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ad-anaig

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ad-anaig or dil.ie/294

 

Forms: atnagar, -adhnas, nommadnaiss, adnastar, adanastais, atomanaste, adnasta, adnocht, adnacht, adranact, adranacht, adnacht, adnacht, roadnachta, adnaicid, adlaicid, annlaicid, adnachte, adnacul

v ( ad-anag-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 456 ). Forms: Indic. pres. pass. sg. atnagar (influenced by vn., Ped. loc. cit.), LU 10472 . Subj. pres. 1 s. -adhnas, RC x 82.22 . 2 s. nommadnaiss, Trip.² 922 . Pass. sg. adnastar, 2991 . Subj. impf. 3 pl. co adanastais , Ml. 100c23 . Pass. s. atomanaste, Wb. 14c20 . no adnasta , Trip.² 2987 . Perf. 3 s. ro adnocht , RC xxiv 182.12 . Pret. pass. sg. adnacht, MacCarthy 150.11 . Perf. adranact, Thes. ii 242.10 (Ardm.). adranacht .i. ro adnacht , ACC § 113 ( RC xx 280 ). ro adnacht , Trip.² 2994 . Pass. pl. roadnachta, Rawl. 79a3 .

Later as simple vb. adnaicid, adlaicid, annlaicid.

Part. adnachte, Sg. 20a4 .

Vn. adnacul.

(a) escorts, conveys, brings: atomanaste gl. uolui . . . deduci, Wb. 14c20 . atnagar Emer hisin Craebrúaid co Concobur E. is escorted into the C., LU 10472 .

(b) buries, entombs: co adanastais gl. ut mandarentur terrae, Ml. 100c23 . atbath som ┐ adranacht hi firt, O'Curry 779 (H 3.18 p. 365b). ar ecnairc a adnacail atranacht i cloich, Ériu i 122.31 . adradnacht cend Conchobuir / for a cholaind i Machi, LU 11060 . acht corom adnaicthi i mmullach T. provided I be buried on top of T., Trip.² 802 . corus adnaic hi talmain Uisneich, Dinds. 7 ( RC xv 297 ). roadnaicset a marbv, TTr.² 1258 . ro-cuindig . . . airm i n-adnaicfidea where she should be buried, Dinds. 18 ( RC xv 311 ). ro-m-uc lais cus-in ádnocul in ro-ádnaicius hé, PH 3735 . fuair bás obann . . . ┐ do hadhnaiceadh i n-ifreann, TSh. 563 . dohadlaiced co honorach hi (i.e. in choland) ┐ dohadnaiced imorro . . . in cend, ZCP xiv 150.14 . adhlaicthear thú . . ./ i n-uaigh chumhaing, Dán Dé iii 26 . gach nech adhlaicfithir am reigleis, BNnÉ 111 § 52 . airi sin nach andlaiccear a nD. . . . caillech, ZCP v 22 § 8 . adēr rib dā n-andlaicther / in cāech a nDruim na n-aingel / iffernd don lucht aindleōchas, § 9. an eclus inar handluicedh Martain, BCC § 255 .

aithnech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aithnech or dil.ie/2756

 

adj o, ā (2 aithne): a ghnúis aithneach ` wise ', TD 3.40 . ? maoidhemh `a.¤', Metr. Gl. 30 § 54 . ? ní ba aichnech (taithi neich, hadnach, taitnech natragha v.l.) for gói, Tec. Corm. § 19.17 . Adv. adeirim rib ga ha.¤ ` knowingly ', Fen. 74.14 .

1 ar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ar or dil.ie/3902

 

Forms: ar, air, er, eir, air, er, ar, arin,, airind, air, airnaib, armo, aire, aratobarr, arandéntar, arambiat, ara, armbad, ara, arindepur, aridlabrathar, arna, áirium, erum, erumm, erom, erut, ærut, airiut, airut, airiut, aurut, airiu, airi, airi, erre, airri, airre, airthe, erunn, erund, erond, airiund, airriun, airund, airib, airibsi, airiubsi, airiuibsi, eruibsi, erru, erriu, erro, airriu, airiu, erthu, airthiu, airtho, airib, airaib, or(u)m, or(u)t, air, uirre, orainn, oirinn, oraib, orru, orrtha

prep., leniting, with accus. and dat. See GOI § 823 , Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 150 , Frazer, ZCP viii 5 , Williams, Celtica ii 305 ; IGT Introd. § 130 .

Usually spelt ar. air, Ml. 51c2 , 2d2 ; er, 122a16 , BB 449a10 ; eir, Ériu iv 180 § 39 . The spellings air, er, etc. (more freq. in later lang.) and the modern pronunciation show that O. Ir. ar as simple prep.was replaced by a conflation of airi and fo(i)r (3 s. n. of 1 ar and 1 for).

In Mid. Ir. 1 for and 1 íar are frequently spelt ar. See III, IV below and the articles on these words.

With article arin, -int, -a, etc. Note also airind, Ml. 31b17 , air ind, 53a15 . arndi (= arindí), Ériu vii 138.4 . airnaib, Ml. 110d9 .

With poss. armo (m'), -do (t'), -a, -ar, -far (-bar) etc. Note also ar mh'éigse, Content. ix 26 . aire slicht, L. Chl. S. 2 .

With rel. part. ara: aratobarr, Wb. 12d29 . arandéntar, 2a10 . cid arambiat , Ml. 56b9 . ara n-eperr, Críth G. 1 . With copula: cid armbad , Wb. 11a19 . cidar impotabis, Ml. 56a13 . cid arnabu son, ib. ardott áigthe, LU 5656 = arṅdotāigi, TBC-I¹ 1178 (taking áigthi as vbl. of necess.). ara trēn, ACL iii 239 § 32 . ara n-amra, ZCP vii 312 § 26 . Before inf. pron. arindepur, Wb. 5a31 . aridlabrathar, 7d2 . With neg. arna airecht, Sg. 198b3 . arnach faca, ZCP xiii 169.13 .

With pron. suff. Early forms. 1 s. áirium, Wb. 7a12 . erum, LL 286a25 . erumm, PH 1397 . erom, 1503 . 2 s. erut, Wb. 27d19 , 29d7 , YBL 326b42 , PH 6565 . ærut, Ml. 2d8 . airiut, Blathm. 569 , LL 289b30 . airut, LU 8086 . GOI § 437 also gives airiut, aurut without reff. as `old forms which occur only in later sources' ( p. 272 ). 3 s. m. and n. GOI § 437 gives airiu as the dat. form (cf. airiu, O'Dav. 22 ?), airi as the accus. airi is the usual form passim in the early language. Cf. áiri, Wb. 11b21 . f. (accus. and dat. not distinguished) erre, Irish Texts i 3 § 8 (sic MS. See Ir. Hist. Stud. i 347 ). airri, SR 405 (emended to airre, GOI § 437 ). airthe, LL 286a7 . 1 pl. erunn, Wb. 15d13 , Ériu ii 124 § 65 . erund, LU 597 . erond, 588 . airiund, TBC-I¹ 170 . airriun, ZCP xi 110 § 26 . airund, LU 593 . 2 pl. airib, Wb. 20a3 , 22d25 , 27c19 , Metr. Dinds. iv 232.33 . airibsi, Wb. 14d25 , a33 , 16a26 . airiubsi, 15c1 , 17a5 . airiuibsi, 16c23 . eruibsi, 27d7 . Ml. 2a11 . 3 pl. acc. erru, Wb. 4d20 , 11a29 ; ZCP ii 315.26 . erriu, Wb. 9c8 , 11a20 . erro, LL 289b30 . airriu, Wb. 15a23 , 21d11 , O'Dav. 985 . airiu, Wb. 11d11 , Laws iv 176.7 . erthu, LL 280a1 . RC viii 154 § 5 . airthiu, LU 4915 . ZCP viii 310.22 . airtho, TBC-I¹ 409 . dat. airib, Laws iv 162.2 . airaib, 114.21 Comm.

In later lang. all pronominal forms influenced by those of for, giving or(u)m, or(u)t, air, uirre (uirthe), orainn (oirn. oirinn, O'Gr. Cat. 556.25 ), oraib ( oirb, BColm. 100.3 ), orru (orra, orrtha), etc.

The presumed distinction between ar with accus. when motion is implied and with dat. when no motion is implied ( Zeuss 622 ; with reservations Vendryes Gramm. § 283 ; see also Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 73 - 74 , Williams loc. cit.) appears most clearly in the stereotyped phrases ar chenn towards, ar chiunn ahead of, before (see 1 cenn): ar beolu towards, ar bélaib before, in front of (see bél). The dat. is usual in ar cach láu daily (see ) and in ar thosuch ( Sg. 203a7 , see tosach). Usage is less clear outside fixed phrases, and that of the various collections of O. Ir. glosses differs (the available material is also much reduced by the frequent identity of form of a s. and d s. of nouns). The accus. is regular in Wb. in senses of taking away from and counting as , and also in glosses on Lat. ob, the dat. where the meaning is with regard to, instead of and in glosses on Lat. super. Both cases are found where the meaning is for the sake of, because of . In Ml. accus. is constant only in set phrases. The dat. is usual in meaning counts as , do-beir ar (for?) calls and in glosses on Lat. dat. without preposition (ar gentib gl. gentibus, 78a12 , 89c2 ) and where a Lat. compd. noun is treated as two words (arintinmlegun gl. promulgatione, 71c18 ). In general use the meanings saving from, instead of, in meaning of, in return for, on account of, because of, for the sake of, for the purpose of are all found both with accus. and dat. In Sg. the meanings instead of and on account of are found with both cases. See also IGT Introd. § 130 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 2 - 4 , 17 , 20 (where detailed rules are given for accus. and dat. both with simple ar and for compd. preps. such as ar aghaidh, etc.).

I

(a) Much less freq. in concrete or physical meanings than in more abstract ones. Perh. before, in front of in (case of follg. noun not certain): dá [n]dorus [n-]and, comla[e] ar ala n-aí, clíath ar alailiu (-e, MS.) `in front of' (Gloss.), Críth G. 100 . ar Tuatha Dé Danann `before the T.D.D.', Ériu xii 152 § 15 (TE). cethridoruis airri (recte airre) im-mach, SR 405 . ó beit fíanna fer nÉrenn ┐ Alban do Chonaire ar thig, BDD² 1416 . Cf. 1081 , 1400 , 1492 . ? airiu . . . iarmo in front of it . . . behind it(?), O'Dav. 22 . Cf. airber .i. frit anair bere .i. eter do dī lāim, ar is fort muin bere ere [n-]aile, Corm. Y 58 . Acc. to Binchy, SCano p. 33 , frequent in meaning east of, the only example cited being: acon loch ar Mag Aí `by the lake east of Mag Aí', Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 32 § 2 (`on'). Cf. Airbri .i. fri Bri Eli anair, O'Mulc. 70 = Dinds. 16 ( RC xv 308 ). ? a nAicill ar Temair, Anecd. i 17.1 . Cf. perh. Síd ar Femin, LU 7846 ( BDD 140 ), etc. (or for al?). Perh. orig. with concrete force also in: do té(i)t aitire ar ḟer feras in fuil, Críth G. 52 `goes surety for', Gloss. Concrete meaning is perh. also to be assumed in the phrases agaid ar (late, orig. for?), ar agaid, ar amus, ar beolu, ar bélaib, bél ar bél, ar chenn, ar chiunn, ar dorus, ar dreich, ar fed, ar gnúis, ar leth, ar medón, ar ṡúil, ar thosuch, ar thús, ar úairib. See under the nouns concerned. With more abstract force in ar aí, ar apu (see 3 aí, 1 apa). Here may also be included: doire acummisc arúir `of their being mixed with mould', Wb. 13d3 . úachtar ar lemlacht dó mixed with, Críth G. 63 . loim midc do chumasc ar usciu `to mix a sip of whey with water', Mon. Tall. 143.25 . ba fial ṅdō buith arnaib ōcaib, cēin dogēni calma among, TBC-I¹ 1266 = LU 5739 . ? tiucfa in mac cētna ar bar cloind, ZCP viii 563 § 27 (for?). Perh. for for in: ó fó-certa a ṡrúb ar géscoe against a branch, BDD² 349 (= ar gésce, 355 ). conadh ar x. míli cathrach do shiublaighdis techta Magnuis Cam . . . ō maduin co fescor `to ten thousand cities', Marco P. 96 .

Rarely of time. See ariu before .

(b) In the follg. exx. the meaning is also more or less concr., though the precise meaning of the prep.is obscure, and it would be possible to consider them as early exx. of the replacing of for by ar (see III, and fo-ceird III): arnarala for cubus áiri, Wb. 11b21 (see note). Cf. focheird mo menma airi `my mind is set on him', Ériu ii 92 § 2 . ón lá tarrla ar n-airi air, iv 220.27 . torala dia archeill do degnimu su `let God bring to mind thy good deeds', Ml. 43b15 . iscor lame ardodced buith ocairbiathad sainte gl. nam qui volunt divites f[i]eri, incidunt in temptationem, Wb. 29b18 . ? Cf. ni comarleiced (.i. nir cetaig) dó cor lamha aire (.i. dul do sacarbhaic) cin foghlaim, Trip.² 243 . mabeidní dirúnaib dothéi armenmuin indfir, Wb. 13a12 . Note also: arnaib réib ilib gl. et qui ascendit super omnes caelos, 22a8 .

(c) In compd. numerals (with dat., see Celtica ii 312 ): a n-óen ar fichit (fichet, MS) the twenty-one, Ml. 2d2 . cóic míli ochtmugat ar chét one hundred and eighty five thousand, 34b17 . a ocht deac ar chét, BCr. 32d2 . deichinbair ar dib fichtib ar trib cétaib, Trip.² 3104 . secht cathae ar chetharchait / ar secht cétaib is huilliu, ZCP viii 313.34 . cōicer ar ceithri fichtib, 219.29 . fer ar sheisir seven men, Celt. Rev. x 348.23 . fri re tri n-aidhche ar mís, RC xviii 162.32 . Note also: tāinic buiden mōr . . . dōig lim is ar trichaid cēt inti approximately(?), TBC-I¹ 3142 (text perh. faulty).

II In a wide variety of abstract meanings for the most part deriving independently from those given under I.

(a) for, for the sake of, on behalf of, etc. (often gl. Lat. pro) (with accus. and dat. See Celtica ii 309 ): cia dudrigni dia mór di maith erriu, Wb. 11a20 . innahí dorigeni Día ar maccu Israhel, 30 . mirabilia dorígeni Dia ar maccaib Israhel, 28 . massu arinbethid . . . dagníu, 13c11 . mor ní as dénti ní airriu, 15a23 (in sense of mod. déanaim rud ar I obey, see Thes. Suppl. 51 ). niarséuti . . . robcarsi tíamthe, 23d4 . ar erchru gl. pro defectu, Ml. 31a4 . dusrigeni dia erru amal robu thol doib, 54a34 . fri assaru ar maccu israhel gl. rerum gestarum (testimonio), 94d2 . ara bǽsaib som .i. ar denum a thule gl. pro suis ritibus laborantes, 87b20 . a ndorigēnai in rí / do ḟertaib ar ṡanct Brigti, Thes. ii 332.4 (Hy. v). or ar Bran nailither, 286.34 (inscr.). lānamain . . . nī fil etarscarad dōib acht ar Dia, Corm. Y 824 . léicfider cach bean do mnáib airiut thou wilt be preferred to all other women, BDD² 59 . ar ghaol for the sake of relationship, Studies 1918, 99 § 15 . dorindedh mainistreacha ┐ sepeil le ar anmain Gyi `for the soul of G.' ZCP vi 90.11 . See also under meince, 1 pairt. Freq. in sense of (praying) for, see airnigde, guide, guidid, oráit.

(b) for the sake of, by in adjurations and invocations: dilig dam . . . / ar Maire n-amra n-Ingin, SR 7820 . ar do chumachtae . . . tesaircc dam-sa mo chūrcha, BColm. 54.3 . ar do thrīnōiteacht, a Thrīnōit, ACL iii 241 § 2 . ar t'fhírinni riutsa, na furáil etc. by thy honour, CCath. 1659 . ar na deib rib , TTebe 4025 . síol Ádhaimh . . . / ar do thocht díobh slánaigh sinn, Dán Dé ix 22 .

(c) on account of, because of (with accus. and dat. Glossing Latin ob, pro, propter): ar ar comoicsi do bás on account of, Wb. 14b25 . aracethardese gl. quam ob causam, 31b24 . ob mirationem .i. airinn adamrugud, Ml. 61a15 . ar chosmaili ind fochuinn diaragbtha gl. causae uicinitate, 35b24 . ar ét im chrabud gl. pro zelo religionis, 36d24 . arna lithu gl. propter cultús diuini festa, 47b2 . arna pecthu immefolngat guasacht do anmin gl. propter animae pericula, 7 . cid arnaibhisiu .i. arnaib hi forodamarsa gl. ob ista, 58d13 . ní ar pianaib do thabairt forru `not on account of the infliction of punishments upon them', 114b7 . ara foirbthetu fadesin, Wb. 6c19 . tocombaig a ṡlán ara ḟornert because of, Críth G. 415 . ar ṡóethaib because of grievances, 581 . ar ilar a imarbus, ZCP viii 104.7 . Corco Bāiscind ar a nert / nī damaid cert d'Eoganacht, v 500.16 .

With a variety of nouns in more or less stereotyped phrases: ar na h-ádhbharaibh sin for those reasons, ML 58.11 . ar[a] airmitin som through respect for him, Ériu iv 30.23 . ar t'ḟuath, i 97.32 . ni diles ni doberar ar uathbas `nothing is lawful which is given out of terror', Laws iv 286.25 . See also under áis, cairde, 1 cúis, 1 écndairc, éicen, ecla, 1 gart, midlachas, miscais, omun, sant, serc, úacht, etc.

Common with abstr. nouns from adjj. in the construction: nīr fētatar a tōcbāil ar a truma because of her weight = because she was so heavy, Anecd. iii 9.8 . ar dúire a drochdelba, Ériu iv 102.16 . ar ḟebus na cuidechtae because the company was so excellent, BColm. 78.18 . ar a laechdacht, ZCP viii 318.12 . ar cumga in puill nír féd dul amach, Ériu v 49.7 . in senadh ic á adhradh ar a uaisle, CCath. 334 . ar ghoire do ghaoil, Dán Dé xi 11 . Without poss. or gen.: cona tisa . . . in dam tarais ar airdi (a fence), Laws iv 76.19 Comm.

Freq. in advv.and conjj. in O. Ir. glosses. 3 s. n. as adv. on account of it, therefore: fristemlighter cid ind aier airi, Ml. 73c2 . ni bad pronomen airi, Sg. 203b2 . isairi doroigu dia geinti hore . . . this is why . . . because, Wb. 5b12 . is airi inso rogabad som hi rige, Ml. 14a4 . cinid airi doberr desimrecht acht ar atrebthach nand, Sg. 35b13 . With article and i: arindi gl. eo, Sg. 190a4 . ni arindí . . . sed quia not because . . . but because, 5a4 . arindisin gl. ei, Ml. 54c6 . arndi furumai sár for cach toil, Ériu vii 138.3 . With se: ní nád ṁbed arse di chorp gl. ideo, Wb. 12a22 . arse gl. ob hoc, Ml. 18d15 , gl. qua re, 29d1 . isarse gl. quo circa, Enchir. Aug. 70b , 81b ( ZCP vii 480 , 484 ). airechas ceneóil airsiu (leg. airsin? edd. airriu, Ped. MS Index to Wb. glosses) ní airechas fidei, Wb. 1b12 . Later: air sin on account of that, CCath. 2350 . Note also: ar a smuaintighib do beith . . . a mbeat[h]aidh an tigerna so that his thoughts might be in, etc., BCC § 5 (cf. ara).

(d) instead of, in place of, as substitute for, in meaning of (meaning confined to O. Ir. glosses. With dat., occas. with accus.): arnab geintib huilib taken as referring to all the Gentiles gl. Iudeos et Grecos omnes, Wb. 2a15 . foirbthe ar anfoirbthu gl. decem milia, a perfect (number) for an imperfect, 9a10 . corda .i. arin duiniu huli lesom gl. a parte totum, Ml. 53a2 . todochide ar sechmadachtae n-anfoirbthe gl. commotatio . . . temporum `future for imperfect', 62a16 . arnaib bolcaib gl. pro uesicis, 99a4 . fogur cechtar de ar alaliu ┐ fogur na liter naile airriusom, Sg. 4a8 . ni roscríbad ar naill (leg. ar na aill, edd.), 6b3 . a ṡuidigud ar anmmaimm dílius, 27a1 .

Often with as-beir, do-beir etc.: dobeir inso arnab uilib cumactib gl. supra omnem principatum et potestatem et uirtutem et dominationem, Wb. 21a13 . epert innan (MS. inna) aisndisen arnaib gnimaib gl. dicit autem non quia talia locuti sunt Scribae . . . sed quia talia fecerint, Ml. 16d3 . a ndurigni duaid in gnim sin in tengad do airbirt ar gnimaib in choirp, 31b24 . intan asmbersom pes ┐ manus nochis arnaib gnimaib són dungniat som honaib ballaib hisin atbeirsom, 56b3 . tri suidigud dosom inna cluas arin chorp huiliu, 60b16 . arnaib fedaib sonartaib ardaib gl. pro terribilibus arbustís cedros possuit, 146a6 .

The idiom ad-rími ar counts as (with accus. and dat.) is prob. to be assigned to this section: ní ármisom ar chumactte, Wb. 6a1 . cenid ar chomsuidigthib adrímther inna fortórmach so, Sg. 202a5 . See ad-rími. With LA: petra les arin trediusa sís he takes petra as standing for, Ml. 60a7 . in loc lesom híc arnaib aitrebthidib gl. a loco habitatores intellegite, 144c3 .

(e) in return for, in exchange for, as price of, in payment for, as equivalent of (with accus.): airitiu lóge ar mo precept in return for, Wb. 10d31 . rotbīa a lōg airi you shall have a reward for it, TBC-I¹ 585 . is lá cach(a) tíre do-tét dlega(i)r aire `is due for it', Ériu xvii 70.4 . Freq. do-beir lóg etc. ar: ainm indlóge doberr domiledaib armílte, Wb. 3c1 . intan dobera Dia fochraicci ar degnimu, Ml. 90c14 . screpul doberar do gilli . . . ar comaitecht do neuch o pecad `a groat that is given to a lad for accompanying someone in a sin', Mon. Tall. 143.9 . nī tibur-so in tinnscra sin(ee) cid ar Meidb C. feissin I wouldn't give a brideprice like that for M. herself, ZCP iv 39.7 (cf. TBFr. 185 ). ní conrogab terochraic . . . ar forbrissiud fir truaig `reward for oppressing a wretched man', Ml. 36a32 . ni riat na dánu diadi ara n-indeb domunde sell for, Wb. 28c2 . ríthæ . . . ar ech ndonn, Thes. ii 240.1 (Ardm.). tale damsa a log ar epert do firinne lat, Ml. 36a32 . síodh Dhé 'gá ceannach ar chrodh being bought for herds, Dán Dé xxvii 33 . With vbs. of leaving, abandoning: ni dérsid for sóiri ar fognam, Wb. 20b10 . roleicc creitim ar in paganacht he left the faith for paganism, Anecd. iii 72.28 . as uime do trēig Temraigh / ar Chend Maghair, ZCP viii 108.19 . Denoting preference: ragaid duit aire . . . rígi hÉrend in preference to him, BColm. 68.18 . do mholfuinn fear an leithléighinn 'gá mbíadh beatha ghlan . . . arfhear láinléighinn 'gá mbíadh beatha némhthromdha, Mac Aingil 4782 .

(f) for the purpose of, in order to obtain (as far as the exx. serve with accus. in Wb. and dat. in Ml. The exx. from Wb. given here, however, could equally be referred to the preceding section): precept arbiad in order to obtain food, Wb. 10d13 . madarlóg pridchasa, 23 . is arnach nindocbáil móir fodaimim se inso, 23b12 . asberat isar indeb isdénti tol dǽ, 29b12 . arind etarimdibiu (arindetar imdibiu, MS.) gl. pro interfectione aduersariorum, Ml. 36b23 . ar chuindriug pectho gl. instrumentum est divinae iustitiae `for the correction of sin', 49b7 . gabthe dunad les fris arinoillus for protection, 55c1 . asberar ar thormuch pectha for the purpose of increasing sin(?), 76a5 . bliadain lán dano do M. [┐] a muindtir uli for usciu ┐ bargin ar tuaslucud anmae B. `to obtain the release of the soul of B.,' Mon. Tall. 133.29 . serc fochraici ara n-as[c]nam, piana do imchaisiu ara n-imgabail in order to avoid them, Ériu vii 138.28 . is rimsa . . . rohérbad ar eisnéis it is to me it was entrusted for relating, iv 144.21 . annsa lebur tuc sé dóib ar choimét a ndligid feín `for keeping', Maund. 61 . Also perh. in phrase ar olc fri, see olc (because of?).

(g) by virtue of, by means of, through (dat.): condenad fingail ar chuinged soinmige do gl. mercari peccato securitatem, Ml. 39a6 . ? ar gressaib gal / glenaid luch inna línsam `by feats of valour', Thes. ii 293.20 . ni ar lín óc brister cath, Ériu ix 47 § 18 . ar neart a n-engnama by dint of their prowess, ML² 286 . gaibsit tír and ar chlaideb by the sword, ZCP viii 313.21 .

(h) In general sense of in respect of, with regard to, in the matter of, relating to, etc. (appar. with dat.) (the ascription of some exx. to this section is tentative): desmrecht insin ar aimsir deirb that is an example of, Sg. 66b17 , cf. exemplum ara airiuc far diull tanaisiu, 106b20 , exemplum inso ara rangabalda asrubart, 39a5 . annsom hi taurgillib tairgille ar bechaib, Laws iv 162.1 . rucus tairgilli ar bechaib `für Bienen ist ein `tairgille' . . . zu stellen', ZCP xv 319 § 12 . ? isam ómun ar a aisnéis I am afraid to relate it, LU 5349 . is fon samla-sin . . /gníth . . . a cét-chumma / Temrach . . . / ar áibnius in beauty, Metr. Dinds. i 10.64 . fear feadhma deas ar gach ndān in every art, ZCP viii 562 § 16 . bean as ghloine ar ghníomharthaibh `purest in deeds', A. Ó Dálaigh xv 15 . issí eisimplair Crist . . . do lenfadís ar míne ┐ ar buaine, ar deirc ┐ ar trocaire, Maund. 123 . ro derscnaigh d'ógaibh a chomaoisi ar goil ┐ gaisccedh, Leb. Gab.(i) 200.7 . Also in phr. ar chuit, see cuit. For do-beir teist ar see teist. See airbág.

Common in phr. of type: teine . . . ar thes crabaidh (of a person) a fire . . . in heat of piety = a paragon of piety, Anecd. iii 5.19 . Muridach, ba muir ar crūa[i]s, ZCP viii 299.34 . deochain ar grādaib ┐ sacart ar ūaisle a deacon in rank and a priest in reputation, BColm. 82. 15 - 16 . ba laech ar gaisced, RC xxiv 184.4 . a éan choluim ar cheannsa, Dán Dé i 19 . mar lile ar lí, Dánta Gr. 30.14 .

(i) about (of stories, books, reading, etc. In late exx. only. Perh. orig. for in this meaning): iomda ar Lasair ferta amhra many wonderful miracles (are said to have been performed) by L., Ériu v 90.4 . is mebair linn . . . / in seanchus fil ar Mag Ráin the lore about M., iv 156.18 . Leabhar Oiris ┐ An[n]ála ar Cogthaibh . . . Éireann, i 78 . craoibsgaoileadh ar chath Cluana Tairbh description of the battle of C., 16 n. léighmid ar Alexander n-uaibhrech, etc., Mac Aingil 872 . léan ba sgéal ar fianaibh Fáil, Magauran 2790 . Cf. sgriobhthar ortha go . . ., Ó Héodhusa 68.16 .

(j) With verbs of depriving, stealing, hiding, lacking, etc. from (accus. and dat.): tri airchellad donaib sommaib a n-anae airnaib bochtaib, Ml. 90a11 . is amne asruluús airi, Wb. 17d16 . a manaig do béim ar Lommān, BColm. 84.16 . ní bēram-ne t'áthius ort we shall not take thy victory from thee, 74.22 . ni cumscaichthi cumachtae nairi gl. hoc potestatem literae motare non debuit, Sg. 6a5 . ni fil nach díchlith airi, Wb. 1a4 . tesbanat boíll aíriu, 11d11 . in dá ṡét tesbanat airi, Críth G. 130 . ní gette na brithemnachta becca erriu you would not snatch the petty judgements from them, Wb. 9c8 . nī gatar a forgall ar domun degmnā, Cáin Ad. 4 . a tellad errusom, Wb. 11a29 . dives cui (.i. isar) clam tollitur , Enchir. Aug. 76b ( ZCP vii 482.27 .)

(k) With verbs of protecting, saving from , defending against (accus. and dat.): ainsium Crīst ar cech nernbās, Thes. ii 352.4 (Hy. vi). Dīa dom chobair . . . / ar cech ṅgúasacht, 350.16 (ibid.). dia dítin ar in pecthach, Ml. 57c4 . dia diden . . . ar náimdib, Thes. ii 354.2 . airnaib imnedaib doneimni a dǽ, Ml. 110d9 . fri himdegail cuirp . . . ar demnaib, Thes. ii 354.4 . diar snádud . . . / ar gábud, 359.6 . for soirad ar senachrib, Ml. 33b21 . air ni bói numsoiradsa ar chumachtae ṅduini, 74b13 . Continuing a Latin construction: ar thes inna gréne són ┐ ara naimtib gl. quae etiam inumbraret eos et regeret, 97c4 . arnaib cumachtgaib gl. difensionem, 103c7 . arnaib hi sin gl. ut illis eripiat, 117b4 . defensionis . . . ar maccaib israhel, 124b10 . Note also: comad chādus ar cach ngúasacht that it might be a halidom against every danger, BColm. 96.10 . tucc dam a Dē mōir / . . . / ar pīanu na plāg / tonna dīana dēr, ACL iii 232 § 1 .

III In later lang. ar and for become a single preposition (often with surviving difference in follg. mutation, see the examples in Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 2 ff. ). The follg. are exx. of ar for earlier for. Of local relations (for I): imda gol gargc ar a brú many a fierce wail in its lap, BColm. 100.6 . ar saebchoire in a maelstrom, 94.12 . tarrúd úire ar airib / for leccaib ar láech-maigib, Metr. Dinds. iv 232.34 . seóit Cluana maic Nóis do foillsechadh ar Gallaib Luimnigh `were discovered with', RC xviii 53.12 . Of quasi-local relations, etc. (II). Of point of time (c): ar na tri soldomnaib `on the three chief feasts', Mon. Tall. 129.27 . ar notlaice ┐ caiscc ┐ cengciges, Ériu vii 150.30 . Of rule, sway, over (f): ba rī tenn ar Tūathmumain, ZCP viii 119.28 . flaithius ┐ forlamhus ar crichaib . . . na cruinne, CCath. 1 . In addition to (g): cotardda trá ar se mo chendsa ardo chend my head in addition to thine, RC iii 185.8 . credo ┐ pater . . . ar cech m-biait, xv 490 § 26 ( for cach mbiait, § 32 ). Affecting, afflicting, etc. (h): bíd oirb oman Dé do neim, BColm. 100.3 . trom orm a innisi, ZCP viii 200.25 . duaithnid ar dainib in domain incomprehensible to, Fen. 38. 16 . Subsisting on (j): ar geilt féoir feeding on grass, Ériu iv 156.12 . ar usci ┐ bairgin, RC xv 491 § 30 , cf. for usci ┐ bairgin, 490 § 26 . In a state or condition (k): na biad ar in mbreith sin `that she would not abide by that judgement', RC xxiv 196.1 . nírbo borg báeth ar bruidin it was not a foolish castle engaged in brawling, Metr. Dinds. i 32.46 . With vb. of motion: ge deach rī Conaill a ccēin / ar slūaiged rí Temhra tréin, ZCP viii 116.21 . To express the dativus incommodi (m): adbathadar uile thorad parrthais ar Adam `were forfeited by Adam', Laws iv 266.14 . adbathadar ar Aongus a thire, 15 . rogabsat tech air they stormed the house in which he was, BColm. 72.4 . ni cloifithir oirb bar cath, YBL 314b55 . Perh. also: ben clucc ar Cellach against, Cáin Ad. 18 . cogadh mór le Domnall . . . ar Brian, Ériu i 78.5 . In phrases (p): ar bith c[h]é on this earth, BColm. 100.3 . ar comairci C. under the protection of C., 86.28 . ar debaid in haste, LL 7493 . ar lár cháich in the midst of everybody, Ériu iv 222.28 . ar neam in heaven, Anecd. i 39.114 . ar ṡeilbh (sic leg.) éicsi, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1919, v 92 § 9 . With verbs (III): dorad min aire `put meal over it', Mon. Tall. 147.11 . dobert trian forcridi . . . ar chuid cach lae `added one third of water to the daily allowance', 7 . do thabairt geinti ar ireis, ZCP iii 22.6 .

Note also: rostatlaig ar thenn-medón he clasped her by the sturdy waist, Ériu iv 104.8 . roghabh nathraigh mbí ar bolgán `by the belly', CCath. 4194 .

IV Replacing ÍAR. Of time (I): ar cath Ch. after the battle of C., ZCP viii 314.18 . arsin, Ériu iv 132.1 . is ar sein anid sí co arnabárach thereupon she remains till the morrow, ZCP viii 309.20 . ar n-ēirghi grēine at the rising of the sun, ML² 1333 . sóaidh co brónach dia taigh ar marbadh a maic, RC xviii 45.31 . ar tteacht ór tticch, ZCP viii 219 § 13 . do bātar ar n-a crēchtnugad, ML² 386 . ar ngabāil gīall for Mumain, ZCP viii 119.31 . Of place (II): arsin t[s]eit along the way, Mon. Tall. 153.20 . ar slige Póil is Petair in the track of Paul and Peter, Ériu v 24.24 . According to (III): suidfither gach aon duine . . . ar miadh ┐ ar dligedh ┐ ar a sognim[r]adh, RC xxviii 22 § 49 . ar a fidhair fen do cruthaigh Día é in His own image, BCC § 408 .

For use as conjunction see 2 ar, 1 ara.

asna

Cite this: eDIL s.v. asna or dil.ie/4459

 

Forms: esna, asnao

n m. IGT Decl. § 2 . Also esna. rib . Of a person or animal: eter cach da a.¤ do, LU 8400 ( FB 27 ). asnao (sic) Fínain Chaim `a rib from F.C.'s body', Arch. Hib. iv 206 § 11 . co mebdatár a hasnai indi, LU 6207 (TBC). dam-a.¤ ┐ torcasnai cethri traigid fichet fod an damh-a.¤ , ZCP iii 460.11 . mebait mh'asnæ fuidb / mo chride-se is crú, TBC-LL¹ 3960 . brúifet tria a.¤ a tháeib, 1287 . ? srathar .i. ar sreith na n-esnad bīt, Corm. Y 1177 . do ghlac sé aon dá asnaibh . . . ┐ an t-a.¤ do bhean . . . as an duine, Gen. ii 21 - 22 . do bhí trí a.¤ iona bhéul, Dan. vii 5 . faoí an ccúigeadh easna, 2 Samuel ii 23 .

Other applications: asnai creiti in charpait, TBC-I¹ 2872 . ? ba hairecna . . . in tsuillse mór sin tria a.¤ drochu na carbut, BDD² 590 (see note). d'asnaibh cófra a gceannoigheadh `of the sides of their merchants' coffers', TD 16.26 . ? asna aball trena lige through her grave grew an apple tree, Dinds. 17 ( RC xv 309 ) (cf. roas ibar tritsiden, ib.). Fig. nír beanadh a.¤ dhá fhonn `no portion of his land was taken', O'R. Poems 1629 and Gloss.

braise

Cite this: eDIL s.v. braise or dil.ie/6516

 

n , f. (bras)

(a) daring, boldness (in favourable and unfavourable sense); quickness; nimbleness: co ṁbraissi, Fél.² June 19 .i. co slatra no co solam, xcvii 19 = bras[e] .i. slatratu nó calma . . . fia sluaighedh co mbraisi `with bold- ness', O'Dav. 263. b.¤ gl. lasciuia, Ir. Gl. 36. cen bráth mb.¤ `no sudden destruction', Metr. Dinds. iii 452.15 . déine buirbe is b.¤ violence, cruelty and intemperate haste (?), Caithr. Thoirdh. 55.39 . ann adbeba co mb.¤ then she died suddenly, Metr. Dinds. iii 58.3 . (rhet.) gai bolcai ┐ bai brasi (feats of Cú Chulaind), LU 8443 ( FB 30 ). ? noco mor a ghere / noc dene for b.¤ , IT iii 90 § 120.

(b) vaunting, boasting, boastfulness: níbu ádas far mbraisse (mbresi, TBC-I¹ 824 ) it wasn't in accordance with your boasting, LU 5301. ni di braisse ni di baithe / bec tasse na Tuathe, LL 1305 = Leb. Gab.(i) 176.15 . gan bhréic mbraissi, SG 21.37 . adeirim rib cen brassi, LB 96 marg. inf. As quasi-vn. robui ac braisi ┐ ac bocasaich uasa cind (i.e. over a prostrate opponent), TTebe 2569 . See bél compds.

2 buide

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 buide or dil.ie/7348

 

Forms: boide

n , f. Cf. g s. boide, Wb. 27c2 . See O'Mulc. 171. good-will (O'Rahilly, ZCP xvii 206 ), favour, gratification, gratitude, thanks .

(a) With FRI thanks (are due) to: ni b.¤ fris is corp do gl. qui suam uxorem dilegit, sé ipsum dilegit, Wb. 22c15 `no thanks to him', O'Rah. . is b.¤ linn frib gl. rogamus uos, Wb. 25a39 `we deem it a favour on your part', O'Rah. . nī b.¤ frit ōn, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 38 `no thanks to thee', O'Rah. . fil dune / rismad bude lem diuderc, LU 515 (ACC) `on whom I should gladly gaze', Murphy Lyrics 54 . nī b.¤ frit, Sc.M² 14 (ni tuilli buidhe frit, v.l. recte ?). re Dia a bhuidhe `thank God', Content. viii 27. ar dia nime, ┐ ar b.¤, ┐ ar troigi rib `for kindness' sake', Aen. 148.

(b) With LA (is) grateful, gratified, glad: b.¤ lesom taidbse neich immeforlaing du dia gl. inpleri optans quae ostensa laetatur, Ml. 90b14 . bid b.¤ lais dīa n-ērnaba he'll be glad (lucky ?) to escape, MacCongl. 5.10 . co mbudh b.¤ lassna Grecu comaissecc do denam, ZCP xxx 54.387 . is buidi lend thank-you , Anecd. i 5.3 (SCano 119). súaill inní as b.¤ le bocht a poor man is grateful for a little, ZCP vii 268 § 6 = ri bocht, Ériu ix 47 § 21. f[ā] b.¤ leis na trī berta . . . do dhēnum ar C., ML² 1122.

(c) Other uses with prepp.: ach, a luin, is b.¤ duit it is well for you, Bruchst. 66 § 151. cia d'ar bhuidhe thú ? to whom wert thou thankful ? Ériu i 94 § 49. ní buidhe mhé d'fir in tighi, O'Gr. Cat. 115.11. ar Mhuire bíodh a bhuidhe, DDána 18a.5 .

(d) With beirid thanks: ní frit-sa bērtar a buidhi `no thanks to you', Fianaig. 92.3 . is bretti a b.¤ diar mblaid `thanks should be paid for our report', Metr. Dinds. iii 264.3 . beir b.¤ n-anacuil. —t'ōgrīar give something in return for your life. — Anything you like, Sc.M² 20 v.l. (emde, text). is frib berim a b.¤ gacha maithiusa, CCath. 5034. ní ribh bheireas a bhuidhe it is not you he thanks for it, Dán Dé vii 20 , cf. TD 10.21 . beirthe dhaoibh a bhuidhe a bhreith, DDána 17.17 . do Día berim a b.¤ , Ériu ii 170.90 .

(e) Various: ? fo cháinb. na ndroṅg ṅdál (: oenṡuidi), SR 6055. rí mac raith nambuidhe, IT iii 86 § 87. ferr buidi inā dīgbāl satisfaction (?), ZCP vi 261.6 ( Anecd. iii 19.15 ). macc umalóti ┐ erlatad b.¤ dó (sic) Dia `a son of . . . ready obedience to God', PH 4204 (text ?). mór a bhuidhe mé' n-a múr `great were the favour for me to be in her house', Dán Dé ii 12 .

Cf. sub ad-tluichethar, attlugud, do-slí, tuillem.

clíath

Cite this: eDIL s.v. clíath or dil.ie/9484

 

Forms: cliatha

n ā, f. IGT Decl. § 39 (91.13) . g s. also cliatha, Cog. 156.6 .

(a) hurdle : cliath gl. creta [crates], Ir. Gl. 126 . denam cleib, denam cleithe, Laws v 474.4 . gach uair is loscadh comhraite is clía nudhnecht (sic leg.). Gach uair is loscadh anfoit is clia lathrach n-aile, iv 252.1 Comm. (cliath v.l.). cia sáer ro fích in cleith, LL 26382 . dogníthe derc . . . ┐ cliatha tairsiu. No briste in gae . . . ┐ a rind tresin cléith, RC xiii 454 § 48 . doratsat . . . cliatha caelaigh mora ós a cennaibh ┐ scratha fót tairsibh anechtair (as protection for beseigers), CCath. 1881 . laem . . . ainm don clēith bīs fon arbar oca tīrad, O'Mulc. 806 . cor eptha i cléith `putting a charm in a hurdle', MacCongl. 71.25 (prov., in a list of useless actions). Attrib. g s. i leabaidh chléithe, TSh. 2304 .

(b) Of a house or `les' (see 2 les) wattle panels of walls, doors or gates: samaisc i cléith tís, colpdach i cléith túas, Críth G. 215 - 16 . dá [n]dorus [n-]and —comla[e] ar ala n-aí, c.¤ ar alailiu, 101 . dofet cliath cleithe .i. as remtechtai lium cliath ichtair in tighi do denam ar dus anas cleitine a mullaighi, O'Curry 1874 ( 23 P 3, 21 (23)a ). ro híadad in tech . . . ┐ doratad crann ar chleith (arcleith v.l.) airi immach, Trip.² 604 . elaim-si itir clēith ┐ ursaind, MacCongl. 123.18 (cf. cliathcomla). c.¤ ná comhla ré lis, A. Ó Dálaigh lv 5 . ní bīat clīatha re rátha, ZCP xiii 9.23 . an ḟuinneog iomagallmha . . . ar a mbī cur cléthe nó gráta, RSClára 93b .

(c) woven fence, palisade, outwork : doratad immorro M. . . . dalta do Choin C. . . . ar cléith ar dorus in dúne, LL 13404 . do-rigensat . . . cliatha do scia[i]ch ┐ do draigen i mbeol ind atha fri R. cona muintir, cona rochtadar dul darsin n-ath, IT ii2 230.74 . imthus re marcach eich leith / a n-Ath Gallta itir da chleith, Leb. Cert. 20.8 . nī tucc a acchaidh re clēith / budh ferr do c[h]ongbālaidh scēith, Ériu xvii 28 § 50 . do congbail clethi ┐ do cosnum cathlaithrech `to sustain the front', MR 148.9 . airm n-a gcléith ar comhlaibh tor `swords form a fence round his castles' portals', Magauran 1705 . Of the Cross: ar chléith dhoinnbhear dia hAoine / do coinnmheadh Dia dar ndín-ne, DDána 47.2 . Fig. Máol Mórdha . . . / Pilip Óg . . . / dhá chléith le dornchlaibh docra, O'R. Poems 2799 . gurab í an fhíor-aithrighe is comhla ┐ is cliath chosnaimh ag na daoinibh, TSh. 6894 . c.¤ fri opposition to: cliath ra heclais mairg dogní, LL 19300 . a cliath fri nem (to the sinful soul), PH 8175 . With various defining genitives: is lá Hú Tegtechān bith for in clē[i]th dāla ┐ an t-escra ana lāim a bar for dispensing drink(?), BColm. 52.29 (`hurdle of assembly'). cliath fhosgaidh ar āth, O'R. Poems 664 . Toirrdhelbhach . . . baí ina cleith ḟosccaidh . . . ag gach aén `a sheltering fence', AFM vi 2106.18 . dia tartamni .xxx. d'ar ṅdegdoinib immach i ṅgiallas bid tanaite ar c.¤ gabala sund. Doregthar forn issin cathraig defence, LL 283a4 . cladh coigcriche ┐ . . . cliath ghabhála fri hUltaibh, Hugh Roe² 216.14 . sgiath didin ┐ cliath ghaeithe Ghall re Gaeidheluibh `wind-hurdle' (i.e. protection, shelter), ALC ii 310.22 . in comla catha ┐ in cliath ugra, Cog. 188.7 . cf. 56.y . cúig tríatha . . . / cliatha gaisgidh na nGaoídhiol, O'R. Poems 2716 . cliath mhínighthe na ccóig ccrīoch, 661 . ard gach oentu . . . / cain cach cliath brathar protection of a kinsman(?), Cog. 122.18 .

In phr. i ccléith x on the side of x, in alliance with x: mairg . . . ro threicc a chorpfhine . . . ar dhul hi cleith ┐ hi ccomhaontaidh a éccrad, Hugh Roe² 264.18 . N. do thocht i ccléth cloinne Domhnaill, AFM iv 896.14 . a chaoraigheacht do breith lais i ccleith Gall to the side of the English, 890.5 . M., mairtír nar thrēith: / bīodh san chnoc im chlēith go fíor, Celtica iv 163 § 236 . `i gcléith le `to be united to, allied to, associated with' s.vv. adiungo, applico, affectus, affinitas, Risdeard Pluincéad', cited Celtica iv 192 .

(d) Extended applications: dorála D. do Ch. ar in cleith oc leith na Sinna ` bridge ', SG 397.6 . tucadh amus fair im cend cleithe Atha Luain . . . cor'thoit cliath an drochaid fút[h]aib, RC xviii 167.5 (Tig.). co nderna droichet ┐ clíatha dermhára díbh ┐ rathanna romora tarsin [cuan] cétna, CCath. 1391 . stretcher, litter, bed : cen chlíatha cen tulggu, Críth G. 101 . nónbar . . . ro-bái fón cleith fora raibe tarr na muici, Sc.M² 6R . dá ḟer déc for clíathaib airgdidib imon imdai, BDD² 1107 . búi an péist . . . ana lighe for cleth iarnaide, a lan do crithribh teindtidhi fon cleth hisin, Aisl. Tond. 108 § 3 (super cratem ferream). fo cholbaib ┐ fo immdadaib ┐ fo clīathaib in rīgthige, MacCongl. 11.17 (`screens'). cliatha caolaig doriginset Laigin . . . fo cosaib caorach . . . 'ca n-adnacal co Dún nÉtair, Dinds. 28 . láindíre do oí ina lias uasa a chleith codla, Ériu xiii 27.22 . clíatha fis (apparently always made of rowan branches) beds on which druids slept in order to acquire occult knowledge: luidhset na druidh fora cliathaib fis ┐ rothoghairmset demhna, Marco P. 32 . dochúatar na draoithe ara ccliathaibh cáerthainn ┐ tuccadh . . . nua corma doibh, V. SS. Hib. cliv n. 5 . codail ar do chliathaibh fis / cuardaigh aigéan gach oiris, Content. x 2 . is eadh do-nídís cruinnchliatha caorthainn do dhéanamh ┐ seicheadha na dtarbh n-iodhbarta do leathadh orra . . . ┐ dul mar sin i muinighin a ngeasa do thoghairm na ndeamhan do bhuain scéal díobh . . . gonadh de sin do lean an sean-fhocal . . . adeir go dtéid neach ar a chliathaibh fis an tan do-ní dícheall ar scéala d'fhagháil, Keat. ii 5448 ff. harrow : cliath fuirsidh[e] (gl. eripica [rastrum]), Ir. Gl. 240 . braca, cliath, foirseadh, Eg. Gl. 70 . go niomat cliath ┐ prácadh, AFM vi 2186.20 . le clíathaibh foirsighe íaruinn, 1 Chron. xx 3 . clíath scéith framework of shield : o clíat[h]aibh sgiath secht mac Meadbha, Ériu x 85 § 88 . cúic árnaile saorus fer nimthechta ar tigradhus na ninnile .i. cliath tasgair (? trascair) do iadadh friu (some sort of hurdle for keeping cattle enclosed), O'D. 887 ( H 3.17, 637 ). Of the oars of a boat: ro cuireadar amach cliatha . . . crannrighne cruadhrámhadh, CF² 39 . Of an animal, the loin, rib-cage : mas ar son carna ata é is cnaimh ar in cleith uile (of the amount of condiment allowed with different joints), O'Curry 183 ( H 3.18, 99 ). curro bris a cleith n-asnai, TBC-LL¹ 565 n. 4 . cliat[h]a bō, Ériu x 85 § 88 . do imreadar na lanna . . . gurba cliatha tolla . . . na taíbh, CF² 801 . Of a bird's wings: glésaiss . . . a ghulbain a ccliathaib a eite, Mart. Don. 176.17 . Of the strings of a musical instrument: cid cia ro chodail . . . re cliathaib . . . ciuil, MR 110.y . ar chléith tana do thimpáin, IGT Decl. ex. 882 . Of the web of cloth: corba dluithither re cleith lenad (leined, v.l.) arna landluthud in lini sleg, TTebe 2823 (`stop- hurdle'). conarbho dluithe cliatha leinedh ar n-a dluthadh, ITS v 64.11 . ? cliath .i. umat, [ut est] ar bi[d] mer fo cuachnaidm cliath ferba .i. amail bi[d] mér fo cuachnaidm duitt iumad briathar in filed `a multitude of words', O'Dav. 397 (but `? metaph. use of clíath in sense of phalanx', Plummer MS. notes).

Freq. of the close ranks of men (and weapons) in battle, especially in phr. i ccléith, i cclíathaib in close fighting(?): ni ró ḟég F. dar a ais riam . . . ic astar no ic imthecht ┐ chléith ┐ chath (? leg. i cléith no i cath) no chomlund, TBC-LL¹ 1905 . nach hi ccath no hi ccleith / do fáccbadh é, ar sccáth a scceith, Cog. 88.22 . buaid [cacha] catha ┐ cacha cliatha, 156.6 . i n-imairic áigh nó i cléith comluinn, CCath. 627 . M. ┐ C. do marbad a cleith do O., Ann. Inisf. 1108.5 (`in a skirmish'). gur lingsed in dā chlēith . . . a cenn araile the two (opposing) ranks, ML² 1189 . d'fisrugad clethi Conaill ┐ aird-grinne Eogain `the phalanx', MR 176.3 . ro coraigheadh ider na curadaib cliatha . . . ceinngera do shleaguibh `rows', Caithr. CC 72 . díon a threabh . . . a ccliathaibh `in fighting', Rel. Celt. ii 222.31 . deacair an chéim i gcliathaibh, PBocht 3.38 . baidhbh id chomhghaire i gcléith, Aithd. D. 5.17 . i gcléith chogaidh ní dú dol / 's gan tú go habaigh aosmhar, DDána 105.23 . ? amail corra crit[h]bel / ri clīat[h]uib cāich / fir Ērenn re clīat[h]ib-sum / ō sin co tī brāth, ZCP xiii 15.1 , 2 .

In nn. loc. see Hog. Onom. s.v. and s. Áth Clíath .

Compds. With nouns. ¤bern in phr. c. chét one who makes a gap of a hundred in the enemy's ranks : in cathmilid ┐ in chliathbern chét ┐ ord essorgni, LL 8219 ( TBC-LL¹ 775 ). an dubdhortadh díl[e]ann ┐ an chliathbearna céd . . . .i. Caiseal C. airdrígh Lochlann, CF² 1001 . Also ¤bernaid id.: na da curaid ┐ na da chliathbernaid chet, TBC-LL¹ 3245 . atat daimh dilann ┐ cliathbernadha cet . . . i Cnuc na Cenn, RC xliii 40.29 . Also of the gap itself: atconnairc na clíathbernadhae mora oslaicte . . . ┐ na muir 'arna muradh `the great battle-breaches open and the ramparts rased', CCath. 3724 . ¤bernadach id.: tuarascbail . . . a cathmiled ┐ a cliathbernadach cét, TBC-LL¹ 5147 . os chliathblai Charmaind battle-field(?), BB 37b26 . cathmilid ┐ cliathcomla cathu shield (fig. of a warrior), TTr.² 1582 . cliathdhroichet do dhénamh oc Ath Luain wattle bridge, AFM ii 1132.18 . fa chliathfhroighibh do chraobh mbreac, DDána 68.38 . tiar tre chliathghaoith cláir na bhFionn ` battle-wind ', O'Hara 3081 . mairg tarla i gcliathghoil 'na cheann `ardour of a skirmish' (Gloss.), Ir. Syll. Poetry 64 § 14 . fa chliathmhadh Céin, O'Hara 2620 .

With adj. mac Piaruis chaoimh chliatharnaidh `fierce in battle' (Gloss.), Butler Poems 1351 . Éire chliathbhras, Hackett xliv 3 .

clíathach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. clíathach or dil.ie/9485

 

Forms: clíachtha, cliathach, cliathach

n ā, f. (clíath) IGT Decl. § 37 . g s. freq. clíachtha, -da by metathesis. a s. d s. cliathach, Hugh Roe² 240.27 , 338.22 and Magauran 4425 (MS. reading).

(a) enclosure made of hurdles : cliathach gl. cla[u]strum, Ir. Gl. 712 .

(b) battle, attack (freq. translated `skirmish' but contexts suggest a more serious engagement): cath no . . . cliatach no comlond, Cog. 160.24 . a ccreacha . . . ┐ a niorghala ┐ a ccliathcha, ni fhuilit hi ccuimhne, 38.20 . a cath nó a cliathaigh, CCath. 636 . cliathach do chor do Chiarigi ┐ d'Eoganacht . . . ┐ maidm ar Ciarraigi ┐ a n-ár do chor, Ann. Inisf. 1200.4 . cliathach tucc D. . . . d'Ib Briuin na Sinna cur marbad forcla h. mBriuin ann, Ann. Conn. 1235.26 . buaídh catha ┐ cliachtha, BB 233a18 . is mana clīachdha dar gort | dā mbīat airm co faobarnocht, ZCP xiii 7.21 . gan lúag clíathcha um chend bur n-óla not to boast of warlike exploits, IGT Decl. ex. 973 . airrdheana clíachdha do chur / bríathra ainmheara annradh, ex. 465 . dar marbhadh ocht mbarúin . . . isin ccliathaigh sin, AFM iii 382.1 . deargthair leis ar láthair chliathcha (chliatha, MS) | [a] chroinn fhaobhraidhe, Magauran 4341 . a pheall taoibh ar dteacht ón chliathaigh / cotún uaine after the battle his coverlet is a grey coat of mail, 4337 (`as he leaves his shieling'). tréan ón chliathuigh ó chianaibh / fréamh Fhiachaidh ar Oirghiallaibh, Aithd. D. 10.24 (`since the vision I have told of', more probably from the battle). Attrib. g s. a mhúr clíachdha Chláir Logha, SGS iv 144 § 26 . ? lór lat d'ḟagháil a n-íarrfa / gabháil chlíachdha ar h'at órtha, IGT Decl. ex. 975 .

(c) rib-cage, chest, breast : ra chuir a chliathaig uad go Dublind rissa ratter Ath Clíath, LL 12403 ( TBC-LL¹ 6195 ). ? ro choisc cumu mo chliathaig, 18405 (`prowess', Trans. RIA iii 540 § 7 , `breast', Ériu xx 192 § 7 ).

Note also: iar cliathaigh a eite wing-feathers , Mart. Don. 128.24 .

comaithre

Cite this: eDIL s.v. comaithre or dil.ie/10700

 

x = aithre: ni maithter hi coibnis .i. do comait[h]rib , Laws v 266.8 Comm.

cosmail

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cosmail or dil.ie/12604

 

Forms: -muil, cusmail, comhsamhuil, cosmhail, casmuil, -lius

(com + samail). Earlier -muil (see GOI 107 ). Later also ca-. cusmail, ZCP vi 34.8 . comhsamhuil, Oss. v 52.4 . c.¤ .i. co-samail .i. comsamail, Corm. Y 250 .

I As adj. i

(a) like, similar : c.¤ gl. paris, Sg. 12b5 . gnímu cosmaili, Ml. 93d14 . it cosmaili `they are alike', Sg. 59a17 . etir da ṅainmm cosmaili, 28a7 . Wb. 32d14 . Ml. 126b15 . c.¤ leiss cacha orr im cara fá æscare gl. parricida, Sg. 12b7 . sina saeba . . ./ flaithe claena cosmaile `similarly', Ériu xviii 64 § 31 . bás c.¤ a like death, PH 1865 . similis uindicatio (sic leg.) inneachadh cosmhail, Cóir Anm. 110 . it é comaesa . . . cosmaili, BDD² 680 . ? fer . . . / dober in c.¤ cach leirg, TBC-I¹ 71 = dobeir hi ghcosmuil, ZCP ix 123.13 .

With FRI: bat chosmuli frinni gl. sicut et nos, Wb. 17c5 . cosmil frignímu angil, 32c7 . banchossmaili friartuissech, 33b20 . So passim in O. Ir. glosses. c.¤ . . . fri druimne ṅdoíle, Fraech 18 . Cf. aiciditi cosmaili contra accidentia nominis , Sg. 187b5 . Note also: is cosmuil rib calmacht do denum, Aen. 2454 . With DO: ciall ch.¤ dund salm so `similar to', Ml. 110d6 . is c.¤ disin dano asrobrad donaib ídlaib . . . infirmitates `similarly then infirmitates was applied . . .', 37b24 (or adv. ?). fri praenomen c.¤ do, Sg. 28a15 . cosmuil dúibsi andedeso, Wb. 12d1 . nert c.¤ don tenid, LU 2501 . nech is casmail dó, LB 191b46 . molt no ni bes c.¤ do, Laws i 122.7 Comm.

With OCUS: is c.¤ són dano ┐ intan . . . , Sg. 11a1 . is c.¤ aní fuandrogab infaith ┐ fuanrogab Crist, Ml. 50a10 . is c.¤ inmolad so . . . ┐ inmolad rongab in popul, 82d11 . ní casmail ┐ cealg mná, IGT Decl. ex. 389 . cosmhuil sin is mar deire `so too you say', Content. vi 117 .

(b) likely, probable (cf. iscosmil nade isamlid gl. et non, sicut blasfemamur, et sicut aiunt quidam nos dicere, etc., Wb. 2a11 ). c.¤ mo bith, Fing. R. 977 . bá c.¤ . . . ri Íunaind it seemed to J., TTr.² 359 . an tē as cosmhail dár gcobhair the one who is (most) likely to help me, DDána 11.2 is c.¤ an croidhe tinn / a ngoire an osnaidh ísill, IGT Decl. ex. 399 . sgéal nar chosmhail do chreidiomh, Aithd. D. 32.14 . cosmhail . . . / nach fuair tú . . . , Content. xxiv 21 . ni cosmhail go madh inchreidte . . . ar thuit, ML 28.y .

(c) fitting, proper, becoming: sāethor coimsi, fīt cosmuil, ZCP vii 311 § 14 . ba c.¤ ba cuibsech, xi 96 § 55 . nír chosmhail a chur a suim / síneadh cinn do Choin Chuluinn `it were unreasonable', Bard. P. 14. 5 . gan ród gcosmhail, Dán Dé vi 1 . ní dáil chosmhail nach cás leat . . . you do wrong not to be concerned that . . . , DDána 1.1 . condramh cosmhail `honest pact', O'Hara 1928 . erchra in ḟir cubaidh cosmuil, ZCP vi 265 § 20 . gomadh casmhuil duit / gan aon-aithis do thabhairt, Content. xiii 4 . toradh antsaothairsin dothiodhlucadh dona tighearnaibh . . . rera cosmhula an saotharsin = who agreed with their work, Carswell 2.10 .

Compar. and superl. innahí ata chosmailiu gl. uerisimiliora, Ml. 16b1 . cosmailiu asa chosmailiu hé fri claind nIsraél he resembled more and more, Celtica iv 22.265 . a serg cia ren cosmuile, IGT Abstr. Nouns ex. 1023 . ós rú as casmaile cumann as they are the most promising object of (my) affection, O'Gr. Cat. 392.23 . Adv. co c.¤ , Laws iv 22.11 Comm.

II As subst. cosmhail, casmuil f., IGT Decl. § 13 (66.13) . likeness, similarity : is c.¤ indí imma-immgaib `it is a likeness of one who avoids', Sg. 59a13 leg. cosmaile or -lius, Edd. fon æn c.¤ coir `according to the same proper analogy', BCrólige 62 . do bhí i n-osnaidh E.B. / cosmhail ceoil na coluime. PBocht 11.11 . ag buing casnuidh dom chroidhe / mur chasmhuil chroinn chasnuidhe after the manner of, IGT Decl. ex. 450 = fa chasmail, 612 . gan chasmhail peerless, Aithd. D. 11.29 . ┐ a cosmaile and the like, O'Gr. Cat. 215.22 . ? ferr in c.¤ caol fodae, ZCP vii 311 § 15 .

Compds.: cosmailainmmnechthecha gl. [h]omonima, Sg. 29a9 . 106b6 . cosmailoircnid inter athiroircnid no tuistidoircnid gl. parricida (pari-cida), 12b6 .

1 cumang

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 cumang or dil.ie/13814
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: cumacc, cumoc, cumhag, cumhang

o (see GOI 448 ) vn. of con-icc. Also cumacc (ibid. 354 ), and later co-. cumoc, YBL 180a21 (= c.¤ , RC vi 175.54 ). d. pl. cumgaib, UR 36.11 . cumhag, cumhang m., IGT Decl. § 17 (71.19) . Verbs § 53 .

Power, ability, strength : cumhang .i. neart no cumhachta, O'Cl. iarsinchumung bess lib, Wb. 16c19 . asririusa moch.¤ darfar cenn gl. superimpendar ipse pro animabus uestris, 18a14 . ba hénirt ar c.¤ , Fél. Ep. 9 . nísmbói . . . do chumacc a mmbo do imain, Vita Br. 24 . bidh fann a c.¤ , ZCP viii 110.11 . co ructha a eich hi cumugg la C. were taken in charge, Trip.² 1665 . sáerthar lat in domnach cech c.¤ rotbé dó `with all your might', Ériu ii 204.12 . dollotar do imbert a cumaiṅg frisin slōg, TBC-I¹ 2195 . dobérmais ar cumaṅg ica thessarggain, LL 36680 . budh calma a c.¤ san / bud caol a[r] cumaing-ne, ZCP viii 207. 13 - 14 . a chumhang gidh cia do-bheir / do-gheibh Dia ar ubhall nó ar uibh whoever gives what he can, DDána 42.36 = IGT Verbs ex. 466 . ic techt i ngábudh dar cend cumaing in a superhuman effort (?), TTr.² 1367 = ZCP xxx 69.1367 . ni ragar neach tara c.¤ `no one is fined beyond his power', Laws v 466.23 . ? issedh mesraigus breithem a cumach (sic) do gill do cach, iv 36.21 Comm. nad inarban iar fis, focumac `having power to do so', iii 8.z .i. fo c.¤ iar mbeth a fesa aice, 10.8 Comm. ní ba sindadh nó aoradh fogniset, acht(?) gut prut fo comung, H 3.18, 755.1 . don ch.¤ conicc `to the extent of his power', Ériu iii 106.1 . co cumunc cecha mnā chena `with whatever every other woman is able to give', Cáin Ad. 23 .

Attrib. g s. fer comaic móir, LU 7578 (BDD). co clú chumaiṅg Delga osin dind, LL 16748 . ba cemmend cumaiṅg, LL 746 = comaind, BB 28b40 . With follg. obj. gen.: gan c.¤ treabhtha, BNnÉ 294.16 . L. . . . ina cc.¤ catha `in battle array', Cog. 214.w . ni linne acumacc `we have no power over her', RC iii 346.8 . cumhang molta mhóir `the power to praise', Dán Dé xxix 27 .

In various constructions with copula and subst. vb.: ma beid hibar cumung gl. si potest fieri quod ex uobis est, Wb. 5d32 . ni fuil i c.¤ . . . do duine it is not in man's power, Laud 610, 12b cited Plummer MS. notes = i comand, PH 97 . cona baoi ina cc.¤ soadh for cúlaibh, Hugh Roe² 156.3 . ni bái c.¤ la M. dó, BNnÉ 294.17 . atá dhá cheird ar mo chumhang I am master of two trades, Bard. P. 17.31 . nímbái c.¤ cena I . . . was unable, Imr. Brain ii 291.1 . dober índi iscumung do / bó, IT iii 18.20 . ro thionóil sidhe ina mbaoí ina cumhang `all the forces under his command', AFM vi 1876.1 . níta cumacc do cháingním `it is not able to do well', Wb. 4a6 . nim thā cumac día aisnéis, LU 9234 . níp thá cumac dó, 1471 (MU). ní bái a c.¤ dó, BNnÉ 10.16 . ? nir chumhang air .i. nir bhó chumhachtach é, O'Cl. ? is trúag mo chumaṅg -sa rib , TFerbe 607 . ní fil c.¤ i n-a n-anmannaib ocaind, PH 2055 . ? Predic. g s. in mheit as cumhuing leo do freasdul, Marco P. 36 . ní chumuing la Caracorum bar congbail `it is not possible for C. to contain you', 28 . ós tú an rí as cumhaing dá clódh `able to control her', Aithd. D. 81.10 . ? Hence adv.: in t-í dogéna cech maith co cumaing, PH 8089 .

Gramm. function, force : innandobriathar asanairberar cumaṅg ainmmde `a nominal force', Sg. 39a26 . cumaṅg nominisuerbi `power', 148b5 . caite deochair eter a c.¤ ┐ a nert? A c.¤ . . . Intan gabaid guth a n-ænur (of letters), Auraic. 965 - 6 . lanchumang i fedaibh, ┐ c.¤ a forfedaibh, ┐ egumang a muitibh, 1209 . dobeir c.¤ fedha forin son, 436 . c.¤ i forfedaib, 5456 .

debuith

Cite this: eDIL s.v. debuith or dil.ie/14851
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: debthi, debtha, déne, deabhaidh, debuith, debaith, debaich, debuid, débaid, debaid, deabhaidh, †debtho, debtha, detba, deabhtha, deabhaidh, deabhadh, debuith, debuid, debaid, debuid, debthi, debtha, deabhtha, debthu, debthi, debtha, debthib, debthaib, deabhthaibh, de-buith, deabhthar, deabhfar

n i, f. Strife, contention .

GENDER: inna debthi (as a p.), Ml. 100 c 7 . debtha déne (g s.) LU 46 b 1 . dochum na debtha, TTr.² 1154 . dogéntar debaid rib ┐ ná fuilngid si hí, LL 303 a 6 .—In Mod.-Ir. f. and m. le dásachtaighe an deabhtha, OCT 52.7-8 . g s. deabhaidh, see below.

INFLEXION: n s. debuith, Wb. 10 a 8 . 28 b 25 . debaith, Rule of A. § 15 v.l. debaich, ACL iii 230 l. 147 . debuid, Wb. 31 d 19 . Expuls. 175 . Rule of A. § 15 v.l. LU 21 a 2 , 4 . Triads § 98 . Ériu iv 216 st 18 (deabuid). O'Mulc. 302 . débaid, FB § 33 . debaid usual Mid.-Ir. spelling, already Ml. 19 c 15 . Mod. deabhaidh (Don.) and deabhadh, O'Gr. Cat. 132. 25 . W.K.—g s. Oir. †debtho; Mid.-Ir. debtha ( deibda, LL 17 a 45 ; detba, O'Mulc. 348 ; deathpa, Celtica xiii 14.268 . dethfa, ACL iii 296 n. 4 ); Mod. deabhtha and deabhaidh (corresp. to n s. deabhadh).—a s. debuith, Rule of A. § 15 . debuid, Wb. 30 b 26 . LU 74 a 17 . debaid (debhaidh), usual Mid.-Ir. spelling; Mod. as n s.d s. debuid, LU 69 a 14 . MacCarthy 178. 4 (LL). Mid.-Ir. debaid; Mod. as n s. ( deabhadh, AFM ii 1046. 20 ).—n p. Oir. †debthi; Mid.-Ir. debtha, TBC-LL¹ 246 . LB 123 a 23 . Laws i 58. 14 . PH 4230. 8394 . deabhtha, AFM vi 2250. 9 . debthu, Ériu iv 162. 21 . Mod. as g s.a p. debthi, Ml. 100 c 7 ; Mid.-Ir. debtha, Bodl. Dinds. 25 . Cog. 116. 18 .— d p. debthib, Wb. 6 b 6 ; Mid.-Ir. debthaib, ML 134. 6 . deabhthaibh, ZCP i 406. 26 .

RHYMES: : mebail, LL 148 b 46 . : mebaid, LL 182 a 25 , 257 b 20 . : Dedaig, 129 a 24 . : fledaib, CRR 30. 6 . : Muredaig, MacCarthy 178. 4 (LL). ceatha, OCU 41. 10 . deabhtha (n p.): treabtha, BB 204 a 50 ( Todd Nenn. 132. 3 ). In Debide: debaid: ail, LL 155 a 5 .

ORIGIN: de-buith, old vn. of di-taa distat, differt ( Ml. 113 a 2 , 117 b 9 ); orig. difference (of opinion). De- probably from dis-, v. s. 1 de, di; cf. 1 dechor. Originally the opposite of com-buith `a being together, companionship.'—By Cormac connected with déde: debaid .i. dede baothi aci nó dede buith oci, Corm. Tr. 59. 5 ; by O'Mulc. traced to Lat. devotio (debuid, pron. devuidh): debuid .i. óndí as deuotio .i. maledictio , l.c. 302 .

I A diversity of opinion or purpose; difference, variance; a dispute or quarrel (arising therefrom), a contention, controversy, often with a notion of vehemence.

(a) in general sense. Frequently in opposition to síd, cáinchomrac, óentu. Synonymous with bara: bara .i. deabhaidh, H 2.15A, 117 b ; betlim: b. .i. deabaid, Dúil Laithne 268 ( Goid. 79 ); cosnam PH 8394 (vide b); dechétfaid : PH 4230 . Hugh Roe 32. 19 (v. b); drenn: d. .i. debaid, H 3.18 p. 422 ; discell: d. .i. debaid .i. ciall dis, O'Mulc. 338 ; dorbcas: d. .i. debaid nó dormaineacht, ib. 330 ; essoentu: fochunn deabtha (sic leg.) nó essoentad, TTr.² 264 . a bráthri...dia mbad oc debaid nó ic essaentaid, PH 4519 ; immargal: less didiu quasi líss .i. debaid nó imargal, Corm. s.v. leasmac (cf. in lite .i. i nimmargail, Ml. 16 b 8 ); mesbaid: in mesbaid .i. in debaid, Ml. 19 c 15 .—It renders Lat. disceptatio, Wb. 6 b 6 (vide b). Lat. discidia, Ml. 100 c 7 (vide b). Lat. lis: non litigosum .i. ní bii debuith do fri nech, Wb. 28 b 25 . seruum Domini non oportet litigare, gl. ní uisse do mug Dæ buith fri debuid to be bent on strife ib. 30 b 26 . líss .i. debaid, Corm. s.v. leasmac . Lat. simultas: depossita simultate, gl. a mba diuscartae in mesbaid .i. in debaid, Ml. 19 c 15 . Lat. rixa: contigit eis rixari, tr. cu tarla deabhaidh etarra Todd Lect. v 75. 16 . Lat. certamen: deabaid certamen, Dúil Laithne 268 ( Goid. 79 ). Lat. dissentio: gleu .i. gle enim graece .i. disentio debaid, O'Mulc. 635 . —debuith fri nech im ní to contend or quarrel with somebody about something, to be at difference or at variance with, &c. ná bíth debuith duún fri nech, Wb. 10 a 8 . robói debuid do Philomóin fri suide, ib. 31 d 19 . abraid ishé bar naithrech debuid fris, Expuls. 175 . atá debuid dún fri Ailill, LU 21 a 2 . bói debaid dia chlaum fri Patraic he had a dispute with P. (or if Stokes' transl. is right, cf. IV.), Trip. 84. 3 . IT ii 212. 2 f.b. ná ferad debaid fri Dia she should not be at variance with God (because of the death of her son) ZCP vi 269 st 2 . dodealuigh ár ngleic gan goin: is deabuidh meic rea ṁáthair 'twas but the difference of a lad with his mother Ériu iv 216 st 18 (proverbial, cf. MR 134. 15 ). immacomarnic dóib débaid do dénam imman curadmir, FB § 33 . — is dóig liumsa debaid dúib ria nimscar, TBC-LL¹ 1805 . co mbaraind debtha LU 106 a 11 . co tláthugud a debtha, ib. 16 . debuid ar do chinn, Triads § 98 . ní ba muine debtha, Tec. Corm. § 19. 20 . comérge debtha the arising of a controversy FB § 29 . debaid do delbad to stir up strife : delbaid d.¤ dúrglaccaib, Ériu iv 108. 9 , cf. ib. 16 . Frequent in the phrase síd cen debuid LU 33 b 39 . RC iv 256. 5 . PH 4355 . 5022 . 8072 . cáinchomrac cen debaid, LU 120 a 11 . lán do dheabhaidh ┐ do dhoghraing, TSh. 185. 4 f.b. PROV. ferr dála iná deabaid, ZCP vi 260. 7 f.b. find cach cóir dub cach ndebaid, ACL iii 229 l. 127 . messam dál debaich, ib. 230 l. 147 .

(b) with the definite article or pl.: an occasion or instance of strife or controversy . futura discidia, gl. inna debthi (a p.). nobetis Ia hIsraheldu iartain, Ml. 100 c 7 . in disceptationibus .i. ná bad i ndebthib, Wb. 6 b 6 . debtha comaithchesa strifes of co-occupancy Laws i 58. 14 . betit debtha ┐ irgala ┐ scandlacha eturru im chomriachtain tossaig, TBC-LL¹ 246 . debtha ┐ cosnuma i naimsir áine, PH 8394 . deabtha buana ZCP viii 195. 17 .—atraig d.¤ a controversy arises : atrachtatar deabhtha ┐ dechétfaidhe etorra, Hugh Roe 32. 19 . d.¤ do thodiuschud to arouse strife : tódúscthar debtha ┐ dechétfaide etarru, PH 4230 . d.¤ do ṡídugud to settle a controversy Acall. 3121 .

II n Act of fighting (fri, for with; im about, Cog. 122. 7 ); an armed conflict, a hostile encounter on land or sea, a combat, a fight; esp. a skirmish as opposed to cath `a regular battle' ( Cog. 116. 18 ).

(a) Often connected with gleo: gleu .i. debaid, O'Mulc. 635 . is mana mórgliad sain ┐ is adbar ṅdegdebtha, TBC-LL¹ 5765 ; with cathugud: ic debhaid ┐ ic c., CCath. 2239 ; with comrac, Laws i 126. 16 .— ar debaid noenlái, LU 44 b 29 . tintái Fergus do debuid fri Coinculainn, LU 69 a 14 (also with for: do d.¤ for muintir Poimp, CCath. 2317 ). Cog. 120. 20 ; 122. 7 . dogéntar debaid rib , LL 303 a 6 . in ed tic do debaid i ndegaid a tairb, CRR 30. 6 . mór a ndíth ón deabhaidh sin, AFM v 1580. 14 . leathtrom deabhtha a disadvantage of conflict Miscell. Celt. Soc. 344. 24 . d.¤ do thabairt to give battle: tucsad d.¤ dóib iman áth, RC xviii 187. 12 . tuc d.¤ dóib, Tig. A. D. 1166 . ní tharat cath ná debaid dóib, SG 411. 4 . cor debtha, id. Miscell. Celt. Soc. 356. 23 . d.¤ do iarraid to seek battle : iarraidh deabhtha ar theaghlach Ṁogha Néid ML 16. 5 . elóatar drem duaislib amach diarraidh debtha RC xviii 274. 10 . deabhaidh deachaibh, BB 34 b 55 . Donnchadh ┐ Maolsechlainn do dheabhadh fri aroile co ttorchrattar coṁthuitim, AFM ii 1046. 20 . a single combat : ar dáig co forgénmáis ár ndís debaid, LU 74 a 17 . bairr debtha, battlements Eg. 158 , Contribb. 182 . caislén debtha a howdah ZCP i 390. 19 . cnoc debtha a fighting-mound CCath. 1748 . dorus debtha a port-hole , ib. 1816 . istad debtha a fighting-place , ib. 1716 . láthar na debtha battle-field : tig A. co nGrecaib co mbátar for láithir na debtha, LL 404 a 52 . stoc debtha a war-trumpet TFrag. 190. 10 .— Laws i 176. 13 ; iii 278. 8 ; v 280. 19 . LU 46 b 1 ( IT i 213. 18 ), 22 . LL 129 a 24 . 289 b 1 f.b. 290 a 31 . Rawl. 106 b 36 . RC v 197 = Oss. iv 288. 1 . IT ii 185 l. 285 (comrocc fri d.¤ níthaig). Misc. 344. 24 . ZCP i 406. 26 .

(b) with the definite article or pl.: a particular fight . berid bare mbrúthmar dochum na debtha co torchratar sochaide...leis, TTr.² 1154 . dorochair Art sin debuid la Fiachra, MacCarthy 178. 4 (LL). slecht Stairn isin debaid la Febail, ib. 146. 5 . na debtha na duinorcuin, LB 123 a 23 (cf. AFM vi 2250. 9 : iomdha a ndeabhtha ┐ a ndunoircne). ML 134. 6 . le déine an deabhtha, OCT 52.8 . Opp. cath: cúicc catha fichet...genmota debhtha besides sundry skirmishes Cog. 116. 18 .—docer re Eochaid i ndebaid Dromma Líathán in the skirmish at D. L. LL 17 b 35 .

III debuid duirn fisticuffs : nárop debaid duirn, LL 148 b 46 . KMMisc. 270. 16 .

IV In a special sense of a married woman: the state or condition of having left her husband or being put away by him; a law-term. Concluded from the foll. passages: lécid in fear a cétmuindtir...┐ dogní neach mac fria iarum ┐ dobeir sim aitherrach ní dlegar iarrad disi. intan bís for deabaid is ann toirchither frisin fear, &c. , if the husband puts his wife away and somebody gets a child with her and the husband takes her back again, then she is not entitled to the fosterage-fee. It is while she is at `debaid' (at variance with her husband and away from him) that she is got with child Laws v 200. 17 . Gormlaith ingen Ḟlaind tanic ar debaid ó Cherball do thig a athar i cinta ind imdergtha tuc Cerball di, LL 52 b 1 ; ib. 13 (of Gormḟlaith who returns to her father after being badly treated by Cerball her husband). This sense arose from I (controversy as a cause of separation). A similar usage FDG 32 : codlais Domnall...atchí fís ┐ aislingthi ┐ ised atchonnairc .i. cuilén con rohailed lais fora glún fésin a dul for debaid uada (the hound gathers the dogs of Ireland and gives battle to Domnall). for d.¤ , which refers to the relations between Domn. and his dog, was misunderstood by the copyists and replaced by `for duible ┐ dásacht' (adopted by O'D.). Cf. also LU 21 a 4 ( IT ii 212. 1 f.b. ): mád nech dít muintir noragad for debuid noanfad limsa co róisced a síd.

V Haste, hurry , only Mod.-Ir. deabhadh maille ribh a Domnaill, O'Gr. Cat. 132. 25 ( Eg. 88, marg. ) ma bhí deabhadh ag teacht ortha go raibh deabhadh ní sa ṁó ag imtheacht ortha, KMMisc. 380. 14 . cuirfead sa deabhadh air ag glúasacht I will hasten his departure Éinín Órdha 41. 8 f.b. —b'ḟéidir nár chás duit deabhadh dhéanaṁ; dein deabhadh! goidé an deabhadh atá ort? (W.K.). The sense-development is strange; probably a contamination of debaid with deibed.

MOD. see Inflexion and V. Sense I preserved in Don.: coingbheochaidh mé ag deabhaidh leat (= Oir. fri) godí go rabh sin déanta I shall keep on worrying you Quiggin Dial. Don. p. 57 ; ib. 18 . and in the common bean an deabhaidh a midwife, Dinneen. In Sc. obs. in all senses.—Hence mod. deabhthar (i.e. deabhfar) adj quick, speedy .

do-aig

Cite this: eDIL s.v. do-aig or dil.ie/17119

 

Forms: taig, taga, dosnacht, doagatar, táin

v (* to-ag-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 541 ). Ipv. 2 s. taig; subj. pres. 3 s. taga, O'Dav. 66 ; pret. 3 s. dosnacht, LU 792 ( Laws i 64 ) (later with s-pret.); pass. pres. pl. doagatar, Laws ii 118 Comm. Vn. táin.

Drives off, drives away (in leg. phraseology almost = seizes): is iarum doagatar hi comund `(the cattle) are put into a comann-pound', Laws ii 118 Comm. teora ferba fira dosnacht Asal ar Mug mac N. which A. drove off from M., i 64 . ecosc na n-erc . . . dodoacht Cur[o]i for Ultaib, Corm. Y 585 = toacht, LB ( Thr. Ir. Gl. 20 ). ceit fear bāite . . . dosonacht tonn forsin trac[h]t, Lec. 556a9 = dosrinart (leg. dosrimart), BB 31ay . With cogn. acc.: conid Ailill iarum doacht Tain Bo Cuailgne who made the foray for the bull, Rawl. 118b13 . Fig. fēl Coemhain Léth i corghus | doaig bliadhain do anfuth ushers in a stormy year, AFM 917 (ii 598) . Intrans.: ceithri barca . . . lodar tar muir . . . xv. lanomna is amhos | in gach bairc dotaghas tall came back, BB 19b23 = ise lin rothagas and, Lec. 540a6 . is ann rothaigestar in úir indledhech . . . Electó ar certlár clēib ┐ craidhe Congail `took up her abode', MR 166 (or leg. -thaiglestar from do-aidlea?). Esp. in conjunction with aigid in sense drives (goes) back (again): ma imaga taga .i. imāin amuigh drive in again, O'Dav. 66 . aigh taigh . . . .i. eirigh . . . ┐ tair doridhisi, 67 . The phrase aig taig became petrified as a subst. and was used after prep. in meaning to and fro, hither and thither, vagrant: luid David . . . hi t[i]rib minib Maob | co n-aes lathair, co n-aig thaig, SR 6239 . mar aes ṁbraith for aig thaig, | bis o chathraig do chatraig like spies roaming, on the move, 3477 ; 5639 , 7087 . ara burba fri aig thaig | is ar chumga a menmannraid | Nabál . . . rofemid imm oenbargin because of his churlish disposition towards vagrants (? cf. 1 Sam. xxv 10 , 11 ), 6305 , cf. 3241 . níba turas ar aig thaig ón (aig baig, MS.), TBFr. 87 . in charpait for aig thaig immo thenid, YBL 418b13 . Cf. further LU 180 ( Todd Lect. vi 10 ): atát dā clārchiste mora and (sc. immedón ind locha) i n-agid tagid swaying, tossed about (?) = inn-agaid a n-agaid ` face to face ', Todd Nenn. 94 . See 1 taig. Cf. also: rothaigir na Laidinta fo dī dochum a cathrach were driven back, Aen. 2816 . cech dúil doadas tadas `that moves about'. Cáin Ad. 26 . ám thám sochaide, MU² 367 (see Gloss.).

do-incai

Cite this: eDIL s.v. do-incai or dil.ie/17880

 

Forms: dodaincie, datainca, dorencanas, dorencas, tincaid, tincem, tincisin, tincud

v (* to-in-ad-ci-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 488 ) Indic. pres. 3 s. gach giell . . . dodaincie (datainca, v.l.), Anecd. iii 25.8 . Perf. pass. dorencanas (leg. dorencas?) gl. perspectum, Ml. 33c18 . In Mid.Ir. treated as simple vb., tincaid (rarely tenc-). Vn. tincem, tincisin, tincud.

(a) looks, gazes (at); intrans. with FOR or trans.: tincais (fecais, v.l.) Medb for Fergus, TBC-LL¹ 1779 . tincais C. fair (is inund ón ┐ nofégand), 2127 . tincais in caillech fair, CCath. 4037 . tencais C. fair, 6062 . rotenc ┐ romid ┐ romōrdēch uadh for slógud an longphuirt, 4751 . ro tenc G. tairis in long ar cach leith, Grail 3681 . in tincud tincfat forsna haigib the look with which I will look, TBC-LL¹ 1345 . o rothenc A. na hairdi aichtidi sin, CCath. 979 . rotencastair gristaitnem na n-arm, 1260 . rotencsat Cesair in[a] éo ard, 497 ; 2850 .

(b) sees to; responds to, deals with, satisfies (a claim, summons, challenge, attack, obligation, foe, etc.). Rarely intrans.: cadeat . . . m'urnadmand? ar F. . . . Tincsetar glinni cechtar n-aí díb cu barbarda the guarantees . . . responded fiercely (to the summons), i.e. came forward(?), MU² 115 . ma asloat, gaibter a sesci no a mblichta, mana tincatar unless they appear to answer their obligations (?) (of persons under distraint), Laws ii 120.11 Comm. rothincastar triur thriath-airech . . . ar incaib in airdrig eitir é ┐ in t-urchar `sprang . . . between him and the shot', MR 254.8 . Trans. of things: cach óen do Domnandchaib rotinc báig leis who had undertaken to fight on his side (?), IT ii2 215 . dond ḟir nacha tincann `for him that does not respond (to my poems)', RC xxvi 23 n. 2 . as é an fer thionchus an ghaiscidh do gaphail dligheas a disgur the man who answers the challenge to fight (?) has the right to stop it, ZCP x 287.20 . Cruithne . . . doibh rothincha (rotinca, v.l.) tochmorc | co tuc banntracht . . . dar Athmagh saw to finding wives for them, Todd Nenn. 142 . da tincidh a n-īc `if he has offered payment for them', Laws i 146.2 Comm. maine thince fine in giall if the f. does not respond to the hostage-surety, ii 136.z Comm. dia tince a biathad if he undertakes to feed, 308.6 Comm. rotincadh dligedh ris umpa seic right was conceded him, i 74.y Comm. rotincad in tecusc sin ag trénfheraib in túaiscirt these instructions met with response from (i.e. were carried out), MR 178 . tioncaid bar rámada rib see to (ply) your oars, SG 344.9 . Of persons (esp. of answering an opponent): menas tincitis Troiandai risin Trói anechtair unless the Trojans should come to meet their attack outside Troy, LL 239b5 ( TTr. 1679 ). rottioncub-sa I accept thy challenge, SG 257.3 . gor thincastar . . . Conall until C. opposed him, MR 254.8 . ar daigh co bhfinndais cia notincfeadh ┐ nogebhudh do lāim acu in comhlann (i.e. who would answer Cormac's challenge to single combat), BLism. 173rb35 . Of satisfying someone's claims: muna tincar hí (of a woman serving a notice on a defendant), Laws iv 12.24 Comm. mádh gradh feine troisces . . . ┐ ni tincar if a noble fast . . . and is not satisfied, O'D. 602 ( H 3.17 453 ). co ro tincaitis he don gniom dorighensat fris they should give him satisfaction for, Anecd. ii 42 . do tincedh Cithruaidh d'ór is d'airgiod `was rewarded' (of a minstrel), Duan. F. i 5.14 .

1 dorr

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 dorr or dil.ie/18401

 

adj harsh, rough: dorr (doir, v.l.) gach n-agarbh, Forus Foc. 72 (Metr. Gl.). d.¤ .i. aggarbh nó rogharbh, O'Cl. ? mar do chuaidh teagasc Thórna | go ndeach diograis m'ealodhna | d'ua na mBriain ó dághchlár d.¤ | air mall fa daltán dósan, Tadg m. Daire (quoted by P. O'C. ). bia an rí ghá rada rib . . . nach ffuighe rí daoineach d.¤ | aoinneach i ccli bur ccomhar, ib. céd bó dhó, fá breath dh.¤ | each gach taoisigh a Conoll, 3 C 12, 200.1 .

5 engach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 5 engach or dil.ie/20087
Last Revised: 2013

 

n (? subst. use of 2 engach Ériu xii 237 ) a net : painteár, dul, rib, eangach, Kirk = ACL iii 163.516 ( éan a bpaintéar, Amos iii 5 ). Cf. eangach úir-iaruinn `network of armour' Ó Bruad. ii 136.6 . See Measgra D., p. 250 .

1 esna

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 esna or dil.ie/20531

 

n rib : see asna.

fri

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fri or dil.ie/24329
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: frimm, rimm, frim, frím, frium, frimsa, friumsa, frit, fritt, friutt, fritsu, rut, rutt, fris, friss, frissom, f., frie, friae, frise, frie, frinn, rinn, rind, friunn, riund, frind, frinni, raindi, frinnai, frib, frithib, fribsi, friu, friú, friu, friü, frithiu, friithu, friusom, riom, rum, riot, rut, ris, ria, rinn, ruinn, ribh, ruibh, riú, r, frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar, fria, frim, frim, frim, ram, frit, frit, frit, rit, rat, rot, friar, friar, fribar, fribar, fria, fria, fria, re-na, rena, fria, fris(s)a, frisi-, risi-, fris-, ris-, frismbiat, fris-mbruchta, fris, fris, fris, risa, frisin-, frisnid, risnad, ris, fria, frisa, re n-, fria-, re, ra-n-adh, re, re, ré, freisin, FRI

prep. with acc. For etymology see Thurneysen, GOI § 839 , Fraser ZCP viii 37 , J. E. C. Williams, Celtica iii 126 . In later spelling prefixes h- to following initial stressed vowel; does not leníte following consonant (cf. frinna aill, Sg. 45a16 . fri nnach ..., Ml. 75a9 , fri nnech 23c20 ; but fri nech further on in same gloss and regularly elsewhere); the initial s- of the article following fri is preserved. In Middle Irish gradually replaced by the forms RI, RE (already in Ml: oc eregim re Abisolon, 44b4 , cf. fre, 90c27 ); RA (common in some LL texts, see CRR 54 , TBC-LL¹ 499 , 602 , 740 , etc.); rarely RO ( SR 1990 ZCP xiii 204 15 ); FRIA, RIA, RE also common. Hence in Early Mod. Ir. there is occasionally confusion with , RÍA `before', see Bergin's note Stor. Keat. p. xix , and section IX (e) below. Apart from this the latter prep. sometimes replaces FRI after fáilid, fáilte and kindred words (as in Mod. Ir.). On the parallelism of some of the pronominal forms of FRI with those of LA see GOI l.c. (with Translator's n. 178 ). Though FRI still appears in some later texts, especially those of the archaising type, it had become obsolete in the classical language. Its later form (RI, RE) remains down to the end of the Early Mod. period and is recognized by the grammarians as distinct from LE (LA), see IGT, Introd. § 75 , 24 P 8, 194 ( IGT VI , Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ). In the modern spoken lang. it is replaced partly by LE, partly by CHUN (O.-Ir. dochum). For a contrary development cf. Engl. `with,' originally `against,' which has absorbed the functions of A.S. mid `(together) with.'

In development of meaning generally FRI shows a remarkable parallelism with Engl. ` with '; it also agrees with ` against ' in several senses.

Forms: With suff. pron.

sg. 1 frimm St. Paul Codex Thes. ii 298.17 . rimm, IT i 123.24 . frim, SR 1422 , 2049 . LU 5228 . LL 110b26 . frím Ml. 38c19 . frium, Ml. 71b9 . frimsa, Wb. 26d17 . Ml. 33a18 . friumsa, Ml. 127a2a .

2 frit, Wb. 5a31 . 10a29 ; Ml. 103d14 . SR 1425 . fritt LL 93a10 . 249b1 . friutt, PCr. 62b2 (= ḟrit, Sg. 151a3 ). fritsu Ml. 91d8 . 112b8 . rut, SR 2031 IT i 123.15 . rutt, LL 110b27 .

3 m., n. fris, Wb. 14c37 . 15a1 . 22c15 . ACL iii 304 [: [Mael] mis]. (: eisleis). SR 6109. 6317 . ([mēt] anfis) LL 33b21 . friss, Wb. 2c24 . 3c6 . 6a4 . 8a12 . 14d22 ; Ml. 91a21 . frissom Wb. 5d39 .

f.¤ frie, Sg. 72b1 . Ml. 40c15 . 67d15 . friae, 130c9 . Wb. 28a20 . cf. frise, Ml. 74c21 , which Ascoli corrected to frie ( Thes. i 722b ).

pl. 1 frinn, Wb. 4b12 . 17b10 . 19d22 . rinn, Ml. 54a3 . SR 1821 . rind, SR 1905 (: herḟi[o]nd). friunn, Ml. 38d20 . riund TBC-LL¹ 1874 . frind, LL 177b39 . frinni, Wb. 17b32 . 17c5 ; Ml. 32c15 . 93a13 . 106c12 . raindi, BColm. 68.9 . frinnai Ml. 91c9 . 114a8 .

2 frib, Wb. 17b16 . 22d9 . 24d26 . cf. frithib, Ériu iv 162.13 . fribsi, Wb. 14c42 . 17b14 .

3 friu, Wb. 4a10 . 4c37 . 24a4 ; Ml. 54c23 , 72b22 , 110c9 . LL 35a21 (: fiú) friú, Wb. 17b9 . Ml. 74a2 , diss. friu, Hy. V. 54 , cf. friü: at-chiü, ACL iii 294 § 10 ; frithiu, Blathm. 94 § 17 ; friithu, LU 4671 (see further GOI 515 ). friusom, Wb. 20c25 ; Ml. 17c5 , 54c18 ; 26 .

For forms found in later texts see citations below.

In the Early Mod. Grammatical Tracts the forms given are: riom, rum; riot, rut; ris; ria; rinn, ruinn; ribh, ruibh; riú, r, 24 P 8 194 ( Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ).

With following poss. pron.: frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar, fria, e.g. frim ort. Wb. 29d2 . frim peccad, 28a14 . frim foraithmet, Ml. 23d9 ; ram anmain, TBC-LL¹ 3692 (rem St.). frit adrad su, Ml. 136c11 . frit c[h]ele, 70d2 ; frit laim, SR 5854 . rit láim, TBC-LL¹ 3055 . rat láma, 3052 . rot chlaind, SR 2031 . friar corp, Wb. 15c22 . friar fochric, 33a9 ; fribar n-ícc, Wb. 24b3 . fribar pecthu, 13b19 ; fria mbriathra, Wb. 31b30 . In Mid. Ir. the form `fria' is often used for the simple prep., hence occas. fria a = prep. + 3 s. pron. In Early Mod. Ir. 3 s. and pl. form re-na sometimes appears: rena ardnaem, BCC § 12 (see III c below). fria n-a, Fl. Earls 214.4 . Cf. the n- prefixed to poss. after le, ó, tre in Mod. Irish.

With rel. pron.: O. Ir. fris(s)a n ...; Mid. Ir. also frisi-, risi-, fris-, ris-: frismbiat, Sg. 202b3 . fris-mbruchta, Fél. June 21 . fris n-agar, E. 406 . fris-reith, Prolegomena 302 . fris-tarddam, Thes. ii 293.19 . risa n-abar, Acall. 53 , etc. With cop. frisin-, frisnid, risnad ail, LB 257b9 . ris na duthracht 256a44 . fria ndechraiged (= frisa nd.) Sg. 28a14 may be a mistake. In later MSS. the form re n- becomes common: fria-cosmailend, PH 7674 . re ndubairt, 7464 . ra-n-adh KMMisc. 156. 124 . re n-abar, Acall. 1241 , etc. re rāiter, Ériu viii 139.4 . ré raibhe, Keat. ii 4467 , etc.

Composition.

(a) In vn. and prototonic verbal forms, before a vowel, frith-; before a cons. fre-, e.g. frecre, fretech; with syncope of a follg. vowel, fres-, e.g. frescsiu, fresndid, fresndís, fresngabal. In Glosses fri is often used in compos. with a vb. to represent Lat. ob-. Later frith- is used before cons. with or without lenition of following cons.: see frithgnam, frithsét, etc.

(b) In deuterotonic verbal forms fris-; before an infixed pron. in rel. construction frith- or friss-: fritum-chomart-sa (= frith-dum-) Wb. 33a12 ; but friss-idn-oirctis, Ml. 39a20 (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 147 and cf. Strachan's OIPG⁴ ed. Bergin, p. 27 n. 2 ).

SYNOPSIS OF MEANINGS.

N.B.—The classification is perforce somewhat arbitrary as, perhaps in the majority of instances, the meaning could derive from the original sense in I. Cf. J. E. C. Williams Celtica iii 122 ff .

I Of local relations

(a) towards, facing, turned to ;

(b) against (touching; cf. d); alongside, down along, by ;

(c) against (implying violent or hostile action);

(d) next to, at, in contact with (cf. b).

II To express association, along with, beside (both of local and mental relations).

III To express figurative direction

(a) aim, purpose (cf. VI), frequently of function, specific purpose;

(b) after adj. in sense of Lat. gerund or with ad or supine in -u;

(c) to express direction of feelings, behaviour towards (cf. I a);

(d) of prayer, etc. to ;

(e) of opposition to, hostile feeling, attitude towards ;

(f) to express protection, guard, watch against, also limitation, boundary;

(g) in elliptical sentences with these meanings.

IV

(a) after adjs., nouns or verbs expressing resemblance, equality or comparison;

(b) to express difference, distinction from .

V

(a) with respect to, with regard to ;

(b) on account of:

(c) on behalf of ;

(d) according to, in agreement with (cf. II).

VI To denote occasion

(a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. verb or equivalent;

(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on which something takes place.

VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion of .

VIII

(a) to denote agent;

(b) to denote instrument through, by means of .

IX In expressions of time

(a) in O.-Ir. in locatival sense;

(b) to denote period during which something continues or takes place;

(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place;

(d) of point of time;

(e) used for RIA ` before .'

X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs.

A classified list of the instances in Wb is given by Fraser ZCP viii 37 ff .

I Of local relations

(a) towards, facing, turned to: do rosc frisna nemdaib = looking heavenward SR 1604 . a n-aiged fri Dia facing God LU 2048 ( FA 12 . Cf. III c). a lām chlē fri muir the sea on their left SR 4074 (see lám). do cumlaiset for fairgi ┐ dochorsatar aurlunn fri tir, Corm. Bodl. s.v. prull . bai D. 'sa druim fri fraig D. had his back to the door SR 6053 . is amlaid bai in gilla ┐ a druim fria thigerna, TBC-I¹ 2327 (see druim(m)). Ethne ... fria chossa E. (standing) at his feet (i.e. at the foot of the bed) LU 3300 ( SCC 10 ). Carpre ... 's a hucht ra hág, LL 32b49 (see ucht). a druim re dimsachaib, a des fri deiblenaib, ZCP viii 204 § 26 . an let[h] bis rinne don rē the side of the moon turned towards us ITS xiv 90.19 . fri bun cruche at the foot of the gallows Mon. Tall. § 1 . síl nÁdhuimh ... re sáluibh a senathar at the heels of (i.e. following) Ériu iv 118 § 33 . níor chubaidh tigearna ... d'ḟágbáil re caladh on the beach [i.e. when about to land; perh. fig. cf. beirid i gcaladh brings to safety, see 1 calad] viii 139.23 . dā traig .x. ... a [sic leg.] fot fri dún its length towards the stockade (of the internal slope of an earthen rampart) Laws iv 336.23 . dā dúncladh ... ré dá taebh na clasach along both sides of the fosse CCath. 1747 . ní thurcaibh crand ... cét míle fria taebhaibh within a hundred miles from (lit. towards) its sides Marco P. 11 [cf. the temporal use IX (c)]. See also phrases s.v. agad, ais, enech, gnúis, sáil, taeb, ucht.

This use is regular in Old-Ir. in stating relative position: fri Grecia aniar ... fri Etáil anáir west of Greece ... east of Italy Wb. 6d17 . fri Alpai ndesiu (gl. cisalpina) Sg. 217b8 . frie anall ... frie desiu (gl. ultra ... citra) 71b1 , 2 . fri Ath F.D. desiu, TBC-I¹ 2183 . frie anechtair outside it Ml. 40c15 . fri Pardus amuich outside Paradise SR 111 . ra chuala sa fri hEmain andess I heard it (as I was) to the south of Emain LU 5056 . altoir fri dorus antuaid, SR 4261 [cf. la taeb ind rigthaige aniar, LL 3810 (30a) ]. a mmag fris anair the plain in front of him LL 122a33 . co ndechaid [in gai] triana chend ┐ co ro marb nónbur ris aníar behind him 121a21 . frit aniar, LU 4134 . is e a chorp in taitneamach rit anall the shining one opposite thee RC xxiv 60 . Also fig. : foscichret i crandchor ... fáicebthair Lugaid fris anechtair they will cast lots for it... L. will be left out of the chance RC xiii 444x ( LL 289b8 ). See also s.v. lám (fri l.).

It is doubtful whether: i mbae neach fri hopair immuig BB 362a21 (= Dinds. 20 ) is an instance of this construction; the literal meaning here is was anyone at a work outside ? The Rennes `amuig' is perhaps merely a late spelling.

After verb or vn.: tan turcbad E. a di láim fri Coimdid nime, SR 5085 . suidig do da laim fri ... clasp thy hands (in prayer) to ... 1606 . rosecroth a chend frisin slúag brandished his (severed) head at the host LU 5269 . crothad in chind frisin slóg, 5280 . donnochtat a mbruinni fris bared their bosoms to him 5199 . rochoraig fri tenid he arranged [them] before the fire RC xiii 6.21 . roscóraig gnúis fri gnúis (see gnúis) LU 2046 ( FA 12 ).

Cf. tuídhleach ind óir frisin ngréin the glistening of the gold against the sun BDD 1 . crand airgit ris tatin grían LU 3700 ( SCC 33 ).

(b) against (touching), alongside, down along by: doesetar ┐ a nglūne fri talmain, TBC-I¹ 3164 . éc fri hadart death against a pillow i.e. a natural death Lib. Hymn. i 62.72 (see adart). fri etnu dam ... bátár fedmand la firu Herend = [till then] the loads had been harnessed to the foreheads of the oxen LU 10816 (= Ériu xii 178 ). tennait a n-ette fria curpu press their wings against their sides LU 2281 ( FA 33 ). cf. doimmaircet ind eoin a n-ette friu ┐ a cossa can scibud ette ná cosse co tairic in precept the birds fold their wings, etc. LU 1361 . dosnimthasa i llai a broit fri a bruinde `gathered her to his bosom in the fleece of his cloak' Ériu xii 154y . co tard a druim frisin liic leaned his back against the stone LU 3284 ( SCC 8 ). dossleced fria thoeb he let them (i.e. his arms) fall to his sides SR 5091 = no thimoirced a lama fria thoeb, LB 124b29 (cf. LU 1361 above).

In local sense of attached to or pending from: úathroic ... cona cimais do banór fria having a fringe LU 6421 . beilge óir friu golden bits on them TBFr. § 3 . srian ... fria graig, LU 3649 . Cf. srian do thabairt fria thoil to bridle his passion PH 4990 (see srían). Cf. la I (a).

Here perhaps: i ngialnai fri fraigid in hostage-ship at the wall LU 7015 ; 7295 ( BDD 66 ; 94 ). (of the brazen serpent, Numbers xxi 9 :) turgabar fri crann ... uasin [t]slúag fri sirsellad let it be hung on a pole to be gazed at SR 4163 .

Cf. an carracc ard ar cuiretar ... an Tigerna da teilgen ría sís to cast him down from it Maund. 106 . tuitim sioss re beinn an ailt, Fl. Earls 86z .

(c) against (implying violence or hostility; cf. III e): rop saiget húan fri demnai, Hy i 20 . friu conuccaib ind oub, Hy v 54 . conéracht Glaiss Ch. friu the stream C. rose against them (= to bar the way) LU 5362 . Cf. conocbath in carpat fris ... ┐ concligtis ind h[e]ich fris the chariot would tilt up before him and the horses would spring at him Ériu vi 134.21 . bēim a cinn fri cloich, Ml. 139c3 . beim cind fri hall, LL 225b38 (see benaid). esarcain cind fri hallib, 176b33 . aiges (feras) in tond frisin mbruach, Anecd. i 12.19 (21) . cf. FB 44 , see fri. See also phrases with cúl, druim(m), lám).

(d) next to, at: folt dond fri toind a chind, folt croderg iar n-airmedon, LU 2564 . dond fri toind cind, 6542 . lene de sról ... i custul fri gelcnes ... dó, 6296 . léne ... sita fria gelchnes, 1810 . cona luirigh ... ria cnes ... ┐ lethan sciath fria gualaind, Stair Erc. 1243 . In this use frequent with ais, cnes, taeb.

II To express association, along with, beside (of local or mental relations, cf. V d): ní bí friu hi comasndeis it is not with them in apposition Sg. 212a5 . in tan mbís nihelas do .u. fri .g. when u is silent beside g, 6b11 . nobiad fri femen `it would be [used] with the feminine' 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them' 215a5 (cf. biit remsuidigthi ... cen briathra leo ib. 6). See also s.v. comṡuidigud. is tabarthi `bonum est' fri cechtar in da fersa so, Ml. 112d1 . cen tabairt anman trén fríu, 30a9 (see do-beir). ni bai crand dond indsi fri aroile (i.e. the walls were shattered) Anecd. i 2.5 . ar choibnius frisna comaccomla sa, Sg. 203a10 . in oentid fri Crist, Wb. 15a12 . ni ba suair[c] comlepaid no comaentu frissi, TBC-LL¹ 2079 (fris St) In: ni reid bith fris im longud no im ligi, LU 5957 , the meaning may be different; see atá (fri). toeb fri toeb ata in ri is Eocho F. side by side LU 2839 (see taeb). comaitecht re hairdrigh, ZCP viii 116.5 . méraid ra cách a chumne TBC-LL¹ 740 (here perhaps: meraid hua chlaind fri claind Ml. 100b4 ). is frit mo chairde `with Thee is my compact' Fél. Ep. 534 . (see cairde). iar corai fri I. after making a pact with I. SR 5946 . Cf. córe fri Dia, Wb. 2d16 . is core doib fribsi (gl. salutate invicem) 18b19 . bad chore dúib friu, 7b4 ; - 14 (`lit. let it be peace to you towards them' Thes., but the original meaning of córe points to `with' as the sense of the prep. here). Cf. also: biid pax libsi fri cách (gl. cum omnibus hominibus pacem habentes) 5d33 .

Here probably: isi no beired teora pōc fria cach copān ... dō, TBC-I¹ 2218 . Cf. further: hi cocetul fri Eman in unison with Hib. Min. 4.12 . do dlommad E. is A. ... fri gorta, SR 1419 . ara toimlid fri sid sain | toirthi Parduis, 1085 . taed as fri sidh ┐ fri subha `let him go ... in peace and happiness' AFM 979 .

In this sense with verbs of joining, connecting, also occasionally with verbs of motion and in nominal phrases, such as imma llé fri, immaróen fri, see s.v. , óen (cf. Ériu xiv 142 n . ) also cos, taeb.

In: crithnaigset ... immar bocsimin fri sruth the meaning of the prep. is doubtful. curtar a fuigill re sruth ┐ re fairgi `be the remnant cast out to be carried off by the sea-tide' O'Gr. Cat. 182w . Cf. perhaps: Drochet Atha do dhul re sruth `D. was carried away by the flood' ALC i 260.7 , though these may be exx. of the confusion of re (FRI) with le (LA). curcas fri sruth, FB 44 ; `against a stream' Strachan ZCP iii 419 . Cf. Ériu i 194.4 . See 1 téit and la I (d).

Passing into sense in addition to: tris fer friu (gl. te tertium) Sg. 2a5 . cethri chet bliadan ... a noe sechtmogat fri sein, Rawl. 68b31 ( ZCP iii 18 ). Cf. is fri ni dona salmaib dognid a figild, Mon. Tall. § 5 . fris sin moreover, besides , Leb. Gab.(i) i 88.1 . Hugh Roe 114.1 (f. 30b) . Cf. mod. freisin. For a special sense of with see Mon. Tall. cited under V (d).

III To express fig. direction (cf. V a);

(a) aim, purpose, freq. of function, specific purpose: cen nech dim chlaind frim foraithmet to preserve my memory Ml. 23d9 . ce notechtad ilgotha fri inchosc in mrechtraid sin `that it should possess many sounds to express that variety' Sg. 197a11 . ní fris arícht fri slond persine it was not for that it was invented, to signify person ib. (cf. cid arna airecht pronomen ... dia ṡlund, 198b3 ). in bríg frissa ndéntar a saithar sin the value for which that labour is performed Wb. 11a9 . am loor fri cach reit (gl. ego ... dedici, in quibus sum, sufficiens esse) 24b16 . altoir ... | fri loscud n-edpart an altar for burning [ = on which to burn] offerings SR 4162 . dá magh ... do ṡlaidhi ... co rabad do grés fri geilt do ceithrib ┐ fri trebad do daīnib, Ériu xii 150.6 . primepscop ... accu fri huirdned a n-oessa graid, fri coisecrad a n-eclas ┐ fri hanmchairdes do ḟlaithib, etc. Ériu i 218.2 . sechtmoga fer fria cobair to aid them SR 4196 . drong ngilla ... fri timthirecht, 6280 . ra ergitar ... dalemain fri dail, LL 173a27 ( CRR 13 ). mōr salm | fri hindarba plāg-tedmann, BColm. 70.8 . slóged hi crích ... fri indnaide slogid tairse a hosting into a country to delay a hosting (coming) across it Críth G. 511 . fergniae fri forngaire ndoirseo, 591 . In this sense perhaps in: fót fri haltóir, see 1 fót (d). pars de feoil fri foimtin terci as a precaution against scarcity Mon. Tall. § 12 . Here perhaps: dognith Saul intleda ... fri Duaid used to lay snares against D. Ml. 30a3 . techt do Roim ... fri foglaim n-ecnai, Trip.² 241 . roairis re sloind senchasa he remained to relate Ériu iv 152.6 [or remained relating ? See VI (a)]. cid frisi farcbad int id for what end the withe was left LU 4752 (= cid imma ndernad int id, TBC-LL¹ 597 ). cid frisindrolais in cloich why hast thou thrown the stone ? LU 5092 . o tancamair friss `since we have come for it' ( = for that purpose) Fél. 72.24 (cf. inní imo tainic ib. 30 ). co ndernur inní fris tánac LU 4347 . Cf. doluid Saul fri tāirsin David i fus, SR 5959 . lurech imme ... fri cathugud, SR 5757 . treb Leue ... immon eclais fria immarchur, 4883 . docúaidh B. frissan umaloitt sin gusin muilenn `on that service' BNnÉ 26 § 19 . téit féin re toisc ┐ re túrus a crichaib na hEspáine on business CCath. 1806 , cf. do chuaidh gach aon rea dtoisgibh ┐ rea dturasaibh féin, ML 26x (= le tosgaib fein, ML² 347 ). The follg. perhaps are elliptical: the idea represented is anticipating, forestalling: dogniad pars de feoil fre terci do t[h]ecmong = as a provision against the occurrence of scarcity Mon. Tall. § 12 . do na .u. gaiscedaib dec no bitís ... hi tegluch C. fri maidm n-airm no fri gabáil ngasced do neoch LU 5046 . Cf. Fél. Nov. 14 cited VI b.

(b) after adjs. in sense of Lat. gerund with ad or supine in -u: leiscc .i. fri fognam, Wb. 31b23 . conid mesc fria rim so that it is confusing to count it LU 4794 . ba gnim ṅdangen fri himluad, SR 7229 . ingnad fria innisin, LU 2074 ( FA 15 ). adhbal rea n-innisi prodigious to recount ZCP viii 204 § 26 . cenco beth ... and acht C. ba lór fri immarbaig, LL 107a19 ( Ériu iv 28 ). lia iná rúainne ... re n-áireamh, IGT, Decl. ex. 1201 . Cf. atait ... re a ttaispenadh go follus are plainly to be seen Fl. Earls 50.12 . In this use modern Irish has le (LA).

(c) to express direction of feelings; behaviour towards, after nouns or adjs., both of persons and things (cf. I a and V a): conroib deserc leu fri cách, Wb. 26d22 . fáilte fri noíbu, 7b2 (see fáilte). ar formut fribsi, 12c29 (see format and formtech). ropat ḟáilti frimsa, Fél. Dec. 18 (see fáilid). hissel fri hard, sleman fri garb, ZCP iii 447z . anmne fri fochaidi, 449.15 (see ainmne). mailli fri cloc slowness at (answering) the bell ib. 21 . dána fri tōla tromsluaig daring in face of an army SR 5778 . uair ná dernsam huimli fri forngaire, 1854 . ar gart friu for generosity to them ZCP viii 313.12 . créd nach frim atā a maithe ? why is not their bounty bestowed on me ? ACL iii 296 § 38 . ní ar maith friu it is not for their good Wb. 4b37 . ar ulc friu, Ml. 72b22 . tar aesi n-uilc huai[m] se friusom, 74a2 (see also s.v. maith, olc). bad chert do cluchi frim play fair with me LU 5228 . ar ngabáil bāide ... dō rena ardnaem having conceived affection for his high saint BCC § 12 . lére duit frí ríg ngréne ┐ réde fri doíni, Ériu i 193 . is buide linn frib (gl. rogamus vos) Wb. 25a39 (see 2 buide). is maith robai Dia rind, SR 1905 . ní maith ro mbátar frim they have not treated me well LU 4891 . Cf. is maith ro ngabus fritt, TBFr. § 11 . bad faitig frisin foirin sin (gl. observate eos) Wb. 24a23 (see faitech). bid cennuis a gnuis risin lucht ra-nadh (= frisndid) rathmar to whom he is gracious KMMisc. 156.124 . in maith frit menma ind airdríg whether the king is well-disposed to thee SR 6114 . ba fearr di frib menma bar mathar, RC xxiv 56 ( YBL 206a47 ). Cf. is beite duit menma fris `thou must take heed of him' Ériu xii 176.16 . Similarly in expressions like: do-gní maith (trócaire, etc.) fri (see do-gní). nech no comaildfed fir fer frimb uime RC xiii 29.6 .

(d) of prayer, etc. to: irnigde fri Dia, Wb. 4d18 . cf. abstanait fri Dia, PH 4988 . ro throiscset ... fri Dia im a ḟurtacht, 7258 (see troiscid). im aīne fri Dia cora faillsigthi dō ... fasting towards God, that ... might be revealed to him Ériu v 120.12 . Similarly: frit, a rí ..., mo dēr | conom thī ... Mīchēl, SR 2091 . co ndēraib frisin coimdid, PH 6292 . (cf. use with ad-teich). cossoít a thuaithe fri Dia, Wb. 5a23 (see cosaít). Here, perhaps, should come such expressions as the following: ar Christ frit, aithirigh pēin dam, Cáin Ad. 13 . ar do chubus riut, a ingen, crét tuc ort ?, Acall. 6012 . ar bar cubus rib..., crét..., 5476 . ar fir do chubais riut..., 5824 . cf. 4544 . ar t'ḟírinne riutsa, nā furáil, CCath. 1659 .

(e) of hostile feeling, attitude, conduct towards: fri aicned contrary to nature Wb. 2c25 . ba fri aicned ... in talam ... do indluch, Ml. 129d8 . frisin n-uall (gl. adversum inflationem mentis) 68c1 . trifar pecthu fri Dia through your sins against God 115b8 . Common after verbs of opposing, hindering, fighting: hóre nád comeicnigther nech fri toil no one is constrained against [his] will Wb. 28b1 . tuidecht fri toil Dé resistance to God's will 4c23 (see do-tét). cf. o dorala ... | frim thala mac I. | duit ... | niba céle SR 6014 , where opposition seems implied despite the similar phrase cited below under V (d). soud a gnuso fri nech frisa mbi ferc do (gl. ne auertas [faciem tuam] a me Ml. 47d8 (`to turn his countenance from one against whom he cherishes anger' Thes., but surely `fri nech' here must also mean either against ... or towards ... ? See soïd). fergach fris Fíadu, SR 6837 . iar ndebaid do fri Duid, 6994 . na cathaig frim do not contend with me 2877 . ni sirsan do Ch. a n-imned i tá a óenur fri firu Herend not happy for C is the trouble in which he is, alone against the men of E. LU 5995 . Cf. do thoitim fria Cu | ba dirsan sad that thou shouldst fall by [ = fighting against] C. (?) TBC-I¹ 2715 (see also III g). Mairg fris ticfa a ḟerg ... Mairg ticfa re cert, Fen. 200 (see do-icc). ar bruc fris `in displeasure at him' Mon. Tall. § 58 . namthi garga fri sluagh nA., ACL iii 297 § 55 . atat frim hi cotarsnai, SR 1520 . Cf. ni bia th'anim fri fugall | ind ríg hí laithiú brótho, Ériu i 196 § 13a . With adj.: cotarsne fri Dia, Wb. 26a18 . is torcda ┐ is díchéill notaí frim, LU 10831 (= Ériu xii 172 ). is bairnech mo menma frit, LU 10832 (= ib.). is tromda atai rim, RC vi 183.13 . olc roba rim, Ériu v 208.8 (see III c). Here perhaps: tromde ... ro buí frisim ind chaillech oc atach Dé, Mon. Tall. § 7 (= do bhí sí roliosda ar Dh., Rule of Tallaght § 41 ). But cf. VII below.

(f) To express protection, guard, defence, watch against: gabthe dūnad les fris, Ml. 55c1 . inna cathrach conrotacht la Duaid fri Ebustu, 48d27 . múr trén ... fri dóini, fri demnai, Fél. Ep. 152 . tocuiriur etrum ... inna huli nert so fri cech nert n-amnas in ..., Hy vii 49 . cor gabad Sinann friu the Shannon was held (defended) against them RC xviii 10.28 . gébtaít ar tír frind, LU 4634 (see gaibid). iadad Caisil frim eochu the closing of C. to my horses Anecd. iii 63.4 . cóir duit arechus ri siút, TBC-LL¹ 1280 (aire do tabairt fri ... St; see 1 aire). Dia lem fri cech snīomh, Ériu iv 236 . Crist credal fri demnaib, ACL iii 221.12 . dín ... re holcaib, ZCP viii 202.18 . Of limitation, boundary: nā bí crích la nech fri peccad that no one sets a limit to sin Ériu i 218.9 . Cf. samaiges crích fri aidchi, Hy ii 55 , corresp. to contra noctem terminum pones, Ardm. 8a1 . See also s.v. inillius.

(g) In elliptical sentt.: leic ... in fognam, ol se; ni lamaim, ol sī, frisin rigain = I dare not disobey the Queen RC xxiv 192 (but perh. FRI here = because of; see V b ). ro an ... ina aenar ru remained alone to oppose them ZCP vi 56.31 . rofetursa a n-as maith dúib fris I know a good way for you to deal with him LU 5934 . tarmairt mo Dia dil frisin tuaid ... a cor fo leittreib lethglenn = my dear God had well nigh (in His resentment) against them cast them down ... SR 4718 . Cf. lām fri idal to renounce idolatry SR 4845 (see lám).

IV

(a) after adjs. and nouns denoting resemblance or equality (esp. those compounded with com-) and vbs. of resembling or comparing: cosmil fri cethir (gl. animalis) Wb. 8b14 . cutrummus fri Dia, 17c8 . i cutrummus fribsi 17b14 . ɔodernain hi cutrummus frim cheliu `to do like my fellows' PCr. 2a2 . (pariter) fri, Sg. 77a2 . i tomus fri nech Wb. 17b11 . intamail ... fri nech, Ml. 22c1 . cen a chondelg fri nech, Sg. 42a6 . cosmaili tuisil `sui' fri tuisliu `ego' ┐ `tu', 200a12 . (similiter) fri, 203a5 . cf. (eandem significationem habens) .i. fri `cum', 218a1 . diatā oenḟolaid ... frissin Athair, PH 177 . ba cudruma re core mōr é, RC xviii 183 . ni caithedh acht coibeis fri gach manach he used to eat only as much as any other monk BNnÉ 300 § 3 . nir chumma nech ris im chath, Metr. Dinds. iv 344 . ru boí i comré ri Cormac, LL 3796 (30a) . i comhrē ris coeval with him Moling 4 . rogheanair i n-aenuair fria was born at the same time as she BB 406bz (= Dinds. 111 ). Cf. IX (b).

Replacing O. Ir. construction with equative: comdhub fri hec, Thr. Ir. Gl. 36 (prull) = duibidir éc, Corm. Y 1059 . Bodl. comard fri fid, Ériu iv 138.26 . meidithir fria hasal as big as an ass Marco P. 10 . corbo chomfota frisin sroin LU 6472 .

See also verbs and adjs. of comparison, e.g. 1 do-ella, samlaithir, in-samlathar; cosmail, 2 cutrummae, etc.

(b) to express difference, distinction from : frissaní immeraidtis (gl. longe aliud) Ml. 61c12 . sain fri .c. `different to c' Sg. 6b7 . do dechor fri praenomna aili, 28a13 . huare nád deligedar fri praenomen , 28a15 . do dechrugud persine fri alaili, 202a4 . is allail pronomen aní sin fri `sui' (gl. `is' aliud pronomen...) 209b10 . (differentia) fri, 213b15 , gl. contra 214b4 . Cf. nipo choím less frinn He was not dear to Him compared to us (?) Wb. 4b12 [Fraser l.c. suggests this rendering, ZCP viii 41 n . `in our case (?),' Thes.].

See s.v. 1 dechor, dechraigidir, deiligidir and other words of similar meaning.

V

(a) with respect to, with regard to (cf. III c) : is sain fri cath sain fri scor different for battle, different for unyoking (of trumpet-call) Wb. 12c46 . idain fri cach réit faithful as to 31c13 . cen chinaid n-uaim fri nech, Ml. 54d16 (see cin). nach é Dia is ciontach riú is to blame for them TSh. 10499 . as eola fri aidgne ind Athar, Wb. 19d9 . it maithi a arilti frib `He deserves well of you' (`literally good are his merits as to you' Thes.) Wb. 16c11 . airle Dé fri Herind, LL 49b13 ( Hail Brigit § 2 ). .iiii. seóit a dire ... is fechem is fiadnaisi friu `four seds are his `dire'-fine ... he is a suitor and witness for them' (i.e. he is liable to that extent) Laws iv 308.2 ( Críth G. 138 ). is amlaid in t-athair frisin mac ngor; ... nimtha in t-athair frisin mac n-ingor thus the father acts with regard to the dutiful son; ... not so with regard to the undutiful one Laws iii 56. 22 ; z 0 . ba fria as-breth: cruth cách co hÉtaín 'of her was it said, 'every woman is fair till compared with Étaín'' BDD 43-44 , Celtica xv 57 . 'fer hi lorcc so,' ol in fer deginuch fri Nero 'a man is following us,' said the last man with regard to Nera RC x 216.48 . conidh ed isberdís cách fris, Cóir Anm. ii § 150 .

Cf. further: crādiis Ultu fri Cethirnd guin Fécc the slaying of F. imbittered the U. against C., ZCP viii 305.32 . ferdha a cathuibh iat, ar is friu ronnaltadh oc imairecc fria geinnti, Marco P. 189 . ro alt ... ind ingen co digrais fri légend ┐ gaís, LL 279a47 ( SG 413 ). Possibly the last two exx. belong rather to III (a), also : is me is cintach fris ni he is cintach frim, BB 479b14 (see cintach). See also : a lleth fri, s.v. leth.

(b) on account of (cf. VI b) : ro lega in snechta ... fri meit brotha in miled, LU 5858 . ba lond F. friside (-suidi), RC xxvi 12 § ix . saeth mār fri luga dige great distress from [?] lack of drink Fianaig. 12 § 20 . cid mís no bheinn gun ríg thess | ro-fess ná bíad mo scís fris, ACL iii 304.20 . ní ḟaicim-si ... ni rís budh choir t'obadh for which it were right to refuse thee Ériu iii 154.5 . atchess ... na haīble tened ... uasachind re fiuchud na ferge, LU 6466 . ba mertnech Moisi fri hilchaingni ... fri orddugugd cāich fo mām, SR 4542 . batar toirsech fri Moisi, 3886 (in these two exx. fri = oc of prose LB 122a etc.). féimdid sim imt[h]echt fri scíss he cannot go on from weariness BColm. 94.16 . ni ro chotail C. fri himṡním, LB 274a55 . ni faict[h]e ise fri feidm a léiginn she used not be seen because of her duty of study ACL iii 308 VI 13 . Cf. la III a.

(c) on behalf of: aitchitt an C. ris comad he noberad, etc. they beseech the Lord for him that it might be he BColm. 98.15 . dogníther airnaigthi frisin ríg co nambed fot saegail do, MacCongl. 59.23 . ica cantain fria Cianoig chanting (a prayer) for C. ZCP vii 308.7 . Cf. also : ata mo briathar ┐ mo comairghi fria ar Tuatha D., Ériu xii 152.9 . o doratsat briathair fris, CCath. 1236 . in tī bes rí is fris beimmi, ZCP viii 316.3 . See do-beir, gell, and ráith.

(d) according to ; in agreement with, with pers. somet. = in obedience to: ni ni nach breith nā bi fri canoin cumtastar [sic leg.] no judgement is valid that is not framed according to the canon Corm. Y 1224 . cf. manib fri fasach fuirmider, Ériu xii 199.23 . fri mes airechta adrimter, Laws iv 298.25 ( Críth G. 22 ). fri saltair nogebad ... a salmu by the psalter (i.e. with the psalter before him), Mon. Tall. § 39 , cf. ni lugae mbis ind menme hisin cheill dia gabail ind tsailm de memur indas cid fri saltair ib.). fosernd clothri Connacht ... fri senchus ... fri buaid ┐ breatha in conformity with (the claims of) pedigree, with prowess and legal decision ZCP viii 108.10 = Ériu v 234 . bid som iarum fria toil (= they will be able to do as they like) Mon. Tall. § 35 (= go mbid ... aca ara ttoil fein, Rule of Tallaght § 35 ). fri tala ind rig ... domrala I am about the king's business SR 6187 (Rex praecepit mihi 1 Reg. xxi 2 ). cia ro delb fria thuil a ndath who coloured them to please himself (?) SR 7675 . For FRI TOIL in a different sense, see III (e). Cf. nitattorbi fri toil Dé (gl. non omnia expediunt 1 Corinth. x 22 ) `against God's will' Thes., Wb. 11b 17a . Also : ind tí dogní ní do maith fria menmain fadesin ... ar ind bo neoch gabti he who does a good thing in accordance with his own inclination ... should openly proclaim it Mon. Tall. § 21 (= chuirios ní maith ... do dheunamh uaidhe fein, Rule of Tallaght 71 ).

VI

(a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. vb. or equivalent = to be at, engaged in or about to engage in (some occupation, process ; cf. III a) : in tinscanfam .i. in biam fris (gl. incipimus ... commendare ?) Wb. 15a1 . ní uisse do mug Dae buith fri debuid to be at strife 30b26 . cf. ní bethe fria acre, 9c20 . ni piam fri aithirgi, 30b17 . ni biat som fria togais adi (= non fallacia ad quoscumque loquuntur) Ml. 31a17 . cechtar nathar fria saindān `each ... at his special art' Thes. ii 293.14 . feib donrala fri comrad, SR 1214 . indí ... bíte fri tnúith `those that are given to lust' Mon. Tall. § 11 . nebbuith fri éthech not to be lying Ériu ii 64 § 6 . céin bete fri soíthar while they shall be at work Fél. Ep. 298 . in tan natbi fri frestal na n-anmand when he is not attending to LB 110b43 (cf. SR 1199 ). ní mo chean ... tarrla re freastal ... na fairrgi sin, CF 42 . amail do beith se re goibhnecht ríam as if he had always been at smith's work BCC § 92 . na saoithe do bhí re seanchus, Keat. i 74 . cuirim suas don ghrádh, | ní fiú é bheith ris, Dánta Gr. xiv 3 . Cf. boí a ben fri idna in travail LU 105.86 (see 1 idu). Similarly without subst. vb. : nachitochthad fria choscc `let him not wear thee out in admonishing him' Wb. 31d11 . conus tarttsat fria ttoghairm chuca an lucht they set about calling the people Hugh Roe § 8 . Cf. airfitech re tetaib, ACL iii 223.23 (= Keat. ii 5358 ). dias fri cerdacht, SR 190 (perh. III a). dá mbeinn re héagnach `had I purposed to revile' Content. v 7 (cf. le hóradh bhriat[h]ar da mbeinn, Ó Héodhusa 4 ). In class. lang. `re' is used with vn. to express futurity : an chathair atá ré teacht ( = civitatem futuram) TSh. 2751 . i n-oirchill na n-olc bhíos ré tuirling orra, 532 .

(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on or from which something takes place (some of the exx. could be explained as extensions of other uses (cf. V b ; IX a) ; often the construction is elliptical) : gaibed cach a greimm ... | fria brethir in primsacairt, SR 4400 . ba huisse soillse fri éitsecht na noeb at the death Hy ii 60 . Cf. co mbidis i nd-aenmaigin fria n-ég, Corm. Y 1233 (fri héc LB. ria n-ec LL 179b ). fri gein Críst ... tindscan lechsa léri, Fél. Nov. 14 (cf. III a). ro eirgis fri breithir Isu, PH 2780 . ret[h]it daim ... ri dorddan na damgaire, Ériu vii 2 § 1 . phreab as G. risan gair, Ériu i 18.33 . ac cantain cheóil ... fris coteltais Síl Adaim, LL 3305 ( Ériu xiv 156 ).

VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion of (cf. similar use of Lat. apud, and see la) : ni cumdabairt fri Cirine is tre metur Jerome does not doubt Hib. Min. 6.187 . nad maith fri C. ciasperthar ..., 7.235 . frithir frisin mac i n-ebras riss, Ériu vii 225 ( LL 209a16 ). ba bind fri cach na canaind, LU 1301 (`sweet to all was what I said' Imr. Brain ii 298 . But this may be ex. of : canaid fri). bid inmain fria cách a ainm loved of all PH 4299 . ba hingnad mor frisin popul sin, 2959 . ba mo a grad fri Gargán oldait a uli cethra G. loved him more than all his cattle 7178 . Cf. Mon. Tall. § 7 cited under III (e) where the meaning seems different. gurbh annsa ré hEóin Críost ioná ré Peadar Christ was dearer to John than to Peter TSh. 10327 .

VIII

(a) to denote agent (a late use, mostly in texts in artificial style). ar na bennughadh fri sanctuss Silvester consecrated by Fl. Earls 196.19 . laech ... frisimbia mo thiglecht (= who will cause my death) Metr. Dinds. iv 360 (but perh. this is ellipt. and belongs to III (e) ; cf. TBC2 cited there). romarbtha na maithe ... frisna crechairib LB 154a63 . in lucht frisa tucad in digal .i. Uespiam ┐ Titus ib. 16 . Constantiana ... .i. eclas rocúmdaiged fri Constantin 157b48 . Of parenthood : trī meic Medba fri Fergus, Corp. Gen. 279.33 . sē meic do Mīlidh fri Scota ┐ dā mac frisin nEspānaig 'Míl had six sons of Scota, and two sons of the Spanish woman', ITS xliv 64 § 424 . do chomthusmed clainni fri hA. to have children by A., Alex. 512 .

(b) to denote instrument, through, by means of, by dint of (cf. similar uses of Engl. `with') : sénais Brigit fria bachaill with her crozier Hy v 58 T = lia F. fria noebainm ... séntae cech slóg subach by [or at ?] his holy name every happy host was sained Fél. Prol. 99 . ícaid [Tipra C.] gallrae ... fri troscud aici, BColm. 52.15 . argain fri daigid (destroying by fire LL 107a21 ( Ériu iv 28 ), cf. multi nobiles ceciderunt ... fri daigidh ro horta uile, AU 900 (see RIA Dict. s.v. daig). go nach deachaidh neach re siúbhal ... as no one escaped by flight ML 88.31 . re dán nglas ... dán breaghdha do bhréagnachadh with a simple poem to refute an elaborate one Content. vii 13 . ro ēirigh fri nert seoin ┐ solaid, Moling § 4 (possibly = with here cf. dol ar fairrge ... ré cóir na gaoithe = with a favourable wind ML 36z = le ML² 466 . cuir me ... chum seoil ... re cóir ghloin, Measgra D. 48.16 ).

IX In expressions of time :—

(a) in O. Ir. in locatival sense in phrase : fri dē by day, in the day-time Ml. 121d8 . Wb. 6a30 . fri dei, 9a5 , 24d14 , 26b17 . Cf. in gabail fri dei ... in gabail cech ráithi a catch (of fish) daily (?) Trip. 250.14 (2950) . fri díe, Mon. Tall. § 55 . fri haidchi by night Trip. 208.25 (2452) . gl. contra noctem Lat. Lives 18 . re lá, Ériu iii 148 § 3 . arna imbreth ... i n-aidchi cía nosgonad fri dé, LU 5609 .

(b) usually to denote period during which something continues or takes place : 'na fuair frisna secht ṁbliadnaib SR 3394 . fri a n-aimsir in their time Laws iv 210.28 . niro chotail C. frisin ré sin, LU 6337 . fria ré hi fut a saegail for their lifetime SR 5932 . bai cocad mor etarro fri re ciana RC xxiv 186 . batar ... fri re secht la amlaid sin, ACL iii 225.1 . conosrala for sechrán fri re bliadna co lleith, LU 1279 . bá-sa i Tul T. fri ré inna dílenn, Ériu iv 144y . maith graig dorat damh rem lá in my day ACL iii 304.23 . D. ba talchar fria ré in his day Metr. Dinds. ii 40 . dorumaltsa ... m'aimsir fri hamsir Nemid, LU 1276 . nir siubhuil in conuir-so re bliadhain aenridiri for a year past ZCP vi 104 z.

(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place : ni ba marb-sa fri sin I shall not die before that ZCP i 105.4 (co sin v.l.). Cf. also the locative use in Marco P. 11 cited I (a). tanic ... uidi na .xii. mís fri .xii. laa made the twelve months' journey in twelve days LB 139a31 . icuis fri teorai nomaidhe within thrice nine days RC xii 66x . nos ithend ... friha brathad sula in the twinkling of an eye LU 1895 ( RC x 56 ; fri b. v.l.) do imredar ... re trí lá, ┐ ní ruc G. énchluichi rissin, Acall. 1348 .

(d) of point of time ; in some cases approaching VI (b) above. fri dead n-aissi, SR 2829 . in tan nadbi fri húair i fos | frithalmi when he is not here at the hour of attending ... 1199 (cf. LB 110b43 cited under VI (a) above). cech dūil ... rosdelb fri oenuair, SR 7864 (similarly 7234 , 7386 ). grend Muman ... grend Connacht ... ra hóen-úair at the same time Ériu i 130.36 ( LL 46b ). buaidh ... damh fri deiredh mo ṡaoghail, ACL iii 231.1 . ra dered flatha Domnaill, LL 185a48 ( Arch. Hib. ii 85 ) = Rawl. 154a52 . Rí dorat na deich plāga | forthu fri huair combāga, SR 3942 . ? cid fri geld bāis nobeth `though he were at the point of death.' Mon. Tall. § 48 (see gell). re húair nfaicsiona at the time of looking RC xxix 128.13 . fri huair tacrai do ghníma, Ériu ii 228.7 .

(e) in follg. exx. perhaps used for ria before: na buidne ... robatar fria Crist...rofhogain don Choimdid fria tuidecht soscela (= turbae quae praecedebant ... ante evangelium) PH 4573 . dorad som a cuibidil fria mbass made his confession before death RC xviii 53.19 . Cf. co ro muid fri maccu Israel, LB 122b47 = re, YBL 293b40 (corresp. to mebaid remib SR 4765 ).

(f) In later lang., 3 s. ris occurs as adv. bare, exposed, uncovered : mar do leig ris a n-aoinfheacht 'how it left [her] uncovered at once' Duan. F. ii 332 § 9 , Éigse ix 228 . do theilg Ercuill a bhrat de ┐ ro leig a lorg ┐ in croicenn leomainn ro buí re cnes ris, ITS xxxviii 997 (Stair Ercuil) . chonarcadar a ccroicinn go coirtighthi buídhe ris, Smaointe B. Chr. 150 . ó bhí mo chroiceann-sa nochtuighthe síos reis, 160 . cia d’innis doit-se a bheith nochtuighthe síos reis (leis, v.l.), 161 . See also la VI (d), léicid.

X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs (and nouns of cognate meaning with them), e.g., those of speaking, addressing, boasting, complaining, asking, thanking ; meeting, touching, striking, rubbing, grinding ; listening ; waiting, expecting ; entrusting ; co-operating, associating, helping ; visiting ; resembling, comparing, differing ; parting, severing (from) ; doing (something to), acting (towards), giving, distributing, apportioning ; requiting, paying, selling ; refusing, rejecting, denying ; hindering, restricting, opposing, combating, etc. See especially : ad-cosnai, ad-gair, ad-teich, ad-tluichethar (attlugud), aigid, 1 anaid, ar-báigi, as-beir, benaid, beirid, 1 caithid, canaid, 1 cingid, comalnaithir, 1 con-clich, con-delca, con-gní, con-ricc, con-sní, con-túaisi, crenaid, dálaid, dlomaid, do-beir, do-gní, do-icc, do-rogaib, do-slí (tuillem buide fri), do-sluindi (diúltad), do-tét, dúnaid, 2 erbaid, fáiltigid(ir), feraid, fo-gella (2 fuiglid), fo-rig, fris-oirg, fris-tairissethar, fris-taít, gaibid (fris-gaib), gellaid, íadaid, 1 íccaid, imm-beir, imm-fogni, imm-fresna, in-samlathar, in-túaisi (éistid), labraithir (labraid), laigid, 1 ligid, lingid, 1 luigid, meilid (con-meil), naiscid, ráidid (ol, ar), rannaid, renaid, saethraigidir, scaraid (and compds.), soïd (do-soí), 1 téit, tongaid.

1 imrind

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 imrind or dil.ie/28048
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: háithimrind

(a) n (1 rind) object having many points : dáiní conígí a n-imlind on imlendaibh sis arsein i.¤ bís ara cosaibh (of the descendants of Ham), BB 8a19 . na himir imrindi form, IT ii2 244.37 .

(b) a promontory, headland: ainm dí Libia on gáeith grind | na da-sitlend co himrinn `its name of Libia [comes] from the pleasant brook which trickles to the headland,' PRIA 1879-1888, p. 238.11 v.l. = LL 135b48 .

(c) Seems to be used here of an abstract quality : Aedh Donn mac Ferghusa Finn | ri Uladh gusan imrinn of great keenness ? Acall. 1049.

(d) Used attrib. (indeclinable; see imrinde) having many points: as a personal epithet : rosiacht Aicil i.¤ ilcrechtnaigte i mbeataid docum na scor transfixed with pointed objects ?, BB 439b30 . Dál nAraide nuasal n-i.¤ very keen ?, Arch. Hib. i 361.7 . la fíanlaech nuabrech n-i.¤ , LL 276b14 . trī coecait fer n-imrind dō, dā gae for cach crunn leu, TBC-I¹ 2895 . Of an object: tricha cēt carpat nimrinn `chariots armed with two scythes' (Plummer MS. notes), TBC-I¹ 337 ; 'jantés' Études Celt. xxii 217-18 . os cind Conain Find | in errid alaind imrind, MR 78.6 . deich céd ... slegh n-imrinn ffoda with points on all sides, Ériu viii 136.7 . rechmi cath n-i.¤ n-imda n-imamnas, LU 3423. forácaib in n-ag n-i.¤ , LL 376a42 . Of a place promontoried ? : genfid i n-inis iar nglind | rofestar Ériu i.¤ , Metr. Dinds. iv 304.28 . céin mharus Ériu i.¤ , ZCP xii 391.19 . go hEamain i.¤ (B. na f.), ZCP v 488 § 8.

As adv. ath fostada Féinde Finn | adér rib co háithimrind , Acall. 4980.

rib

Cite this: eDIL s.v. rib or dil.ie/35248
Last Revised: 2019

 

n a snare (spring) of some kind: paintéar, dul, eangach, Eg. Gl. 516 . Goill co mín ó a chéim cagaidh | a ngéill 'gun rígh 'na ribibh 'the Foreigners are tamed by his war initiative; the king has their hostages in fetters', Giolla Brighde 92 § 38 . rib 'snare', FGB .

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