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1 aile

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 aile or
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: oile, eile, arch, aild, aile, aile, aill, aile, aill, aili, ailiu, ailiu, áili, aili, aili, aile, ailib, aile, aili, aile, aili, aili, a., n-aill, n-aile, éile, éle, aill, aili, ailiu, ailiu, aile, alaill, allail, alaill, alaili, alailiu, aili, alaaili, alaili, n-aile, allaili, aile, alaili, aili, alaile, holailiu, horaili, fulailiu, folaill, hualailiu, alaile, alaill, alaile, arele, lelele, alaill, aláil, araill, alaili, aláili, álaili, araili, áréli, alailiu, arailiu, alaili, aili, lialailiu, liala ailiu, aile, alailib, alaili, aréli, alaili, indala, indala, dondala, indala, indala, indala, all, AILE, ALAILE, arailiu, alailiu, alaile, (a)la, al(l)

In later lang. oile, eile other, one of two, second , pronominal used as adj. and noun. Inflected as io, iā -stem except in n a s. neut. (aill, see below). GOI §§ 486 ff. , Hamp, Études Celt. ix 477 (aill, arch. aild). Old-Irish forms. Stressed forms

(a) aile (as adj. follows noun; as subst. always with article or nach). As adj. n s m. aile, Wb. 12c46 . n. aill, 9c3 . a s m. aile, Wb. 9d31 . n. aill, 13a1 . g s. aili, Sg. 30a2 . d s. ailiu, Wb. 21a7 . ailiu, Sg. 30b4 . n p. áili, Wb. 12b1 . aili, 22d14 . a p. aili, Sg. 28a6 . g p. aile, Wb. 12b3 . d p. ailib, Wb. 12b11 . Fem. n s. aile, Wb. 10d18 . a s. aili, Sg. 189a8 . g s. aile, Sg. 188a12 . n p. aili, Sg. 22a3 . a p. aili, Sg. 191a2 .

n As subst. n s m. nach a.¤ , Wb. 20a10 . n s n. a n-aill , Wb. 4b24 . a s m. nach n-aile , Wb. 8a3 . éile, éle (influence of céile, GOI p. 308 ), 6a15 , 6c18 . a s n. na aill , Wb. 17c23 . g s. nach aili , Wb. 17b28 . d s. nach ailiu , Sg. 209b12 . a p. amal na heliu, Sg. 9b1 . ailiu gl. quos (nullos tepefacit sol), Ml. 94b20 . Fem. g s. inna aile , Thes. ii 15.42 (BCr.).

(b) With double stem ala aile, alaile, with dissimilation araile (with stress on -ail-) (as adj. precedes noun; as subst. does not take article or other proclitic, cf. Ped. Ériu xv 188 ff.).

As adj. n s n. alaill ṡain, Sg. 6b24 . allail (recte alaill, edd.) pronomen , 209b10 . g s. alaili thríuin, Sg. 96a4 . d s. alailiu chruth, Ml. 98d1 . n p. alá aili aidme, Ml. 89a9 . alaaili réta, Sg. 111b5 . a p. alaili dliged, Ml. 18c11 . g p. ala n-aile ndoine, Ml. 54a21 .

Fem. a s. allaili mbeasti, RC xi 446.1 . g s. ala aile aidme, Ml. 51c5 . d s. alaili tain gl. quando, Sg. 222b2 . n p. ala aili interiecta, Sg. 10a1 .

When used with a prep. ending in a vowel alaile sometimes drops its initial: holailiu, Ml. 80a2 . horaili, 2a6 . fulailiu (sic MS.), 102d2 . folaill, Laws iv 102.14 . But hualailiu, Ml. 40d17 . Sg. 25b12 . With la see substantival use infra.

n As subst. n s m. alaile, Wb. 6b20 . n s n. alaill, 7d11 . a s m. alaile, Wb. 5d15 . arele, 9c19 . With la: lelele, 16c24 . a s n. alaill, 4c33 . aláil, 12a10 . araill, 23b21 . g s. alaili, Wb. 4c13 . aláili, 12a34 . álaili, 13a9 . araili, Sg. 10a10 . áréli, Wb. 13a5 . d s. alailiu, Wb. 2a14 . arailiu, 21a13 . n p. alaili, Wb. 13a16 . ala aili , Sg. 215a1 . a p. with la, lialailiu, Ml. 14a4 (liaailiu, MS.). liala ailiu, Sg. 32b5 . g p. ala n-aile (gl. reliquorum), Ml. 37a21 . Sg. 201b15 . d p. alailib, Wb. 25b13 . Sg. 208b8 . Fem. a s. fri alaili , Sg. 202a4 . d s. aréli (see above), Wb. 8a7 , alaili, Sg. 189a7 . 212b3 .

In Bardic verse this form alliterates with words beginning either with r- or vowels: líonmhar dá reic re-roile, DDána 61.3 . sgol i n-ucht ar-oile ag ól, 103.25 .

(c) Unstressed forms (always adjectival preceding noun or aí, see below, and most usually with preceding article or cach). With article (both words indecl.) n s m. indala mmod, Ml. 45b11 . a s m. indala fer, Wb. 4c16 . d s. dondala lucht, Wb. 16c20 . n s f. indala chlas, Ml. 138d1 . g s f. indala rainne, Sg. 74b7 . a s n. indala lestar, Wb. 4c32 . With cach, usually cach la: cach la sel, Wb. 15d9 . cach le céin, Ml. 19c1 . Without art. somet. also all, see C I (a) below.

A. The form AILE.

I As adj. following its noun other, second: frituidecht a.¤ anísiu, Sg. 21b11 . pronomen naill, 197b17 . fogur na liter na.¤ , 4a8 . guidiu itge n-a.¤ , Fél. Ep. 413 . anní nail as much again, IT ii1 180.177 . cethri fogaetha a.¤ , SR 49 . immon michil lasin crosfigill-so immon muiri lasind crosfigell na.¤ immasech `with the next', Mon. Tall. 137.z (§ 28) . do nach raod aliu `to any other matter', 143.30 (§ 43) . isind le[i]th ailiu, Críth G. 591 (eliu, MS.). do c[h]ellaib elib, BColm. 62.20 . forsin triur aili `the other three', RC xxiv 174.10 . aisceda imda eili, Sc.M² § 4 R . Longínus in ainm ele, PH 673 . a dhuine dhiombuain eile, DDána 27.3 . céd eili d'uaislib `a hundred other nobles', IGT Decl. ex. 60 . ┐ ní eili and furthermore, Hy Maine 161.31 . beag oile as congnamh ré chois `little else', Dán Dé x 17 . aill with non-neut. noun: ro-lēcus-[s]a gaí n-aill cucut-su, Sc.M² § 13 . issin láim n-aill, MU² 543 . do thuc bulli n-aill, TBC-LL¹ 1998 . fecht n-aile (n-aill), úair a.¤ another time, on another occasion see fecht and 2 úar. Of future time, next, forthcoming: lathi n-and resint samḟuin a.¤ cind bliadna, LU 3298 ( SCC § 10 ). cosin caiscc naili `until the next Easter', Mon. Tall. 132.17 (§ 12) . nach (na) . . . a.¤ (aill) any other . . . : nábat nacha arm aili `let it not be any other arms', Wb. 11d14 . dochum nacha rainne a.¤ , Sg. 188a12 . indtan noteigdis nach leth aili, Mon. Tall. 129.18 (§ 6) . in nacha reduibh ailib, Ériu ii 106.9 . Masc. with neut. noun: huare nad fil na nert n-a.¤ , Ml. 29d5 .

n II As subst.

(a) another, the other, others etc.: cuit inna aine ┐ inna a.¤ of the one and of the other, Thes. ii 15.42 (Bcr.). amal na heliu `like the others', Sg. 9b2 . arus leth do fallaib an aill do doebdadaib `for half is due for the neglects, the other for the claimants,' Laws iv 126.21 Comm. mad a.¤ da lina beta olca folaid `one of two parties', ii 366.11 . ma a.¤ dá lína bes anfoltach, O'D. 565 ( H 3.17, 441 ). co ndearnadhsom in a.¤ chédna likewise, TFrag. 22.22 . mani tucad . . . ní din chéttadall ni bered a n-aill, Sc.M² § 1 . ní fargaib bennachtain ┐ ní thuc anaill (alali, v.l.), RC viii 52.25 . aroile . . . anaill the one . . . the other (ref. to léo), Grail 3399 .

(b) period of two days: a.¤ do mnaib . . . treisi do rig, Laws i 78.15 . nat ṡasai aena tar a.¤ `that one day should not be extended beyond two days', 120.18 . athgabail a.¤ itir uin ┐ treise rosmidir Sencha, 126.11 . cach athgabail a.¤ , 144.24 .i. for ata anad naili ┐ apad aili, 146.21 Comm. is for dail na haili, 146.12 Comm. athgabail a.¤ do ingin im comorbus a mathar, 146.y .i. ar ata anadh naili, 148.3. Comm. a.¤ déc space of twelve days (cf. a.¤ déc one twelfth , (g) infra): a.¤ do mnaib, a.¤ dec doib im roe, Laws i 78.15 .

(c) Frequ. a n-aill something else, anything else: nimbe anaild arbera bith `he has nothing else that he may eat', Mon. Tall. 146.16 (§ 50) . ind lethbairgin ┐ ind cethramtu nó anaild `the half loaf and the quarter or other quantity, 151.z (§ 63) , ní fogbat merdrecha Ulad a n-aill acht foraim én dóib, LU 3254 ( SCC § 5 ). it é do theoir ríagla / nítroib anaill bas diliu `have thou naught else dearer', Ériu i 194 § 7 . in fil anaill? ol Grigoir `is there anything else?' ZCP iii 30.21 .

(d) Hence with ocus, etc. furthermore: ┐ anaill forácbus[s]a . . ., LL 279a7 . ┐ anaill béus, iarfaig-siu and furthermore, ask . . ., TBC-LL¹ 1920 . ┐ dano a n-aill and úair ni chesend nech, LU 2654 . ┐ anaill niro tagaill . . ., Grail 2786 . Cf. similar use of araill: et araill aile dana béus, TBC-LL¹ 106 . ┐ araill and, dano, . . . ní fil rígain . . ., LU 4015 ( SCC § 46 ). araill ele bheós ro leth ainm . . ., AFM v 1858.z . ┐ araill ele nir bó siodhach . . ., vi 2052.10 .

(e) Uninflected aill . . . aill one . . . another, some . . . others (not found in O. Ir. Glosses): imrordus in rígraid / . . . / aill úas laithib lígdaib / aill fo díanaib déraib some . . . others, Fél. Prol. 23 . aill fir mair . . . / aill ingene húage `one of a mighty man . . . another of a virginal maiden', June 5 . áill fri cumaid . . . aill ele fri teichead (of persons), Alex. 309 . .lll. carpdech . . . aill bruitt budi aill bruit deirg `some in yellow mantles others in red mantles', RC xiv 412.8 . Hence adverbially partly . . . partly: aill is tóla catha crūach / aill is cōra cacha crích, ZCP xi 110 § 30 . go ruc in ingen leis aill ar áis aill ar égin, Ériu xi 46.13 . Cf. aill .i. aonfecht .. . ut est aill torla tres tochuired, O'Dav. 34 , Ériu xiii 15.11 .

(f) With nach any other: arna arroímatsom nach na.¤ `lest they should receive any one else', Wb. 14d37 . cen acaldaim nach aili, Sg. 153b7 . cen acomol naich aili do `without joining any other to it', 197b17 . nib écen na aill, Wb. 22d12 . ni gessid na aill act búaid precepte, Wb. 26a34 . ní epur na haill `I say nothing more', Sg. p. 217 marg. sup. (Thes. ii xxii). in fail na aill adcota[r] dam, Trip.² 1323 . cona bía cuit do nach ailiu i nHére, 2766 . do-bérad naill ( = na aill) would give something else, BDD² 276 . With partitive DI something else of: asbéram na aill diar ṅgnímaib, Wb. 17c23 . in fuil anaill d'ingantaib air?, Grail 2983 . Cf. aill do buadaib Duind C. andso something of the triumphs, TBC-LL¹ 1529 .

(g) In numerals (fractions). a.¤ déac one twelfth: oile dég f., IGT Decl. § 3 . oil a dég (oil dhég v.l.) lochdach, IGT Decl. § 14 . aili deac brotto `the twelfth part of a second', Thes. ii 13.29 (BCr.). erpais Patraic aili deac Erend dó the twelfth part of Ireland, Trip.² 911 . `a.¤ dhéc the twelfth part, the Brehon's fee . Anglicé allayéag,' O'Don. Suppl. ni uil aile déc dosomh ┐ atá éiric a gubreite fairsium, O'D. 536 ( H 3.17, 432 ). da tecarthar ni da folaid cruid on breithemain, no ailedec, Laws i 234.17 Comm. diablad na aile dec, 234.18 Comm. no co thormaigi fa geall co roib aile dec, v 252.20 Comm. log a breithemnuis, aile dec, 212.22 Comm. Perh. also in: ni bhía an oile dēgsi am díaigh / nach foighe Ó Bríain d'éicsi úaim, IGT Decl. ex. 216 . barr na ngēg uile re n-idnaibh / uile dég gun fidhbaidh ortt (lochtach), ex. 225 . Cf. Kl. enair for dardain ail uathaid fuirre `the second day of the moon thereon', RC xviii 176.27 (Tig.). 284.2 . For ail dec 35.9 Stokes suggests reading ail uathaid.

B. The form ALAILE etc.

I As adj.

(a) other: aliud pronomen . i. is allail (recte alaill, edd.) pronomen , Sg. 209b10 . cenn cridi ┐ alaaili réta `and other things', 111b5 . sech alaili dliged ┐ indliuchtu `apart from other sayings and meanings', Ml. 18c11 . imtech[t] Boinde . . . ┐ alanaile n-aband, AU i 308. 11 , cf. 330.4 , 374.4 . In later lang. neut. form somet. used after noun irrespective of gender: leth in moige . . . al-leth allaill, RC xi 446.52 . don taeb araill, Stair Erc. 782 . isin luing araill, Grail 2969 . isind láim anaill, TBC-LL¹ 1719 . Note also: adhaigh n-aill n-aile another night, BNnÉ 324 § 38 .

(b) Usually some, a certain (gl. quidam, aliquis): hualailiu chlausul gl. uelut in clausula, Ml. 40d17 . holailiu lon gl. quodam adipe, 80a2 . ainm alaili thríuin `name of a certain hero', Sg. 96a4 . alaill ṡain, 6b24 . hualailiu mud gl. quodammodo, 25b12 . con alailiu fogoir (leg. fogur, edd.) gl. aliquo `with some sound', 39a2 . alaili tain gl. quando, 222b1a . ac gūmāidim ala naile nairec ninganta falsely boasting of various wonderful inventions, Corm. Y 825 . cornan alaili cuislendach, `a certain piper Cornan', Mon. Tall. 131.23 (§ 10) . alaili fáith marb, Trip.² 1395 . di araile anmcharait, ACL iii 5.3 . aroile fer angid, PH 818 . doní . . . araile gaitt irisech `she commits a certain pious theft', BColm. 84.10 . i n-araile domnuch, ZCP iii 33.15 . ro indsaig araile carruic . . . ┐ ros buail, Grail 1435 . in araile locc i lLaighis `at a certain place', AFM ii 1066.3 . Cf. co aroile mainistir ecin, RC x 187.4 .

n II As subst.

(a) another, the other: ni ferr nech alailiu, Wb. 2a16 . ni áir do neuch molad alaili, 16a24 . is coitchen do cechtar de ainm alaili `the name of each is common to both', Ml. 14d12 . intí diib bes tresa orcaid alaile, Ml. 19d6 . tar cenn alanaile gl. aliorumuice, 95d9 . Sg. 201b15 . cenmathá dobrethir ┐ alaaili `except the adverb and other (parts of speech)', 71b17 . muidit secht catha ren Osseirgé for na Déise . . . asberat araile is tricha cath others say, Ériu iii 138.102 . in foirend is craibdige araile `the folk who are more believing than the rest', PH 6363 . coná baí aithgne neich sech alaile díb, TBFr. 271 . cach gabal tra issuidiu araile hisesam `every other division is sung sitting, the next standing', Mon. Tall. 140.4 (§ 31) . gach clas ro claideadh do línadh do arbaim alaill do imbim the furrows to be filled alternately with corn and butter, Laws iv 98.14 Comm. drécht diib i nAidniu, araill diib oc Dubcechair, ZCP viii 305.30 . Hence alaile . . . alaile etc. (the) one . . . the other, another: biit alaili and rofinnatar a pecte rosíu (sic) docói grád forru alaili is iarum . . ., Wb. 29a28 . alaaili diib hi remthechtas . . . alaaili dano it coitchena eter remthechtas, Sg. 215a1 . Later araill . . . de is used of all genders: comérgit Ulaid araill díb . . . araill, LU 5017 . Cf. a dá grúad . . . co ndeirgi fola laíg ┐ araill eile co solusgili sneachta, BDD² 38 . Also when first part of phrase contains ind ala (infra).

(b) With idea of mutual action each other: con rochra cách a.¤ lit. that each may love the other (= that all may love each other), Wb. 6d1 . rosbennach cách dib elathain aroile, Fél. 4.20 . Eogan . . .┐ Oed . . . do marbad aroili, Ann. Conn. 1340.12 . ar bruinnib ┐ ochtaip aroile ┐ a chēile, Fl. Earls, 80.17 . Frequ. with prepp.: combad imned for araill domsa so that it should be trouble upon trouble for me, Wb. 23b21 . Cf. in peccath for arele, 9c19 . is ball cách dialailiu, 5d4 . ar a ndig cechtar dīb sech anaile (araile v.l.) so that they can get past each other (of two chariots), Corm. Y 1082 (96.11) . ni dernai nechtar n-ai olc fri araili, TBFr. 24.3 = fria chéile, 420 . ón tráth co roili, BDD² 1251 . lán ón orsain go ar-oile / an teach . . ., DDána 85.37 . casmhail a rún dá-roile, 92.6 . an ro loitseat Goill ┐ Geraltaig imo roile (roile) isan tansa `the injuries mutually done upon each other', AFM v 1734.15 . dīss derbrāthor dieroile `two . . . brothers', Fl. Earls 124.1 . ?asrean a ceile agh fo laill do `his neighbour shall give him another calf', Laws iv 102.14 Comm.

(c) somebody, something; a certain person or thing . In sg.: araill tra cairigedarsom there is a certain thing (?) (`there are other things now which he blames'), Wb. 25b9 . So also: [con]-secha alaill indib (`he corrects another thing in them'), 26c1 . aroile do lāmhoip S. Niclās `one of the hands', Fl. Earls 80.20 . ba ingnad liasna Fomoire alaill tarfas doib isin cath a certain thing, RC xii 92 § 122 . atpert aroile fris `a certain man', Stair Erc. 1449 . Note also: ara ara bélaib isin charput sin araile forseng fánfota forbrec a charioteer in front of him . . . and he was, LU 9274 . In pl.: is sí cétbaid alanaile `this is the opinion of some', Ml. 36a1 . circunflex la grecu for alailib diib, Sg. 208b8 . With DI: araill d'feraib Midi `some of the men of M.', RC xviii 23.31 . do deachaidh fein cona mac . . . ┐ ar oile dia mhuintir innte, Leb. Gab.(i) 242.26 . d'foraithmet araill dona neithibh remraiti, 272.6 . araill d'áes na cemenn sin, CCath. 86 .

(d) As adv. (d s n.) arailiu `otherwise', Wb. 21a13 (introducing an alternative explanation); cf. alailiu chruth gl. aliter, Ml. 98d1 . alailiu, Wb. 9a23 (see Bergin, Ériu xiv 29 ; xvii 1; Pedersen, Ériu xv 188 ). alaile, Anecd. iii 59.2 . araili .i. gne eile, Laws iv 68.3 . Perh. also in TBC-I¹ 1044 , TBC-LL¹ 1833 ff. (reading ... cadān co leith. Allaile (alailiu LU) dia tonda etc.) .

C. The form (a)la, al(l).

I As adj.

(a) other, one of two, second (in this use a `compositional prefix', GOI § 394 ): all-aidchi on another night, IT ii2 194.21 . alachéill in sin, ZCP viii 313.29 . Morc .i. ala flaith na Fomoire, Leb. Gab.(i) 80.30 . béra cend ríg alathúaithi lat, BDD² 727 . fria lesa alabrugh of other territories, O'Curry 454 ( H 3.18, 242a ). rogrād fir alathīre 'great love of a man of another land', Ériu ii 15 § 2 . ? nach for ala thire tí tarrassais 'that you did not abide upon the surface of another land', PMLA lvi 940 ( LL 37013 ). li ala lécuinn Saul `by one of S.'s cheeks', Ml. 55c1 . ala n-or di i teg, a n-aill fri sīn, Corm. Y 35 (aurso). ala thred dub alaili find, Anecd. i 57 § 58 . tēora blaī būirig . . . blaī mescae . . . alablaī dúnaid la túatha téchtai tecraiter the second exemption, ZCP xi 83.1 . cath Ocha alachath `the second battle', RC xiii 54.10 . ala-chor second contract, Laws ii 274.z . mád ala feacht iar mbrethaib forru `for the second time', 66.16 . See also under compds. and 1 al. See also under allabrig.

(b) With article ind ala one of two, (the) one (. . . the other) (see also B II (a) supra): dotóeth indala fiacail airthir a chinn `one of the two teeth', Thes. ii 248.9 . arambé indala rann cen diall `that one of the two parts be undeclined', Sg. 74b6 . ind ala c. gl. praetermisit unam c (i.e. by writing hoc for hocc), 205b5 . co lluid tré scíath n-ete indala heóin one of the two birds, LU 3282 ( SCC § 7 ). doroigu ind ala fer . . . et romiscsigestar alaile, Wb. 4c16 . is léir dorigni indala lestar is dínnimu dongní alaill, 4c32-33 . ni coir dídnad dondala lucht et troscud dond lucht ailiu, 16c20 . īadais andala (indara, LU) sūil . . . asoilg alaile, TBC-I¹ 394 . benaid . . . Mac Cecht a chend dondala fir . . . ro boí in fer aile oc élúd, LU 7942 . Loch nE. dindala leith di ┐ Slíab C. dind leith ailiu, Trip.² 1957 . Later indara: indara láim dó fri ubull bragat in chon. dobeir araile fria chúl one of his hands, LU 5012 . indara fecht . . . canait ceol . . . in fecht n-aill contúaset fri ceól muintire nime, 1978 ( FA 5 ). is hé indara fer . . . ró an . . . Donnmal int aili, Trip.² 1521 .

(c) ind ala the second (cf. tánaiste): cengsat siar dind ara chur `for the second time', Metr. Dinds. iii 4.33 . isin dara cét lá deidenach don ré `on the second last day of the term', Laws iv 136.1 Comm. Hence in compd. numerals: ala rann deac `one twelfth', Thes. ii 13.29 (BCr.). issed indala nainmm déc the twelfth name, Thr. Ir. Gl. 25.9 = indara hainm, Corm. Y 750 . indala descipul lxx at the seventy-second disciple, Laws i 20.2 Comm. fir errainne co alasét sesed with sixty-two `séts' ZCP xii 361.21 . ?torad cach trethain ala cairrge, Laws v 484.2 (Comm. takes as all beyond). Cf. co treathan ala cairge no ala caire, O'Curry 20 ( H 3.18, 9a ).

(d) cach (a)la every other, every second: cach la céin . . . in céin naili sometimes . . . sometimes, Ml. 19b1, 3 . cachlacein `alternately', Mon. Tall. 146.29 (§ 52) . is i fescur cachlacēin / dlegar dīdnad dōib they are entitled to a meal on alternate days at vesper-time (of fasting regulations), ZCP xiii 29.14 . cach la sel dún for imrádud dé in sel aile for precept `at one time meditating on God, at another time preaching', Wb. 15d9 . ammarbad cach la sel iarum do a mbeogud indtale dia marbad `he continues alternately to mortify and revive them from their dying state', Mon. Tall. 147.16 (§ 52) . bó cona timthuch cech la blíadnai . . . colp[d]ach ḟirenn lee in mblíadnai n-aili every second year, Críth G. 266 . cach alablīa[dain] every second year, Corm. Y 1082 ( Anecd. iv 96.16 ). cach ara bliadain, Laws iv 140.29 Comm. druinech cechla bean / crecōir cechla fer, ZCP ix 170.17 . ate cuir treineacha la Feine cach la fear dia urgaire, alaili dia forngaire, Laws iv 54.13 . gach re n-am alternately, Dán Dé v 41 .

II n As subst. indala n-aí (invariable) one of the two: is dochu ind ala nái oldaas a n-aill, Wb. 4b24 . togu ind ala n-ái . . . damnad alaili `to choose one of the twain . . . to condem the other', 4c13 . ci atbela ind ala n-ái ni epil alaill, Sg. 30a3 . ind ala n-aí antúaid alaile andess, 67b22 . co n-accai in da mnaí . . . indala n-ai brat úaine impe alaili brat corcra, LU 3285 ( SCC § 8 ). elcuig indalanae, ruibidh alailiu, ZCP viii 105.11 . da fítt . . . inddala hí do tabirt do Día . . . araile do tomailt fadein, Mon. Tall. 161.10 (§ 80) . Later also ala (n-)aí: ar lēicse ala aí di arailiu, ZCP xv 316 § 10 . ni frith ala ai do thacru, 354 § 42 . dá [n]dorus [n]-and—comla[e] ar ala n-aí, clíath ar alailiu, Críth G. 101 . bōthar, talla dā boin fair .i. alanāi for fot alaile for tarsnae, Corm. Y 1082 ( Anecd. iv 96.17 ).

COMPDS. cosnamach fri hailecricha, Ériu viii 173.28 . i n-ailithír, Trip.² 2033 . asna hailithírib foreign countries, TTr.² 1747 (cf. ailithir). aile máthair, Sg. 152a2 (not treated as compd. by GOI § 394 . Perh. infl. by the Lat. altera mater). See also C I (a) above.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. aintestach or

n (ainteist) unreliable witness: ar bhréigsgeulaibh ainteastach, Keat. i 10.24 . go bhfeudfadh ainteastach breug do reic ris, 12 . innisin sceul ainteasdach do bhí fuathmhar d'Éirinn ┐ aineolach i n-a seanchus `false witness', 74.5 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. airchraide or

Forms: ara-chrin, airchride

io, iā (airchra, or part. of ara-chrin?) Also airchride. liable to decay: is irchride a tellad errusom gl. in figura contingebant illis, Wb. 11a29 (see note). a n-as irchride is hed doralad hi tossuch gl. non prius quod spiritale est, sed quod animale, 13d8 . ciasu erchride a ningraim `though their persecution is transitory', Ml. 26d12 . cechn[d]ercain isercraide, PRIA lv (1953) 100 § 22 . is erchraidi in domun dāi, ZCP viii 218 § 23 . na gella urchraide .i. in biadh ┐ int édach, Ériu xi 45.23 . ar setuibh urcraide, Laws ii 282.14 Comm. ba herchrede he was transitory, Metr. Dinds. i 10.50 . an bhreath-sa is breath orchraidhe, Measgra D. 69.6 . As subst. reic na herc[h]raide ar thīr na flatha findi transitory things, ACL iii 311 § 5 = nearchraidhe, AFM ii 618.17 . imurcraidh d'urcraidhi no do nemhurcraidi, O'Curry 384 ( H 3.18, p. 216b ). For irchraidi, BB 500b24 see under airchradche. smacht urcraidi dála, see airchra. a thing forfeited, a forfeit(?): tiumargain in bidbuid (? -bad) . . . gin aircisecht . . . iman urchraide do, O'D. 573 ( H 3.17, c. 442 ).

1 airde

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 airde or

Forms: airrdhe, -ena

n io, n. Later f. airrdhe f., usu. -ena in pl. airrdheana sighni (ó enchéill), IGT Decl. § 180 . See Vendr. Lex.

(a) sign, token: a.¤ síde, Wb. 24b28 . a.¤ cáinchumricc `a sign of benevolence', 7b4 . a.¤ néelutha máma, 11c11 . dogéna sáibfirtu et sáiba.¤ , 26a20 . a.¤ .i. egcosc, Lec. Gl. 249 . Patraic cen a.¤ nuabair, Thes. ii 321.2 (Hy. ii). is a.¤ sīda pax , Corm. Y 1057 = is airidhe sída in phóc, Thr. Ir. Gl. 36 . noda sénsat . . . ó airdiu croiche Crist, LU 1765 . oc fegadh . . . na [ha]irrdi (nairrdhi MS.) aduathmaire sin, Aen. 72 . airgena bróin, ZCP xiii 204.5 . airrdhe na críne, vi 268.15 . d'airdhibh uilc, TD 7.11 . gach dúil ag aithne th'airdheadh, 21.41 . ni ro taisbeinsiot nach nairrdhe nuireccla idir, AFM vi 2072.2 . d'airghibh th' annsachta, Desid. 81 . ro caithset . . . co fraocha fír-nemnech . . . na h-airdheana co coitcenn re ceili, co nár fagaibsit sgiath gan sgailedh, etc. i.e. exchanged the usual signs of war(?), Celt. Rev. iv 120.12 . it e a n-airdi these are their signs (of the ogham letters), Auraic. 947 . airdheanna Inse Éireann `the Wonders of Eire', Content. vi 164 . nár mhaoidhte do R. . . . cách dá airdheanaibh d'adhradh `follow his standard', TD 20.6 . In prep. phrase i n-a.¤ : gaba(i)s a gruaide i nnairide a anacuil `as a token of (asking) quarter from him', Ériu xvi 38 § 5 . a n-airginaib broide ┐ gabala, ZCP vi 281.23 . Special sign, portent. Of the last day: ticfait a.¤ inganta, SR 8129 . nidat airdi aniussa, 8055 . fri hairrdhibh laoi bratha, AFM i 370.16 . bid hé airdi d'assliṅge, TFerbe 146 . in tan nalád in nellaib / ba hág ar na hairdenaib `constellations', Metr. Dinds. iii 428.34 . do réir fhoistine ┐ airrdhean, AFM v 1448.11 . dia ra-iarfaig C.:— ciata a.¤ iṅgantacha so?, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 10 § 13 . airdhe niongnadh do thochar an bhliadhainsi .i. di gréin d'faicsin for a rith i maille i noen ló, AFM ii 574.13 . na mor airrde inganta dorónta miracles , PH 3712 . Sign, symptom: ba trúag airdena gona don rígmilid. Rogabsat a chossa crithnugud . . ., LL 244a48 ( TTr. 2052 ). airrdena . . . techid, MR 232.17 . ro fiarfaig cinnus ro boi isin lucc sin nō cred rop airgena do in fott boi samlaid, Grail 3825 . bat imda a n-airlig / is léir for a n-airdhibh, ZCP viii 110 § 1 . In phrase airdena éca (báis) signs of death: ó'dchondairc airrdena éca do thuideacht chuice, Ériu iv 158 § 35 . airdena báis ┐ éca ┐ aideda, TBC-LL¹ 1237 . iar dteacht d' airgheanaibh báis i ndáil an ríogh, Keat. ii 5407 .

(b) characteristic, quality: cúic airdena déc degmná: ciall, cóime . . ., ZCP viii 118.18 . inand d' airrgenaib iad sin alike in qualities, ii 350.30 . tré na h-airdheanaibh .i. a chalmacht, etc., Hy Maine 139.8 . doigh ro chlaochlaisiot a n-airrdhe ┐ a n-aigenta `their characteristics and dispositions', AFM vi 2298 . 16 . airrdena na n-athardha d'aithreis `attributes', MR 150.12 . gnáth cédairde gach meic mhir / ag reic édaingne a aignid, O'Gr. Cat. 458.32 . lucht an dhíomuis ┐ na ndroch airghean, Eochairsg. 69.12 . is d'airdheanaibh an reithe it is one of the characteristics of the ram, TSh. 3571 . tucus grad d'airrdenuib Uilliam good qualities, O'Gr. Cat. 338.34 . acca accallamh . . . ┐ occa increachadh do thaisccéladh for a airdhibh `that they might explore his natural endowments', AFM v 1864.5 .

Compd. ¤-gnúsigud signification: ithé sidi nad techtat in na. cechtar de gl. quae neutram habent significationem, Sg. 77a6 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. anfocal or
Last Revised: 2019

n (focal) misrepresentation: anfoccal conindle anfiadnaise fuidreg `misrepresentation which brings about absence of evidence is a plundering (of the wounded ?)', BCrólige 65 and n. fiach anfocuil fine for misrepresentation (regarding a stolen article), Laws v 218 n.l . an fuil eneclann isin a.¤ ? ata isin a.¤ galair, O'Curry 640 (H 3.18, 308) `i.e. certifying an animal to be sound when it is really diseased', Plummer MS notes. diablad ┐ eneclann isin a.¤ cuir no cunnartha, 1620 ( 23 Q 6, 7a ). a.¤ gaite i.e. giving a false warranty in the sale of a stolen article, 261 (H 3.18, 151a). anfocul seoit gaite, O'D. 1623 (H 5.15, 15b). eric anfocail reis in fer res ro reic , O'Curry 1747 ( 23 Q 6, 33 ). ní fuil a riagail re diubairt fesa no anfesa . . . acht a riagail re hanfocul i.e. the rule does not apply where deception is due to ignorance, but only when there is deliberate misrepresentation(?), O'D. 1690 (H 5.15, 30). aithgin bidh innruic . . . d'ic friu ina anbfocul orrudh (i.e. if bad food has been intentionally given to a party which is being entertained), Laws ii 34.2 Comm. lesainm no anfocul na bi fuirri false imputation, Laws i 148.7 Comm. As vn. gidh edh badh ail eraicc anfoccail uaithe ann nugun uil, uair nucu raibhi fein ac anfocul 'though a fine for misrepresentation be desired from her, there is none [to be paid], because she herself was not misrepresenting', Mar. Dis. 40 § 19 . ma rob in trebuire ag a.¤ na sét (sic leg.) éiric anfocail d'ic do re fer meodhongaite . . . maine roib in trebuire ag a.¤ na sét . . ., 859 - 860 ( H 3.17, 613 ).

Cf. annḟocal.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. Bolg or
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: Bolga, Bulga, Bolga, Bulca, Builg, Bolg, Bolgthuath, Bolgraige, Builg

pn Bolga, Bulga in population and place-names, etc. Taken to mean `lightning' < Celt. *Bolgos; Bolga, Bulca `of the lightning' (?) < *Bolgios, and expld. as forms of a divine epithet, O'Rahilly, EIHM 51 f .; cf. `the goddess Bolga', Rhys, PBA vi 106 (1913) , iv 251 (1910) . For alternative explanations see infra.

In tribal and population names: genelach hūa mBuilc (mBuilg, Hūi Builg, v.ll.), Corp. Gen. 262. Fir B., Tuath B., name of a prehistoric or mythological people in Ireland, variously expld. F.B. = earlier Builg, a pluralized form of Bolg, a deity-name, were `in origin an offshoot of the Belgae,' O'Rahilly, loc. cit. 54 . Mac Neill, PRIA xxix C (1911) 81 - 82 and Pokorny, ZCP xi 189 f ., as also native writers of legendary history (but cf. Lec. 181va49 infra), refer F.B. to 1 bolg, Mac Neill regarding it as `an occupation-name' applied to pre-Goidelic tribes (= Bolgthuath, Bolgraige) meaning `people of leathern bags', later extended to the subjugated population in general, Pokorny as meaning `men of the skin bags ' (i.e. `boats made of hide'); Van Hamel, ZCP x 186 - 188 describing F.B. as mythological beings takes B.¤ as g p. of 2 bolg. From Celtic *bolg-/*belg- `the swollen, wrathful´ acc. to Carey, CMCS xvi 80-83 . Cf. B.¤ in nn. loc. infra. Fir Bolg im, rogabsat Manaind = Builc autem cum suis tenuit Euboniam insulam, LBretnach 13 . for tuaith mBolc, ZCP xiv 174.4 . tuatha Dē . . . / im thuaith mBolc bāigsit rīge, 176.1 . for Feraib B. (: hanord), Metr. Dinds. iii 170.1 . gnídís (sc. Fir B.) barca doibh dia mbolgaibh . . . do theacht i nErinn amal asbeart Cin Droma Snechta, ZCP x 186.15 (BB), cf. LL 652. fir i mbalggaib (: ardglain) ba mór nert, 960 . is airi asbeardda[i]s Fir Bolc immecurdis fir earann (ed. would read úir nÉrenn) i mbolcaib do reic fri Grecu . . . ar nathracha, Geneal. Tracts 197.13 . Specific and general signification of name F.B.: nach d'Feraib B. Gaileoin na Domhnannaigh . . . fír sin tra iarna slonnadh ghnethech. Gidhedh iarna slonnadh coitchenn, as ainm diles dona tri Tuathaibh remraite F. B., PRIA xxix C 82 n. 1. is aen-gabail iad (viz. Fir B. ┐ Gaileoin ┐ Fir Domnand) iar mbunudus, ITS xxxix 146 § 262 (Leb. Gab.) . Grec ┐ Laiden ┐ Bretnais ac Fearaib Bolc ┐ Belgaid acu i nErinn , Lec. 181va48 . Fir B. . . . ó na bolgaibh leathair do bhíodh aca 'san nGréig, Keat. i 194.5 .

In nn. pr. (see O'Rahilly, loc. cit. 43 f.): m. Ōengusa Builg, Corp. Gen. 262. dā mac Luigdech: Ōengus B. et Ōengus Dublesc, Rawl. 155b12 . Aed Bolgc, rí Duin Chermna, ACC 138.21 . tenid i rraith Aeda builc, AU i 94.6 . ingen d'Aed Builg (: chuirp) mac Ḟingin, LL 17149 ( RC xlvii 308.15 ). As n. pr. f.: Bolc Ban-bretnach . . . do Bhretnaibh, Cóir Anm. 54. Bolce banbretnach, Anecd. iii 57.5 . mathair Chuirc . . . / Bolga Manand Bret[n]ach brass, LL 17011 ( RC xlvii 304.22 ). ? Name of deity: M. Ailella Ērand Dé Bolgae, is é tōesech ar-ránic faga (m. Aililla De Bolga . . . rānic foga, v.l.), Corp. Gen. 376. 17 .

In nn. loc., see Hog. Onom. s.v. aithbe, cluain, dún, b.¤ , bolga, etc. O'Rahilly, loc. cit. 43-5, gives list of place-names containing B.¤ which he regards as g p. of Builg (= Fir B.); refd. to 2 b. by Van Hamel, ZCP x 187 and Contribb. 236. Belach Dúin B., RC xiii 66 § 67. Mag mB. (mbolga, v.l.) former name of Mag n-Ítha, Metr. Dinds. iv 90.23 .

see Hamp, Ériu xxiv 179 f. In phr. gae bolga, bulga, see gae, G 10.80 , `spear of Bulga' (`or Bolga'), O'Rahilly, EIHM 51 , 52 , 61 ff., cf. Rhys, Trans. of the International Congress of the History of Religions, vol. ii 207, 1908 , cited by EIHM loc. cit. 55 ; `gapped spear', Contribb. 236 : referred to 1 bolg with meaning `Blasenspeer', Pokorny, ZCP xii 200. fichid Loch isind áth cosin gaí bolga, LU 6234 (TBC). eter . . . gai bolcai ┐ bai brasi (in list of Cú Chulainn's feats), 8443 ( FB 30 ). gai bolga, 9290 .

Compd. le Bolg-thuathaib Bagna denam a isdad, Hy Maine 90.13 . Cf. T[uatha] Bolgraighe ┐ clain Deguail (sc. athechthuatha) for Cenel Conaill, RC xx 338.13 . Bolgraidhe, 336.26 . Bolgraighe for críochaibh Conuill, Geneal. Tracts 77.3 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. breth or
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: brith, -e, breith, breith, -e, breith

ā, f. vn. of beirid. O. Ir. also brith i (with g s. in -e) (?), see GOI § 294 (b) , 727 . Later usually breith (d s. form). breith, f. g s. -e, IGT Decl. § 14 (69.6) . breith, Verbs § 13 . m., Beatha S. F. 1088 ; but breath in the sense `judgement´, Ériu lviii 154 ..

(a) act of carrying, bearing : fer brithe lésboiri gl. acolitum, Wb. 25d3 . asrous iarom a brith they were unable to bring it (a small pig), LU 1743. tōet nech ūaib . . . dia brith to carry it (a vessel of milk), ZCP viii 310.9 . a corp du brid taris syr da adhnacud `his body was borne eastwards over sea', Ann. Inisf. 1260.4 . teachtaire . . . / re breith sgéal `to bring messages', Dán Dé xiv 1 .

(b) act of bearing, bringing forth; parturition, birth : b.¤ et altram , Wb. 10b1 . óg re mbreith cen chuit cleithe, / óg i n-aimsir fírbreithe `a virgin before bearing', Blathm. 639 - 40 . co mbeba dot breith (: chleith) / do mathair, LL 18503. ar thrumme inna brithe, 33190 ( Fraech 107 ). saer bru beiris brith `that brings forth', Laws iii 312.20 Comm. mar mhnaói ag breith = that travaileth, Isaiah xiii 8. re linn beirthe Chríost, Keat. i 46.23 . breith . . . ar Slánuightheora, Donlevy 448.10 . glasgeg darach fo brith `the green branch of an oak in bearing', RC xxiv 196 § 11 (see Cín Chille Cúile 99-100 n. 117 ). deich nuain do breith in aoínḟecht d'aon chaoiridh, AFM iii 608.7 . Med. womb : dortadh fola . . . on breith (= matrix, Vocab.), Rosa Angl. 26.3 . no a muchad na breithe ac mnaim suffocatio hysterica (see Gloss.), 92.3 .

(c) act of carrying away, taking (with one) (opp. of tabart), Frequ. with LA with ref. to logical subject of vn. phr. In physical and abstract senses: mad fíu lib mo ainechsa do breith less, Wb. 14a4 . a b.¤ ┐ a tabairt `its taking and its giving', Laws iv 48.1 Comm. nir lam didu nech do feraib Herenn a b.¤ leis `durst carry him away', RC xxiv 190.15 . rinn a bhaise do bhreith lais, Dán Dé xv 33 . gorta dom brith, Irish Texts i 35.26 . mórán . . . nach feudfadaois do bhreith leó (= non potestis portare, Joh. xvi 12 ), Eochairsg. 14.17 .

(d) act of carrying off, securing, winning (a game, etc.): breith nó caill na glóire `the gaining . . . of the glory', Donlevy 186.7 . fá bhreith . . . na maithiosa saoghaltha (= gain in Span. text), Desid. 2762. in ferann uile do breith don ingín a dualgus bancomarbais `all the land is obtained by the daughter', Laws iv 40.20 Comm. See díriuch, techtugad. Note also: sdíoma bruit h'eich imtheachduigh / dá breith dhuit re ndonnchorcair you prefer the fringe of your horsecloth to (a) crimson (robe) (?), IGT Decl. ex. 121.

(e) act of carrying off, away (from, etc. with meaning limited by prepp.): inna fecheman .i. do breith neich assom (dobreithnechtassom, MS.) gl. depraedationi . . . creditorum, Ml. 127b1 . mo máthair do brith a cacht to take . . . from bondage, Ériu iv 98.2 . ar iss ed a cert-som a findtid do breith ar fine (Comm.) `to hold their family-land against the fine', Stud. in E. Ir. Law 151 .z . brith in chísa út díbh, RC xxvii 294 § 58. ní inchoisget sidi ní iarna ṁbrith onaib rannaib frisṁbiat `after being taken from the parts of speech', Sg. 202b3 . dot breithsiu úanna `to carry thee off from us', Mon. Tall. 153.27 . nir' āil dōib a thaissi do brid dō ūaithib, ZCP iii 35.9 . cia forúair a mbreith chucca? `who caused them to be brought to her?' Metr. Dinds. iii 386.11 . mo breith co hArdmacha (my body) to be carried to A., Cog. 200.26 . A. . . . dom breth co sid sogar `A. . . . to bear me to gainful peace', Gorm. Aug 29. ba cōru ind eich uccu[t] do breith dond espug, ZCP viii 106.22 . narbo cuman lia muintir si a breith leo do Cill Dara `did not remember to bring it (sc. a flitch of bacon) with them to K.', Thes. ii 339.15 . ind aiccend do brith for antepeneuilt `the bringing . . . on', Sg. 216b1 . iarna breith sech ingru / for dindgnu secht nime, Fél. Ep. 119. da breith for nem to bring it (sc. the soul) to heaven, ACL iii 216.6 . a mbrith i ndoiri `to carry them into slavery', Ml. 33c13 . dod b.¤ i tech péne `to bring thee into the house of pain', Ériu ii 222.7 . dia mbreith in óitith `to bring them (back) into youth', Sg. 63b6 . gá breith a ceann choinghleaca (a horse), IGT Decl. ex. 1187.

With DO, FRI act of referring (to): a brith do israheldaib `its reference to the Israelites', Ml. 36c20 . 36c21 . 37a10 . á brithe do iudaib `of its reference to the Jews', 37a6b . a mbrith fri corpu peccatorum `to refer to etc.', Wb. 13d4 . a brith frisa ndliged remeperthe, 23c11 .

(f) bre(i)th for (ar) act of catching up on, overtaking : drem . . . do breith forro i mB. `came up with them at B.', Ann. Conn. 1260.14 . ticedh sī do breit a mbethaidh orum `let her come if she would find me alive', ZCP vi 99.14 . go bhfanfaidis re sgéala do bhreith ortha for news to reach them, Celt. Rev. x 142.14 . ba geis do flaithibh Temrach eirge ngreine do breith forra alla astigh do shecht múraibh na T., BNnÉ 324 § 39 . iar mbreith do chéd tosach an geimhridh ┐ don oidhche fa da fair `when . . . the beginning of winter . . . has set in', AFM v 1792.16 . oibre . . . ar nach fuil breith uair oile for which no other time can be found, Parrth. Anma 2411. ní fhuil breith air gan díommbuaidh gcatha do bheith ort `there is no avoiding defeat for thee', Keat. iii 936. fa bheith . . . ag breith amuigh ar an Eagluis Romhanaigh censuring (?) the Roman Church (lit. catching out ), Luc. Fid. 2818. ag breith ar láimh ar Dh. taking D. by the hand, Desid. 638.

(g) act of judging, deciding; judgment, legal ruling, interpretation: immess fírían do brith for cach, Ml. 103c15 . bím do bhreith le bior an troighigh / nach reic[h] cion an oinigh orm, IGT Decl. ex. 812. Frequ. in figura etymologica: is ón spirut rouiccius brith, Wb. 9b6 . éitset frisin precept et berat brith fuiri gl. diiudicent, 13a11 . berid cách brith for arele gl. suspiciones malae, 29b9 . ber brith étrunn, Ml. 38c28 . á rí beres bretha, Fél. Ep. 416. ag breith breithe, RC xliii 8 § 2. ergc co C. cor-ruca brith fort, Ériu ii 222.4 . a ghníomh do fhlaith béaraidh breith a prince's deeds shall judge him, DDána 91.9 . Note further: na bretha scribatar and in æpistolis , Wb. 17b2 . am gáeth i mbretaib, LU 10287 (TE). cosnum a breithe o ro-sn-uca `to defend his decision when he has given it', Laws v 252.9 . imtiagad breatha ilbruige, 466.15 . i mbreathaib aicnigh ┐ cuibse ┐ screbtra, 452.20 . satharn do brethaib, Críth G. 547. a mbreith údair `in the decision of an author', Leb. Cert. 204.14 . In titles of legal tracts: Breatha Comaithcesa, Laws iv 68 . ZCP xv 315.12 . bretha dein checht, Bretha § 1 . córus breatha neimead, O'D. 2189 (Nero A vii, 132a). See neimed. breith le báidh a partial decision, Content. vi 176. do chuir Molaise do bhreith aithrighe air dul i nAlbain `imposed as penance on him', Keat. iii 1358. ruc Ioseph doib . . . / breith cóir foran-aslingthe interpretation , SR 3270.

(h) In phrases: tuc a b.¤ fen do braigdib dó whatever hostages he wished, RC xviii 274.14 (Tig.). asbert Mugain frisin mbancanti dobérad a b.¤ féin di día mbenad, etc. whatever she liked, LU 4223. fuair Ráth bhoth a breath leannáin `R. obtained its chosen love' (in appointment of prelate), Arch. Hib. i 96 § xii . gon ar breith (sic leg.) dhó (gan air a chumas, v.l.), BNnÉ 158 § 11 (see Éigse ix 272 ). ata gach uile ní ar breith (no comas) don tí creitfes = omnia possib[i]lia sunt cre- denti (note f.), ITS xix 44.22 . ná bíodh ar breith a úabhair `let him not be led by pride' (Notes), Bard. Synt. Tr. 26. 219.22. tabhram fad bhreith / . . . / nua na calla `let me put 'neath Thy power', Dán Dé xvi 8 . an maor do bhí ar gach mbaile / tug Brian fa bhreith a dtoile `placed beneath the authority of its folk', Content. v 75. ní nár dhuit dol fár mbreith-ne `to yield to our judgment', vii 16 . Note further: tíachtain tar do breith `to transgress thy judgment', Ériu iv 134.22 .

(i) With various nouns: is fer bret[h]i budi ┐ oirbiri `a man great in thanksgivings and in upbraidings', MacCongl. 87.9 . is cóir buidheachas do bhreith ré Dia `to give thanks to God', Donlevy 6.15 . eolus do breith ann `to find out the way thither', MR 276.14 . breith do roghuin . . . diomoladh na neolghach d'fulang, tar a bheith dorcha air chách preferring , Donlevy xxii 16 . See 1 enech, robud. céim do bhreith tar Chambrens ag cáineadh na n-Éireannach to go a step beyond Cambrensis, Keat. i 40.8 . See léimm. Note further: d'aicsin Dé is ní dom breith buan `to see Him, not to save myself', Dán Dé xxvi 41 .

? b.¤ .i. sith no cain, aprobio a greig, pax uobis a laidin, sith no si[th]cain a gaoidheilg, O'Dav. 323.

Compds. With nouns: a breat[h]aga (: lethḟada) time for judgment, ACL iii 235 § 20. bráthchæi .i. brethcheo ǽi, Corm. 7. re bhreithcheirt a breitheamhan ` justice ', MR 102.16 . ar bhéin re breithionnadh (breitindead, breith fionna, v.ll.) mbreath, LMuimhneach 425.293 . cét mbó mbrethlaind `a hundred well-selected cows' ( Corm. Tr. 26 ), Corm. Y 179. ? Cf. búalann. robae ar brethlaind Midi immuig / M. . . ., Rawl. 164b11 . na brethlaind `in his place of judgment' ( Arch. Hib. ii 84 § 30 ), LL 23969. fāeisidi . . . / cona brethlogad as bind confession . . . with Absolution, ACL iii 237 § 24. F. . . . / barr uas brethraind bithbuadaig, LL 15939. báire breath-sholuis gacha bréithre, MR 108.18 .

With adjj.: buaidh mbreatha (inbetha, v.l.) breathadh- bhail, IT iii 57 § 107.10 . firinne bruinnti, bretheamhanda, breth-fhuaslaictheach ` redeeming ', MR 98.18 . ainm bechtglan (breathglan, v.l.), ITS xxxv 94 § 11 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. cennach or
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: ceandach

n o, (cenn). ceandach m., IGT Decl. § 55 .

(a) bargain, transaction, compact : is c.¤ som mad ar lóg pridchidir a financial transaction, Wb. 10d27 . ba dotcedhach a cendach the bargain turned out badly (Judas' betrayal), Blathm. 110 . C.¤ ind Rúanada i nEmain Macha (title), LU 8040 . ro dasbennach F. féig / co mbad ch.¤ dia cóemréir an arrangement that was pleasing to her, 4296 ( SG 84.25 ). co ndernaind-se c.¤ frit, LL 281b39 . ? a ben can ch.¤ co culchair, RC xlvii 309.2 . ar son ar gceannoigh `owing to my commerce with him' (i.e. barter of poems for wealth, note), O'Hara 1845 . gan cor gan ceannach, AFM v 1626 . ceannach .i. connradh, O'Cl. In chevilles: cētaib c.¤ , Arch. Hib. ii 62 § 45 . náemda in c.¤ , ZCP v 497 § 10 .

(b) act of buying, purchasing, acquiring : a ceannach `to purchase them', Laws iii 154.3 Comm. bec in cendach nime sin `this is but a slight outlay to purchase heaven', PH 2458 , cf. do cheannach nimhe, Éigse iii 178 § 39 (see note). dán ag ceannach do chruidh, Magauran 2402 . síodh Dhé 'gá ceannach ar chrodh, Dán Dé xxvii 33 . reic ┐ ceannach, Donlevy 76.13 . do cheannach cairdeasa, TSh. 3556 . ceannach eiste pay for it, Aithd. D. 31.7 . a cheannach what he has bought, DDána 42.38 .

(c) act of ransoming; redeeming : in for legind do gabail dóib . . . ┐ a ch.¤ do B., Ann. Inisf. 990.2 . cen c.¤ without ransom, PH 2810 . do c.¤ tsíl Adhaim, Laud 610, 23a (cited Plummer MS notes). gabh ar gceannaigh-ne a chroch naomh, A. Ó Dálaigh xxvii 1 . aimser in cheannuigh, Smaointe B. Chr. 3090 redimere, Gloss.

(d) price, payment; reward, recompense : cendac[h] do ghabáil do cinn a cora cum báis, ALC ii 318.x . ? o do fuair c.¤ na cét / nír breg do Cellach a chuíc, BB 56b9 . as mór an c.¤ fledi a treigen to desert them (the sons of U.) is a high price to pay for a feast, IT ii2 129. 196 . is e ceannach daberaid air `the purchase price they give for it', Ériu xvii 70 § 12 gl. 2 . c.¤ da cind a āenbō, ACL iii 244 § 6 . ar cheannach ná ar bhreith le báidh `whether from money or from partiality', Content. x 11 . eneach, c.¤ for love or money, O'Gr. Cat. 120.5 . gan chíos . . . no ceannach ar a mhac, RC x 336.19 (TBC) `rent', Plummer MS notes. an ní bhus ceannach blaidhe, eadhon, bás the price of fame, ML 100.16 . do ch.¤ ┐ do thuarusdal, ZCP vi 91.13 .

In phr. with mór: is mōr an ceannach dúinn muill do chur ort, ITS i 127 v.l. (is doíligh linn, text). as mor an ceannach bheith reat it's a hard job to be up to you, Luc. Fid. 4929 . mor an ceannach thu fein ┐ do chluas, 5164 `you and your ear are the bother, the torment', Gloss. dá mnáibh is mór an ceannach / an barr her hair makes much work for her attendants(?) (otherwise text and note), Magauran 1875 . mór an ceannach deaghóir dhamh / seanóir meangach do mholadh (to the world), DDána 50.8 . Possibly also in: mór an ceannach ar a gcuid / ór ná heallach ní iarraid (`there is a great demand for their wares') (of abhrán-poets), Magauran 3674 .

In phr. mar ch.¤ ar: mar cheannach ar bheith i bhfochair na druinge `that he might be . . .', Keat. ii 43 . mar cheannach ar an mac soin . . . do bheith eolach, 109 .

(e) Attrib. g s. do chethern cennaigh `hirelings', RSClára 139a . dílsi chennaig a proper bargain, PH 3217 . fearunn ceannuigh, Laws ii 14.5 Comm. ocht . . . longa lancennaigh trading-ships, BB 276a37 . port ceannaigh fer talman, 491b45 ( ZCP xxx 119 ). síodh cheandoigh a negotiated peace, O'Hara 2173 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. cluithcheóir or

n (cluiche) comedian : gurab cosmhala é re cluithcheoir do bhiadh ag reic sceul sgigeamhail ar scafoll ioná re stáraidhe `player', Keat. i 62.y .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. coimreic or

n (2 reic ): god choimhreic ó bheól go bél `repeating thee', Studies 1919, 440 § 12 (= Luc. Fid. 5909 ).


Cite this: eDIL s.v. coimreicid or

v (see 1 reic(c)): cnuas . . . ni choimhreic coill `has not yielded', Rel. Celt. ii 234.11 .

1 cuirid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cuirid or

Forms: cuired, cuirthe, cuirthi

v repl. earlier fo-ceird, do-cuirethar. ? Cf. arch. cuirithir (. . . bedc), Ériu xxii 42 § 9 (-er, MS), see also xvii 93 (4 c) . IGT Verbs § 83 .

(a) With direct obj.: mór do chathaib . . . ro chuir O. waged , LU 4393 . cuirit a ndergár, LL 38715 . in n-úair nochuired . . . / in bíast buidech a brocc-lomm vomits , Metr. Dinds. iii 428.29 . bid loch . . . / curfes co tromm trénṡaithe `that shall overthrow', 456.72 . cor cuiread graifne in aenaich leo `the fair-races were run', Ériu ii 178.22 . c.¤ gáir, Airne F. 289 . cuirit . . . inn ēgis mórchuairt Hērenn, ACL iii 3.25 . nocha cuirfither hé `he . . . shall not be overthrown', BColm. 94.26 . ro cuireth a n-or ┐ a n-airged, ZCP xxx 157. 35 = rotus loitt im a n-ór, Alex. 1091 . galar . . . trias ro chuir a ḟolt lost his hair, AFM ii 906.1 . ? ri ruc ingrein cuires cách, SR 7241 . cuirit a scis and `put away', RC ix 22 § 22 . no co curtur é `till it is buried', Rosa Angl. 256.z . is gach instrúim ceóil cuirthear is played, Timth. vi 38 § 19 . nach do réir oghuim do shíor chuirthear comhardadh rhyme is not always in accordance with spelling, IGT Introd. 3.1 . cionnus do chuirios ┐ do chaitheas a bhfuarus to what use I put etc., Mac Aingil 574 .

Invites : rocuired don cormaim hé, RC xiv 242.19 . con[id] si adaig and sin ro curthea a mathair a athair . . . do thig ríg a thúate, LU 6730 (BDD). cuir h'oireacht ┐ aguill iat (proscribed, cuiredh not having allowable personal forms), IGT Verbs ex. 793 . ? ni he rochuir iat `he had not sent for them', Ann. Conn. 1225.14 .

Sows; plants : cuiream ar síol, Dán Dé xvi 4 . curid ┐ benaid arbhar fa dó sa bliadain, Maund. 270 . a dhuine chuirios an crann, Ériu viii 195.1 . an tiubhar do chuir Pátraic, AFM ii 1146.4 .

Causes, has done : ar na cuirend dogres catha na cogadh do denum, Aen. 2752 . nīcoirset cesa / cen lessa a n-anma sufferings have not prevented them from caring their souls (?), ZCP viii 110.27 . 'nar cuiris mo mac do dighbhail orum `caused my son to be taken from me', Fier. 99 . na cuir galltrompa dha sheinm romhat, Matthew vi 2 . Cf. cuir-se ar múnadh, DDána 11.25 . do chuir / a fhuath caused him to be hated, Aithd. D. 10.6 .

(b) In a variety of idioms with prepp. With A(S): ro curthea gai a Herind re lind spears were banished, LL 888 . c.¤ . . . Adam a Partus, MacCarthy 58.9 . an ghairbhiachtach . . . ch.¤ asta emit, TSh. 6705 .

With co: ra curit techta chucu, MU² 850 . cuiridh in rí coblach . . . co C.B., ACL iii 309.5 . comad é fear a inaid no cuirfidhe co ríg Caisil ar tús `who would be summoned', Ériu xvi 66.87 . dochuiredar chuci diblinaib `attacked him', Ann. Conn. 1405.15 . cuirimsi cucaib, a breitheamna . . . I submit to you, O'D. 1700 ( H 2.12, No. 8, 1 ).

With DI: ro chuir a mertnigi . . . de put off, LU 3617 (SC). ? no cureb-sa dít, Fing. R. 87 . ramchursetsa . . . / do chirt Banba deprived me, LL 19233 . d'éis gach chuir dar cuireadh dhí, Aithd. D. 28.11 . gur chuir . . . allus fola dhe, TSh. 6747 . cuirid súil di see súil. DO: guidhe dá chóir ní chuirfe will not make supplication to Him (of Christ in Judgement), DDána 27.11 . ? béim air nocha nḟuigheadh sí / dá ccuireadh an ḟail d'Éinrí, IGT Decl. ex. 689 . do cuir do gorta iat starved them, Maund. 78 .

With DOCHUM: da curtái docum laburtha . . . le healadnaibh saera `which were caused to speak', Maund. 252 . gur chuirsead chum báis . . . íad, Desid. 3538 .

With FO: cuireas faoi milleadh na mbracchadh `induced him', Hy Maine 11.28 . fir nar chuir fan ríghe ribh `who have not contended', O'Hara 2374 . nó gur chuirsead . . . / fúthaibh `made conquests', TD 26.21 . cuirfe se faoibh an uile = suggeret vobis omnia, Luc. Fid. 5531 . go gcuire grádh féile faoi `till he has made up his mind to do some deed of generosity', Aithd. D. 31.39 .

With FOR: ? coro cuired Emuin M. forsna sluagaib, LL 13776 . docuir Sir Gyi tri cluithci aran sdibard (of chess) defeated, ZCP vi 54.22 . cuiris tiomargadh ┐ tionól ar maithibh Grécc mustered , Leb. Gab.(i) 80.16 . gurab ar Moling chuires an seinleabhar iad ascribes , Anecd. ii 24.y . cuirim ort a fīadnaise call you to witness, ZCP x 42.3 . an cuairt / . . . charit (sic) ar Sulcuaid the visit they make to S., Cog. 98.36 . cuirim si fort . . . scaradh fris, BNnÉ 5.29 . docuiredur . . . a cert ┐ a cōir ar comlunn disi they staked, ZCP vi 96.15 . do chuir ar [mh]í-chéill mise, A. Ó Dálaigh xxiii 2 . do chuiredh deichneabhar ar coitcheann S. `were quartered on', ZCP x 18.12 . cuirigh na croinn si foraibh cast lots among you, BNnÉ 7.17 . ben nár chuir eól ar an éra to whom refusal was a stranger, Bard. P. 40.92 . gur chúir S. . . . fios ar óglaoch sent for, TSh. 9095 . docuredh orum . . . gurb é do-reic-si re luing cennaigh doronus I was charged, ZCP vi 101.21 . as lugaide rocuirfed form do thecht uaim would grieve me, Aen. 808 . air nī cuirenn does not disturb it, BColm. 68.2 . cuirid ar an aígen, KMMisc. 322 § 7.1 = tiagaid arin muir, 315 .

With FRI: ro cuirsiod friu `attacked them', TFrag. 236.15 . cid sochaide . . . dia náimtib docuiread fri huaithed do chlaind Israél were sent against, Celtica iv 40.595 . meic (mac ?) ríogh nach cuirthear re chéimibh `unequalled', O'Hara 2865 . cuir rem dhíon undertake my protection, O'Gr. Cat. 411.19 . go gcuiridh cúl ris na coiribh, TSh. 7983 .

With IMM: co curend téora imsrotha im claiss a chúlaid, LU 6543 .

With I N-: cuirim a mbreth (of counsel's opinion), O'Curry 2120 ( H 4.22, 82 ). do chuirsiot D. anég . . . da fichet céd killed , Cog. 112.9 . cionnus chuirthear focuil shínidh ghirr a síneadh mheadhónach is changed into, IGT Introd. § 1 (1.22.) cuir thinntinn sa numla, Ériu v 136 § 103 . dá gcuireadh neach i n-iongantas orm should anyone think it strange in me, Keat. i 90.3 . ro-chuir naemhu Erenn uile hi socht, ZCP x 410.7 . cuirit a gceist ┐ a n-ingantus `they were very much troubled', Fl. Earls 34.24 . gibé . . . chuirfes conntabhairt ionnta, Ó Héodhusa 224.1 .

With LA: cuiris ferann manach . . . le Cnoc . . . M. added, Anecd. iii 7.6 . mar do chuir lé ar leithéid-ne `as He applied it', Dán Dé vi 25 . dá gcuirdís `fallsa' leis (of title of book), Mac Aingil 86 . ós liom chuirfeas since he will take my part, Ó Bruad. iii 208.5 . do chuir . . deire léna cómhrádh, Párl. na mB. 404 .

With ó: do-chuiris o adrad ídal hi you have banished the worship of idols therefrom (a city), PH 778 . an turcar cuires uadha an boaire dhí sin `the cast which the boaire chief makes with this', Laws iv 226.11 Comm. muir derg cuiris imat leag loghmur . . . úaithi deposits, RC xxiv 373.23 . ó chradh cuirfidhir, O'R. Poems 173 `will be separated from wealth', Gloss. chuireas iad ó bheith infheadhma which prevent them from being of any use, TSh. 7243 .

With RÉ N-: cid dam-sa na curfind mo chomlund a chetóir romum why should I not at once engage in battle? CRR 25 . ro cuirseat a comlunn rompo re n-ég were determined to fight to the death (?), CCath. 2788 . an tan chuireas roimhe díoghaltas do dhéanamh, TSh. 5421 . dána an chúis do chuir roimhe, Bard. P. 2.3 .

With TAR: no co cuirem in bliadhain-si thoruind till this year is over, Fianaig. 68.20 . ra chuir súil darin cétna mbraini cast an eye over, LL 34941 (MU). cuireadh thoram feirg Dé, Celtica iv 166 § 256 .

(c) With adverbs and adv. phrases: curus an curach amach, Ériu iii 164 § 18 . níor chuir mé / amach uaim breith an chluiche `did not set forth', Content. xiv 55 . guidhim Muire ogh / nacham-cuire ar cul, KMMisc. 319.9 . cuir ass ma connicci dispel (it) (viz. snow), Trip.² 562 . is mó do cuirthí do mheamhair leis na macaibh fóghluma é would be memorized, Keat. i 90.9 . gur chuir d'fhiachaibh air compelled him, Desid. 5316 . cuirfid se in cride druim tar ais, PH 7797 . cuir do chomhrádh ar athlá, Dánta Gr. 39.2 . do cuir fa aithne orra dul is in oilen, BCC 239 . ro chuirseat for nemhthní na F. `set nothing by the F.', AFM ii 1172.20 . niro cuirsit a mbridh an ni sin ignored that, Grail 3308 . rocursed na curaid a cenn a chele `the warriors attacked each other', Ériu viii 36.8 . an síodh cuirthior 'n-a chéile which is restored, O'Hara 1279 . cuir a gcrích ar chan an fáidhsin cause to come true, SGS iv 142 § 21 . go gcuireann cuid éigin . . . i bhfeidhm, TSh. 2222 . má chuiré a ngníomh iad, Desid. 3219 . chuiris a lochda . . . ós áird, Mac Aingil 3351 . cuireadh sin sios go mor do Chriosd = fit iniuria Christo, Luc. Fid. 3640 . cuir . . . súasuin sinn `lift me up', Bard. P. 6. 5 . cuirim suas don ghrádh I forsake (despair of?), Dánta Gr. 90.2 . ni chuireann . . . an Cailbhineach suas don Luitearanach, Luc. Fid. 2889 . cuiridh . . . a tigh súas = buildeth her house, Proverbs xiv 1 . cuirfit darcend naforcetla will upset, Three Hom. 70.7 . ro-chuir cend dar cend ┐ druimm dar ais miassa . . ., PH 4392 . cuir trit a ceile mix (them) together, Rosa Angl. 212.20 .

Vn. 1 cor. cuired. Part. cuirthe. Vbl. of necess. cuirthi.


Cite this: eDIL s.v. dúan or

Forms: dúain, duan

n ā, f. Later oft. dúain. a s. also duan, MacCarthy 408.434 .

Song, poem , general term for a verse composition intended to be recited or sung, usually of more than one stanza (rann); each of the 150 divisions of SR is called a duan (prose notes follg. l. 7788 and 8016). In BB 307b19f. ( MacCarthy 138 ) perh. stanza: is lāntomus duaine in Debide fota `the Long D. is the full measure of a stanza'. rann ar gach duain . . . duain ar gach ollamh d'Éirinn a stanza of every poem . . . a poem for every poet, Content. xxx 23 . duain gil (duan, BB), Todd Nenn. 144 . Duilem na ndulgeine | da ndealbam duain to whom I frame a song, ZCP viii 199 . ón ló do delbus in dúain, Ériu ii 168 . dorónus dóibh dua[i]n mbinn mbairdne, ACL iii 296 . oc cormaim gaibtir duana poems are chanted, Thes. ii 295 (SP v). da tí aes dána sin crích . . . co rop siat a duana sain ┐ a dréchta gabtair ar tús i nEmain, TBC-LL¹ 1156 . do ghabh duana ┐ dreuchta ┐ deagh-dhánta a sean ┐ a sinsear dí, Oss. iii 48 . o thair in duain do gabail `when the recitation of the poem is finished', Laws v 212 Comm. rocan in fili in duansa deis-creidmigh, MacCarthy 408 . cionnus chanfam duain an Tighearna, TSh. 6361 (= canticum, Psalms cxxxvi 4 ). sheinnios D. duan ┐ degcheol dō, SG 277 . tallus luag mo duane de, Metr. Dinds. i 52 . do chuingid duaisi duaine, Acall. 5489 . dúas ar nduana (for d.¤, v.l.), ACL iii 296 § 44 . cenél Fermac . . . deig-reic a nd.¤ ní dimain, BB 188b27 . Sathgel caem dar deimin d.¤ who was sure of a song (i.e. of praise of bards), 189a2 . roindis duana da n[d]eig-righ, 10 . amail rustuirim M. i mbrollach duaine Flainn, Lec. 38b19 . dūnta for nd.¤ decid lib, | a aes in dana dlighthig, Auraic. 2183 . dūnait curpu d.¤ , 2210 . dosgēn fēin raduain a rrig I will compose them a mighty song for their king, Ériu vii 219 . bās righ na raduan, MacCarthy 422 . as é do chum na dúanta senchasa so i ndán díreach, AFM vi 2320 . duain naoimhsheanchais, Keat. iii 749 . iomad do dhuantaibh nó do dhántaibh, i 90 . ag déanamh duan don tsluagh dá ngríosadh, Keat. Poems 1560 . ? a-tá uan liom ag ar bhfoghnamh, | d.¤ liom do lomradh gach laoi Thy shearing is my daily song, Aithd. D. 70.10 (? leg. dual, note).

Compds. ¤abb `song-abbot', poet , LL 11a4 = BB 34a2 ( ZCP xiii 363.8 ). ¤bairdne one of the four divisions of bairdne, IT iii 6 . ¤gleo: Aildergdoit rogab 'na diaigh | di bliadain déc tria duaingliaidh contest of song (?), Lec. 51a23 . ¤grinn: dareis Diarmata d. of the pleasant songs, ZCP ix 466 ( Rawl. 165b23 ). ¤grith: i nduangreathaib, IT iii 90 . ¤ḟial: Mendraige Dairbre duanḟéil generous to poetry, Metr. Dinds. ii 46 . ¤marbnad an elegy or threnody: duanmharbhnadh a mhna, O'Gr. Cat. 574 . ¤mebair: atchiu maidm ar mórṡluagaib, | noco lem nach d., LL 48a32 = duainmiobair, SG 373 . ¤molad panegyrical poetry: lethat Tuadmuman . . . sloinnfet tre d. dōib, Ériu ii 50 . ar dhuasaib duan-mholta, AFM vi 1906 . ¤oirfided singing songs: cruitirecht ┐ d., BB 464b30 . ¤timna a testament in verse, BNnÉ 273 § 245 .

1 é, hé

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 é, hé or
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: ishé, is hé, hǽ, isé, hǽ, hé, asné, ishe, issé, isé, é, hé, é, hésom, hesom, hǽsium, ésium, esium, eisiu, esiomh, eisim, esim, éseom, eseom, eiseom, esen, ésen, eisen, eisea, eision, essium, eissiu, eissiumh, esseo, essem, essim, eissi, eissin, hisseom, heside, he side, éside, eside, éisidhe, eisidhe, eiside, esede, eisidh, esiden, esidein, eisidhein, esein, éisei, eiséin, eisidei, eiseic, ese, esside, hessidhi, eissid, eissidi, eissideic, eisseic, eissein, es(s)ide, bé, cebe, gibe, cidbe, eside, esium, (h) é, éseom, esium, eissium, é, é

pron. 3 s. m. ; fem. , q.v. (later also í) ; neut. 1 ed, q.v. For pl. see 2 é.

In Glosses with copula : ishé, Wb. 4c3 . 25b2 . Sg. 3b20 . is hé, Ml. 36a32 . is hǽ , 102b5 . isé, BCr. 18b12 . mad hǽ , Wb. 27b6 . ba hé , Ml. 24a4 . Wb. 19c4 . asné, 4d16 . Ml. 31b24 . Mark of length sometimes omitted, as : ishe Wb. 25a24 . Ml. 45b11 .

In early Mid. Ir. with copula 3 s. pr. issé, isé ; independently é, hé ; in later MSS regularly é. Before -som, etc. hésom, Wb. 7c8 . 24d5 . hesom, Ml. 53a5 . 90b13 . hǽsium, Ml. 30c5 . ésium, TBC-LL¹ 1744 . 6050 . esium, 1107 . 1189 . LL 223b14 . eisiu, Acall. 1979 . esiomh, TBC-LL¹ 3883 St. eisim, TBC-I¹ 2444 . BColm. 60.6 . esim, 104 . 12 . éseom, TBC-LL¹ 5971. eseom, LU 12a36 . 126a29 . TBC-I¹ 559 . 580 . eiseom, 1222 . 1543 . TTr.² 1451 . esen Corm. Y 276 . CCath. 2615 . ésen, TBC-LL¹ 2893. eisen O'Gr. Cat. 488 ( : seisen). eisea, Dán Dé xxv 53 ( : móirsheisear). TSh. 5134 . eision, TBC-LL¹ 3883 v.l. TD 34. l. 189 . In early Mid. Ir. freq. with -ss- : essium, PH 281. MacCongl. 55.11 . eissiu, Acall. 6017.6708 . 7890 . eissiumh Metr. Dinds. iv 282y . esseo, Trip. 394.4 . IT i 131.12 . essem, Ériu i 126.12 . ZCP ix 156 ( = TBC-I¹ 1543 ). essim ZCP iii 258 ( = LU 126a29 ). eissi, Acall. 2080.3353 . eissin, 7642 . Cf. hisseom, PH 1513 . Before -side, -séin, etc. : heside, Wb. 3c15 . Ml. 100c10 . 102a20 . he side Ml. 100b23 . éside, LL 219a34 . eside, TBC-LL¹ 2230 . PH 929 , etc. éisidhe, Lism. L. 3429 . eisidhe, 424 . eiside Laws iv 138z Comm. . TTr.² 373 . esede, TBC-LL¹ 4502. eisidh, Laws i 8.6 . esiden, YBL 62a27 . esidein, BColm. 52.18 . eisidhein, ZCP viii 551 y ( = TBC-LL¹ 1874 ). esein, PH 1963 . éisei, Acall. 1463 . eiséin, Studies 1924, 242 § 7 . eisidei, Laws i 4.25 . eiseic, iv 46.14 Comm. v 448.30 Comm. Acall. 5944 . ese, Laws iv 16.17 Comm. With -ss- : esside, LU 22a38 . ZCP viii 302.23 . Auraic. 207 . MacCongl. 3.11 . hessidhi, Lism. L. 3888 . eissid, Corm. Y 276 . eissidi, Do Chupur 56 ( IT iii 237 ). eissideic, Acall. 4833 . eisseic, 6034 . eissein, 5819 . 7982 .

In early Mid. Ir. we sometimes find es(s)ide standing for a fem. subst. : oc siair tharisi do .i. fedb craibdech eside PH 943 ; cf. Laws iv 176.24 ( 178.4 ) ; 226.7 .

The O.Ir. quantity of 1 é before the suffix is attested by the rime glēsom : hēsom, IT iii 44 § 60 . Thurneysen remarks ( Thurn. Hdb. § 447 ) that the length of the vowel in ésom may be due to the influence of 2 é which, to judge from Welsh wy, is long by nature. In late Mid.-Ir. however the vowel is regularly short before the strengthening or anaphoric suffixes. The shortening may be explained by the analogy of 3 mes(s)e, tussu s.v. .

A detailed examination of the use of the independent pron. in Old and Mid. Ir. belongs to syntax and would be out of place here ; we give however some illustrations of the typical uses for these periods. Some special uses are noticed in IX.

I Placed immediately after the copula, in the following types of sentences :

(a) bad he for n-ere (gl. portate dominum) Wb. 9d12 . is heside athir inna mmachabdae (gl. Mathathiae) Ml. 74b6 . ishé a ammus lemm that is my guess at it (gl. cum iam fere centum annorum esset) Wb. 2c27 . ba ed á n-oínbiad (gl. mannae) Ml. 97d8 . Símon Bar-ió e eochair na flatha némdai, PH 1639 . tucus aichne fairsim corb'é Ísu I knew that He was Jesus 3736 . ní hé Cormac beus, TBC-I¹ 13 . In Mid. Ir. the pron. is often repeated after the subj. in sentences of this type : (a1) is é gaiscedach as dech fil díb hé, LU 101a39 = FB 14 (hé om. ZCP iv 153 ). issé mo lennán é, TBC-LL¹ 4560 . corb' e metrapolitan na primchathrach he, PH 189 . as é céd-duine tárla dó hé, Acall. 624 . fa hé céidrí Éireann do ṡíol Éibhir é, Keat. ii 1875 . When the second pron. stands for a subst. of different gender from that of the pred. we get the type : is tocrádh mór marbhnadh Dé | ní hé an brón gan adhbhur í, Dán Dé xxvi 1 . dob é ceirtleath m'anma í, Studies 1924, 428 § 9 .

(b) is hésom doradchiúir (gl. Christo Jesu) Wb. 2b9 . is heside dorárricc báas dúnni, 3c15 . is heside robu rí, Ml. 100c10 . Mac e timchellas hErind ind oenló TBC-I¹ 1110 .

(c) is he Dia insin (Quis est iste Deus...? Deus sc. ille qui...) Ml. 83c5 . rii benn ced ara neper? Is he rí tuathi insin lasmbiat .vii. ngraid ḟene, Laws iv 328.24 . is hé rí insin loingside siabrai, LU 99a27 .

(d) ba he a ngnimsom molad Dǽ (quorum...officium) Ml. 24a4 . is sí ind inducbal lesom in molad, 126b17 . corrophed mo indeb Crist (gl. ut Christum lucrifaciam) Wb. 24a6 . is e in cetna herdach celebrad ┐ procept brethri Dé, PH 3600 . dob í m'ḟáilte mo riar, Keat. iii 1450 . issé biadh do buí ag M. uidhe cerc ┐ aran, BCC § 122 . Keat. ii 2687 .

(e) is hé rufiastar cumachtae inna tí, etc. Ml. 111c13 . is ed as dulem daitsiu m'etarcnae, 103a9 . is é as fhoghar dá gach eon | moladh Dé, Dán Dé xiv 23 . Cf. is e thainic a n-agaid Patraic .i. Sínell, Lism. L. 248 .

(f) asné Crist in lie asrubart, Wb. 4d16 . issi so a chiall, Ml. 65a3 . is e cētlá na sechtmaine in domnach PH 3584 . int e Crist mac Dé sin, 3792 . badh í an úaisle ar n-eólaichne, Ériu ix 163 § 6 . gurbh í Éire tobar draoidheachta iarthair Eorpa, Keat. ii 963 . The pron. is regularly in concord with the follg. subst., but cf. is í ar gceann báidheine an bhean, Dán Dé ii 29 .

(g) When the pred. precedes the cop., the word following the pron. usually decides the gender of the latter : in choss is hé oís achtáil, Wb. 12a23 . Crist didiu issí in chathir, 21c5 . cf. i dteangthaibh nach í an Scoitic in languages other than Scottic Content. vi 19 . Cf. on the other hand Wb. 3b16 , 18 . PH 1639

(h) is hé Dia as eola indiumsa, Wb. 8d23 . ní hé apstal citarogab in testiminso, Ml. 38c3 . comad he Nathi bud choscrach, RC xxiv 180 . ba saeth le M. nach he Brian ba ri, 176 . ce nib ed á ainmsom bes foir, Ml. 23d17 . (In O.Ir. the pron. is not obligatory in this type ; cf. issí ind ainim as airlam...ní incorpp, Wb. 3d11 . ni far mbrónsi immafolngi fáilti domsa, 16b8 . is a indocbál fessin condieig cách, 23d5 . ni Dia dudgní..., Ml. 44d21 .) is é mo chorp ro ádnaicis[s]i, PH 3732 . is é an beo do bhí 'na chroich | doní idir eo agus éanlaith, Dán Dé vi 40 . gurbh í an Ghaedhealg fá teanga dona draoithibh, Keat. ii 964 .

(i) The copula may be omitted : he fessin as choimsid dáu, Thes. ii 294.3 . hé cotnarlaic...doib anisin, SR 3659 . é leth luidi, Metr. Dinds. ii 2 . é domrad a n-éccomhnart, BS 48.16 .


(a) After interrogatives : cia hé (gl. quis) Ml. 46c17 . cia hé nundixnaigthersiu, 75c9 . ce hé roscríb, Sg. 197a19 . cóich esein, PH 1963 . cidh esen itir, TBC-LL¹ 3843 St. cuich hé in t-airfidech ut ?, Acall. 7525 . cret eissein in t-abhacc ?, 7982 .

(b) After sechi, sechip, cip (cib) : sechi he (gl. si quis) Ml. 35b4 . sechi é cretes de illis Wb. 15b1 . sechi sí (gl. quaelibet) Ml. 65d2 . sechi sí dia rignaib, 65d8 . sechip hé nodapridcha whosoever he be that preaches it Wb. 14d28 . sechip hé dán tra doberthar do neuch, 13a3 . ciphé ade Ml. 26a1 . ponat ergo lunam (cipé) ubilibet computare voluerit BCr. 31c2 . ciped ní, PH 1520 . gib é ba missi, TBC-LL¹ 1223 . cip é imress méla...fort, 46 . So far as can be judged from published material cip é (gib é) is regularly replaced in late Mid. and Early Mod. Ir. by the anomalous gi bé (gidh bé), in which bé is fully stressed and alliterates with b. This form occurs already in O.Ir. : cia bé a mmet however big it be Ml. 61b28 . cía bé (MSS. cebe, gibe, cidbe, etc.) dlug bías duib, Metr. Dinds. iii 42 . gipe ra ṡossed (cía bé roisedh v.l.), TBC-LL¹ 6076 . atú ar bhaois gidh bé nach fuil, Dán Dé ix 8 . gi bé do bhronn a dhá rosg, Studies 1921, 258 § 9 .

It may be noted here that the position of the pron. in copula (or virtually copula) sentences in Mid. and Early Mod. Ir. is not always in accordance with orthodox modern usage, e.g. Tadhg esiomh nó a aithgin he is T. or else his counterpart O'Gr. Cat. 488 (= Ir. Monthly 1921, 291 ).

III With 2 os, q.v. : os hǽ (gl. donorum amicus) Ml. 69c4 . oshé, 122b14 . oshe, 123b4 . osse cona licc fora thairr, TBC-I¹ 891 . Similarly with is (s), s, ocus (┐) : deidghin...ina cinn isse níamdo, IT i 119.27 . a inar bláith é étrom, TBC-I¹ 1871 . mar éan is é gan eitil, Dán Dé vii 22 . in scáilfer...sé tailc, IT i 271.11 . andara hech dibsidi ocus se...luath-lemnech, TBC-I¹ 2557 . ocus se baccach, PH 620 . ┐ se ina shessom, 622 . árá imtromm, IT i 271.36 .

IV Independently : hésom triuss, Wb. 7c8 . tría buith adi innim ┐ hǽsium i talam because He is in heaven and he on earth Ml. 30c5 ....nad cho[m] nech acht hesom fesin 53a5 . cen fis accu he buden ina Cristaige, PH 56 . ni nech aile...acht he buden ┐ Dia, 607 . nachar mhair acht é féin amháin, Keat. ii 4179 . cunnradh eile atamaoidni do dhenamh le hA., acus eisin linne, Ir. Deeds, Trans. RIA xv 87.22 . In affirmation : Ferbaeth an e dothæt... imbarach? Eiseom on, TBC-I¹ 1543 = YBL 31a17 . After indá, in(n)a, ná than ( = O.Ir. oldá(a)s, indá(a)s) : fearr neach ele iná hé féin | dá mholadh, Studies 1924, 242 . do ba sine ioná é féin, Keat. ii 1828 . After cen, eter, 1 amlaid, 1 mar, q.v.

Here also may be noticed the type : is móidi a subailchi sin ┐ is laidirede congmus duine a n-agaid a namatt é its virtues are the greater (for) that and it aids a man more powerfully against his enemies thereby Maund. 139 . do benadh an t-iarann as an crand ┐ nir misde do bhi an tseisrech ag trebad é the iron was removed and none the worse was the team plowing BCC § 76 ; in these passages the pronouns sin, é, are asyntactical. Cf. the exx. in Fasc. i 162-163.

The usages classified under V-IX belong to the Mid. Ir. period, and later. Strachan has shown that V-VII were in use before the end of the eleventh century, and well established before the end of the twelfth ; see Ériu i 176 .

The form sé which arises in this period is treated s.v.

V As subject of the copula, following the pred. In early Mid. Ir. we find numerous exx. in which side is replaced by eside, som by esium, etc. (perhaps on the pattern of is éside x, is ésom x), as : in Fiac sin dano mac eside meic E....(v.l. mac sede), Thes. ii 307.3 . Cf. the O.Ir. types : is Diasom domsa, Wb. 1a2 . ni augtor side uilc, Ml. 44d19 ; these seem parallel to : ba cosnamaid Erenn esside an inbaid sin i n-agaid Cathail, MacCongl. 3 - 5 .

In early Mid. Ir. eside, esium, etc. usually follow the pred. directly, while the copula is unexpressed : dalta esseom do P., Trip. 394.4 . bai mac etorro... .i. Mael D. mac A. esside, LU 22a38 . Necódim...sái rechta eside PH 3677 . dalta do C. beos essium, 281 . Whether this type preceded and originated the use of the simple pron. as subj. of the copula is uncertain; there are numerous early exx. of (h) é etc. where the anaphoric pron. would be out of place.

Nicodemus... .i. cara inclethi do Crist he, PH 209 . ní cubaid bás cosmail doib, uair Pól ennacc he, Petar tra...écraibdech eside, 1865 . With copula expressed: combá mac dond ríg hé, LU 22b29 . is la Coin Culaind... hé, 112a24 ( FB 89 ). ba hairchindech na n-apstal he, PH 1637 . ba hōgshlān he, 468 . ba cumang les he, 64 .

VI As obj. of trans. vb., replacing the O.Ir. infixed pron. (The transitional stage is illustrated in the tautological types: cotgair Lugaid amach hé, TBC-I¹ 1063 . connachrancatár hé, LU 59a33 . roscuirset himmach he, PH 110 ): cona ragbad in galar hé, LU 14b31 . rocharsat hé, 121b35 . rochrechtnaig eseom, 126a28 . co cualutar hé, PH 18 . acall-su fessin é, TBC-LL¹ 1652 . guid he beseech him PH 343 . In reflexive sense: do lecc C.C. ar a gluínib é, BCC 274.29 .

VII As subj. of pass. vb.: robaided hé, LU 41a23 . cf. rogabad hí, 41a33 . is annam fogabar he cen chatha RC xxiv 200 . meni frithalter innocht é, TBC-LL¹ 1352 . nach acaltar é, 1694 . rohindarbad asin cathraig he, PH 949 .

VIII Occasionally as subj. of certain intrans. verbs: mas re ré na fochraice táinic amuigh hé, Laws iv 134.13 Comm. noco bia itir hi, 42.2 Comm. ar nach tisad friss he, LL 217b34 . ní raibe a n-aicned duinde eisseic, Acall. 6034 . ni roerchoidigestar do hí (sc. in lassar), Trip. 392.9 . Cf. as subj. of trans. verb: ni torracht Herinn andsin í, RC xii 78 . In such exx. the pron. is regularly separated from the vb., cf. imridh sé éinbhearta is í, IGT, Decl. ex. 1113 ; but: ór ḟás eision, TD 34. l. 189 .

Here may be noted: ol eissidi, IT iii 237.1 . bar ésium (éseom) quoth he TBC-LL¹ 4568 . 5971 . 6050 . ar esium 1189 . bar eissium , Acall. 4615 . cf. ar si, ar sisi, IT ii2 227.34 - 5 . See ol.

IX There are a few special uses of é in a neutral sense, without regard to gender of follg. subst. (cf. 1 ed):

(a) is e cuit in `acht' and the force of the `except' here is Laws iv 42.1 Comm. is e cuit in dono ann, 136.24 Comm. badh é a chríoch...go mbrisfimni..., Ériu ix 164 § 14 . is é críoch a gcualabhair this is the gist TD 31.8 . an é a reic is damhna dhí, 22a42 . iss é sin ciall in sceil, Acall. 3326 . is é áit..., Keat. iii 5055.5199 etc.

(b) in indef. predication, as: ní hé amháin not only that TD 9.11 ; 22.5 . Ó Héodhusa 34.9 ; 54.5 . Mac Aingil 326 . an é nach faici-sí C.? do ye not see C? BCC § 100 . an é nách easbol meisi ? an é nách fuilim saor ? 1 Corinth. ix 2 .

(c) referring to a statement or fact, etc.: rucad in Dond C....úadib...conid é sin méla ┐ mertain ┐ meraigecht is mó tucad for C.C., TBC-LL¹ 2041 (conadh í sin mela is mó v.l.). a Dhé ní d'anaibhse mh'olc | é nach faghaim-se furtocht, Dán Dé vi 34 . re hinghin Anna is é adearar | Dia an t-eitne agus ibh an chnú, x 22 . as é adeirid...nach treabhonn mé...iad, Studies 1923, 81 . is é chráidheas an croidhe | mé ag áineas tar m'eólchoire, 1924, 88 . See Strachan, Ériu i 163 .

For é with neut. or fem. subst. in Mid.-Ir. see Strachan's paper on Middle Ir. Declension, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1905 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. echtar, or

Forms: echtargendi, echtargeindi, echtargeindiu

prep. with acc. without, outside: echtar comairbirt mbiuth pecthae hi robammar (gl. foris eximus extra quod fuimus) Tur. 108 . echtar recht [sic leg.? echtarecht MS] .i. docoid tar recht n-aicnid hinnun (gl. cis naturae leges Sg. 217b16 . noteged echtar chathraig [sic leg. ? echtarchaig MS] Ml. 54c18 . feil docuiridar echdar corgus a feast that falls outside Lent Mon. Tall. § 22 . Cf. arcichset loman lonngliaidh na da err eplaid hechtair, acht regaid fer dar fer indocht astig si, Anecd. v 14.17 (for v.l. see IT i 104.11 n. , Hib. Min. 55.13 ). See also anechtair, díanechtair, sechtair.

COMPDS. echtarchenél a foreign kindred; a foreigner, alien (the latter meaning could have arisen from an attrib. gen. ¤cheníuil, which is suggested by some exx., but the adj. ¤chenél is perhaps to be classed with findbarr, milbél, etc. Cf. chrích, below): no gebtais echtarchenéla a tír Trip. 170.3 . nach cland no bertis do echtarcenélaib, 202 . 13 . as eadh líon lotar clanna N....cenmotat echtaircenela Leb. Gab.(i) i 78 . AFM i 444.9 . na buada doberat leo a hechtarcenelaib in domain amuigh, Aen. 1963 . acca n-iomchoimhétt ar chuanaibh ┐ ceithearnaibh ┐ eachtarchenélaibh, AFM vi 2250.20 .

The following may be attrib. gen., unless ¤cheníuil is to be classed as an adj. of the i-decl. (see Thurn., Thurn. Hdb. § 345 ). fer echtarcheniuil, Aen. 2906 . oicc echtarchiniul (v.l. echtairceniuil), RC x 222.127 . cosnamh a n-athardha frissin ainffine n-eachtaircheneoil sin, AFM vi 2070.4 . rí eachtaircheneóil (of a king ruling over an alien kindred) AFM ii 1074.9 .

¤chian outlying, remote: fona crichaib echtarcianaib, Aen. 230 .

¤chined a foreign tribe: is aire sin ro gabasdair eachtarcineada tire Breatan, Todd Nenn. 68 = BB 207b1 .

¤chinedach foreign, a foreigner: eachturchinedhoigh do lot na hEirenn, TFrag. 112 .

I a foreign territory: Froech mac F.... soermacamh na nDomhnannach a n-imdealaib a n-echtarchrichaibh, ZCP xiii 166 . coná caémhnacair dul i n-echtaircrích, AFM vi 2266.16 .

II a foreigner, stranger: dia ticed áighi no echtarcrich, Marco P. 23 . ní theit lucht na criche sin a gcathuibh acht da mbe conblicht forro doberuit echtarchricha dia cabair, 169 . g p. for breith áighedh ┐ echtarcrich, 24 .

¤fine an extern kindred, an alien tribe: a reic fri echtarfine `to sell them to persons extern to the tribe' Laws v 128.17 . do fir echtarfine, iii 52.24 Comm.

¤geinde of foreign birth: echtargendi (gl. alienigen(a)e) Ml. 37b30 . ind echtargeindi foreigners 103d21 . hi lama echtargeinde (gl. in ius venit externum) 100c15 . a p. echtargeindiu (gl. alienigenas) 29b16 .

¤tháin an extern herd, a herd from another territory: da n-indillib bodein...d'innillib echtarthana, Laws iii 232.15 .

¤thuath an outlying or foreign people: fuba fri hechtartuatha `attacks upon strange tribes' Laws i 160.3 Comm. tiagait meic Aeda in-agid na n-echtarthúath sair LL 275a31 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. édaingne or

Forms: etaingne

n , f. insecurity, want of firmness ; in Laws Comm.: g s. anfis etaingne ignorance of (the place) being unsafe Laws iii 276.20 . fis daingne no etdaingne, 276y . v 160.25 . ag reic edaingne a aignid instability of character O'Gr. Cat. 458 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. eráilid or

Forms: ir-, aur-, fur-, furáilim, heralmit, -erala, auralem, erálta, ro erail, furáil, eráilfither

v (eráil) ir- ; aur- ; fur- ; also with metathesis, fuláirid, q.v. Cf. ar-áili. pres. ind. s. 1 furáilim, BNnÉ 6.3 . pl. 1 heralmit, SR 2175 . pres. subj. s. 3 -erala 1159 . pl. 1 auralem, 1157 . imperf. pass. no erálta , IT i 74.18 . perf. s. 3 ro erail, SR 3707 . PH 5033 . do furáil , Maund. 31 . fut. pass. eráilfither, PH 5094 .

(a) enjoins, urges (an action, etc., on a person); incites, instigates, induces (a feeling, conduct, etc., in someone), with for, ar of pers.: (a) no erálta for maccaib Uisnig dul i ngabthib, IT i 74.18 (no erptha v.l.). coro heralasi in mbiad for Adam that she may urge the food upon A. SR 1159 . ro heráiled cretem for Thomas tria lamachtad in chuirp choimdetta, PH 6738 (= ille ad fidem reducitur, p. 467 ). Anecd. iii 75.4 . ro urail serc Aenias a cridhe Didaine instilled love for A. Aen. 399 . cach aen ara n-urailfi tu egla tre t'faistine in whom you induce fear Celt. Rev. viii 232.28 = TTebe 1330 . eráiled ┐ faslaiged for a chomnessam cu rap áintech he, PH 5989 . (b) ro ḟuráil ól ┐ aibnis air urged him to drink and be merry Fianaig. 74 . 31 . in diabul furailes in drúis who instigates PH 7441 .

(b) induces, causes, brings about (a state, etc.): (b) ge tuga si furtacht ar lathair, furailidh si easlainteadh ele do tiacht, 23 P 10³, 61a7 . neiche furaileas ar an fuil techtadh which cause the blood to coagulate 23b0 .

(c) in general commands, enjoins: (a) doronsat inní ro herailed forru, PH 4453 . comallud na nn-erailend in scriptur diada forro fulfilling what Holy Writ enjoins on them LU 2392 = RC iv 250.27 . is e sin in darna hinadh ...i n-uraileann dligedh ar duine a fearand do reic `where the law commands a person to sell his land' Laws iv 214. 12 . cia ret etir erailter isin recht diada nách comailter isin timna-sa na dérce ?, PH 5840 . ro erailset a choimét i carcair, 2936 . (b) amal dos-furail Dia er Moysi in bean c[h]lochad, 7328 . cidh iat delbha na ndei...ḟurála foirnd do loscud, CCath. 650 . fer tairberta é do denam cacha furailed [fhulairedh v.l.] a thigernæ fair 3558 . ná furáil tré écin orainne aní na ro gnathaighebhair 1659 . furáilim foraibh...dul san loch, BNnÉ 6.3 . do furáil E. tumba do denum dó, Maund. 31 .

(d) entrusts, commends: (a) nosn-urailend for degmnai dia oilemain entrusted him to the care of a gentlewoman YBL 65a15 = LB 117a26 = coron erail... | bar [sic MS.] forgo dia degaltrom, SR 3707 . Here, perhaps: do chomdelbaid ... | heralmit do throcaire we commend to thee (?) 2175 . noco n-irailtis for feraib till they should be assigned to husbands RC x 222.131 (n-eraildais v.l.). (b) glacuidh bheg-ofrailsi ro furailim oruibh, Parrth. Anma, Dedicat. p. 2 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. étáil or
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: éadáileadh

n f. (the old nom. may be étál, cf. altire ┐ rathbuighi... | dobiur milgitan fria toil | sí anhetal cipsi chuin (on honorific portions) YBL 419b20 = ní etal cip tan LL 29b40 ). See Celtica xiii 142 , xiv 26 . g p. éadáileadh, IGT, Decl. ex. 1289 .

(1) gain, profit; wealth: edail (gl. lucrum), Ir. Gl. 694 . édáil 'ca dénum do díth do chomarsan (definition of usury) PH 7565 . airlegud can édail do denum air, 7568 . is dammainte in édáil asa fhuarais t'indmus, 7580 . a etail dana the gains of his art Laws ii 348.26 Comm. = v 96.28 Comm. ma fearand fuair ar a dan he .i. mad etail nach dana olcena `property acquired by [practice of] judicature' iii 30.3 Comm. tarladar meirligh ar bhealach riu, do bheanadur a n-eadail diobh `their property' BNnÉ 164.36 . dechmad etala cech oen, BColm. 50.8 . do dhlighfeadh gach neach... | d'éis a éadála d'áirimh | an deachmhadh do Rígh na ríogh, Dán Dé xxv 8 . mná anúaisle... | a mbeartaibh óir... | agus sinn gan édáil, Studies 1919, 73 . is mór a néudáill an diaghachd, 1 Timothy vi 6 . d'iárraidh éudála, 1 Corinth. x 33 . ag reic agus ag ceannach ┐ ag faghail eudála, James iv 13 . Fig.: cred í in edail na in gloir ata duitsi duine marb d'athmarbad ? Fier. 63 . bheith aguinn a hucht chóra...ní budh éadáil ód dhreich dhuinn | gan bheith san éagáir aguinn no benefit TD 30.5 .

(2) Esp. in sense of prize, booty, spoil: edáil spoil, plunder Kirk . a faídiud i tirib ciana do chungid allaid ┐ étala, LL 217b37 = TTr. 59 . ag teaccar na hédala sin (spoil collected by the Danes), Cog. 114.25 . gur meabhaidh for an sluagh...gur ḟaccbattar daoine, eich ┐ edála aidhble, AFM iii 366.5 . iomdha leó clár is coire | sa lán oile d'éadálaibh (warriors sacking a countryside) TD 16.59 . do ghlacadar long sa chuan, ni fuarsad édail ar bioth innte, Rel. Celt. ii 204.27 . rugadar leo na hédála uile ┐ na creacha uile, Numbers xxxi 11 .

do-(g)ní é.¤ ar spoils; makes profit of: co ndingnidis...étail orra would spoil them Expugn. Hib. 74 . a nderna mé eudáil oruibh ?, 2 Cor. xii 17 . do-(g)ní é.¤ (neich) makes a prize of, spoils, plunders: do-ní éinḟili a édáil `a single poet makes a prize of him' Ériu ix 165 § 21 . gur ghabustair long...go nderna a hedail eidir ḟíon, édach, umha ┐ iarn AFM iii 370.2 . aga ffuabairt ┐ acc dénamh a n-édala vi 2324.10 . ac dénam édála na criche, SG 269.23 . ag dénamh oirccne ┐ edala, AFM vi 1882.6 . fear éadála one `bent on spoil' TD 13.7 . Cf. fear na héadála, Ir. Prov. § 135 .

Cf. do fháccaibh M. aca a n-edala do techt for a leaptachaibh chuca, BNnÉ 244.26 (i.e. that they should obtain wealth without exertion ?). is é.¤ limm I think much of, desire: is étáil liumm in béist bec-so d'[fh]águail, PH 7204 .

Fig.: cach etail peacaidh fogeibed [diabal]...doberedh lais, co mbid oc a sgribadh [isin lebur], Anecd. iii 7.21 ; cf. 8.17 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. fallsa or

adj io-iā (Romance loan ?)

I False, deceiving: in duball fallsa the black treacherous cliff ACL iii 237 § 23 . rád f.¤ , Ériu iv 114.1 . fios f.¤ (.i. brēccach), Leb. Gab.(i) i 26.13 . ón ór ḟ.¤ , IGT, Verbs ex. 190 . día f.¤ an idol Maund. 152 . nír fallsa mé ┐ dob fuath lium lucht na fall[s]achta, Fier. 37 . aithrighe fh.¤ feigned penitence TSh. 6901 . cumhdach fallsa feóil mo bhall, 3313 (cit.). comhthrom f.¤ a false balance Proverbs xi 1 . fáidhe f.¤ false prophets 2 Peter ii l . beid comursain fealltach fuar f.¤ fa cēile, ZCP x 50.24 (Laud 615). triar nárbh ḟ.¤ riamh dá rann never false to their side TD 36.15 . ó tá mo ghníomh f.¤ fuar `vain and ineffective' A. Ó Dálaigh xliv 11 . do ēist mo Dia rim-sa ... mo glōr dō nīr ḟ.¤ , ZCP xii 388.24 . an corp fallsa da bfoghnuim, 383.28 . muna ccoisce ar ccorp falsai-ne, 383.20 . ag fochuidmheadh go f.¤ fa na seanchadhaibh `deceitfully ridiculing the antiquaries' Keat. i p. 50.2 .

n II falseness: in ḟ.¤ , IGT IV § 127.13 . reic óir ar ḟ.¤ , ex. 1010 .


Cite this: eDIL s.v. fóitín or

n m. (dim. of 1 fót) a small sod; a small plot of land: fóidin is grinn le Gallaib, Hy Fiach. 200 . ag reic fóidín dúithche, Ruth iv 3 .

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