'D. 873 ( H 3.17, c. 626 ). In phr. luige cána, see 1 luige. Contrasted with aurradus (see above): deithbirugh[ad] itir c.¤ ┐ urradus (one of the qualifications of a brehon), O'D. 925 ( H 3.17, 657 ). diablad coirpdire urradais sin, ┐ a da cutruma in diablad corpdire cana, Cóic Con. 38 § 51 . is doib do r[or]macht cain do cach duine da fuil airem eneclainne ar cumalaib i n-urradus, 50 § 97 . noco nfuilit ree nanta re athgabhala cána amhuil atá re athghabhála urradhuis, O'D. 621 ( H 3.17, c. 461 ) (see further under aurradus). Distinguished from cairde: imdích dliged a chéle cintaib cuir, c.¤, cairddi[u] co neoch atallen `he defends the rights of his clients in regard to liabilities arising from contract, written law and treaty(?)', Críth G. 340 and note. muna tabri c.¤ no cairde, BCrólige 43 and note. deichniubar aice ac denum cana ┐ cairde (of the aire désa), O'Curry 2057 (H 4.22, 64a). issed . . . doberar do . . . ar a chain, ar a chairde, ar a rechtnge, Laws v 520. 5 . See further under cairde.

Note further (from non-legal texts): is hí . . . cāin robūi . . . la Bretna: in biodba inna chinaid do neoch forsesed a chāin nō forūasnadfad a chāin, Corm. Y 883 ( Anecd. iv 76.3 ). ní duaichnid is í in ch.¤ ro mebaid and in tan ro gabad for loscad in tíre, BDD² 243 . hi ṅgíallnae nár choillet ith na blicht i nHérind tara ch.¤ téchtae, 921 . ar febus na cána ┐ in tṡída, 607 (of prosperous reign). is coll geisi ┐ cána dam-sa inní sin (the Paschal fire), Trip.² 448 . cia chollit araile in cánaid sea, LB 203b56 . ní dlig laech a enecland dia mbé i n-écmais a arm. conid c.¤ midlaig no ndlig fon samail sin law applying in the case of the m.(?), LU 6156 (TBC). ro leasaiged . . . fo chain lesaighthi, RC xliii 114 § 120 . c.¤ dilguda i.e. (Christian) doctrine of forgiveness, LU 9747 . foclaim rim chain is rim chubus / . . . na roaerus duine remhe by my troth, IT iii 86 § 89 . do fhregair in sámaid sin / a cánaib is a caingnibh, SG 69.18 . ón lá do cailleadh do ch.¤ when Thy law was broken (of the offence of Adam), Dán Dé xxviii 17 . In phrase do-gní c.¤ fri makes a law regarding: dogēna cāin fri banscāla, ACL iii 231.20 .

In names of particular laws or titles of tracts: is a Senchas Mar ro airletha na cetheora cano:— cain iarraid, cain saerraith, cain aicillne, cain lanamnussa techta, Laws i 40.21 . cain lanamna, ii 342 ( Stud. in E. Ir. Law 2 ). c.¤ aigillne, ZCP xiv 338 ff. cain airlicthe, Laws v 370.9 . cain dornn cliath, 474.13 .i. riagail na cleithi donither o'n durn, in cathcliath, 476.16 Comm. cain ona, 368.9 . cain othrusa `rule of nursing', BCrólige 25 . amail atberr a Cain techta bered darba, O'Dav. 629 = beridh darbha, muchaidh ainbḟios, etc., Ériu xiii 39.12 . in cain einech, 13.14 . ite na filidh do-bongad cain n-enech, 23 . In eccles. contexts: at éat so ceithri cána Erenn .i. cain Patraic gan [n]a chleirchiu do marbad, ┐ caín Adamnáin gan [n]a mna do marbad, Cain Daire ga[n] bú do marbad, ┐ Cain domnaig can toirimtecht etir, Fél. 210.31 ( Keat. iii 1705 ). forus chano Patricii hi Cruachnibh la Dubdaleithi `promulgation of the law of P.', AU i 258.5 (782). is i so tra in Cain Patraic, Laws i 18.1 . cutruma cumal cana Padraicc ┐ cumal cana Cormaic, O'Curry 577 ( H 3.18, 287 ). cain fuithribe, Laws iii 60.4 Comm. rith cana Patraic . . . r. c.¤ Diarmada . . . r. c.¤ boileachta . . . r. c.¤ Adamnain, O'Curry 2132 (H 4.22, 87b). mad iar gc.¤ Adamhnain, O'D. 673 ( H 3.17, 493b ) i.e. if the suit is brought under the law of A. (as oppd. to mad iar gc.¤ i.e. ordinary law), Plummer MS. notes. conid sí cētchāin lāithir for nimh ┐ for talmain Cāin Adomnāin, Cáin Ad. 21 . brithimain cānae Adomnān, 37 . bendacht . . . for anmain Adamnán . . . / rolā cāin forsna clanna, Thes. ii 306.4 (Hy. i). crannaig cana Darí ┐ Moling, O'Curry 343 ( H 3.18, 191 ). ni fil dithach .i. cain Dari .i. cain boslechta dia mbe tuarasdal cana Patraic ag nech, 2577 ( Eg. 88, 48 (49)d ). C.¤ Domnaig, title of tract on the observation of Sunday, Anecd. iii 21 = Ériu xx 151 .

(b) legal due, tribute : commotatio martirum Petir ┐ Poil ┐ Phatraicc ad legem perficiendam i.e. to exact the `cáin', AU i 188.12 (see further Index s.v. law ). conid desin dliges Ciaran cana coidcenda fo Erinn, YBL 171b12 . oc denamh a chana levying his tribute, Anecd. ii 12.13 . fo chánaibh Chiaráin, AFM ii 1096.8 . maor cána Adhamhnáin, 620.20 . LU 9376 . fó óenmám ┐ fo chís ┐ fo ch.¤ , LL 116 . commeít a ḟeraind . . . gan ch.¤ . . . gan ecendáil, 10073 ( TBC-LL¹ 3029 ). tucadh . . . a chana dligid do C. . . . nai fichit bo . . . , RC xliii 12 § 5 . co tuc caín esti, RC xvii 402.10 (Tig.). co nderna . . . c.¤ for cach tūeth, ZCP viii 316.20 . fer cāna a tributary(?), xv 336 § 28 . c.¤ ar na cnoibh tax on nuts, Aithd. D. 1.24 . ní cíos a-mháin ar Mumhain / bhíos acht c.¤ Í Chonchubhair, 7.12 . tug iomad maoine ┐ mórchánach as (of Armagh), Keat. iii 2974 . ó initt go caisg gan c.¤ / acht madh páin ┐ bioror `without (receiving) tribute save only bread and cress', ZCP i 64 § 105 . ní thabair cóir ina gcána / cóir Danair dá rádha rú, IGT Decl. ex. 2163 . fáoigfidh leth a gcos ad chána / dá mbeth cros gach ágha d'fir, ex. 49 . c.¤, dubhchíos no custum, Ezra vii 24 . fuagraim oruibh cain bhrisde focal penalty fine for breaking one's word, Luc. Fid. 4341 . Atonement (esp. of Christ's a. for Adam's sin): emenda .i. c.¤ , Ir. Gl. 98 . crann díola croinn na cána, Aithd. D. 88.3 . an té do choill an gcánaigh, A. Ó Dálaigh xiii 1 . ag so dhuit, a Dhia . . . / . . . an chalann 'n-a cánaigh féin, DDána 62.13 . íc ruibh do chuid don chánaidh / d'ḟuil Ádhaim duid a Dhúilimh, IGT Decl. ex. 2164 . Note also: mar ch.¤ an pheacaidh, Donlevy 348.23 .

In phrase cen ch.¤ (cheville): na ceil orm innis cen chain / ca lín dofaeth dom deslaim, RC xxiii 420.9 . can ch.¤ , LL 4381 . Cf. cain .i. cainte, O'Curry 94 ( H 3.18, 66 ).

esceptaid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. esceptaid or dil.ie/20446

 

Forms: exceptid, hesceptaidi

n (< Lat. except-) an exception: ní exceptaid linn són sed regula , Sg. 37a8 . cen exceptid without exception Wb. 2a20 . 25c32 . pl. na hesceptaidi `exceptions' Laws, v 224.9 Comm. ; 258.21 . na daine nachat escebtaidhe uithir `who are not exceptions from sick main- tenance' (who are not cases of special treatment as regards sick-m. ?) iii 356.5 ; 9 . cenmotha na eiscebtaidi uithir 356.15 . eisceptaidhe uithir, v 312.10 .

forlethan

Cite this: eDIL s.v. forlethan or dil.ie/23730

 

adj o-ā

I Broad above: agad ḟochoel ḟ.¤ (i.e. oval) LU 4514 (cf. aghaidh ... forleathan .i. ... ard uaisti, O'Dav. 186 ). LU 7078 ( BDD 75 ). co n-aghaid fochael forlethain, LL 250a43 ( TBFr. § 17 ). Of horses : da ech ... fosenga forlethna LU 8593 ( FB 45 ).

II Wide, extensive: robo ... f.¤ a flait[h]ius ┐ a forlamhas, CCath. 4832 . flaitheas foirleathan, TSh. 5473 . tedm ... ar fut Erenn uli co f.¤ , Ann. Conn. 1327 § 5 . do shil Adaim co f.¤ far and wide, at large PH 3079 . ba f.¤ forro in uair sin they were in loose array (of soldiers) Marco P. 59 . trácht foirleathan an extensive treatise TSh. 3942 . riaghail fórlethon ` regula generalis' Reg. San. col. xxv . Wide in scope ; undefined: rádh foirleathan deimhnightheach a general affirmative statement TSh. 3193 . Cf. atait .i. sunt ... a bunad forleathan ; totus a bunad ruidleasa, Auraic. 314 . tré fhaisnéis fhoirleithin, 3213 . gurab mian linn go foirleathan labhairt orra to speak at length Keat. ii 6370 . go bhfuil an reacht go foirleathan arna chraobhsgaoileadh, TSh. 3488 . Compar. as foirleithiu [in Gaedelg] quam gach Berla more comprehensive Auraic. 6 . ata nías forleithne isin leabhar Gabhála more at length MS. Mat. 573.3 (D. Mac Fir bisigh). Superl. tir is forleithi ferunn, BB 487b8 . is e bescna as uaisli ┐ is forlethi ... most general 336a17 ( Laws v 12 Comm. ).

moínigid(ir), maínigid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. moínigid(ir), maínigid or dil.ie/31374

 

Forms: mainiugad, maoiniugad

v denom. (maín). (a) enriches, endows : ni muinegetar mucca cen (sic leg.) a mbas no a llog (gl. a rec) … co n-aurlund (? leg. co h-) a ndithma (gl. .i. a dotma) 'pigs do not enrich except by their death (slaughter) or their [sale] value (gl. their sale)' Ériu xxxvi 202-3 . máinigter comarbai for a thechtu thoigh, SCC 276 . ro-maīnigther in gein, ZCP xii 273.34 . mōenigfid sini sceo ōclach (óglęcha, v.l.) 'he will enrich old and young' ZCP ix 452 § 20 , Ériu xxxvi 206 .

(b) increases : is tre ḟír flaitheman ad-mlechti márbóis -moínigter it is through the justice of the ruler that milk-yields of great cattle are increased AM 6 § 18 . cach bec nō cech mór nomuinichither di cech rét etir locc ┐ ēdach ┐ dig ┐ bīad, rop de forcongrai tsenōra a comairlecad 'whatsoever little or much you increase (your store) of everything, including dwelling place (?) and clothing and drink and food …' ZCP iii 29.1 (Regula Choluimb Chille) , Ériu xxxvi 204 .

(c) fattens, feeds, pastures (of livestock): cuich in mait ro mainighis .i. cuich in muc ro leasaighis, O'Dav. § 1241 . cethraimthe cach mairt mainighther coland i(n) sleib 'whose flesh is fattened on a mountain' CIH i 58.15 , Ériu xxxvi 205 . mochen mata moaigther | do na mainigther maid, Ériu vii 199 § 8 = do nach moaigther miad, 6 § 8 . vn. do cach mainiugad (.i. beodilib ┐ mairbdilib), do cach lesugad (.i. do biud ┐ coimiteacht), Laws iii 22.8 ; 'enrichment' Ériu xxxvi 203 . mad radrachus is mes mairt fuirre in cedbliadhain . . . ar ni frithṡailter a mainiugadh iar sin, H 3.18 p. 435 a ( O'Curry 1039 ) = maoiniugad, 446b ( O'Curry 1099 ); 'her increase is not expected' Ériu xxxvi 206 . ro gab go mend mainigad, ZCP vii 309.9 ; 'stammering (or manifest ?) falsehood has begun to increase' Ériu xxxvi 204 . But muiniughadh .i. sealbhughadh, O'Cl. may be meant for this word.

ríagal

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ríagal or dil.ie/35205

 

Forms: ríagol, -ul, riagail, riagol, riagoil, riagoil, riaghal, riaghail, riaghla

n ā, f. (Lat. rēgula ) O.Ir. ríagol, -ul; later n s. riagail. n s. riagol, Sg. 32a2 , 41a4 , 178a2 . a s. riagoil, 9c22 . d s. riagoil, 220a5 . riaghal riaghail, IGT Dec. § 10.10 , § 37.10 (g s. n p. riaghla). In later Ir. somet. with guttural st. in pl.

(a) A rule (whether prescription, law, tradition or custom): used in a less definite and legal sense than dliged. In Sg. commonly of rules of grammar, orthography, etc.: iar riagoil chenelaig aiccend the general rule of accents , 220a5 . cia forcomam-ni riagoil sen-grec hi scríbunt (= scripturam antiquam servamus), 9a22 . ní thabrat-som smacht no recht no ríagail ar denam a peccaid, LU 2378 ( RC iv 250 § 16 ). is hí ind riaguil chert . . . fognad cách Dé mog, Fél. 4.15 . it é do theoir riagla . . . ainme ocus umaldóit, serc in C[h]oimded, Ériu i 194.7 . riagail soscéli cluined ocus ríagail mín manach let him hear the rule of the Gospel , Ériu iii 100 § 25a . is mairg ailter cen ríagail, ACL iii 215 § 3 . riagla naemh nEirenn d'ḟogluim (= regulas), Lat. Lives 105.10 . iar riagail na sruthi, PH 5555 . riagla na n-aínted rules for fasts , 5553 . riagail na Casc, MacCarthy 308.7 ( BB 13b ). co riaglaib ic clerchib, Cog. 140.12 . i riaghlachaibh an chogaidh the rules of war , Content. xvi 70 . do réir riaghlach an réasúin, Eochairsg. 53.22 . díogha a reachta is riaghla a ré (i.e. rejecting the laws and standards of their time), Hackett xlii 80 .

In Laws Comm. oft. used to gloss cáin, e.g. Laws iv 166.2 , v 236.20 , 292.9 , 480.24 . do reir riaghla . . . in lanamnais, ii 342.29 . As vn.: anadh ┐ dithim do riagail uirri a haithle a dethbiriusa, i 302.7 . Cf. ríagailt.

Esp. of a monastic Rule laid down by the founder or head of a monastery: nach oen, ol Maol Rúoin . . . forcomedar mo riaguil who observes my Rule , Mon. Tall. § 6 . aon troscut i riagail Comgeild there is one fast in Comgall's Rule , § 68 . luid . . . co Roim do acallaim Grigair for cend uird ┐ riagla (i.e. regarding the rule of a monastery), LU 3095 . ? Eri ogh, inis na naomh | co n-imad riaghal [sic leg.] ro-caemh, MacCarthy 408.12 ( BB 49b41 ). Hence a techn. term for the metrical rules incorporating the precepts of a religious founder: ut est a Riaguil Ailbe, O'Dav. 1003 ; cf. Ériu iii 92 fg .

Passing into sense of rule, authority : cóic cét déc rigḟer atát fót ríagail, LL 297a41 ( SG 364.34 ). fo riaguil ríg nime, Fél. Ep. 96 . co rāith cech recht asa riaghuil, ZCP viii 196.8 (prophecy of degenerate times: has lost its authority ? or has swerved from its tenor ?). gébhuidh Banbha arís riaghuil will submit to rule or law , IGT Dec. ex. 697 . iomchoruidh lámh an . . . dhúthrachtaigh ríaghail shall bear rule , Proverbs xii 24 . Cf. mac Riagaill ráin, ba riagail `who was a ruler', Metr. Dinds. iii 338.20 .

Of a rule of life, line of conduct, etc.: ba hí seo riagol a chrabuid .i. no gebed in uli ṡalmu, etc. (= quotidiana eius vita), Lat. Lives 62.13 ( LB 29a66 ). ar cruas a riagla ┐ a mbethad (of the Irish saints), BCC § 155 . San Clára fa cruaidhe riaghail, PBocht 1 § 12 . Cf. a Chú cosin caemriagail, TBC-LL¹ 3672 . focherdedh dub cusna findu, findiu a riaghal whiter its condition (of a sheep changing colour), Anecd. i 57 § 60 (leg. riaghol, : iarom).

In loose sense: tri chét bliadan . . . tri riagla rímim (= I calculate correctly), LL 5b19 . .xl. bliadan . . . is réil in riagail, 131b8 ( Trip. 538 § 46 ). rāidhim rit do reir riaghlach, ZCP vii 301 § 5 , cf. § 12 . tri noi . . . rimthir fo riaghluibh reilibh, AU 927 , cf. AFM 927 . ni ba saeib-riagail ua slat | re hae[i]nbliadain adbathsat, MacCarthy 310 y ( BB 13b33 ), i.e. their death was no unjust rule (fate, sentence) because of their raid?

(b) in concrete sense, a rule, measure, line : cid riagail focerta forsna traigthib sin, is ing ma 'dchotad ēgōir n-indib `if a measure [carpenter's rule, Gloss.] were put on the feet ', BDD 2 . co tairsedh riaghail dromann an sceith [na sciath v.l.] for airenaigibh na cat[h] isin coir cetna doridhisi (i.e. the front line of the battalions reformed in the same order as before), CCath. 5847 . Of a ruled line in a manuscript: dul tar riagail (of a scribe), Flower Cat. 261 .