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1 adba

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 adba or dil.ie/329

Forms: adhbha, -aidh, adbad, adhbhadh

n , f. Vn. of *ad-fen (see Lochlann ii 203 ). Later also t, f. adhbha f. (ó dá chéill an tráth téid a réim asda. d s. -aidh. g s. -adh n p. -tha), IGT Decl. § 4 . Also adbad: adhbhadh (: adhbhar), A. Ó Dálaigh xxxviii 5 .

Abode, dwelling place: Beccán . . . hi Cluain aird a adbae, Fél. May 26 . díambá ha.¤ ind a.¤ sin, LU 2458 . robad á.¤ daíscarsluaig, Trip.² 2399 . it adbai do demnaib indsin `these are abodes of the devil', Rule of Tallaght 74 § 42 . a a.¤ bunaid his original home, PH 7302 . isind adbai n-iffernaidi, Ériu ii 142 § 158 . téged cách díb iarom dia adbuid, LB 110b9 . as imdha aitti ┐ a.¤ aili ocon Coimdhi, Lism. L. 3703 . re h-innarba h-anma---in adbaid a n-aigérthar uirre a h-uilc MR 294.2 . i n-adhbhaidh fhalaimh, DDána 17.10 . go hadhba Poil is Pedair, (i.e. Rome), BNnÉ 283.4 .

Of the lairs of animals, etc.: a.¤ ron abode of seals (kenning for the sea), Bruchst. i 65 § 149 ( IT iii 38 § 24 ). ? do berlaib cech mil bladmair / dia n-ergnaib dia n-iladbaib, SR 7264 (could also be referred to 1 adb or 2 adba). a.¤ én, LU 3046 . condaberat leo dia n-adbai (adba, adbaid v.ll.) (locusts carrying away grapes), Ériu ii 192 § 3 . a n-adhpaid con, RC xi 130.38 . i n-a.¤ oss ┐ fíadmíl ┐ sinnach, TBC-LL¹ 5996 . dober-sa cach bó ┐ cach ben díb . . . co aitte ┐ co adbái fadessin, 4757 . gur charas an adhbhadh so tream' oileamhuin uirthe (a stag of the oak in the forest near which he was reared), Celt. Rev. x 136.16 .

Various applications: is a.¤ ega an ni atciam abode of death (i.e. a dangerous place to enter), RC xiv 54 § 66 . iar n-adbai escai .i. rofitir in n-a.¤ i mbí in t-ésca il lo ┐ in grían i n-aidchi RC xxvi 18 § 37 . rop a.¤ sciath ┐ scen, Metr. Dinds. iii 314.5 . Of the grave: in ben mór in Dagda dond / ní duachnid a n-a.¤ and, LU 4140 . a techt i n-hūire a.¤ `the abode of clay' (i.e. the grave), Fianaig. 10.16 . See also under othan. Of the body: inghnadh eagla gum anmain / mo dul as[in] drochadh- phaigh, ZCP xii 367.4 . a ádbai na ndoel (voc.), PH 8256 . iar ndenumh ádbai indat, 8278 (the body to the soul). Of a warrior: adhbha na gcraoiseach, LL 394.29 . an fer bhus adhbha sochaidhe coiseóna féin Righe `rallying-point', ITS v 26.6 . In Laws translated property: amboi (= ambua) adba .i. domo (= doma) seoit, Laws v 182 n.2 . fobith bana.¤ taisic `because female possession reverts', Laws iv 16.24 .i. fon fath is a.¤ dar coir aisec in feraind, 18.12 Comm. In kennings: Adhbha Ír Ireland, TD 19.16 . adhbha . . . chuaine Chuirc Cashel, 5.10 . Of ship: nach raibh aco lóng gan leónadh ná athbha gan fosgla, CF Eg. 22 .

airisiu

Cite this: eDIL s.v. airisiu or dil.ie/2136

Forms: airis(e), occas, aires

n n, f. (* ar-fíad-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 519 See ar-fét ). Later airis(e) without nasal inflexion. Also occas. aires (see oires).

(a) act of recording; record, narration, story: lebor airissen gl. annali, Sg. 106b15 , cf. 31a6 . inbhur lebhraibh airis[sen] ┐ annálta, CCath. 1654 . a lebraibh airisi (irisi, MS.) na nEbraide `in Annalibus Ebreorum', RC xxviii 310 § 1 . i seanleabhraibh irsi ┐ annálach Éireann, Keat. iii 317 . leabhair irse Innse hAirt, Content. xv 9 . robad a.¤ co brāth a ndogēnainn, TBC-I¹ 2874 . bid cath roth a a.¤ `renowned battle will be his story', Ériu v 242.182 . illaidib ┐ i n-airisnib, BB 429b15 . i scélaib ┐ i n-airisib, 413b38 . forácaib ailgi ┐ airisni da márgnímaib in cach magin díb, LL 221a33 ( TTr. 299 ). ailche ┐ airise a gnim, BB 414b45 . ar a urriseib `on account of the tales about him', RC xiii 221.7 . fer cuimne ro moire . . . ar aesaib ┐ ar airísaib na n-daine, AU iii 196.22 . ni fhedar a airess na a aes, Alex. 779 . bréag an ireis, Content. xi 8 . Úa M. . . . / ag cách 'na oiris orrdhruic a notable tale, IGT Decl. ex. 669 .

Hence (b) event, happening: Fiacha Labhrainne ar robí cétna a.¤ a ḟlatha tómaidhm Labhrainne fó thír, Cóir Anm. 80 . mor do gnimradaibh eile ┐ do airisibh ┐ do ardbuaghaibh, BB 488a20 . ?a hurisna rígi the events of his reign, Fianaig. 30.15 . airisne na bliadna sa, AFM ii 582.15 . Legal: toimmur deruth (leg. de raith, ZCP xviii 396 ) cach techta i n-huidib ┐ airisnib i.e. according to protocol, Bürgschaft 18 § 55 (`in richtigen Zeiten und Handlungen'). ascomrar huile huidib (sic leg.) ┐ airisnib, § 56.

Various: trí airisena (hærsenna, hairisin v.ll.) boccachta: sírchéilide, sírdécsain, síriarfaige signs, Triads 102 . corrígaib ┐ rigdamnaib, airisnib ┐ airechaib, LL 237a27 (`nobles', TTr. 1500 ).

aistrech

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aistrech or dil.ie/2523

Forms: astrach

adj o, ā (astar). Also astrach.

(a) journeying, roving: robad astrach aidchi is lá / eter sídaib Setantá, LU 3562 ( SCC § 29 ). da righdanna (sic) oga aistreacha, KMMisc. 312.29 . drem d'ainglib bas astaraigh, ZCP viii 217.7 . ba a.¤ Albain leis he travelled throughout Scotland(?), Skene, Chronicles of the Picts and Scots 89.9 (`Scotland was unsettled in his time(?)', Plummer MS. notes). ciodh ná ba déanta dhamh-sa / gémadh aisdreach oram-sa . . . dámadh tarbha d'Eoghan though it would mean a journey for me, DDána 65.32 . do sdéd astrach ochttairrngech, IGT Decl. ex. 730 . eass . . . a.¤ , MR 104.13 . aistreach ré triall i slighe na subháilceadh fit to travel, TSh. 9359 . In vaguer eulogistic sense: in aigtibh na n-anradh n-astarach `toiling', CCath. 4992 . anraidh . . . aistreac[h]a antrenta, 5368 . téid . . . go géig n-aisdrigh nEochaille, DDána 86.15 . na ngnímh n-aisdireach n-inghill, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 374.20 . ? `aisdrech' umal, Metr. Gl. 32 § 7 . Compar. . . . ba luaimnighe láin aisttrighe `who was more energetic in his expeditions', AFM v 1736.1 . Adv. slóigh Uladh . . . ┐ iad go h-aisderach éadalach, ML 84.3 . As subst. a astruigh . . . / in-iath aineoil, Skene, Chronicles of the Picts and Scots 93.5 . a aistrigh an toirbheirt truim, Studies 1921, 257 § 1 .

(b) restless, unsteady: do beith na foghlaidh aisttreach essadhal, AFM v 1748.3 . saoí . . . móraiccentach aisdreach essadhal, vi 2366.7 . ba . . . aistreach essadhal ro thochaith Aéd Rúadh an cheitt-bliadhain sin restlessly, Hugh Roe 58.5 (f. 15b) . Of a house: aisdrich (sic) ar Lon-letrich cró rickety(?), RC xi 131.2 .

anurrad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. anurrad or dil.ie/3851

n (aurrae) one who has not the status of an aurrae; hence perh. outlaw, lawless person (cf. deorad): robad cutruma . . . a.¤ na ticc fo luigi cana ┐ ar an urrad féin, O'Curry 360 (H 3.18, 200). anurradh . . . na fuil ar cur no ar faichill ag duine . . . ┐ da mbeith budh inand cunnradh do dhenam fris ┐ do neithea risin urrad aga mbeith, 2162 ( Eg. 88, fo. 4(5)c ). in cennach d'anurradh, O'D. 2423 ( Rawl. B 506, 55a ). a coimet for robaib ┐ for anurradhaib na crichi, O'Curry 928 (H 3.18, 406). ruib ┐ anurraid ┐ indilsigh ┐ fiallach nembéscna, O'D. 1595 (H 5.15, 9b) (cf. na robb ┐ na n-ecodnach, LL 14160 ). cumal . . . a comairlegadh anurraid, Laws iii 388.2 Comm. ag na.¤ contention of lawless people, Lec. 171 va 30 = hanurnaidh, ZCP viii 213 § 67 . idir urra is anurraidh `both free men and wanderers', TD 16.53 . caluma fan ciúnLife / ní hanurra énlaithi no ignoble flock(?), IGT Decl. ex. 497 . a amais, a anurraid foreign soldiers, mercenaries, MR 188.14 .

attá

Cite this: eDIL s.v. attá or dil.ie/4927
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: attá, Fil, fil, faeilfit, fil, fil, atóo, attó, attóo, ató, -táu, -ttóo, -tó, atái, atái, -tái, adta, ata, at, atáa, attáa, ataa, att, -tá, -ta, -táa, -dathar, ataam, attaam, ataid, ataaith, ataaid, ataad, -taid, ataat, ataat, -tat, -taat, tathum, tathut, táithi, táthus, táthunn, taithiunn, tathuib, tás, fil, fil, feil, fel, fail, fil, file, fel, fele, feil, fail, biuu, -bíu, -bí, biith, biid, bíid, -bii, -bí, robīi, -rubi, -rubai, -ruba, bíis, biís, bis, bís, bithir, bither, -bither, -rubthar, bímmi, -biam, bimme, biit, bíit, robiat, -biat, -bíat, -rubat, bíte, -bíinn, -biinn, -bíid, -bíth, -bid, -bith, bithe, -bímmis, -bitis, -bítis, b, bíth, bíith, bíid, biid, bíd, bithom, biid, bith, biat, beo, beu, -béo, bee, b, -bee, robhe, beith, beid, bed, beth, -b, -bée, bethum-sa, rob, robe, rubé, rob, robbé, -roib, bess, bes, bethir, bether, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -bem, -robam, beithe, bethe, -beith, -beid, -robith, beit, rubet, be(i)t, -bet, -robat, bete, -beind, -beinn, -betha, nobed, nobeth, -bed, -beth, -robad, -rabad, -bethe, -bemmis, -beimmis, -bemis, -bethe, -betis, -[ro]ibtis, bia, bie, bieid, bied, -bia, -bia, -bia, -bía, bethiumm, bethib, bias, bies, beithir, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -biam, -piam, bethe, bethi, -bied, -bieid, biet, bieit, biet, -biat, -bíet, bete, beite, nombeinn, nobiad, -bíad, nobemmis, nobetis, b, -bá, bói, bái, -bói, boie, boithius, boíthi, baísu, both(a)e, botha, -both(a), bamar, bámar, -baid, bātir, -batar, batar, rob, -roba, -raba, rob, robói, rambái, robui, -robae, -robe, -rabae, romboth, rombod, -rabad, robámmar, -robammar, rubaid, -robaid, robatar, robbátar, -rabatar, -robatar, -rabtar, buith, buithi, atáu, atú, itu, it, atú, ataim, -t, -tái, -toi, taoi, -t, atá, attá, ata, at, atáthar, dáthar, atass, -das, itám, tám, ataum, ataim, atamaoit, atámaoid, atám, -taum, -dtám, atathai, atathi, atáithi, -táithi, -dathai, -taidh, itāt, atáit, ataut, táid, -táit, itat, atat, fil, -fhile, -fhuile, -fuili, -ḟoili, -ḟuile, fail, fail, fuil, -fail, -fuil, -uil, -ḟil, -ḟuil, -ḟoil, fil, fail, fail, filter, -fuiltear, fuilemm, -failmet, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, -bhḟuilti, failet, filet, fuilet, -failet, -filet, -fileat, -fuilet, -fuilid, failet, failet, fuilet, filet, bim, bím, -bím, -ruibim, -bi, bíd, bíd, -bí, -bíonn, -bind, bídh, -b, bither, -bithar, bímit, bídmaid, bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, bíth, bīd, -bíat, -bít, -bíd, bit, bít, bhínn, nobīth, robíth, bhíodh, bhíoth, bithi, -bithi, bithea, naboitis, nobīdis, beitis, bitis, bhítís, bhídís, bír, b, bīdh, bíodh, bíoth, bíom, bíthe, bídh, bidhí, bíod, ber, uér, beor, bheith, bur, -rabor, -rabhus, rabasa, bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, bé, beir, -rab(a)i, -rabha, -rabhair, -mbéis, -beis(se), -rabais, beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, beth, -b, -raib, -rab, -raibhe, rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, bess, beas, bethur, beme, bemmit, bemait, -bém, -beam, -ruibem, -rabum, bheam, rabham, bethi, rabthai, beit, -bet, -beat, -rabat, -rabut, -rabhait, -rabhaid, -rabheid, beinn, rabainn, beithi, beithe, bethe, beitheá, beith, nobith, mbeadh, -mbeath, -rabad, -bethe, -bette, rabtha, mbiadh, nobeitis, nobeidis, mbeith, bíat, biat, biad, bhead, bed, bét, bett, -biu, -bhiú, biad, -bi, bía, biae, biaidh, bía, -bía, bethair, bied, biaid, biáid, -bia, bíes, bés, bes, bess, bhias, biass, beither, beithir, bemit, bemait, -bem(ni, beimíd, -biam, -biaim(ne), -ben, bethi, beitte, bete, -bed, biait, biat, beit, beiti, beti, betit, beidid, -bīat, beidíd, beid, -bíad, no-béind, dobeind, do beinn, -beinn, bheitheá, biadh, -bied, bífad, rot-fiadh, biath, bhiadh, bethe, bheidīs, ro-bádus, bhádhus, bhí, -rabus, -rabhas, -rabadhus, bá, -raba, bádhus, -rabadhas, basa, bhádhuis, bhí, -rabadais, -rabhais, bhádhuis, -rabhadhuis, bae, bóe, baei, búi, -bae, -buí, robai, robae, robói, bí, robuidh, bí, bhói, bhaoi, -rubai, -roibe, -roibi, -roba, -raba, -raibhe, -rabha, -robha, bí, -raibi, baí, -rabha, -rabhustair, boí, bāi, būi, bae, buí, baí, boí, both, rombatha, robās, rombas, robás, -rabus, rabas, -bádus, -bás, bás, bas, -rabas, bas, bhás, bāmur, bámar, bhámair, -rabamar, robabair, -babhair, robadbair, bhábhair, -rabhuir, -rabhabhair, bādar, -bátir, badar, bádar, bídur, -rabadar, -rabhadair, baisit, -rabhsad, bátar, bátar, bheith, beitte

(ad-tá) subst. vb. is . The distinction betw. subst. vb. and copula is in the first place syntactical, and cases are found where there is no distinction of form. Cf. the type, common in ACC: boe sab he was a leader, ACC 26 . See further below, and the discussion by Bergin, Ériu xii 208 - 211 (cia taísiu, cia bé, etc.), who refers to cases like: is uera pictura ro bai sin, Thes. ii 6.32 as emphatic. See also Ériu xvi 46 , GOI 475 . For nimtha laám, Wb. 12a21 , nímptha fírion, 8d24 (copula ?) see GOI 487 . Note also the form of the pron. in (later): matait tall iat, Laws iv 86.8 Comm. , atá ar conair é, ACL iii 216.z . bí N. eices cecinit, RC xvii 175.14 is perh. a mistake. In follg. use of subst. vb. perh. due to infl. of Latin: mar nobéind athair doib = pater eram pauperum, PH 6107 . ata in innsci ordugud etc. = oratio est. . ., Auraic. 591 .

Apart from the ordinary indic. pres. all forms of subst. vb. are from a root beginning with b-. In indic. pres. the stem tá (in absol. position attá) is used in non-rel. sentences without conj. particle, after conj. particles with inf. pron. dat. and when the conj. particle consists of a preposition and rel. (s)a n-. Absolute inflexion of tá- is found in oldaas, indaas, etc. than (is), in meaning is angry, and with follg. suff. pron. The uninflected form fil (with accus.) is used after conj. particles where no dat. inf. pron. is present, in leniting rel. clauses and often in answers to questions containing subst. vb., and in archaic texts in absol. position in meaning there is . For fuller details see GOI 476 - 483 and exx. below. See also Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 419 ff. , Strachan, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899, 1 - 82 , Ó Máille, Ériu vi 1 ff. , Études Celt. xxxiv 143-44 . Forms of gaibid, do-coissin, díchsnigidir and 1 ad-cumaing also have the force of the subst. vb. in certain uses, see separate entries.

Note further that attá is usual after hóre (see Wb. 19a19 , 22d14 and compare GOI § 781 ) and occurs later after amal ( LU 7072 , Laws iii 90.18 ). Fil is somet. found in sense there is in mid. Ir.: fail crois d'ór in cach dorus, SR 361 . TBC-I¹ 2561 . Note also: fil derg it is red, Marco P. 173 .

The use of accus. after fil continues into the classical period, see IGT Introd. § 129 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 92 - 93 . A few exx. of forms other than fil with accus. occur: ni raibi deilb, TTr.² 1664 , ní raibi . . . mhnái, 370 , ní bhiadh mnaoi, Ó Bruad. ii 252.z (with assonance). Note also with inf. pron. rosṁbai inna tass, SR 5107 . ? nim tha maith . . . do chath fri firu, LU 3343 ( SCC 13 ). From the mid. Ir. period on fil takes personal endings except in 3 s., and occurs occasionally as an independent verb: faeilfit (fut. 3 pl. absol.), Caithr. Thoirdh. 120.26 . In rel. function attá is found side by side with fil from an early period: is heiside attá hi S., Trip.² 534 , a lucht atá istig, RC vii 298.131 , the form fil finally disappearing in this use.

In mid. Ir. fil occurs for earlier -tá with dat. inf. pron.: nichar fail tlacht, SR 1560 , ni-s-fil biad, PH 1310 . Also in rel. clause after prep.: bale hi fail, LU 7516 , fors fil, Imr. Brain 43 (see also Strachan, Stories fr. Táin 3rd ed. p. 1 note).

The consuet. pres. 1 s. conj. -bíu has in classical Ir. the force of a future: biad ní biú, IGT Verbs § 7 , see also TBC-LL¹ 882 , Acall. 6179 , Duan. F. i 43.4 .

Early forms (for fuller lists see Strachan loc. cit.). Indic. pres. 1 s. atóo, Wb. 12a21 . attó, 21c19 . attóo, 26d8 . ató, 26d17 . -táu, 32a10 , -ttóo, 17d24 , -tó, Ml. 92b8 . 2 s. atái, Wb. 5b27 . atái, Ml. 110d15 (sic MS, see Ériu xiv 30 ). -tái, 5b38 . 3 s. adta, Laws v 390.10 (see ZCP xxv 247 ). ata, Wb. 13c26 , at, 27a11 , atáa, 6a19 , attáa, 32a6 , ataa, 26b31 , att, 4b11 . -tá, 31c7 , -ta, 2b12 , -táa, 13a35 . Impers. -dathar (see GOI 477 - 478 ), Wb. 21c9 . 1 pl. ataam, Wb. 15a13 , attaam, 32a28 . 2 pl. ataid, Wb. 4a4 , ataaith, 20b16 , ataaid, 23c28 , ataad, 22d14 . -taid, 19d26 . 3 pl. ataat (trisyll.), Blathm. 471 . ataat, Ml. 55d11 , 37a10 . -tat, 42b10 . -taat, Sg. 71b3 .

With suff. pron. tathum, Metr. Dinds. iv 284.3 . tathut, Fél. July 24 . táithi (tathai, v.l.), Críth G. 197 . táthus, Fél. Feb. 5 . táthunn, Prol. 217. taithiunn, Thes. ii 293.19 . tathuib, Rawl. 88b51 .

For rel. s. without preverb (taas, tás) see atás, indaas, 4 ol.

The form fil, etc. As conj. form: fil, Wb. 16b9 , Ml. 92a8 , Sg. 193b7 . feil, Wb. 24c4 . Ml. 60b2 . fel, Wb. 3c38 , Ml. 27d10 . fail, 44b10-11 , Sg. 32a1 . As rel.: fil, Ml. 121c8 , file Wb. 23a5 , Ml. 51d11 , Sg. 151b7 . fel, Wb. 4c1 , fele, Ml. 93c7 . feil, Wb. 33b18 . fail, BCr. 18c4 .

Consuet. pres. 1 s. biuu, Wb. 16d8 . -bíu, 20a3 . 2 s. -bí, Ml. 135d1 . ACL iii 312 § 4 . 3 s. biith, Wb. 29a26 . biid, 4d33 . bíid, Sg. 150b4 . -bii, Wb. 28b25 , -bí, Ml. 103c3 . With ro: robīi, TBC-I¹ 1730 . -rubi, Wb. 11c17 , -rubai, Ml. 20d4 , Sg. 7b3 . -ruba, 3b28 . Rel. bíis, Wb. 13a12 . biís, 28b28 . bis, Ml. 61a33 . bís, Sg. 140b2 . Impers. bithir, Ml. 56b15 . rel. bither, 108b4 , -bither, 100c21 . -rubthar, cited GOI § 784 . OIPG 69 . 1 pl. bímmi, Ml. 15a4 . -biam, Wb. 16a8 . Rel. bimme, Wb. 12c11 . 3 pl. biit, Wb. 29a28 . bíit, Sg. 217a1 . robiat, 138a5 . -biat, Ml. 59d7 . -bíat, Sg. 148a4 . -rubat, 138a5 . Rel. bíte, Wb. 9d28 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. -bíinn, Ml. 108b1 , -biinn, 58d9 . 3 s. -bíid, LU 5080 (see Ériu xvii 121 ), -bíth, Sg. 148b6 . -bid, Ml. 33a5 . -bith, Vita Br. 12 . Impers. no bithe , CCath. 3971 . 1 pl. -bímmis, cited GOI § 785 . 3 pl. -bitis, Ml. 86d6 . -bítis, Sg. 5a15 .

Ipv. 2 s. b, TBC-I¹ 2391 . 3 s. bíth, Wb. 10a8 , 25 , bíith, 8d9 , bíid, 5d33 , biid, Ml. 74d3 . bíd, Wb. 3a14 . With suff. pron. bithom, Fél. Ep. 404 n.17 . 2 pl. biid, Wb. 23c11a . bith, 22b26 . 3 pl. biat, Ml. 51d13 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. beo, Wb. 23b41 . beu, Ml. 53b8 . -béo, Fél. Prol. 273 . 2 s. bee, cited OIPG 70 and see GOI 482 . b, ZCP viii 311.z (see xxiv 122 ). -bee (perh. absol.), ZCP vii 494 (Enchir. Aug.). -bē, Fing. R. 82 . With ro: robhe (restored as ro-bé), Blathm. 92 § 9 . 3 s. beith, Ml. 108a11 . beid, Wb. 14c23 . bed, 3c10 . beth, Thes. ii 245.34 (Cambr. Hom.). -bǽ, Wb. 22b14 . -b, Sg. 29b14 . -bée, Wb. 12c43 . With suff. pron. bethum-sa, Fél. Ep. 384 n.14 . With ro: rob, Wb. 5d30 , robe, 18c4 , rubé, Ml. 20d4 , rob, Wb. 28a23 , robbé, Sg. 169a1 . -roib, Wb. 16c24 , Ml. 118c5 . Rel. bess, Wb. 5d14 . bes, Ml. 77d3 . Impers. bethir, Wb. 5d33 . rel. bether, Ml. 107d8 . -bether, Wb. 10a18 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 31c11 . beimmi, 19a16 . -bem, 24a10 . -robam, 26c10 . 2 pl. beithe, Wb. 18b16 . bethe, 24b13 . -beith, Ml. 46a10 . -beid, Wb. 27c9 . With ro: -robith, Wb. 26a28 . 3 pl. beit, Wb. 10b5 . rubet, 26a23 . ro be(i)t , Vita Br. 35 . -bet, Wb. 9d27 . -robat, 11d9 . Rel. bete, Wb. 10c22 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. -beind, TBC-I¹ 1856 . -beinn cited GOI § 787 . 2 s. -betha, Wb. 4c24 . 3 s. nobed, Wb. 3b10 . nobeth, Ml. 27b1 . -bed, Wb. 9d1 . -beth, Ml. 88b15 . -robad , Wb. 17a13 . -rabad, 34a4 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . 1 pl. -bemmis, Wb. 9a3 . -beimmis, 29d23 . -bemis, Vita Br. 23 . 2 pl. -bethe, Wb. 9c20 . 3 pl. -betis, Sg. 138a9 . -[ro]ibtis, Wb. 28a1 .

Fut. 1 s. bia, Ml. 137b7 . 2 s. bie, cited GOI § 788 , OIPG 70 . 3 s. bieid, Wb. 4d6 . bied, 14c1 . -bia, 5d35 . -bia (disyll.), Blathm. 572 . -bia and -bía, GOI § 788 . With suff. pron. bethiumm. Ériu xiii 20.6 . bethib, ZCP viii 316.5 (see xxix 174 ). Rel. bias, Wb. 23b38 . bies, Ériu iii 102 § 32 . Impers. beithir, TBFr. 248 . -bether, MacCongl. 61.4 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 9c10 . beimmi, 21b7 . -biam, 15a1 . -piam, 30b17 . 2 pl. bethe, cited GOI § 788 . bethi, Trip.² 1589 . -bied, Wb. 9a21 . -bieid, 26d26 . 3 pl. biet (disyll.), Blathm. 472 . bieit, Wb. 4c40 . biet, 9d27 , Sg. 198b6 (also bíet, GOI § 788 ). -biat, 9c28 . -bíet, 40b14 . Rel. bete, Wb. 13c26 . beite, 4c40 .

Condit. 1 s. nombeinn, Ml. 59a22 . 3 s. nobiad, Ml. 32d5 . -bíad, Wb. 9d1 . 1 pl. nobemmis, Ml. 134b3 . 3 pl. nobetis, Ml. 100c7 .

Pret. 1 s. b, LU 9407 . 2 s. -bá, cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 , see perf. 2 s. below. 3 s. bói, Wb. 31c18 . bái, 27a16 . -bói, 17d17 , Ml. 78a4 . Rel. boie, Thes. ii 242.11 (Ardm.). boīe (MS. ba), Ériu xvi 46.10 (see n. 0 and Celtica vi 223 ). boíë (MS. baoí), Ériu xxvi 67, 85 . Cf. cech nóeb bói, fil, bías, Fél. Ep. 289 (where six sylls. required). With suff. pron. boithus, IT i 137.8 = boithius, 21 . boíthi, Sc.M² 3 . ? baísu, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 37.5 . Impers. *both(a)e, postulated GOI § 789 , botha, TBC-I¹ 1572 . -both(a), Vita Br. 33 . 1 pl. bamar, SR 1558 . bámar, 3286 , Imr. Brain i 48.5 . 2 pl. -baid (baïd ?), cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 . 3 pl. bātir, TBC-I¹ 217 . -batar, Ml. 55c2 . Rel. batar, Ml. 123b5 . See GOI § 789 .

Perf. 1 s. rob, Wb. 28a9 . -roba, Ml. 44c4 . -raba, TBC-I¹ 3068 . 2 s. rob, LL 14442 . 3 s. robói, Wb. 5c10 . rambái, 2c13 . robui, Ml. 93c3 . -robae, Ml. 41a5 , -robe, Wb. 18d7 , -rabae, Ml. 28d3 . Impers. romboth, Wb. 19a9 . rombod, 5b31 . -rabad, Ériu iv 146.4 . 1 pl. robámmar, Wb. 20d12 . -robammar, Ml. 105b16 . 2 pl. rubaid, Wb. 3b19 . -robaid, Ml. 46a8 . 3 pl. robatar, Wb. 24c5 . robbátar, Sg. 57b1 . -rabatar, Ml. 100c11 . -robatar, Sg. 45b1 . -rabtar, Ml. 37a16 .

Vn. buith.

Vbl. of necess. buithi.

Later forms (see also Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish, Ériu vi 1 ff. ; Mulchrone, Verbalformen der Vita Tripartita, ZCP xvi 440 ; Falconer, Verbal System of LU Táin, Ériu xvii 116 ; Strachan, Verbal System of SR, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1895, 1 - 76 ; O Daly, Verbal System of LL Táin, Ériu xiv 80 ; Mac Eoin, Verbalsystem von Togail Troi, ZCP xxviii 125 ; Sommerfelt, Le système verbal dans In Cath Catharda, RC xxxviii 41 ; Nuner, Verbal System of the Agallamh na Senórach, ZCP xxvii 272 ; PH Glossary; Lloyd, Impersonal passive forms of the Irish substantive verb, Ériu i 49 ff. ; TD Introd. lxxv ; IGT Verbs § 7 ).

Indic. pres. 1 s. atáu, Trip.² 1412 . atú, 2578 . itu, SR 1187 . it, TBC-LL¹ 434 . atú, IGT Verbs § 7 . ataim, Fier. 14 . -t, Acall. 4516 . 2 s. -tái, SR 3102 . -toi, TBC-I¹ 937 . taoi, TD 15.48 . cia doaisiu mac?, RC xxvi 30 § 128 . 3 s. -t, Trip.² 744 . atá, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. attá, Trip.² 534 , ata, SR 7708 etc., at, Acall. 429 . Impers. atáthar, TBC-LL¹ 3316 . dáthar (: máthar), IGT Verbs ex. 99 . atass, Ériu iv 114 § 17 (:as). -das (: as), IGT Verbs ex. 104 . 1 pl. itám, SR 1727 . tám, 3493 . ataum, PH 1556 . ataim, TBC-LL¹ 874 . atamaoit, TBC St. 121 . atámaoid, atám, IGT Verbs § 7 . -taum, PH 1506 . -dtám (: ár), IGT Verbs ex. 111 . 2 pl. atathai, PH 2734 . atathi, 597 . atáithi (: fáithi), IGT Verbs ex. 105 . -táithi (: sáithi), ex. 96 . -dathai, Alex. 190 . -taidh, Ériu ii 118 § 53 . 3 pl. itāt, TBC-I¹ 3132 . atáit, CCath. 1215 . ataut, PH 1064 . táid, TD 8.5 . -táit, CCath. 1701 . Rel. itat, Trip.² 882 , atat, SR 7949 . For later forms in meaning than (is) see atás, indaas, 4 ol. See also II (d) below and daas.

The form fil. 1 s. ni ḟuilim, ni ḟoilim, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. -fhile, PH 8116 . -fhuile, 3335 , -fuili, Acall. 3217 . -ḟoili, -ḟuile, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. fail, TBC-I¹ 60 , SR 353 etc. ro fail , TBC-LL¹ 263 , fuil, 3072 . -fail, Trip.² 2764 , -fuil, 872 , -uil, PH 3181 , -ḟil, Acall. 3709 . -ḟuil, -ḟoil, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. fil, Trip.² 842 , fail, SR 392 , no fail , 933 . With impers. ending: filter, MacCongl. 31.25 . -fuiltear, TD 2.42 . 1 pl. ra fuilemm , TBC-LL¹ 2971 . -failmet, SR 6320 , -ḟuilmíd, Acall. 5101 . -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. -bhḟuilti, Acall. 962 . 3 pl. failet, SR 345 . filet, 477 . fuilet, TBC-LL¹ 4739 . -failet, Trip.² 1119 . -filet, TBC-I¹ 1848 , -fileat, CCath. 1270 . -fuilet, 427 . -fuilid, TD 7.23 . Rel. failet, SR 400 . ra failet , TBC-LL¹ 5225 . fuilet, 4709 . filet, PH 435 . See also do-fil.

Consuet. pres. 1 s. bim, PH 6393 . bím, -bím, IGT Verbs § 7 . ? -ruibim, SG 373.29 . 2 s. -bi, SR 2035 . bí, ní bí, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bíd, TBC-I¹ 1453 (LU). biid, SR 4537 . bíd, 4588 . -bí, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bíonn, TD 22.12 . -bind, RC xlix 37.13 . bídh, -b, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bither, PH 7441 . -bithar, Laws iv 234.2 Comm. 1 pl. bímit, Acall. 886 . bídmaid, 5481 . bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bíth, Acall. 6139 . 3 pl. bīd, TBC-I¹ 1075 (bít, LU). -bíat, TTr.² 330 . -bít, PH 4189 , -bíd, TD 5.5 . Rel. bit (= bíït), SR 7259 . bít, TBC-LL¹ 1320 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. do bhínn , TD 23.7 . 3 s. nobīth, TBC-I¹ 593 (nobíid, LU cited above). robíth, TBC-I¹ 1903 (LU). do bhíodh , TD 14.23 . do bhíoth , 26.12 . Impers. bithi, Auraic. 5286 = -bithi, RC xx 150.y (ACC Pref.). no bithea , Acall. 156 . 3 pl. naboitis, TBC-I¹ 855 LU (nobitís, Y). nobīdis, 3621 (Y). bítís, 1898 (LU). no beitis , LL 407a27 . ro bitis , PH 1957 . do bhítís , Acall. 830 . do bhídís , TD 15.18 . Rel. tri cnuasa bítís ann, Acall. 455 .

Ipv. 1 s. bír (: gním), IGT Verbs ex. 94 . 2 s. b, Parrth. Anma 3871 . 3 s. bīdh, ZCP vi 271.z . bíodh, TD 16.2 . bíoth, 17.1 . 1 pl. bíom, Dán Dé xiv 17 . 2 pl. bíthe (: -chíthe), IGT Verbs ex. 95 . bídh, ex. 109 . bidhí, Luc. Fid. 3430 . 3 pl. bíod, TD 16.19 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. ber, SG 172.15 . uér, Ériu ii 92.9 . beor, v 222.46 . bheith mé, TD 8.9 . -ra bur , TBC-LL¹ 1112 . -rabor, ZCP xii 401.30 . ? -rabhus, ZCP v 523.27 = rabasa, Ériu xii 144.12 (TE). -rabar, ZCP iii 32.37 . bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bé, SR 1607 . beir, BNnÉ 288.29 . Acall. 592 . -rab(a)i, BDD² p. 80 . -rabha, Irish Texts iv 75 § 16 . -rabhair, Fing. R. p. 13 note 86 . -mbéis (: Céis), IGT Verbs ex. 100 . -beis(se) (: meise), Dán Dé xiv 20 . -rabais, Fing. R. 86 , BDD² 363 (see ZCP xxvii 75-8 ). beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. beth, TBC-I¹ 270 (beith, v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 101 . -b, TBC-I¹ 1671 . -raib, Trip.² 2753 . -rab, TBC-I¹ 1430 . -raibhe, Parrth. Anma 2616 . rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bess, TBC-I¹ 1104 (beis, Y). beas, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bethur, Laws ii 36.20 Comm. 1 pl. beme, Snedg. u. Mac R 9.14 . bemmit, TBC-LL¹ 2137 . bemait, Acall. 5478 . -bém, CCath. 1124 . -beam (: leam), Dán Dé xii 10 . -ruibem, SR 5540 . -rabum, PH 7899 . bheam, rabham, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 1233 . rabthai, PH 1977 . 3 pl. beit, Trip.² 1653 . -bet, TBC-I¹ 1053 . -beat, Lism. L. 4702 . -rabat, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. -rabut, PH 994 . -rabhait, BNnÉ 269.4 . -rabhaid, Parrth. Anma 2836 . -rabheid, RC xxix 136 § 51 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. do beinn , do rabainn , IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. no beithi , Trip.² 2972 . no beithe , 2983 = no bethe , Trip. 252.21 . do beitheá , TD 1.44 . 3 s. no beith , Trip.² 2967 . nobith, TBC-I¹ 3543 . dá mbeadh , TD 29.6 . -mbeath, IGT Verbs ex. 97 . -rabad, RC iii 184.24 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . -bette, Metr. Dinds. iii 382.19 . rabtha, TBC-LL¹ (C) 1675 . 1 pl. dá mbiadh sinn, TD 28.25 . 3 pl. nobeitis, SR 7855 . nobeidis, TBC-I¹ 3557 . dá mbeith siad, TD 26.36 .

Fut. (see Bergin, Ériu ii 46-8 ) 1 s. bíat, TTr.² 89 . biat, PH 1244 . biad (bíatt v.l.), CCath. 5137 . bhead, Parrth. Anma 6378 . bed, ZCP vi 41.10 . bét, 69.2 . bett, BNnÉ 52 § 42 . -biu, TBC-LL¹ 882 . -bhiú, Dán Dé xiv 20 . biad, -bi, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bía, Trip.² 1593 . biae, SR 1599 . -bíai, BNnÉ 291 § 2 . biaidh tú, TD 1.26 . bía, -bía, IGT Verbs § 7 . bethair, ZCP ii 225.4 . 3 s. bied, LU 10362 . biaid, Trip.² 1071 . biáid, TBC-I¹ 169 (LU). biaidh, -bia, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bíes, Trip.² 2671 . bés, CCath. 300 , bes, 657 . bess, PH 4666 . bhias, TD 3.50 . do biass , L. Chl. S. 1 . Impers. beither, Acall. 5259 . beithir, ZCP x 415.11 . 1 pl. bemit, LU 9753 , PH 1501 . bemait, CCath. 1467 . -bem(ni, LU 9753 . beimíd, -biam, IGT Verbs § 7 . -biaim(ne) (: siairni), ex. 108 . ? -ben, BCC 396.19 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 3083 . beitte (: eiti) (beththi, bete v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 102 . -bed, Trip.² 1590 . 3 pl. biait, Trip.² 2665 , TBC-I¹ 2057 (beite, LU). biat, Trip.² 1288 . beit, TBC-I¹ 80 . beiti, TBC-I¹ 2078 . beti, SR 8157 . betit, SR 853 . TBC-LL¹ 246 , TTr.² 760 . beidid, ZCP x 338 § 1 . -bīat, TBC-I¹ 1132 . beidíd síad, BCC 290.12 . beid, -bíad, IGT Verbs § 7 .

Condit. 1 s. no-béind, PH 6107 . dobeind, 7489 . do beinn, -beinn, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. do bheitheá , TD 19.13 . 3 s. no biadh , CCath. 3754 . -bied, TBC-I¹ 504 . ro bífad , TBC-LL¹ 5112 . rot-fiadh, IT iii 320.4 ( Cóir Anm. 70 ). do biath (: sgiath), IGT Verbs ex. 97 . do bhiadh , TD 2.54 . Impers. no bethe , TTr.² 533 . 3 pl. do bheidīs , Parrth. Anma 5227 .

Pret. and perf. 1 s. ro-bádus, PH 699 . do bhádhus , TD 23.6 . do bhí mé, 5 . -rabus, Acall. 7913 . -rabhas, 1584 . -rabadhus, 356 . do bá , -raba; do bádhus , -rabadhas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do basa ( : bádusa; proscribed form), ex. 103 . 2 s. ro bhádhuis , CCath. 553 . do bhí tú, TD 28.6 . -rabadais, PH 3725. 8121 . -rabhais, Acall. 123 . do bhádhuis , -rabhadhuis, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bae, SR 7608 . bóe, 6265 . baei, BDD² 127 . búi, CCath. 95 . -bae, SR 4975 . -buí, Trip.² 1505 . robai, SR 2229 , robae, 2262 . robói, PH 2572 . ro bí , CCath. 1302 . robuidh, Ériu iii 198 § 22 . do bí , CCath. 278 . do bhói , Acall. 58 . do bhaoi (: draoi), Dán Dé xii 22 . -rubai, SR 1241 . -roibe, BDD² 498 , -roibi, 1393 . -roba, 251 . -raba, 1533 . -raibhe, TD 2.25 . -rabha, 8.36 . -robha, 1 . do bí , -raibi, do baí , -rabha, IGT Verbs § 7 . With depon. ending -rabhustair, BNnÉ 322 § 31 . Rel. boí, Trip.² 626 . bāi, TBC-I¹ 1277 . būi, 630 . ro bae , Trip.² 288 . ro buí , BDD² 287 . ro baí , 1451 . ro boí , 1517 . Impers. both, Trip.² 2264 . rombatha, Ériu ii 20 § 3 (-a added later). -rabad, iv 146.4. robās, TBC-I¹ 2147 . rombas, SR 7564 , robás, TTr.² 151 . -rabus, Trip.² 54 . rabas, Laws iv 212.22 Comm. , -bádus, MacCongl. 43.22 . -bás, 61.3 . do bás , do bas , -rabas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do bas (: as), ex. 98 . do bhás (: fhás), Dán Dé xxvi 9 . 1 pl. bāmur, TBC-I¹ 399 . do bámar , Acall. 1283 . do bhámair (: Ádhaimh), Dán Dé xv 17 . -rabamar, TBC-I¹ 2495 . 2 pl. robabair, Anecd. ii 14.9 . -babhair, Blathm. 23 (see notes ). robadbair, TBC-I¹ 2502 . do bhábhair , TD 22a.1 . -rabhuir, Acall. 114 . -rabhabhair, TD 22a.2 . 3 pl. bādar, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bátir, TTr.² 1308 . ro badar , CCath. 573 n. ro bádar , Acall. 75 . do bídur , 5942 . -rabadar, TBC-I¹ 3108 . -rabhadair, TD 26.10 . ro baisit , O'Dav. 728 . -rabhsad, TD 16.21 . Rel. bátar, Trip.² 591 . BDD² 505 . ro bátar , 543 . Vn. an bheith , IGT Verbs § 7 . Vbl. of necess. beitte, TD 28.30 .

Cf. cenmothá, íarmothá, óthá.

Used in meaning is in a large variety of contexts. Normally replaced by copula (see 1 is) in certain fixed syntactical patterns (classification, identification, etc.), and when used in these cases exceptional (see above and II below).

I Expressing existence.

(a) Used absolutely is, exists, there is, etc.: ata in coimdiu gl. Dominus in cælo sedis eius, Ml. 30b27 . nabad hed a méit nádmbǽ `let it not be only that it is not' gl. nec nominetur in uobís, Wb. 22b14 . ní fil aimsir nad mbed ref. to fuit et est semper, Ml. 17a15 . ní torménmar-ni ara mbetis in gnimai sin gl. præter spem nostram, etc., 115b1 . ni fil chumtubairt gl. indubitabilia, etc., Sg. 154b2 . ma nubed `if it existed', 31b21 . ro baoi siomh re tuisdinsiú `he existed', Blathm. 632 . as e as soithcerndomh fil, 773 . ma rombe is maith if it is, it is well, Laws iv 2.14 Comm. ni rabi uair . . . nad ro bai `there was no hour . . . that He existed not', Ériu ii 106 § 16 . a cin for athair .i. uair na bí mac, Laws iv 240.16 Comm. Columb [ro]baoi, Columb bīaas, ZCP viii 198 § 20 . tar ēis a mic . . . / nī raba acht dā aenbliadain `was alive only two years', Ériu iii 198 § 24 . as a rad ata a nadmaim cin co be by saying there is a covenant though there is not, Laws iv 52.30 Comm. ni tha . . . ní a ngeimre in winter there is nothing, 90.1 (with petrified inf. pron. 3 s. n. in dat. sense?). ní bía terca bíd there will not be a scarcity of food, BColm. 52.5 . bid dno maith, ┐ ni bi derrscugud de `yet there is good, and nothing to surpass it', Auraic. 703 . is tré ómun bíid serc, Ériu i 195.1 . céin beti neóil im gréin ngil, Metr. Dinds. ii 38.z . i céin raibh nemh is talamh as long as . . . endure, BNnÉ 314 § 8 . bai cocad mor etarro, RC xxiv 186 § 19 . In phrase (acht) atá ní (chena) but, moreover, see 1 ní (e).

In periphrasis when emphasis on some element other than the verb is required: bieid nach dréct diib hícfider, Wb. 4d6 . bieid bes ferr de, 32a13 . do budh cusmail rit co robuis uair ecin, ┐ co n[d]ingenta rét feramail `that thou wert once such an one that thou couldst . . .', ZCP vi 87.13 . ba-sa tan / nī folabrainn ilach gamh, Ériu ii 95 § 3 . ata[a]t .iii. cáini nad chumgat comarbai do chumscuchud, Ériu xvii 68 § 9 ( Laws iv 210 ). Note further: atāit teora brīathra / ata lōgmaire for nim, ZCP vii 312 § 25 .

With words expressing time: bieid aimser nad creitfider, Wb. 28c14 . aidchi robuī `one night', Ériu ii 222.25 . fecht robai `once', Mon. Tall. 147.2 (§ 52) . biaidh uair 's . . . a time will come when, Dán Dé vii 31 .

Introducing a statement: cia beith ara rogba bóairechas riasíu ropo chúairddulchach though it be that he assume, Críth G. 67 . dá mbeith fós go mbiadh an Fhraingc comh líonmhar ┐ adeir seisean `granted that', Keat. ii 933 . má tá go seachnoid síol Éibhir . . ., TD 29.7 . ci(d), gi(d) bé whatever, whoever (see Ériu xii 210 ): ria flaithaib, .i. rias na flaithib, cibe flaithe iat `whatever chieftains they be', Laws iv 154.17 . gidh bé lá cheannghar an chairt, Dán Dé xiv 17 . cidh bé do bhean díbh an dúthaigh, DDána 26.1 . bíd (ipv. 3 s.) co n- although: admhuim . . . mo pheactha . . . bīodh gomadh é mo mhīan a bhfolach though I should wish to hide them, Parrth. Anma 4625 . bīodh nach gcaoifithea go spesialta fá gach peacadh though you might not weep specially for each sin, Mac Aingil 235 . bíth gur gheallas . . . though I promised, Ó Bruad. ii 212 § xiv . In constr. manibed x ní bíad y were it not for x y would not be, see má II (b).

(b) The subst. vb. is usual with predicates consisting of adverbial phrases of all kinds (prep. and noun, adjj. and nouns used adverbially, etc.) and thus enters into a large and varied corpus of idioms. A select list follows. Reference should in all cases also be made to the nouns, adjj., adverbs and prepositions concerned.

With CO: atáthar sund chucut your adversary is approaching, LL 10300 ( TBC-LL¹ 3316 ).

With CO N-: atúsa com thegluch there is myself and my household troop, TBC-LL¹ 437 .

With DI: im chaingin robui de muintir Tamlachti friss `about a business that arose between the monastery of Tallaght and him', Mon. Tall. 157.7 (§ 72) . masu de chlaind Echdach aird / atāi, ZCP xi 108 § 1 . ní bia debaid . . . de, Ériu iv 108 § 69 . Of materials: an crann dobí na sesam ... dobí sé do cepresus was a (lit. of) cupressus, Maund. 9 . In phrase a.¤ di such is: roboi du meit a pecthae `so great were their sins', Ml. 98c6 . má beth tra do hūaite ind āessa gráid `if the ordained folk be too few', Ériu i 220 § 13 .

With DO: biid do anmmaim cathrach `(Samnis) is as the name of the city', Sg. 104b5 . nád robatar suin do ṡlund in dúildetad inchoisget `there were not words (enough) to signify . . .', 45b1 . manusbeth tenga dia relad `if (the sun) had a tongue', Ériu ii 126 § 81 . ata eric a fogla do dul a ruradh o duine, Laws iv 50.5 Comm. Expressing possession, etc.: con roib core dúib fri cách so that you may be at peace with all men, Wb. 26b30 . in fochricc file do i nnim, 29b29 . cach ngrád asid n-ísliu bíid dó i céilsini, Críth G. 374 . robi timna in ríg don Comdhe, RC xviii 182.5 . nico mbái dó acht bás there was nothing for him but death, Vita Br. 32 . fecht robúi damsae domchaomnacuir `once it happened to me', Mon. Tall. 144.7 (§ 45) . atá damhsa ris an dáimh / gan ísliughadh neith dá gcáil it is my duty in regard to the sages not to belittle . . ., Content. xiv 8 .

With FOR (later AR): as ṅdath glas roboi forsind sl[é]ib the mountain was green, Ml. 84d4 . cech dath is maith ré neach bid forro, RC vi 183.9 . cēin beó ar in mbith mbuide, Ériu ii 92.16 . nocha cuinnghim bethaid mbí / ōtú ar sīth mo Rīgh amuigh since I am outside the palace of my king(?), ZCP vii 301 § 10 . scríbend menmman .i. robbói for a inndṡliucht-som `it had been in his mind', Sg. 178b4 . in sét atá form aire on which I am intent, Ériu vi 115 § 6 . a mhacnas orm gidh eadh raibh though I greatly desire to do so, Dán Dé xix 6 .

With FRI: nobiad fri femen `it would be (used) with the feminine', Sg. 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them', 215a5 . ni humhal robabair rim cen erghe rónn you were not submissive to me, Anecd. ii 14.9 . ba [mait]h ro mboth friu they were well treated, TBFr. 145 . is throit ra bass risin fer út that man was quickly dispatched, TBC-LL¹ 2986 ( LL 10035 ).

With I: is hi tuaisciurt slebe sióin ata in chathir, Ml. 67d8 . ataam ar ndiis i cuimriug, Wb. 32a28 . is and . . . bieid finis, 13b29 . is sunt bia-sa i n-eilithri, Ml. 137b7 . nach dú i mbí isnaib salmaib iustitia, 109a2 . bēti a scēla illāidib, ZCP iii 37.32 . dēna torba airm i mbī, vii 311 § 9 . ro-bas i lurg an madma la clannaibh Néill the Clanna N. pursued the rout, xiv 234.16 . adh bes fiu da trian na samuisce atá isín focreic, issed ata isin fogail doníther ris na ferandaib cétna i fuacht an geimridh `a calf which is worth two thirds of the `samhaisc'-heifer which is paid for the rent, it is it that is paid for the trespass', Laws iv 92.16 Comm. cínta do niad na cethra . . . leth a mbia ina nairlim isedh bias ina tairsci `half of that fine which lies for their `airlim'-trespass . . .', 74.8 Comm. cod a midídar ruire trachta ┐ raite? Nin; co rabadar ocht nurcora dec and do fhleascach, 138.4 Comm. ní bhíadh na ghoin é d'oighedh / toil Dé muna deónaighedh His wound would not be enough to cause His death, IGT Decl. ex. 378 . Common in form with suff. pron. 3 s. n. ma beith nech and tra labrathar ilbélre if there be anyone, etc., Wb. 13a4 . ar atá brithem and cenut-su `a judge is there apart from thee', 6b25 . ataat alaaili interiecta and it coitchena do cach ceniul, Sg. 10a1 . attaad teora bliadna and. Niconcomracamar díoblíonaib `it is three years since we two had intercourse', Mon. Tall. 134.26 (§ 21) . For phr. cid fil and trá see trá. In idiom tá sé i n-a fhear he is a man (see Dillon, ZCP xvii 307 ff. ): is amlaid . . . atá in rigsudi sin inna chathaír chumtachta, LU 2005 ( FA 7 ). cidead bes ina bibdaid `even though he be a caitiff', Ériu v 22.20 . gu raibhe 'na cholum ghel, Acall. 1080 . ce raib se i n-a fhír, PH 7324 . do bí 'n-a mnaí grádaig ac Find, Acall. 2018 . do rígh gion go rabhthá id mhac, DDána 91.15 . Note also: tuc . . . aithne gurbh e righ Eirenn do bí ann that it was in fact the king, Ériu iii 152 § 6 . ro innis do gur 'uo he Isu ro ui ann, RC xii 344.15 .

With IMM: ni baitir, ni loisctir cein beit immo `he is not drowned or burnt as long as they are on him', RC vi 183.8 .

With LA: gan bheith le Dia is ann bhus aithreach if we are not on God's side, Dán Dé x 27 . Expressing possession and related ideas: is lib atá a rogu, Wb. 9a23 . is derb lium attá latsu gl. certus sum autem quod et in té, 29d14 . ainmm ninchoisc cenéuil issed file la laitnóri, Sg. 30b8 . is airi nobíth digaimm leo ante ρ. sin, 9b10 . ni fil bríg laisiom hisind accobar sin `he considers that such desire is no great matter,' Mon. Tall. 151.13 (§ 62) . is dé atá lem, fobíth, etc. this is why I think so (of an assertion), TTr.² 343 . itá a rīgan la cach ríg sund, TBC-I¹ 190 . fail leis secht nimi, SR 629 . ar ní ḟil acht oenlám lim, LL 14150 .

With ó: báoi alaile anchoire antuaid o sláne `there was a certain anchorite from Slane in the North', Mon. Tall. 159.8 (§ 77) . cech lennánacht fil isin domvn is úadhi atá originates with her, TTr.² 370 . Bressal Ó Tressaig ō' tāit / Hī Tressaig `. . . from whom are sprung', Ériu ii 50 § 7 . ni fil[et] o neoch ┐ ni filter uaidibh `they are not derived from anything, and nothing is derived from them', Auraic. 1507 .

With OC: ar notéighed dīa sathairn init co mbídh oc Cnocc Droma Coblai, ZCP viii 106.29 = Trip.² 2858 . ma no bith . . . mo c[h]laideb acom if I had my sword, TBC-I¹ 3543 . co rabat aidmi oc cech altōir . . ., Ériu i 219 § 9 . in ti ac na biat ba, Laws iv 36.10 Comm. in fhil biad ocaib sund? PH 6709 . ná raibh agad ar n-éra `refuse me not', Studies 1918, 99 § 16 . In impers. constr. cindas atathar occat? how are affairs with thee? RC xxvi 368.9 . a.¤ y oc x x has the power to do y: ní bhía . . . ag boigṡín / mo chor tar creich Phádraigín, Ériu ix 163 § 7 .

With adverbs and adv. phrases: céin bett abus `while they are here below', BColm. 98.28 . ní rubai nach cruth ailiu `it cannot be otherwise', Sg. 7b3 . ataat ám in chrut sin, 140b1 . hóre nád robe Tit ar mo chiunn, Wb. 14d29 . na muindtire bís id choimidecht `of the monks that live with thee', Mon. Tall. 128.8 (§ 3) . dá rabh mé ar éanmhagh is í, Dán Dé ix 12 . is bether go hīsiul de, ZCP x 51.6 . bidh co mín michuir ret c[h]airdibh, vi 272 § 3 . is samlaid insin robói a flaithemnacht indibsi, Ml. 18a8 . nī hamlaid beitid na nāimh . . ., ZCP xiii 9.26 . dobadus co subhach rompa, KMMisc. 319.27 . léig mar atāit tall, ZCP viii 202.4 . trath atusa sund, TBC-LL¹ 2379 . ionmhuin uan nar fhás ó mhnaoi / do bhás go truagh ar a thí, Dán Dé xxvi 9 . Note also: dá mbem a-moigh `if we win forth', Ériu ix 162 § 2 . With interrogatives: ceth leth atā E., TBC-I¹ 376 . can ata? whence is it? Hib. Min. 8.270 . cāit atā do t[h]igerna?, TBC-I¹ 789 . ciatā inso?, ZCP viii 311.13 . a Findtain, arse, ┐ Éri cía gabad ca rabad inde? `where have things been therein?' Ériu iv 146 § 23 .

(c) Used with inf. and suff. pron. to express possession. With inf. pron.: rosmbia a lóg `they shall have payment for it', Wb. 5d35 . ind indocbál no-b-tá in futuro, 14c16 . ro-n-da-biad cech maith, Ml. 33b13 . rombia-sa la dia . . . a day will come for me when, Vita Br. 12 . roborbē (roburbe v.l.) which is yours, Cáin Ad. 27 . nīmthat asnai I have no ribs, TBC-I¹ 2871 . gell cóic sét di neoch rodmbí `of whatever he has', Críth G. 283 and n. uair nach tá tír dia fhulung fri re napuidh because he has no land to support him (?), Laws iv 30.19 Comm. rom be nem may I have heaven, Snedg. u. Mac R 14 § 76 . Femen intan rombai rí . . . when it had a king, RC xvii 148.19 . cia luag nomtha?, SR 1165 . rombí lethbairgen, Anecd. i 73 § 211 . atbert Cathair nimthasa ní dhuit I have nothing to give you, LL 386b22 . Note also: nintha do imtecht liumm `I have (lit. we have) no news', RC xiii 222.20 . With cumang (or similar word) and prep. DO has the power to: nímtha cumachtæ ṅdo, Ml. 140b7 . ní-s-ta som . . . cumang domm orcuin-se, 60d3 . nísmbói didiu do chumacc a mmbo do imain they hadn't the strength to, Vita Br. 24 . sáerthar lat in domnach cech cumang rotbé (rodbe, rotbia, v.ll.) dó `with all your might', Ériu ii 204 § 22 . nícom thása cumang dia tabair[t], TBFr. 302 . apraind nachimbai-si nert do theacht cucu alas that I had not strength . . ., TBC-I¹ 3439 . Used independently is able: nīmt[h]a a dechmad d'indisin / nech doní do maith `I cannot tell a tithe of all the good he does', BColm. 70.6 . nimta-sa sin . . . uair da caithius mo dan re sciathaib Ulad I cannot do that . . ., Ériu v 72.8 . Note also: ango dano for Ingcél adfía basa lecht bas briscium `peradventure I shall be the frailest corpse', BDD 102h ( RC xxii 211 ) = at-mbia basa lecht bas brisceam, BDD² 716 (leg. ro-t-bia?).

With suffixed pron. taithiunn . . . / ni fris tarddam ar n-áthius `we have . . . something to which to apply our acuteness', Thes. ii 293.19 . táithi caire umai he has a bronze cauldron, Críth G. 197 . tathum rūn, TBC-I¹ 848 . bethib sūirsi lim-sa dano ye will enjoy freedom with me, ZCP viii 316.5 . tathat lim logh do áes, logh do sinnsire thou hast with me = I accord thee, xii 365.13 . baíthium anfud mílach mend, LU 3018 . tathuib comram, Rawl. 88b51 . tathum o día praind, Anecd. i 64 § 120 . tāthud ochtar la suidiu / airm hi fail a crōlighe `thou wilt find eight men . . .', Fianaig. 12 § 16 . tathai eolus maith, ZCP vii 310 § 1 . tatos subhae `they have happiness', Blathm. 82 . Pleonastically: tathai erouidh . . . bithbron `Herod . . . has eternal sorrow', 83 .

(d) In nasalising rel. clauses to denote has something the matter, is ailing: ced das in ben maith? `what ails the good woman?', Thes. ii 329.48 . cidh tás do sūil, a clērich? what is the matter with your eye? RC xxvii 280 § 35 . Oengus mac in Dagdai hisiurcc di bliadan. Cid tas or Bodb, RC iii 345.9 . ra[fh]etur sa . . . an daas ind ingen what is wrong with the girl, Vita Br. 5 . ni fetarsa cid no-tó I do not know what is the matter with me, ZCP viii 176.5 . cid no-taí? Sc.M² 3 . roḟetarsa a n-attath[a]i. Ni taam ni or Cano, Anecd. i 9.25 ( SCano 293 ). cid tāthaí, a maccu? . . . oc imresain atām . . ., Ériu viii 157.16 . ni confetatarsin cid rombui hissennath, RC iii 344.10 . dia ḟis cid robái (rombui, v.l.) grían to find out what was the matter with the sun, Ériu iv 140.13 .

With prep. DO feels (inimically) towards, is angry with, worries: propter incredulitatem fracti sunt .i. cani airi .i. badochu lem són is [hed] romboth doib that is the fault found with them, Wb. 5b31 . cren dímsa m'ingin . . . Cid dathir di? . . . Is dichmarcach what cause of annoyance has she given? Vita Br. 13 . fiarfaig Conchobar scēla dō. —Cidh tāi di ṡodain? ol Bricriu why do you bother with it? ZCP v 502.15 . cadai-siu duind?, TTebe 424 . In good sense treats in a special manner: ca tāthar dúin do domnach des / sech gach laithi lāndiles? `why do we hold Sunday above . . .?' Ériu iii 143 § 7 . With added prep.: cidh 'ma bfuile dam? ZCP x 10.11 . ná bí réd chathrachaibh dhúinn `talk not to us of your forts', Content. vi 31 . See further s.v. daas. Frequ. in class. verse in phrase gá dtá, dás (acht) what is the use? in short. Either gá dtá or gá tá may be used to suit alliteration, see Ir. Syll. Poetry 86 . fogus orchra don éigsi / gá ttás cur ré coiméidsi `how can she be saved?' Studies 1923, 421 § 1 . gá dás luadh imdheachta an ḟir? `what need to recount', TD 13.40 . gá dás mé dá mīrbuile / acht sé d'fás ó ÓghMuire, IGT Decl. ex. 200 . gá dtám? —acht torchuir bu dheas in short, TD 3.10 . With follg. prep.: gá dtám ris . . . / acht meise féin foidhidneach, TD 3.41 . ga dtú ris, a rí L.? / ort chuirim mo chomuirghe, 30.12 . ní bhiú ris acht, Dán Dé vi 31 . ní fhuilim dó, xi 30 .

(e) With words indicating number, quantity in sense of accompanied by, having: bí[i]th a th[a]urchreicc cóic ṡétaib, Críth G. 71 . baei Conairi a ceithri cairpthig il-Lifiu, BDD 12 (a cethror cairpdech, v.l.). itó-sa lín do gona, TBC-LL¹ 434 . denam d'ḟiadach na muice in lín Feinde atámait, Acall. 2223 . atáthaoi líon a n-ithte, Keat. iii 4439 . atú-sa caegait fer, MR 248.17 . Later: bed-sa ┐ mili ridiri maraen rium ad diaig, ZCP vi 41.9 .

II Expressing state, condition, kind, etc. with pred. consisting of noun, pron. or adj. (usage more usual with copula, see introd. section above).

(a) With noun pred.: boe sab suithe cech dind, ACC 26 ( RC xx 168 ). boe saegul sneid, 24 . boe dind oc libur leigdocht, 27 . biait betha airchind they will be chieftains of the world, Rawl. 125b9 . With subj. standing between the vb. and pred.: atá dia atach ṅ-dún-ni ais dethrebo God is a refuge to us the people of the two tribes, Ml. 66d1 . bói Fíachnae Lurga athair Mongáin, Imr. Brain 42.1 . Cf. Sg. 20b3 .

(b) With adj. pred.: boe seim sáth, ACC 25 . biat slana, SR 4167 (copula?). feib atam nocht, 1347 (copula?). bía slan, LU 3344 ( SCC 13 ). Cf. habe . . . (.i. sana sis .i. slán bee), Enchir. Aug. 82a ( ZCP vii 484 ). dlegar doibsium na be lobtaigh cor ( ar dlegar doibsium na bed lobthaig cor, O'Dav. 1191 ) (Atk. in Glossary emends to be[t]), Laws iv 54.10. atámait ainmfesach, RC xxiv 371.7 . bítíss meth (leg. methi, ed.) occ tinntúd, IT iii 235.z . co filim garbliath i rricht, LU 1272 . ro boísium imnedach i tossuch a bethad, LL 7305 . ro-bádus-[s]a dronnach, PH 2788 . céin beorsa beó as long as I am alive, Ériu v 222.46 . is follus co fuilti eaclach, Fier. 69 . maith dīghōltar ant andlocht / bethar taoblom tarrnocht trūagh folk will be, ZCP xii 395.23 . With subj. betw. vb. and pred.: is trissa ndede sin biid duine slán et fírian, Wb. 4d33 . amal mbís tegdís fás [amm]edón ┐ scópthe gl. sicut domus uacans et scopata, Tur. 14 ( Thes. i 485.23 ). arrobói a rígthech lán de rígaib, Imr. Brain 1 . amal no beithi féin béo and, Trip.² 2972 . co mbatar na hádnaicti óbéla, PH 676 . bis an puls tonnmur lethan, Rosa Angl. 272.8 . oir dobi se crodha do laim ┐ mor do mét, Fier. 2 .

(c) With part. as pred. Immediately follg. vb. (see GOI 475-6 ; OIPG 147 ): amal nombemmis érchóilti gl. tanquam morti destinatos, Wb. 9a3 . biid ersoilcthi ar chiunn for ríg `be ye opened before your king' (of doors), Ml. 46a7 . co rabais (rabhdais, v.l.) marbtha mudaigthi, TTebe 854 . With subj. standing between vb. and pred.: ataat mesai Dǽ nephchomtetarrachti the judgements of God are incomprehensible, Ml. 55d11 . céin nombetis inna saigtea tuidmithi inna feuil `as long as the arrows were fixed in his flesh', Ml. 58a9 . órobatar ind liss dúntai, Imr. Brain 1 . co ra-bi in uli demnaigecht fomamaigthi dó, PH 2796 .

(d) In sentences where the vb. stands in a nasalising rel. clause and refers to a pred. expressed in the principal clause: is faittech rond-boi som, Ml. 21d4 . ni ba cian mbias in pecthach, 56c22 . fer . . . nadip romar bed a sommæ a man . . . whose wealth should not be too great, Thes. ii 241.9 . is-gáibthech atátur i-sin-magh sin, RC xxiv 378.12 . is trog robas isin chotlad sin, Ériu v 34.z . ní cás duid madh diomdhach raibh / grása Dé . . ., Dán Dé xix 22 . [is] slán do bhaoi an brat-sain, xii 22 .

(e) In the type of sentence where the description constitutes an independent sentence with copula: ego sum uermis et non homo .i. atāim-si conad cruim mē ┐ nāch duine, Corm. Y 211 . ro boi Victor co mbo ḟortachtaigthid do Pátraic, ACL iii 10 § 8 = Trip.² 217 . unus non est . . . .i. nochon fhil int aen co mbad airim, acht ata conidh fotha airim, Auraic. 689 . dom dóigh . . . robadhuis uair ecin ┐ roba díl anora tú `it seems to me . . . that there was once a time when thou wert worthy of honour', ZCP vi 99.5 .

1 ben

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ben or dil.ie/5644
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: bean, bean, bein, mnái, mna, mnāi, mnai, mná, mnaa, bein, mnáoi, mná, mnaa, mná, mn, mban, ban, mnaibh, mnáib, mnaib, mnaaib, mnaibh, mhnaoi, mnai, ban-, banab, -aigne, -airchinnech

n ā, f. GOI §§ 190 , 291 , Lohmann ZCP xix 63. bean aithnidh, f., IGT Decl. § 170. See also Ériu xvii 108.

I

(a) woman : n s. in b.¤ , Wb. 11c14 , Imr. Brain 1 , PH 5720. bean, CCath. 1140. in bhean, Duan. F. ii 130 § 23. v s. a b.¤ , LU 3420 ( SCC 19 ). a s. bein ( KZ xlviii 65 ), Laws ii 382.15 ( Stud. in E. Ir. Law 49 § 23 ), Metr. Dinds. iv 178.w (: Celetir), Ériu vi 136.78 , Auraic. 1835. mnái gl. mulierem, Wb. 10a10 , Imr. Brain 2 , CCath. 1141. mna, Críth G. 125 , mnāi, ACL iii 308.13 , mnai, Trip. 86.24 . g s. mná, Críth G. 124 , Imr. Brain 26 , PH 857. mnaa, LL 7558 , TSh. 5773. d s. bein, Auraic. 1833 , 5020 . mnáoi, Mon. Tall. 143.10 . n pl. mná (monosyll.), Imr. Brain 41. mnaa (monosyll.), LL 44. mná, TSh. 5718. a pl. mn, LU 8265 ( FB 21 ). g pl. mban gl. mulieres, Wb. 22c10 . ban, Ml. 65c16 . d pl. `somet. disyllabic in verse,' GOI § 291 , mnaibh (disyll.), Blathm. 586. mnáib, LU 3266 ( SCC 6 ), RC xiii 36 § 2. mnaib (monosyll.), LU 3950 ( SCC 44 ). mnaaib, LL 2919. mnaibh, ZCP xvi 225.4 . n du. dī mnái, Cáin Ad. 25. dá mhnaoi , Dán Dé iii 15 . di mnai dec, BCrólige 32 .

As dist. from a virgin: ni finntar in b.¤ fa nac si, Ir. Recht 5 § 3 . femen . . . .i. femur .i. sliasat, air is and is b.¤-si intan fognaithir dia sliasait, Auraic. 609. Of a bird: ben a lleinn co londath, Murphy Lyrics 10 § 10 , Ériu xxii 51 .

(b) With following defining word. With adj.: b.¤ gáelmar, see gáelmar. b.¤ uasal `a lady', BNnÉ 121 § 56 . With part. b.¤ pósta. With gen. of definition or description: b.¤ áirge woman of the milking place, dairymaid : in b.¤ airge, Ir. Recht 9 § 11. b.¤ aititen, see aititiu. b.¤ chengail wife: nach béidh fear ’gā mhnaoi cheangail, Celtica iv 109 § 10 . b.¤ crislaig: is i in b.¤ c. .i. is le fein in coimpert sin (lit.) woman of the womb, Laws v 202.13 Comm. See crislach. b.¤ chraí (chruí) the wife of a deceased relative; a forbidden woman: nír ben chrábaid ach ben chraí `not a holy wife but an unlawful one´ Celtica x 105 § 3 . ’na grádaig mnaí craí ná col `do not love a woman forbidden to you´ 105 § 5 . ro bui inna mnoí crui, icá derbrathair … conid hi sin cetben crui ro hincrechadh riamh, 111 (King’s Inns MS. 10) . ar a bith ben crui .i. oca derbrathair, ibid. (NLS MS. 72.1.5) . b.¤ chuil (cholach) : ’na grádaig mnaí craí ná col `do not love a woman forbidden to you´ Celtica x 105 § 5 . dā ccionntuighthea ré mnaoi chuil, Mac Aingil 3002 . ben chuil 'concubine', PH 867 . mna cúil ┐ cairdeasa dionnarbhadh ó fheraibh 'to put away concubines and lemans from men', AFM ii 1100z (s.a. 1152) . mnai cuínnceda betrothed woman, BB 442b4 . an bhean chuinghedha, IGT Decl. ex. 1198. b.¤ ḟir married woman: fóemad serce a mban fer, Ériu lix 70 . b.¤ ḟúataig an abducted woman (see Stud. in E. Ir. Law 90 ). b.¤ gáeil kins-woman : is í a b.¤ gáeil fen phósas, PH 7790. See 1 gáel. b.¤ grésa embroidress : coeca ban [n]gressa is ferr bói a nEirinn `sempstress' (Gloss.), Acall. 5537. See 1 grés. b.¤ imtha see immad. b.¤ oéntama single, unmarried woman (see Stud. in E. Ir. Law 107.10 ). slān slithi mnā oēntama `immunity for overcoming a single woman by stealth' ( Stud. in E. Ir. Law 107.13 ), ZCP xv 351 § 40. See oentam, 1 oentama. b.¤ síde, see 1 síd. b.¤ tanaisi lanamnusa `second [subordinate] woman of union', BCrólige 56 . ag mnaoi Mháighe by the lady of the Maigue, DDána 99.37 .

(c) In g s. with prec. noun female, -ess, etc.: aoighe mná nách mair a fear `a stranger woman', TD 11.32 . dalta mna `a foster-daughter', BNnÉ 120.16 . Bóann, fāigh mnā prophetess, ZCP xiii 166.9 . ni thaghuill b.¤ no leanobh og mna a reileg `no woman or young female child', Mart. Don. 400.25 .

II wife : mo bensa `my wife', Sg. 61b14 . Tea b.¤ Ermoin meic Milid, Thes. ii 314.24 . leth díri cach gráid túaithe fora mnaí, Críth G. 125. cetharda[e] ndíllat(a) leis ┐ a ben `he and his wife have' (note), 199 . orca[e] lia be[i]n, 408 . coblaith dia mnai fri bein in rig equal rank with the king's wife for his wife, Ériu vi 136.14 . b.¤ dagḟir, LL 7554. ro theacht mhnaoi a dhingbhāla `he had a worthy wife', Fl. Earls 132.22 . tré mhnaoi Thighearnáin Uí Ruairc do bhreith leis, TSh. 5471.

Compds. ban- is the normal composition form (for gender of compds. see GOI § 254 , O'Rahilly, Ériu ix 16 ff.). When prefixed to a noun (1) denoting a male person or animal it makes a corresponding female form; (2) it has adj. force and means female, pertaining to a woman .

With nouns. ¤abb abbess : banab gl. abatissa, Ir. Gl. 22. Finnguala . . . banab Chille Craebnat, Ann. Conn. 1301.2 . banab m., IGT Decl. § 21 , g s. an banabadh, ex. 788 . mar bhanabaidh ndlighthigh `Abbesse', RSClára 98a . ¤accaid (see aiccid) female tenant, farmer : (contemptuously of Medb) cid ra mer in cali ┐ in b.¤ , TBC-LL¹ 1934. ? ¤aicde woman's handiwork : ar cirtha adbullom banaicdigh, Laws ii 394.10 Comm. banaicidh (but leg. -aicdi, Stud. in E. Ir. Law, 35.1) uaidhsiumh `feminine implements' (supplied by her husband to the woman worker described as a beccdéntaid), Laws ii 410.22 Comm. ¤aiced (collect. cf. prec.) woman's implements, tools : comad urlam a frichnam ac ban-aicidhibh, O'Curry 661 (H.3.18, 323). ¤aided woman's death (i.e. in child-birth): cen mna décaib de banaidid, Dinds. 161. -aigne female advocate: mar bhanaighne is ort anaim, PBocht 14.36 . -airchinnech female erenagh ; abbess : b.¤ gl. antesta, antestita, Sg. 66a17 . tanic an banairchindeach do béin cluig, YBL 1a19 . co banairchinnig Lainne, BColm. 26 § 28. b.¤ na hecalsa `prioress', Lism. L. 1436. ¤airfitech female musician : banairfidech Thíre Tairnngaire uli hí, Acall. 7205. ¤airle woman's counsel : Adham Samson Solum rí / romersat a mbanairlí, Ériu ii 229.9 . (in rhetoric) b.¤ betha (báetha, LU) nacha auchaide heed not the foolish words of women, TBC-I¹ 2092. ¤aite: ó bhanoide na gcuradh .i. Scáthach `instructress', Keat. ii 3390. ¤aitire: b.¤ tainic tar cend banbidbad (sic leg.) re laim a banfecheman and `a female surety', Laws i 148.24 Comm. apad naile ┐ anadh naile o ban etere for banbidhbaidh, O'Curry 988 (H. 3.18 424b) = Laws i 148.28 Comm. ¤ammait witch, hag (with magic power): robai banamaid i tig in rig . . . ┐ dobert a mathair Corc for faesam na hamaide, BB 251a35 . ¤amus woman-servant, female hireling: mad feramus nó b.¤ noda-mela (of grinding with a quern on Sunday), Ériu ii 204.22 . b., a folac a incaib maicc no celi `a hired woman', Ériu xii 85 § 4. mac banamsa, ZCP xvi 215.33 . rucus comaltar do banamuis, xv 310 § 6 . sóeramais ┐ banamais ic roind ┐ ic dáil dóib, Ériu iv 124.27 . ¤augra: máth b.¤ co sārtairbirt trī muilt ind `a fight among women', Cáin Ad. 44. ¤augtar: Bridhe banughdar, Keat. iii 498.

¤breth female judgment, judgment of (concerning ?) women: banbrethaib glossed bretha ban, O'Dav. 994. b.¤ briugu female briugu EIF 417 : batir banbrugaid sōn, Corm. Y 87.12 (§1018) . Becnait banbhrugaid ainm (na) mná maithe si, Acall. 1876 . ¤búachaill herdswoman: sech ba bard, ba b.¤ , Metr. Dinds. iv 22.20 .

¤cháem: banchōem de Alpa female noble, Celtica iii 182.3 . ¤chaingen female question, case: nocha n-ē an banc[h]aingen / berar ar cúl, ZCP viii 216.32 . ¤cháinte female satirist, lampooner: ba banchainte (viz. Lebarcham), IT i 71.12 ( LMU 6 ). cont-ric fri Richis mbancháinti, MU² 1029 ( LU 1528 ). a comlebaid na banchainti, Cóir Anm. 54. ¤chara woman friend: do uc Mane banscál n-alachtai b.¤ dó `a concubine of his', Trip. 86.19 . b.¤ in dorchaduis (= amica tenebrarum, ed.), Aisl. Tond. 95 § 2. bretha in mac . . . cúa bancharait, LU 1663 ( RC ix 454.10 ). ¤chath: conid b.¤ Rochada insin `Rochad's Woman-fight' (Faraday), LU 5945 ( bān-, TBC-I¹ 1479 ). ¤chéile female companion, mate, wife: a bancheli díngbala diabuil, PH 8175. as i fa banchele dó .i. Eithne Taebhḟada his wife (of a king), Ériu iii 150 § 1. ¤chenn female ruler: (of B.V.M.) tú bain-cheann brogha nimhe, A. Ó Dálaigh xi 5. ¤chimbid female captive: co mbanchimidh lais i n-ergabhail, Anecd. ii 12.15 . ¤chlíamain female relative-in-law: a bhainchlíamhuin Sárai bean a mhic Abram = daughter in law, Gen. xi 31. go ma malluigh an té luighios léna bhainchlíamhuin = mother in law, Deuteronomy xxvii 23. ¤choairt female land-holder: b.¤ mnā, ZCP vii 300.2 . ¤choic female cook: bancoig gl. presena (sic), Ir. Gl. 247. atgnīed cach b.¤ dībh a būaraigh, ZCP vii 300.9 . ¤choimdiu female ruler, mistress, lady: inna banchoimded gl. dominatricis, Ml. 84c4 . isin banchoimdid gl. in domina, 129c7 . ¤choimétaid ( ¤aige) female guardian, custodian: a bhuime ┐ a bhancoimedaidhe, BNnÉ 192 § 9.5 . banchoimedaith do chiraib ┐ do clioirib `keeper of . . . combs and caskets', Dinds. 80. See banchola. ¤chomairlid female adviser; woman councillor: banflatha ┐ banchomairlighe, Anecd. ii 64.7 . ¤chomarba heiress (see Stud. in E. Ir. Law 103 f .) glossing be togai: .i. b.¤ las-mbi fer for bantinchur, Ir. Recht 8 § 9. female coarb, successor (as head of religious community): bancomurba Brighdi, RC xviii 31.30 . ¤chorr female heron: in b.¤ , Triads 237 . ¤chró: lánéraic a mb.¤ of their female stock, Cáin Ad. 29. ¤chú bitch: ba banc[h]ú tra in t-orci ┐ ba torrach, Corm. Y 883.39 . b.¤chuire woman-troop: cichit biet b.¤chuire, Études Celt. xv 539 . ¤chumal bondwoman: b.¤ dit muntir atamchomnaic, LL 7749 ( TBC-LL¹ 219 ). ro gonais cride . . . do banchumale fen, LB 233a58 .

¤dálem waitress: b.¤ gl. caupona, Sg. 63a3 (see Études Celt. xi 128 ). ¤dalta: ónmid b.¤ doib a female ward, ZCP viii 308.31 . ¤dechon see dechon. ¤día goddess: Brigit . . . bandēa no adratis filid . . . eam deam uocant poetarum , Corm. Y 150. bándǽ iffirnn gl. Parcas, Sg. 53b1 . Ceres bandea hetho, 60a4 . bandia Cimodocia `the goddess Cymodoce', Aen. 2410. a meic na baindea, 2411 . ¤deiscipul female disciple: doronai Patraic combo bandescipul dó, Trip. 178.11 . ¤delb: nói mbain-delba (-delbda, (mná) remhra, v.ll.) dluth-chóema `nine female forms', Metr. Dinds. ii 28.4 . ¤deoraid woman-stranger, woman outsider: cumad miach sliged do bandeoraidh, Laws ii 390.26 Comm . Fig. (of a flag) bratach mheic éachtaigh Eoghain / minic bhíos n-a baindeoraidh, DDána 85.7 . ¤dialt feminine declension, Auraic. 1830. ¤druí druidess; female skilled in magic arts: tri ferdruid ┐ tri bandrúid, TBC-LL¹ 2402 = dī (leg. tri) drúid insin ┐ a teóra mná, TBC-I¹ 1767. bandrai ┐ bancumachtach mē, ZCP xii 252.14 . a mhaca na bandrúagh = of the sorceress, Isaiah lvii 3.

¤ech mare: (description of a camel) anmann iongantach . . . ionsamhail bhaineich, AFM iv 1080.11 . ¤echlach female horse-messenger: cuiris E. a baineachlach arcend Meadba co Cruachain `female messenger', Ériu ii 178.20 . ¤écht: ni dernnsat banechta ban `have never committed woman-slaughter', MR 212.9 . gan bainéacht do dhéanamh lé `not to slay a woman with it' (one of three `geasa' on a spear), Keat. ii 4389. ¤éices poetess: baneices, LL 1110. ¤én hen bird: ise in mintan cid banen (i.e. the word `mintan' is masc. though it denotes a female bird), Auraic. 541. ¤ernastaid female spouse, wife: (in spiritual sense of Christ and the Church) in fáilte fil do'nd ernastaid spirutalda i n-a mb.¤ , PH 3987. ba sí síur ind Oedha roba bainernustaidh don tí Niall `Hugh's sister was N.'s wife', Hugh Roe 252.2 . ¤esba woman's wantonness: condot ellat / eter briga banespa, LU 3525 ( SCC 28 ).

¤ḟáith, ¤ḟáid woman seer, prophetess: a Feidélm banḟaith co acci in slúag?, LU 4530 ( TBC-I¹ 43 ). Feidelm banḟáid . . . atamchomnaicse, LL 7750. M. bhanfháigh, Exodus xv 20. ¤ḟéinnid woman warrior, amazon: N. . . . ro bith and la hE. mbanfeinded `E. the championess', Dinds. 105. na banḟéndi, TTr.² 1698 . ¤ḟeis(s) see banais. ¤ḟigige woman weaver: bacan na bainfighidh, BNnÉ 191.4 . ¤ḟili poetess: Fedelm banfili do Chonnachtaib mo ainmsea, LU 4525 (TBC). Quies Huallaige . . . banḟile Herend, Ann. Inisf. 934. ¤ḟlaith princess, sovereign lady: banflaith .i. ben . . . amal Meidb Cruachna, Ir. Recht 4 § 1. iar nairdbiu inna banflatha sin gl. Athalia, `queen', Ml. 14a2 . ¤ḟuine baking, kneading done for a woman hence (in opp. to fer-ḟuine) baking of a smaller size, quantity or measure: ceitheora bairgena fichet do banfuine, ZCP xiv 356.7 .

¤gaiscedach female champion: banghaisgedach do mhuinn- tir Ghuill, ML² 412. ¤gal woman's feat of arms: b.¤ (sic leg., ed.) banuallach and-so ale, TBC-LL¹ 4312 ( LL 11116 ). ¤galgat female champion: for slicht na bangalgaite, Airne F. 29. ¤geis: nā gabaidh na baingesa let them not touch forbidden things (i.e. have dealings with a woman), ZCP xii 394.4 . ¤gíall female hostage: (of Mary) ba bangīall (sic leg.: Gabhrīal) Rīgh in rīchidh, ZCP viii 562 § 3. ¤glór: tuath-bhanglór tásclabartha troch `perverse woman-like talk', MR 294.21 . ¤gním: do chuaidh b.¤ tar fergním ag C. the action of a female overcame C.'s action of a male, Comp. CC 116.13 . With 1 grád female rank: teora cumhala cach bangradh do neach is ingen graidh sechta, O'D. 2397 ( Rawl. B 506, 49 ). With 2 grád love for a woman: laigi fri b.¤ , LU 3590 ( SCC 30 ). ¤grés woman's work, needlework; in comic name: Brecan mac Bangresa, Anecd. ii 55.15 . Cf. baingrésach, Acall. 5537 v.l. ¤Gúaire female counterpart of G.: a bhanGhuaire Chláir Chormaic, Dánta Gr. 16.24 .

¤impir empress: do chúala in bhainimpir sin .i. Saphia, ZCP xiii 181.27 . ¤inne women's mind, intuition (?): tic b.¤ don banmíl, LL 375a43 . ¤insce, ¤innsgne feminine gender: gach banindsci, Corm. Y 1219. ferinnsci ┐ banninsci (banindsge, 3024 YBL) . . . lasin nGaidel .i. mascul ┐ femen . . . lasin Laitneoir, Auraic. 521. gobhar gabhar . . . indscne bainindsci innta they take a feminine pronoun, IGT Decl. § 17.23 (usually contracted to b.¤ ).

¤ auspicious day for women: trí banlae: lúan, mairt, cétaín, Triads 216 . Cf. trí ferlae, 217 . ¤leiccerd, ¤lethcerd poetess (see leiccerd): Etan ingen Dīancēcht, banlethcerd ( bannlicerd, Corm. 37 ), Corm. Y 537 . Cf. -éices supra. do Sampait . . . buachail dī ┐ banlicerd isen, BB 393a46 ( Dinds. 86 ). Cf. (of S.) sech ba bard, ba ban-búachail, Metr. Dinds. iv 22.20 . co comfarnaic frie Gris banliccerd ingen Ricisi, BB 368a25 . ¤lennán mistress: at banlendan ┐ at menmarc fer n-domain uli, LU 8237 ( FB 18 ). a baínleandan ┐ a mnai cuínnceda, BB 442b4 . luidh i riocht bain-leandain Conoinn, Leb. Gab.(i) 82.6 . ¤léo, léoman lioness: banleu, Études Celt. xi 125. fer-léo ┐ bain-leo, BNnÉ 84 § 171 . dealbh bhainleomhain, Keat. iii 2002. ¤liaig woman physician, leech; A. b.¤ (daughter of Dian Cécht), LL 1110.

¤mac(c), ¤mac(c)án female infant, a girl-child (see O'Rahilly, Ériu ix 16 ff .): it brestai in bainmaicc `the woman-children', Fél. July 20 . intan asberar ise (= is é) in banmhac-sa (of a masc. noun used for a female), Auraic. 531. Lende banmac ben ba Tuathail / . . . / Báne a hainm, LL 4888. dia mbad missi in banmacan, / nocechrainn cach faelmacan, Auraic. 533 (= banmacam, 3163 ). ¤máer: banmhaor . . . ag tabach na cána soin seachnóin Éireann `a female steward', Keat. i 182.3 . ¤maigister: ingena . . . ┐ do bí banmaighister accu `a governess', Fier. 93. ¤mug bondwoman: cride . . . do ban- chumale fen ┐ do banmogad, LB 233a58 . caoca fermhogh ┐ caoca banmhogh, BS 104.31 .

¤náma(e) female enemy: bannamae gl. inimica, Ml. 26a4 . a bannámu diabuil, PH 8327. ¤noéb(-m) holy woman, female saint: sarucchadh na bannaoimhe, AFM v 1668.7 . ag naomh nó ag bannaomh, TSh. 1048.

¤óclach: go léigfeadh . . . gach uile dhuine a bhanóglach sáor = maidservant , Jeremiah xxxiv 9. amhail banóglaoich, Keat. ii 4699. ¤óg virgin , BNnÉ 189 § 38 . ro tuirn ar mullach cinn na banóighi 'alighted on top of the virgin's head', Ev.Inf. (LFF) 187 § 37 . do-ṡaoileadar . . . gur loisgeadh an banoigh ionrac, Ériu v 76.30 . tar an mbanoigh, 32 . ¤oígi: banoegi (banogi, MS.) `female guest', Sg. 66a15 . ¤othrus: annsom i mbrithemnacht otrusa la Fēne banotrus `nursing of women', BCrólige 30 .

¤rechtaire: rechtairi ┐ banrechtairi . . . ic dáil dóib side ` stewardesses ', Ériu iv 124.19 . dís bhanrachtaireadha `two dairymaids', ITS xvi 118.1 . ¤ríga(i)n queen: is si robad banrígan in chóicid uli, LU 8259 ( FB 20 ). inghean rígh thír na mbéo / is bainríoghain fós, Oss. iv 250.10 . ¤rígnacht queenship: b.¤ úas bantrocht, LU 8231 ( FB 17 ). ? ¤rothán: banrothan (: ¤ṡrothán ?) (name of a metrical stanza), IT iii 101 § 181. -rún: ni dat maithe banrúna, IT i 123.18 . ( TE 9 Eg.)

¤ṡáer: bansaer `a woman wright', BCrólige 32 . -ṡacart priestess: bansagart Iunaindi iside, Aen. 1673. ¤ṡégonn, ¤ṡégainn a distinguished, accomplished lady; consort of a ségainn: manad-fuil . . . nac mbainsedoind lib-si nad gubansedonn (Find asks Cormac for a bride), ZCP xiii 268.19 . cach rí cona rígain, . . . cach ségaind cona banshégaind, MU² 198 . ¤ṡéitig ( ¤ṡéitche) wife: is ecoir do sailisi misi d'fhaghail do bainseitci `as wife', ZCP vi 26.22 . ¤ṡelgaire huntress: i ndelb bansealgairi (viz. Venus), Aen. 293. ¤ṡenchas history, traditions of (celebrated) women: b., buidne, bága (recited at the Fair of Carmun), Metr. Dinds. iii 20.15 . bainṡenchas Erind anso siss, BB 282a11 (title. See RC xlvii 282 ). Leabhar Bainseanchuis, Keat. i 80.5 . ¤tṡeomratóir, ¤ṡeomróir female chamberlain: do goir cuice a bainseomróir (bantṡeomradoír, v.l.), Fier. 92. ¤ṡídaige female dweller in a síd, fairy woman: is é dochoid in n-ectra . . . re Náir b.¤ , LL 2898. conid si aided Moingfinde bansidaige `so this is the death of M. the Banshee', RC xxiv 178.18 . ¤ṡlecht: co hAth mbannslechta to the Ford of Woman-Slaughter, Ériu v 212 n. 92 - 96 .

¤tairchetlaid prophetess: bantaircetlaid Críst (said of St. Brigit), Lism. L. 1704 . ¤tairngertaid prophetess: is hī seo bantairrngertaig Chrīst, ZCP xii 293.31 . ¤tairismid: banterismid gl. obstetrix, Sg. 69a18 . bantairsi (leg. tairismidi?), Lism. L. 1201. ¤tellach: techta cach banteallaig `every woman's entry', Laws iv 8.22 . dethbir in baintellaigh ┐ in feartellaigh .i. anus dechmuide dfir anus cethruime do mnaoi, 14.22 Comm. ¤teolaid see teolaid. ¤tigerna lady; mistress; female ruler: b.¤ Clainni Connmaig re linn tri tigerna `Lady of Clanconway' (first as wife and then as Dowager, n. 3), Ann. Conn. 1411.30 . dobudh baintighearna dhó féin (the soul) that was his (i.e. the body's) own mistress, TSh. 9678. an sólās do bhí ar ar mbaintighearna ghlórmuir (viz. Muire), Parrth. Anma 3792. uinge dor ag an mBaintiagarnain . . . a neaghmais amantuir Tiarna; ┐ tri huinge san mbliaghain do chios Bantiarnain . . . a neaghmais, etc. `Lady's rent', Trans. RIA xv 43.z , 44.2 . ¤tinchor the property brought by a woman on marrying: fer for bantincur, Laws ii 356.7 . acht do bithsiu ar bantincur mnaa supported by a woman, LL 7558. ¤tindnacul = prec. ? fer ratchuir ar bantidnacul mna who has made you dependent on a woman's bounty, LL 12250 ( TBC-LL¹ 5998 ). ¤toísech: bantaisech ingenraid[e] na Cruachnai ` chieftainess ', Dinds. 80. ¤trebthach see baintrebthach. ¤túath: ag na bantuathaibh seo bhádar an dá ríoghdhámh `noble females', Keat. i 218.16 . ¤túathaid (supernatural) woman with magic power: ar ba cumachtach sidhe ┐ bantuathaíd cen bai a colaind, BB 264a7 ( SG 332.9 ). ¤tuilg (a d s.) applied (? only) to wife, consort of a briugu: (of Feast of Tara) ni teded dia hol . . . brudidh gin bantuilg leis, ZCP xiii 260.14 . briuga cin bantuilcc, 268.13 . cach briugu cona bantuilg each hospitaller with his consort, MU² 196.

¤úa female descendant: ag banua Iarla Uladh, DDána 99.10 . banua niece Plunkett s.v. neptis , Celtica xix 138 .

With adjj. derived from nouns: ¤éccoscda of womanly kind, form: onni as feminina, femina .i. banda no banecoscda, Auraic. 612. ¤gnéthech(-ach): bangnethach no bangnimach `of womanly activities', Auraic. 612. ¤úallach: (of a woman's feat of arms) bangal (sic leg., ed.) banuallach and-so ale, TBC-LL¹ 4312 ( LL 11116 ). As subst. ¤áirgech milkmaid: an bhanairgheach, BS 177.27 . ar na cocairibh ┐ banairghibh `dairy-maids', Rule of Tallaght 8.12 . ¤bachlach gl. leno, Sg. 52a5 . pn As epithet: ¤Bretnach British woman, Anecd. iii 57.6 . ¤cháintech female satirist: bancháinteach Chonchubhair da ngairthí Leabharcham, Keat. ii 2952. ¤chumachtach woman possessing magic power: Cáoineocc ban-cumachtach sithe `a fairy witch', BNnÉ 151.33 . (epithet of Venus) imthusa Beniri banchumachtaighi, TTebe 1046 . ¤grésach (1 grés): baingrésach, Acall. 5537 v.l. ¤Laignech Leinster-woman: ropo beoda in b.¤ , Rawl. 87a35 . ¤túaithech witch, wise woman: bantuathecha (sic, bantuatha, banthuach, v.ll.) Tuathe de Danand, LL 16545. woman of Túatha Dé Danand: .iii. híngeana Earnmhais na banthuathaíghe, BB 33a38 . Be Chuille ┐ Dianand na dí bantuathig, LL 1112. Badb ┐ Macha ┐ Anand . . . tri ingena Ernbais na bantuathige, 1121 . female chief: ionann . . . tuathach ┐ tighearna . . . do beirthear dá bhantuathaigh ar Bheuchuill ┐ ar Dhanainn, do bhí 'na mbaintighearnaibh aca, Keat. i 214.25 .

Rarely with form ben-. ¤Ebrach: mas eabhrach nó air beineabhrach = Hebrewess, Jeremiah xxxiv 9. ¤gág wrinkled woman, hag: a bh.¤ , BS 86.28 . ¤geilt madwoman: co ttarla bengheilt dó ann, BS 108.6 . ¤impire empress: Henri mac na Beinimpire, Mart. Don. xxix 29.

See banais, banaltra, bantrocht, banscál.

brechtnaigthe

Cite this: eDIL s.v. brechtnaigthe or dil.ie/6648

part. of brechtnaigid: do sciathaiph breachtnaighte cacha datha ` variegated ', CCath. 4950. nat[h]racha co ndathaib brechtnaigib . . . araile derga snakes of various hues, Alex. 708. biada brechtnaigt[h]i varied foods, 1007 . a chathbarr . . . ilbrechtnaigthi `much-variegated', TTebe 588 . edaigi gacha datha etir gorm ┐ corcra . . . ┐ brechtnaighi, Aen. 1915. an lucht robad brechtnaigthi . . . itir olc ┐ maith mixed , Aisl. Tond. 111.7 . Legal: in comorbu na dearb ro-festur —ni fuille forru dall na doirche na brechtnaigthe na inderb disputed (Thurn.), ZCP xiv 366 § 26. brithemh . . . / bethrach bunata / briatrach brechtnaighti, IT iii 56 § 104. beraid breath brechtnaigthi / breitheam in breclaithi, diversified (?), Lec. 171rb32 .

clé

Cite this: eDIL s.v. clé or dil.ie/9397
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: clí, clé, clii, clí, clé, clí, chlīu, chlí, cléa, cléi

adj io, iā. lámh chlé . . . (lámh chlí lochtach), IGT Decl. § 139 . n s. f. lám chlíí, PH 5950 . a s f. clí, 523 . g s m. in chatha clé , LL 364 . g s f. a lama clii , Laws v 80.3 Comm. do riged clí , TBC-LL¹ 46 . na righedh clé , Stair Erc. 352 . láime clí , IGT Decl. ex. 1933 . d s m. for clār chlīu , Corp. Gen. 281.12 . d s f. for laim chlí , Thes. ii 13.31 ( BCr. 19c3 ). n pl. a llamha cléa , CCath. 6140 . d pl. ina lámaib cléi , TFerbe 237 . See GOI p. 61 .

I

(a) left : cle gl. sinister , Ir. Gl. 387 . clē a clypeo (, clepio MS.), Corm. Y 225 . clae a clepio , O'Mulc. 215 . maraid slicht inna bachla in a leith clíu, Lat. Lives 52.8 . cepp ina láim chlí . . . bíail ina láim deis, LU 9190 ( FB 91 ). dofil in carpat . . . ┐ dorala clār clē frind (an insult or challenge), TBC-I¹ 1192 ( LU 5668 ). tossoísom iarom clár c.¤ a carpait fri hEmain, LU 5194 (TBC). ardaslig tar fonnad c.¤ / cotagoin in ríastarthe, 4574 (TBC). tuc-sam a glun c.¤ rissin carpat, Acall. 6940 . colg dét iarna chossliasait chlí, TBC-LL¹ 5288 . tuc a ulli ch.¤ fáe i Taltin (implication not clear), 4641 . tonindnaig ind ammait leithi in chon dó assa laim chlí (to bring misfortune upon him), LL 13890 . dul ar an dtaoibh gc.¤ `to be condemned on the Day of Judgment', Dánfhocail 48 . docomhlat as . . . laimh clí frisan loch, Hugh Roe² 64.9 ( láimh clé, 60.29 ). beannacht na láimhe clí do M., TSh. 9909 (regarded as less efficacious than beannacht na láimhe deise, 9908 ). ar an láimh ndeis ná ar a' láimh cclí, Párl. na mB. 2041 .

(b) Fig. malign, inauspicious, ill-omened, sinister; bad, perverse: c.¤ .i. cláon, O'Cl. da ainm don chlaoine colaigh / `ciol' is `cle', Metr. Gl. 28 § 41 . a ḟlaith Cermna can ni c.¤ `without partiality', LL 23250 ( CRR 54 ). aided ind Ḟind chétna ch.¤ / la Sétna perverse(?), LL 14931 . luid uadib cen chísal c.¤ / co tísad afrithise `without wrongful offence(?)', Metr. Dinds. ii 28.39 . robo c.¤ mana in marc-ṡluag `that array of steeds was an evil omen', iv 128.68 . Hence: c.¤ .i. olc. c.¤ mhana .i. olc, urchóid no adgall, O'Cl. (who seems to regard it as a compd but mana: braga). Cf. cle is mana fort a Chithruadh, BLism. 1731b17 . beith 'ga cāi robad clē dam, / ō do bī toil Dē 'na dul I should do wrong to mourn him, ZCP vii 303 § 6 . cathugud ceilgi as clē dūind / ┐ mē fa meirgi in Rīg, ACL iii 237 § 30 (`dangerous', Aithd. D. 62 ). iarsin curp cle-su `after this wayward body', Ériu xix 12 § 6 . do chath-cliu na Conallach, MR 188.8 . fa taom c.¤ anadh re hágh `a perilous act', Celtica ii 169 § 48 . acsin [saer]chlanna Dairi / ní comhairemh c.¤ no wrong estimation(?), Miscell. Celt. Soc. 32.9 . sén Dé duit is dúin-ne / ní c.¤ duit ar nduain-ne not inauspicious (inaugural ode to chief), Caithr. Thoirdh. 31.22 . don phubal is c.¤ do chosc / an té thugadh dá tegusc, IGT Decl. ex. 737 . gidh c.¤ an chúis laghaidh tho' the case for pardon is unfortunate, 20 . an chuideachta ch.¤ `evil com- panions', Aithd. D. 52.9 . gér thréan do ba taom c.¤ an ill-starred effort, 17.33 . an chraobh nachar ch.¤ mbreath `the straight-judging hero', 30 . go fail blodh dib co soirb imcubaid da dainib maithi ┐ blodh co doirb cle . . . da drochdainib inauspicious, Ir. Astr. Tr. 70.14 . modha claona an chreidimh ch.¤ , Keat. Poems 1266 . measuim gur c.¤ an ceart d'áoneach . . . , Párl. na mB. 3683 .

Freq. in chevilles: tuitset na cróeba, nár ch.¤ , Metr. Dinds. iii 148.7 . Tea, nar ch.¤ / ben Erimóin `never unjust', i 4.31 . Cf. Fen. 54.1 . seólsat curchán, créd nad c.¤ `of flawless metal', Metr. Dinds. ii 30.65 . nī clē, RC xxxvii 347 § 39 . clu nad ch.¤ , xx 44.5 (ACC Comm.). nochar chaingen c.¤ , Mart. Don. 162.11 . ní hiúl c.¤ `'tis no erroneous report', SGS iv 144 § 29 .

II As subst.

(a) left side, left hand : a c.¤ ra Berna M. . . . a ndes ri Slíab nÉ., MU² 262 . ro impa in t-ech a ch.¤ friss, LL 13814 . cf. 13818 . co tuc a c[h]. re Coill Ruaidh, ML² 2066 . na findad do ch.¤ a n-a díngne do deis, PH 6081 .

for (ar) clíu on the left side : claideb . . . bar a chlíu, TBC-LL¹ 2737 . beir mo scíath . . . / . . . / co rraib ar cliu Chormaic Cais, LL 18383 . craeba cailce for a clīu (of a shield), ZCP viii 227 § 1 . sciath mor . . . ar cli cach oen ḟir, Cog. 74.17 .

by the left side, to the left expressed by dat. without prec. prep.: nī rubai neach diib clīu do Āth Firdiad, TBC-I¹ 3429 ; but more frequently by do chlíu: atconnairc M. . . . foscud salach dorcha dia chlíí, Lat. Lives 93.9 . Medb . . . do chlí Ailella, LL 7871 (TBC). suidid airdrī Ailig / dia c[h]liu, ZCP viii 108.5 . Brigit form deis . . . / Colum do chlíu, LL 4817 . latrand dia deis .i. D. . . . ┐ latrand dia clíí .i. G., PH 3326 . dorat sé bualadh . . . forra dia dheis ┐ dia clí, Stair Erc. 475 . cláona as an slíghe dár ndeis nó dár cclí, Párl. na mB. 4061 . Somet. also by for clíu: forud a rig for deis ri[g] Carmun: forud ri[g] Hua Failge fora clíu, Dinds. 18 . leoghan fora dheis ┐ alaile fora clí, Stair Erc. 400 . Cf. also: do Ṡean-ghoill fein ar clé ag cruadh-ghol `on the left i.e. neglected', Keat. Poems 1383 .

(a 2) (the) north : túath in chlé 'the Northern tribe' Ériu xxiv 27 . Cf. 1 fochla.

(b) Fig. ill-luck : ort do ch.¤ ┐ do chol dúabhais (an imprecation), RC xxix 116 § 11 . 146 § 70 . Cf. 132 § 45 . fuair sé a dhódh ar c.¤ his trouble went for nothing(?), Measgra D. 8.27 .

Compds. With noun. siol gCárthaich nach ndeárnaidh clé-beart evil deed , Hard. ii 334.1 . ic tabairt a bossi deis[e] fria gin fodén, ┐ a chléboss fria gin Cathail left palm of the hand, MacCongl. 103.15 . ar cle-corpaib na curadh on the left sides, CCath. 5450 . a deiscin tar clegualainn [oc toidecht uaithi] (one of the gesa of Tailtiu), Dinds. 99 . don ḟir cuil dobo cléguin `an unjust wound', Ériu iv 112 § 2 . gabais a chúach na chleláim, LL 4573 . go bhfuil clélámh an chéle nemhdha fá bhar ccenn, RSClára f. 51a . ar folāiremh aingil na clēláimhe `the devil', Fl. Earls 50.15 . dīrgit a gcūrsa clēlāimh re Tīr C. on the right of, 8.y . clēlāmh re fairrgi, 108.10 . na cáde cen cléréim `evil course', Gorm. May 24 . Nov. 24 .

With adj. ? recoecha uile comtar tuath coecha (.i. láncacha no clécacha blind in the left eye), Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. ii 15.18 ; 'malign, inauspicious, ill-omened, sinister; bad perverse' CMCS xliii 9 .

1 clí

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 clí or dil.ie/9466
Last Revised: 2013

n f. in chlí, Thes. ii 295.4 . Appar. indeclinable; but see perh. d. sg. clith, Ériu xxix 157 = AM .

(a) a house-post : is c.¤ darach Moysi [i]sin tegdais `an oaken pillar', Wb. 33a5 (` leg., with Chroust, clin', Strachan). cach comarbbae cona ch.¤ inna chaīnorbbae clandas `Hauspfosten', ZCP xi 81 § 13 . ate-midiur-sa ar mo chenéuil clith 'I estimate them by the house-post of my kin' Ériu xxix 157 (= AM 4.18 , 63.163) . cach comarbba cona ch.¤ i cind a thíre techtai, LL 293b12 . fo chlí mo chuile, Lament 104 § 31 . nico n-airsitis cli fri alaile that they would find the house completely destroyed, Vita Br. 1 . sádis c.¤ and ┐ asbert robad chongbail ┐ cathir dó, Trip.² 1731 (castrametatus est, Lat. Lives 34.4 ). amail atcumaic in c.¤ isin tegdais ō lár co clēithi, Corm. Y 275 . ar a chosmaile fri clī thige, ibid. ní hasta dilsi, na tuinide, na c.¤, na cuaille . . . , O'D. 580 ( H 3.17, 444 ). ni rudhradh nad astann cli na cuailli .i. nocha ro tairismech é itir muna astaighte cli a tighi air a aititin fir bunaidh, O'Curry 435 ( H 3.18, 235b ). c.¤ .i. cleath, O'Cl. Equated with cleth: ce dobre bir clethi fordorus .i. cia doburnaid fair banna don c.¤ biraich bis osonn fordorus, O'Dav. 620 . By extension: cia braenaighther bainne do cli biraith na cainnle the pointed candle-stick(?), O'Dav. 320 .

(b) Freq. in Fig. use of a person, champion, support, prop; authority : in ch.¤ comras cond credail / ollmas fu thocaid tugaib `the mighty balk . . . great (and) good under roofs of fortune', Thes. ii 295.4 (SP v). c.¤ de rgóir . . . | Findbarr Maige Bili, Fél. Sept. 10 . lam Chua, c.¤ búadach, Acr. 6 . ard-chli os Emna oenuch (of a king), AU i 418.6 . c.¤ .i. comarba, ut est, Cobtach cloth c.¤ in crabaid, O'Curry 1301 ( H 3.18, p. 540a ) (citation from LB 101b59 ). ar ṅDia . . . / ar C., SR 7483 . a ch.¤ gaili cen eisslis (to Saul), 5994 . arm-char c.¤ `a weapon-loving champion', Metr. Dinds. ii 40.61 . Exceptionally of a woman: ingean d'Aengus, glan a gairi, / cli roscar in Daire dearg, Ériu x 82 § 57 . Of a tooth: en fiacuil im chind gan cli, Fen. 294.5 . c.¤ an éirnidh an ionnaithmhigh an authority in explaining and unriddling? RC iv 354.2 . do thaobh na haithne si (sc. the first commandment) . . . cuir ad mheabhair an ní adéra an ch.¤ riot, Mac Aingil 3212 .

coimitecht

Cite this: eDIL s.v. coimitecht or dil.ie/10227

Forms: comaitecht, coimheadacht, comimtechta, comhuideachd, coimhdeacht, comaidiacht

ā, [f.] old Ir. comaitecht (vn. of con-éitet), early confused with coímthecht (later caoimhtheacht (Vn. of con-imthet). da ainm don choimhideacht . . . sáil ┐ caoimhtheacht, Metr. Gl. 29 § 49 . caoimhtheacht .i. coimhidheacht, O'Cl. coimheadacht, Dhá Sg. Art. 1908 . With re-composition comimtechta (g s.), LU 2064 ( FA 14 ) (cf. coimimthecht, coimthecht). comhuideachd f., IGT Decl. § 26 (coimhideachd proscribed form); m., § 24 . Later coimhdeacht (`exceptionally . . . in TSh.', Desid. Gloss.).

(a) act of going together (see Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 644 ): inna com(th)aitechta ( con-taít, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 647 ) gl. coitiones, Ml. 37c7 - 8 . comaitecht ceniuil do chenéul `congruence of gender to gender', Sg. 75a6 . hi coimthecht du gréin ┐ escu in óenrind `in the conjunction of . . .', BCr. 32a6 ( Thes. ii 16.40 ). ? robad inmuin comitecht, Ériu iii 106 § 47 .

(b) With DO act of agreeing with, favouring, conniving at, etc., in Thes. freq. translated indulgence: comitecht dund óis nad chaithi cach tuari, Wb. 6c11 . cometect dóib gl. imbicillitates infirmorum sustinere, 24 . comaitecht don brathir enirt gl. caritas uero aedificat, 10b28 . 10c2 . cometecht dossom `to be indulgent', 10c10 . 11c4 . 20b18 . cometecht dia n-écoscaib cen chometecht dia mbésbi gl. sine offensione estote Iudeis, 11c5 . tri chomaitecht donaib ingraimthidib `through conniving at', Ml. 15b5 . 65d12 . 72b18 . cen com[ai]techt do in prandio `without sparing him', Mon. Tall. 160.9 . comaitecht dond aithesc, Alex. 1016 = comaidiacht `Rücksicht', ZCP xxx 153.20 . With FRI: di chomitecht et condarcilli fri iudeu `indulgence and connivance', Wb. 19a6 . ? caemtechta fri colaind do cetmuindtire `accompanying', Laws v 306.4 . Perh. also: ar comaitecht do neuch o pecad ` accompanying ', Mon. Tall. 143.9 . ma rufestar bas n-ethech acht dagni ar baig nó chomitecht `to shield another', Ériu vii 156.26 . In follg. the accompanying words suggest meaning concession, grant, tribute : nī dlig nach rī . . . cīs nā bēs nā gēill nā comaitecht don tīr-ṡin, Corp. Gen. 207.8 ( comaithecht, 18 ). do rīgh Eassa Rūaidh nī dlecht / cīos nā cāin nā comhuidecht, ZCP viii 116.20 . a tuaristla ┐ a comaideachta `escorts', Leb. Cert.² 52 .

(c) act of accompanying, escorting, protecting: potestates a ccaoimhthecht, Blathm. 74 . do buith daitsiu hi coimthecht oco `thy being associated in it', Sg. 2a7 . do gudiu choemthechta doib, Vita Br. 40 . ara choímthecht a taig, Críth G. 585 . coemtecht ┐ seilcecht (of accompanying a person in a crime?), Laws iii 92.9 . smachta tairgilli cach raithi itir samradh ┐ eturscarad ┐ caomtacht, iv 78.2 (`In technical sense of a system of dividing the year, parts of one season being taken off (etarscarad), and added to (cáemthecht) another season', Plummer MS. notes). condit roib cáemtecht di ánrodaib Ulad till you can be escorted by some of the U. warriors, LU 4863 (TBC). a comaitecht ┐ a mbíathath ┐ a nem-guin, LMU² 163 . coimhdecht nó amhsainecht, RC xxix 112 § 8 . ? mor in mian don choimideacht / do niad gilli na leathbrág, Magauran 789 .

Attrib. g s accompanying, attendant : a aingel comaidechta guardian angel, BColm. 104.14 . do ainglib coimthechta, LU 1994 ( FA 6 ). aingel a comaitechta, 1967 ( 3 ). aidire caomtechta fri coir nathcomairc, Laws i 282.8 Comm. amus comhuidechta, ii 24.28 . céili coímthechta[e], Críth G. 406 . ca mét cornn comaitechta atá ac F.? serving-goblets(?), Acall. 5501 . cumal coimidechta maid-in-waiting, ZCP vi 27.14 . ro bái d'iomat a cheithern ┐ a dhamh coimhittechta, ZCP x 16.27 . .vi. dorais chóemtechta protective doors, LU 2081 ( FA 15 ). 'na flichidheacht coimdechta, O'Gr. Cat. 249.9 . is ina hetan bis di in satan coimidechta (opposite of aingel c.¤ ?), YBL 138b5 . Cf. drochad . . . comimtheachta `easily crossed', TTebe 3533 .

In vn. constr.: ni chaemnactar eich . . . in damrad do chomaitecht keep up with, LL 8702 (TBC). oca chomaitecht do airic menman `comforting her', Ériu xii 156.3 (TE). mar do bhíadh Íosa ┐ Muire . . . ga choimhideachd, Parrth. Anma 695 .

V. freq. in phr. i c.¤ with follg. gen. accompanying : i coimthecht dagdóine gl. comes perigrinationis nostrae, Wb. 16d2 . hí coimtecht inna árcae, Ml. 82d1 . 33b13 . it chóimthecht, 208b5 . i cóimthecht I., Fél. Dec. 20 . senoir it c.¤ `in thy company', Mon. Tall. 151.4 . i Coimded coimthecht, Death-tales of the Ulster heroes 10.6 . hi comaitecht a slóig, LU 8155 ( FB 11 ). i c.¤ seoit cethramda in the case of, Laws iii 230.10 Comm. gan chin 'na choimeitteacht sinless, ZCP viii 206.2 . a comaidhecht an claidhim as well as the sword, RC x 185.20 . teacht a coimhdecht mná to have intercourse with a woman, RC xxix 132 § 43 . fir ina caeimthecht (of woman), Maund. 135 .

With follg. prep. óes insin bís [i] coímthecht do ḟlaith, Críth G. 594 (a kind of vassal service, p. 107). comaitecht re hairdrígh, ZCP viii 116.8 . a hainm i ccaoimthecht fria hanail, Ériu xiii 39.24 . lotar do chomaideacht lais, xvi 84.90 . do choimidacht ort to dance attendance on you, CF² 773 .

In pl. in concr. sense attendants, companions, escort : do caemtechtaib `by attendants', Laws iii 510.1 . coimthecht ecin do chaimthechtaib C., TBC-LL¹ 880 .

In n. loc. for Druim Cáemtechta, LU 4605 (TBC). dar Mona[i]d Cöemtechta, Otia iii 48 § 5 .

comairléciud

Cite this: eDIL s.v. comairléciud or dil.ie/10660

Forms: -lécud, -lécad

(also perh. with -ě-) Also -lécud, -lécad. u,[m.] vn. of con-airléici. act of allowing, permitting; permission; act of seeking permission : do chomairleciud in popuil asin doiri gl. in remisionem captiuitatis, Ml. 123a11 . ar comarleciud inna lama-sum `letting us fall into their hands', 87a7 . don chomairleciud gl. permisioni, 44d20 . 87a9 . 125a10 . comarlecud dó lom di midc do chumusc ar usci, Mon. Tall. 136.10 . im ar comarlecad do saigid ar corp doridisi, ACL iii 225.7 . ní tucusa comad chomarlécud do E., LU 10905 `until I had E.'s leave', Ériu xii 185 § 14 . iar comarlecudh do P. in mithisiu when P. had granted this respite, TTr. 2098 ( LL 406b41 ). ro faoidhsiut techta co Niall . . . dia comhairlécciudh dhōiph dul i n-aghid Uludh to ask his permission to march against, ZCP xiv 224.9 . robad ┐ comarlécud dé, Alex. 1031 . goro goireadh Ó Domhnaill de gan comhairleccadh d'fior ionaitt an rígh, AFM vi 2344.3 (`without consulting'). a comairlécud by permission (?), Alex. 1026 .

In Laws of allowing a wrong-doer to escape: an comarlégad, a legad fon coill, O'Curry 359 ( H 3.18, 198 ). lanfiach . . . isin comarlécud, O'Curry 357 (197). leth in cinaid i comarlécud in furfocraig cid ria ndenam cinaid, 356 (197). fiach comairleicthe no leasaigthe, 1893 ( 23 P 3, 22 c ). Cf. lesugud ff.

? comdibi

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? comdibi or dil.ie/11013

v robad fherr lim c.¤ duib, Aen. 2698 `I would rather ye strove along with us(?)', Gloss.

cridiscél

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cridiscél or dil.ie/12936

Forms: cridescel

n (cride + scél). matter near the heart, moving tale; special wish; darling : cridescel gl. uerbum bonum, Thes. i 3.6 . robadar cethtri c.¤ liomsæ de chianaib. Ropa . . . cedamus etc., `four darling wishes', Mon. Tall. 136.19 . ernitir dona macaib bethad na cridi scelae (sic) maithi `the good desires of their hearts', 33 . robad cridiscel la Faind / coibligi fri Coin Culaind, LU 3314 ( SCC 11 ). dā cridiscēl thuaiscirt Erenn the two darlings (of two warriors), TBC-I¹ 3318 . dá ch.¤ thuascirt in betha (Castor and Pollux), TTr.² 69 (= christél, LL 31294 ).

1 dé

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 dé or dil.ie/14794
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: dé, diad, déithe, diaid, diaig, dé, dé, déith, diaid, díaig, died, diaid, dé, diadh, déithe

n t, f. Smoke, haze , &c. n s. dé, from the Glosses (dæ, Ml. 57 a 10 ) up to the present day. Rhyming with clé BB 31 b 8 ; with gné, LL 199 b 47 . Seldom diad, modelled on the ā-stems, BB 450 b 12 , EIS 140 § 22 . g s. diad, Ml. 40 c 1 . TBC-LL¹ 187 . CCath. 1502 . Hy Maine 57 a 2 . AFM vi 1962. 12 ; 2198. 3 . TSh. 187. 23 ; mod. id. and déithe (Kerry).—The derivative dethach points to disyllabic diäd. Unfortunately I have no instance from old poetry. a s. diaid, Expuls. 187 . RC ii 396. 1 f.b. LL 110 a 12 . BB 365 b 17 . PH 2407. 7109 . MacCongl. 63. 6 . O'Dav. 632 . 1586 . diaig TBC-LL¹ 5508 . Superseded by the nom. form dé, AFM vi 2116. 8 f.b. ; mod. dé and déith (sic W. Kerry). d s. diaid, LL 124 a 41 . díaig, PH 2505 . died, RC iii 344. 12 = diaid.

I Smoke, fume , as opposed to lasar `flame' and 1 teine `fire.' It renders Lat. fumus. diaidh .i. múch smoke, vapour P. O'C.

(a) uice fumi omnis eorum elatio euanescit, gl. amal arindchrin dæ ┐ asindbail as smoke perishes and dies Ml. 57 a 10 . rothin (sc. in diabul) fochétóir amal diaid, RC ii 396. 1 f.b. Todd Lect. v 97. 11 . attáit tenti ┐ fóidit diaid in teined sair co hOsseirge, Expuls. 187 . atáid tenid cáin...cen diaid cen chiaig cen crithir, MacCongl. 63. 6 ; 117. 21 . dath na diad, Hy Maine 57 a 2 . amal téid de do deightheinidh, Lib. Flav. 33 b 2. 14 . is cumair in pian aimserda ar is fri diaid thened is casmail, PH 2407 . teine diad a smoky fire : teanndáil nó t. dhiadh, TSh. 187. 23 . the smoke from an encampment: ragabsatar dúnad ┐ longphort inn aidchi sin cor ba dlúim diad ┐ tened (a standing phrase) etir chethri áthaib Ái, TBC-LL¹ 187 . the smoke from a volcano: co maiged (i.e. maided) a duibdiad ┐ a lasra a huamaib ┐ a hairchelaib in tṡlébi sin (i.e. Etna) BB 450 b 12 . the smoke from a devastated country or city: dar leo is tre smúitcheo diad ┐ tre corrthair lasrach nolaefedh in cathraigh uile, CCath. 1502 . dé is dethach smoke and vapour : robad smúittcheo diadh ┐ dethaighe in tír uile dia néis, AFM vi 2198. 3 . an dlúiṁcheo diadh ┐ dethaighe roleth óna forloisccthib, ib. vi 1962. 13 . ib. 2116. 8 f.b. dochuireadar an baile uile tre smúr dhiadh ┐ deataigh, Caithr. 52. 15 .

(b) a smoking fire = teine diad: a thócbáil ┐ a chosa suas...┐ de mór fói, PH 1238 .

(c) the smoke of a fired gun: roleiccsiot dé ┐ detach a ndubhpúdair foa súilib, AFM vi 2116. 8 f.b.

(d) odorous smoke as that of incense : túis...athascnaid a de side iarna hadandad i núaislib nime, PH 7020 . amail diaid thúsi, ib. 7109 .

(e) smoke, fume as the symbol of Satan and the demons : dochonnaic sí in satan...a dhe ┐ a lasair asa chraes ┐ asa ṡróin, Lism. L. 1409 . Todd Lect. v 74. 13 . a dé ┐ a lassar asa chraess ┐ asa ṡrónaib sechtair, Three Hom. 72. 30 . dochóid ass in draicc ┐ tórruma demun impe coro lín in tempul dia díaig ┐ dia bréntur, PH 2505 .

(f) smoke or fume, arising from the anger of the righteous: in dé iarum tánic dítsu ar thimdergad foloi side i nardda coro scáil na demna LL 273 b 48 , ZCP x 378 .

II Esp. the smoke from the hearth or house-fire (tellach); hence sometimes, like teine and tellach, as a symbol of the house or the home. hi tellach thírmaide...nárotlosci a lassar nárotbena a dé, MacCongl. 95. 27 . dé do thig, LB 156 a 57 . nocho bia i nÉirinn...teag ná treb ná ten ná de (: clé) BB 31 b 8 . co facca a dún fornocht cen diaidh cen teach cen tenid, ib. 365 b 17 . biaidh gan diaigh Eaṁuin Uladh, 3 C 13, 659. 9 .—According to old beliefs the smoke of the hearth betrays the secrets of the house and the fate of its inhabitants, cf. adgníed din died ( diaid, LL 124 a 11 ) notheche din tich a llín nombíd co nngalur ann (┐ cech galar nobíd and, add. LL), RC iii 344. 12 . asé sin dobeir aithne ar galar in duine tre diaig in tigi i mbí dḟaicsin TBC-LL¹ 5508 .

III Vapour or steam, arising from heat: coire airgdidi do ná tic dé ná deathach, FDG 507 . de en foulachtae the vapour of the concoction RC xii 100. 10 .

IV Haze, misty appearance, watery vapour : siadair denn do cach dinn: dé do loch linn lán haze from the lake of full waters Four Songs 10. 8 = RC v 202. 1 .

V Like Lat. anima breath, the breath as the principle of life, soul : dend .i. de ut est denn a nanma .i. dé a[n]ma i ndáinib hí .i. in anál. nó amail diaidh do theinid, O'Dav. 632 . dé den anam a little breath of life P. O'C. In this sense still common in the spoken language: tá an déith as he is dead, efflata est anima, opp. tá an déith ann he is still alive (W. Kerry, Conn.). cuireadh go dí deireadh na déithe é ach dochas sé airist, or dochuaidh sé go dí d. na d. he was on the point of death but recovered (W. Kerry, Conn.).

VI PROV. proprium fumi est ut ignem nuntiat secuturum, gl. is gnáth lassar hi tiarmoracht diad flame is customary after smoke Ml. 40 c 1 . is dorn im diaid tor mbriathar a multitude of words is a fist round smoke O'Dav. 1586 (Stokes' translation gives no sense); cf. as dorn im dhiaidh, BS 54. 27 .

VII COMP. mí-dé: is míde tucad dún tair. dorat mígne dár menmain, LL 199 b 47 .

MOD. dé, g s. diadh, déithe, v. V, VI. Obs. in Sc. P. O'C. also gives the sense ` grief, sorrow, sadness .'—Cf. dethach.

1 deóin

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 deóin or dil.ie/15501

Forms: deonaib

n f., IGT Decl. § 149 (see KZ xxxvii 256 ) will, pleasure, consent: is d.¤ lim I am willing, wish: munba d.¤ le Rígh na rann, ZCP vi 268 . mar is d.¤ ra ríg na mbreth, LL 298a23 . munbud d.¤ let féin, SG 243 . is d.¤ dom: diamud ferr leo . . . robad d.¤ dosum, BB 436b50 . ní has mu d.¤ féin tanac of my own will, Aen. 1377 . teit mac duine asa d.¤ foden fri croich, PH 5143 . cen d.¤ do without his leave, Laws iii 484 . atbath in rí de d.¤by the will of God, LL 133a22 . do déoin Fíadat findnime, Trip.² 1629 . nách ar écin . . . acht is dia d.¤ féin, PH 3128 . do dh.¤ nó ar éigin, TD 1.26 . d'á nd.¤ is fearr an aicme the tribe is best when acting of their own will, Hy Fiach. 248 . pl. rosbennach a deonaib Dé, LL 164b18 .

1 día n-

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 día n- or dil.ie/15846
Last Revised: 2019

(later dá n-) conj.

(a) with pret. when: dia luid Duaid for longais tri glenn I. dambidc Semei di chlochaib, Ml. 68c4 . Ml. 52 . P. dia mbói i llobrai | ad-cobra dul do Machi, Hy. ii 45 . rí romol Semeon . . . | dia mbái icon glanaltóir, SR 7558 . rí rosaer Petur . . . dia lluid co Crist, 7395 . diarluid He. fectas do sruth I. luid in sruth for cúl, 7145 . Sucait a ainm o thustidib, Cothraigi dia mbai ic fognam do cethrur, Trip.² 204 = IT i 17 . is annsin conbocht fīr fer fairsom a llāsin, dia lotar in cōicer cucaisom fon oenme, TBC-I¹ 1739 . da mbamar ic S. . . . is amaraen imriaghmais, 2654 ( TBC-LL¹ 3465 , 3529 ). danamthuc M. robam céle comadas, LU 3971 ( SCC 45 ). romid do chach díb a chert dia | mbatar (= mar badar, BB 42a20 ) 'con tṡelgairecht, LL 14b7 . rofaillsiged do A. . . . día ro escomla a anim asa churp . . . ┐ día rucad dochum richid, FA 3 (LU). nirbo chian do Ch. dia mbaí and co facca . . . na longa, CRR § 11 . na mucca diamtar dóine `the swine, when they were men', Metr. Dinds. iii 386 . dia mbatar i nEmuin . . . daimtis cert, ZCP viii 218 . dorúmenair co mba Dia dia fhacca in spirut noem do thuidecht fair, PH 4790 . is é thug tríocha creach a B. dia raibhe . . . ag imluadh cogaidh, Keat. ii 4294 .

(b) With subj. if. neg. mani, earlier dina, dena, Ériu xx 229 . With pres. subj.: ní lour in bendachad dia mmaldachae, ní lour dano in nebmaldachad mani bendachae, Wb. 5d23 . dia mbemmi hi combás bemmi i comindocbáil, 24a10 . for ṅgnimrada diamat glain . . . do berthar nem . . . do chach, SR 1461 . is col duin dia foirglem, Fél. Ep. 98 . foircis dliged . . . dianad bē feineachas; muna bē feineachas tellais, Laws iv 18 . dia cloadarsom indí sin . . . ní fil ní . . . na dénat, Mon. Tall. § 26 . dia mbat rī bit rīghcerdach, ACL iii 314 . dia ructar ar mna daera uáinn biait ar mna soera for brointib ┐ bemi cin blicht ma ructar ar mbai blechtai uán, ZCP ix 148 ( TBC-I¹ 1129 ). diamsat fissid . . . ro- pad mithig duit eirge, TFerbe 352 . mad iat do charait bes and . . . da mbad iat, bar C., rapad lugaiti bar n-eneclannsi, CRR § 11 . dia ngaba mh' ḟorcetul-sa . . . notuaslaicfind . . . ┐ biat ri, Anecd. iii 74.12 . da fagair na móra finna . . . tabair iat, ZCP viii 113 . dia fhélltair form' fiachaib filid dia n-aīr if I am cheated of my dues, let poets satirize them, MacCongl. 45.y . da n-icat mo screpulsa . . . guidimsi mo Tigherna nachastí nach plaigh, Anecd. ii 34 . da raib accumsa a fis . . . do gebasu, Acall. 6294 . dá rabh ocumsa . . . sin do ghébthar, 80 . dia n-accara nech cen etach, tabair etach dó, PH 4960 . caithfidh bheith creachach . . . | dá raibh duine dasachtach, TD 20.6 . With neg. dina, dena: on do fiur adbaill, dena ro nastar tasicc fair 'a loan to a man who [subsequently] dies unless [its] return have been bound on him' Laws v 370.6 , Ériu xx 229 . feraid insci dina rochar arra 'he makes a statement if the consideration cannot be declared (?)' O'Dav. § 887 , Ériu xx 230 . ni aighne dinad aenaighe[d]ar for aein ai 'he is no [proper] advocate if he does not unite on one of them' ZCP xii 364 , Ériu xx 230 . dina derlaiter (? leg. derlathar) dil 'if it cannot be removed' Bretha 42 § 32 , Ériu xx 230 . dona bi (? leg. dina bē) iarair 'if there be no [previous] claim' Bretha 46 § 37 , Ériu xx 230 . Neg. with infix. pronoun: dinach | dime deithbiri 'unless justification shelter him' Laws iii 536.31 , Ériu xx 230 . donnach bē (? leg. mbē) asa tormastar sēoit d(h)ō cheana 'unless he have [something] else out of which séoit are increased for him (i.e. by which his property is increased) ' Ir. Recht 73 , Ériu xx 230 . dinach gell guaissi (? leg. -guasa) i n-anma (? leg. ainmne) ail, Bretha 36 § 23 , Ériu xx 231 . diani chel 'that I do not hide it' Celtica xv 33 § 8 . With past subj.: robad bethu dom dianchomalninn, Wb. 3c28 . dia mbad athirge dognéth . . . dodilgfitis do . . . a chinta, SR 1409 . dia mbeindse for mo nirt, ni tóethsitís in macrad, TBC-I¹ 1856 . diamtís Ulaid nobetis immalle frimsa ní fuléṅgtha in cath, TFerbe 396 . día mbeth dóine . . . istaig . . . dogénut écnach, MacCongl. 49.7 . da mad tol duib no-indfaind-sea bar ceist were it agreeable to you, I should . . ., PH 19 . atraigsetar ferg Ḟoraind friu dia torsed for cúlu, Ériu iv 142 . gá luagh dobérad sibh dham . . . dá tucaind bhur bhḟir féin cuguib?, Acall. 976 . dia mairedh . . . ní léigfedh mé, Duan. F. i 82 . dā sirinn a meic . . . ar an laochraid rem lá dofūicfedis tes 'gom thoigh, ZCP viii 219 . do bheinn ós chionn chríche F. . . . dá maradh M., TD 25.42 . dá dteagmhadh long . . . i n-imlibh cuain . . . T. do ní do niort nach oirbhearnach í ag imtheacht, 7.27 . dá bhféadthaoi a rádha ris . . . ní ḟuil ní d'adhbhar aige if one might say it to him . . . he hath no reason for it, 8.32 .

Freq. tautologically with ma(d): mad da mbeth i mbrōn . . . pennit in manach . . . for uisciu ┐ bairgin, Ériu vii 172 . imchian etarru . . . moalle | mad dia fégthar fírinne, Metr. Dinds. iii 168 . mad dia marbthar M. . . . atresat curaid, TFerbe 370 . 377 . mad dia ngabad rigi . . . isi bean nobiad aicce, Anecd. i 10.11 . intī taraill gait | nocha n-ālaind duit mad dia fagba a dín if any man has committed theft it is not honorable for you if he get shelter, KMMisc. 274 . LL 148b39 . in tan ba fíren in rí nobid in fót fo chaemchlí mad dia raded gói . . . suas dochured a foescal, LL 204a26 . . . . madh dia ndeni-siu forru . . . am erlumsa (sic leg. or for siu leg. sin?) if you will obey them . . . I am ready, BNnÉ 304 . Note also: is bec cid dia fesstar a chenél his descent will hardly be known at all, RC xxiv 176 .

dimbáide

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dimbáide or dil.ie/16490

n , f. (dimbáid, see dimbág): robad dermair in dimbaidhi damsa bith i n-uaingius ┐ ciniuda ectrand in domhain d' fogluasacht it would be an inglorious part for me (? `great would be the pity', W.S.), CCath. 1118 .

doéscair

Cite this: eDIL s.v. doéscair or dil.ie/17585

Forms: dáiscuir, daiscuir, doescair, doiscairem

adj i

(a) n buffoon, jester; adj jesting, jeering, flippant: dáiscuir gl. scurra, parasitus, Sg. 56b2 . ic athḟescain na . . . delbi doescairi druidechta, TBC-LL¹ 2748 . nā rup oirfited lind fégad furseori ┐ dáine doescaire (= praeconum aspectibus), PH 6873 . nā roluaidemm . . . briathra doescaire (= scurrilia), 6880 .

(b) common, mean, vulgar: daiscuir gl. uulgari (conuersatione), Ml. 37b5 . ní ba roescaid ar ná ba dáiscuir (doescair, v.l.) do not demean yourself by too much bustling, Tec. Corm. § 19 (p. 38) . is doescair cach can etach n-imbe a man has no self-respect without his clothes, O'Mulc. 462 . cranna doiscairi common trees (= ligna vilia), Ml. 92d6 . gebē bēss fora n-iarair | eter daescair is diamair, | is eol dam cen tíme tra | anmanna binne in berla both exoteric and esoteric, Lec. 55b22 . Common epithet of devils: doescair (of Satan), SR 948 . demun doescair, FA 30 (LB). Superl. inneuch as doiscairem hi tír Israhel, Ml. 105b7 .

Compds. ¤duine common person, one of the rabble: cenmotat . . . drubhar-sluaigh ┐ daescar-daoine, Leb. Gab.(i) 78 . da drabarsluag ┐ da dæscor-dainib, YBL 105a29 . ¤ṡlúag the common herd, rabble: hua doiscarslog gl. uulgaribus, Ml. 90c10 . nábad ardd a chongbál i talam, ┐ robad ádba daíscarsluaig, Trip.² 2399 . nárbhat dian re daescarṡluagh, Acall. 587 . dáescarsluag díc[h]oimsech an domain déin, ZCP viii 208 . buidre fri daéscarṡlúag turning a deaf ear to the rabble, Tec. Corm. § 3 (p. 10) . ní bhí dúithche san mbioth gan daosgarshluagh, Keat. 1 56 . berthar a fir maithi ina dún co hE. ┐ biathtar a ndaescursluag a ndūntaib seachtair, Lec. 409a25 . conid de garar feil Moing[finne] frisin Samain icon dæscursluagh Samain is vulgarly termed the feast of M., BB 264a7 . in spasmus . . . is de gairit an daoscarsluag crupan, 24 B 3, 125.36 . Of an army, common soldiers, the rank and file; camp-followers, sutlers: issé lín ar ndúnaid cenmothá ar ndaescorslúag ┐ ar mná, TBC-I¹ 189 (LU). cia lín dorochair and do daiscorslog, 2003 (LU). a ndirmanda diana daescur[sh]luaig ┐ a ṅgeraiti gaiscid, TTebe 2802 . triochad laoch i ngach luing gan áireamh a mban ná a ndaoscarshluagh, Keat. ii 1241 . Esp. of host of devils: iffrind cona dǽscorṡluagh, FA 3 (LU = doescursluag, LB). diabul cona doescarsluag, PH 8225 ; 6169 , 8143 . an diabhal ┐ a dhaosgar-ṡluagh, TSh. 1455 . daosgar-ṡluagh deamhan, 1974 . Lucifer co n-a daosgors[h]logh demnaidhe, Fl. Earls 156 . tresna daescurshluagaib disciri . . . deamnacda (in Hell), TTebe 190 .

dorn

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dorn or dil.ie/18356
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: dornn, dord, doirnn, duirnn, dorrann, dorn, Duirn, Duirn, D., Durn

n o, m. Also written dornn (-nd); form dord occurs TBC-I¹ 1823 ; IT i 40.22 (if not a scribal error, cf. card = carn). Note also d s. durrnd, CIH i 52.34 , Ériu lii 140 . doirnn, Trip.² 2928 (doirnnin, v.l.); for assin duirnn , Fél. 146.31 leg. assind iurn out of the iron (pot). dorrann, Ó Bruad. i 66 . dorn m., IGT Decl. § 67 .

(a) hand, fist: na durnu (gl. pugnas), Gild. Lor. 165 . robbad durnn caurad ┐ robad rig ruanada, TBC-I¹ 425 . a dord ima gāi, 1823 . laigen ina durnn, 2563 . gabaid in gilla imbirt a dornn foraib, 431 . imberta claideb ar dornaib desaib, LU 3424 ( SCC § 19 ). méit chléib búana cechtar a dá dordn (leg. dornd), BDD § 58 . métither ri durnu degléch, LL 237b1 ( TTr. 1518 ). rosbuailset dia mbassaib ┐ dornaib, PH 117 . senais R. a dhurna (lamha, v.l.) ┐ a ruscca dósomh, BNnÉ 319 § 13 . meni tuga biad im d.¤ , Laws v 64.21 . is do doarfas in d.¤ cen rigidh (of Belshazzar), Lec. 23a37 . lán duirn a handful: gabais C. lán duirnd dind feór, TBC-I¹ 1643 . comtrom do gach ní aen-lan duirn an equal handful of each ingredient, 23 P 10, 79.36 . debaid duirn a fight with fists: da ndech i mebail | narop debaid duirn, KMMisc. 290.2 . da rabhair a ndeabhaidh | narab deabhaidh duirn, 3 C 12, 122.20 . Hand as symbol of labour or workmanship: radis . . . nach crích no ferand bái aice acht a uird ┐ a indeona ┐ a duirn, TBC-LL¹ 962 . imin clochdroichit suidighus o dourn which he erected with his own hand, Laws ii 232.11 Comm. tri duirn ata dech for bith: d.¤ degsháir, d.¤ degmná, d.¤ deggobann, Triads 76 . rindaide, ráthbuige . . . i tig ríg noibdis corn, | ba hé a ndliged díles d.¤ the right due to their handiwork, Metr. Dinds. i 24 ; 'this was their proper due … a fist' v 125 . conarba ní ri mac oclaig . . . a dornd im suist no im opair so that no son of a warrior would put his hand to a flail, Cog. 116.12 .

Fig. to denote seizure, possession: dobhen urlamhas a atharda a dornaibh danar, AFM vi 2178.19 . d.¤ i mbrollach (a legal formula signifying arrest?): d.¤ ina brollach ar daigin a fastaithe re fiachaibh, Laws i 164.12 Comm. a leanmuin cu hor criche ┐ d.¤ ina brolluch i n-or criche, ii 88.18 Comm. = lamh ina brolluch, 20 ; cf. i 128.z . Prov. d.¤ im cheo a hand round mist (= something vain or ineffectual), Laud 615, 23 . na seoid adchi as d.¤ am cheo, BCC § 138 . d.¤ im diaid id., O'Dav. 1586 ; BS 54.27 . dorn im gae ngreine, CIH iii 750.33 , cf. Cog. 162.24 . fá dornaib underhand, secretly (mod.?): raelta eoluis fé dhóirnibh, Ó Bruad. ii 46 . súgra . . . fá na ndóirnib, 70 .

(b) hand as a measure of length: d.¤ a measure of 6 or 4 inches, O'Don. Suppl. sé troighthi . . . no da dornd déc ma do dornuib toimistar, Laws iv 76.21 Comm. naoi nduirn a fot . . . d.¤ leithet a crai . . . tri duirn a leithet ara medon, ZCP xiv 348.1 ( Laws ii 238.10 ). cetra duirn i n-airde, SG 108.24 . cubat cóic nd.¤ , Ériu ii 130 § 102 . dá dh.¤ décc ina leithet, trí duirn ┐ dá mér i fad a eite, AFM ii 996.9 . Cf. also: in dabach aile . . . fichis dornaib de it boiled hands high (?), TBC-I¹ 724 (see Celtica iii 180 ). in dabach tanaise con figfed durnu di, TBC-LL¹ 1367 = rofhuich d.¤ uaisdi, St.

(c) handful (= lán duirn), small quantity: dornn biroir, TBC-I¹ 1169 . cia fochertha d.¤ lán d'fhiad-ublaib fora cenna, LL 252b17 . nir dirúais dar (= don) charpat . . . acht d.¤ dina bassaib immon roth, TBC-LL¹ 6070 . d.¤ dona hasnaib . . . d.¤ dona fer[t]sib, TBC-I¹ 3638 . dornn do thuige ┐ d'édach, Ériu v 24.31 .

(d) blow with the fist, buffet: ní ba mó nó ó mir nó ó dúrnn nó ó lúa mair[b]fes cach fer leo, BDD § 94 . marbaid cét fer dib col-lūib ┐ co ndornaib, Ériu ii 24 § 6 . do buail d.¤ dásachtach ar Chonán, SG 339.7 . doradus d.¤ dara bhél, Acall. 1428 . d.¤ imidrubart, O'Dav. 1348 .

(e) handle . Of a vessel: gl. ansa, Thes. ii 361.29 (Philarg.). ballán d.¤ `a bowl of hands' (a two-handed cup?), Moling § 14 (`vessel of handfuls?' Plummer MS. notes). cilorn . . . an stuag as a taib no in milan duirn (`the hand-can'; can with handle?), Laws i 134.4 Comm. Of a bell: ássaid bethe tría doirnn (doirnnin, v.l.), Trip.² 2928 . Of a sword-hilt (only in compds.): claideb dorngel, TBC-I¹ 2847 . claidbi gel-duirn, TBC-LL¹ 4372 . claidbi ōrduirn, 4396 ; cf. TBC-I¹ 2045 , IT i 310.38 . im chechtar a dá leth-d.¤ in chlaidib on each side of the hilt, LL 237b37 ( TTr. 1548 ).

(f) Exceptionally foot (of an animal) (?): d.¤ daimh, Triads 76 v.l. ( .i. cos ag treabath, p. 37 ).

(g) As n.pr. m. D.¤ fer do Fénib, H 3.18, 391a . gen. Duirn, AU 682 ; Fél. 68.2 . a síd Duirnn Buidhe, Acall. 7204 , cf. 3847 . pl. tri Duirn , TBC-I¹ 3515 . As n.pr. f. D.¤ ingin Buidi, Laws i 70.14 . accus. Durn, 68.17 . Dornd bean do Feinaib Temrach, v 472.12 Comm.

Compds.

(a) With adj.: ¤balc strong-fisted , Metr. Dinds. iii 114 . ¤chorcra crimson-fisted (epithet of Cuchulainn), MU 4.23 . ¤gel, RC xx 272.3 ; Cog. 162.15 . ¤mass: Diurān dornnmas D. of the beautiful hands, Anecd. i 58 § 63 . ¤mer deft-handed , Metr. Dinds. iii 130 . See also under (e) above.

(b) With subst.: ¤chlaideb ` hand-sword ', Marco P. 61 . ¤ḟáscud squeezing with the hands, CCath. 2521 . ¤gal: bellum (alias dorndghal) breg h-Eile re n-Ailill molt for Laighniu, AU i 24.4 . in indeoin fo dorndgalaib, ZCP xiii 276 § 5 (`boilings with bubbles as big as fists', Celtica iii 180 ). ¤glac: i ndornnglacaib doitlebra Domnaill, MR 116.23 . dornnfot a hand's length, Laws iv 76.24 Comm. With adj. formed from noun ¤gualannach: eich dorngualandaig of a horse with shoulder a hand's breadth, IT iii 72 § 29 .

1 ed

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 ed or dil.ie/19657

Forms: ed, ed, é, ed

pron. 3 s. n. (In Mid. Ir. also occasionally sed. TBC-LL¹ 938 , 1057 . LL 264b30 , etc.) it: ed ōndī ass id, O'Mulc. 370 . For the typical usages of the independent pron. see under 1 é. After the disappearance of the neut. gender from the nominal decl., the pron. ed survived in various special usages, most of which can be exemplified in O. Ir. In certain of these usages ed is replaced by é in the later lang. (cf. 1 é IX). The principal types are shown below. In Old and Mid. Ir. ed is often found independently in virtual copula sentences, as: in gaisced gebes...? ed is it...? it (is) TBC-I¹ 562 . ed ad-fedem this we relate LL 184a29 ; also in the phrr. ed ón, ednonoín (see below); apart from these, and occasional inversions, it is always accompanied by the copula.

I ed is used in referring to a statement, proposition, fact, circumstance, order, etc.:

(a) retrospective: ni hed insin ro légsid in Evangelio (gl. qui dessensiones...praeter doctrinam quam uos dedicistis, faciunt) Wb. 7b23 . inn ed insin furuar dait? nate ní ed (ref. to verba delictorum meorum) Ml. 44b10 - 11 . requiren- tibus is ed insin namma di chanoi[n] forsa trachta á qui fructus 46c14 (cf. under II (c)). is hed ón dogníithsi (gl. frater cum fratre contendit) Wb. 9c15 . 10b9 . mostairchella sūil dar sodain, ol C. Is hed ōn atchiu, ol E., TBC-I¹ 1177 . do-rat ráthachas...na ticfad...et issed ón na ra chomaill LL 299b38 . Lism. L. 391 . níom díomsach...gidh eadh aigneadh aonduine, Content. viii 27 .

(b) anticipatory (the grammatical constr. is the same as in III below): ni hed not beir i nem, cia ba loingthech (gl. non est regnum Dei in esca et potu) Wb. 6c9 . is ed dugní iarum atluchedar buidi do Dia nammmá, Ml. 128c3 . TBC-I¹ 194 . is ed dos-gní torsech...can a ríg...eturru, TBC-LL¹ 5693 . ro bui telchomrac i Muidh L....is hed ro tinol ropo immned leo an aes pende do epiltin, Mon. Tall. § 73 . Esp. with verbs of thinking or saying: is ed durumenatarsom nad fess in gním, Ml. 80b10 . is ed as doig liun...bid exaggeranter duintad a n-emfases , 89d6 . combo hed domuined cāch combo ulc[h]a, TBC-I¹ 1644 . is eadh do measadh leo, dá dtéidís..., Keat. iii 3961 . is ed asberatsom is gau dúnni inna hí adfiadam, Ml. 93d14 . 95a5 . 106d3 . issed ra raidsetar combad é C., TBC-LL¹ 2920 . 4570 . is ed adfiadut eolaig...nat boi, etc. MacCongl. 47.23 . assedh adubairt, sgrib aibidil do, BCC § 59 . Regular with an anticipated clause of the type: tol Dé do dénum: is ed inchoisecht tri sodin, coic bliadni deac do thormuch for a saigul, Ml. 16c10 . na banscála do thidecht..., is ed dofornet sin...in eclais...do thidecht, PH 3460 . is ed fodera dam cend do thócbail .i. Cailte d'ḟaicsin, Acall. 3222 . is eadh do cinneadh leis na moghaibh an rí do mharbhadh, Keat. iii 2150 . 3052 . 4477 . is eadh is indéanta dhuit neart sluagh d'ḟágbháil, 3520 . comadh ed aderdáis airgne do denum, Fianaig. 70.27 . is eadh do mheasadar iad féin do ṡaoradh, Keat. iii 5736 . Cf. III (b).

II The pred., a subst. (m., f. or pl. or phr.), is placed first and ed takes its place after the copula:

(a) ed is followed by a subst. (in this type ed would be regular in O. Ir. when the subst. was itself neut.); sē deich issed ind árim sescat, SR 756 (though here we should perhaps take ind as = i n-, and mentally supply tiagat after the pron.; cf. 754 . In similar lines, however, we have isshi ind a., iss hé an a., 744 . 558 ). dā ḟer déc bássed a lín, TBC-LL¹ 2898 (= ba he a lin, TBC-I¹ 2161 . cf. sē cēt...ba hé a lín, SR 6276 ). trí catha ba headh a líon, Keat. iii 4871 (but: is é líon táinig rí L. ann naoi míle, 2293 et pass.; see III (a) below).

(b) ed is followed by a pronoun: almsa ar neamh acus neach faī | dlaī tar in tech is ed hí, ACL iii 236 § 8 . aoinchineadh dob eadh iaidséin, TD 32.11 .

(c) ed is followed by a rel. verb (a very common type): guidhe et tomoltód ar mbáis is hed dorigénsam, Wb. 14b26 (in resp. to: ceist cid dorigénsam). in digal dombeirsom is ed inchosaig a frecndarcus the punishment which He inflicts, it is that which indicates His presence Ml. 116d3 (cf. ind fithis tēte in peccad ishí tē[te] in pian, 28c19 ). datha na flesc cotagaib | hed nobid forsna huanaib, SR 2964 . tri deich...issed tiagait hi trichait, SR 748.764 . dá cét mbliadan... | is ed ropo slán d' Abíal, 1986 . LL 307b37 . an bél dūnta as eadh budh ḟearr, IGT, Decl. ex. 1285 . cin leagha... | trúagh más eadh fadera a dul, ex. 1138 . cf. TBC-LL¹ 5039 .

Freq. in partitive expressions: issed namā fil and dind ḟīn, TBC-I¹ 1578 . co torchair .l. leis...issed romarb don tṡluag, RC iii 181 . deich fir...iss ed gebus mo chell... | d'abbaib, Acall. 5435 . is edh do bhúi a tigh mu thigerna do chornnaibh: dá chornn déc, etc., 123 . Cf. Ml. 46c14 cited under I (a) above.

(d) The emphasised predicate is an adverbial phrase: feadh mh'aoise gidh eadh ro bheinn | 'gá díol, Dán Dé xv 2 ( YBL 371b ). gidh maith le fear fuair soirbheas | ar n-uair is eadh as aimhleas, vii 2 . ar iasacht is eadh dobhir | an domhan dona daoinibh, xxii 8 . isan tegh sin... isseadh rugadh ar Slānaightheōir, Fl. Earls 110.25 . an cethramadh bliadain dēg...issedh ro gairmedh airdespog don næm sin, 100.12 . deslām fris ba hed rusgapsat 162.6 .

III The copula + ed comes first, and the pred. is a subst. (m., f. or pl.) or phr.:

(a) ed is followed by a subst. (ed would be regular here in O. Ir. when the subst. was neut., in Middle Ir. the subst. after ed is occasionally fem. or masc., but instead of ed the masc. or fem. pron. becomes regular towards the modern period): bá sed a lín tanic, deich cét, etc. TBC-LL¹ 708 (but: is é lín luid, 99 ) ba sed a llín deich cét, etc. 169 . ba hedh a lín trí naenbar, Acall. 171 (but: iss é lín tangamar, 5665 . 6923 . Keat. iii 2291 , etc.; lín is in O.Ir. both m. and n. Wb. 29a17 ; cf. Ml. 17d6 ). ba sed in chomairle ra cruthaiged leo in bantrocht da lecud immach, TBC-LL¹ 1356 . 704 . is ed comairle doróni P. ro tinolait leis a milid, etc. TTr.² 1784 . bassed a n-anmand, M. ┐ E., LL 298a42 . 264b30 . Cf. conid ed andso anmanda na n-aband: Sas, etc. TBC-LL¹ 4214 = it hē a nanmandasid, Sas, etc. TBC-I¹ 2739 .

(b) ed is followed by a rel. verb: is ed as dulem dún do engnu in stoir, Ml. 14d7 . amal as n-ed as moam serc linnai adchotadsam triar saīthar saindiles sic is ed as moam serc la Dia maicc Israhél, 92c5 . 99b5 . issed dorochar leiss.... .i. dá Roth, dá Luan, etc. TBC-I¹ 1371 . as ed tucaisi let...breth soiscela, Laws i 8.2 . conid ed tra tanic ass fuil ┐ fín, PH 674 . is edh búi ann, torc, Acall. 1555 . issed is gnathḟocul ann `tarraid Aincél tú', 6214 . táncas .. dá ḟégad gá lín dobádar ┐ is edh dobádar, trí catha, 1782 . is eadh bhíos d' airdrígh É. | luighe an chiontaigh, TD 9.21 (v.l. asé). Cf. I (b).

In such exx. as the following, ed seems loosely substituted for a pronominal prep.: cid rot imluaid? iss ed rom imluaid d'ḟoglaim ḟessa, Acall. 3354 . 3900 (the form of the reply seems influenced by such a constr. as: is dō tānac, dot cobairsi, MacCongl. 116.3 . TBC-I¹ 1594 . Cf. V, VII below). Cf. Mon. Tall. § 73 , cited under I (b).

IV ed takes the place of an adj. or adjectival phrase, or a subst. used in a generic or adjectival sense, as pred. after the copula (cf. ni hed a mét as ned a sechmadachte creui intan mbís pro cresco acht ised in tain mbís pro uideo Sg. 182b3 ): dús ind fīrcomtúd acus mad ed ón whether it be true conversion, and if so Mon. Tall. § 56 . cōir...a uachtar, ┐ is ed cid a ichtar, Corm. Y 340 . manib orba cruib...he, uair massed unless it be o.c., for if it is Laws iv 44.26 Comm. in don fine iad no nach eadh, 288.9 Comm. in cétna duine doroine Dia...ba dia dheilbh... doforsat, ┐ robad ed in cland no genfed uadh mane tarmtheissed, Ériu ii 132.5 . is fer comlainn cet esiomh ┐ nocha n-edh misi, TBC-LL¹ 3884 (St.). is brég...┐ do rachainn da suidiugudh curob edh, ZCP vi 91.5 . ni sluag...sin, acht na daire...Da mbad ed iat cid fotera na carpait fothu? MU 20 = LL 264b43 . masa méth bid ed a mac, Acall. 3500 . gaelmar Muire, a Meic na hoighi | issed thusa o techt na cli Mary is akin (to us)...and so art Thou YBL 369a22 . masa bang í, gion gurb' eadh, IGT, Decl. ex. 1117 . damadh a tigh no creittea...do ticfatis..., uair nach edh, ni ticfat, Lism. L. 355 . ní leat an teagh... 'sní headh an chlann, Ir. Monthly 1922, 386 . ni follus an claechlod sin duinne mar as edh claechlod sholu[i]s an re as is the change of the moon's light Ir. Astr. Tr. 96.29 . ní romór as edh a n-innmhus, Maund. 264 . gurab ainm d'Éirinn .. Scotia amhail is eadh Hibernia , Keat. ii 5858 . ní headh d'ogham mur as eadh do gháoidheilg, mur so :— IGT, Introd. § 49 .

Hence ed is used with copula to assent to or deny a preceding proposition or question; this becomes a stereotyped form of affirmation or denial: ní tabraid luighe ar bith acht as edh nó ni hsedh yea or nay Maund. 264 . Luc. Fid. 100 . in cotlad do A. innosa? nad ed āmh, TBC-I¹ 2478 . mad maith let...tochailter in carnn anocht. ní hed, ar C., acht tochailter amairech hé, Acall. 2061 . in a[c] comed in topuir atai? is ead am, RC xxiv 196z . in a nUltaib is áil let ferann...? ní hed um, Acall. 5756 . crét dobeir cáí ort... ┐ in ac feicail in inaid a mbid Find? issed what makes thee grieve...and is it beholding the place where F. used to be? it is that 6537 . mairg duitsiu...masa rem ṡúlibse gebes ecla tú . ní hed deṡodain, ar in rí, LL 303b17 . an ar a thruaighe...? dobheirim briathar nach eadh, Keat. iii 970 . an dom bhreithse .. thángais? is eadh, 1931 . nach le cinneamhain theagṁhaid na huilc? ní headh, Parrth. Anma 71 . Luc. Fid. 36 . an eolach thusa orra? is eadh go deimhin, Each. Iol. 56.4 .

V ed is occasionally used somewhat like amhlaidh in Mod. Ir., in introducing an assertion: ind uair ro hairimthea a tseoid iss ed do bith lán machaire Maige F. aici, Acall. 5523 . iss ed do bíth ól tri nonbur...isin chuach sin, 6007 . cech urchar doberdis cuici is ed do thecmad ar cenn meic...do lucht in tsída, 1685 . Cf. sed ba cumma cū ┐ ech ┐ dune and, TBC-I¹ 2001 .

VI Adverbially with vb. of motion, anticipating the following route, destination, etc.: issed dolotar timchell nhErenn fo tuaith, Trip. 16.14 . is ed doch[u]atar iarum la toeb in trachta Lesbetai, TTr.² 574 . issed dochoid i tir Eogain, Trip. 150.19 ; 154.24 . TTr.² 233 . issed ruc a ech inní D. co tech a ingine, Metr. Dinds. iv 304 . TBC-LL¹ 6154 . AFM ii 1150.15 . An elliptical constr.? Cf. is ed didiu leth lotar...timcill Eirenn atuaidh, Lism. L. 138 .

VII In idiomatic use with impers. subst. verb: is hed dathar dún (gl. maledicimur quod speramus in Deum viuum) `therefore we are in evil plight' Wb. 28d4 . hore nopridchim dúibsi ished dathar dom, 21c9 . is hed romboth dom (eo quod habeam in corde vos...et in defensione) 23a24 . 5b31 . is hed inso romboth dossom (gl. cum gentibus edebat) 19a9 . Cf. ced taī doib, TBC-I¹ 410 . ni nach cin aile no taid dom (gl. ego ergo inimicus vobis factus sum, verum dicens vobis?) Wb. 19d26 , and see attá.

VIII ed is also used in the following phrases: cid (gid) ed though it be, yet, however, nevertheless: rosrengtha... a ḟogaimen fo chenn. ┐ cid ed ni rochotail yet he did not sleep TBC-I¹ 2512 . cid ed ōn, 177 . Cáin Ad. 6 . ní bái immarcraid neich dib ac áraile, acht cless in gæ bulga ac C. Cid ed ón ba conganchnessach F. na agid-side even as to that, F., on the other hand, was horn-skinned TBC-LL¹ 3009 . cid hed aman, SR 7254 . Cf. gidh eadh sin, Each. Iol. 48.26 . issé sin in tres inadh...narb áil liumsa do ḟeicsin... ┐ gid ed rachat letsa ann, Acall. 2092 . LL 295a42 . robámarne ar in comrac...co rabadur ar cuirp ina cró-lintib fola, ┐ cid ed tra is sinde fa trén issin chomrac, Acall. 6495 (ar ái tra v.l.). 7168 . díon ar ṡlógh é agus gidh eadh | ar brón, a Dhé, ní dídean GF, Ir. Monthly 1919, 623 . 398 . cidh bé trath dogéntaidhisi seruis do Dia...co ngébthaidhi in talam. cid edh an fedh anfuidhi an[b]ar pecaib ni fuil ecla acainne romaib, Maund. 123 . tuc [an sagart] Crimthann mar ainm air... acus gedh eadh, docondcas do Dia...nar cnesda...an t-ainmsi do beith air, BCC § 53 . Adeir Sanderus, etc., gidh eadh ní fíor an ní-se adeir Sanderus, Keat. iii 14 . do chuir teachta uaidh...'ga iarraidh orra braighde do chur chuige. gidh eadh fá hí freagra Dh. ar na teachtaibh nach tiubhradh braighde dhóibh, 4400 . 3932 . = L. autem: atáid uamha ag na sionnchaibh..., gidh eadh, ní fhuil ionadh... ag Mac an duine ( Luc. Fid. ix 58 ), TSh. 8119 .

gi edh , YBL 353b23 . 359b44 . gi eadh, 355a28 .

See also Studies 1922, 410 . TD 1.8 . Keat. iii 220 . gidh eadh bhós, TD 8.38 ; 22.15 . gidh eadh, trá, 20.3 .

Sometimes in past tense, cérb' (gérb) ed: Dia etrumsa ┐ in t-anfíren, or C., ┐ gerb ead nir ḟác in baile, LB 273b29 = SG 53.26 . In: ní thiobhra an corp cead a mhúinte | a mhacnas orm gidh eadh raibh, Dán Dé xix 6 (= YBL 393b ), gidh eadh raibh is apparently subjunct. of: is eadh atá, cf. Dán Dé xv 2 , cited u. II (d) above (the MS. a macnas may also = i m.). cip (gip, gib) ed may be used in same sense as cibé (gebé): ciped mac díb nogabad gasced, TBC-LL¹ 1089 (v.l. cibe St); but the analysis is doubtful, cf. under 1 é II (b), and see attá, 1 is.

mas(s) (massu) ed if it is, if so, well then, therefore (freq. in narrative as well as in argumentative composition; cf. massu ed béso mó a fius dúibsi (gl. tanta passi estis sine causa? si tamen sine causa) Wb. 19b11 . and also Sg. 50b13 . 88.2 . 192b7 ): is bec linne...beith duitsiu i cléir chlerig . massed, bar in file, fácbam na clercho, LL 306a31 . M. ingen Aengusa rí Ulad do tsenmathairsiu... Mass ed is ó Ultaib...tucamarne in mire ata induind, Acall. 5754 . in a nUltaib is áil let ferann...ní hed um...Mass ed, ar F., rachatsa...co hE., 5757 . 7967 . Keat. iii 1510 . 4401 . féach, a léaghthóir, bíodh gurab ar sluagh B. do bhí M. ..., maseadh do bhí do cheilg idir sé féin is L., nach táinig, etc. 4476 . ii 3803 . 3862 .

mar bud ed as it were (ironical): an tí as ionnraic, mar budh eadh who pretends to be honest Dán Dé xxii 20 = YBL 401b6 .

ní ed a mét (gl. nec tantum, non tantum, non solum Ml. 112d2a . 121b16 . 122b15 . 145d4 . Wb. 23c7 ). ní ed nammá, noc(h)on ed nammá, later ní hed amáin (replaced again by ní hé amáin, see 1 é IX (b)); in tan doberdis desmeracht asin chanoin ba hoinlebor leo in tsaltair...┐ ni edh namma dana, nach maigin in-airimther, etc. Hib. Min. 2.58 . srian muinci dergóir fria graig | ocus nocon ed nammā | turid airgit... | iss ed fil is tig hi tā SCC 31 . fil secht flaithi for a bru | ┐ nochon ead namma | fuil secht mna cach enfir dib, etc. IT ii 182.221 . is ed atbeir conid rig... ┐ ni hed nama, acht michométaid ar sapóti-ne, PH 2587 . do léigcebur...ar talam dúinne, ó nach raibi Crist aca chosnam... ┐ ní hedh amáin acht do tidhlaicc duinne é ar son [b]ar pecaidh, Maund. 123 . PH 7337 . BCC § 84 . ni hed amain rocrochsabar hē, acht a bualad ┐ a fhanámut, PH 2934 . ni hedh amáin do cuir se a cosmailes re hE. é, act do chuir se...os a chend é, BCC § 50 . § 69 . § 72 . ní headh amháin do ghabhadar na sagairt...orra féin bheith umhal...acht fós do ghabhadar na heaspuig féin orra é, Keat. iii 1349 . adubairt...go tibrad se dósan é, ┐ nach edh amháin acht go tibradh se dō gach dáil, etc. BCC § 116 . § 132 . is córaide so do chreideamhain nach eadh amháin airdeaspog Mumhan ghairthear... d'airdeaspog Caisil, acht fós go ngairthear airdeaspog Leithe Mogha uile dhe, Keat. iii 316 . Cf. cid hed aman, SR 7254 . cid ed amáin da-neth...rapo lór..., LL 241b20 .

Similarly: ní hed, ni hed sin: ni hed sin tra, acht tecait uilcc immda ele assin adaltras, PH 7783 .

ed non(n)oín (< ed inonn oín?) this has only been noted in the O. Ir. Glosses, where it renders idem and identidem; it seems to be an artificial construction, possibly an imitation of unus et idem: ed nunnoín (gl. idem in: `filium matris' idem dicit quod et `fratrem') Ml. 70d1 . ednonóen (gl. identidem) Sg. 201a11 . With neut. art.: a n-ednonóen aiccent in uilt indib `the same thing (to wit), an accent' 55b3 (see note, Thes. ii 109 , and ZCP v 8.31 ).

ed ón (rarely id ón): whether the .i. of the O. Ir. Glosses is to be so read is doubtful, in spite of the occurrence in Mid. Ir. MSS. of .i. as a compendium for edón, see Thurn., Thurn. Hdb. i p. 24 . In the Harl. copy of the O. Ir. treatise on the Psalter (Hib. Min.), however, the .i. of Rawl. B 512 is in some cases represented by ed on e.g. Rawl. B 512 ll. 195 , 435 . In Auraic. 357 (= 2731 Y) .i. is expl. by: ed un (ed on Y) .i. ed a oen erniud no ed a oen an eolaig (cf. Y). edon quasi idon .i. scyendumm . Corm. Y 571 . In later MSS. often adhon. For use of .i. see KMMisc. 102 ff.

That is, to wit , `id est': tre metur .i. (edon v.l.) metur dachtalacda, Hib. Min. 6.187 . eiligiacum metrum .i. (edon v.l.) metur eligiecda, 6.195 . dor-rime S. inni n-ali n-and .i. (edon v.l.) beatus , etc. 13.435 . 441 . áliss Pátricc Dubthach im damnae n-epscuip...idón fer soer socheniúil, Thes. ii 241.8 (= Trip. 344.9 ). dubbert P. cumtach du F. idon clocc ┐ menstir, 241.16 . gladiolus adhon sailestrach, C IV 2, 25va 6 . edera arborea adhon eigheand na crann, RC ix 231.7 . ri rogab M., edhón Feidlimid mac C., Hib. Min. 65.2 . aní léaghthar ag Daniel san seachtmadh caibidil, eadhón go bhfacaidh sé beathadhach, etc., TSh. 1024 . as an bhfocal uathadh san choisreagadh, eadhon, In nomine , O'Dowley 2.2 .

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