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ar-icc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ar-icc or dil.ie/4161

 

Forms: ar-icc, -airicc, -airic, -airicc, arrecat, -arget, arecar, -airecar, aranecatar, arrecaiter, -ierichter, -arí, -airi, -airsead, arisar, aranísar, arahīssed, -airsitis, arista, aristae, -airesta, arricfam, ar(r)icfe, arricfa, araanic, -airnicc, -fairnic, -farnaic, -airnettar, -airnechtatar, -fairnechtar, arícht, -airecht, airicta, arriachta, airged, arath, -airg[f]e, fuircéba, furcéba, -fargebasu, -arnecair, arriacht, ariacht, arerāncatar, -airnecht, arrancas, airnechta, air(i)cid, aircestar, airic, ḟairig, airich, hairced, hairged, airec, airechtain

v (* air-icc-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 552 ). Sometimes with initial f in prot. forms. Indic. pres. 3 s. ar-icc, BDD² 1306 . -airicc, Wb. 9b24 . -airic, 19b2 . -airicc, Sg. 137b4 . 3 pl. arrecat, LU 1746 . -arget, LL 344d47 . Pass. sg. arecar, Sg. 59a7 . 66b16 . 137b2 . 145b3 . -airecar, 20a9 , 145b3 , 162a1 , 173b6 . Pl. aranecatar, Sg. 8a5 , 65a11 . Ml. 19d21 . arrecaiter, Hib. Min. 2.30 . ? -ierichter, IT iii 24.23 . Subj. pres. 3 s. -arí, -airi, Ml. 30d24 . ? 3 pl. -airsead (= airset), Laws iv 130.13 Comm. Pass. sg. arisar, Ml. 30d23 . aranísar, Sg. 209b13 . Subj. impf. 3 s. arahīssed, Corm. Y 825 . 3 pl. -airsitis, Vita Br. 1 . Pass. sg. arista, Sg. 184b3 . aristae, Ml. 110d6 . -airesta, Ériu ii 98 § 1 . Fut. 1 s. arricfam (aricfam, ar(r)icfe v.ll.), Fél. Dec. 30 . 3 s. arricfa, LU 7343 . Pret. and perf. 3 s. araanic, Sg. 217a4 . -airnicc, Trip.² 1257 . -fairnic, Anecd. iii 57.27 . -farnaic, SR 3736 . 3 pl. -airnettar (read -airnectar, Sarauw, Irske Studier 139 ), Ml. 108c8 . -airnechtatar (airnecht— v.l.), Trip.² 1110 . -fairnechtar, LL 276b3 . Pass. sg. arícht, Sg. 197a11 . -airecht, 198b3 . Pl. airicta, Hib. Min. 8.265 . arriachta, Auraic. 1110 .

Later forms. ? Ipv. 2 s. air .i. éirigh, O'Cl. ? 3 s. airged (= eirged, text), RC xxi 380.14 v.l. ? Subj. 3 s. arath, LL 394.56 . Fut. 2 s. (forms with -éb- are due to infl. of fut. of gaibid): -airg[f]e, TBC-LL¹ 854 ( -fuaircifesa, TBC-I¹ 354 = fuircéba, LU 4843 = furcéba, ZCP ix 129.36 , included under fo-ricc ). 1 pl. -airg[f]em, TBC-LL¹ 849 (cf. -fairgēbasu, TBC-I¹ 349 . LU 4838 . -fargebasu, ZCP ix 129.30 ). Pret. and perf. 3 s. -arnecair, TBC-LL¹ 2983 . ? arriacht, RC xii 80 § 74 . ariacht, xxiv 178.7 (infl. of ar-saig?). 3 pl. arerāncatar, ZCP viii 308.34 . Pass. sg. -airnecht, Thes. ii 348.1 , SR 2705 (see GOI p. 440 ). arrancas, SR 1249 . Pl. airnechta, Hib. Min. 8.262 .

As simple vb. air(i)cid. pret. 3 s. ro aircestar , CCath. 993 . ro airic , ZCP iv 239.12 . ro ḟairig , 240.2 . ro airich , RC xii 96 § 125 . Pass. sg. ro hairced , TTr.² 368 . ro hairged , RC xii 78 § 69 .

Vn. airec, airechtain.

(a) comes upon, meets, finds: issed inso nad chumaing aranísar and `'tis this which cannot be found there', Sg. 209b13 . inmain féil . . . / i ṅairecht . . . / corpán . . . S. `in which the body of S. was found', Fél. Aug. 3 . co n-airesta ┐ co fogabtha set bethad `might be ascertained', Ériu ii 98 § 1 . ferr in cosmail caol fodae / dūs in airsed (airsidh v.l.) ecc occa in the expectation that he might meet death there(?), ZCP vii 311 § 15 . ní arnic A. a dáil A. did not keep his tryst, LU 10767 (= Ériu xii 170 , fairnicc v.l.). is hé arddaánaic acht .u. oss arránic in slóg ule díib it is he who got them except five deer which the rest of the army got, LU 4660 ( TBC-I¹ 197 ). arránic-som . . . maiss n-óir, Trip.² 1057 . arrecat abaind they meet a river, LU 1746 . Ceasair . . . cetna arriocht (.i. rainicc) Éri reached, Leb. Gab.(i) 8.3 . deda airegar ann, BB 323b33 . arrecaiter . . . da gne for suidiu, IT iii 8 § 8 . ? tenecol nach traigedhdubh / airegar i n-airegal, 89 § 110 . ind inchinnib dracon arrecar (of a precious stone), Ériu ii 116 § 46 . aranic rainn de o . . . some of it he got from . . ., ZCP ii 322.11 . fer laisi fuirecar set . . . .i. ac a nairgither, Laws v 262.23 Comm. na bésa arichta on maighister, Lism. L. 3961 . a tri on airecur tol Dé, LB 71 marg. is Dala fodessin ros airnecht dó `D. himself that discovered it for him', Dinds. 58 ( RC xv 454 ).

Perh. intrans. in: cia arránic? what has happened? LU 6363 (TBC). Note also: ni arnecair úad a rádha acht Fiach Fiach (ni tairnic les do rada acht F.F. v.l.) all he could say was F.F., TBC-LL¹ 2983 (cf. 645 , 2071 ). See cíar(r)icc.

(b) effects, contrives, brings to pass (freq. with vn. obj.): ní airic ní césad crist gl. Christus gratis mortuus est, Wb. 19b2 . ar-icc arechtain cacha himdae . . . di lind he contrives to serve each bed(?), BDD² 1306 . nuchun airrecht in druí mór nimthathand a tuarascbáil do thabairt ó sin immach, MU² 785 and n . is amlaid so arricht compert Bresi `came to pass', RC xii 60.7 . ? co n-airnecht a (om. v.l.) inndliged friss he was treated unjustly(?) (con-airicc ?), Anecd. ii 42.7 .

(c) devises; composes, invents: aire arrancas in crann ṅgúr (hypermetr.) for this the tree was devised, SR 1249 . lais cetna airnecht in sain . . ., 2705 . coimsid . . . las' n-airnecht a n-ōenach n-ān `the lord . . . by whom was established the famous Fair', Ériu xvii 38 § 8 . A.¤ Mac Coissi arainic in n-airec menman-sa, Anecd. ii 42.4 . is e Cendfaelad arainig in lebar-sa who composed this book, Auraic. 81 . Of inventing an implement: resiu arista brao `before a quern was invented', Sg. 184b3 . F. . . . cruisech la gae inhEire ise roairnecht, Rawl. 143a52 . is leis ariact carpaid cetra n-each, BB 254b13 .

(d) decides on, purposes: is i comarli arranic, LU 6143 (TBC). issi comuirle arriacht Nuadha `the decision to which N. came', RC xii 80 § 74 . conadh i comhairle arriacht lá cleirchibh Éireann, AFM ii 952.11 . conid e aireacc arrainicc leo corbmac . . . dfaoidhedh, iii 320.6 . issed tra arrícht occo and sin im dála dilgotha that was what was decided by them, LU 9783 ( RC vi 165.6 ). is ed arrícht leo Eochaid do marbad, Ériu xii 190.17 .

árrachtu

Cite this: eDIL s.v. árrachtu or dil.ie/4254

 

(d s.) vn. formation with *ad-ro-, verbal root uncertain; -icc, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 556 ; none posited, GOI p. 496 . anadránic, TBC-I¹ 1802 = a nad ránic, LU 6304 is a possible but doubtful ex. of a verb ad-ricc . Cf. ad-reith, ar-reith? is do á.¤ grene `to overtake the sun', Thes. ii 32.29 . fri arrachtin gréne, 33.22 .

cenéle

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cenéle or dil.ie/8605

 

n io, n. (cenél)

(a) a c.¤ ndóine the human race : hoa rícc dia á cenele ṅdoine, Wb. 5c16 . rún ícce in cheneli dóine, 21c22 . ind huili ceneli doine `of the whole race of men', Ml. 81d1 . ic cenele doine `salvation of the human race', Blathm. 105 . anmain in cheneli doine, Ériu vii 152.19 .

(b) In tribal names: trī tellaige tra cenēle Binnig Glinni, ZCP viii 297.15 .

(c) sort, kind, type (freq. with prec. cach): filus trechenelæ martre, Thes. ii 246.27 (Cambr.). cech c.¤ cosnama `every kind of strife', Wb. 6b1 . do cach cenéolu aṅglaine . . . do cach ceneoli (sic) cloine, 3b24 - 5 . cenelae ciuil inso, Ml. 2b14 . forsa cenélae metir sin, Sg. 8a13 . cenelæ n-etha, 64a9 . ceinelae liac gl. abaddir, Études Celt. xi 117 . c.¤ n-imberta gaiscid, Fraech 215 . Of animals: cenelae nathrach gl. `nepai' pro `nepae', Sg. 114b4 . ainm do cheneliu éisc, Corm. Bodl. s.v. lethech .

cíar(r)icc, cer(r))icc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cíar(r)icc, cer(r))icc or dil.ie/9018

 

Forms: ciaricc, cearice, cericc, ciaric, ciarric, ciarric

(prob. 1 cía + ro-icc, but cf. Wb. 9b24 cited below) lit. to what does it come? GOI § 458 . In O. Ir. Glosses usually as isolated gloss on Lat. quid? quid ergo? quid igitur? as indep. interr. or in meanings what? why? etc. : ar cia ricc gl. quid enim si quidam? Wb. 2a5 . ciaricc gl. quid ergo (dicemus)? 3a11 . cearice gl. quid ergo? 3b13 . cericc praeponit gl. quid ergo? 3c18 . ciarricc .i. ní airicc ní gl. quid enim mihi de his qui foris sunt iudicare? 9b24 . ciaric (altered to cidric in MS.) gl. quid (disrumpamus)? Ml. 16d1 . ciarric gl. quid? quod non . . ., 18a9 . ciarric gl. quid? 67b21 . cerricc gl. quid igitur . . . ? Sg. 199b12 . ceric cati dechoir?, Hib. Min. 17.5 = ceist caiti? 8.264 .

comairnec-, comairs-

Cite this: eDIL s.v. comairnec-, comairs- or dil.ie/10673

 

x see con-ricc .

1 comrac

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 comrac or dil.ie/11625
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: comrag

n o (on gender see GOI 448 . Cf. comrag mbairdne, O'Curry 2773 from Eg. 88, 82b ). Vn. of con-ricc . comrag m., IGT Decl. § 11 (54.18) , Verbs § 65 . With final -g in class. verse, in other late texts often with -c (cf. s.v. do-icc). (act of) meeting: encounter; freq. in military contexts battle, fight: a chomraicsom frisaul `of his encounter with S.', Ml. 75a1 , a chomraicsom ┐ Saul, 6a . c.¤ (cobrac, MS.), Thes. ii 237.10 . iar comruc ind crontsale frisind laim `after the spittle touches the hand', Mon. Tall. § 38 . c.¤ a thoíb ri talmain, Metr. Dinds. iv 38.40 . comrug gen curu bel ` combat ', Laws iv 32.4 (of single combat for the purpose of enforcing a claim). derged comraig nad fornastar, v 476.24 cf. c.¤ .i. tobhach, O'Dav. 364 . airligud seoit fris' tabair nemed c.¤ i n-airliccud ` opposition ', Laws v 372.2 . in comruc comarleicti `pitched battle', 148.13 Comm. in c.¤ tulla `sudden collision', iii 254.18 Comm. do chomroc fri fer, LU 5081 (TBC). tri .xx. crand / comraic (leg. comrac ?) nad chomraic a mbarr whose tops all but touch, 3703 ( SCC 33 ). fo-cheird in colcc ndét sin a n-airde co tuit for cenn ind fir . . ., c.¤ nat comraic fris without actually touching him, TBC St. 4458 . A. . . . ba cruaid comhroig (: goid), BB 59a47 . dorala in cath ina comracaib `the battle fell into duels', TTebe 2828 . do chomrag . . . ┐ do chomhdhluthugadh a g-cairdeasa `to unite', MR 96.10 . In religious context: comhrag dá bhall ríogh sa rathoigh meeting (of Christ and the Father), Aithd. D. 70.21 . siati co ticc mo chomrag 'it will be the longer until my meeting comes' (of the soul and Christ) Éigse xxix 172 . With qualifier: cen ch.¤ n-oenḟir single combat, TBC-LL¹ 1232 . c.¤ fir re fer, ML² 1870 . re coimríac[h]tain dúin c.¤ n-immairic `before we met in conflict', TBC-LL² 3418 . a comruc deisi in single combat, Aen. 2288 . Attrib. g s. re comraic `a battle ', Laws v 300.26 . a chath-eirred . . . comraic, CRR 34 . re dliged comraic, O'Curry 1772 ( 23 Q 6, 37 b ). a chéile comhruig, IGT Decl. ex. 590 . ag fuireach ret fhear gcomhruig (: dhuid) adversary , Aithd. D. 8.37 . For cáer chomraic see cáer (d). With vbs. see do-beir, do-gní, feraid, fris-gair, fúacair.

Of legal confrontation : do-beir in fer ada-gair comrac forsin mil sin co tét i lláim gabálae 'the man who brings a claim against them causes a confrontation over that honey so that it [the honey] passes by forcible seizure', Bechbretha 186 (e) ​.

Of sexual relations : ba coindme a c.¤ (of Cú Chulainn and Findabair), LU 6060 (TBC). iar c.¤ dó . . . frisin mnaí, LL 35728 . is hē mac ruccad and din chomruc sin, ZCP viii 309.13 . c.¤ ar eiccin re mnaei H. `to rape', CCath. 3845 .

Of seas, territories, roads, etc.: comruc na n-ilmuire where many seas meet, Corm. Y 323 (of Coire Brecain) = c.¤ na n-ilmuiri aniar ┐ anair, Dinds. 145 . i comracc da ferund border, BB 253b8 . a comrag Allban ┐ Saxan, Ann. Inisf. 1307.1 . do ch.¤ in dá ríg-lind `meeting of the two royal streams', Metr. Dinds. iii 32.78 . for comruc teora sliged, LL 36387 ( RC viii 154 § 4 ). comhrac `a corner, a meeting of two ways', Eg. Gl. 200 .

Other applications: a c.¤ an chathbha[i]rr ┐ na caemhlúirighi, CF² 185 . a ccomhrac a chinn ┐ a ramhar an mhuiníl `base of the head', Ériu viii 139.26 . hi cc.¤ chorráin a gheill ┐ uachtair a bhraghat, AFM vi 2114.y . a comrug da rand bis in gach aisde acht an debhidhe sgailte ┐ a comrag da leathrand bhis inti sen (of fault called ráen) between two quatrains . . . two couplets, IGT Met. Faults 72 . a comhrac an lae ┐ na hoidhche at twilight, Atlantis iv 168.23 .

comraicid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. comraicid or dil.ie/11634

 

x see con-ricc .

comraicthe

Cite this: eDIL s.v. comraicthe or dil.ie/11635

 

n (cf. 1 comrac) encounter, battle, contest : ? lainne a chuaird corcorgemmach / cáera crethir c.¤ / congaib ar dreich ndendmaisse, LU 7402 ( BDD 100 ). co ruccai calca crúaidae comraicthi Ulad, 8311 ( FB 23 ). na banaitir fergnúsi / i ccruadaib comraicthib in hard battles(?), LU 8427 ( FB 29 ). ? hit ilchomraicib (perh. leg. hi t.), 3495 ( SCC 26 ). ger'ba cairdemail . . . in comraicti (comann, v.l.) sin `meeting', CCath. 2441 . girbo chomraicthi dá ṡubach sámach, TBC-LL² 3238 . c.¤ flatha, LL 38536 . a catha ┐ a comruigthi encounters, IT iii 199.14 . Perh. a Part. formation from con-ricc .

comríachtain

Cite this: eDIL s.v. comríachtain or dil.ie/11665
Last Revised: 2013

 

Forms: -ríchtain, -rochtain

n (ríachtain). Also -ríchtain. -rochtain, Leb. Gab.(i) 128 n. 8 . Cf. con-ricc . act of meeting, encountering; meeting, encounter : fogur . . . na fial sin oc c.¤ , LU 2068 ( FA 14 ). re coimríac[h]tain dúin comrac n-immairic to meet in battle, TBC-LL² 3418 . ar comriachtuin doib dochum troda, ALC i 570.6 . Of sexual intercourse: cinnas . . . nachar chomtig dun díb línaib comrichtain (Cú Chulainn to Emer), LU 10317 . ni fognunn . . . saothar, na coimriachtain, Rosa Angl. 44.22 . gradugud na coimriachtana. Ériu ix 64.28 . gan coimhriachtain ré fear, Ó Héodhusa 48.4 . comriachtain (lanamnus, v.l.), Ériu x 146 § 3 . Note also: betit debtha . . . im chomríchtain tossaig nó derid `as to who shall lead the van . . .', TBC-LL² 228 . fri comrīachtain friss to be equal to it (a gastronomic feat), MacCongl. 75.13 .

condrecat

Cite this: eDIL s.v. condrecat or dil.ie/12085

 

x see con-ricc .

con-ricc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. con-ricc or dil.ie/12269

 

Forms: -comraic, -comairset, -comraicf-, cotricim, condrigei, conricc, condric, contric, -comraic, condregar, conrecat, condrecat, cotrecat, cotregat, cotrecat, -chomrucat, -comraicet, -comraiged, -chomraiced, conrictís, -comhris, cotrīs, -comris, -comrís, -coimrís, -coimris, cotri, cotrí, -[co]muir, -comair, conrisar, ce chotriastar, -coimristar, condrísam, cotríssam, -comairsem, conrisaidh, conríset, -comairset, con-rīsainn, -comrasta, -comairsed, -comuirsedh, condrístá, conrīsta, condrísmaís, condrístais, -comairsitis, -comarsatis, condricub, -chomraiciub, -chomraicfe, con-ricfa, -comricfea, conricfum, -comraicfem, -chomraicfem, condricfat, -comraicfét, comraicfead, -comraicfed, comhraicfedh, -comroicfed, conricfaidis, -comraicfidis, conrangus, conranaic, cond-rānic, cotránicc, coṅarnaic, conarnic, -comairnaic, -comairnig, -comarnic, -ccomhairnig, -comfarnaic, -comḟarnaig, -chomranic, cotráncammár, conarnecmar, -cumairnecmar, -comairnecmar, -comracamar, conráncatar, cond-rancatar, connairnechtatar, -comairnectar, -comarnachtur, comarnectár, comairneachtair, -comarnecgetar, -comrancadar, -comrancatar, comraic(c)id, comríachtain, comraicthe

v (* com-ro-icc-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 556 ). In saga-texts etc. v. freq. with neut. inf. pron. (see BDD2 Gloss.) in deut. forms. Deut. and prot. forms influence each other in pret. and perf., and indic. pres. 3 s. prot. -comraic tends to spread as general stem (e.g. -comraicet for -comaircet with syncope and secondary vowel, cf. subj. pres. 3 p. -comairset), the prot. stem of fut. and condit. always being -comraicf-. Indic. pres. 1 s. cotricim, LU 4929 (TBC). 2 s. condrigei, RC v 203.9 . 3 s. conricc, Wb. 7d9 . condric, LU 5165 (TBC). ZCP viii 301.31 . contric, LU 1527 ( MU² 1029 ). -comraic, Ml. 48d2 . Metr. Dinds. iii 168.6 . Pass. condregar, ZCP xiii 178.21 . 3 p. conrecat, Fél. June 10 . condrecat, LU 5885 . 5826 (TBC). LL 37144 . ZCP viii 334.12 . cotrecat, IT iii 240.166 . cotregat, LU 6863 = cotrecat, BDD² 403 . ZCP xxx 59.985 . LU 5418 (TBC). -comrucat, Ml. 69a23 . -chomrucat, Ériu xix 62 § 23 . -comraicet, LU 7226 . Tec. Corm. 16.31 . Ériu ii 194 § 4 . -comraiged, BDD² 849 .

Impf. 3 s. -chomraiced, LU 4989 (TBC). -comruicedh, ZCP iii 32.29 . 3 p. conrictís, LU 5700 (TBC). -comraictis, TTebe 3069 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. -comhris (as fut.), RC xxvi 366.6 2 s. cotrīs, ZCP x 47.23 . -comris, Corp. Gen. 148.z (comhrais, v.l.). -comrís, Fing. R. 43 . -coimrís, Tec. Corm. 19.3 . -coimris, TBC(C) 594 . 3 s. cotri, Ériu vii 146.26 . cotrí, Fraech 48 . -[co]muir, Wb. 24a17 . -comair, LL 36356 ( SG 414.20 ). Pass. conrisar, Ériu ii 210.6 . Cf. ce chotriastar, O'Curry 839 ( H 3.18, 383a ). -coimristar, 2585 ( Eg. 88, 49 (50)d ). 1 p. condrísam, TBC-LL² 1243 . cotríssam, Thes. ii 304.10 (Hy. i). cotrísam, LU 1675 . -comairsem, Wb. 33a9 . Snedg. u. Mac R 10.20 . Ériu v 211.90 . 2 p. conrisaidh, Anecd. i 73 § 216 . 3 p. conríset, RC xvii 241.27 . -comairset, LU 6661 (TBC). 5911 (ibid.). Impf. 1 s. con-rīsainn, Fing. R. 150 . 2 s. -comrasta, LU 5222 (TBC). 3 s. -comairsed, Ml. 39c15 . -comuirsedh, Lism. L. 4492 . Pass. condrístá, LU 5082 = conrīsta, TBC-I¹ 2138 . 1 p. condrísmaís, LU 10044 . 3 p. condrístais, TBC-LL² 1255 . LL 20164 ( IT i 158.4 ). -comairsitis, Ml. 119d12 . RC xii 82 § 82 . -comarsatis, Airne F. 148 .

fut. 1 s. condricub, LL 35960 . -chomraiciub, Ériu v 208.12 . 2 s. -chomraicfe, LL 35761 . 3 s. con-ricfa, ZCP xxviii 201.28 . -comricfea, Wb. 12c35 . 1 p. conricfum, Laws v 274.20 Comm. -comraicfem, Vita Br. 40 . Corp. Gen. 79.16 . -chomraicfem, LL 14294 . 3 p. condricfat, LL 32267 . TBC-LL² 4618 . -comraicfét, LU 7128 = comraicfead, BDD² 733 . Condit. 3 s. -comraicfed, Lat. Lives 56.8 . comhraicfedh, RC xxvii 288 § 46 . -comroicfed, Airne F. 149 . 3 p. conricfaidis, RC xiii 222.23 . -comraicfidis, 9.21 .

Pret. and perf. 1 s. conrangus, TTebe 4710 . 3 s. conranaic, Ml. 52 . cond-rānic, Fing. R. 388 . cotránicc, ZCP viii 564.6 . coṅarnaic, LL 12978 and conarnic, ZCP viii 313.35 show infl. of prot. form. -comairnaic, Fraech 331 . -comairnig, TBC-I¹ 2869 . -comarnic, Trip.² 807 . -ccomhairnig, Ériu xiii 26.18 . -comfarnaic, BB 363a12 . -comḟarnaig, Dinds. 42 . -chomranic, Anecd. i 9.23 ( SCano 290 ) (infl. of deut.). 1 p. cotráncammár, LU 7562 . conarnecmar, Fraech 335 (infl. of prot.). -cumairnecmar, RC xii 60.y . -comairnecmar, Fraech 302 . -comracamar, Mon. Tall. 134.26 . 3 p. conráncatar, TBC-LL² 4620 . cond-rancatar, RC xiii 458 § 55 . ? connairnechtatar, TBC-LL² 1260 (cf. prot.). -comairnectar, RC xii 84 § 87 . -comarnachtur, ZCP xii 402.20 - 21 . comarnectár, LU 6726 = comairneachtair, BDD² 220 . -comarnecgetar, TBC-LL² 3711 . With infl. of deut. -comrancadar, Ériu v 238.98 . -comrancatar, LL 13527 .

Later comraic(c)id ( coimricenn, MS. Mat. 530.7 ), with ē-fut. as well as f-fut., IGT Verbs § 65 .

Vn. 1 comrac, comríachtain. Part. comraicthe?

Meets, encounters, joins (often of meeting in combat and of cohabitation); attains to, arrives at.

1 Absolutely: ó condricfat fir Hérend óenbaile, TBC-LL² 226 . dáig concomairnectar inn óic ḟéinne anair ┐ . . . aníar met , 4123 (see n.). i sunn condrecat Laigin ┐ Ossairge (of co-incidence in genealogy), Corp. Gen. 15.16 . inad i comraic muir is mór-thír, Metr. Dinds. iii 168.6 . co comairsem that we may fight, LU 8456 ( FB 31 ). áit i comraicfét díabolnamat, 7128 = comraicfead, BDD² 733 . ro comraicetar . . . D. mac E. . . . ┐ Plait, Cog. 174.14 . niconcomracamar díoblíonaib we have not had intercourse, Mon. Tall. 134.26 . nírchomraic a athair ┐ a mathair riamh, Ériu iii 158 § 11 . ni rochomhraceam `may I never reach it', BS 116.26 . bith a fis accaib curab fa cnocc Liban comraicces tír tarrngire sair `beginneth', Maund. 109 .

2 In `inclusive plural' constr.: conráncatar ┐ D. `he and D. met', Thes. ii 241.5 . condrecaid in araile dithrubh ┐ feindide aili, BB 259b20 . Modified constructions: comraicit doib ┐ do Chiarán, BNnÉ 42.15 (see 5 infra). is and condric ┐ Brigit, ZCP viii 301.31 .

3 Trans. consuidet nád comraicet `what they do not attain', Tec. Corm. 16.31 . condregar . . . in cath, ZCP xiii 178.21 . ní mar chách conarnecar . . . comrac riut, TBC-LL² 2732 (fig. etymol., see 1 comrac).

4 With FRI etc.: cech rét frissacomraic `that it encounters', Ml. 48d2 . cech sasad frisa comrucat, 69a23 . desemmrecht . . . frissa comricfea farnaire `will attain to', Wb. 12c35 . concomairsem friarfochric, 33a9 . comhrag ann sin; ar an ni con-ricce (sic) a chubhaidh fri araill, Ériu xiii 43.31 . condríucfa in t-aen risin n-aen, BB 25b38 . in muir Chimerda condric . . . fri Asia borders on, LL 16274 . ic Coirpri L. condrecat Airgīalla fri hÜa Nēill (in genealogy), ZCP viii 317.6 . co comraicet . . . na pecdaig fri cétglífid, etc., LU 2087 ( FA 15 ). condrecat fri C. they fight with C., 4952 = cotrecat, TBC-I¹ 468 . t'airm it lāmaib co comris fri macco do brāthar, Corp. Gen. 148.z . ní choimréc (fut. 1 s.) fritsa imon flaithius, FDG² 895 . ra chomraic in ben sin ri fer, LL 35685 . With other prepp.: co comḟarnaig matain moc . . . cosin sliab arrived at, BB 376a44 . as de conrainic an tainm as Túatha Dé doibh, Leb. Gab.(i) 142.23 .

5 In impers. usage with prepp. DO, ETER: coṅarnaic dó fri CC. ar Áth Mór, LL 12978 . cur comracc doib co hainiarmurtach they fought, Anecd. v 21.21 . ro comraic . . . do I. . . . ┐ do A., TTebe 3112 . ima ccomhráinicc dóibh ┐ don loingeas oile, AFM ii 1112.3 . co comranic eturro ┐ Tigernan `a conflict took place between them and . . .', RC xviii 55.6 (Tig.). cor comraicc doib co haindiarraid `they fought a fierce fight', Ériu ii 182.22 (Lec.). With pass. forms: comhructer doibh ar an lathair, ZCP x 295.20 . rocomraiged aturra they fought, Ériu iii 166.19 .

con-rig

Cite this: eDIL s.v. con-rig or dil.ie/12271
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: conriug, conrigi, conrig, con regar, conregat, cuindregtar, cuimriged, cuimrigthar, condarias, conres, -comrai, cuimre, cun riastar, -cumrastar, cotreisin[n], conriris, cotanrirastar, conreraig, conaraig, cotobárrig, conidnarraig, cotnaraicch, conrecht, cumrecht, conamracht, conarracht, con-árrachta, cuimrigid, cuibrigid, cuimrech, cuimrechtae, cuimrechtai

v (*com-reg-, rig-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 592 ). Indic. pres. 1 s. conriug, Sg. 181b1 . 2 s. conrigi, Ml. 119b8 . 3 s. conrig, 23c12 . Tec. Corm. 2.16 v.l. LU 5185 (TBC). Ériu i 195.3 . Pass. con regar, Laws ii 128.z Comm. 3 p. conregat, Laws iv 242.13 . Pass. cuindregtar, Corp. Gen. 94.5 . Ipv. 3 s. cuimriged, Tec. Corm. 2.16 . Pass. cuimrigthar, O'Curry 2412 ( Eg. 88, 32 (33)b ). Subj. pres. 1 s. (with infix) condarias, Ml. 21b7 . 2 s. conres, O'Dav. 489 . 3 s. -comrai, Laws iv 130.5 Comm. co ro cuimre , v 252.21 Comm. Pass. cun riastar (sic), Laws v 152 n.1 . -cumrastar, O'Curry 59 ( H 3.18, 21a ), Ériu xiii 31.7 (con-ricc ?). Impf. 1 s. (with infix), cotreisin[n], O'Dav. 489 . fut. 2 s. conriris, Ml. 134d3 . 3 s. pass. (with infix) cotanrirastar, Ml. 134a1 . Pret. and perf. 3 s. conreraig, LU 5186 (TBC). cumrecht, ZCP iii 42 § 9 . With -ad-: conaraig, Laws v 290.24 . (with infix) cotobárrig, Wb. 9b19 . conidnarraig, Ml. 15c1 . cotnaraicch, Blathm. 176 . Pass. conrecht, RC xi 448.96 . ros cumrecht , Alex. 403 . Cf. conamracht, RC viii 60.3 v.l. With -ad-: conarracht, Ml. 123b2 . pl. con-árrachta, CB 32 § 30 . Later cuimrigid, cuibrigid.

Binds together, ties, constrains (in both physical and abstr. sense. Freq. in legal contexts): conrig .i. asindet gl. alligat (for allegat), Ml. 23c12 . cotobárrig tra ort precepte `has constrained you', Wb. 9b19 . conarracht assa mugsini gl. uinctus, Ml. 123b2 . conririssiu gl. ligabis, 134d3 . conregat, asrenat . . . cinta cach cintaigh fix the culpability of(?), Laws iv 242.13 . con-árrachta in dá recht 'the two laws have been bound together', CB 32 § 30 . gach comhgraidh cóir cumrustar, Ériu xiii 31.7 . cumrigis eter da fert in carpait, LU 5171 = cumraigis, TBC-I¹ 690 . serc Dé . . . / conrig coiclea co ndéni co-ordinates thoughts, Ériu i 195.3 . ro cumrigthe alláma iarna cúl, IT i 76.11 (LMU). bar crich-si nir cuimriged `circumscribed', MR 220.6 . cuibhrigh do rosg a-réigin restrain your glances, Dánta Gr. 39.40 .

With prepp.: cumrigfithir mo lám dom tháibse, LL 13508 . rochumrigh a ḟolt dona cholbaib, Ériu ii 24.8 . cumrecht a folt do hailib `she tied', ZCP iii 42 § 9 . comrigthe coss in G. di chois ind A., LL 37299 . popul . . . ro cumbriged do dímaine = falsis artibus . . . uinctum, PH 4559 . rocuibriged dana Martain do miltnigecht talmanda, RC ii 386.y . con regar . . . frissen athgabail, Laws ii 128.z Comm.

Vn. cuimrech, part. cuimrechtae. Vbl. of necess. cuimrechtai.

fo-airicc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fo-airicc or dil.ie/22349

 

x see fo-ricc .

fo-ricc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fo-ricc or dil.ie/23696

 

Forms: for-icc, fuircim, forricc, foricc, forecat, forrecad, foirsed, fórsed, -fuirsitis, fo-ricfa, fo-m-ricfa, fuircéba, fuaircife, -faircbitís, -faircibdis, fosfairnec, fo-n-airnicc, -farnic, forránic, fosrainic, -fornic, -farnaic, fóndráncamár, foráncatár, -furecar, -fuiresta, forricht, -furecht, -fuirecht

v ( Ascoli xcvi , Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 552 ; fo-ro-icc, Thurn. Reader, s.v. icc ; GOI 374 ; some instances show signs of confusion with ar-icc. for-icc, Hessen ZCP ix 5 ). Ipv. 1 s. fuircim, Bürgschaft p. 13 § 44 . pres. 3 s. forricc, Corm. Y 883 ( Anecd. iv 76.8 ) = foricc, Harl. (ib. p. xii ). 3 pl. forecat TBC-I¹ 591 (= forreccat, LU 5078 ). forrecad, TBC-I¹ 679 (= forrecat LU 5161 ). past subj. ( for co foirsed , TBC-I¹ 227 = fórsed LU 4700 , which could be by-form belong to this, see fo-reith). 3 pl. -fuirsitis, Thes. ii 242.4 ( Ardm. 18b1 ). fut. 3 s. fo-ricfa ZCP xi 85 § 39 . fo-m-ricfa, LU 5747 (= TBC-I¹ 1274 ). fut. 2 s. -fuircéba su, LU 4843 = -fuaircife sa, TBC-I¹ 354 . sec. fut. 3 pl. -faircbitís, LU 5010 = -faircibdis, TBC-I¹ 521 . pret. and perf. 1 s. fosfairnec, LU 5409 . 3 s. fo-n-airnicc, Wb. 16b2 . -farnic, 2a21 . forránic, LU 7985 ( BDD 165 ), LU 10180 . fosrainic, ZCP iii 243 w . -fornic, LU 10692 = Ériu xii 158 . -farnaic, Corm. Bodl. s.v. orcc trēith . 1 pl. fóndráncamár LU 5795 . 3 pl. foráncatár, 10580 . Pass. pres. -furecar LL 346b27 ( ZCP xi 89 § 21 ). past subj. -fuiresta, RC xii 66 § 30 . pret. and perf. forricht, LU 7712 ( BDD 129 ). -furecht, -fuirecht, Ériu xiii 15.12 (? fo-rig). Hy v 80 ; 88 .

(a) comes across, finds: forricfe faelte and thou wilt find welcome LU 11012 ( Imr. Brain i 53 ). forricc failte, Corm. Y 883 (foricc, Harl.). cach oen fodriced, Dinds. 19 . tic F. don uarboith ... co farnic in colann cen cend, Corm. Y 1018 (co farnaic, Bodl.). is amlaid fosfairnec sa hi comlepaid I found them sleeping together LU 5409 . fosrainic ... issuide noi mbaindelbae, ZCP iii 243w . uair fomairnecsa oc coe since thou hast found me weeping LL 275a11 ( Mór M. § 6 ). tiscaither a tarr ... dūs in fuirestar ind or ann, RC xii 66 § 29 . ind Lúin Cheltchair ... forricht hi cath Maigi Tured, LU 7712 ( BDD 129 = frith, Eg.). f.¤ ara chiund finds before one, finds on arrival: ni farnic sede nach maid ara chiun isin domun found none good Wb. 2a21 . hore fonairnicc ara chiunn desiderium ..., 16b2 . fuircim si cobach lat sa armo chind, Bürgschaft p. 13 § 44 . co fargbaid mo thech sa amal fondrancaibar for bar cind until you leave my house as you found it LU 8388 ( FB 26 ). co farnactár Coin Culaind for áth ara cind, LU 1534 ( MU² 1039 ). ros-fairnic in t-airdespog ar a chinn gan neimh gan galar, Fl. Earls 148.10 .

(b) ni forrainicc lais soadh for ccúlaibh, Hugh Roe 60.7 (f. 16a) = ní ránicc, etc.

Cf. rosfuric a less in coimdiu has need of them PH 4373 (see ro-icc).

Some of the exx. cited under for-rig may belong to this.

fo-rig

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fo-rig or dil.ie/23698
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: furig, fon-riug, fod rig, ḟóir, faeir-, foer-, foir-, fosre, reirsead, nacha-fuirseth, fuirrseth, fotroiraig, fotrergatar, fodroirgetar, foregar, -fuiregar, foriastar, -fuirestar, forsither, -fuiristar, -fuirsither, foriasaiter, forrias[a]tar, foruirecht, -fuirecht, fuirg-, fuirigh-, -furgfe, -furegad, fuirged, fuirgedh, nomfuirginn

v ipv. 2 s. na furig , LL 306a14 . pres. 1 s. fon-riug, UCR 32 .3 s. fod rig, Wb. 26a12 . fo-raig, Ériu xxxii 91 . pres. subj. 2 s. ním ḟóir sa (faeir-, foer-, foir- v.l.), Fél. Prol. 322 , 326 . 3 s. fosre, CIH iii 903.4. past subj. 3 s. ? fod reirsead , Anecd. ii 6.9 . nacha-fuirseth, i 59 § 74 . nachad fuirrseth , 69 § 166 . pret. and perf. fotroiraig, Trip. 208.20 (2447) . 3 pl. fotrergatar (.i. diḟostatar), ZCP iii 243y = fodroirgetar, Metr. Dinds. ii 28.26 (a later form, see Heldensage 395 ). Pass. pres. s. foregar, Laws v 378.2 . -fuiregar, Ériu xiii 15.13 . pres. subj. (or fut.) s. foriastar, O'Dav. 905 . -fuirestar, 918 . forsither, Cáin Ad. § 4 . Cf. -fuiristar, Laws v 448.2 ( O'Dav. 826 ) = -fuirsither, H 3.18 p. 515 ( O'Curry 1270 ) see Ériu xii 199 . pl. foriasaiter, O'Dav. 944 , cf. forrias[a]tar, 950 . perf. foruirecht, SR 6041 cf. -fuirecht. Ériu xiii 15.12 (fo-ricc ? q.v.). Later treated as simple vb., stem fuirg-, mod. fuirigh-. The f-fut. occurs early ( -furgfe, TBC-LL¹ 2090 ). -furegad, TTr. 311 seems an -ē- sec. fut. Some forms of this vb. fall together with those of fo-ricc and fo-reith, and can be distinguished only by context.

(a) holds back, detains, delays, keeps waiting: is hed in so fodrig `it is this that delays him' Wb. 26a12 . cid fotroiraig ... ? fonroiraig flechod `What is it delayed thee? Rain delayed us' Trip. 208.20 (2447) . dobatar se fotrergatar na longa, ZCP iii 243y . baes fomrig nad ricim sair folly hinders me from going eastwards IT iii 12 § 22 ( Bruchst. i § 18 ). berid leo na firu ... ┐ fosreghad leo, IT ii2 105.1 ( BB 497b20 ). ni hed no bar furgfe sib guin na hailiti út it will not take up much of your time TBC-LL¹ 2090 . nis furegad can imthecht would not hinder them from departing LL 221b2 ( TTr. 311 ). nocho roḟuirgius ... iat hi ciana cen almsain do thabairt doib I did not keep them waiting long PH 6032 . na fuirigh inn i ngioll grása keep us not waiting Dán Dé xii 10 . na fuirgidh an bachlach isin ccill do not let ... remain longer BNnÉ 305 § 19 . créad anois ḟuirgheas É.? `what now delays E.?' TD 18.1 . cf. foruirecht (= fo-rig ?) Michol ... cen dul i ndegaid Dauid M. detained [him] (i.e. Saul) from following D. SR 6041 . gell foregar a pledge that is detained Laws v 378.2 . In pass. impers. constr. : is oc urnaige fala Crist ... ro fuirged in oiretsin cen dígail do thabairt forro, LB 151a14 cf. 152a15 , cited below under (b). da fuirgther dar amm `if there is delay beyond the proper time' BColm. 32.8 . ni fada rofurged dō co fuair bās he died very soon ZCP xiv 145.8 . In pass. and reflex. often nearly = remains, abides: furighter ann na peccthaigh co ceann da bliadan dec, RC xxvi 150.7 . diam la fo fuiristar [see Ériu xii 199 ] `if they abide by goodness' ( = la fira fo f.¤ , H 3.18, 454a ) Stud. in E. Ir. Law 108 ( Laws v 448 , cf. Cáin Ad. 4 , cited below under (c).) mairg rom fuirgedh a mbethaidh, BS 86.4 (perh. act. subj.: alas that anyone should detain me). cid nomfuirginn sea dot esiu gan ēg Why should I remain alive after thee? BB 473b3 ( Aen. 2187. Perhaps 3 s. pres.: what keeps me). rosfuirigh [ro an v.l.] ina haiti fein, BNnÉ 5 § 13 .

(b) by extension keeps, preserves, prolongs: is iat imat a leannán ... rofuridh a oentúmha that prolonged his bachelor's state ZCP xiii 166.7 . ni terna nech ... acht Finntan ... ┐ rofuirig Dia a anmain, Rawl. B 512, 77a15 ( ITS xxxv 194 ). ro fuirged fos na hIúdaide dus a ṅdingnitis athrigi the Jews were spared longer LB 152a15 . Cf. 151a14 cited under (a) above. dá bfuirgedh Dia ... tairis in chuid do chaithemh `should God grant thee further to consume the meal' O'Gr. Cat. 442.17 . Passing into sense retains in possession: dá mad ór Sliab mor Monaid | rosfogail is nisfuirig `he would [lit. does] not hoard it' MR 56.10 .

(c) binds (under an obligation, warrant, etc.): ni gatar a forgall ar domun degmnā mad i ngnīmaib firaib forsither `if it be bound' Cáin Ad. 4 (cf. Laws v 448 cited under (a)). ni forregur nech tar a cumang ( = nemo potest ad impossibile obligari) H 3.17, c. 501.3 ( O'D. 683 ). cf. ni [a]ragar neach tar a cumang, Laws v 466x . niconfil eiter ind riagail i fueregtar `there is no Rule where it is imposed' Mon. Tall. § 68 ( = fuirestar, Ériu ii 224 ).

(d) intrans. remains, stays, continues: fuirghedh occ dín a ríghe ( = may he be spared to protect) BNnÉ 295 § 23 . abair re B. nā fuirighedh a Teamhraig, Ériu iii 170 § 29 . dála an iarmhair ... do ḟuirigh ag áitiughadh Éireann d' éis na dtaoiseach, Keat. i p. 188 . ionad ina fuireochair go lā do bháis, BNnÉ 69 § 113 . do an Criosd a bfochair a eagluisi ... ┐ fuireoghadh choidhche, Luc. Fid. 369 . ma ḟuirigheann ib. With FRI (RE) waits for: ro ḟuiridhset fris, MR 276.22 . tabhair a chís ... na fuirig re iaraidh ort do not wait till you are asked for it ZCP vi 272 § 15 . fuirigh rem thagrasa `wait till you hear my argument' Content. xxiii 1 .

See for-rig.

forránach

Cite this: eDIL s.v. forránach or dil.ie/23858

 

Forms: Forranach

adj o-ā aggressive, violent . Of persons: fer fergach f.¤ , Tec. Corm. § 32.7 . dligid cach f.¤ fuidbech, ZCP xi 84 § 34d . ni bi [leg. be] forranach dalae `sei nicht übermässig (?) im Zusammenbestellen' Bürgschaft 31 § 84 . flait[h] fodbach forranuch, ZCP iii 465.1 (B. in Scáil = foranach, xiii 380 , xx 226 ). fiana ... forranc[h]a, CCath. 5364 . As subst.: foranach Cnogbai, ZCP xii 236 § 56 . As alleg. npr. m.: Forranach mac Forecne, Anecd. ii 49 . forbartach forranach (of a bull) LL 247a10 ( IT iii 245 ). dá ech ... forráncha, LU 8594 ( FB 45 ). LU 10201 . TBC-LL¹ 3378 . ri fothugud feirggi forranaigi na féinned, LL 239a30 ( TTr. 1660 ). táinic ... 'na thorainn ḟeargach ... ḟorránach, ML 134.15 . 'na bhfraischeathaibh ... forránacha feirge, TSh. 2075 .

Cf. secht maic forranaig Echen, ZCP viii 321.14 ; possibly this belongs to fo-ricc , q.v.

? for-rig

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? for-rig or dil.ie/23875

 

v (The existence of for-rig ` binds ' is far from proven. Each of the following passages could be otherwise explained): díoghaibh dofórmaigh, for-rig, foloisgther, Ériu xiii 28.20 (leg. fo-rig? Or cf. 1 foirrgid). ní dia treabaire f.¤ ina tir (.i. airgiter ara chind in ferann) `which arrive' [which he finds ?] Laws iv 128.13 ( 130.8 = foric, 130 ) = forig ara cind ina tir (.i. do déntaib airgither ara chinn ina fearand), O'D. 2183 ( Rawl. B 487, 66, 2a ). forrigh .i. fuirech, ut est ... for cach forrig i n-eclais in mét sin .i. ... for cach aonfer fuirges isin eclais resin ré sin, O'Dav. 1008 (the lemma seems = fo-rig delays). forreghtar, forimregthar ZCP iii 237.24 . Cf. gait forrecar fri crand .i. in gait airgithar cengailti don crund, O'Curry 2624 ( Eg.88 f. 53b ). gait forregar fri crann clethi is found (?) ib. For the gloss airgither cf. ar-icc.

See fo-ricc and fo-rig.

frecomus

Cite this: eDIL s.v. frecomus or dil.ie/24270

 

n u, m. (frith-com-mess) lit. `calculating, taking measures against' hence

(a) keeping watch, guarding: f.¤ .i. comét, O'Dav. 922 . ri foraire ┐ ri freccomas i n-iathaib bidbad, LL 171b30 ( CRR 6 ).

(b) query (?) ; reservation, precaution (?) : f.¤ .i. ... fiarfaige, ut est ata dá f.¤ i cairde .i. da fircoimét uais nó da frecmaic isin cairde .i. na garmanna anacail, O'Dav. 922 . f.¤ .i. imcomarc ... atat da freccomus i cairde, H 3.18, 81a ( Phil. Soc. Trans. 209 ). O'Mulc. 594 . atait da recomus [plene] dono a cairde .i. atait da fir-athcomarc uais isin cairde : asbeir in fer cairde ... nacham-beir co haes cairde (.i. do denam fogla) ┐ asbeir o ricc (.i. in baile) in fuil nech do aes cairde taetsat [leg. taet] as ┐ bid anacal doib There are two precautionary questions (?) in a treaty of friendship, the friend says: do not bring me (to plunder) those with whom I have a treaty, and when he reaches (the place) he says are there any with whom there is a treaty [if so] let them come forth and they shall have protection, (in a statement on the legal aspect of plundering persons protected by covenant) H 3.18, p. 262a ( O'Curry 522 ). These exx., in which f.¤ is either plene or with us symbol for ultimate, do not support Mac Neill's plausible emendation, frecmarc, Ériu xi 115 .

fri

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fri or dil.ie/24329
Last Revised: 2019

 

Forms: frimm, rimm, frim, frím, frium, frimsa, friumsa, frit, fritt, friutt, fritsu, rut, rutt, fris, friss, frissom, f., frie, friae, frise, frie, frinn, rinn, rind, friunn, riund, frind, frinni, raindi, frinnai, frib, frithib, fribsi, friu, friú, friu, friü, frithiu, friithu, friusom, riom, rum, riot, rut, ris, ria, rinn, ruinn, ribh, ruibh, riú, r, frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar, fria, frim, frim, frim, ram, frit, frit, frit, rit, rat, rot, friar, friar, fribar, fribar, fria, fria, fria, re-na, rena, fria, fris(s)a, frisi-, risi-, fris-, ris-, frismbiat, fris-mbruchta, fris, fris, fris, risa, frisin-, frisnid, risnad, ris, fria, frisa, re n-, fria-, re, ra-n-adh, re, re, ré, freisin, FRI

prep. with acc. For etymology see Thurneysen, GOI § 839 , Fraser ZCP viii 37 , J. E. C. Williams, Celtica iii 126 . In later spelling prefixes h- to following initial stressed vowel; does not leníte following consonant (cf. frinna aill, Sg. 45a16 . fri nnach ..., Ml. 75a9 , fri nnech 23c20 ; but fri nech further on in same gloss and regularly elsewhere); the initial s- of the article following fri is preserved. In Middle Irish gradually replaced by the forms RI, RE (already in Ml: oc eregim re Abisolon, 44b4 , cf. fre, 90c27 ); RA (common in some LL texts, see CRR 54 , TBC-LL¹ 499 , 602 , 740 , etc.); rarely RO ( SR 1990 ZCP xiii 204 15 ); FRIA, RIA, RE also common. Hence in Early Mod. Ir. there is occasionally confusion with , RÍA `before', see Bergin's note Stor. Keat. p. xix , and section IX (e) below. Apart from this the latter prep. sometimes replaces FRI after fáilid, fáilte and kindred words (as in Mod. Ir.). On the parallelism of some of the pronominal forms of FRI with those of LA see GOI l.c. (with Translator's n. 178 ). Though FRI still appears in some later texts, especially those of the archaising type, it had become obsolete in the classical language. Its later form (RI, RE) remains down to the end of the Early Mod. period and is recognized by the grammarians as distinct from LE (LA), see IGT, Introd. § 75 , 24 P 8, 194 ( IGT VI , Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ). In the modern spoken lang. it is replaced partly by LE, partly by CHUN (O.-Ir. dochum). For a contrary development cf. Engl. `with,' originally `against,' which has absorbed the functions of A.S. mid `(together) with.'

In development of meaning generally FRI shows a remarkable parallelism with Engl. ` with '; it also agrees with ` against ' in several senses.

Forms: With suff. pron.

sg. 1 frimm St. Paul Codex Thes. ii 298.17 . rimm, IT i 123.24 . frim, SR 1422 , 2049 . LU 5228 . LL 110b26 . frím Ml. 38c19 . frium, Ml. 71b9 . frimsa, Wb. 26d17 . Ml. 33a18 . friumsa, Ml. 127a2a .

2 frit, Wb. 5a31 . 10a29 ; Ml. 103d14 . SR 1425 . fritt LL 93a10 . 249b1 . friutt, PCr. 62b2 (= ḟrit, Sg. 151a3 ). fritsu Ml. 91d8 . 112b8 . rut, SR 2031 IT i 123.15 . rutt, LL 110b27 .

3 m., n. fris, Wb. 14c37 . 15a1 . 22c15 . ACL iii 304 [: [Mael] mis]. (: eisleis). SR 6109. 6317 . ([mēt] anfis) LL 33b21 . friss, Wb. 2c24 . 3c6 . 6a4 . 8a12 . 14d22 ; Ml. 91a21 . frissom Wb. 5d39 .

f.¤ frie, Sg. 72b1 . Ml. 40c15 . 67d15 . friae, 130c9 . Wb. 28a20 . cf. frise, Ml. 74c21 , which Ascoli corrected to frie ( Thes. i 722b ).

pl. 1 frinn, Wb. 4b12 . 17b10 . 19d22 . rinn, Ml. 54a3 . SR 1821 . rind, SR 1905 (: herḟi[o]nd). friunn, Ml. 38d20 . riund TBC-LL¹ 1874 . frind, LL 177b39 . frinni, Wb. 17b32 . 17c5 ; Ml. 32c15 . 93a13 . 106c12 . raindi, BColm. 68.9 . frinnai Ml. 91c9 . 114a8 .

2 frib, Wb. 17b16 . 22d9 . 24d26 . cf. frithib, Ériu iv 162.13 . fribsi, Wb. 14c42 . 17b14 .

3 friu, Wb. 4a10 . 4c37 . 24a4 ; Ml. 54c23 , 72b22 , 110c9 . LL 35a21 (: fiú) friú, Wb. 17b9 . Ml. 74a2 , diss. friu, Hy. V. 54 , cf. friü: at-chiü, ACL iii 294 § 10 ; frithiu, Blathm. 94 § 17 ; friithu, LU 4671 (see further GOI 515 ). friusom, Wb. 20c25 ; Ml. 17c5 , 54c18 ; 26 .

For forms found in later texts see citations below.

In the Early Mod. Grammatical Tracts the forms given are: riom, rum; riot, rut; ris; ria; rinn, ruinn; ribh, ruibh; riú, r, 24 P 8 194 ( Bard. Synt. Tr. p. 7 ).

With following poss. pron.: frim, frit, fria, friar, fribar, fria, e.g. frim ort. Wb. 29d2 . frim peccad, 28a14 . frim foraithmet, Ml. 23d9 ; ram anmain, TBC-LL¹ 3692 (rem St.). frit adrad su, Ml. 136c11 . frit c[h]ele, 70d2 ; frit laim, SR 5854 . rit láim, TBC-LL¹ 3055 . rat láma, 3052 . rot chlaind, SR 2031 . friar corp, Wb. 15c22 . friar fochric, 33a9 ; fribar n-ícc, Wb. 24b3 . fribar pecthu, 13b19 ; fria mbriathra, Wb. 31b30 . In Mid. Ir. the form `fria' is often used for the simple prep., hence occas. fria a = prep. + 3 s. pron. In Early Mod. Ir. 3 s. and pl. form re-na sometimes appears: rena ardnaem, BCC § 12 (see III c below). fria n-a, Fl. Earls 214.4 . Cf. the n- prefixed to poss. after le, ó, tre in Mod. Irish.

With rel. pron.: O. Ir. fris(s)a n ...; Mid. Ir. also frisi-, risi-, fris-, ris-: frismbiat, Sg. 202b3 . fris-mbruchta, Fél. June 21 . fris n-agar, E. 406 . fris-reith, Prolegomena 302 . fris-tarddam, Thes. ii 293.19 . risa n-abar, Acall. 53 , etc. With cop. frisin-, frisnid, risnad ail, LB 257b9 . ris na duthracht 256a44 . fria ndechraiged (= frisa nd.) Sg. 28a14 may be a mistake. In later MSS. the form re n- becomes common: fria-cosmailend, PH 7674 . re ndubairt, 7464 . ra-n-adh KMMisc. 156. 124 . re n-abar, Acall. 1241 , etc. re rāiter, Ériu viii 139.4 . ré raibhe, Keat. ii 4467 , etc.

Composition.

(a) In vn. and prototonic verbal forms, before a vowel, frith-; before a cons. fre-, e.g. frecre, fretech; with syncope of a follg. vowel, fres-, e.g. frescsiu, fresndid, fresndís, fresngabal. In Glosses fri is often used in compos. with a vb. to represent Lat. ob-. Later frith- is used before cons. with or without lenition of following cons.: see frithgnam, frithsét, etc.

(b) In deuterotonic verbal forms fris-; before an infixed pron. in rel. construction frith- or friss-: fritum-chomart-sa (= frith-dum-) Wb. 33a12 ; but friss-idn-oirctis, Ml. 39a20 (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 147 and cf. Strachan's OIPG⁴ ed. Bergin, p. 27 n. 2 ).

SYNOPSIS OF MEANINGS.

N.B.—The classification is perforce somewhat arbitrary as, perhaps in the majority of instances, the meaning could derive from the original sense in I. Cf. J. E. C. Williams Celtica iii 122 ff .

I Of local relations

(a) towards, facing, turned to ;

(b) against (touching; cf. d); alongside, down along, by ;

(c) against (implying violent or hostile action);

(d) next to, at, in contact with (cf. b).

II To express association, along with, beside (both of local and mental relations).

III To express figurative direction

(a) aim, purpose (cf. VI), frequently of function, specific purpose;

(b) after adj. in sense of Lat. gerund or with ad or supine in -u;

(c) to express direction of feelings, behaviour towards (cf. I a);

(d) of prayer, etc. to ;

(e) of opposition to, hostile feeling, attitude towards ;

(f) to express protection, guard, watch against, also limitation, boundary;

(g) in elliptical sentences with these meanings.

IV

(a) after adjs., nouns or verbs expressing resemblance, equality or comparison;

(b) to express difference, distinction from .

V

(a) with respect to, with regard to ;

(b) on account of:

(c) on behalf of ;

(d) according to, in agreement with (cf. II).

VI To denote occasion

(a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. verb or equivalent;

(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on which something takes place.

VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion of .

VIII

(a) to denote agent;

(b) to denote instrument through, by means of .

IX In expressions of time

(a) in O.-Ir. in locatival sense;

(b) to denote period during which something continues or takes place;

(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place;

(d) of point of time;

(e) used for RIA ` before .'

X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs.

A classified list of the instances in Wb is given by Fraser ZCP viii 37 ff .

I Of local relations

(a) towards, facing, turned to: do rosc frisna nemdaib = looking heavenward SR 1604 . a n-aiged fri Dia facing God LU 2048 ( FA 12 . Cf. III c). a lām chlē fri muir the sea on their left SR 4074 (see lám). do cumlaiset for fairgi ┐ dochorsatar aurlunn fri tir, Corm. Bodl. s.v. prull . bai D. 'sa druim fri fraig D. had his back to the door SR 6053 . is amlaid bai in gilla ┐ a druim fria thigerna, TBC-I¹ 2327 (see druim(m)). Ethne ... fria chossa E. (standing) at his feet (i.e. at the foot of the bed) LU 3300 ( SCC 10 ). Carpre ... 's a hucht ra hág, LL 32b49 (see ucht). a druim re dimsachaib, a des fri deiblenaib, ZCP viii 204 § 26 . an let[h] bis rinne don rē the side of the moon turned towards us ITS xiv 90.19 . fri bun cruche at the foot of the gallows Mon. Tall. § 1 . síl nÁdhuimh ... re sáluibh a senathar at the heels of (i.e. following) Ériu iv 118 § 33 . níor chubaidh tigearna ... d'ḟágbáil re caladh on the beach [i.e. when about to land; perh. fig. cf. beirid i gcaladh brings to safety, see 1 calad] viii 139.23 . dā traig .x. ... a [sic leg.] fot fri dún its length towards the stockade (of the internal slope of an earthen rampart) Laws iv 336.23 . dā dúncladh ... ré dá taebh na clasach along both sides of the fosse CCath. 1747 . ní thurcaibh crand ... cét míle fria taebhaibh within a hundred miles from (lit. towards) its sides Marco P. 11 [cf. the temporal use IX (c)]. See also phrases s.v. agad, ais, enech, gnúis, sáil, taeb, ucht.

This use is regular in Old-Ir. in stating relative position: fri Grecia aniar ... fri Etáil anáir west of Greece ... east of Italy Wb. 6d17 . fri Alpai ndesiu (gl. cisalpina) Sg. 217b8 . frie anall ... frie desiu (gl. ultra ... citra) 71b1 , 2 . fri Ath F.D. desiu, TBC-I¹ 2183 . frie anechtair outside it Ml. 40c15 . fri Pardus amuich outside Paradise SR 111 . ra chuala sa fri hEmain andess I heard it (as I was) to the south of Emain LU 5056 . altoir fri dorus antuaid, SR 4261 [cf. la taeb ind rigthaige aniar, LL 3810 (30a) ]. a mmag fris anair the plain in front of him LL 122a33 . co ndechaid [in gai] triana chend ┐ co ro marb nónbur ris aníar behind him 121a21 . frit aniar, LU 4134 . is e a chorp in taitneamach rit anall the shining one opposite thee RC xxiv 60 . Also fig. : foscichret i crandchor ... fáicebthair Lugaid fris anechtair they will cast lots for it... L. will be left out of the chance RC xiii 444x ( LL 289b8 ). See also s.v. lám (fri l.).

It is doubtful whether: i mbae neach fri hopair immuig BB 362a21 (= Dinds. 20 ) is an instance of this construction; the literal meaning here is was anyone at a work outside ? The Rennes `amuig' is perhaps merely a late spelling.

After verb or vn.: tan turcbad E. a di láim fri Coimdid nime, SR 5085 . suidig do da laim fri ... clasp thy hands (in prayer) to ... 1606 . rosecroth a chend frisin slúag brandished his (severed) head at the host LU 5269 . crothad in chind frisin slóg, 5280 . donnochtat a mbruinni fris bared their bosoms to him 5199 . rochoraig fri tenid he arranged [them] before the fire RC xiii 6.21 . roscóraig gnúis fri gnúis (see gnúis) LU 2046 ( FA 12 ).

Cf. tuídhleach ind óir frisin ngréin the glistening of the gold against the sun BDD 1 . crand airgit ris tatin grían LU 3700 ( SCC 33 ).

(b) against (touching), alongside, down along by: doesetar ┐ a nglūne fri talmain, TBC-I¹ 3164 . éc fri hadart death against a pillow i.e. a natural death Lib. Hymn. i 62.72 (see adart). fri etnu dam ... bátár fedmand la firu Herend = [till then] the loads had been harnessed to the foreheads of the oxen LU 10816 (= Ériu xii 178 ). tennait a n-ette fria curpu press their wings against their sides LU 2281 ( FA 33 ). cf. doimmaircet ind eoin a n-ette friu ┐ a cossa can scibud ette ná cosse co tairic in precept the birds fold their wings, etc. LU 1361 . dosnimthasa i llai a broit fri a bruinde `gathered her to his bosom in the fleece of his cloak' Ériu xii 154y . co tard a druim frisin liic leaned his back against the stone LU 3284 ( SCC 8 ). dossleced fria thoeb he let them (i.e. his arms) fall to his sides SR 5091 = no thimoirced a lama fria thoeb, LB 124b29 (cf. LU 1361 above).

In local sense of attached to or pending from: úathroic ... cona cimais do banór fria having a fringe LU 6421 . beilge óir friu golden bits on them TBFr. § 3 . srian ... fria graig, LU 3649 . Cf. srian do thabairt fria thoil to bridle his passion PH 4990 (see srían). Cf. la I (a).

Here perhaps: i ngialnai fri fraigid in hostage-ship at the wall LU 7015 ; 7295 ( BDD 66 ; 94 ). (of the brazen serpent, Numbers xxi 9 :) turgabar fri crann ... uasin [t]slúag fri sirsellad let it be hung on a pole to be gazed at SR 4163 .

Cf. an carracc ard ar cuiretar ... an Tigerna da teilgen ría sís to cast him down from it Maund. 106 . tuitim sioss re beinn an ailt, Fl. Earls 86z .

(c) against (implying violence or hostility; cf. III e): rop saiget húan fri demnai, Hy i 20 . friu conuccaib ind oub, Hy v 54 . conéracht Glaiss Ch. friu the stream C. rose against them (= to bar the way) LU 5362 . Cf. conocbath in carpat fris ... ┐ concligtis ind h[e]ich fris the chariot would tilt up before him and the horses would spring at him Ériu vi 134.21 . bēim a cinn fri cloich, Ml. 139c3 . beim cind fri hall, LL 225b38 (see benaid). esarcain cind fri hallib, 176b33 . aiges (feras) in tond frisin mbruach, Anecd. i 12.19 (21) . cf. FB 44 , see fri. See also phrases with cúl, druim(m), lám).

(d) next to, at: folt dond fri toind a chind, folt croderg iar n-airmedon, LU 2564 . dond fri toind cind, 6542 . lene de sról ... i custul fri gelcnes ... dó, 6296 . léne ... sita fria gelchnes, 1810 . cona luirigh ... ria cnes ... ┐ lethan sciath fria gualaind, Stair Erc. 1243 . In this use frequent with ais, cnes, taeb.

II To express association, along with, beside (of local or mental relations, cf. V d): ní bí friu hi comasndeis it is not with them in apposition Sg. 212a5 . in tan mbís nihelas do .u. fri .g. when u is silent beside g, 6b11 . nobiad fri femen `it would be [used] with the feminine' 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them' 215a5 (cf. biit remsuidigthi ... cen briathra leo ib. 6). See also s.v. comṡuidigud. is tabarthi `bonum est' fri cechtar in da fersa so, Ml. 112d1 . cen tabairt anman trén fríu, 30a9 (see do-beir). ni bai crand dond indsi fri aroile (i.e. the walls were shattered) Anecd. i 2.5 . ar choibnius frisna comaccomla sa, Sg. 203a10 . in oentid fri Crist, Wb. 15a12 . ni ba suair[c] comlepaid no comaentu frissi, TBC-LL¹ 2079 (fris St) In: ni reid bith fris im longud no im ligi, LU 5957 , the meaning may be different; see atá (fri). toeb fri toeb ata in ri is Eocho F. side by side LU 2839 (see taeb). comaitecht re hairdrigh, ZCP viii 116.5 . méraid ra cách a chumne TBC-LL¹ 740 (here perhaps: meraid hua chlaind fri claind Ml. 100b4 ). is frit mo chairde `with Thee is my compact' Fél. Ep. 534 . (see cairde). iar corai fri I. after making a pact with I. SR 5946 . Cf. córe fri Dia, Wb. 2d16 . is core doib fribsi (gl. salutate invicem) 18b19 . bad chore dúib friu, 7b4 ; - 14 (`lit. let it be peace to you towards them' Thes., but the original meaning of córe points to `with' as the sense of the prep. here). Cf. also: biid pax libsi fri cách (gl. cum omnibus hominibus pacem habentes) 5d33 .

Here probably: isi no beired teora pōc fria cach copān ... dō, TBC-I¹ 2218 . Cf. further: hi cocetul fri Eman in unison with Hib. Min. 4.12 . do dlommad E. is A. ... fri gorta, SR 1419 . ara toimlid fri sid sain | toirthi Parduis, 1085 . taed as fri sidh ┐ fri subha `let him go ... in peace and happiness' AFM 979 .

In this sense with verbs of joining, connecting, also occasionally with verbs of motion and in nominal phrases, such as imma llé fri, immaróen fri, see s.v. , óen (cf. Ériu xiv 142 n . ) also cos, taeb.

In: crithnaigset ... immar bocsimin fri sruth the meaning of the prep. is doubtful. curtar a fuigill re sruth ┐ re fairgi `be the remnant cast out to be carried off by the sea-tide' O'Gr. Cat. 182w . Cf. perhaps: Drochet Atha do dhul re sruth `D. was carried away by the flood' ALC i 260.7 , though these may be exx. of the confusion of re (FRI) with le (LA). curcas fri sruth, FB 44 ; `against a stream' Strachan ZCP iii 419 . Cf. Ériu i 194.4 . See 1 téit and la I (d).

Passing into sense in addition to: tris fer friu (gl. te tertium) Sg. 2a5 . cethri chet bliadan ... a noe sechtmogat fri sein, Rawl. 68b31 ( ZCP iii 18 ). Cf. is fri ni dona salmaib dognid a figild, Mon. Tall. § 5 . fris sin moreover, besides , Leb. Gab.(i) i 88.1 . Hugh Roe 114.1 (f. 30b) . Cf. mod. freisin. For a special sense of with see Mon. Tall. cited under V (d).

III To express fig. direction (cf. V a);

(a) aim, purpose, freq. of function, specific purpose: cen nech dim chlaind frim foraithmet to preserve my memory Ml. 23d9 . ce notechtad ilgotha fri inchosc in mrechtraid sin `that it should possess many sounds to express that variety' Sg. 197a11 . ní fris arícht fri slond persine it was not for that it was invented, to signify person ib. (cf. cid arna airecht pronomen ... dia ṡlund, 198b3 ). in bríg frissa ndéntar a saithar sin the value for which that labour is performed Wb. 11a9 . am loor fri cach reit (gl. ego ... dedici, in quibus sum, sufficiens esse) 24b16 . altoir ... | fri loscud n-edpart an altar for burning [ = on which to burn] offerings SR 4162 . dá magh ... do ṡlaidhi ... co rabad do grés fri geilt do ceithrib ┐ fri trebad do daīnib, Ériu xii 150.6 . primepscop ... accu fri huirdned a n-oessa graid, fri coisecrad a n-eclas ┐ fri hanmchairdes do ḟlaithib, etc. Ériu i 218.2 . sechtmoga fer fria cobair to aid them SR 4196 . drong ngilla ... fri timthirecht, 6280 . ra ergitar ... dalemain fri dail, LL 173a27 ( CRR 13 ). mōr salm | fri hindarba plāg-tedmann, BColm. 70.8 . slóged hi crích ... fri indnaide slogid tairse a hosting into a country to delay a hosting (coming) across it Críth G. 511 . fergniae fri forngaire ndoirseo, 591 . In this sense perhaps in: fót fri haltóir, see 1 fót (d). pars de feoil fri foimtin terci as a precaution against scarcity Mon. Tall. § 12 . Here perhaps: dognith Saul intleda ... fri Duaid used to lay snares against D. Ml. 30a3 . techt do Roim ... fri foglaim n-ecnai, Trip.² 241 . roairis re sloind senchasa he remained to relate Ériu iv 152.6 [or remained relating ? See VI (a)]. cid frisi farcbad int id for what end the withe was left LU 4752 (= cid imma ndernad int id, TBC-LL¹ 597 ). cid frisindrolais in cloich why hast thou thrown the stone ? LU 5092 . o tancamair friss `since we have come for it' ( = for that purpose) Fél. 72.24 (cf. inní imo tainic ib. 30 ). co ndernur inní fris tánac LU 4347 . Cf. doluid Saul fri tāirsin David i fus, SR 5959 . lurech imme ... fri cathugud, SR 5757 . treb Leue ... immon eclais fria immarchur, 4883 . docúaidh B. frissan umaloitt sin gusin muilenn `on that service' BNnÉ 26 § 19 . téit féin re toisc ┐ re túrus a crichaib na hEspáine on business CCath. 1806 , cf. do chuaidh gach aon rea dtoisgibh ┐ rea dturasaibh féin, ML 26x (= le tosgaib fein, ML² 347 ). The follg. perhaps are elliptical: the idea represented is anticipating, forestalling: dogniad pars de feoil fre terci do t[h]ecmong = as a provision against the occurrence of scarcity Mon. Tall. § 12 . do na .u. gaiscedaib dec no bitís ... hi tegluch C. fri maidm n-airm no fri gabáil ngasced do neoch LU 5046 . Cf. Fél. Nov. 14 cited VI b.

(b) after adjs. in sense of Lat. gerund with ad or supine in -u: leiscc .i. fri fognam, Wb. 31b23 . conid mesc fria rim so that it is confusing to count it LU 4794 . ba gnim ṅdangen fri himluad, SR 7229 . ingnad fria innisin, LU 2074 ( FA 15 ). adhbal rea n-innisi prodigious to recount ZCP viii 204 § 26 . cenco beth ... and acht C. ba lór fri immarbaig, LL 107a19 ( Ériu iv 28 ). lia iná rúainne ... re n-áireamh, IGT, Decl. ex. 1201 . Cf. atait ... re a ttaispenadh go follus are plainly to be seen Fl. Earls 50.12 . In this use modern Irish has le (LA).

(c) to express direction of feelings; behaviour towards, after nouns or adjs., both of persons and things (cf. I a and V a): conroib deserc leu fri cách, Wb. 26d22 . fáilte fri noíbu, 7b2 (see fáilte). ar formut fribsi, 12c29 (see format and formtech). ropat ḟáilti frimsa, Fél. Dec. 18 (see fáilid). hissel fri hard, sleman fri garb, ZCP iii 447z . anmne fri fochaidi, 449.15 (see ainmne). mailli fri cloc slowness at (answering) the bell ib. 21 . dána fri tōla tromsluaig daring in face of an army SR 5778 . uair ná dernsam huimli fri forngaire, 1854 . ar gart friu for generosity to them ZCP viii 313.12 . créd nach frim atā a maithe ? why is not their bounty bestowed on me ? ACL iii 296 § 38 . ní ar maith friu it is not for their good Wb. 4b37 . ar ulc friu, Ml. 72b22 . tar aesi n-uilc huai[m] se friusom, 74a2 (see also s.v. maith, olc). bad chert do cluchi frim play fair with me LU 5228 . ar ngabáil bāide ... dō rena ardnaem having conceived affection for his high saint BCC § 12 . lére duit frí ríg ngréne ┐ réde fri doíni, Ériu i 193 . is buide linn frib (gl. rogamus vos) Wb. 25a39 (see 2 buide). is maith robai Dia rind, SR 1905 . ní maith ro mbátar frim they have not treated me well LU 4891 . Cf. is maith ro ngabus fritt, TBFr. § 11 . bad faitig frisin foirin sin (gl. observate eos) Wb. 24a23 (see faitech). bid cennuis a gnuis risin lucht ra-nadh (= frisndid) rathmar to whom he is gracious KMMisc. 156.124 . in maith frit menma ind airdríg whether the king is well-disposed to thee SR 6114 . ba fearr di frib menma bar mathar, RC xxiv 56 ( YBL 206a47 ). Cf. is beite duit menma fris `thou must take heed of him' Ériu xii 176.16 . Similarly in expressions like: do-gní maith (trócaire, etc.) fri (see do-gní). nech no comaildfed fir fer frimb uime RC xiii 29.6 .

(d) of prayer, etc. to: irnigde fri Dia, Wb. 4d18 . cf. abstanait fri Dia, PH 4988 . ro throiscset ... fri Dia im a ḟurtacht, 7258 (see troiscid). im aīne fri Dia cora faillsigthi dō ... fasting towards God, that ... might be revealed to him Ériu v 120.12 . Similarly: frit, a rí ..., mo dēr | conom thī ... Mīchēl, SR 2091 . co ndēraib frisin coimdid, PH 6292 . (cf. use with ad-teich). cossoít a thuaithe fri Dia, Wb. 5a23 (see cosaít). Here, perhaps, should come such expressions as the following: ar Christ frit, aithirigh pēin dam, Cáin Ad. 13 . ar do chubus riut, a ingen, crét tuc ort ?, Acall. 6012 . ar bar cubus rib..., crét..., 5476 . ar fir do chubais riut..., 5824 . cf. 4544 . ar t'ḟírinne riutsa, nā furáil, CCath. 1659 .

(e) of hostile feeling, attitude, conduct towards: fri aicned contrary to nature Wb. 2c25 . ba fri aicned ... in talam ... do indluch, Ml. 129d8 . frisin n-uall (gl. adversum inflationem mentis) 68c1 . trifar pecthu fri Dia through your sins against God 115b8 . Common after verbs of opposing, hindering, fighting: hóre nád comeicnigther nech fri toil no one is constrained against [his] will Wb. 28b1 . tuidecht fri toil Dé resistance to God's will 4c23 (see do-tét). cf. o dorala ... | frim thala mac I. | duit ... | niba céle SR 6014 , where opposition seems implied despite the similar phrase cited below under V (d). soud a gnuso fri nech frisa mbi ferc do (gl. ne auertas [faciem tuam] a me Ml. 47d8 (`to turn his countenance from one against whom he cherishes anger' Thes., but surely `fri nech' here must also mean either against ... or towards ... ? See soïd). fergach fris Fíadu, SR 6837 . iar ndebaid do fri Duid, 6994 . na cathaig frim do not contend with me 2877 . ni sirsan do Ch. a n-imned i tá a óenur fri firu Herend not happy for C is the trouble in which he is, alone against the men of E. LU 5995 . Cf. do thoitim fria Cu | ba dirsan sad that thou shouldst fall by [ = fighting against] C. (?) TBC-I¹ 2715 (see also III g). Mairg fris ticfa a ḟerg ... Mairg ticfa re cert, Fen. 200 (see do-icc). ar bruc fris `in displeasure at him' Mon. Tall. § 58 . namthi garga fri sluagh nA., ACL iii 297 § 55 . atat frim hi cotarsnai, SR 1520 . Cf. ni bia th'anim fri fugall | ind ríg hí laithiú brótho, Ériu i 196 § 13a . With adj.: cotarsne fri Dia, Wb. 26a18 . is torcda ┐ is díchéill notaí frim, LU 10831 (= Ériu xii 172 ). is bairnech mo menma frit, LU 10832 (= ib.). is tromda atai rim, RC vi 183.13 . olc roba rim, Ériu v 208.8 (see III c). Here perhaps: tromde ... ro buí frisim ind chaillech oc atach Dé, Mon. Tall. § 7 (= do bhí sí roliosda ar Dh., Rule of Tallaght § 41 ). But cf. VII below.

(f) To express protection, guard, defence, watch against: gabthe dūnad les fris, Ml. 55c1 . inna cathrach conrotacht la Duaid fri Ebustu, 48d27 . múr trén ... fri dóini, fri demnai, Fél. Ep. 152 . tocuiriur etrum ... inna huli nert so fri cech nert n-amnas in ..., Hy vii 49 . cor gabad Sinann friu the Shannon was held (defended) against them RC xviii 10.28 . gébtaít ar tír frind, LU 4634 (see gaibid). iadad Caisil frim eochu the closing of C. to my horses Anecd. iii 63.4 . cóir duit arechus ri siút, TBC-LL¹ 1280 (aire do tabairt fri ... St; see 1 aire). Dia lem fri cech snīomh, Ériu iv 236 . Crist credal fri demnaib, ACL iii 221.12 . dín ... re holcaib, ZCP viii 202.18 . Of limitation, boundary: nā bí crích la nech fri peccad that no one sets a limit to sin Ériu i 218.9 . Cf. samaiges crích fri aidchi, Hy ii 55 , corresp. to contra noctem terminum pones, Ardm. 8a1 . See also s.v. inillius.

(g) In elliptical sentt.: leic ... in fognam, ol se; ni lamaim, ol sī, frisin rigain = I dare not disobey the Queen RC xxiv 192 (but perh. FRI here = because of; see V b ). ro an ... ina aenar ru remained alone to oppose them ZCP vi 56.31 . rofetursa a n-as maith dúib fris I know a good way for you to deal with him LU 5934 . tarmairt mo Dia dil frisin tuaid ... a cor fo leittreib lethglenn = my dear God had well nigh (in His resentment) against them cast them down ... SR 4718 . Cf. lām fri idal to renounce idolatry SR 4845 (see lám).

IV

(a) after adjs. and nouns denoting resemblance or equality (esp. those compounded with com-) and vbs. of resembling or comparing: cosmil fri cethir (gl. animalis) Wb. 8b14 . cutrummus fri Dia, 17c8 . i cutrummus fribsi 17b14 . ɔodernain hi cutrummus frim cheliu `to do like my fellows' PCr. 2a2 . (pariter) fri, Sg. 77a2 . i tomus fri nech Wb. 17b11 . intamail ... fri nech, Ml. 22c1 . cen a chondelg fri nech, Sg. 42a6 . cosmaili tuisil `sui' fri tuisliu `ego' ┐ `tu', 200a12 . (similiter) fri, 203a5 . cf. (eandem significationem habens) .i. fri `cum', 218a1 . diatā oenḟolaid ... frissin Athair, PH 177 . ba cudruma re core mōr é, RC xviii 183 . ni caithedh acht coibeis fri gach manach he used to eat only as much as any other monk BNnÉ 300 § 3 . nir chumma nech ris im chath, Metr. Dinds. iv 344 . ru boí i comré ri Cormac, LL 3796 (30a) . i comhrē ris coeval with him Moling 4 . rogheanair i n-aenuair fria was born at the same time as she BB 406bz (= Dinds. 111 ). Cf. IX (b).

Replacing O. Ir. construction with equative: comdhub fri hec, Thr. Ir. Gl. 36 (prull) = duibidir éc, Corm. Y 1059 . Bodl. comard fri fid, Ériu iv 138.26 . meidithir fria hasal as big as an ass Marco P. 10 . corbo chomfota frisin sroin LU 6472 .

See also verbs and adjs. of comparison, e.g. 1 do-ella, samlaithir, in-samlathar; cosmail, 2 cutrummae, etc.

(b) to express difference, distinction from : frissaní immeraidtis (gl. longe aliud) Ml. 61c12 . sain fri .c. `different to c' Sg. 6b7 . do dechor fri praenomna aili, 28a13 . huare nád deligedar fri praenomen , 28a15 . do dechrugud persine fri alaili, 202a4 . is allail pronomen aní sin fri `sui' (gl. `is' aliud pronomen...) 209b10 . (differentia) fri, 213b15 , gl. contra 214b4 . Cf. nipo choím less frinn He was not dear to Him compared to us (?) Wb. 4b12 [Fraser l.c. suggests this rendering, ZCP viii 41 n . `in our case (?),' Thes.].

See s.v. 1 dechor, dechraigidir, deiligidir and other words of similar meaning.

V

(a) with respect to, with regard to (cf. III c) : is sain fri cath sain fri scor different for battle, different for unyoking (of trumpet-call) Wb. 12c46 . idain fri cach réit faithful as to 31c13 . cen chinaid n-uaim fri nech, Ml. 54d16 (see cin). nach é Dia is ciontach riú is to blame for them TSh. 10499 . as eola fri aidgne ind Athar, Wb. 19d9 . it maithi a arilti frib `He deserves well of you' (`literally good are his merits as to you' Thes.) Wb. 16c11 . airle Dé fri Herind, LL 49b13 ( Hail Brigit § 2 ). .iiii. seóit a dire ... is fechem is fiadnaisi friu `four seds are his `dire'-fine ... he is a suitor and witness for them' (i.e. he is liable to that extent) Laws iv 308.2 ( Críth G. 138 ). is amlaid in t-athair frisin mac ngor; ... nimtha in t-athair frisin mac n-ingor thus the father acts with regard to the dutiful son; ... not so with regard to the undutiful one Laws iii 56. 22 ; z 0 . ba fria as-breth: cruth cách co hÉtaín 'of her was it said, 'every woman is fair till compared with Étaín'' BDD 43-44 , Celtica xv 57 . 'fer hi lorcc so,' ol in fer deginuch fri Nero 'a man is following us,' said the last man with regard to Nera RC x 216.48 . conidh ed isberdís cách fris, Cóir Anm. ii § 150 .

Cf. further: crādiis Ultu fri Cethirnd guin Fécc the slaying of F. imbittered the U. against C., ZCP viii 305.32 . ferdha a cathuibh iat, ar is friu ronnaltadh oc imairecc fria geinnti, Marco P. 189 . ro alt ... ind ingen co digrais fri légend ┐ gaís, LL 279a47 ( SG 413 ). Possibly the last two exx. belong rather to III (a), also : is me is cintach fris ni he is cintach frim, BB 479b14 (see cintach). See also : a lleth fri, s.v. leth.

(b) on account of (cf. VI b) : ro lega in snechta ... fri meit brotha in miled, LU 5858 . ba lond F. friside (-suidi), RC xxvi 12 § ix . saeth mār fri luga dige great distress from [?] lack of drink Fianaig. 12 § 20 . cid mís no bheinn gun ríg thess | ro-fess ná bíad mo scís fris, ACL iii 304.20 . ní ḟaicim-si ... ni rís budh choir t'obadh for which it were right to refuse thee Ériu iii 154.5 . atchess ... na haīble tened ... uasachind re fiuchud na ferge, LU 6466 . ba mertnech Moisi fri hilchaingni ... fri orddugugd cāich fo mām, SR 4542 . batar toirsech fri Moisi, 3886 (in these two exx. fri = oc of prose LB 122a etc.). féimdid sim imt[h]echt fri scíss he cannot go on from weariness BColm. 94.16 . ni ro chotail C. fri himṡním, LB 274a55 . ni faict[h]e ise fri feidm a léiginn she used not be seen because of her duty of study ACL iii 308 VI 13 . Cf. la III a.

(c) on behalf of: aitchitt an C. ris comad he noberad, etc. they beseech the Lord for him that it might be he BColm. 98.15 . dogníther airnaigthi frisin ríg co nambed fot saegail do, MacCongl. 59.23 . ica cantain fria Cianoig chanting (a prayer) for C. ZCP vii 308.7 . Cf. also : ata mo briathar ┐ mo comairghi fria ar Tuatha D., Ériu xii 152.9 . o doratsat briathair fris, CCath. 1236 . in tī bes rí is fris beimmi, ZCP viii 316.3 . See do-beir, gell, and ráith.

(d) according to ; in agreement with, with pers. somet. = in obedience to: ni ni nach breith nā bi fri canoin cumtastar [sic leg.] no judgement is valid that is not framed according to the canon Corm. Y 1224 . cf. manib fri fasach fuirmider, Ériu xii 199.23 . fri mes airechta adrimter, Laws iv 298.25 ( Críth G. 22 ). fri saltair nogebad ... a salmu by the psalter (i.e. with the psalter before him), Mon. Tall. § 39 , cf. ni lugae mbis ind menme hisin cheill dia gabail ind tsailm de memur indas cid fri saltair ib.). fosernd clothri Connacht ... fri senchus ... fri buaid ┐ breatha in conformity with (the claims of) pedigree, with prowess and legal decision ZCP viii 108.10 = Ériu v 234 . bid som iarum fria toil (= they will be able to do as they like) Mon. Tall. § 35 (= go mbid ... aca ara ttoil fein, Rule of Tallaght § 35 ). fri tala ind rig ... domrala I am about the king's business SR 6187 (Rex praecepit mihi 1 Reg. xxi 2 ). cia ro delb fria thuil a ndath who coloured them to please himself (?) SR 7675 . For FRI TOIL in a different sense, see III (e). Cf. nitattorbi fri toil Dé (gl. non omnia expediunt 1 Corinth. x 22 ) `against God's will' Thes., Wb. 11b 17a . Also : ind tí dogní ní do maith fria menmain fadesin ... ar ind bo neoch gabti he who does a good thing in accordance with his own inclination ... should openly proclaim it Mon. Tall. § 21 (= chuirios ní maith ... do dheunamh uaidhe fein, Rule of Tallaght 71 ).

VI

(a) with vn. or other abstract after subst. vb. or equivalent = to be at, engaged in or about to engage in (some occupation, process ; cf. III a) : in tinscanfam .i. in biam fris (gl. incipimus ... commendare ?) Wb. 15a1 . ní uisse do mug Dae buith fri debuid to be at strife 30b26 . cf. ní bethe fria acre, 9c20 . ni piam fri aithirgi, 30b17 . ni biat som fria togais adi (= non fallacia ad quoscumque loquuntur) Ml. 31a17 . cechtar nathar fria saindān `each ... at his special art' Thes. ii 293.14 . feib donrala fri comrad, SR 1214 . indí ... bíte fri tnúith `those that are given to lust' Mon. Tall. § 11 . nebbuith fri éthech not to be lying Ériu ii 64 § 6 . céin bete fri soíthar while they shall be at work Fél. Ep. 298 . in tan natbi fri frestal na n-anmand when he is not attending to LB 110b43 (cf. SR 1199 ). ní mo chean ... tarrla re freastal ... na fairrgi sin, CF 42 . amail do beith se re goibhnecht ríam as if he had always been at smith's work BCC § 92 . na saoithe do bhí re seanchus, Keat. i 74 . cuirim suas don ghrádh, | ní fiú é bheith ris, Dánta Gr. xiv 3 . Cf. boí a ben fri idna in travail LU 105.86 (see 1 idu). Similarly without subst. vb. : nachitochthad fria choscc `let him not wear thee out in admonishing him' Wb. 31d11 . conus tarttsat fria ttoghairm chuca an lucht they set about calling the people Hugh Roe § 8 . Cf. airfitech re tetaib, ACL iii 223.23 (= Keat. ii 5358 ). dias fri cerdacht, SR 190 (perh. III a). dá mbeinn re héagnach `had I purposed to revile' Content. v 7 (cf. le hóradh bhriat[h]ar da mbeinn, Ó Héodhusa 4 ). In class. lang. `re' is used with vn. to express futurity : an chathair atá ré teacht ( = civitatem futuram) TSh. 2751 . i n-oirchill na n-olc bhíos ré tuirling orra, 532 .

(b) denoting the occasion (event, cause, etc.) on or from which something takes place (some of the exx. could be explained as extensions of other uses (cf. V b ; IX a) ; often the construction is elliptical) : gaibed cach a greimm ... | fria brethir in primsacairt, SR 4400 . ba huisse soillse fri éitsecht na noeb at the death Hy ii 60 . Cf. co mbidis i nd-aenmaigin fria n-ég, Corm. Y 1233 (fri héc LB. ria n-ec LL 179b ). fri gein Críst ... tindscan lechsa léri, Fél. Nov. 14 (cf. III a). ro eirgis fri breithir Isu, PH 2780 . ret[h]it daim ... ri dorddan na damgaire, Ériu vii 2 § 1 . phreab as G. risan gair, Ériu i 18.33 . ac cantain cheóil ... fris coteltais Síl Adaim, LL 3305 ( Ériu xiv 156 ).

VII To denote mental subjective attitude, in the opinion of (cf. similar use of Lat. apud, and see la) : ni cumdabairt fri Cirine is tre metur Jerome does not doubt Hib. Min. 6.187 . nad maith fri C. ciasperthar ..., 7.235 . frithir frisin mac i n-ebras riss, Ériu vii 225 ( LL 209a16 ). ba bind fri cach na canaind, LU 1301 (`sweet to all was what I said' Imr. Brain ii 298 . But this may be ex. of : canaid fri). bid inmain fria cách a ainm loved of all PH 4299 . ba hingnad mor frisin popul sin, 2959 . ba mo a grad fri Gargán oldait a uli cethra G. loved him more than all his cattle 7178 . Cf. Mon. Tall. § 7 cited under III (e) where the meaning seems different. gurbh annsa ré hEóin Críost ioná ré Peadar Christ was dearer to John than to Peter TSh. 10327 .

VIII

(a) to denote agent (a late use, mostly in texts in artificial style). ar na bennughadh fri sanctuss Silvester consecrated by Fl. Earls 196.19 . laech ... frisimbia mo thiglecht (= who will cause my death) Metr. Dinds. iv 360 (but perh. this is ellipt. and belongs to III (e) ; cf. TBC2 cited there). romarbtha na maithe ... frisna crechairib LB 154a63 . in lucht frisa tucad in digal .i. Uespiam ┐ Titus ib. 16 . Constantiana ... .i. eclas rocúmdaiged fri Constantin 157b48 . Of parenthood : trī meic Medba fri Fergus, Corp. Gen. 279.33 . sē meic do Mīlidh fri Scota ┐ dā mac frisin nEspānaig 'Míl had six sons of Scota, and two sons of the Spanish woman', ITS xliv 64 § 424 . do chomthusmed clainni fri hA. to have children by A., Alex. 512 .

(b) to denote instrument, through, by means of, by dint of (cf. similar uses of Engl. `with') : sénais Brigit fria bachaill with her crozier Hy v 58 T = lia F. fria noebainm ... séntae cech slóg subach by [or at ?] his holy name every happy host was sained Fél. Prol. 99 . ícaid [Tipra C.] gallrae ... fri troscud aici, BColm. 52.15 . argain fri daigid (destroying by fire LL 107a21 ( Ériu iv 28 ), cf. multi nobiles ceciderunt ... fri daigidh ro horta uile, AU 900 (see RIA Dict. s.v. daig). go nach deachaidh neach re siúbhal ... as no one escaped by flight ML 88.31 . re dán nglas ... dán breaghdha do bhréagnachadh with a simple poem to refute an elaborate one Content. vii 13 . ro ēirigh fri nert seoin ┐ solaid, Moling § 4 (possibly = with here cf. dol ar fairrge ... ré cóir na gaoithe = with a favourable wind ML 36z = le ML² 466 . cuir me ... chum seoil ... re cóir ghloin, Measgra D. 48.16 ).

IX In expressions of time :—

(a) in O. Ir. in locatival sense in phrase : fri dē by day, in the day-time Ml. 121d8 . Wb. 6a30 . fri dei, 9a5 , 24d14 , 26b17 . Cf. in gabail fri dei ... in gabail cech ráithi a catch (of fish) daily (?) Trip. 250.14 (2950) . fri díe, Mon. Tall. § 55 . fri haidchi by night Trip. 208.25 (2452) . gl. contra noctem Lat. Lives 18 . re lá, Ériu iii 148 § 3 . arna imbreth ... i n-aidchi cía nosgonad fri dé, LU 5609 .

(b) usually to denote period during which something continues or takes place : 'na fuair frisna secht ṁbliadnaib SR 3394 . fri a n-aimsir in their time Laws iv 210.28 . niro chotail C. frisin ré sin, LU 6337 . fria ré hi fut a saegail for their lifetime SR 5932 . bai cocad mor etarro fri re ciana RC xxiv 186 . batar ... fri re secht la amlaid sin, ACL iii 225.1 . conosrala for sechrán fri re bliadna co lleith, LU 1279 . bá-sa i Tul T. fri ré inna dílenn, Ériu iv 144y . maith graig dorat damh rem lá in my day ACL iii 304.23 . D. ba talchar fria ré in his day Metr. Dinds. ii 40 . dorumaltsa ... m'aimsir fri hamsir Nemid, LU 1276 . nir siubhuil in conuir-so re bliadhain aenridiri for a year past ZCP vi 104 z.

(c) fixing a limit within which something takes place : ni ba marb-sa fri sin I shall not die before that ZCP i 105.4 (co sin v.l.). Cf. also the locative use in Marco P. 11 cited I (a). tanic ... uidi na .xii. mís fri .xii. laa made the twelve months' journey in twelve days LB 139a31 . icuis fri teorai nomaidhe within thrice nine days RC xii 66x . nos ithend ... friha brathad sula in the twinkling of an eye LU 1895 ( RC x 56 ; fri b. v.l.) do imredar ... re trí lá, ┐ ní ruc G. énchluichi rissin, Acall. 1348 .

(d) of point of time ; in some cases approaching VI (b) above. fri dead n-aissi, SR 2829 . in tan nadbi fri húair i fos | frithalmi when he is not here at the hour of attending ... 1199 (cf. LB 110b43 cited under VI (a) above). cech dūil ... rosdelb fri oenuair, SR 7864 (similarly 7234 , 7386 ). grend Muman ... grend Connacht ... ra hóen-úair at the same time Ériu i 130.36 ( LL 46b ). buaidh ... damh fri deiredh mo ṡaoghail, ACL iii 231.1 . ra dered flatha Domnaill, LL 185a48 ( Arch. Hib. ii 85 ) = Rawl. 154a52 . Rí dorat na deich plāga | forthu fri huair combāga, SR 3942 . ? cid fri geld bāis nobeth `though he were at the point of death.' Mon. Tall. § 48 (see gell). re húair nfaicsiona at the time of looking RC xxix 128.13 . fri huair tacrai do ghníma, Ériu ii 228.7 .

(e) in follg. exx. perhaps used for ria before: na buidne ... robatar fria Crist...rofhogain don Choimdid fria tuidecht soscela (= turbae quae praecedebant ... ante evangelium) PH 4573 . dorad som a cuibidil fria mbass made his confession before death RC xviii 53.19 . Cf. co ro muid fri maccu Israel, LB 122b47 = re, YBL 293b40 (corresp. to mebaid remib SR 4765 ).

(f) In later lang., 3 s. ris occurs as adv. bare, exposed, uncovered : mar do leig ris a n-aoinfheacht 'how it left [her] uncovered at once' Duan. F. ii 332 § 9 , Éigse ix 228 . do theilg Ercuill a bhrat de ┐ ro leig a lorg ┐ in croicenn leomainn ro buí re cnes ris, ITS xxxviii 997 (Stair Ercuil) . chonarcadar a ccroicinn go coirtighthi buídhe ris, Smaointe B. Chr. 150 . ó bhí mo chroiceann-sa nochtuighthe síos reis, 160 . cia d’innis doit-se a bheith nochtuighthe síos reis (leis, v.l.), 161 . See also la VI (d), léicid.

X In regular or occasional construction with many verbs (and nouns of cognate meaning with them), e.g., those of speaking, addressing, boasting, complaining, asking, thanking ; meeting, touching, striking, rubbing, grinding ; listening ; waiting, expecting ; entrusting ; co-operating, associating, helping ; visiting ; resembling, comparing, differing ; parting, severing (from) ; doing (something to), acting (towards), giving, distributing, apportioning ; requiting, paying, selling ; refusing, rejecting, denying ; hindering, restricting, opposing, combating, etc. See especially : ad-cosnai, ad-gair, ad-teich, ad-tluichethar (attlugud), aigid, 1 anaid, ar-báigi, as-beir, benaid, beirid, 1 caithid, canaid, 1 cingid, comalnaithir, 1 con-clich, con-delca, con-gní, con-ricc , con-sní, con-túaisi, crenaid, dálaid, dlomaid, do-beir, do-gní, do-icc, do-rogaib, do-slí (tuillem buide fri), do-sluindi (diúltad), do-tét, dúnaid, 2 erbaid, fáiltigid(ir), feraid, fo-gella (2 fuiglid), fo-rig, fris-oirg, fris-tairissethar, fris-taít, gaibid (fris-gaib), gellaid, íadaid, 1 íccaid, imm-beir, imm-fogni, imm-fresna, in-samlathar, in-túaisi (éistid), labraithir (labraid), laigid, 1 ligid, lingid, 1 luigid, meilid (con-meil), naiscid, ráidid (ol, ar), rannaid, renaid, saethraigidir, scaraid (and compds.), soïd (do-soí), 1 téit, tongaid.

? fuirecarar

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? fuirecarar or dil.ie/24875

 

v ainm ineich fuirecarar ar inní fuirecarar ann amal ata sruithi bean be da cret, H 3.18, 287 ( O'Curry 579 ). Leg. fuirecar = fo-recar ; see fo-ricc .

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