Search Results

Your search returned 48 result(s).

aidlesc

Cite this: eDIL s.v. aidlesc or dil.ie/889

Forms: aimlesc

adj o, ā (ad + lesc. Later aimlesc, O'Rahilly, Celtica i 338 ). loath, reluctant: adlesc-som . . . do dhul i ndíthrub, PH 4743 . na bi aidleasg fa anmain be not loath to stay, Ériu xi 197.5 . ger bho haidlescc leó . . . imscaradh do bith etorra, Hugh Roe 52.21 (fo. 14b) . ní liom nach aidhleasg éirghe / i n-ionam na hIairmhéirghe, Dán Dé iv 15 . ba haimlesc ┐ ba himnár leis na braithribh . . . im[ḟ]orrán catha atarru féin, CCath. 2294 . leasg amleasg sind gu Áth Cliath . . . is dian is mall m'imthecht, ZCP viii 229 § 1 (where a.¤ has its proper sense of ` un-reluctant, willing, eager ', O'Rahilly loc. cit.). Note also: in crand cnūasadlescbog gentle, pleasant(?) (but text doubtful), ACL iii 307 § 21 . Adv. mur a nglacthar go haimhleisg epistil S. Seim (i.e. is grudgingly admitted as canonical), Luc. Fid. 279.17 .

n As subst. biaidh an taimhleasg fa dhuibhchios, Proverbs xii 24 .

attá

Cite this: eDIL s.v. attá or dil.ie/4927
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: attá, Fil, fil, faeilfit, fil, fil, atóo, attó, attóo, ató, -táu, -ttóo, -tó, atái, atái, -tái, adta, ata, at, atáa, attáa, ataa, att, -tá, -ta, -táa, -dathar, ataam, attaam, ataid, ataaith, ataaid, ataad, -taid, ataat, ataat, -tat, -taat, tathum, tathut, táithi, táthus, táthunn, taithiunn, tathuib, tás, fil, fil, feil, fel, fail, fil, file, fel, fele, feil, fail, biuu, -bíu, -bí, biith, biid, bíid, -bii, -bí, robīi, -rubi, -rubai, -ruba, bíis, biís, bis, bís, bithir, bither, -bither, -rubthar, bímmi, -biam, bimme, biit, bíit, robiat, -biat, -bíat, -rubat, bíte, -bíinn, -biinn, -bíid, -bíth, -bid, -bith, bithe, -bímmis, -bitis, -bítis, b, bíth, bíith, bíid, biid, bíd, bithom, biid, bith, biat, beo, beu, -béo, bee, b, -bee, robhe, beith, beid, bed, beth, -b, -bée, bethum-sa, rob, robe, rubé, rob, robbé, -roib, bess, bes, bethir, bether, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -bem, -robam, beithe, bethe, -beith, -beid, -robith, beit, rubet, be(i)t, -bet, -robat, bete, -beind, -beinn, -betha, nobed, nobeth, -bed, -beth, -robad, -rabad, -bethe, -bemmis, -beimmis, -bemis, -bethe, -betis, -[ro]ibtis, bia, bie, bieid, bied, -bia, -bia, -bia, -bía, bethiumm, bethib, bias, bies, beithir, -bether, bemmi, beimmi, -biam, -piam, bethe, bethi, -bied, -bieid, biet, bieit, biet, -biat, -bíet, bete, beite, nombeinn, nobiad, -bíad, nobemmis, nobetis, b, -bá, bói, bái, -bói, boie, boithius, boíthi, baísu, both(a)e, botha, -both(a), bamar, bámar, -baid, bātir, -batar, batar, rob, -roba, -raba, rob, robói, rambái, robui, -robae, -robe, -rabae, romboth, rombod, -rabad, robámmar, -robammar, rubaid, -robaid, robatar, robbátar, -rabatar, -robatar, -rabtar, buith, buithi, atáu, atú, itu, it, atú, ataim, -t, -tái, -toi, taoi, -t, atá, attá, ata, at, atáthar, dáthar, atass, -das, itám, tám, ataum, ataim, atamaoit, atámaoid, atám, -taum, -dtám, atathai, atathi, atáithi, -táithi, -dathai, -taidh, itāt, atáit, ataut, táid, -táit, itat, atat, fil, -fhile, -fhuile, -fuili, -ḟoili, -ḟuile, fail, fail, fuil, -fail, -fuil, -uil, -ḟil, -ḟuil, -ḟoil, fil, fail, fail, filter, -fuiltear, fuilemm, -failmet, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, -bhḟuilti, failet, filet, fuilet, -failet, -filet, -fileat, -fuilet, -fuilid, failet, failet, fuilet, filet, bim, bím, -bím, -ruibim, -bi, bíd, bíd, -bí, -bíonn, -bind, bídh, -b, bither, -bithar, bímit, bídmaid, bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, bíth, bīd, -bíat, -bít, -bíd, bit, bít, bhínn, nobīth, robíth, bhíodh, bhíoth, bithi, -bithi, bithea, naboitis, nobīdis, beitis, bitis, bhítís, bhídís, bír, b, bīdh, bíodh, bíoth, bíom, bíthe, bídh, bidhí, bíod, ber, uér, beor, bheith, bur, -rabor, -rabhus, rabasa, bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, bé, beir, -rab(a)i, -rabha, -rabhair, -mbéis, -beis(se), -rabais, beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, beth, -b, -raib, -rab, -raibhe, rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, bess, beas, bethur, beme, bemmit, bemait, -bém, -beam, -ruibem, -rabum, bheam, rabham, bethi, rabthai, beit, -bet, -beat, -rabat, -rabut, -rabhait, -rabhaid, -rabheid, beinn, rabainn, beithi, beithe, bethe, beitheá, beith, nobith, mbeadh, -mbeath, -rabad, -bethe, -bette, rabtha, mbiadh, nobeitis, nobeidis, mbeith, bíat, biat, biad, bhead, bed, bét, bett, -biu, -bhiú, biad, -bi, bía, biae, biaidh, bía, -bía, bethair, bied, biaid, biáid, -bia, bíes, bés, bes, bess, bhias, biass, beither, beithir, bemit, bemait, -bem(ni, beimíd, -biam, -biaim(ne), -ben, bethi, beitte, bete, -bed, biait, biat, beit, beiti, beti, betit, beidid, -bīat, beidíd, beid, -bíad, no-béind, dobeind, do beinn, -beinn, bheitheá, biadh, -bied, bífad, rot-fiadh, biath, bhiadh, bethe, bheidīs, ro-bádus, bhádhus, bhí, -rabus, -rabhas, -rabadhus, bá, -raba, bádhus, -rabadhas, basa, bhádhuis, bhí, -rabadais, -rabhais, bhádhuis, -rabhadhuis, bae, bóe, baei, búi, -bae, -buí, robai, robae, robói, bí, robuidh, bí, bhói, bhaoi, -rubai, -roibe, -roibi, -roba, -raba, -raibhe, -rabha, -robha, bí, -raibi, baí, -rabha, -rabhustair, boí, bāi, būi, bae, buí, baí, boí, both, rombatha, robās, rombas, robás, -rabus, rabas, -bádus, -bás, bás, bas, -rabas, bas, bhás, bāmur, bámar, bhámair, -rabamar, robabair, -babhair, robadbair, bhábhair, -rabhuir, -rabhabhair, bādar, -bátir, badar, bádar, bídur, -rabadar, -rabhadair, baisit, -rabhsad, bátar, bátar, bheith, beitte

(ad-tá) subst. vb. is . The distinction betw. subst. vb. and copula is in the first place syntactical, and cases are found where there is no distinction of form. Cf. the type, common in ACC: boe sab he was a leader, ACC 26 . See further below, and the discussion by Bergin, Ériu xii 208 - 211 (cia taísiu, cia bé, etc.), who refers to cases like: is uera pictura ro bai sin, Thes. ii 6.32 as emphatic. See also Ériu xvi 46 , GOI 475 . For nimtha laám, Wb. 12a21 , nímptha fírion, 8d24 (copula ?) see GOI 487 . Note also the form of the pron. in (later): matait tall iat, Laws iv 86.8 Comm. , atá ar conair é, ACL iii 216.z . bí N. eices cecinit, RC xvii 175.14 is perh. a mistake. In follg. use of subst. vb. perh. due to infl. of Latin: mar nobéind athair doib = pater eram pauperum, PH 6107 . ata in innsci ordugud etc. = oratio est. . ., Auraic. 591 .

Apart from the ordinary indic. pres. all forms of subst. vb. are from a root beginning with b-. In indic. pres. the stem tá (in absol. position attá) is used in non-rel. sentences without conj. particle, after conj. particles with inf. pron. dat. and when the conj. particle consists of a preposition and rel. (s)a n-. Absolute inflexion of tá- is found in oldaas, indaas, etc. than (is), in meaning is angry, and with follg. suff. pron. The uninflected form fil (with accus.) is used after conj. particles where no dat. inf. pron. is present, in leniting rel. clauses and often in answers to questions containing subst. vb., and in archaic texts in absol. position in meaning there is . For fuller details see GOI 476 - 483 and exx. below. See also Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 419 ff. , Strachan, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899, 1 - 82 , Ó Máille, Ériu vi 1 ff. , Études Celt. xxxiv 143-44 . Forms of gaibid, do-coissin, díchsnigidir and 1 ad-cumaing also have the force of the subst. vb. in certain uses, see separate entries.

Note further that attá is usual after hóre (see Wb. 19a19 , 22d14 and compare GOI § 781 ) and occurs later after amal ( LU 7072 , Laws iii 90.18 ). Fil is somet. found in sense there is in mid. Ir.: fail crois d'ór in cach dorus, SR 361 . TBC-I¹ 2561 . Note also: fil derg it is red, Marco P. 173 .

The use of accus. after fil continues into the classical period, see IGT Introd. § 129 , Bard. Synt. Tr. 92 - 93 . A few exx. of forms other than fil with accus. occur: ni raibi deilb, TTr.² 1664 , ní raibi . . . mhnái, 370 , ní bhiadh mnaoi, Ó Bruad. ii 252.z (with assonance). Note also with inf. pron. rosṁbai inna tass, SR 5107 . ? nim tha maith . . . do chath fri firu, LU 3343 ( SCC 13 ). From the mid. Ir. period on fil takes personal endings except in 3 s., and occurs occasionally as an independent verb: faeilfit (fut. 3 pl. absol.), Caithr. Thoirdh. 120.26 . In rel. function attá is found side by side with fil from an early period: is heiside attá hi S., Trip.² 534 , a lucht atá istig, RC vii 298.131 , the form fil finally disappearing in this use.

In mid. Ir. fil occurs for earlier -tá with dat. inf. pron.: nichar fail tlacht, SR 1560 , ni-s-fil biad, PH 1310 . Also in rel. clause after prep.: bale hi fail, LU 7516 , fors fil, Imr. Brain 43 (see also Strachan, Stories fr. Táin 3rd ed. p. 1 note).

The consuet. pres. 1 s. conj. -bíu has in classical Ir. the force of a future: biad ní biú, IGT Verbs § 7 , see also TBC-LL¹ 882 , Acall. 6179 , Duan. F. i 43.4 .

Early forms (for fuller lists see Strachan loc. cit.). Indic. pres. 1 s. atóo, Wb. 12a21 . attó, 21c19 . attóo, 26d8 . ató, 26d17 . -táu, 32a10 , -ttóo, 17d24 , -tó, Ml. 92b8 . 2 s. atái, Wb. 5b27 . atái, Ml. 110d15 (sic MS, see Ériu xiv 30 ). -tái, 5b38 . 3 s. adta, Laws v 390.10 (see ZCP xxv 247 ). ata, Wb. 13c26 , at, 27a11 , atáa, 6a19 , attáa, 32a6 , ataa, 26b31 , att, 4b11 . -tá, 31c7 , -ta, 2b12 , -táa, 13a35 . Impers. -dathar (see GOI 477 - 478 ), Wb. 21c9 . 1 pl. ataam, Wb. 15a13 , attaam, 32a28 . 2 pl. ataid, Wb. 4a4 , ataaith, 20b16 , ataaid, 23c28 , ataad, 22d14 . -taid, 19d26 . 3 pl. ataat (trisyll.), Blathm. 471 . ataat, Ml. 55d11 , 37a10 . -tat, 42b10 . -taat, Sg. 71b3 .

With suff. pron. tathum, Metr. Dinds. iv 284.3 . tathut, Fél. July 24 . táithi (tathai, v.l.), Críth G. 197 . táthus, Fél. Feb. 5 . táthunn, Prol. 217. taithiunn, Thes. ii 293.19 . tathuib, Rawl. 88b51 .

For rel. s. without preverb (taas, tás) see atás, indaas, 4 ol.

The form fil, etc. As conj. form: fil, Wb. 16b9 , Ml. 92a8 , Sg. 193b7 . feil, Wb. 24c4 . Ml. 60b2 . fel, Wb. 3c38 , Ml. 27d10 . fail, 44b10-11 , Sg. 32a1 . As rel.: fil, Ml. 121c8 , file Wb. 23a5 , Ml. 51d11 , Sg. 151b7 . fel, Wb. 4c1 , fele, Ml. 93c7 . feil, Wb. 33b18 . fail, BCr. 18c4 .

Consuet. pres. 1 s. biuu, Wb. 16d8 . -bíu, 20a3 . 2 s. -bí, Ml. 135d1 . ACL iii 312 § 4 . 3 s. biith, Wb. 29a26 . biid, 4d33 . bíid, Sg. 150b4 . -bii, Wb. 28b25 , -bí, Ml. 103c3 . With ro: robīi, TBC-I¹ 1730 . -rubi, Wb. 11c17 , -rubai, Ml. 20d4 , Sg. 7b3 . -ruba, 3b28 . Rel. bíis, Wb. 13a12 . biís, 28b28 . bis, Ml. 61a33 . bís, Sg. 140b2 . Impers. bithir, Ml. 56b15 . rel. bither, 108b4 , -bither, 100c21 . -rubthar, cited GOI § 784 . OIPG 69 . 1 pl. bímmi, Ml. 15a4 . -biam, Wb. 16a8 . Rel. bimme, Wb. 12c11 . 3 pl. biit, Wb. 29a28 . bíit, Sg. 217a1 . robiat, 138a5 . -biat, Ml. 59d7 . -bíat, Sg. 148a4 . -rubat, 138a5 . Rel. bíte, Wb. 9d28 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. -bíinn, Ml. 108b1 , -biinn, 58d9 . 3 s. -bíid, LU 5080 (see Ériu xvii 121 ), -bíth, Sg. 148b6 . -bid, Ml. 33a5 . -bith, Vita Br. 12 . Impers. no bithe , CCath. 3971 . 1 pl. -bímmis, cited GOI § 785 . 3 pl. -bitis, Ml. 86d6 . -bítis, Sg. 5a15 .

Ipv. 2 s. b, TBC-I¹ 2391 . 3 s. bíth, Wb. 10a8 , 25 , bíith, 8d9 , bíid, 5d33 , biid, Ml. 74d3 . bíd, Wb. 3a14 . With suff. pron. bithom, Fél. Ep. 404 n.17 . 2 pl. biid, Wb. 23c11a . bith, 22b26 . 3 pl. biat, Ml. 51d13 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. beo, Wb. 23b41 . beu, Ml. 53b8 . -béo, Fél. Prol. 273 . 2 s. bee, cited OIPG 70 and see GOI 482 . b, ZCP viii 311.z (see xxiv 122 ). -bee (perh. absol.), ZCP vii 494 (Enchir. Aug.). -bē, Fing. R. 82 . With ro: robhe (restored as ro-bé), Blathm. 92 § 9 . 3 s. beith, Ml. 108a11 . beid, Wb. 14c23 . bed, 3c10 . beth, Thes. ii 245.34 (Cambr. Hom.). -bǽ, Wb. 22b14 . -b, Sg. 29b14 . -bée, Wb. 12c43 . With suff. pron. bethum-sa, Fél. Ep. 384 n.14 . With ro: rob, Wb. 5d30 , robe, 18c4 , rubé, Ml. 20d4 , rob, Wb. 28a23 , robbé, Sg. 169a1 . -roib, Wb. 16c24 , Ml. 118c5 . Rel. bess, Wb. 5d14 . bes, Ml. 77d3 . Impers. bethir, Wb. 5d33 . rel. bether, Ml. 107d8 . -bether, Wb. 10a18 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 31c11 . beimmi, 19a16 . -bem, 24a10 . -robam, 26c10 . 2 pl. beithe, Wb. 18b16 . bethe, 24b13 . -beith, Ml. 46a10 . -beid, Wb. 27c9 . With ro: -robith, Wb. 26a28 . 3 pl. beit, Wb. 10b5 . rubet, 26a23 . ro be(i)t , Vita Br. 35 . -bet, Wb. 9d27 . -robat, 11d9 . Rel. bete, Wb. 10c22 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. -beind, TBC-I¹ 1856 . -beinn cited GOI § 787 . 2 s. -betha, Wb. 4c24 . 3 s. nobed, Wb. 3b10 . nobeth, Ml. 27b1 . -bed, Wb. 9d1 . -beth, Ml. 88b15 . -robad, Wb. 17a13 . -rabad, 34a4 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . 1 pl. -bemmis, Wb. 9a3 . -beimmis, 29d23 . -bemis, Vita Br. 23 . 2 pl. -bethe, Wb. 9c20 . 3 pl. -betis, Sg. 138a9 . -[ro]ibtis, Wb. 28a1 .

Fut. 1 s. bia, Ml. 137b7 . 2 s. bie, cited GOI § 788 , OIPG 70 . 3 s. bieid, Wb. 4d6 . bied, 14c1 . -bia, 5d35 . -bia (disyll.), Blathm. 572 . -bia and -bía, GOI § 788 . With suff. pron. bethiumm. Ériu xiii 20.6 . bethib, ZCP viii 316.5 (see xxix 174 ). Rel. bias, Wb. 23b38 . bies, Ériu iii 102 § 32 . Impers. beithir, TBFr. 248 . -bether, MacCongl. 61.4 . 1 pl. bemmi, Wb. 9c10 . beimmi, 21b7 . -biam, 15a1 . -piam, 30b17 . 2 pl. bethe, cited GOI § 788 . bethi, Trip.² 1589 . -bied, Wb. 9a21 . -bieid, 26d26 . 3 pl. biet (disyll.), Blathm. 472 . bieit, Wb. 4c40 . biet, 9d27 , Sg. 198b6 (also bíet, GOI § 788 ). -biat, 9c28 . -bíet, 40b14 . Rel. bete, Wb. 13c26 . beite, 4c40 .

Condit. 1 s. nombeinn, Ml. 59a22 . 3 s. nobiad, Ml. 32d5 . -bíad, Wb. 9d1 . 1 pl. nobemmis, Ml. 134b3 . 3 pl. nobetis, Ml. 100c7 .

Pret. 1 s. b, LU 9407 . 2 s. -bá, cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 , see perf. 2 s. below. 3 s. bói, Wb. 31c18 . bái, 27a16 . -bói, 17d17 , Ml. 78a4 . Rel. boie, Thes. ii 242.11 (Ardm.). boīe (MS. ba), Ériu xvi 46.10 (see n. 0 and Celtica vi 223 ). boíë (MS. baoí), Ériu xxvi 67, 85 . Cf. cech nóeb bói, fil, bías, Fél. Ep. 289 (where six sylls. required). With suff. pron. boithus, IT i 137.8 = boithius, 21 . boíthi, Sc.M² 3 . ? baísu, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. i 37.5 . Impers. *both(a)e, postulated GOI § 789 , botha, TBC-I¹ 1572 . -both(a), Vita Br. 33 . 1 pl. bamar, SR 1558 . bámar, 3286 , Imr. Brain i 48.5 . 2 pl. -baid (baïd ?), cited GOI § 789 , OIPG 71 . 3 pl. bātir, TBC-I¹ 217 . -batar, Ml. 55c2 . Rel. batar, Ml. 123b5 . See GOI § 789 .

Perf. 1 s. rob, Wb. 28a9 . -roba, Ml. 44c4 . -raba, TBC-I¹ 3068 . 2 s. rob, LL 14442 . 3 s. robói, Wb. 5c10 . rambái, 2c13 . robui, Ml. 93c3 . -robae, Ml. 41a5 , -robe, Wb. 18d7 , -rabae, Ml. 28d3 . Impers. romboth, Wb. 19a9 . rombod, 5b31 . -rabad, Ériu iv 146.4 . 1 pl. robámmar, Wb. 20d12 . -robammar, Ml. 105b16 . 2 pl. rubaid, Wb. 3b19 . -robaid, Ml. 46a8 . 3 pl. robatar, Wb. 24c5 . robbátar, Sg. 57b1 . -rabatar, Ml. 100c11 . -robatar, Sg. 45b1 . -rabtar, Ml. 37a16 .

Vn. buith.

Vbl. of necess. buithi.

Later forms (see also Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish, Ériu vi 1 ff. ; Mulchrone, Verbalformen der Vita Tripartita, ZCP xvi 440 ; Falconer, Verbal System of LU Táin, Ériu xvii 116 ; Strachan, Verbal System of SR, Phil. Soc. Trans. 1895, 1 - 76 ; O Daly, Verbal System of LL Táin, Ériu xiv 80 ; Mac Eoin, Verbalsystem von Togail Troi, ZCP xxviii 125 ; Sommerfelt, Le système verbal dans In Cath Catharda, RC xxxviii 41 ; Nuner, Verbal System of the Agallamh na Senórach, ZCP xxvii 272 ; PH Glossary; Lloyd, Impersonal passive forms of the Irish substantive verb, Ériu i 49 ff. ; TD Introd. lxxv ; IGT Verbs § 7 ).

Indic. pres. 1 s. atáu, Trip.² 1412 . atú, 2578 . itu, SR 1187 . it, TBC-LL¹ 434 . atú, IGT Verbs § 7 . ataim, Fier. 14 . -t, Acall. 4516 . 2 s. -tái, SR 3102 . -toi, TBC-I¹ 937 . taoi, TD 15.48 . cia doaisiu mac?, RC xxvi 30 § 128 . 3 s. -t, Trip.² 744 . atá, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. attá, Trip.² 534 , ata, SR 7708 etc., at, Acall. 429 . Impers. atáthar, TBC-LL¹ 3316 . dáthar (: máthar), IGT Verbs ex. 99 . atass, Ériu iv 114 § 17 (:as). -das (: as), IGT Verbs ex. 104 . 1 pl. itám, SR 1727 . tám, 3493 . ataum, PH 1556 . ataim, TBC-LL¹ 874 . atamaoit, TBC St. 121 . atámaoid, atám, IGT Verbs § 7 . -taum, PH 1506 . -dtám (: ár), IGT Verbs ex. 111 . 2 pl. atathai, PH 2734 . atathi, 597 . atáithi (: fáithi), IGT Verbs ex. 105 . -táithi (: sáithi), ex. 96 . -dathai, Alex. 190 . -taidh, Ériu ii 118 § 53 . 3 pl. itāt, TBC-I¹ 3132 . atáit, CCath. 1215 . ataut, PH 1064 . táid, TD 8.5 . -táit, CCath. 1701 . Rel. itat, Trip.² 882 , atat, SR 7949 . For later forms in meaning than (is) see atás, indaas, 4 ol. See also II (d) below and daas.

The form fil. 1 s. ni ḟuilim, ni ḟoilim, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. -fhile, PH 8116 . -fhuile, 3335 , -fuili, Acall. 3217 . -ḟoili, -ḟuile, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. fail, TBC-I¹ 60 , SR 353 etc. ro fail , TBC-LL¹ 263 , fuil, 3072 . -fail, Trip.² 2764 , -fuil, 872 , -uil, PH 3181 , -ḟil, Acall. 3709 . -ḟuil, -ḟoil, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. fil, Trip.² 842 , fail, SR 392 , no fail , 933 . With impers. ending: filter, MacCongl. 31.25 . -fuiltear, TD 2.42 . 1 pl. ra fuilemm , TBC-LL¹ 2971 . -failmet, SR 6320 , -ḟuilmíd, Acall. 5101 . -ḟuilmíd, -ḟoilmíd, -ḟuileam, -ḟoileam, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. -bhḟuilti, Acall. 962 . 3 pl. failet, SR 345 . filet, 477 . fuilet, TBC-LL¹ 4739 . -failet, Trip.² 1119 . -filet, TBC-I¹ 1848 , -fileat, CCath. 1270 . -fuilet, 427 . -fuilid, TD 7.23 . Rel. failet, SR 400 . ra failet , TBC-LL¹ 5225 . fuilet, 4709 . filet, PH 435 . See also do-fil.

Consuet. pres. 1 s. bim, PH 6393 . bím, -bím, IGT Verbs § 7 . ? -ruibim, SG 373.29 . 2 s. -bi, SR 2035 . bí, ní bí, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bíd, TBC-I¹ 1453 (LU). biid, SR 4537 . bíd, 4588 . -bí, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bíonn, TD 22.12 . -bind, RC xlix 37.13 . bídh, -b, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bither, PH 7441 . -bithar, Laws iv 234.2 Comm. 1 pl. bímit, Acall. 886 . bídmaid, 5481 . bímíd, -bímíd, -bíom, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bíth, Acall. 6139 . 3 pl. bīd, TBC-I¹ 1075 (bít, LU). -bíat, TTr.² 330 . -bít, PH 4189 , -bíd, TD 5.5 . Rel. bit (= bíït), SR 7259 . bít, TBC-LL¹ 1320 .

Indic. impf. 1 s. do bhínn , TD 23.7 . 3 s. nobīth, TBC-I¹ 593 (nobíid, LU cited above). robíth, TBC-I¹ 1903 (LU). do bhíodh , TD 14.23 . do bhíoth , 26.12 . Impers. bithi, Auraic. 5286 = -bithi, RC xx 150.y (ACC Pref.). no bithea , Acall. 156 . 3 pl. naboitis, TBC-I¹ 855 LU (nobitís, Y). nobīdis, 3621 (Y). bítís, 1898 (LU). no beitis , LL 407a27 . ro bitis , PH 1957 . do bhítís , Acall. 830 . do bhídís , TD 15.18 . Rel. tri cnuasa bítís ann, Acall. 455 .

Ipv. 1 s. bír (: gním), IGT Verbs ex. 94 . 2 s. b, Parrth. Anma 3871 . 3 s. bīdh, ZCP vi 271.z . bíodh, TD 16.2 . bíoth, 17.1 . 1 pl. bíom, Dán Dé xiv 17 . 2 pl. bíthe (: -chíthe), IGT Verbs ex. 95 . bídh, ex. 109 . bidhí, Luc. Fid. 3430 . 3 pl. bíod, TD 16.19 .

Subj. pres. 1 s. ber, SG 172.15 . uér, Ériu ii 92.9 . beor, v 222.46 . bheith mé, TD 8.9 . -ra bur , TBC-LL¹ 1112 . -rabor, ZCP xii 401.30 . ? -rabhus, ZCP v 523.27 = rabasa, Ériu xii 144.12 (TE). -rabar, ZCP iii 32.37 . bear, rabhar, -bear, -rabhar, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bé, SR 1607 . beir, BNnÉ 288.29 . Acall. 592 . -rab(a)i, BDD² p. 80 . -rabha, Irish Texts iv 75 § 16 . -rabhair, Fing. R. p. 13 note 86 . -mbéis (: Céis), IGT Verbs ex. 100 . -beis(se) (: meise), Dán Dé xiv 20 . -rabais, Fing. R. 86 , BDD² 363 (see ZCP xxvii 75-8 ). beis, rabais, -beis, -rabais, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. beth, TBC-I¹ 270 (beith, v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 101 . -b, TBC-I¹ 1671 . -raib, Trip.² 2753 . -rab, TBC-I¹ 1430 . -raibhe, Parrth. Anma 2616 . rabh, raibh, -bé, -raibh, -rabh, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bess, TBC-I¹ 1104 (beis, Y). beas, IGT Verbs § 7 . Impers. bethur, Laws ii 36.20 Comm. 1 pl. beme, Snedg. u. Mac R 9.14 . bemmit, TBC-LL¹ 2137 . bemait, Acall. 5478 . -bém, CCath. 1124 . -beam (: leam), Dán Dé xii 10 . -ruibem, SR 5540 . -rabum, PH 7899 . bheam, rabham, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 1233 . rabthai, PH 1977 . 3 pl. beit, Trip.² 1653 . -bet, TBC-I¹ 1053 . -beat, Lism. L. 4702 . -rabat, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. -rabut, PH 994 . -rabhait, BNnÉ 269.4 . -rabhaid, Parrth. Anma 2836 . -rabheid, RC xxix 136 § 51 .

Subj. impf. 1 s. do beinn , do rabainn , IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. no beithi , Trip.² 2972 . no beithe , 2983 = no bethe , Trip. 252.21 . do beitheá , TD 1.44 . 3 s. no beith , Trip.² 2967 . nobith, TBC-I¹ 3543 . dá mbeadh , TD 29.6 . -mbeath, IGT Verbs ex. 97 . -rabad, RC iii 184.24 . Impers. -bethe, Trip.² 2828 . -bette, Metr. Dinds. iii 382.19 . rabtha, TBC-LL¹ (C) 1675 . 1 pl. dá mbiadh sinn, TD 28.25 . 3 pl. nobeitis, SR 7855 . nobeidis, TBC-I¹ 3557 . dá mbeith siad, TD 26.36 .

Fut. (see Bergin, Ériu ii 46-8 ) 1 s. bíat, TTr.² 89 . biat, PH 1244 . biad (bíatt v.l.), CCath. 5137 . bhead, Parrth. Anma 6378 . bed, ZCP vi 41.10 . bét, 69.2 . bett, BNnÉ 52 § 42 . -biu, TBC-LL¹ 882 . -bhiú, Dán Dé xiv 20 . biad, -bi, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. bía, Trip.² 1593 . biae, SR 1599 . -bíai, BNnÉ 291 § 2 . biaidh tú, TD 1.26 . bía, -bía, IGT Verbs § 7 . bethair, ZCP ii 225.4 . 3 s. bied, LU 10362 . biaid, Trip.² 1071 . biáid, TBC-I¹ 169 (LU). biaidh, -bia, IGT Verbs § 7 . Rel. bíes, Trip.² 2671 . bés, CCath. 300 , bes, 657 . bess, PH 4666 . bhias, TD 3.50 . do biass , L. Chl. S. 1 . Impers. beither, Acall. 5259 . beithir, ZCP x 415.11 . 1 pl. bemit, LU 9753 , PH 1501 . bemait, CCath. 1467 . -bem(ni, LU 9753 . beimíd, -biam, IGT Verbs § 7 . -biaim(ne) (: siairni), ex. 108 . ? -ben, BCC 396.19 . 2 pl. bethi, SR 3083 . beitte (: eiti) (beththi, bete v.l.), IGT Verbs ex. 102 . -bed, Trip.² 1590 . 3 pl. biait, Trip.² 2665 , TBC-I¹ 2057 (beite, LU). biat, Trip.² 1288 . beit, TBC-I¹ 80 . beiti, TBC-I¹ 2078 . beti, SR 8157 . betit, SR 853 . TBC-LL¹ 246 , TTr.² 760 . beidid, ZCP x 338 § 1 . -bīat, TBC-I¹ 1132 . beidíd síad, BCC 290.12 . beid, -bíad, IGT Verbs § 7 .

Condit. 1 s. no-béind, PH 6107 . dobeind, 7489 . do beinn, -beinn, IGT Verbs § 7 . 2 s. do bheitheá , TD 19.13 . 3 s. no biadh , CCath. 3754 . -bied, TBC-I¹ 504 . ro bífad , TBC-LL¹ 5112 . rot-fiadh, IT iii 320.4 ( Cóir Anm. 70 ). do biath (: sgiath), IGT Verbs ex. 97 . do bhiadh , TD 2.54 . Impers. no bethe , TTr.² 533 . 3 pl. do bheidīs , Parrth. Anma 5227 .

Pret. and perf. 1 s. ro-bádus, PH 699 . do bhádhus , TD 23.6 . do bhí mé, 5 . -rabus, Acall. 7913 . -rabhas, 1584 . -rabadhus, 356 . do bá , -raba; do bádhus , -rabadhas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do basa ( : bádusa; proscribed form), ex. 103 . 2 s. ro bhádhuis , CCath. 553 . do bhí tú, TD 28.6 . -rabadais, PH 3725. 8121 . -rabhais, Acall. 123 . do bhádhuis , -rabhadhuis, IGT Verbs § 7 . 3 s. bae, SR 7608 . bóe, 6265 . baei, BDD² 127 . búi, CCath. 95 . -bae, SR 4975 . -buí, Trip.² 1505 . robai, SR 2229 , robae, 2262 . robói, PH 2572 . ro bí , CCath. 1302 . robuidh, Ériu iii 198 § 22 . do bí , CCath. 278 . do bhói , Acall. 58 . do bhaoi (: draoi), Dán Dé xii 22 . -rubai, SR 1241 . -roibe, BDD² 498 , -roibi, 1393 . -roba, 251 . -raba, 1533 . -raibhe, TD 2.25 . -rabha, 8.36 . -robha, 1 . do bí , -raibi, do baí , -rabha, IGT Verbs § 7 . With depon. ending -rabhustair, BNnÉ 322 § 31 . Rel. boí, Trip.² 626 . bāi, TBC-I¹ 1277 . būi, 630 . ro bae , Trip.² 288 . ro buí , BDD² 287 . ro baí , 1451 . ro boí , 1517 . Impers. both, Trip.² 2264 . rombatha, Ériu ii 20 § 3 (-a added later). -rabad, iv 146.4. robās, TBC-I¹ 2147 . rombas, SR 7564 , robás, TTr.² 151 . -rabus, Trip.² 54 . rabas, Laws iv 212.22 Comm. , -bádus, MacCongl. 43.22 . -bás, 61.3 . do bás , do bas , -rabas, IGT Verbs § 7 . do bas (: as), ex. 98 . do bhás (: fhás), Dán Dé xxvi 9 . 1 pl. bāmur, TBC-I¹ 399 . do bámar , Acall. 1283 . do bhámair (: Ádhaimh), Dán Dé xv 17 . -rabamar, TBC-I¹ 2495 . 2 pl. robabair, Anecd. ii 14.9 . -babhair, Blathm. 23 (see notes ). robadbair, TBC-I¹ 2502 . do bhábhair , TD 22a.1 . -rabhuir, Acall. 114 . -rabhabhair, TD 22a.2 . 3 pl. bādar, TBC-I¹ 472 . -bátir, TTr.² 1308 . ro badar , CCath. 573 n. ro bádar , Acall. 75 . do bídur , 5942 . -rabadar, TBC-I¹ 3108 . -rabhadair, TD 26.10 . ro baisit , O'Dav. 728 . -rabhsad, TD 16.21 . Rel. bátar, Trip.² 591 . BDD² 505 . ro bátar , 543 . Vn. an bheith , IGT Verbs § 7 . Vbl. of necess. beitte, TD 28.30 .

Cf. cenmothá, íarmothá, óthá.

Used in meaning is in a large variety of contexts. Normally replaced by copula (see 1 is) in certain fixed syntactical patterns (classification, identification, etc.), and when used in these cases exceptional (see above and II below).

I Expressing existence.

(a) Used absolutely is, exists, there is, etc.: ata in coimdiu gl. Dominus in cælo sedis eius, Ml. 30b27 . nabad hed a méit nádmbǽ `let it not be only that it is not' gl. nec nominetur in uobís, Wb. 22b14 . ní fil aimsir nad mbed ref. to fuit et est semper, Ml. 17a15 . ní torménmar-ni ara mbetis in gnimai sin gl. præter spem nostram, etc., 115b1 . ni fil chumtubairt gl. indubitabilia, etc., Sg. 154b2 . ma nubed `if it existed', 31b21 . ro baoi siomh re tuisdinsiú `he existed', Blathm. 632 . as e as soithcerndomh fil, 773 . ma rombe is maith if it is, it is well, Laws iv 2.14 Comm. ni rabi uair . . . nad ro bai `there was no hour . . . that He existed not', Ériu ii 106 § 16 . a cin for athair .i. uair na bí mac, Laws iv 240.16 Comm. Columb [ro]baoi, Columb bīaas, ZCP viii 198 § 20 . tar ēis a mic . . . / nī raba acht dā aenbliadain `was alive only two years', Ériu iii 198 § 24 . as a rad ata a nadmaim cin co be by saying there is a covenant though there is not, Laws iv 52.30 Comm. ni tha . . . ní a ngeimre in winter there is nothing, 90.1 (with petrified inf. pron. 3 s. n. in dat. sense?). ní bía terca bíd there will not be a scarcity of food, BColm. 52.5 . bid dno maith, ┐ ni bi derrscugud de `yet there is good, and nothing to surpass it', Auraic. 703 . is tré ómun bíid serc, Ériu i 195.1 . céin beti neóil im gréin ngil, Metr. Dinds. ii 38.z . i céin raibh nemh is talamh as long as . . . endure, BNnÉ 314 § 8 . bai cocad mor etarro, RC xxiv 186 § 19 . In phrase (acht) atá ní (chena) but, moreover, see 1 ní (e).

In periphrasis when emphasis on some element other than the verb is required: bieid nach dréct diib hícfider, Wb. 4d6 . bieid bes ferr de, 32a13 . do budh cusmail rit co robuis uair ecin, ┐ co n[d]ingenta rét feramail `that thou wert once such an one that thou couldst . . .', ZCP vi 87.13 . ba-sa tan / nī folabrainn ilach gamh, Ériu ii 95 § 3 . ata[a]t .iii. cáini nad chumgat comarbai do chumscuchud, Ériu xvii 68 § 9 ( Laws iv 210 ). Note further: atāit teora brīathra / ata lōgmaire for nim, ZCP vii 312 § 25 .

With words expressing time: bieid aimser nad creitfider, Wb. 28c14 . aidchi robuī `one night', Ériu ii 222.25 . fecht robai `once', Mon. Tall. 147.2 (§ 52) . biaidh uair 's . . . a time will come when, Dán Dé vii 31 .

Introducing a statement: cia beith ara rogba bóairechas riasíu ropo chúairddulchach though it be that he assume, Críth G. 67 . dá mbeith fós go mbiadh an Fhraingc comh líonmhar ┐ adeir seisean `granted that', Keat. ii 933 . má tá go seachnoid síol Éibhir . . ., TD 29.7 . ci(d), gi(d) bé whatever, whoever (see Ériu xii 210 ): ria flaithaib, .i. rias na flaithib, cibe flaithe iat `whatever chieftains they be', Laws iv 154.17 . gidh bé lá cheannghar an chairt, Dán Dé xiv 17 . cidh bé do bhean díbh an dúthaigh, DDána 26.1 . bíd (ipv. 3 s.) co n- although: admhuim . . . mo pheactha . . . bīodh gomadh é mo mhīan a bhfolach though I should wish to hide them, Parrth. Anma 4625 . bīodh nach gcaoifithea go spesialta fá gach peacadh though you might not weep specially for each sin, Mac Aingil 235 . bíth gur gheallas . . . though I promised, Ó Bruad. ii 212 § xiv . In constr. manibed x ní bíad y were it not for x y would not be, see má II (b).

(b) The subst. vb. is usual with predicates consisting of adverbial phrases of all kinds (prep. and noun, adjj. and nouns used adverbially, etc.) and thus enters into a large and varied corpus of idioms. A select list follows. Reference should in all cases also be made to the nouns, adjj., adverbs and prepositions concerned.

With CO: atáthar sund chucut your adversary is approaching, LL 10300 ( TBC-LL¹ 3316 ).

With CO N-: atúsa com thegluch there is myself and my household troop, TBC-LL¹ 437 .

With DI: im chaingin robui de muintir Tamlachti friss `about a business that arose between the monastery of Tallaght and him', Mon. Tall. 157.7 (§ 72) . masu de chlaind Echdach aird / atāi, ZCP xi 108 § 1 . ní bia debaid . . . de, Ériu iv 108 § 69 . Of materials: an crann dobí na sesam ... dobí sé do cepresus was a (lit. of) cupressus, Maund. 9 . In phrase a.¤ di such is: roboi du meit a pecthae `so great were their sins', Ml. 98c6 . má beth tra do hūaite ind āessa gráid `if the ordained folk be too few', Ériu i 220 § 13 .

With DO: biid do anmmaim cathrach `(Samnis) is as the name of the city', Sg. 104b5 . nád robatar suin do ṡlund in dúildetad inchoisget `there were not words (enough) to signify . . .', 45b1 . manusbeth tenga dia relad `if (the sun) had a tongue', Ériu ii 126 § 81 . ata eric a fogla do dul a ruradh o duine, Laws iv 50.5 Comm. Expressing possession, etc.: con roib core dúib fri cách so that you may be at peace with all men, Wb. 26b30 . in fochricc file do i nnim, 29b29 . cach ngrád asid n-ísliu bíid dó i céilsini, Críth G. 374 . robi timna in ríg don Comdhe, RC xviii 182.5 . nico mbái dó acht bás there was nothing for him but death, Vita Br. 32 . fecht robúi damsae domchaomnacuir `once it happened to me', Mon. Tall. 144.7 (§ 45) . atá damhsa ris an dáimh / gan ísliughadh neith dá gcáil it is my duty in regard to the sages not to belittle . . ., Content. xiv 8 .

With FOR (later AR): as ṅdath glas roboi forsind sl[é]ib the mountain was green, Ml. 84d4 . cech dath is maith ré neach bid forro, RC vi 183.9 . cēin beó ar in mbith mbuide, Ériu ii 92.16 . nocha cuinnghim bethaid mbí / ōtú ar sīth mo Rīgh amuigh since I am outside the palace of my king(?), ZCP vii 301 § 10 . scríbend menmman .i. robbói for a inndṡliucht-som `it had been in his mind', Sg. 178b4 . in sét atá form aire on which I am intent, Ériu vi 115 § 6 . a mhacnas orm gidh eadh raibh though I greatly desire to do so, Dán Dé xix 6 .

With FRI: nobiad fri femen `it would be (used) with the feminine', Sg. 207b2 . ní biat remsuidigthi friu `there are no prepositions with them', 215a5 . ni humhal robabair rim cen erghe rónn you were not submissive to me, Anecd. ii 14.9 . ba [mait]h ro mboth friu they were well treated, TBFr. 145 . is throit ra bass risin fer út that man was quickly dispatched, TBC-LL¹ 2986 ( LL 10035 ).

With I: is hi tuaisciurt slebe sióin ata in chathir, Ml. 67d8 . ataam ar ndiis i cuimriug, Wb. 32a28 . is and . . . bieid finis, 13b29 . is sunt bia-sa i n-eilithri, Ml. 137b7 . nach dú i mbí isnaib salmaib iustitia, 109a2 . bēti a scēla illāidib, ZCP iii 37.32 . dēna torba airm i mbī, vii 311 § 9 . ro-bas i lurg an madma la clannaibh Néill the Clanna N. pursued the rout, xiv 234.16 . adh bes fiu da trian na samuisce atá isín focreic, issed ata isin fogail doníther ris na ferandaib cétna i fuacht an geimridh `a calf which is worth two thirds of the `samhaisc'-heifer which is paid for the rent, it is it that is paid for the trespass', Laws iv 92.16 Comm. cínta do niad na cethra . . . leth a mbia ina nairlim isedh bias ina tairsci `half of that fine which lies for their `airlim'-trespass . . .', 74.8 Comm. cod a midídar ruire trachta ┐ raite? Nin; co rabadar ocht nurcora dec and do fhleascach, 138.4 Comm. ní bhíadh na ghoin é d'oighedh / toil Dé muna deónaighedh His wound would not be enough to cause His death, IGT Decl. ex. 378 . Common in form with suff. pron. 3 s. n. ma beith nech and tra labrathar ilbélre if there be anyone, etc., Wb. 13a4 . ar atá brithem and cenut-su `a judge is there apart from thee', 6b25 . ataat alaaili interiecta and it coitchena do cach ceniul, Sg. 10a1 . attaad teora bliadna and. Niconcomracamar díoblíonaib `it is three years since we two had intercourse', Mon. Tall. 134.26 (§ 21) . For phr. cid fil and trá see trá. In idiom tá sé i n-a fhear he is a man (see Dillon, ZCP xvii 307 ff. ): is amlaid . . . atá in rigsudi sin inna chathaír chumtachta, LU 2005 ( FA 7 ). cidead bes ina bibdaid `even though he be a caitiff', Ériu v 22.20 . gu raibhe 'na cholum ghel, Acall. 1080 . ce raib se i n-a fhír, PH 7324 . do bí 'n-a mnaí grádaig ac Find, Acall. 2018 . do rígh gion go rabhthá id mhac, DDána 91.15 . Note also: tuc . . . aithne gurbh e righ Eirenn do bí ann that it was in fact the king, Ériu iii 152 § 6 . ro innis do gur 'uo he Isu ro ui ann, RC xii 344.15 .

With IMM: ni baitir, ni loisctir cein beit immo `he is not drowned or burnt as long as they are on him', RC vi 183.8 .

With LA: gan bheith le Dia is ann bhus aithreach if we are not on God's side, Dán Dé x 27 . Expressing possession and related ideas: is lib atá a rogu, Wb. 9a23 . is derb lium attá latsu gl. certus sum autem quod et in té, 29d14 . ainmm ninchoisc cenéuil issed file la laitnóri, Sg. 30b8 . is airi nobíth digaimm leo ante ρ. sin, 9b10 . ni fil bríg laisiom hisind accobar sin `he considers that such desire is no great matter,' Mon. Tall. 151.13 (§ 62) . is dé atá lem, fobíth, etc. this is why I think so (of an assertion), TTr.² 343 . itá a rīgan la cach ríg sund, TBC-I¹ 190 . fail leis secht nimi, SR 629 . ar ní ḟil acht oenlám lim, LL 14150 .

With ó: báoi alaile anchoire antuaid o sláne `there was a certain anchorite from Slane in the North', Mon. Tall. 159.8 (§ 77) . cech lennánacht fil isin domvn is úadhi atá originates with her, TTr.² 370 . Bressal Ó Tressaig ō' tāit / Hī Tressaig `. . . from whom are sprung', Ériu ii 50 § 7 . ni fil[et] o neoch ┐ ni filter uaidibh `they are not derived from anything, and nothing is derived from them', Auraic. 1507 .

With OC: ar notéighed dīa sathairn init co mbídh oc Cnocc Droma Coblai, ZCP viii 106.29 = Trip.² 2858 . ma no bith . . . mo c[h]laideb acom if I had my sword, TBC-I¹ 3543 . co rabat aidmi oc cech altōir . . ., Ériu i 219 § 9 . in ti ac na biat ba, Laws iv 36.10 Comm. in fhil biad ocaib sund? PH 6709 . ná raibh agad ar n-éra `refuse me not', Studies 1918, 99 § 16 . In impers. constr. cindas atathar occat? how are affairs with thee? RC xxvi 368.9 . a.¤ y oc x x has the power to do y: ní bhía . . . ag boigṡín / mo chor tar creich Phádraigín, Ériu ix 163 § 7 .

With adverbs and adv. phrases: céin bett abus `while they are here below', BColm. 98.28 . ní rubai nach cruth ailiu `it cannot be otherwise', Sg. 7b3 . ataat ám in chrut sin, 140b1 . hóre nád robe Tit ar mo chiunn, Wb. 14d29 . na muindtire bís id choimidecht `of the monks that live with thee', Mon. Tall. 128.8 (§ 3) . dá rabh mé ar éanmhagh is í, Dán Dé ix 12 . is bether go hīsiul de, ZCP x 51.6 . bidh co mín michuir ret c[h]airdibh, vi 272 § 3 . is samlaid insin robói a flaithemnacht indibsi, Ml. 18a8 . nī hamlaid beitid na nāimh . . ., ZCP xiii 9.26 . dobadus co subhach rompa, KMMisc. 319.27 . léig mar atāit tall, ZCP viii 202.4 . trath atusa sund, TBC-LL¹ 2379 . ionmhuin uan nar fhás ó mhnaoi / do bhás go truagh ar a thí, Dán Dé xxvi 9 . Note also: dá mbem a-moigh `if we win forth', Ériu ix 162 § 2 . With interrogatives: ceth leth atā E., TBC-I¹ 376 . can ata? whence is it? Hib. Min. 8.270 . cāit atā do t[h]igerna?, TBC-I¹ 789 . ciatā inso?, ZCP viii 311.13 . a Findtain, arse, ┐ Éri cía gabad ca rabad inde? `where have things been therein?' Ériu iv 146 § 23 .

(c) Used with inf. and suff. pron. to express possession. With inf. pron.: rosmbia a lóg `they shall have payment for it', Wb. 5d35 . ind indocbál no-b-tá in futuro, 14c16 . ro-n-da-biad cech maith, Ml. 33b13 . rombia-sa la dia . . . a day will come for me when, Vita Br. 12 . roborbē (roburbe v.l.) which is yours, Cáin Ad. 27 . nīmthat asnai I have no ribs, TBC-I¹ 2871 . gell cóic sét di neoch rodmbí `of whatever he has', Críth G. 283 and n. uair nach tá tír dia fhulung fri re napuidh because he has no land to support him (?), Laws iv 30.19 Comm. rom be nem may I have heaven, Snedg. u. Mac R 14 § 76 . Femen intan rombai rí . . . when it had a king, RC xvii 148.19 . cia luag nomtha?, SR 1165 . rombí lethbairgen, Anecd. i 73 § 211 . atbert Cathair nimthasa ní dhuit I have nothing to give you, LL 386b22 . Note also: nintha do imtecht liumm `I have (lit. we have) no news', RC xiii 222.20 . With cumang (or similar word) and prep. DO has the power to: nímtha cumachtæ ṅdo, Ml. 140b7 . ní-s-ta som . . . cumang domm orcuin-se, 60d3 . nísmbói didiu do chumacc a mmbo do imain they hadn't the strength to, Vita Br. 24 . sáerthar lat in domnach cech cumang rotbé (rodbe, rotbia, v.ll.) dó `with all your might', Ériu ii 204 § 22 . nícom thása cumang dia tabair[t], TBFr. 302 . apraind nachimbai-si nert do theacht cucu alas that I had not strength . . ., TBC-I¹ 3439 . Used independently is able: nīmt[h]a a dechmad d'indisin / nech doní do maith `I cannot tell a tithe of all the good he does', BColm. 70.6 . nimta-sa sin . . . uair da caithius mo dan re sciathaib Ulad I cannot do that . . ., Ériu v 72.8 . Note also: ango dano for Ingcél adfía basa lecht bas briscium `peradventure I shall be the frailest corpse', BDD 102h ( RC xxii 211 ) = at-mbia basa lecht bas brisceam, BDD² 716 (leg. ro-t-bia?).

With suffixed pron. taithiunn . . . / ni fris tarddam ar n-áthius `we have . . . something to which to apply our acuteness', Thes. ii 293.19 . táithi caire umai he has a bronze cauldron, Críth G. 197 . tathum rūn, TBC-I¹ 848 . bethib sūirsi lim-sa dano ye will enjoy freedom with me, ZCP viii 316.5 . tathat lim logh do áes, logh do sinnsire thou hast with me = I accord thee, xii 365.13 . baíthium anfud mílach mend, LU 3018 . tathuib comram, Rawl. 88b51 . tathum o día praind, Anecd. i 64 § 120 . tāthud ochtar la suidiu / airm hi fail a crōlighe `thou wilt find eight men . . .', Fianaig. 12 § 16 . tathai eolus maith, ZCP vii 310 § 1 . tatos subhae `they have happiness', Blathm. 82 . Pleonastically: tathai erouidh . . . bithbron `Herod . . . has eternal sorrow', 83 .

(d) In nasalising rel. clauses to denote has something the matter, is ailing: ced das in ben maith? `what ails the good woman?', Thes. ii 329.48 . cidh tás do sūil, a clērich? what is the matter with your eye? RC xxvii 280 § 35 . Oengus mac in Dagdai hisiurcc di bliadan. Cid tas or Bodb, RC iii 345.9 . ra[fh]etur sa . . . an daas ind ingen what is wrong with the girl, Vita Br. 5 . ni fetarsa cid no-tó I do not know what is the matter with me, ZCP viii 176.5 . cid no-taí? Sc.M² 3 . roḟetarsa a n-attath[a]i. Ni taam ni or Cano, Anecd. i 9.25 ( SCano 293 ). cid tāthaí, a maccu? . . . oc imresain atām . . ., Ériu viii 157.16 . ni confetatarsin cid rombui hissennath, RC iii 344.10 . dia ḟis cid robái (rombui, v.l.) grían to find out what was the matter with the sun, Ériu iv 140.13 .

With prep. DO feels (inimically) towards, is angry with, worries: propter incredulitatem fracti sunt .i. cani airi .i. badochu lem són is [hed] romboth doib that is the fault found with them, Wb. 5b31 . cren dímsa m'ingin . . . Cid dathir di? . . . Is dichmarcach what cause of annoyance has she given? Vita Br. 13 . fiarfaig Conchobar scēla dō. —Cidh tāi di ṡodain? ol Bricriu why do you bother with it? ZCP v 502.15 . cadai-siu duind?, TTebe 424 . In good sense treats in a special manner: ca tāthar dúin do domnach des / sech gach laithi lāndiles? `why do we hold Sunday above . . .?' Ériu iii 143 § 7 . With added prep.: cidh 'ma bfuile dam? ZCP x 10.11 . ná bí réd chathrachaibh dhúinn `talk not to us of your forts', Content. vi 31 . See further s.v. daas. Frequ. in class. verse in phrase gá dtá, dás (acht) what is the use? in short. Either gá dtá or gá tá may be used to suit alliteration, see Ir. Syll. Poetry 86 . fogus orchra don éigsi / gá ttás cur ré coiméidsi `how can she be saved?' Studies 1923, 421 § 1 . gá dás luadh imdheachta an ḟir? `what need to recount', TD 13.40 . gá dás mé dá mīrbuile / acht sé d'fás ó ÓghMuire, IGT Decl. ex. 200 . gá dtám? —acht torchuir bu dheas in short, TD 3.10 . With follg. prep.: gá dtám ris . . . / acht meise féin foidhidneach, TD 3.41 . ga dtú ris, a rí L.? / ort chuirim mo chomuirghe, 30.12 . ní bhiú ris acht, Dán Dé vi 31 . ní fhuilim dó, xi 30 .

(e) With words indicating number, quantity in sense of accompanied by, having: bí[i]th a th[a]urchreicc cóic ṡétaib, Críth G. 71 . baei Conairi a ceithri cairpthig il-Lifiu, BDD 12 (a cethror cairpdech, v.l.). itó-sa lín do gona, TBC-LL¹ 434 . denam d'ḟiadach na muice in lín Feinde atámait, Acall. 2223 . atáthaoi líon a n-ithte, Keat. iii 4439 . atú-sa caegait fer, MR 248.17 . Later: bed-sa ┐ mili ridiri maraen rium ad diaig, ZCP vi 41.9 .

II Expressing state, condition, kind, etc. with pred. consisting of noun, pron. or adj. (usage more usual with copula, see introd. section above).

(a) With noun pred.: boe sab suithe cech dind, ACC 26 ( RC xx 168 ). boe saegul sneid, 24 . boe dind oc libur leigdocht, 27 . biait betha airchind they will be chieftains of the world, Rawl. 125b9 . With subj. standing between the vb. and pred.: atá dia atach ṅ-dún-ni ais dethrebo God is a refuge to us the people of the two tribes, Ml. 66d1 . bói Fíachnae Lurga athair Mongáin, Imr. Brain 42.1 . Cf. Sg. 20b3 .

(b) With adj. pred.: boe seim sáth, ACC 25 . biat slana, SR 4167 (copula?). feib atam nocht, 1347 (copula?). bía slan, LU 3344 ( SCC 13 ). Cf. habe . . . (.i. sana sis .i. slán bee), Enchir. Aug. 82a ( ZCP vii 484 ). dlegar doibsium na be lobtaigh cor ( ar dlegar doibsium na bed lobthaig cor, O'Dav. 1191 ) (Atk. in Glossary emends to be[t]), Laws iv 54.10. atámait ainmfesach, RC xxiv 371.7 . bítíss meth (leg. methi, ed.) occ tinntúd, IT iii 235.z . co filim garbliath i rricht, LU 1272 . ro boísium imnedach i tossuch a bethad, LL 7305 . ro-bádus-[s]a dronnach, PH 2788 . céin beorsa beó as long as I am alive, Ériu v 222.46 . is follus co fuilti eaclach, Fier. 69 . maith dīghōltar ant andlocht / bethar taoblom tarrnocht trūagh folk will be, ZCP xii 395.23 . With subj. betw. vb. and pred.: is trissa ndede sin biid duine slán et fírian, Wb. 4d33 . amal mbís tegdís fás [amm]edón ┐ scópthe gl. sicut domus uacans et scopata, Tur. 14 ( Thes. i 485.23 ). arrobói a rígthech lán de rígaib, Imr. Brain 1 . amal no beithi féin béo and, Trip.² 2972 . co mbatar na hádnaicti óbéla, PH 676 . bis an puls tonnmur lethan, Rosa Angl. 272.8 . oir dobi se crodha do laim ┐ mor do mét, Fier. 2 .

(c) With part. as pred. Immediately follg. vb. (see GOI 475-6 ; OIPG 147 ): amal nombemmis érchóilti gl. tanquam morti destinatos, Wb. 9a3 . biid ersoilcthi ar chiunn for ríg `be ye opened before your king' (of doors), Ml. 46a7 . co rabais (rabhdais, v.l.) marbtha mudaigthi, TTebe 854 . With subj. standing between vb. and pred.: ataat mesai Dǽ nephchomtetarrachti the judgements of God are incomprehensible, Ml. 55d11 . céin nombetis inna saigtea tuidmithi inna feuil `as long as the arrows were fixed in his flesh', Ml. 58a9 . órobatar ind liss dúntai, Imr. Brain 1 . co ra-bi in uli demnaigecht fomamaigthi dó, PH 2796 .

(d) In sentences where the vb. stands in a nasalising rel. clause and refers to a pred. expressed in the principal clause: is faittech rond-boi som, Ml. 21d4 . ni ba cian mbias in pecthach, 56c22 . fer . . . nadip romar bed a sommæ a man . . . whose wealth should not be too great, Thes. ii 241.9 . is-gáibthech atátur i-sin-magh sin, RC xxiv 378.12 . is trog robas isin chotlad sin, Ériu v 34.z . ní cás duid madh diomdhach raibh / grása Dé . . ., Dán Dé xix 22 . [is] slán do bhaoi an brat-sain, xii 22 .

(e) In the type of sentence where the description constitutes an independent sentence with copula: ego sum uermis et non homo .i. atāim-si conad cruim mē ┐ nāch duine, Corm. Y 211 . ro boi Victor co mbo ḟortachtaigthid do Pátraic, ACL iii 10 § 8 = Trip.² 217 . unus non est . . . .i. nochon fhil int aen co mbad airim, acht ata conidh fotha airim, Auraic. 689 . dom dóigh . . . robadhuis uair ecin ┐ roba díl anora tú `it seems to me . . . that there was once a time when thou wert worthy of honour', ZCP vi 99.5 .

2 bir

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 bir or dil.ie/5934

Forms: beru, B

n n p. na beru-sa, Éigse i 86.3 . Mainly in glossaries and B. na f. and expld. as water; spring, well, stream: b.¤ .i. uisce . . . biror ┐ inbir ┐ tobur, Corm. Y 158. Berba .i. ber nó b.¤ ┐ ba . . . usce balb, Dinds. 13. `bior' ainm da gach uiscce, BNnÉ 235 § 156 . `bior' ┐ `an' is `dobhar' / trí hanmann uisge in domhuin, Metr. Gl. 12 § 15. as ionann bior ┐ uisge, O'Cl. dobur usce . . . nó b.¤ uisge isan bretnais, O'Dav. 745. uth bó bruithi do bior `boiled in water', MR 124.9 . fri do biur bus nairne, O'Dav. 202. b.¤ tipra nō srut[h], Corm. Y 121 s.v. biror. b.¤ tiobra, Metr. Gl. 21 § 70 , O'Cl. B. na f.: sēim nar bach na beru-sa (glossed .i. na huiscidi) mo c[h]odul (glossed .i. mo lethar) `these waters almost broke my shoes', Éigse i 86.3 .

pn As name of river: B, LL 11048 ( TBC-LL¹ 4226 ).

Compds. biorbhogha `a Rain Bow', Eg. Gl. 733. biorbuafan `water-snake', 732 . biordoras `a sluce or floudgate', 709 . .ix. ṁbunnsacha birgaissi ina laim `nine . . . osier-rods' ( SG ii 200 ), Acall. 3798 (or fr. 1 bir + gas ?).

bíthe

Cite this: eDIL s.v. bíthe or dil.ie/5979

Forms: bithe

io, iā part. of benaid. GOI § 715 , Greene, Ériu xix 113.

(a) struck: a nnarobsa bithe gl. perculsus, Ml. 45d6 . bithe gl. iecta, 123c17 . A . . . bithe ` mangled ' (`uxorious', Gloss.), Metr. Dinds. iv 112.68 .

(b) As laudatory adj. smooth, mild, modest: briathraib bithib bithblaithib, SR 5814. for lurg a búair b.¤ (: fíche), Metr. Dinds. iv 198.44 . O. setig Séim bláith bíthi, LL 16477. [fi]r bláthi bithi (beodha, v.l.) borba, Ériu viii 70.7 . gid borb is búilidh / gid beodha is b.¤ , Caithr. Thoirdh. 76.27 . Ultan bíthi, Gorm. May 24. (of women) cadla .i. . . . bithi, O'Dav. 433 ( Fél. Dec. 9 ). buidne bithi banamla, TTebe 2228 . ben b. bannda dhiadha ` demure ', AFM vi 2222.16 . bithe .i. bannda, O'Cl. a chraobh bh.¤ bhanda, DDána 80.28 . In comic n. pr. mac . . . meic bairr braisce b.¤ , MacCongl. 35.4 . at b.¤ `hood', Eachtra Uill. 1889 (`soft hat', Ériu xix 113.36 ). ? nístibred im báig mb.¤ / dáil fria cness fria cóem-chíche, Metr. Dinds. iii 190.23 .

Compar. bithe ina cach náidhi (of Brigit), Lism. L. 1226 . bíthi nā marb more exhausted than a dead man, Caithr. Thoirdh. 117.12 .

See benta.

2 bruth

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 2 bruth or dil.ie/7165

n prob. an inference from 1 bruth expld. as rivet: b.¤ .i. seim gae, O'Dav. 197.

? cerm

Cite this: eDIL s.v. ? cerm or dil.ie/8763

n ní fil c.¤ cin a clóisin / ní séim delm in degthóisich, ACC (cited Meyer Contribb. `a churn '). fasciugrat ceirm, LL 13847 (rhet.). In comic name: Dearbh ingen Ceirmne pail daughter of churn(?), Anecd. ii 56.7 (Cherme, Chongurma, Congarmnai, v.ll.).

cíall

Cite this: eDIL s.v. cíall or dil.ie/8983
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: cíal, ciall

n ā, f. IGT Decl. § 39 . Also somet. cíal in O. Ir. Glosses and in poetry. nessu célaib .i. nesso ciallaib, LL 24378 . cēill: budéin, ZCP xiii 245.6 .

(a) Of persons sense, intelligence, mind : nípí ciall la nech dogní insin, Wb. 29b11 . druáilnithe a ciall gl. corrupti mente, 30c18 . nad mbí ciall la nech disluindi dliged remdeicsen `has no sense', Ml. 50d1 . nech lasnabi ciall, 50d2 . co mber[at] á céill n-erru, 20b11 . co céill ┐ chond, LU 3910 ( SCC 42 ). rom-snáidet . . . / cund, céill, curp com anim, Fél. Ep. 52 . nocho fom' cheil-si / dochuaidh do chial, IT iii 93.22 . leig as in drochciall fora tai ┐ dena mu chomairli-sea `folly', Aen. 576 . it ferr cīalla oldās cīall two heads are better than one, ZCP xi 86 § 42 . ni techta cond 'na ceill fo-mic, Laws v 510.4 ( ciall . . . fomac, SM Facs. 1b ) glossed ciall codnaid, 20 . tanic trell dia ceill, LU 4029 ( SCC 48 ). ar ḟebas do chrotha ┐ do ceille, 8226 ( FB 17 ). bae c.¤ dunetta aice (of Dond Cúailnge), TBC-LL¹ 6162 . ní réid la céill mbuirp in se `uncouth intelligence', Blathm. 159 . Mugain miadmas co morchéil, TFerbe 824 . in tan . . . roaisicc Dia a chell dó, Grail 3750 . ata saillechta cella (sic) do (of a minor), Laws ii 46.18 Comm. Ailbhe í ar chéill 's ar chuimhne, DDána 99.2 . seacht gcathaoireacha céille (of the daughters of Humility), 55.15 . cíalla glice na ngente, Celtica i 96.260 . dá chrádh céille éadair ann a twofold grief of mind is to be found therein (of death of chieftain), DDána 110.16 . ar mearughadh céilli, Mac Aingil 111 . com[h]lán i ccéll ┐ a ccorp `sound of mind and body', RSClára 114b .

More particularly wisdom, good sense, skill : rángadar na teachta re céill, ┐ re conailbhe, ┐ le hairmhidin `wisely(?)' (`charged with submission'), ML 104.22 . ar sith, as tre cheill do righneadh, Leb. Gab.(i) 12.16 ( Lec. 272 vb26 ) = iar sisd is iar ceill dorigneadh, BB 23a16 . in rigan ecnaid óg ḟial / tochur ria no co degciall, LL 19297 . tre cell ┐ tre comairli, CCath. 6161 . cend comhairle ┐ céille . . . Connacht (of dead chieftain), AFM ii 1132.8 . Of course of action, ní c.¤ with Vn. it is unwise to, it is imprudent to: nior chiall bheith ag ar mbrosdadh sensible thing, Aithd. D. 3.6 . ní ciall déanamh dearmaid, DDána 14.13 . ní fhuil chéill id dhearadh dhún `twere senseless of Thee to disown me', Aithd. D. 77. 31 . níor chiall uadh it was not wise of him, Ériu i 97.30 .

In transf. sense of a person: gabh, a chiall, mo chomairghe, DDána 67.6 .

(b) Of bodily senses: do chiallaib gl. ad sensus, Sg. 139a1 . cóig cialla cuirp `his five senses', Ériu xvi 135 § 56 . maithi a roisc na nabocc maithi a cialla, v 236.83 . mo chúig cialla 'gum brath bíd, Dán Dé ix 3 . Of feelings, emotions : srian léd chéill níor chuireabhair, Content. xxiii 5 . do oscail se a cial, Smaointe B. Chr. 5250 . Cf. ní frith luth seirce sóerligi / na celle conom thicse, LU 8329 ( FB 24 ).

(c) In a variety of more general applications intention, cause, reason, idea : in chiall toḟaiscthe `der Verstand des Herauspressens' (one of the cóic conara fugill), Cóic Con. 24 § 24 . rinne nir chuimseach a ciall (of a monster), Duan. F. i 79.9 `intention regarding' (Gloss.). flaith nime d'Eochagān (sic leg.) ān / is lān a chridhe dia chēill attention, ACL iii 308 § 32 . fa clé an chiall a perverse intention, Dán Dé xxvi 29 . ann adlecthar mesi fein / . . . rim cheill `with my consent', Fen. 304.8 . cion na sainte / . . . ag sin ciall chaillte na hanma (of the sin of avarice), Dán Dé xxxi 37 . ar iomad ele do chialluibh certa `for . . . many other just reasons', RSClára 95a . ní gan chéill do adhuin t'fhíoch, Aithd. D. 84.27 . caidhe nach córa an chiall `how much greater reason', RSClára 104a . ciall mo gháiri ní léir linn, O'Gr. Cat. 346.34 .

(d) Of words, texts, etc. signification, meaning: ciarid-beram a céill though we express their sense, Sg. 26b2 . immaircide frisin ceill `suitable to the sense', Ml. 27d22 . sechis in chiall gl. intentio (psalmi), 61a29 . forsin dib ciallaib fil isind emulari , 56b37 . huare is lán chiall indib chenae gl. huiuscemodi verba non egent casu, Sg. 140b3 . issí inso sís a chiall gl. est sensus, Ml. 50c1 . a folad ┐ in chiall gl. vis et significatio, Sg. 27a8 . ni lugae mbis ind menme hisin cheill `the thought is no less occupied with the meaning', Mon. Tall. 39 . etir cheill ┐ fhogur, LB 241a marg. inf. iar ceill Cirine in Jerome's meaning (of the word), Hib. Min. 9.292 . do-ghén . . . míniughadh céille ar an rádhsa, IGT Introd. 24.12 . re saoibh-chiallaibh `by foolish etymologies', Content. v 8 . ag buain ceille maithe ass, BCC 300.31 . cialla na n-aislingedh, Grail 2679 .

Of grammatical forms force, function, meaning : hua cheill gníma ┐ chesta, Sg. 77a7 . ciall sechmadachti `the sense of a past', Ml. 98c10 . chiall ainsedo, 67d24 . is ilar són hua cheill `it is plural in sense', 45b20 . aithne ar chíalluibh uathaidh ┐ iollraidh, IGT Introd. 2.16 .

(e) In phrases. slán céill safe and sound: no theighdis slan ceill dia tigh, Blathm. 38 . ní ris sís slán céill, BS 72.20 . for (ar) céill in one's senses: mairg dobēradh cath don fēin / da mbet ar cēill, Fianaig. 80.1 . intan nobid Comgan for ceill, Ériu v 20.7 . airis for ceill, MR 8.16 . guais nach bear ar chéill choidhche `I may never have sense', A. Ó Dálaigh xxxix 2 . cond céille = c.¤: nír chond ceille in col, LL 4378 . arnacha-ndechrad a chond ceille, TBC-LL¹ 1709 . c.¤ chodnaig: ecodnach da frisciter ciall codnaigh `who is expected to come to the use of reason', Laws iii 156.25 Comm. iar tiachtain ceilli codnaig do, v 218.23 Comm. ciall chapaill little or no sense, Mac Aingil 6140 . in ti ac na bi faitechus ceille use of reason, Laws v 508.22 Comm. ( SM Facs. 1b ). táinic an chiall bhreugach chuige .i. an codladh, ITS v 38.23 . étrommae céille loss of reason, insanity : táinic édtruma chéille . . . dó, CF² 450 . Cf. édromacha chéille, Luke xxiv 11 . In chevilles: dia do chéill, DDána 54.15 . fo chiall `good the sense', Blathm. 19 .

Phrases with vbs. do-alla, gataid, benaid, céill di gives up (hope of), despairs of: talsat a céill di ṡaíre, LL 31490 (TTr.). antan . . . tallus mo chéill dia thorbu dam, Ériu iv 134.10 . See 1 do-alla. iar ngait cheilli dia n-anmain `after losing all hope of life', ZCP i 406.11 . See gataid. do ben gach neach díbh ciall dá anmain, CF² 736 . iar m-ben . . . do chelli dia bethaid, LB 143a33 . ba buan ceille do chabhair, Stair Erc. 1537 . mairg bheanas chéill don chruinne (`to try to understand'), Magauran 643 . ben do cheill . . . dot tir ┐ dot talmain exi de terra tua, Lism. L. 707 . See benaid. See díscaíl. With cuirid: gur bo marb mórán do clandaib C. ar cur céille do'n cathimresan (`after the effort of screwing themselves up for the fight'), Caithr. Thoirdh. 127.24 . tráth do chuirset céill do'n cath (`when they were baulked of the fray'), 128.1 . Note further: do chuaidh a ciall do'n cathírghail they lost hope of, Caithr. Thoirdh. 99.15 .

do-cuirethar ar chéill (for céill) calls to mind: torala Dia ar cheill do degnimu `let God bring to mind', Ml. 43b15 . intan forathmentar ┐ docuredar ar céill `when it is . . . kept in mind', Ériu ii 136 § 122 . tachraid forcéill ┐ airem daib seanchassai . . . bar múinntire, Alex. 191 . na healtain do chor ar céill / as blogh d'ḟertaibh in ḟíréin, IGT Decl. ex. 303 . With difft. constr. foceird mo ceill im drungo, LMU 17 (Eg.) `my reason is agitated about the hosts', (LMU2). Later with cuirid and personal object recalls to reason, to sense : a chur ar céill gér chás deacair (of conversion of St. Augustine), DDána 59.11 . meisge an phobail . . . / ní hobair mná a chura ar céill `to bring them to reason', PBocht 9.23 . buime an leinbh (sic leg.) gá gcur ar céill (of Mary consoling the holy women), 13.15 .

cuirid i céill expounds, proves, declares : ní mór dod mhaith chuire a ccéill, Bard. Synt. Tr. 228.17 . lá in Chairn a gcéill cuirfidhear `will be ever remembered', O'Hara 123 . cuir-se i gcéill `explain', A. Ó Dálaigh xlix 10 . as fer tengtha (sic leg.) eile do chuiredh a ceill dó gach ní da n-abradh C.C. ris, BCC 262.32 . m'éigse i gcéill muna chuirinn, Aithd. D. 46.4 . cuir do bhagar i gcéill thuaidh / más ann creidfidhear é uaibh, Content. xviii 168 . ionnus go gcuirfeadh i gcéill do'n léaghthóir nach fuil tabhacht i seanchus Éireann `might give the reader to understand', Keat. i 50.3 . Note also: níor chuir Brian céill na cheanaibh ignored, Content. xiv 18n. ciall do chur san iompódh to take heed of the change (? but see Ed. note), PBocht 22.2 .

do-gní céill takes thought; employs skill : do-ghéanadh chéill rem cháineadh `he would take thought before reviling me', Aithd. D. 74.17 . Cf. nī faigebthar-side itir . . . acht ma doronad cēill occai, TBC-I¹ 1576 = dorónaid ceill glossed ceilg, LU. Cf. nī rādh go cēill (.i. go ceilgg), ZCP v 487 § 15 (B. na f.) = ciall .i. cealg, O'Curry 1464 ( H 3.18, 651 ). fris-cuirethar céill see fris-cuirethar, frecor.

gaibid céill for, g. for céill expects : hó ro gaibther c.¤ for riuth s ... (? scíth or séim ) 'when a tiring (or easy) pace is expected', Wb. 13b13 , Ériu xxxiii 165 . argaibidside céil for báas in tain téte don chath `expects death', 9a3 . fiadnaise fir galair gabes ceill for eccaib, O'Curry 1617 ( 23 Q 6, 6 b ). diä dardāin gabus-sa / cēill for ingnais maicc m'athar, Bruchst. 52 § 116 ; 'on Thursday I expected the death of my father's son' Ériu xxiii 49 . ra gabsat céill ar a mbreith i tírib ciana, LL 31491 (TTr.). o ro gab ceill for anad, LU 2249 ( FA 31 ). is in coiged uair . . . intan rogabsat cell for a collad ┐ for a cumsanad re seitfidaigh na natrach settled down to, BB 495a16 . ro gabsat ar céill . . . comallad fir na faistine, 429b25 . do gabatar ar chéill gan chunntabairt gurab é in Clárach . . . adchonncatar `imagined', Caithr. Thoirdh. 51.4 .

For ciall .i. tionol, O'Dav. 362 see fo-cíallathar II.

Compds. With nouns.: domrimart gáir na gáithi / im chotlud co cíall-báithe `with vacant mind', Metr. Dinds. iii 226.10 . in fitir for cialbann clú / cia dú cosatiagam dé? SR 7967 . iar ccur do Brian . . . Maolseachluinn Mór as a chiallchogair confidences, Ériu i 105.7 . conad hí ar comcisiu ┐ cottomus ar ciallḟer, LL 32429 (TTr.). cīallḟlaith . . . con gaib side a chrícha cen choscru cen chernu a prudent ruler, ZCP xi 86 § 46 . ciall-gháis Chormaic `wisdom', MR 116.14 . ciallrunugud aicnid, Cóic Con. 24 § 24 . ciallrunugud cert caid, 27.9 . la ciallrunugadh eir[i]c, Laws iii 408.9 Comm.

With adjj.: tricha robhi in ciallbhog caemh / ina ri Diarmoíd na ndhamh simple-minded(?), BB 57a15 . ? is imdha duine data / ┐ cuire is cialbhrata (: dhíarmada), IT iii 68.17 . fear . . . cunnail craibhtech cíallchonaich resourceful(?), RC xii 320 § 1 . saī coitcenn, ciallconaigh, AU iii 46.6 . See féchemanda. co glice ciallgaesmar, Stair Erc. 298 . bhí sé ciallghlan diadha, Hackett² xxx 154 . mná cori ciallmathi, LU 3888 ( SCC 40 ). gnúis meicc Cairne cíallmíadcha (-miacha, v.l.) `of noble sense', Ériu iv 94.14 . macc slattraim síl Chuind cíallmór, Ériu iv 104.8 . Cf. i nDaim Liac Ciannāin canair / marb hua ciallmair Congalaig, Arch. Hib. ii 94 § 25 (see Ed.'s note). na ceithre comhfhocail . . . chumaidhi chialltarctheacha `expressive maxims', MR 90.4 . fer nár certmur cialltreabar, BB 427b30 .

With vb. ¤rúnaigid(ir). Legal. considers carefully; decides after deliberation: nach claoine eile ciallrunaigther ann .i. feall no éithach, O'D. 795 ( H 3.17, col. 570 ) = ciallrunaither, O'Curry 2395 ( Eg. 88, 31a ). cocrathar urchonn urthach .i. ciallrunathar uasal testugh (leg. testughad) ona codhnacha, O'Curry 1770 ( 23 D 6, 37 a ). na cocra cert .i. nech na ciallrunaigenn, Laws iii 34.18 Comm.

clúm, clúim

Cite this: eDIL s.v. clúm, clúim or dil.ie/9680
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: ā, clúmh, clūim, clúime, cluma, cluim, cluim, clúm, cluma, clúmh, clúimh, clúimhe, clúmh, chlúimh, chlúimhe, chlúmha

n (Lat. plūma) Orig. ā, f. O. and Mid. Ir. forms: n s. clúmh, Ériu xiii 40.12 . clūim, Corm. Y 342. 1018 . g s. clúime, Fél. Prol. 126 . inna cluma , RC x 76.11 . a s. or d s. cluim, Anecd. i 6.9 ( SCano 165 ). cluim, LU 1853 . clúm, SG 111.22 . PH 7400 . n p. cluma, LU 10478 . clúmh f., IGT Decl. § 39 . clúimh m. and f. (g s. clúimhe), § 45 . clúmh m. (g s. an chlúimh , an chlúimhe , an chlúmha ), § 46 .

(a) feathers; plumage, down : a múr chlúime `out of abundance of down', Fél. Prol. 126 . biadh ┐ ēdach lōghmar, clūim ┐ coilced, Corm. Y 1018 . īar comso clūm ┐ cēol, ZCP x 45.15 . co ráemid an cholcid . . . co mbatar a cluma for folúamain immon tech, LU 10478 . cur bo brec faithci an longphuirt dia cclúmaibh, TBC-LL¹ 2237 . ba lan a chorp . . . do clumuibh gleghealaibh amal cholum, Lat. Lives 108.y . pill cuilcthe clúimhe, SG 364.36 . áile suidhe n-árd n-esartha i mbí clúmh chubhaidh cosartha, Ériu xiii 40.12 . dogensatar ind eoin . . . sliachtad inna cluma cona nguilbnib, RC x 76.11 . in coilech ar mbeim a chind ┐ a choss ┐ a ch.¤ . . . de, LB 222b40 . cosmhuil do chúl . . . / re cluimh no re casnaidhe, BS 18.18 . feis oidhche gan chluimh a ccoill `without covering' (a feather-bed(?)), 120.25 . coimhgheal le clúimh eala, DDána 49.10 . dúil a leaba chlúimh ní chuir, Ir. Review 1912, 472 § 9 . go ccerchaill chlúimhe fóna ccennuibh, RSClára 112b .

(b) Of the hair or fur of animals: clūim .i. caol-sēim .i. ceilid (sic leg.) in srōin ima mbī, Corm. Y 342 . leth feola ┐ clúmh uili, . . . cethraime feola ┐ leth cluimhe, O'D. 937 (H. 3.17, 659a). daimh gheala gu cluim foda, Marco P. 10 . clúmh buabhuill, 162 . gné chlúimhe na gcaorach, Ir. Syll. Poetry 63 § 5 .

(c) Of human hair, eyebrows; fer co caschluimh (sic leg.), CCath. 7 . 'ma súil gcuirr-se do cumadh / a coimse do chlúimh mhalldubh, DDána 99.30 .

(d) Of the pile of cloth: a dhuine, ná déana ceasacht | ar chlúimh th'éadaigh, ar a dhlús 'o man, do not complain of the nap of your clothes or their thickness', Giolla Brighde 240 § 21 . clúmh an bhrait, PBocht 20.27 .

(e) vegetation, herbage, foliage : glas clūm (cluim, v.l.) caille clithaige, Ériu vii 4 § 4 ( LL 13662 ). go tteilc gach dos dlaoi da clúimh, ZCP viii 222 § 8 . at c.¤ claisse co clothblad (to Emain Macha), LL 2566 . an úir ar n-osgladh dá hioth / ag brosdadh ar chlúimh na gcleath, DDána 106.22 . nocha bhí clúmh trés an gcreig / nach creid a Rí . . . dhuid, Dán Dé xxix 26 ( IGT Decl. ex. 1121 ). níor léig graifne greagh síthe, / . . . / clúimh ar fhionnmhaoilinn t'fhaithche `grass', Studies 1922, 410 § 5 . earradh clúimh tiomchal gach tuir, TD 1.5 .

? a hairdarcus, a clūim, a carpat (of the central province of Ireland), Ériu iv 163.25 .

Compds. With noun. ar gcor cuairte an chlúmhaile, DDána 109.5 (`the mossy stone(?)', Ir. Monthly 1920, 482 § 5 ). do chalb rop colt clúmelta `feathered flocks', RC xx 404 § 122 (ACC Comm., B. na f.). Hence: cluimhealta .i. badhbh no feannóg, O'Cl. clúimhearla (see airla) coillteadh, O'Hara 3050 . Fig. a bhláth clúimhfheadha cheiníl of the leafy wood (to a lady), DDána 74.67 . folt clúmhraon gcam, 114.21 (`downy', Ir. Monthly 1920, 165 ).

With adj. go ceann-tirim, clúmh-álainn, Atlantis iv 134.19 . ar brat corcra clúmhchruinn with level pile(?), Magauran 1247 (`shaggy(?)'). croicenn clumdub ceatnaiti, MR 186.7 . dfheólaibh . . . ccethnatmolt ccluimhéttrocht `white-fleeced', Hugh Roe² 284.15 . co ceann-trom clúimh-fhliuch, Atlantis iv 134.12 . ag breith . . . a ccethnat cclumhfhoto chuca, Hugh Roe² 34.11 . do chethnattaibh cluimgheala, 122.24 . leaca mar ṡídhealaidh . . . gclúimhiodhain, Aithd. D. 72.8 . atá fá áonbhárr uaine / t'féighe corcra clúmhnuaidhe with fresh herbage (to Ireland), 23 G 24, 272.6 . ug circe clumruaidhe, MR 28.z . taisteal h'uilleadh gclúimhthiogh gcorr thickly clothed with vegetation (of Ireland), Measgra D. 50.35 . cofacca . . . in deilb ndochruid / coscháil cennléith clúmchochlaig `bushy-browed', Ériu iv 102 § 44 . ¤dérai(g)the see 1 dérgud.

deccair

Cite this: eDIL s.v. deccair or dil.ie/14860
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: decair, , decair, decrai, deccra, decra, deacra, deacraidhe, deacraí, deacracha, deccraib, decraib, deacraib, decrachaibh, decra, deacra, deacra, deacaire, deacraide, Deccair, deacraí, deccar-brat, fír-deccair, lán-deccair, sír-deccair

i, adj. and subst. Usually deccair in old MSS: Ériu iv 104 2 LL. SR 5823 . LL 192 b 11 f.b. Ériu v 221. 12 LL. TFerbe 439 . Acall. 6593 . decair, LB 272 b 23 . RC xi 131. 4 . SG 217. 27 . Snedg. u. Mac R xi 3 . Rawl. 165 b 12 . CCath. 4508 . Mod. MSS deacair.—g s. decair SG 275. 2 f.b. Now pronounced diŏcair with the same open o-sound as in beag. SUBST. g s. decrai, LU 131 b 16 . n p. deccra, LL 44 b 4 ; 201 a 13 . Dinds. § 9 . decra, LL 30 a 34 . deacra, Ériu i 20. 8 . Mod. deacraidhe, deacraí ( Aesop ii 100 b ). a p. deacracha, Lib. Flav. ii 10 b 2. 5 . d p. deccraib, LL 152 a 3 . decraib, Gorm. Sep. 25 . Lism. L. xxx 2 . deacraib, YBL 326 b 2 . Laws v 232. 23 . BS § 39, l. 23 . decrachaibh, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 334. 1 (early 16th-century poem).—COMP. decra, SG 260. 32 . Reg. San. 28. 1 , 2 f.b. deacra, Ériu i 95 § 50 . Miscell. Celt. Soc. 344. 8 . Donlevy 156. 10 . MOD. deacra and deacaire ( Páidín 14. 9 f.b. ). With -de: deacraide, TSh. 257. 26 . BS 54. 10 .—Deccair rhymes with lepaid, TFerbe 439 ; LL 194 b 36 ; Ériu v 221. 12 (LL).

ORIGIN: Regularly developed from †di-accair, i.e. privative di + †accor (compare tacar and cuirithir `places'); cf. decmaing, 2 deithbir, deinmne. Cf. socair, doccair.

I Difficult, troublesome, hard ; often connected with doilig, díchumaic, díchumaing ( LL 192 b 53 ) and doccair ( BB 305 a 30 ). The opposite of 2 assa(e), airassa ( Donlevy 418.25 ).

(a) usually with the copula, of actions: hard to perform , &c.—qui oblationes...cum difficultate reddunt .i. an dream ...réna deacair a dtabhairt uatha, TSh. 130. 2 . ba decair ┐ ba doilig la clannaib Néill beth oc fulang anforráin Eogain forru, LB 272 b 23 . decair dréim re Pennaibh Pó hard to climb Benbo RC xi 131. 4 . is decair dul i Mantribil, ib. xix 264 § 181 . ní ḟuil ní as decra liom iná gilla do bheith agam, SG 260. 9 f.b. ib. 3 f.b. dobudh dheacra la Doṁnall D. found it harder Ériu i 95 § 50 . ní budh deacra do dhéanaṁ, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 344. 8 . is uime sin is decra a ndealughadh ón tes, Reg. San. 28. 2 f.b. — dobudh deacraide dhó, TSh. 257. 26 . is decair dhom labhairt do lomm, Midnight court 391 ; ib. 421 , 845 . an deacair sin do dheunadh? ní deacair atá se coṁfuras sin ┐ &c., Donlevy 418. 25 . ib. 156. 10 ; 180. 10 ; 430. 12 ; 452. 11 ; 456. 3 , 5 f.b. OCT 27.1 f.b. ; 28. 3 f.b. Romans v 7 . MOD. is d., nach d., Finck ii 87. 2 . is deacra ná san maireachtaint a gceart a bhfus, W.K. deacair, P. O'C. Lhuyd (deacar, deaclach sic). Sc. id. HSD. Macd.

(b) attributively to a subst. difficult, troublesome : in gilla decair, SG 260. 3 , 5 f.b. ; 262. 6 , 11 . ní dalb decair, Rawl. 165 b 12 (chev.). foccail doccair deccair, IT iii 65 .

II Hard, hard to bear, grievous , esp. is deccair lim I feel sorry = is doilig lim: fá doiligh ┐ fa deacair leo Goll do bheith san éigean sin, ML 136. 21 . fosglais an buachaill an doras...acht gér dheacair leis é though he was loth to do so Each. Iol., 15. 10 . Cf. Sc. is d. leinn 'achṁasan his reproofs are grievous to us Macd. 314 a 5 . 's d. a Chola brí do sgeoil , HSD s.v. In Mod.-Ir. is d. liom only means `I think it hard.'

III Subst. a difficulty, an embarrassment, a trouble; hardship, distress, affliction . Often connected with such words as ainces, díchumang, doilgius, dúad, 1 esbaid, imṡním, &c.— mór decrai ┐ mór aingcessa do thabairt form, LU 131 b 16 . táthum domna bróin...bith ar lepaid na llæch is deccair is díchumang, LL 192 b 11 f.b. Mo Doe fri decraib, Gorm. Sept. 25 . nír dligh mé méid mo muirni. féch a Dé ár ndecuir ni, O'Gr. Cat. 347. 8 . ní bíth duag ná deccair ar nech intan dochluined in ceol sin, Acall. 6593 ( ib. 6565 n. ) = SG 217. 27 . Alex. 639 . tine dá marbad dá ttáinig a móirdheacra, Ériu i 20. 8 . me um Dhiarmuid lem dhecrachaibh, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 334. 1 ; ib. 19 . mé a ndecair sa ndrochonóir le hesbaidh Í Eidirsceoil, 332. 1 . cidh mór nesbaidh fuaramar is mó in decair déighenach, 334. 1 f.b. truagh áṁ nach...romṁarbadh sa resíu nobheinn isin deacair si, BS § 20. 10 . ib. § 39. 1 , 23 . deacair (sic leg.) ┐ doilgheas, TSh. 136. 15 . MOD. deacraí troubles Aesop ii 100 b .

IV Hard to accomplish; strange, rare, wonderful, cf. V. érim ndecair a wondrous course, Snedg. u. Mac R xi 3 (chev.). réim ndeccair, LL 201 b 41 (chev.). ná bad séim do deog deccair, Ériu iv 104. 2 LL. Cf. Sc. is ní deacair a ta an righ ag iarruidh, Dan. ii 11 .

V Subst. a wonder, a marvel (now obs.). deacair .i. iongnadh O'Cl. P. O'C. a mbídh do dhecraibh ┐ do buadhuib i ríghdhúinibh Éirenn, BLism. 96 a . Lism. L. xxx 2 = B. Fermoy 24 a 1 ; cf. Anecd. ii 1. 4 . na deccra na degbúada LL 44 b 4 . Cuan hua Lothchán...eolach i ndeccraib hÉrenn, 152 a 3 . ceti trí deccra rostecht. fer cen chend air, &c., 201 a 13 . trí decra iṅganta i suidiu .i. lathrach ind rígthaige Chormaic lathrach ind Foraid...Múr Tea, 30 a 34 . cf. Dinds. § 9 (deccra). is do deacraib in domuin, Laws v 232. 23 . do deacraib ríg in richid, YBL 326 b 2 . ba deccair taidbsen dia drech, SR 5823 ; cf. ib. 717 . ní dam nā déine deccair, TFerbe 439 ; 'it is something to me which does not cause wonder' ZCP x 380 . dorónsat sluaig deccra de (= ferta), Metr. Dinds. iii 44. 71 . gona dánaib go ndecraib (Lec., sic leg., : Bretnaib), Todd Nenn. 136. 3 . BB 204 b 18 .—Subst. or adj. : conárb ingnad ┐ nár decair fer a maithiusa do ḟreccra ríg, CCath. 4508 . dobíd Buide nír deccair: ┐ Estiu i noenlepaid, Ériu v 221. 12 LL. as suaill daṁna a ndeacra, Hy Fiach. 174 (not `act of wondering' as suggested in Contr.).

VI COMPD. (a) deccar-brat ā, f.: gur scaipeadar mo dheacarbhroid a tír nÉireann, Gadelica ii 109. 8 . dochailleamair mo dheacarbhroid ar bḟírleogain, ib. 110.15 ; v. 1 brat. (a) fír-deccair: cid scél fromtha is f., LL 194 b 36 . lán-deccair very marvellous, a great marvel : Loch Léin is lándeacair leam: ceithri creasa na timcheall, ZCP v 24 st 12 (one of the wonders of Ireland). oen-deccair: a fagaind ón rígraidh sin do buar do brat do bíud: dobéraind ar aendecair daenfear do cét do tríur, ZCP v 23 st 28 . sír-deccair constant hardship, trouble : ní gnáth co menic nach saigthech cen sírdecair, Alex. 639 .

MOD. only usual in the sense of I and III.

dlúthe

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dlúthe or dil.ie/17091

n , f. (1 dlúth) IGT Abstr. Nouns § 69 . closeness (of units in a mass), density, compactness: huan dluthi fo chosmailius dorche gl. densitate, Ml. 29d12 - 13 . assa dluthi solidity (of the earth), 129d8 . in dluthe ind flechuid, 81c8 . d.¤ chomsuidigtheo closeness of composition, Sg. 203a25 . d.¤ in tinfith donaib consonaib (of the close connexion of the aspiration with the consonant in the sounds, χ, θ, φ), 9a17 . huan dlúithi séim gl. tenui rima, 46a10 . ni dic[h]ead (dichet, v.l.) scuithe ar a dluithe the small cattle cannot pass through (the fence) for its closeness, Laws iv 112 , cf. 76.19 . mun badh dluithe ┐ daingne a n-innill ┐ a n-ordaighthe, AFM v 1646 . o dhlúithi na néll from the density of the clouds, 3 C 19, 256 vb 21 . re sar-dluithi a sleag, MR 190 . dá dhlúithe ┐ dá dhíoghraisighe bhíd dó however close (intimate) . . . they are with him, TSh. 4247 . Of language, condensation, concision: iarnnberlae .i. is aire isberar, ar a duibe in belrae ┐ ar a dorchatae ┐ ar a dluithe (dlúthi, LB) co nāch erasa taisscelad ind, Corm. Y 755 . tri miscena indsci: rigne, dlúithe, dulbaire (.i. ar muin a chéile, gl.), Triads 179 .

dúthchas

Cite this: eDIL s.v. dúthchas or dil.ie/19311

n u and o, m. (dúthaig) IGT Decl. § 38 .

(a) hereditary right, claim by descent, birthright: cid asa ngaibther flaithemnas for túathaib? . . . a feib dúthchusa, Tec. Corm. § 5 . ní d.¤ fa deara dháibh | ríoghacht Gréige do ghabháil . . . dhóibh nír bh'athardha an oighriocht, 3 C 13, 781.5 . ni tre cheart duchais rogobsad acht ar eicin, Lec. 169a20 . gor trēig C.C. righacht Erind . . . fa dual dō ō duthcas ┐ o folaidhecht hi, BCC § 74 . nach raibhe ceart ná d.¤ aige ar bheith innte (i.e. a territory), Keat. iii 5103 . cúigeadh Laighean do léigeadh do Dhiarmaid, amhail fá d.¤ dó, 5115 . senchuidhe ó oific ┐ ó dh.¤ hereditary shanachie, Mac Aingil 543 . engnamh Ulad . . . tré dúthchus a dheghmathar . . . a Conall C. inherited the valour of the Ulstermen through his mother, MR 312 . ar duthchus a mathar dodhechaidh sidhe re hēiccsi (of Fland mac Lonáin), ZCP viii 110 . na somharbhthachta atá san gcolainn do dhúthchus ón talmhain by virtue of its descent (origin) from the earth, TSh. 187 .

(b) claim, privilege, custom due to heredity or established by tradition: gach aon a gceann a dhíre ┐ a dhúthchasa féin, ML 102 . nach biaidh d.¤ nó daor-chíos ar mo fhine ó chineadh oile, 118 . na rechta ┐ na roduchusa rofágadar bar n-aithreacha agaib, MR 150 . ag leanmhain dlighidh na dúthchasa `according to the laws of the country' (acc. to traditional custom?), Keat. iii 2769 . do réir dúthchais is reachta hereditary custom and law, O'Rah. xxxii 58 . tabhraidh na mionna duthchais atá againn annso the traditional oaths, Maguires of F. § 80 .

(c) In concrete sense inheritance, patrimony, territory: a nduthchus ní géba a clann his children shall not obtain their inheritance, Fen. 80 . a roga tuaithi dia duchus (privilege of any chief of line of Dubda m. Condmaig), Lec. 165c35 . nir tréigius . . . mo tir no mo ducus, Cog. 172 . ic teasargain a tuath, ic dírgad a duthchusa, MR 100 . iar ndith a duthchais after the loss of his patrimony, Hy Fiach. 62 . gur easguin Garalt Caomhan co n-a shíol .i. gan ríogha for a ndudhchas go bráth, 140 .

(d) native place or land: Cuil Cernoga . . . nemdona an drong dan duchass, Lec. 171b17 . roinnis dó a duthchus ┐ a cenél, Moling § 26 . ba he (sc. Caisel) a m[b]unadus ┐ a senducus badein, Cog. 70 . dochuaid Abratham ass[a] d.¤ , SG 48 . intan n[on-]índarbtar sinn asin Roim ┐ asar ndúchus féin, CCath. 607 . scrisfuither asa ndutchus ┐ asa n-athardha fen iad, BCC § 127 . Hence in Bedell nativity, birth: go tír ar ndúthchuis, Jeremiah xlvi 16 . is do thír Chanaan do bhreith ┐ do dhuthchus, Ezekiel xvi 3 .

(e) connexion, affinity, or attachment due to descent or long standing (oft. folld. by RE = FRI): doluid C. do rochtain cloindi Cein risin mbrathairse ┐ risin duchus do bi do riu, Lec. 125a1 . no dh.¤ riu recfa me, Prolegomena 49 . fiú m'ollamhnacht ó'm aes gráidh, | fiú ár nd.¤ riú 's ár robháidh (a bard speaking of fellow-bards), Miscell. Celt. Soc. 380 . mo dh.¤ red dhreich mhínréidh, 3 C 12, 402.15 . ní . . . ar dh.¤ re Corc Caisil | tuc toirbearta do Thorna | acht ar oirdearca a ealadhna, 3 C 13, 481.18 . lén is uilli ḟuarasa | ég mo dhuine duchusa . . . cuimhne ar dhúthchus Diarmada | mo dhuthracht an duthchus-sa, Miscell. Celt. Soc. 336 .

(f) inherited instinct or aptitude, natural (as oppd. to acquired) tendency or bias: uasalṡenōir togaidhe . . . ar deilbh ar duthcus ` disposition ', AU 1203 (ii 240) . ba duthaich . . . — Cia duthchus ón?, Anecd. i 4 . a dh.¤ re draoidheacht his native turn for wizardry, Content. vi 121 . d.¤ re gaisge, a Aodh, | atá agaibh as bhar ngaol, xviii 32 . daer in duine da duthchus, ACL iii 238 § 9 . ar colla acht gid bailc i bus | is pairti donda a nduthchus nature, constitution (heritage?), § 6 . is diall réd duthchusaib dilsi bodesin duit-siu na hábaisi ┐ na hairrdhena sin `clinging to thy true ancestorial nature', MR 302 . níl cinnteacht 'n-a chroidhe ná cáim air, | acht d.¤ maith a shean ag fás leis, O'Rah. xviii 80 . ar ógaibh nach dubh d.¤ whose nature is not melancholy, Ó Bruad. ii 92 . léig diot . . . na bearta as dúthchus duit, PCT 817 . as beg na coisgid siad (sc. remedies) an flux doreir duchais, 23 P 10, 143rb17 . Hence in Hy Fiachr. hereditary holder of a territory, line of hereditary possessors (?): céd dúchus adearar and | ó Dún Fhíne . . . | Ó' Duiblerga the first inheritor who shall be mentioned here . . . is O'D., 218 . ná fágbam Ceara na clad | can a dúchus do dénam, | can beith co seim 'cá snaidi | d'á breith 'sa réim rigraidi without mentioning its inheritors, 186 . Note also: do dhúthchusuibh Jerusalem inhabitants , Isaiah viii 14 .

(g) Attrib. gs. hereditary, pertaining to a certain territory or people, native: a ttighearnus do ghabail da nGhaoidhelaibh duthcassa bhudhdhéin ar ndíochur a nGall esdibh, AFM iii 562 . fineadhoigh dudhchusa an Bhaic hereditary tribes, Hy Fiach. 10 . meic Gilli E. a taisich duchisa, Lec. 349d19 . fir dúchais hereditary followers, Hy Maine 86 . a bhfecmais mo tíri . . . ┐ m'atharda duthcais fein, BCC § 67 . do bi an oiret sin . . . do gradh ag C.C. ar a tír ┐ ar a athardha duthchusa, § 192 . san bhfonn ndúthchasa, TSh. 6020 . óna dtír dhúthchais, 6364 .

1 eisim

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 eisim or dil.ie/19869
Last Revised: 2019

eisimh teisimh, eallaing teallaincc sruth sáor 'gieße und ergieße, sammle und vereinige den edlen Strom', Akten Linz 137 § 5 . esimh ... a hainm, Akten Linz 139 § 11 . eisim .i. tuismither inntib; teisim .i. tuismither estib, O'Dav. 801 . eisim .i. teisim .i. dail do dail, O'Mulc. 453 . Probably imp. of a verb *as-seim (*ess-sem-) cognate with do-essim. Cf. ess o eistin cene imme n-essamar cech lind is ess a ainm, O'Mulc. 427 .

fiche

Cite this: eDIL s.v. fiche or dil.ie/21983

Forms: fichet, fichit, fichtea, fichte, fichit, ḟichet, ḟichet, fichit, fichtib

nnt, m. g s. fichet, Ml. 2d2 . n p. fichit, Ardm. 18a2 ( Thes. ii 242.2 ). a p. fichtea, Ardm. 17a2 ( Thes. ii 238.17 ). fichte, Hy ii 40 . In Old and Middle Irish regularly followed by subst. in gp. In MSS freq. written .xx. A score, twenty: f.¤ .i. a uiginti , O'Mulc. 531 . fiche ar chet a hundred and twenty BCr. 41b2 . cach f.¤ inna lurg fo leith each score IT i 137.1 . f.¤ míled, Fél. Mar. 18 . cethir chét ... | f.¤ teoir [la teor, la teora v.l.] míli four hundred three thousand and twenty Sept. 1 . f.¤ acht sé bliadna ... ba rí E. E. was king for fourteen years LL 129a1 . f.¤ ┐ a .vii. twenty-seven 128b22 . f.¤ bliadna for a .vii. twenty-seven years 129b39 . 131a33 . fichi a cóic o ṡain ... | cosin mortlaith twenty-five [years] from that till the plague 131a48 . fichi acht a cethair sixteen 129a27 . dochoid N. éc ... | fichi cét i crich L. with twenty hundreds 127a15 . fichi bliadan ┐ chét (= 120) SR 5269 . mile, da chéd, fiche a hocht = AFM 1228 ad ann. (RIA 23P6). míle, cúicc céd, fiche [sic] = 1520 ib., ad ann. (23P7). (With ns. of subst. :) fiche bliadhain (: giallaibh), TD 32.29 . fiche fail twenty bracelets Keat. iii 2639 . a d s. ro fích Fergus fichit catha LL 23a10 . da deich ... | tiagait hisin certfichit, SR 746 . atusa sund fichit mbliadan , I have been here twenty years BDD 3 . a n-oen ar fichet [sic MS.] it tri secht són twenty-one Ml. 2d2 (cf. bliadain ar ḟichet twenty-one years LL 130b39 . 131a46 ). dlom díis ar fichit twenty-two Fél. Sept. 13 . dā staid ar fichit `twenty-two stadia' Ériu xi 104 § 3 . g s. fri ré ḟichet findbliadan, LL 129bz . dā lebur fichet twenty-two books Ml. 2d2 . in choiced fichet the twenty-fifth (ref. to uicessima quinta luna) BCr. 33b5 . cóic méich fichet twenty-five sacks LU 8126 ( FB 9 ). coic meic de[e]c ... la I. | a secht fichet la S., SR 2667 . a sé fichet do Lugaid twenty-six [years] LL 129a41 . a cethair fichet ... ┐ cóic mīle bliadan five thousand and twenty-four 130b34 . ōthā talmain co ēsca | sē mīle fichet ar chét, SR 107 . Sennar ... sechtmad mac fichet Seim twenty-seventh son 2755 . cōic paisse fichet ar chēt one hundred and twenty-five paces Ériu xi 104.4 . Calann Enair for Dardain ┐ .x. mad fichet furri, Ann. Conn. 1237 . tres fichet furri, 1250 . du. dorumalt Moisi ... dá ḟichet bliadna i nEgept, SR 4956 . dā ḟichet bliadan , LL 127b30 . pl. tri fichit sixty SR 5326 (: tricc). 5314 (: glic). se fichit bliadan ... saegul Moisi, 4965 . atát cóic fichit bargen ... and a hundred loaves LU 8125 ( FB 9 ). ocht fichid ban, TBC-I¹ 1371 . cu tubartadar ocht fichti cend dib 3070 . deich mnaa ┐ secht fichit (= 150) TBC-LL¹ 1358 . sē fichit ríg, LL 129b43 . tri fichit bliadan ... d'Oengus T. i Temraig, 129a5 . noí fichit cét ar [leg. a n-] ārim ḟichet cét LL 219b6 (= TTr. 174 ). das fuc ... na hocht fichtiu oss, TBC-LL¹ 546 . a ḟichdi bó scores of his cows IGT, Decl. ex. 1027 . mani bet fichtib nó tríchtaib in scores or thirties LU 5535 . domeltis oigidechta fichtib ┐ trichtaibh in twenties and thirties RC xxv 20.10 . ( LL 270b2 ), corresp. to : co fichtib laech no thictis, RC xxv 34.9 ( Rawl. 133b37 ). ro scáil a folt ... ima cenn ina hocht fichtib dual scattered her hair in eight score plaits Acall. 5992n . (ocht fichit, Laud). baiade and ... tri fichtea bliadne she dwelt there three score years Thes. ii 238.17 . Common in d p. in chevilles; fichtib ell, SR 1129 . f.¤ drong LU 3668 ( SCC 33 ). fichdib toebtholl, IT ii 183.235 .

1 fidba

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 fidba or dil.ie/22005
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: fidhba, fidba, fidbu, fidbai

n (fid + bae, be, vn. termination fr. ben— `smite', see Wortk. 23 , Pedersen Vgl. Gr. i 389 ) a bill-hook: fidhba (gl. falcastrum) Ir. Gl. 797 . sarculum .i. sidbe (leg. fidbe) .i. ferum unde uinea inciditur , Études Celt. xxii 211 § 22, 216 . f.¤ n-inraic na diuclad fid cona toimsib techta .i. dorn dia chrau. tri meoir ina croch. reisiu fod a foebuir, tri mer dua churr. mer dia frithchurr. ordlach lethit a cuil occa crandaid. lethordlach ar medon. trian oc a chuirr, O'Curry 883 (< H 3.18, 395a ). fidba cen ṡeim , Triads 172 . fidba, Críth G. 180 . d s. fidbu, 247 . aitheach ... | f.¤ isin dara lāim dō, Anecd. i 45.15 . im biaill, im fidbae, Laws i 124.15 . fidbad fri felmad, iv 72.3 . doluidh A. ┐ fidhbai 'na lāim dia marbad, Corm. Y 690 . g s. i fomailt do béla, do fidbai , Laws i 166.25 . larg a suisti ┐ larg a bela ┐ larg a fidba, iii 106.15 Comm . Name of letter f. in `Ogham tīrda', Auraic. 5725 . triasin f.¤ cnáma jaw-bone SR 5343 . triasin f.¤ chnáma .i. lecca chamaill, LB 127b7 . srengais in n-ól don ḟ.¤ chnáma draws back the cheek from the jawbone LU 6457 . TBC-LL¹ 2606 . See follg.

imscothad

Cite this: eDIL s.v. imscothad or dil.ie/28085

vn. of imscothaid. the act of stripping, peeling, hewing, lopping: roga duit ... a n-imtheclamad no a n-i.¤ (of shafts for a chariot), TBC-LL¹ 1407. forrópart Cuchulaind for a n-i.¤ ┐ nos tairṅged tria ladraib a choss, 1408 . in ba teclaim na fertus dogēna fa [a] n-i.¤ bid a n-imscathad, ol C., TBC-I¹ 783. barróisc Cuchulaind in claidiub assa intiuch Bhodbha d'i.¤ na n-arm ┐ d'immetrommugud in scéith fair, TBC-LL¹ 2955. gebid ic i.¤ tossaig na tren-ḟer, LL 238a48 . gabhait ic i.¤ a lamh díbh dá claidhmibh cor[o] lensat a nglacca i mburd na luingi, CCath. 2121. bili giuis arna imscathadh `stem of a fir tree stripped of its branches,' Aen. 173.

Fig. imscothud n-insci `(lit. stripping speech) removing nodosities from his composition' (glossed .i. [is] séim scoithes a indsci cona bit faidb furri), RC xxvi 22 § 64 and n. 0

? Name of some kind of literary composition or ornament: Briatharchath Goburchind, Glanindtlecht n-Etaine, Imscothadh Cuimine, Anecd. ii 53.9 .

insce

Cite this: eDIL s.v. insce or dil.ie/28887
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: insce, innsce, indsce, innsce, indscne, innsgne, ro-indscedaib, innscida

n , f. (derivative of sech-, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. § 814 Anm.). In O.Ir. glosses always written insce, except innsce, Sg. 25b2 . Later freq. indsce, innsce. A form indscne, innsgne became common in Mid. and Mod. Ir. Two instances occur of the word declined as a dental stem, but as both are in etymological glosses, the forms are very prob. spurious : d p. ro-indscedaib (gl. roscadaib), Laws v 10.x Comm. a p. na righ innscida gl. na rig scotha, O'Curry 1907 (< 23 P 3, fo. 23 ).

I a saying, speech, statement, word (in sense the word (of God, etc.) ; a language: insci .i. luighi, ut est feraidh insci di he makes a statement to her (there is no evidence that insce ever meant oath), O'Dav. 1112. miscath .i. mí-innsci. scath .i. innsci, amail atá Dūil Roscadach, Corm. Y 859. adciam isnaib inscib seo (?) ... ind aecni `we see in these words of the sage,' Thes. ii 246.24 (Cam.). i.¤ inso asber ar féda Ísu fri cach n-óen din chenélu dóine are n-indarbe a dualchi óod, 244.21 (Cam.). isind insci so gl. in hoc uerbo, Wb. 6a26 . is menand is dind insci riam lenid `that he adheres to the previous utterance,' 5c16 . ind interiecht nad rann i.¤ la grecu `a part of speech,' Sg. 26b6 . do láni chétbutho inna huilae i.¤ `of the whole discourse', 25b7 . in aellug i.¤ biid dictio ` dictio is wont to be in connected speech,' 25a2 . ní ruthórbasa is in n-i.¤ sea friscissen indiut ... `I arrived not at this expression of hope in Thee,' Ml. 44b29 . air thuccai cach chenel hí coitchennas a n-insci sidi `for each nation in common understands their speech,' 42c8 . i.¤ dé is mou ade didiu indaas i.¤ duini, 35c31 . in fer midboth aile conoí insci who preserves statement, Críth G. 39. tecmaltar a i.¤ dó hi teora bríathra co dé treise, 40 . adgadur nech ria túaith trebair arfochlim a n-i.¤ cocertaim bretha Ulad uli, LU 10287. cetharda ar a n-abar anruth ris .i. ar aine a fhoircedail, ar amuinnsi ngaisi, ar shulbairi a indsci, ar imad a eoluis, Laws v 28.13 Comm. noco fetar indsci in aen fir do roind `the person of the one man cannot be divided,' (? recte the statement ...), iii 134.12 Comm. innsci do cach iar na miad `speech to be allowed to each, according to his dignity,' i 18.y Comm. iarna cantain dó tri ocht rannaibh na hindscne, ┐ issiad so iad. Nomen, pronomen, uerbum ..., O'Curry 1184 (< H 3.18, p. 470a ). nach arlegais isin tṡoscela ... innsce Crist, in tan atbert `qui se exaltat ...,' PH 661. deimin lim-sa indsci asbeir-si, | brēithir glēsi, ACL iii 296 § 34. búaidh náithis ┐ ninnsgne ┐ nurlabhra, Ériu v 100.11 . ni hinnscin (? leg. hinnscni) aird-rig duit-si sin do radha, MR 284.20 . bat firen firbrethach cen forbrisiu n-indsciu etir tethrai tren ┐ trug, Ériu viii 173.22 . insci .i. scientia (.i. ecna) a bunadh Laitne, Auraic. 571. a hi.¤ mod `narration mode,' 1949 . (Cf. iss e immorro a hinnsemod (sic leg., for insce-mod ?) .i. a hinnisin (sic leg.) o mud inunn narrating it in the same mode, RC xx 144.20 (ACC)). Of common speech: eirgid deathuigi fuara isna rannaib uachtaracha ┐ gairter 'coruiles' dib asin innsgi coitcinn, Irish Texts v 24.21 = à vulgo. mailli re fuil mista darub comhainm asin innsgni choitc[inn] an blath banda, Irish Texts v 14.17 . imscothud n-insci `stripping speech' glossed .i. [is] séim scoithes a indsci cona bít faidb furri, xxvi 22 § 64 and n. 0 is hé cetḟer roraid insci isin dáil, TTr.² 313. innsgne bhinn do bheoil chorcra, DDána 67 § 42. soerlabhraidh soingthe (=soithnge) co mbuaidh n-innsgni `with the gift of elocution,' AFM vi 1960.3 . i n-insgne an fhir chíordhuibh `by the talk of the jet-black churl,' Ó Bruad. ii 14.y .

In special sense, indictment, ban: coinnealbháthadh, nó i.¤ na hEagluise, Eochairsg. 121.33 .

II gender: toth .i. gach banindsci, Corm. Y 1219. cis lir innsci docuisin la Feni ... a tri .i. ferinnsci ┐ baninnsci ┐ demhinsce lasin nGaidel .i. mascul ┐ femen ┐ neodar lasin Laitnèoir, Auraic. 520 - 1 . seachta frisa toimsiter Gaedhelg .i. fid ┐ deach, reim ┐ forba[i]dh, alt ┐ indsci ┐ etargoiri `seven things according to which Gaelic is measured ...,' 740 . mad iar n-urd choir na ndula, immorro, ni ainm ferinnsci no baninsci acht du neoch dofuisium ┐ o tuisimar `for what generates or for what is generated from,' 565 . feirinnsgne sáoi ┐ flaith : ... an sáoi maith, cóir ; an tsháoi mhaith, lochdach, IGT Introd. § 21.1 and 6 . don fhocal déigheanach don chomhfhocal téid a cheannus ┐ a cheart [┐] a innsgne, ┐ do-ní sé baininnsgne don fheirinnsgne ┐ feirinnsgne don bhaininnsgne (i.e. the gender etc. of a compound word depends on the last part of the compound), § 136.2 - 3 . aithni aibghitre, aithne innsgne, aithne aisde `knowledge of the alphabet, of gender, of metre' (necessary branches of knowledge), § 3.3 .

III a pronoun: na hinnsgne cédus : mé ┐ tú, sé ┐ sí, ..., IGT Introd. § 97.1 . ó innsgne .sinn. from the pronoun `sinn,' § 7.2 . aithne ... ar ceithre sunnarthuibh na Gáoidhilgi ┐ ar a seacht n-innsgnibh, § 2.5 . ní ┐ nocha, ionann as cóir lomadh ┐ séimhiughadh na ndíaigh ar innsgne ┐ ar neimhinnsgne (i.e. in regard to non-lenition and lenition they have the same effect on verbal forms that contain a personal element as on those that do not, e.g. passive forms), § 19.2 . cóir an sunnradh innsgne le barr no gan bharr, mur tá m'fhear no m'fhearsa, t'fhear no t'fhearsa the definition by pronoun is correct with or without an enclitic, § 15.20 . do-chuala, do-chualadhas .... In aimser sin mar sin, [acht do-clos ó neimhinnscne], IGT Verbs § 3.28 .

1 is

Cite this: eDIL s.v. 1 is or dil.ie/29104
Last Revised: 2019

Forms: nídam, nída, atar, atin, ammi, bem, be, combin, is, am, im, isam, isim, sam, isam, am, isam, nidha, nis, indat, n-iat, cenita, coich, citné, cisné, cis, manid, minad, minid, munid, minap, munab, béso, bésu, gon, gion, indid, inid, inad, ina, 'nar, díand, díanid, díanad, dían, díanda, dían(d)at, dána, dán, darab, bad, ba, ba, badat, ba, -bo, -p, -b, cid, -rop, -rup, -rub, ropond, ce, cía, cit, cía, ce, bed, bad, pad, bud, ba-da-, bádam, ma, matis, diambtís, bé, biam, bum, bid, bith, beith, bed, bud, -pa, -ba, nípa-dn-aidrech, -ba, -pa, -bo, -po, -bu, -pu, -b, -bad, -bud, bit, be(i)t, bat, biat, bidat, -rsam, -rbam, -bi, ropsa, rupsa, ropsat, robsat, ropat, robat, ropot, ropdat, -rbsat, -rsat, -rsa, -rbat, nārsat, ba, bu, bo, be, fa, fá, fo, bad, bud, ba-id-n-, fa, fá, -pu, -bu, -po, -bo, -p, nip, nipu, -rbu, -rpu, -rpo, -rbo, rba, -rob, -rb, -ra, -r, -rsa(t), -rso, -rsa, -rsad, rsam, -rsat, -rbtar, -rptar, -rtar, -rbat, -rpsat, -rsat, -psat, -bsat, -psatar, gomsad

v copula (see Strachan, Substantive Verb in O.Ir. Glosses ( Phil. Soc. Trans. 1899 ); Ó Máille, Verbs of Existence in Irish; Dillon, Nominal Predicates in Irish ( ZCP xvi , xvii ) ; GOI § 814 ff. ; Ó Nolan Studies in Mod. Ir.).

USAGE.

The copula is alway unstressed and proclitic. The normal order of words is vb.+pred.+subj., e.g. is cele dae in fer hisin, Ml. 30c3 . is bésad inna flatho doem et dofich (i.e. to protect and to avenge is a princely custom), Wb. 9d2 . Prec. by asyntactic nom.: fáilte cáich bad fáilte dúib-si, Wb. 5d24 . mad i n-aeclis tra in choss is hé óis achtáil `if then it be in the church, the foot is the practical folk,' 12a23 . Frequ. in verse: Illand mac Scanlain is marb, Anecd. i 12.24 . andar la fer bis a cein | Inber Cindbera is reid, 15.1 . a comrádh bind nocho brég, 35 § 81. An inversion of the usual order (see Ó Máille, op. cit. p. 74) occurs in: nī bu ṡanctBrigit ṡúanach (v.l. sanctbrigit suanach) `Saint B. was not drowsy,' Hy. v 21 (see GOI p. 476 and n. 168 ). is tria chin mban | bit fernai fer dlochtai, LU 8430 (FB, rhetoric). Common in rel. sentences in Fél.: mórṡlúag A. | dia mbu Demon dubach `from whom the Devil was sorrowful,' Fél. April 2 . súi diand Ériu inmall, Sept. 10. manach | asa díthrub dubach `whose hermitage is gloomy,' Prol. 98 (but: S. | ata soilsi slechtae, Sept. 7. Carissim ... | asa rúamdae relic, Ap. 16 ). Where the predicate is a compound phrase the subject is introduced into the middle of it (Strachan, op. cit. p. 49.30), e.g. is irlam ind anim do thuil Dée, Wb. 5c18 . nirbu samlaid són doibsom, Ml. 90c27 . nibo mór a mbríg linn, Wb. 18d10 .

In O.Ir. when the subject of the copula was a personal pronoun it was, as in other verbs, implicit in the verbal form: am irlam, Wb. 13c8 . at fechem dom, 32a21 . combed adultera `so that she should be a.', 3c9 . nirbu choimdiu `he had not been a lord,' 33a5 . bad carthi `let him be loved,' Sg. 148a2 . nítat ainmnidi `they are not nominatives,' 189a10 . amal bemmis bibdaid, Ml. 114d4 . It was frequently strengthened by a pronominal particle suffixed to the pred. not necessarily to express emphasis, nor to distinguish between persons: niba dimicthe-se libsi `I should not be despised by you,' Wb. 21d3 (but: nida apstal apstil `I am not an apostle's apostle,' 18c1 ). massu rath-som, 5a30 . ciasu i colinn am béo-sa, 19a20 . it firian-su, Ml. 55d11 . ammi cland-ni doib-som, 101d9 . ropsa huallach-sa, 49b12 (cf. GOI § 811 ). nimda scál-sa ┐ nimda aurdrach, ZCP xiii 373.11 .

The logical pred. of the copula may be (a) an adjective ; (b) a prepositional phrase; (c) an adverb; (d) a pronoun ; (e) the substantival demonstrative í; (f) the subject of a relative verb; (g) a clause introduced by as n- `that it is' ; (h) a substantive.

At all periods of the language the predicates (a), (b), (c) and (d) immediately followed the copula.

(a) In O.Ir. the general rule was that the predicative adj. agreed with the subj. of the copula in gender and number (see Dillon, op. cit., for development from O.Ir., of which he cites as type: it moírb in boill sin, Wb. 11d11 , to Mod. Ir.: is mór iatt, is saidhbir na tírtha so, Maund. § 138 , §227 ).

(b) amal as o spirut, Wb. 15b7 . ciaba beo bid do precept anme Crist, 23b29 . is occ maid atáa, 6a18 . condib tria n-uile mbethaid ón, Tur. 71. is fria binn aníar atá t'esérge, Thes. ii 242.3 (Ardm.). is airi asbersom ..., Ml. 126c10 . cid tre étged rop othar, Críth G. 61. nochon ara omun cena, TBC-I¹ 2364. gonadh uime sin adeir I.¤ ..., TSh. 4816.

(c) níp and nob irpaid, Wb. 8b2 . hóre is amne atáa, 12d7 . is samlith is comadas dúun ..., Thes. ii 246.3 (Cam.).

(d) mad hé á luum, Wb. 4a14 . bad hé for n-ere `let Him be your burden,' 9d12 . rupu sí a rreilic, 33a22 . is tú is diliu limsa diib, IT iii 83 § 69. ionnus gomadh é féin bud ughdar réna bheathaidh, TSh. 3406.

When the logical predicate of the copula was either (e) the substantival demonstrative í or (f) the antecedent of a relative verb, or (g) a clause introduced by as n- `that it is' a pronoun was introduced immediately after the copula to act as grammatical predicate while the logical predicate stood in apposition to this pronoun.

(e) matu hé ata horpamin indí rochomalnisset recht, Wb. 2c14 . bit hé magistir dongegat indhí asindisset a tola féisne dóib, 30d8 . it hé in toirthi amal sodin inna hí adfiadatar hi testimnib file isint salm anuas, Ml. 46c14 .

(f) is hé didiu in tecttaire maith condaig indocbáil dia thigerni the good envoy is he who seeks his lord's glory, Wb. 8d20 . it hé inimici lessom qui fraudant et qui iniuriam faciunt , 9c25 . it hé gními epscuip asmbeir sís the works of a bishop are the things he mentions below, 28b20 . is he in firfindbathach no in firion atcobra na huile beatusa the truly blessed ... is he who desires all the blessings, Hib. Min. 429.

(g) is ed asberat ind heretic as laigiu deacht maicc indaas deacht athar, Ml. 17c7 . ni ed a met as n-etarcnad dun `not only that it is known to us,' 138a12 . is ed asberat as ndu deacht ... rogabad in salm so, 24d29 . is ed adfet a legend as ndath glas roboi forsind sléib fo chosmailius saphirr, Ml. 84d4 .

(h) With indef. noun as pred.: condib dídnad domsa foirbthetu hirisse dúibsi, Wb. 1b1 . combad notire rod-scribad cosse, 27d16 . mástat carait ... mastat námait, LU 9090 - 1 . níor ghníomh meirbh, DDána 91 § 24.

With def. noun as pred.: in O.Ir. and early Mid. Ir. a definite substantive can immediately follow the copula. Even in O.Ir. however a pronoun is frequently introduced immediately after the copula as grammatical predicate, the logical predicate standing in apposition (cf. (e), (f) and (g) above). This is the normal construction in the later language: ni a doenacht fesine ru-da-n-ordan `not his own Manhood has dignified Him,' Wb. 33c5 . ni in cholinn donatháira acht is a n-accobor, 3d3 . is athir-som innaní techte foirbthetith `he is the father of them that possess perfection,' 2c11 . mad Ānlūan no-beth is'taig, ScM. § 16.8 . is Duid a oenar rochachain inna psalmu, Hib. Min. 134.

With pronoun: bit hé na precepta cétni no pridchob doib, Wb. 17b20 . is hed a trede sin foloing, 29d17 . is hé in peccad rogéni a n-uile comaccobor, 3c25 .

After the introduction of the pronoun, the normal order of the sentence seems to be that in which the predicate follows the pronoun but this order does not appear to be fixed and the predicate may be put at the end either for emphasis or for the better balance of the sentence, e.g. a predicate which is the antecedent of a relative verb is most usually placed after the subject. Predicate and subject can only be distinguished by means of the context and the distinction, it would seem, is by no means as clear-cut in Irish as in other languages.

Predicate immediately following pronoun: ní ceilsom tra as n-é Crist in lie, Wb. 4d16 . issí ind ainim as airlam do chomalnad recto Dé ní in corpp, 3d11 . measaim gurab é an bás, an marcach úd, TSh. 37.

Subject following pronoun: mate nama anfolaid in cele falla frithgnama `if neglect of service was the only disqualification of the tenant,' Laws ii 324.6 . ar is he besad felsub etarcert di dúlib et saigid forru et nebchretem a n-adiadar di crist, Wb. 27a10 . it he caeli la suide ind apstail soscelae, Ml. 42b7 . is ed mind n-aingel Crist mac Dé, LU 944. measaim ... gurab í an chathair úd Ierusalem an domhan, TSh. 708.

In O.Ir. where the subject of the copula was a pronoun of the 1st or 2nd person, it required no other expression with an indef. pred. than that supplied by the 1st or 2nd person of the copula: at macc ríg, Trip.² 970. itib ingena ríg talman, 1138 . am dún díthogail, IT iii 53.26 .

Cf. Mid. Ir.: is descipul ... tu-su, PH 2768. conid mog De thú, 510 . is gadaige thu, 7781 . is clann én athar ┐ én máthar sind, 7501 .

With def. pred. the usage in O.Ir. is not certain (? at lūam in gaiscid grind (but: v.l. at tualaing gaiscid grind), Bruchst. 12 § 20 ). In the saga literature the normal expression is: Setanta ... atomchomnaicse, LU 4892. Rí Alban atomchomnaicse, RC xiii 446 § 31.

Cf. Mid. Ir.: is me Oengus céle Dé, SR 8009. ni thu Issau semnach na slóg | acht is tú int engach Iacób, 2876 . is mesi Ísu mac Dé, PH 3732. misse Marcellinus, comorba Petair, 612 (but cf. Tuan mac Cairill mesi, LU 1219 ).

At all periods of the language the expression of the copula in the 3rd persons was not obligatory at the head of a principal sentence: alind á óiph in forcitil, nemnech immurgu a inne, Wb. 7c1 . faelid-sem ... | os me chene am faelid, Thes. ii 293 § 6 ( SP II ). cride hē, | ... | ōcān ē, Bruchst. 69 § 160. ili insi Mod | ... | liä dāma Domnaill, 9 § 12 . Aed Ailig, inmain lim hé, ACL iii 304 § 1. Andreas ard a ordan, Fél. Feb. 6. glē la cāch immorro ba for teithed luid C. remiseom, TBC-I¹ 1260. móra a molta, Gorm. March 5. Fer Loga mo lennān-sa, ScM. § 20.12 . gnáth tromthóir dhoirbh 'na dheaghaidh, DDána 85 § 30. ionann sin ré a rádh ..., TSh. 2826.

SPECIAL USES.

In periphrasis (see Strachan, op. cit. p. 49): nitat huili robtar uilcc filii Israhel `all f. I. have not been evil,' Wb. 11a23 . is do immarchor chóre dotíagat ind fir so, 5a5 .

Elliptical: demes .i. mess dēde and, ūair it dá scín lais there are two blades ..., Corm. Y 438. is dos didiu isin blīadain tānaisi in fochlac .i. it ceitheora duillne fair, 423 . nī ba comairle aile acht a c[h]rochad, MacCongl. 19.4 .

Manibad were it not for , etc. with follg. accus.: mainbad éicin, Wb. 4a20 . manipad taschidetaid ind metir, Ml. 136c2 . manibad trocairi ndáe, 111b28 . manipad do chrúass, Trip.² 1370. menbad bíth einig F., TBC-LL¹ 1855. Later replaced by subst. vb.: meni beth in clessín ingantach, 2063 . ropsar marba ... | meni beth Find, RC vii 302.183 .

To express an obligation: praind do tomailt la marb hi tig ... is a hurcul `to eat a meal with a dead man in the house is forbidden,' Mon. Tall. 153.4 . ma dorat(d)a forcraid ngill is lóg a enech ... do aisiuc, Críth G. 288. ma ro-achtaigh comain airithi ina setaib, is a beth do, ┐ masa comain do rer dligid roachtaigh, is a beth air `soll es ihm werden ... soll er es bekommen,' Cóic Con. RE § 13.106 .

On sentences of the type ceso femmuin mbolgaig mbung, see Bergin, Ériu xii 197 ff .

Confusion between copula and subst. vb.: gérbho soicenelach hé iar ccolainn ro bai soichenelcha iar menmain, RC xxv 390 § 3 (? or read ro ba). dogniind ... airchisecht dib, mar no-béind athair doib `as though I had been their father,' PH 6107. Frequ. in ACC: boe (bui, bái, boi, v.ll.) sab suithe cech dind .i. ro bo sab daingen no soad cech ndimus, RC xx 168 § 26. boe saegul sneid .i. suail nó bec nó garit a saegul, § 24. boe seim sáth, § 25. boe dind oc libur leigdocht, § 27.

FORMS

(a) from O. Ir. glosses and texts in Thes. Pal. (for further exx. from O. Ir. glosses see Strachan, loc. cit.). (b) from other texts.

In Mid. Ir. the forms of the copula in the 1st and 2nd sg. and in all persons of the pl. fell to a great extent into disuse, their place being taken by the 3rd sg., of the tense required with a pron., corresponding in form to the O.Ir. infixed pron. or to the poss. pron. of the person and number to be expressed, infixed between it and the following predicate. Occasionally the inf. pron. was added to forms other than sg. 3, e.g. nídam for nída (s. 1), atar, atin (pl. 3+ inf. pron. pl. 1) for ammi, bem for be (fut. s. 1). These forms while at first used impersonally as already occurred in O. Ir., e.g. issum ēcen, Wb. 10d24 , isat dílmain-siu, Ml. 55d21 , diandam thísed mucc ḟonaithe robad-am béo, Stories from Táin 5.16 , later came to be felt as simply the copula, as is shown when plural forms are folld. by pl. adjj., e.g. nibar troig, SR 3641 , gurdar síthaig, Hib. Min. 82.23 , acht co mbadar maithe díblínaib, TBC-LL¹ 35 ; and by such instances as: gidar comaltai, ib. 3680 . ropdhar fir chomdeirgide, ib. 3535 . As it is not always possible to discover whether a particular writer regarded this combination of copula + inf. pron. as such or as copula only, all such examples have been grouped together, so that, for instance, all the forms under subj. past s. 1 below should be taken not necessarily as being, to the mind of the writer, that particular form but rather as being his way of expressing what would in O. Ir. be expressed by combin, etc.

Examples of the 1st and 2nd persons are found both in Classical verse and in Early Mod. Ir. prose but the more commonly occurring forms are those of the 3rd sg., number and person being expressed by independent pronouns: is ort iarraim gidh óg thú, DDána 67 § 3. is fearr mé iná thú, IGT Introd. 22 § 90. t'fhearg, a rí, ... | re searg dí bu fhearr inn-ne, DDána 10 § 22. ag an druing ... rénar milis briathra borba, TSh. 1568. do bhríogh nach cumhachtach sinn féin ris aní se, 30 . is beannuighthe sibhse, 5669 . do bhríogh gurbh fheasach thú gurbh amadán mé, 9638 .

Indic. pres.

A. Absolute

s. 1

(a) am: am tualang dano a hétarcerta, Wb. 12d22 . is airi am cimbid-se, 27c22 .

(b) am, im, isam, isim, sam: am senóir ┐ am lobur, Trip.² 2045. am caemsa ... am maccam, TBC-I¹ 583 - 4 . amm eolach, TBC-LL¹ 1750. uair am aithrech, SR 7824. (cf. isam aithrech, 7789 ). im fáilid, Ériu v 224.73 . as me Ulltán ... im fili, im faidh, BNnÉ 257 § 214. From early in Mid. Ir. period the form isam (<is s. 3+ inf. pron. s. 1) occurs, side by side with am. In follg. exx. it must already have been understood as s. 1: uair isam bensa curad caín, LU 8440 (FB). issam ingen ríg, TBFr. 163 = im, ZCP iv 38.11 . asam senoir, CCath. 5495. issim meabrach, Acall. 3115. orsam (=ór isam) heolach, SR 1786. sam crochta gan cionadh réil, Ó Bruad. ii 132.11 .

s. 2

(a) at, it: at fechem dom, Wb. 32a21 . air it firian-su, Ml. 55d11 .

(b) at, it, ot, isat, asat: at meirb, Fél. July 19 . at ferr do lāech indó-sa, ScM. § 16.8 . fobīth ad ōegi, TBC-I¹ 507 (YBL) = dáig ot áegi, LU 4996. it gilla co ngicil, TBC-I¹ 2667. id file, Content. iv 2. isat lac, Bruchst. 30 § 67. isatt áil-siu dam-sa, SCC 739 . isit aneōlach, MacCongl. 122.9 . isat duni dána, TBC-LL¹ 3057. asat tretholl-sa, TBC-I¹ 3632.

s. 3

(a) is, rel. as`: is samlith is comadas dúun, Thes. ii 246.3 (Camb.). is hé céetne fer ceta-ru-chreti, Wb. 7b11 . is ferr ainm do denom de, Sg. 26b5 . is cele dae in fer hisin, Ml. 30c3 . Freq. written iss before vowels: iss uisse, Wb. 22c21 . iss i rráe choir immumruidbed, 23d30 . iss ed inso nád chumaing, Sg. 209b13 . Freq. written together with a follg. initial s, one s falling out: isuáichnid, Wb. 23d30 . isamlaid, Thes. ii 11.40 (Bcr.). rel. brothchán as chóir duib, Wb. 33c15 . as choimtig, Sg. 54b8 .

(b) is(s), as, us, es, rel. as`, is` (it is not clear when lenition ceased to be used after the cop. used relatively. It is less often marked than not in TBC, see Ériu xiv 90 , 93 , 94 ): is túath oirdnither ríi[g], Críth G. 493. is toirthech int inber, Trip.² 370. is gabtha na eich ┐ iss innilti in carpat, MU² 49. is cosmhail Samson ┐ an bás, TSh. 763. iss a miad neich dogniat mancuine, BCrólige § 50. iss messe rorecsabair, SR 3636. i[s] slān in fear, Laws iii 156.5 . isaer ém domrimgartsa, LU 10307. as iat na fir[a] fola no saraigthe, Cóic Con. H § 59. in ti do beir ... as e do ron, Laws iv 32.19 . as do hIddomdaib do, PH 6946. In TSh. `both abs. and rel. are written as in MSS.,' TSh. Introd. xx n. 3 . es dilmain, Anecd. iii 23.5 . es coitcend, ib. 2 . essed dobeir ..., 26.24 . es bec trá ná comráncatar inn a mméur ocus a coss, CMT² 58 § 132 . es de boí inn nem-sin fuirri(r), CMT² 60 § 133 . ar us aire isperar ..., Laws i 264.7 . ar us merle cach n-indligiudh, ii 70.25 . Somet. the vowel of IS is dropped: ┐ síad bhīos ag coimhēad, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1341. rel. as chóir, Mon. Tall. 146.27 . as chórus, Críth G. 223. a n-us tol lat-su, MacCongl. 33.9 . ? With class C inf. pron.: forband ... as-dom moo airli, Echtrae Chonnlai 121 § 6 . After constructions which take rel. n- the predicate of the copula is eclipsed (where the first word of the predicate is unstressed the usage varies): do thaidbsiu as n-iress nóibas, Wb. 19b14 . as ndia side gl. doceo, 13a18 . as n-é tairrchet, 6d6 . as ndirruidigthe a n-animm-sin, Sg. 56b10 . as ndí Assaraib ... rogabad in salm-sa, Ml. 35a10 . asberat as ndu deacht ... rogabad, 24d29 (but cf. adciam ... as ar chenél cruche adrímther ..., Thes. ii 246.25 (Camb.)). amail is n-adētchide in flesc, Corm. Y 606.8 . In Mid. Ir. rel. n- dropped out: uair ... as inann nadúir don duine ┐ ..., PH 7433. amail as diaisneisi in Coimdi, Ériu ii 144 § 159. in tan is indligthech iat, Cóic Con. H § 14. amail as crom craobh fo chnoibh, BS 54.15 . Very early the non-rel. form IS is used for rel. and vice versa, see above: cía dit maccaib is diliu latt ?, Trip.² 1774. mer is laugu, Corm. Y 809. is ed is chonar fugill ann ..., Cóic Con. RE § 24. intí is cosmail do Dia, PH 6266. ní íar chána is ḟairbrígh d'ḟir, IGT Decl. ex. 980.

pl. 1

(a) ammi, ammin, immi: ammi techtiri árt-phersine, Wb. 24d9 . ammi irlaim ... do dul martre, 4b21 . amminn imdibatai-ni ┐ ammin dilachtai, Ml. 83c3 . airmi (leg. airimmi, Ed.) ardu-ni, 23d23 .

(b) ammin, ar, dar, atar, isar, atin: is olc ar mblāth amin gorti, TBC-I¹ 1614. amin mairb, BDD² 330. ar troig ... dot' impartain we are wretched, SR 1482. ar n-idain fiad testaib Dé, 3583 . fortgellam Dia ... dar slana on chinaid-se, 3612 . cid einech rígh rontidnaic | atar dimdaig ..., Hib. Min. p. 82.x . isar scítha énirti, CCath. 2562. `atin budig de' ar an oicc, Anecd. i 5.18 (cf. batin aithrig, Ériu i 68 § 3 ).

pl. 2

(a) adib, idib, adi: adib cland Abrache, Wb. 19c20 . adib oís muntire, 21c4 . adi mmaicc, 9a13 . hóre adi ellachti, 21c17 . ar idib maithi, 16b9 .

(b) itib, at(a)bar, atfor: ár itib ingena ríg, Trip.² 1138. itib lía andú, BDD² 412 (= dáig abtar (leg. atbar) lia andúsa, LU 6870 ). ┐ itib degdoene, LL 281b28 . atabair ecen, LU 8097 (FB). is dásacht a ndognithi-si ┐ atbar dásachtaig fen, LB 212a10 . atabar glana-si, PH 5262. 5264 . apraid fris at for n-aithrig do debaid fris, Cymmr. xiv 118.11 ( Rawl. 132b29 ).

pl. 3

(a) it, at (once only in non-rel. sense), rel. ata`, at, et: it carit domsa, Wb. 5c7 . it dássactig, 12d36 . it coitchena, Sg. 10a1 . air at cuidi tirmaidi sidi, Ml. 123d3 . rel. in mairb ata thestis, Wb. 30a11 . it sib ata chomarpi, 19c20 . do retaib ata chosmaili fri fír, Ml. 51b8 . it hesidi at inbésa, 45d1 . it hé sidi et inbéso, 27a9 . confitetar són ata ndoini, 91c18 .

(b) it, at, isat, isid, rel. ata`, at: at remra na loeg ┐ it buidig na hoegid, Hy. v 25 Comm. it é inso trá gníma bóairech, Críth G. 183. it móra, Trip.² 1291. isat úathe dó ilib, 3096 . it cadlai dí ingein A., Fél. Dec. 9. at bidbaid, IT iii 502 § 10. isat bána, 514 § 7. hit imṡláin, SR 194. at mora, 3625 . id mesa indád demno, Anecd. iii 27.4 . at aena `these are of one day,' Laws i 156.y . at móra glonna Medbi, TBC-I¹ 1668. it cāema, 583 . cf. is mōra na comada' ... `isad mōra,' 2233 - 4 . i n-ifern isid bronaigh, Anecd. iii 55.29 (Síaburcharpat) = at brónaig, LU 9462. at cotarsnai, PH 711. isat lána, 5870 . rel. it é ata érlama, Trip.² 1539. amuis ata chórai, Críth G. 578. dí gérait at glainiu, Fél. May 7. saire ada lugu, Laws v 102.6 . laích ata dech, BDD² 757. adad dech, 1159 . seoit ... ad adhailge daib, Anecd. ii 53.3 . áos ata etromae cinaith `whose sins are lighter,' Mon. Tall. 158.7 . dāine ata maige imarīadam `on whose plains we would drive about,' Otia i 122 § 4.

B. Conjunct.

I Neg.

s. 1

(a) níta`, nída`: nita chumme-se friu-som, Wb. 20c25 . nida apstal apstil, 18c1 . sech níta aidlicen, Ml. 70b7 .

(b) nída`, nídam, nídom, nímda, ním, níam, níom, níum: nída choimsech mu ṡoíre, Trip.² 2976. nida (nidu, v.l.) dīr dermait it is not fitting for me to forget, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 16 § 1. nidha bheo-sa, TBC-LL¹ 6080 (fut. sense). nīdam macc, TBC-I¹ 645 (= nimda, LU 5129 ). nīdom sāitheach, TBC-I¹ 507 (= nimda, LU 4996 ). nīm láech cen lāmach, TBC-I¹ 2260. nidam dermatach, LU 10286. nidam snímach, SR 2382. nim dana, 2069 . nimda scál-sa ┐ nimda aurdrach, ZCP xiii 373.11 . nidom athair do duiniu, viii 561 § 2 . ni dam ben-sa fós do, Caithr. CC § 93. nida Christadi, Irish Texts i 2 § 4 . nidom chuchtach, BS 30.1 . níom tualaing suan, TSh. 2144. ní um claoidhte re a gcionnluas (ní um chl., v.l.), Ó Bruad. ii 138.6 .

s. 2

(a) No occurrence.

(b) nída, nídad, nídat, nít: nida tūalaing mo ergairi, Ériu i 116 § 6. nidad dichumaing, Anecd. i 11.13 . nít marbdae for tercphit, Fél. Sept. 8. nīt mess methchrainn, Bruchst. 17 § 33. nít firlaech-su, TBC-LL¹ 1343. nidat doss ós duss, 3460 . nidat mac-sa, FDG 718.

s. 3

(a) ní (geminates the follg. consonant, e.g. is rad dáe ... ni mmarilliud `(it is) not my merit,' Wb. 21c20 ): ní cuman lim, Wb. 8a3 . ní cuit broto acht is dugrés, Ml. 32c10 .

(b) ní (a form nís occurs once in ACC and may possibly be archaic: hua Airt nís Neill co nert `not with N.'s strength is he,' RC xx 406 § 128 ): ní rí Caisil co rón-ordnea, Trip.² 2302. ní tiamdae tim-som, Fél. Prol. 259. ni cosmail smachta cacha raithe, Laws iv 78.4 . ní segda, LU 1655. ni fír, PH 2715. ní críonna an tí nach tuigeann, DDána 35 § 2. ní hiongnadh an meas soin do bheith ..., TSh. 243. The follg. exx. from TBC show lenition after ní but they may be scribal errors: ní ḟlaith Ulad nod chosna, 2788 . ní ḟurusa, 3050 . In Mod. Ir. ní prefixes h to a fully-stressed word but not to a proclitic: ní ag cnúasach bó am theagh atá, Éigse iii 168 § 9 (and see note). With inf. pron.: nímdil cid dīthrub Temair (glossed: ní hinmain lem T. cid fas), Hy. ii 44. ním-nert acht mac Dé I have no strength but ..., LL 133b8 . nin-fissid frisbered omnu huain `not to us is the Knower who used to avert fears from us,' RC xx 164 § 16 (ACC). nin forcetlaid, ib. § 18.

pl. 1

(a) nítam`, nítan`, nídan`: nitam toirsich (sic leg., Ed.) gl. non angustiamur, Wb. 15b21 (a prima manu). nidan chumachtig for n-irisse, 14c41 . nidan chosmili, 14d37 . ar nitan reprobi-ni, 18b9 .

(b) nidar: nidar n-idain, SR 3626. nidar glain, 1609 .

pl. 2

(a) nítad, nídad (see OIPG p. 66 n. ): nitad lib fésin `ye are not your own', Wb. 9d11 . nidad óegid, 21b14 . 14a8 . ar nídad ferr-si, 8c7 .

(b) nibar, nifor: nibar troig, SR 3641. ni for gliccu ... inda oen na n-ánmanna, 1235 . is tróg niforn-intliuchtach (? leg. -aig), 1238 .

pl. 3

(a) nítat, nítaat, nídat, nít, nis: nitat cosnama domundi, Wb. 7d12 . ar nitaat cosmuli, 9b17 . nídat chummai, Ml. 115b3 . nit derachti, 128d1 .

(b) nídat calaid, Fél. Jan. 17. nít mórdai fria ngudi, March 1. nītad tabartha, TBC-I¹ 2856. nídat námait, LU 8264. nidat glain, SR 7996. nidad tlaithi, 1571 . nidat carpait, MU² 374. nit righ os ro-chathaib, LL 386a18 . nīdat cuibde, MacCongl. 7.16 . In ZCP xx 371 f. , Thurneysen gives the follg. exx. of a 3 pl. form, nis, occurring in Law texts: acht nis cosmailsi comarba[i] `aber Erben sind nicht von Gleichheit,' Laws iii 42.25 . atait tri comurba la Feine, nis comsaer a cuir, 46.18 . nis dilsi acht a tri, ZCP xiii 21.17 . nis cuir bel dilsi, xii 365.1 . nis maithi dam log n-aisi, logh sinsire, log fognama, ib. 8 .

II With dependent negatives:

(a) nád who (or which) is not, that (it) is not (see s.v. 1 nád, 2 nád, 3 nád and Strachan, loc. cit. l. 1007 ff.).

(b) nant, nan that (it) is not (see s.v. nan and Subst. Vb. l. 1011 ff .).

(c) nách that (it) is not (see s.v. 3 nach, 4 nach and Subst. Vb. l. 1018 ff. ). For nícon, noco, nochon, etc., see s.v. nícon.

III With interrog. particle in-:

s. 1

(a) inda: inda apstal `am I an apostle ?,' Wb. 10c20 .

(b) ? anom (=indom) adbar gascedaig, Ériu xiv 89.2175 (= TBC-LL¹ 1186 ).

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) indat: indat creitmech, Trip.² 917. indat ómnach ?, Lat. Lives 90.0 . indot eolac[h], CCath. 2883. indat sochenel, PH 695.

s. 3 For both (a) and (b) the interrog. particle alone is used, i.e. in (later an) :

(a) in cuntubart lib inso, Wb. 3c3 . in ed fodera báas domsa, 3c33 .

(b) inn a síthib in do déib dúib ?, Trip.² 1114. co fessur ... in he [Is]sau no inne Iacob, SR 2884. an beó do thigerna ?, BDD² 1519.

pl. 3

(a) indat: indat mbriathra ? `is it the words ?,' Ml. 44b9 (cf. sechitat n-é (sic MS.), V below).

(b) indat: nocon fetarsa indat ilgnae do-chuirither in folt fair fo indat trí fuilt failet fair, BDD² 1125 - 6 . indat facsi don purt are they near ...?, LU 1873 (ICM). indat pettai sút no indat éoin chena, TBC-LL¹ 1328. Later the interrog. particle without pl. suffix is used also for pl.: co findara in n-iat tanic, PH 440.

IV With neg. interrog.

s. 2 (a) cenita: cenita chumgabtha-siu `art Thou not exalted ?' Ml. 84c3 .

s. 3

(a) cani, cini: cani doich, Wb. 5b35 . cani messe immoforling cretim dúibsi, 10c18 . cani mebuir lib, 20a5 . cini glé lib ..., 12d4 . cini inonn, 18a16 . caní románda .ó., Sg. 49b23 .

(b) cani: Ōengus do guin ... cani ōin do decraib Dē ?, Bruchst. 50 § 110 .

These forms were early replaced by nách q.v. s.v. 5 nach (nách).

Interrogative sentences containing cía, cid who, what (is). etc.

(i) The copula is not expressed after cía but that it is implied is clear from the follg. rel.: cinuid mic n-altrumu, cia forsa tiagat ?, Laws ii 178.3 . cia roblaiss bethaid ┐ na faicfe éc (qui vivit ┐ non videbit mortem), LL 281a32 . cia tir ass as[s]am lat do thabairt dúinne, ZCP viii 318.33 . gá cara don uile as fhearr, A. Ó Dálaigh xv 5. cia in fear sin ?, Anecd. ii 9.22 . cía can duib ?, Trip.² 1113. In gen.: coich úainn hí ? to which of us will it belong ?, 811 . íarfaigset dó ... cúich he, LU 1838. With verbal ending added: cóichet na heich se ?, 8522 (FB).

(ii) cid (see Thurneysen, GOI § 466 ): cid as dénti frisin, Wb. 12d41 . cid as maith, 12d12 . ní tucthar cid frissa-sennar, 12c46 . cid is conair ... is sed is conair ..., Cóic Con. H § 138. cid ara n- why ? : cid ara ndéntar pecthach díim, Wb. 2a10 . cid ara cuinchi-siu sein ?, Thes. ii 307.12 ( Hy. ii Introd. ). cid ara n-eipenar ?, Laws ii 194.2 . cid ara cuirther do trise ina lesa so ?, i 236.9 . cid how ? cid na déccaid uili how do not ye all see, Fél. Prol. 201. cid ēcōru mo beithse and anās ..., TBC-I¹ 2224.

pl. 3 citné (`gekürzt aus ci ata n-é ,' Thurn., ZCP xx 372 ): assindet sunt tra citné cumacte diandid cóir in fognam `what are the powers unto which the service is proper,' Wb. 6a9 . citné briathra robatar `what were the words ?,' Ml. 61b7 . citné robatar `what were they,' ib. 8 . citne a nanmand na soerbard (caidet, v.l.), IT iii 5.8 . ceitni trī seōit fūair C. ?, ZCP xiii 5 § 19. citni rig ... robatar' sind amsir sin ?, SR 2347. The corresponding form in the Laws is cisné: cisne lesa do na ibh sen tascnat treise `what cases of these extend to three days ?,' Laws i 230.21 . cisne tri biada na tuillead leaptha na hapta, v 438.14 . cisne trí ana soitcedach `what are the three wealths ...,' Triads 239. Sometimes cis immediately precedes the noun : cis formmenn écndaircc doslíat dílsi ?, ZCP xii 366.25 . cis ndíthle do trebaib na tuillet dire ?, 26 . cis forcsen fola la Fēne ?, BCrólige § 65. cis lir how many: cis lir congellait for tresi, Laws i 230.3 . cis lir lanamna docuisin la feine ?, ii 344.1 . cis lir chuir dochuisin ?, iii 4.5 . cis lir fodlai filet forsin mbairdne ?, IT iii 6.13 . cf. cit lir fodlai ..., ib. 20 .

V With various conjunctions.

(i) cía, cé, ci although, that.

s. 1

(a) No instance.

(b) ciam, cidam : ciam toebnocht, SR 1540. cid am laech-sa, TBC-LL¹ 1677. misi gedam foidhidech, ZCP xii 393 § 10. gidh im c[h]rochbán-sa, BS 138.y . giodh am midhiongmhala, Parrth. Anma 333.18 .

s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) cíasa, cidat : cíasa lobur, no rega, Trip.² 1282. cidat fír-Dhia ... ro-gabais colaind ndoenda, PH 163.

s. 3

(a) césu, céso, cíasu, cíaso, cíasa : cesu threde in tummud, Wb. 21d13 . ciaso ḟolud ... sluindes, Sg. 211b7 .

(b) césu, céso, cíasa, cid, gid : césu réid ar lebrán, Fél. Ep. 133. ciasa (ceso, v.l.) femmain [m]bolgaigh [m]bung (see Ériu xii 197 ), Corm. Y 1059.64 . ciasa díthrub, Metr. Dinds. iv 42.2 . ciodh olc an bás nádúrtha, TSh. 987. gidh ionann atá ..., 2900 .

pl. 1

(a) No instance.

(b) cíammin, gidar : cíammin bí, BDD² 329. gidar comaltai, TBC-LL¹ 3680

pl. 2

(a) cenuded', cenotad' : cenuded issidi (=ḟissidi) `although ye are knowing,' Thes. i 713.25 (Tur. Cod.). cenotad maic-si raith, Wb. 33b8 . cenutad suíre, 4a10 .

pl. 3

(a) cetu', ceto' : cetu chummascthai, Sg. 62a2 . ceto écintecha, 203b10 .

(b) ciato', cetu', ciat, cidat : ciato chomṡruithi, Críth G. 493. cetu cummai a feba, Bruchst. 39 § 94. cíat ísliu fíad dáinib ... bit áird, Fél. Prol. 153. cidhat (cit, v.l.) ili fuile, Corm. Y 975.39 . srotha in dithruib ... ciat serba slassa, SR 4071. cidat mora, 446 . cidad mōra, TBC-I¹ 2235. ceat olca, ZCP vii 269 § 17. Ériu ii 122 § 63.

cía + neg. s. 3

(a) cinid, cenid : cinidlúith (=cinid dlúith) lib, Wb. 12b9 . cinith mút, Sg. 5b4 . cenid ed, Ml. 85b11 .

(b) cenid, cini : cenid mé in murgelt, LU 3022 (H). cini di sīl Chuind dóu, ZCP xiii 375.10 .

(ii) má (ma) s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) masat (masae, v.l.) : masat mac Dé, PH 4708. masad acuraig, CCellaig 449 . masat eólach, ZCP xiii 3 § 5. másat (masae, v.l.) geilt, BS 100.13 .

s. 3

(a) masu', maso', masa' (see Thurneysen, KZ xlviii 60f .) : masu chundubart, Wb. 4d28 . masa choimdiu, Ml. 108c16 .

(b) masu', masa', mas' : see s.v. 3 má (ma). Add : masu ar oítid, Trip.² 1483. mása thol, 584 . a Ḟir diad masa thú, TBC-LL¹ 3659. massa anfisac, Laws iv 36.25 Comm. mas da fis, 22 Comm. mas é Dubthach, TBC-LL¹ 2780. masad (massa, v.l.) ḟír, Mór M. 266.15 . mása thoil leat, TSh. 8093. más é is críoch, 1366 .

pl. 3

(a) matu : matu hé ata horpamin, Wb. 2c14 .

(b) masat, mástat : masat elti, MU² 399. mástat carait ... mastat námait, LU 9091 (FB).

ma + neg. s. 3

(a) manid : manid fír, Wb. 13b14 . 17b32 . Ml. 21a11 .

(b) manid, minad, minid, munid, minap, munab : manid caindleóracht, LU 9196 (FB). minad hé, BDD² 1287. minid hé, 917 . mani daig, 593 . munab follus, TSh. 5164. See s.v. 3 má (ma) and TSh. Introd. xxi n. 3 . The form béso, bésu is used as a subjunctive (for its origin see Thurn., KZ xlviii 60.f .) : bésu dagduine cini estar túari `he may be a good man,' Wb. 6b23 , 24 . massu ed béso mó a fius dúibsi, 19b11 .

(iii) co n- so that.

s. 1

(a) conda : is rad dée immum-forling conda apstal, Wb. 13b6 . conda marb, 19a17 . 17c10 .

(b) conda, conam, conadam, conidam : domāncatar-sa uile | conda eōlach a n-achne, Otia i 127 § 29. conam torsech co haithbe, 128 § 33. rom ebail Sencha ... conidam trén, LU 10285. 10304 . conad am lista liumm fadén ┐ nach am inmain frisnach āen, MacCongl. 95.4 .

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) condat adbartnaigthi-siu, PH 1795.

s. 3

(a) condid, conid : condid flaith do in coimdiu, Wb. 9d2 . tremiberar ... conid ainm dun chrunn, 8a5 . condid di thetacht in spírto ... profetauit , Thes. i 496.26 (Ardm.). conid e epscop insin cita-ruoirtned, ii 241.15 (ib.). conid femen, Sg. 123b2 . condid étrummu, Ml. 90a11 . connid ed, 91a19 .

(b) condid, conid, conad, cunad, etc.: condid ann, AU i 434.22 (A.D. 916) . Hib. Min. 25. conid eiter a lamaib ..., Mon. Tall. 153.12 . conid edh, AU i 538.6 (A.D. 1015) . conid soillsi, Corm. Y 426. LU 10931. 10306 . PH 2245. 720 . conad dēach ainm gach sillaibe, Corm. Y 500. PH 1371. 6132 . Laws iv 18.2 Comm. cunad fír, MU² 284. cunid soillsithir, 554 . condad leis Aidhne, Ériu i 46.32 . conodh i, Ériu iii 141.206 . conud e, RC vi 184.19 . gonid lór, ACL iii 306 § 1 . gonadh aire sin ..., Ó Héodhusa 51.1. TSh. 1824. 5960 . conid was replaced by gurab (gur), gura originally a subjunctive form : corop Tuigi im Thamon and sain, LL ii 9911 . gorop de atá Cruachna Áe, ii 12397 . innister curab pecthaig ..., RC xxiv 378.17 . gurab droch-duine ..., PH 7682. corub iat, 445 corab í so, 7334 . gurb i luaithreadh ..., TSh. 300. gur bréagach a bhreathnughadh, 395 . gurab é an bás, 37 . gurab tearc, 94 . er co ra mian leisin nádúir maith do dénum, PH 7394. gur tú mo Chruthaightheoir, Donlevy 406.5 . gur ionmholta, 132.10 . do-fedar gura tú C., ZCP viii 546.26 . Cf. also : casmail lem gom (=co mba) e in mac beg, 538.15 .

pl. 1

(a) condan : hóre ronsóirni ... condan fírianichthi, Wb. 2d14 . immunrordad condan maicc togu non naturae , 20d10 .

(b) No instances.

pl. 3

(a) condat : condat anman som, Sg. 188b3 . condat reli inna aicsin hisin, Ml. 51d15 .

(b) condat, condot, cundat : condat e tri decmainge in domain a d[t]indtud, Laws v 426.3 . condat cora, SR 296. SCC 320 . PH 736. cundat marthanaig, MU² 310. gondat Ulaid, TBC-LL¹ 704.

(iv) With cen co (not found in Glosses) :

(b) s. 1 gon com (gen gob, v.l.) maith-se oc immarbáig, TBC-LL¹ 3219.

s. 3 gion go glan mo sgáth, DDána 24 § 30. gion gur caomh a dhreach, 91 § 6.

(v) With no :

s. 1

(a) nonda', nunda' : amal nonda thorisse `as I am trustworthy,' Wb. 10a28 . a nunda thinnachtae-se, Ml. 126d12 .

s. 2

(a) nonda', nunda' : lassaní nonda brithem `when Thou art judge,' Ml. 92a15 . a nnunda chocuibsid-siu, 58b6 . 38c27 .

pl. 1

(a) nundem, nundan : oire nundem membur uili du Dea, Thes. ii 246.5 (Camb.). á nnundan deeth ní, Ml. 120b3 .

pl. 2

(a) nondad : amal nondad maicc cóima, Wb. 27b16 .

(b) These forms did not survive O. Ir.

(vi) After the co-ordinating conjunctions sech and noch the absolute form is used. See under 2 sech and 1 noch. sechi whoever, whatever probably contains cop. s. 3 : sechi é cretes `whosoever believes,' Wb. 15b1 . sechi hed bás són `whatsoever death ...,' 13c1 . sechi dú nu-t-soe-siu, Ml. 112b6 .

pl. 3 sechitat hé ` whoever they are ,' 49a19 . sechitat hé (né, MS.) ` whatsoever ,' Thes. ii 25.38 (Bcr.). (Cf. indat mbriathra, III above).

VI With various prepositions in relative clauses.

(i) i n- (in many exx. has the force of a conjunction, see Ériu i 12 ) :

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) inda : cid at-chí dúnd, inda fisid `since thou art ...,' BDD² 545.

s. 3

(a) indid, innid : cia airm indid immaircide do epert amén, Wb. 12d18 . ind labrada innid eula nech, Ml. 42c4 . indid mailliu a tuile `by which the flood is slower,' Thes. ii 14.35 (Bcr.). 20.41 (ib.).

(b) indid, inid, inad, ina: indid Niall ... ro malart since it is N. ..., AU i 438.26 (A.D. 918). indid Alend is dún fás, Hail Brigit § 14. inid mo athair ... ortabairsi, BDD² 737. Bruchst. 47 § 105.3 . inad gilla óc ... tarfás dúnn, BDD² 161. PH 5029. do Maig Mell inid rí Boadag, LU 10004. aít init sruithiu dliged oldas naidm, ZCP xiii 23.1 . inad ina fairsingi in cathuir, Maund. § 75. eccla ifirn ... 'na minic fóidh guil, ACL iii 216.17 . Forms originally perf. and subj. came to be used as pres. indic. : sé céimeanna 'nar cosmhail ré chéile iad, TSh. 1231. ní fhuil ainm oile ... ionarb (ionab, v.l.) éigean sinne do shlánughadh, 2088 . neg. traigle i nach ūathad uidre, Bruchst. § 88. teagh is nach uathadh urra, DDána 119 § 23.

pl. 3

(a) indat : indat iudei itirroscar[sat] fri hiris n-abarche since they are Jews, Wb. 5b34 . cid ind aimser indat sláin ennaic som, Ml. 76a6 .

(b) in am indat slána, TBC-LL¹ 952. inat ṡlana, 1386 .

(ii) día n- :

s. 1

(a) No instances.

(b) díanda, díanam : Chríst dianda chéle `whose servant I am,' Fél. Ep. 307. an rí díanam gilla, ZCP v 497 § 12.

s. 2

(a) No instances.

(b) díandat : cia díandat céliusiu ?, TBC-I¹ 1382.

s. 3

(a) díant, díandid, dían : intí diant ainm discessio, Wb. 26a5 . in rét diant torbach ..., Ml. 121d1 . dian-did nomen hiber, Sg. 100b1 . in son diandid tintud ..., Ml. 37a10 . dian duthoig Liphe, Thes. ii 295 § 4 ( SP v ). neg. di nach follus (=dunach, Edd.), Thes. ii 8.35 (Acr.).

(b) díand, díanid, díanad, dían, díanda, dían(d)at, dána, dán, etc.: dianid opair oen laithi, AU i 342.22 (A.D. 839) . Corm. Y 825.2 . fer dianid comainm Labán, SR 2944. diand sanctlethan slondad, Fél. June 12 . April 22 . indī dianda coimmēid, Corm. Y 269. 892 . dianad ainm clí, 275 . PH 5180. 5494 . mí diandat (diando, MS., dianid, v.l.) ainm Marsiius, Corm. Y 892. cid dianat maith ind uair si ?, Hib. Min. p. 50.6 . Cū dīan comainm Culand, TBC-I¹ 2263. dianaid rī, 560 . dian serb cach sruith, ZCP vi 267 § 2. cia dana céile thusa ?, viii 545.2 . Ériu ii 229.19 . drem dīb dan eōl, ZCP viii 216 § 78. Laws iv 60.12 . ACL iii 237 § 15. na nathrach neimhe danadh ainm tyrus , TSh. 8973. Pres. subj. and perf. forms used as pres. indic. : darab ceann sgríbe an chríoch dhéidheanach, TSh. 725. cia d'ar ceart, Donlevy 106.7 . neg. airchindech do nach diur adhultrus, Laws i 58.22 Comm. do neoch do nar bo chotlud, TBC-LL¹ 2962. cia dánach feasach ... ?, TSh. 6401.

pl. 3

(a) neg. : donnatdet adblama inna esiu (leg. inna hísiu, Edd.) `to whom these things are not ready,' Thes. i 713.23 (Tur. Cod.).

(b) díanat, díandat : amail rondeiligthe sinethae dianat anmanna dela, Corm. Y 431. Metr. Dinds. iii 312.116 . bó ... díandat slána a secht mbliadna, LU 8122.

(iii) ara n- :

(a) arndid : cid arndid ísliu aesce quam sol , Thes. ii 22.41 (Bcr.). in di accuis ... arndid coitchen ..., Sg. 200a13 .

(b) ara n- : is ed sin ara n-amra `arcu fuin' `for which a.f. is admirable,' ZCP vii 312 § 26.

(iv) ó n- :

(a) óndid, ónid : in sians ondid accobor limsa ícc cáich, Wb. 12d23 . honid techtae molad Dáe, Ml. 51c2 .

(b) ón, óna, ónab : díles Néill ón cunnail cell, Ériu iv 92 § 1. toirt[h]igi in lā | ōnab lēir feadha, ACL iii 235 § 21. gním óna mó ar dtachrádh, IGT Decl. ex. 412.

(v) frissa n- :

(a) frisin : dochum cétnidetad frisin cosmil `to which it is like,' Sg. 188a13 .

(b) frisnid, ren, rena, renab, renar : inmain samail frisnid cosmail a n-adchīusa, TBC-I¹ 2875. nech risnid [andsa], LU 4004. drem ren dothroide ar ndeabhaidh, IGT Decl. ex. 1167. is dona neithibh renab usa truailled do gabail cuigi, in baindi, Rosa Angl. 112.8 . dream ... réna deacair, TSh. 4665. ag an druing ... rénar milis, 1568 . 711 .

pl. 3

(a) No instance.

(b) frisndat : inna ferta sa ... cía beith nech risndat móra araide isat úathe dó ilib, Trip.² 3096.

(vi) lasa n- :

(a) lasin : intí lasin format, Ml. 129b3 . lasin n-accubur, 53c16 .

(b) lasnad, lenab : intí lasnád ecul `who fears,' PH 2411. lasnad ail, 1421 . cibé lénab mór a n-abraim, Keat. i 76.44 .

(vii) oca n- :

(a) No instance.

(b) ri ind lochta hicnad suithi a n-ord, RC xx 174 § 38 (ACC). co flaith Dúrlais, 'cán mór mé, Hy Fiach. 284.5 . sdéd gan dóigh urraim na n-eillteadh, IGT Decl. ex. 1177 = gán, 662 .

(viii) fa n- (O. Ir. imm) :

(a) No instance.

(b) fán, fána : a cCionn Coradh fan léir magh, ZCP viii 225 § 42. fáth fána doilghe ... an bás, TSh. 1132.

(ix) asa n- :

(a) No instance.

(b) asarb : briathra asarb iontuigthe ..., TSh. 5664.

(x) forsa n-, fora n- :

(a) No instance.

(b) forab : o sheircc in domain-sea forab airchindech diabul, PH 7118.

Cons. Pres.

s. 3

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) bid : bid coitchenn dliges cach ngrád ... i córus othrusa, Críth G. 50. bés bid cethrar nó chóicer bíte hi comarbus bóairech, 146 .

Conj.

(a) -bi, -pi : nipi cían a masse in choirp, Wb. 28c25 . 12c12 . air nibi eulach, Ml. 42c9 . 128d3 . níbí cian, 91d2 . combi remib rethith iarum, Wb. 13b13 . indhí lasmbi accobur, 30c23 . imbí hinun folud whether the substance is the same, Sg. 188a6 .

(b) -bi, -pi : nī bī clōen in t-ere, Corm. Y 447.16 . ni bi briugu nad bi cedach, Laws v 76.10 . i ngait nádbi aí `which is not his,' Críth G. 218. ben las(a)mbi cuma cip cia las fia, BCrólige § 44. is bec a ain iphthi compí sāitheach, ZCP vi 257.y . i tig as mbi eggna suillsi, BDD² 175. dīa mbī dīn Cūan Caill, Four Songs 20 § 4 . pl. 1 (a) ? isin chruth-sin bimmi nóib-ni 'it is thus that we become holy' Wb. 3 d 27 , ZCP xxxii 120 .

pl. 3

(a) No instance.

(b) bit : imscarad dotluigigter flaith fri aigillni na bit anfolaid in ceili gaibter ann `a separation which the chief requests from the tenant not on account of any disqualification of the tenant,' Laws ii 316.z .

Ipv.

s. 2

Abs.

(a) ba' : ba chuimnech dilguda duinni, Ml. 46b29 .

(b) ba, bat : ba faitech ar nā ba fīachach, Anecd. iii 13.10 = bat fattech, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 14 § 3.1 . bát umal ... bat cumnech, LU 3490 - 1 . bat cúimnech, PH 1208.

Conj.

(a) -ba', pa' : naba thoirsech, Wb. 29d19 . napa chondarcell, 31c22 .

(b) -ba, -bad, -b(a)dat, -rbat, -rab, -rsat : nā ba lonn frim, TBC-I¹ 1210. nad bad lond-so, TBC-LL¹ 1045. na badat, 1106 . nabdat dolam, SR 1253. narbat (marab, narab, v.ll.) timtheirc tais, KMMisc. 262 § 9. nárbhat dian, Acall. 587. nárbat bronach-su, FDG 397.

s. 3

Abs.

(a) bad', bed', pad' : bad chore dúib friu `have peace towards them,' Wb. 27d11 . bed chuimnech, 33d5 . pad glicc far n-intliucht, 5c21 .

(b) bad, ba : arān Mochue ... ba hé dobertar dúin, Mon. Tall. 128.25 . bad and sein not adnastar, Trip.² 2991. bat (bá, v.l.) tusu bas ara, 2580 . bad (bud, bidh, bu, v.ll.) sonairt ar n-airle, Fél. Prol. 261. bad uallach, ScM. § 4.11 . ba (bá, LU) maith blāth in claideb, TBC-I¹ 934. bá[d] sí riar Aengusa, Ériu xii 146.2 (Tochm. Ét.). nech atcobra bithbethaid ... bat umhal, ZCP vii 312 § 23. With inf. pron. s. 2 : badat cuman remember, Rawl. 72b39 .

Conj.

(a) -bad' : nábad chotarsne fri bar n-ícc a nno-gessid, Wb. 24b3 . nabad do réir far colno beithe, 6b4 .

(b) -bad, -bud, -pa : ná bad ead do-gneth, BDD² 411. nábad olc do menma, LU 3271. na pa machtad amh libsi, Mon. Tall. 157.20 . nā bud sgēlach, ZCP vii 311 § 9.

pl. 1

(a) ban', baán' : ban chossmaili friar tuissech, Wb. 33b20 . 29b17 . baán tairismich do irnigdi, 5d22 .

(b) No instance.

pl. 2

Abs.

(a) bad', bed' : bad chensi fri cách, Wb. 24b1 . bad treúin i n-iriss, 27a6 . bed adthramli .i. gaibid comarbus for n-athar, 9a14 .

(b) No instance.

Conj.

(a) -bad' : nabad anfoirbthi-si, Wb. 12d26 .

(b) ? nadib leisc, SR 7843. narbar dúrcridig, 4842 .

pl. 3

Abs.

(a) bat' : bat chosmuli frinni `let them be like unto us,' Wb. 17c5 .

(b) bat, bad : bat menci do dalai, Ériu viii 173.8 . bad sgrībt[h]a a sgēla, ZCP viii 110 § 10.

Conj.

(a) -bat : bad armatura dei bess lib nábat nacha arm aili, Wb. 22d14 .

(b) No instance.

Impf.

s. 3

(a) No instance.

(b) bíth : nicon ibdis bandai cormmai i tír Cualand, cia bith ara tecmainged dóib `whoever it used to be that they used to meet,' Mon. Tall. 129.19 (tr. Bergin, Ériu xii 209 , q.v.).

pl. 3 (see Bergin, Ériu xii 225 f. ).

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) batis : a trian rocharsa[t] Coin Culainn batís [d]aill ... batis clóin ... batis guit, RC viii 60.15 ( LL 117a7 - 10 ). ? batis gnatha ar buadhuiph band, Anecd. ii 70.8 .

Conj.

(a) No instance.

(b) -btis : imrethitis a da thraigid ┐ a n-adbrond comtís luathidir ruathar funemda, Ériu iv 30.2 . comtis scítha, Snedg. u. Mac R § 27. dabertis T.D.D. lubi ... for aibnib ... comtís brecca ... na srotha díb, TBC-LL¹ 4213. comdis fliuch iad do deraib, TTebe 3711 . comtis, 2884 . nībtis omain neich `they used not to fear any man,' ZCP iii 38.25 (tr. Ériu xii 225 ).

Subj. Pres.

s. 1

(a) -ba : ciaba deróil la nech, Wb. 18a7 . 23b29 . niba dimicthe-se libsi `I should not be despised by you,' 21d3 . mainba aecne lib, 17c10 .

(b) -ba, -pa, ropom (ropa, v.l.), -rbom, -rbam, -rba, -bam ; with ma, madam : ni reg-sa assin chruachán-sa co mba marb, Trip.² 1294. nipá pene na régi, Mon. Tall. 131.17 . riasiu ba marb-sa, ZCP i 105.25 . acht ropom (ropa, LU) airdricsa, TBC-I¹ 571. im-caemros[s]a do gaethaib corbom gaeth fo-deisin, BDD² 167. díamsa saithech bíd when once I am satisfied, LU 8469 (FB). nírba cintach `may I not be guilty,' Ériu vi 116 § 3. dīa mba bēo-sa, KMMisc. 208.y . corbam cruithnecht it' it[h]lainn, Ériu iii 31 § 24. narbam crimnach, SR 3202. nīrbam utmall anbsaid, a meic mo Dé, ZCP vi 260 § 10. madham buidech-sae, CCath. 4210. madam beō-sa do-gēba luach a taisgedha ... minbam beō imorra ..., ML² 1495.

s. 2

(a) -ba' : armba cháinchomraccach-so, Wb. 30b23 . cia ba loingthech, 6c9 . ciafa firián, Ml. 36a32 . comba soilse-siu, Wb. 22c3 . Ml. 54b19 .

(b) bat, -ba, -pa, -bat, -pat, -rba(t), -rbot, -(b)sa(t) : with cía, cidat ; with ma, madat : ni ba dicheoil, SR 2197. nipa frithenech, LU 3495. ní pa, Ériu i 198 § 16a . nibát athboingid ar narbat aithrech, LU 3502. nibat comromach ar nábat miscnech, 3503 . nirbat díscir ... nibbát ecal ... nipát tairne ..., 3467 - 9 . ba hēmich corbad sercach, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 14 § 3.3 . bat umal corbot ūasal, ib. § 3.7 . nírba chreccach, Ériu i 200 § 22. nirba truag, SR 3295. doroimle corbat cétach, ..., LU 8796 (FB). atraí coropat mor, 3533 . céin bat béo, 3919 . nirbat ancretmech ... acht corbat cretmech, PH 6776. diamba breiteam arafeser ... `if thou be a judge, thou shouldst know,' BCrólige § 66. diambat rolabar, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 18 § 7.16 . ZCP vii 298.17 . diamsa coemainech, IT i 70.2 . diamsat fissid, iii 488.352 . BS 86.25 . nírsat bidbha oirechta, Acall. 597. 598 . toich duit cidat rī, toich duit cidat druī (to a child), PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 546 § 3 ( LL 147a ). cidat lond im gním garta, IT iii 508 § 1. madat fīrēn flaith `if you be a just prince,' KMMisc. 262 § 15. madhid trēn, ML² 1437.

s. 3

I Forms without ro-.

(i) Abs. The form ba appears to be used only as jussive subj. :

(a) ? bá tualang cách forcital alaili `let each be fit ...,' Wb. 6d13 ; ba samlid dúib `be ye thus,' 19d29 , but in both instances the editors would read bad for ba.

(b) do Chríst ba mór do gaire, Ériu i 200 § 22. ba i n-ómun ba i n-incridiu | gudem Críst let it be in fear ..., 195 § 10 (but ? cf. 1 fa).

Conj. (ii)

(a)bé (see Bergin, Ériu xii 208 ff .) : cia bé a mmēt adae `however great it may be,' Ml. 61b28 . cip hé ade asberam, 25d11 .

(b) cip hé gellus dít, Trip.² 1626. cibbe noda saraigfed, 789 . cipe a isle, ciape a huaisle, Laws v 386.15 . secht tellaige ... nad erenaiter cidbe indola, 206.2 . cidbe fine dib dibus, Cóic Con. H § 69. cebé baile no beth, LU 365. cipé tí, TBC-LL¹ 1768. cipia frisa ferthar tnú, Ériu v 211.69 . gidh bé haird iona dtuitfidh, TSh. 3985.

(iii) -bo occurs in the Glosses seeming sometimes to be the jussive subj. (neg.) and once after in whether , but these exx. may perhaps be pret. (but see (iv) below) :

(a) ní bo comitesti (rectius chomitesti, Ed.) dó `he should not be indulged,' Wb. 1c12 . nibo intain no mbeid ar súil tantum `it must not be when ye are before (His) eye,' 27c9 . rofitir side imbo ho chridiu fa nacc, 27c11 .

(b) No instance.

(iv)

-p, -b :

(a) níp tarisse lat `trust him not,' Wb. 30d24 . nip sain a n-asberat et immarádat, 28c1 . nip crú cruach, Thes. ii 250.11 (Stowe M.). arnáp hé som ..., Wb. 6c7 . ar nab laigiu, Sg. 179b1 . imb anacol dom fa nac, Wb. 23a6 . immaid (=imb m.) fa olcc, 8d26 . im fochróib bá chían, Sg. 151b2 . sechip hé ... `whosoever it be,' Wb. 3b15 . sechib grád i mbether and, 10a18 . cip cruth bíid páx libsi fri cách `howsoever it be,' 5d33 . cib cenél tra dia ro scribad ind epistil so, 3b20 . mainip in chrud-so, 10a5 . manip hinunn etargnae, Sg. 188a12 . Ml. 14d10 . cenib fír, 24d22 . cenip ho étrummugud inna n-olc, 59a23 . cinip hond sémigdetu, 59a23 .

(b) -p, -b, -pe, -be, later -ba, -bo ; with día, díam : acht nip inbleoguin, Laws ii 98.17 . bés níp aill do dáinib, Fél. Ep. 417. níp anchobrai, LU 9663. bes nipe nessu éc do suidiu oldás daitsiu, 9210 . mad ben urnadma na be cetmunnter, Laws ii 380.25 . ar n[a] himirbera neach na be hai, v 476.z . diam dlaí di chi[u]nn adairt, Críth G. 229. BCrólige § 38. diam chuibse cataid `to whom veneration is due,' Laws i 10.24 . mairg ... diam cara Colco, Anecd. i 7.11 . cach fuil druith dinnap inna ramot techtai torai, BCrólige § 64. cid nabsin (? = nab sí in) Fedelm-sa ... cichsed, LU 8296. nabbsin, 8318 . air nā ba (v.l. arnab) sothuissledhach, Corm. Y 434. arnapa dimicnithi, Trip.² 2048. sechib dán di[i]b, Críth G. 323. sicip hé dígbas ..., Trip.² 751. secip blas bá mellach, LU 1787. PH 1428. mad iar stair cip indus, Trip.² 33. BDD² 655. cip magen inda tecmai `in whatever place,' BCrólige § 40. cidh be manach doda-goad ┐ cib can a cinel whencesoever, Anecd. i 44.8 . cecip ní foillsighfithir daitt ` whatever ,' Aisl. Tond. 96.9 is fīach dia blīadnai dō īar sin d(h)inap (sic leg.) turbuith deithbire dothnairp dia nephthairiuc 'it becomes for him a debt [payable only] in a year’s time unless a legitimate excuse excuses him for his non-appearance' Bürgschaft 17 § 53 , Ériu xx 230 . dinnap ina ramot techtai torai 'unless it has accrued in a lawful way (?) ' Ériu xii 52 § 64 , xx 230 . manip do Chonchobor, ScM. § 3.16 . PH 2080. manib tualaing, Anecd. iii 23.12 . maniba t'ainmnet ..., Trip.² 859. manab ac oen flaith beit, Laws iv 42.29 Comm. munab neasa, 44.4 . DDána 76 § 24. munob cunntabartac[h], BCrólige § 14 n. 1 . munup, Laws iv 26.13 . menip, SR 3597. Cóic Con. RE § 23. minub, BCrólige § 23. FDG 389. minap, TBC-I¹ 795. PH 1542. minab, 6035 . munbo cairnech in craidhe, ZCP vi 268.12 . munba, ib. 11 . IGT Decl. ex. 352. cinip mór do bríg, Trip.² 1888. LU 1435 (MU).

The form arimp in the Glosses always has a final sense except the doubtful ex. in Ml. 130b8 (see below). The ex. from Críth Gabl. is also final, the others all express an indirect command or wish (cf. airndip, see (v) below) :

(a) arimp áigthidiu-de `that it may be the more dreaded,' Wb. 23d23 . 32a2 . 15c4 . arimp díthnad ... dúibsi foditiu fochide dúnni, 14b17 . arim tairismech, 25a9 . ised as maith la dia airimp (? leg. airndip) isin gess ... `this God would have ...,' Ml. 130b8 .

(b) arim túalang gabála[e] ríg, Críth G. 187. cach ōen comaldathar in cāin si ... arim sírsaegul ... ┐ arop airmitnech fēith, Cáin Ad. § 30. abbair fri Feradach, arim remḟissid arad sencharpait `er solle ein vorauswissender Lenker des alten Wagens sein,' ZCP xi 83 § 27. nach oirecht ... árim (corob, v.l.) cáin domnaig cétadéntar ann, Ériu ii 210 § 33. The usual way of expressing a wish or exhortation is rop (see section II below), but cf.: adair ... do Dia ┐ co mbá dó a aenur fhogna, PH 4724. searc Íosa ... go mba hé th'arm DDána 20 § 7. goma, 93 § 37 . in cū ruad ... coma taīseach cāemc[h]uaine, CCellaig 463 . With cen co : cen cop foccus a gcairdiss, Anecd. ii 62.2 . MacCongl. 39.27 . PH 3100. cin cob aire doronsat, 3237 .

(v)

(a) -dip, -dib : condip slán á anim, Wb. 9b9 . condib cumme, 24a22 . is tacair arndip samlid it is meet that it be thus, 22c11 . airndip maith a forcell `that the testimony may be good,' 25d21 . airndib ecmailt, Tur. 71 (airndip may have either final or consecutive sense, see note on arimp in (iv) above). duús indip fochunn ícce do, Wb. 26b27 . dús cia port indib maith, 24 .

(vi) With ma (má),

(a) mad : mad cumme imned á cheli et a imned fessin, Wb. 20c6 . 12a23 . 4a14 . mad cétnide a n-animm, Sg. 197a2 . 3b19 . mad du rúin `according to the mystic meaning,' Tur. 103.

(b) mad, mád : mad a dligiud ḟénechso (Corr., Ed.) is menbu, Críth G. 11. mad nóeb arid-léga, Fél. Ep. 178. Corm. Y 1233. mad na mna `if it belong to the woman,' Laws ii 402.1 . mádh táesca dhuit iná dham, Anecd. i 32 § 54. mád, LU 9216. madh peacthach é, TSh. 4315.

(vii)

With cía although, that ,

(a) cith, cid : deithbeir do ceith aneola, Wb. 33c16 . cith etarṡuidigthe, Sg. 68b4 . Mon. Tall. 159.2 . cid accobrach, Wb. 4c34 . cid doib doarrchet `though they were prophesied unto,' 5a16 (here the sense appears to be indic., see GOI § 793 ). cid comsuidigthe, Sg. 201a10 . Ml. 2d12 .

(b) cid, gid: cid ē marad tarm ēisi, Corm. Y 180. cid diabal fod foirge, Laws iv 18.19 . cid sain na conairi (pl. subject). Cóic Con. H. § 43. gid rogāeth nī rogand, TBC-I¹ 2596.

cid ed nevertheless: (b) cid ed nī rochotail, TBC-I¹ 2512. gidh eadh ní híad as andsa, KMMisc. 352 § 6.

cid ... cid, cid ... nó whether (it be) ... or ...:

(a) ma gorith locc cith ine chuis nú ine láim, Thes. ii 245.36 (Camb.). cid maid cid olcc la nech, Wb. 30d6 . cach réit cid precept cid labrad, 13a29 . Sg. 2a7 . Ml. 26a8 . cid ho deacht maicc nó ho deacht athar arafoima doinacht maicc aní arroet, 17c3 .

(b) cid cóem cid díchóem, Críth G. 225. Corm. Y 1167. SCC 679 .

cid cia whoever it be: am chind cid cia raib, KMMisc. 254 § 4.

cid though it be has also the sense even , in which sense its verbal content must early have been forgotten so that it may be folld. by plural noun or pronoun, and by a dependent vb. in indic. instead of subj.:

(a) cithisse `it is even he,' Wb. 22a7 (a prima manu). corrici cith besti béoa, Thes. i 4.31 . ceith cenmathá in tegdais n-ucut `even besides,' Wb. 33a4 . cid ind fochith follongam `even the suffering which we endure,' 14b15 . ceth Máolruoin, Mon. Tall. 135.24 . co seichetar cid a comroircniu, Sg. 1a2 .

(b) coire ... no suigfedh cid Erind, Corm. Y 323.8 . ní dénaiter cid clocha fotraicthi díb, Trip.² 873. ni cuma dono cid cach mis disuidiu, Laws iv 88.19 . ní thibrind i tindscra cid Meidbi insin, TBFr. 185. cid mecnu, LU 10560.

II Forms with ro-.

(i)

(a) rop, rob, ropo' (the form rob occurs only before b and m): rop corae doib fri dia `peace be with them ...,' Wb. 20d1 . rop scīath dún diar n-imdegail, Hy. i 20. rop fír, ib. 39 . nicon fil bas sciith lim act rop ar crist, Wb. 18a2 . acht robronach (=rob bronach, Ed.), Ml. 86d12 . act ropo cho n-etarceirt, Wb. 13a26 . act ropo cho torbu, 27 .

(b) rop, rob, ropo': rop múr ar cech merblén' Babill, Fél. Jan. 24. rob hí ascaid connaga, Ériu iv 106 § 59. rob dimbríogh gach tonn dá ttuil | gach imshníomh sonn rob soruidh, Studies 1921, 76 § 25 . DDána 122 § 21. acht rop la forcomet, Mon. Tall. 161.27 . Trip.² 2941. acht rob tol dait-so, ZCP viii 312.8 . riasíu ropo chúairddulchach, Críth G. 68.

The form robo, robu and with inf. pron. rodbo, rodbu occurs in the sense either, or (cf. Fr. soit ... soit). The editors of Thes. Pal. (i 433 n. ) say it `seems to be regular in the first of two or more alternatives.' It is so used in the great majority of cases but in Wb. 14c24 and Ml. 58b11 (see below) it precedes the second alternative. Pedersen ( KZ xxxv 404 f . q.v.) suggests an original meaning `was es sei' and the loss of the demonstrative pronoun a n- or aní before robo. Thurneysen ( GOI § 886 ) believes it to have been a potential ro- subj. It is found somet. where in the Lat. uel .. uel .., or Lat. aut .. aut ... occur:

(a) rodbo dia adroni ... ł. is hé-som adroni ... either God has committed ..., Wb. 29d29 . 16d7 . fo chenéle lugi [i]ssiu rodbo chosmi[liu]s `as a kind of oath ... or a similitude,' 14c24 . robo intí forchain gl. siue qui docet, 5d10 . robo folad diles ł. doacaldmach, Sg. 197a1 . 200b6 . robu óenlitrib gl. uel singulis literis, 28a12 . robu cho adersetar gl. uel emendentur ... (uel ...), Ml. 30d11 . robu a caratrad gl. (uel necessitudo) uel (familiaritas), 58b11 (but Eds. suggest on p. 721b : `as robu regularly refers to the former of two alternatives, gloss 11 may gl. uel necessitudo'). robu a nnu mothaigtis gl. aut stupentes, 44c6 . 109c3 . 121b6 .

(b) rodbu forcetail ł. scribend ł. uaimm n-etaig, LB 11b13 . innahí rohaisneid dó N. .. rodbo o littrib no a himaccalmaibh, ZCP ii 321.y .

(ii) -rop, -rup, -rub:

(a) corrup mithich gabáil ferainn do, Wb. 19d3 . corrop hed mo indeb Crist, 24a6 . corop he to menmme, Thes. ii 255.14 (Stowe M.). Wb. 7d10 . Sg. 40b7 . corub mebuil leu, Ml. 138c8 . See also Subst. Vb. l. 1389 ff.

(b) -rup, -rub, -rob, -rop, -rab, -rap, -rip, -rp: corup messu de dún, Trip.² 2592. TBC-I¹ 1577. PH 5319. corob gel in mag, Trip.² 555. TBC-I¹ 2455. corrom mé (=corrob mé) nosn-orr, BDD² 721. corab meisi, Trip.² 1360. Laws iv 62.18 Comm. Anecd. i 17.17 . curub cutruma cuit cach fir dib, Cóic Con. H § 102. co rāssa in cū hīsin ┐ corip ingnīma, TBC-I¹ 539 = corop, LU 5028. acht corp dall, SR 2900. āgusta dō gurab trū, Corm. Y 1238. ní rop áilsed `let there not be neglect,' Fél. Ep. 522. nī rob do soinmige ┐ nī rob do fechtnaidi dō, TBC-I¹ 640 = nipo ... ┐ nirop, LU 5125. arnarap galar doib, Mon. Tall. 147.23 . arnā rob olc, Corm. Y 425. fégad cech aen uaib ... ná rob dáll ... hé, PH 4666. Sometimes the final b or p dropped out, at first before initial b or f: arnara fochand báis dóib, Mon. Tall. 146.29 . 152.11 . curu bēl ainmnech urnaigthech, ACL iii 234 § 9. luiget ... co ro bréc, PH 2685. co ro huain doib, 4997 .

rel.

(a) bes`, bas`: níi bes chotarsne diar n-ícc, Wb. 11a24 . bes chossecarthae, Ml. 63a6 . bes miniu, Thes. ii 254.14 (Stowe M.). céin bas mbéo, Wb. 10b23 . a mbas cete, Thes. ii 17.34 (Bcr.).

(b) bes`, bas`, bus`: nech bes ardu, Críth G. 115. lin bes coir, BCrólige § 48. ni bes epiltiu, Mon. Tall. 152. 31 . dírimm bas choímiu ná bess áiniu, TBFr. 47. ontí bass formbthi, Mon. Tall. 141.19 . dís bas ḟerr, BDD² 1222. ríasiu bus lá, MU² 322. neich bus chomgrād dó, Ériu i 219 § 7. i llaim neich bessa set `of the person whose property it is,' Laws v 376.4 . do cach besa ai whose it is, ii 398.z . iv 28.5 . i 264.18 . A pron. may be infixed between rel., and its pred.: doeim dano in clī innī besidn-īsle, doemar som ōnnī besadn-ūaisliu, Corm. Y 275. set inna muin cachae besid fiu, Laws v 384.z . 382.8 . ech beissid fiu, 406.9 . cenn caich ... i fine besid sruithe, besid n-uaisliu, ZCP xiv 369 § 31. ailid .iii. seotu bes da fiu, Laws v 408.7 .

pl. 1

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) ropond: ropond bēo for deis mic Dē may we be alive, ZCP viii 106 § 9 (ropo-nd = 3 s.+inf. pron. pl. 1).

Conj.

(a) -ban`: co comalnammar a pridchimme et comman (=co m-ban) dessimrecht do chach, Wb. 31c11 . a numman aircheltai, Ml. 27b10 .

(b) -ban, -rdar, -(r)bar; with cía, gidar: is am comman tairisiu `'tis time that we should be ...,' Fianaig. 26.14 . an biucán gurdar síthaig, Hib. Min. 82.23 . gidar comaltai, TBC-LL¹ 3680. co mbar commaithe, 35 . tiagam ass con (f)acamar na milchonu ...┐ corbar (go mbat, v.l.) scithu oco, TBFr. App. § 16.

pl. 2

Abs.

(a) bede: conicfid-si bede preceptori uili `ye will all be able to be teachers,' Wb. 13a10 .

Conj.

(a) -bad: combad accomalti-si limsa, 23a26 . arnábad toirsig dim chuimriug-sa, 27c34 . arna bad huilcc, 5d38 . dia mbad mathi, 16a13 . ma[nba]d irlaithi, 27c11 . ? To this: annambaid (anambaid, MS.) buidig `when ye are not content,' Ml. 115b10 .

(b) nibur n-ecnaigid, SR 4871. nibfor cétludaig, 4872 .

pl. 3

I Forms without ro-.

No absolute forms occur without ro-.

Conj.

(i)

(a) -bet`, -pat`, -bat`: mainbet mathi, Wb. 11c5 . nó innabet o nach ainmm-diu etir `or whether they are not from any nominal form at all,' Sg. 56b1 . arnapat toirsich, Wb. 26d21 . combat irlamu-de ind ancreitmich do chretim, 12d29 . armbat eolig, 31d15 . armbat chosmaili, Ml. 130a12 . a mbat n-erchoissi, 73c9 . cinbat huili, Wb. 4d6 .

(b) -bet, -bat: im damu nad be tairchesa (leg. bet airchesa), Laws i 184.14 . iv 54.10 . mat cuibdi ... manbet cuibdi, i 244.3 . adubairt ... conod brathair iat cen go bed, Celt. Rev. x 36.18 . acht conbat beoda, TBC-LL¹ 39. combat sithamla, PH 4015. 6746 . manibat óga a frithḟolaid, Ériu i 219 § 9. menbat allmaraig, MU² 517. diamat glain, SR 1461. cenibat fiu, Laws ii 316.20 .

(ii) With ma,

(a) mat: mat hé na briathra-sa forcane, Wb. 28c21 . mat anmann adiechta emnatar and, Sg. 189b4 .

(b) mat, madat, mádit: mat comaithi a folaid, no mat comolca, Laws ii 362.25 - 6 . mat e ... anfolaid in cele falla frithgnama, ZCP xiv 387 § 53. madat comlūatha, ZCP viii 217 § 2. mádit (sic leg.) creidmech, KMMisc. 146.4 .

(iii) With ce, cía although ,

(a) cit: cit imdi far forcitlidi, Wb. 9a12 . 4d4 . 12a13 . cit comsuidigthi, Sg. 207b11 . 190b1 . et muscreitfet cit hésidi `even they,' Wb. 5c2 .

(b) cit, cidat, ciambat: cit lir, Mon. Tall. 156.26 . Fél. Prol. 245. cith (leg. cit) lir cétuib, ZCP viii 195 § 7. cidat (cid, v.l.) créchtnaig, BDD² 1347. KMMisc. 268 § 41. ciambat ilardai, SR 4833.

(iv) With cía, ce who, what ,

(a) No instance.

(b) cit: indid damsa cit n-armand | hi fil chend erred Ul[ad] tell me what are the places ..., LU 11056.

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) ropat`: ropat choin altai ... adcear, Thes. ii 293.7 ( SP i ). acht ropat ṡaini tertpersin, Sg. 199a1 .

(b) ropat`, robat`, robet, ropsat: ropat lir a tellaig, Trip.² 2571. ropat óin dom ṡnádud `may they be one,' Fél. Jan. 21. robat mo cuirn coidin midc, Otia i 126 § 24. robet ar seilb an ōenfir, BColm. 54.10 . ropsat idain dīan-báis ám, KMMisc. 210.3 .

Conj.

(a) No instance.

(b) -rbat, ? -rsat: ciarbat mara a treba, Hy. ii 60 Comm. curbat úagṡlá[i]n, BColm. 54.11 . nirbat ile a liberna, LU 1035. girbat linmara, TBC-LL¹ 4196. garbat discailtig, 544 . apair ó brethir namá corbat bairgin na clochasa, PH 4918. ciarbot maithi, KMMisc. 266 § 32. ? gorsat lir a mmairb andas a mbí, TBC-LL¹ 6015.

rel.

(a) beta`, bete`, bata`: beta téit `when they are wanton,' Wb. 29a1 . beda fiscina baptizerium, Thes. ii 226.29 (Pcr.). donaib hí beta cheti, Ml. 126c4 . ni cumcat bete gentilia, Sg. 33a16 . a mbata n-aersigthi, Ml. 127a4 .

(b) beta, bete, bida: mad aile da lina beta olca [a] folaid, Laws ii 366.11 . itir na ceithre comaichaib beda neasa do, iv 116.2 . tech sruithi bet (leg. betc) fuirbthium, Mon. Tall. 136.23 . tri haidche bede cora, Laws v 438.24 . cusna belltenaib bida nesom, ii 390.20 . trian de don ḟir bed a (leg. beda a) beich `whose bees they are,' iv 116.1 Comm. Cf. do fir bede heich, 106.1 Comm.

Subj. Past

s. 1

(a) -bin, -benn: commin inricc dó `so that I may be worthy thereunto,' Wb. 24a11 . combin cosmail, Ml. 91b7 . arnamtomnad námmin duine, Wb. 17d23 . nombin dermatach, Ml. 20a4 . toimtin armbenn duine, 130d4 .

(b) -badim, -badam: abraind nā badim (? sic leg.) slānsa ... ropad rēill mo tholcsa and, TBC-I¹ 3532. bad cháined dom ḟir co mbadim ferr-sa, TBC-LL¹ 34. damadam (sic leg.) rig (dia mbam airdrí, v.l.) for Erinn if I were , FDG 519.

s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) -badat: da mbad in lāsin, nī epertha co mbadad (leg. mbadat) ferr do lōech annā Cū., TBC-I¹ 2503. is é in claideb dobéraind ... menbadat (sic leg.) aide, RC xiv 426.25 ( LL 111b4 ).

s. 3

I Forms without ro-.

(i) Abs.

(a) bed`, bad`: arna tomnathar bed foammamichthe deacht don dóinacht `that (the) Godhead is subject,' Wb. 13c2 . dommuinfide bed n-ísel intí dia, Ml. 40c17 (in these two exx. we have the type of sentence in which bid occurs in Wb. 25c12 , see (iii) below). din dínit bed ṡástai, Sg. 39b11 . ni arindí bed leth ngotho nobed indib, 5a4 . dóig linn bed n-acuit, 30a8 . bed chuintechti, Ml. 92a17 . ni robe nech bad huaisliu, Wb. 33d10 . aimser ba (leg. bad, Edd.) chomadas dó, 21a1 . cia bed a mmēt inna fochaide `whatever the greatness of the tribulations might be,' Ml. 39a13 (see Bergin, Ériu xii 208 ff .).

(b) bed`, bad`, pad, bud: ba dóig leó bed a sídaib dí, BDD² 42. nech bed chomalaind dó, LU 1667 (ICM). nad baí baili bád cuidbiu dó, Trip.² 429. lāech bad chāime, TBC-I¹ 3242. BDD² 79. mad mē bad chend ..., Ériu iii 140.183 . cīa ragas ...? Cīa pad cīa ... acht Condere `who should it be cut C.', i 114 § 3 . muc bud grátu, Corm. Y 118. ní bud ṡíre, BDD² 138. ciped mac díb no gabad gasced, TBC-LL¹ 1089. With inf. pron. s. 3: tegdais adchondarc indiu | ni fa[il] ba-da-crichidiu (? leg. bad-da-), Thes. ii 292 § 1 (Ml. Poems). marbān badid n-ingnathar, Bruchst. 45 § 102. coich bia beo badid [n-]amradair, RC xx 260 § 65 = badib amradair, LU 873. badid-rédithir ... badid-némithir, RC xxiv 56 § 17. s. 1: nī faigebasu curaid ... bádam fiusa, LU 3913.

(ii) Conj.

(a) -bed`, -bad` (mainbed (minbad, manibad) is regularly folld. by acc.): mainbed maith latsu, Wb. 32a11 . combed chiall ainsedo ildai and, Ml. 67d24 . ni bed uilliu, 54b30 . is cumme nibad móidem `it is the same as though it were not boasting,' Wb. 2b14 . amal nibad fiu, Ml. 63d2 . mainbad éicin, Wb. 4a20 . Hy. v 32. manibbad hinunn, Sg. 17b8 . manibad trocairi ndáe, Ml. 111b28 . manipad taschidetaid, 136c2 . arnábad rómár, Wb. 11c7 . conapad firdía mac, Ml. 21c12 . diambad mathi, Wb. 16a13 . combad choitchen, Sg. 72a1 . Ml. 21d1 . combath chomlan rith lunae , Thes. ii 33.27 (Bv.). na epred a menme armbad ferr són, Wb. 10a16 . arimbad and furruimtis a praintech, Thes. ii 242.4 (Ardm.).

(b) -bed`, -bad`, -pad, -bud, -bod: ised bud cóir laisim combed de laim anmcharat ..., Mon. Tall. 146.25 . Trip.² 2246. ní ... tresambed elned do, Mon. Tall. 164.7 . manipad lor, 128.15 . manipad do chrúass, Trip.² 1370. minbad in mbáin mbic, MacCongl. 107.7 . cid daitsiu nábad lat in curathmír, LU 8112. diambad Chú, 3752 . dámadh linn, TSh. 5962. combad chennach, LU 4296. bá cubaid cíapad tussu bad dall, Trip.² 1516. dūs imbad lór, Mon. Tall. 133.8 . mun budh le druimm cáein Cesrach, Anecd. i 32 § 60. minbud thu, ii 4.11 . ar na bud ed, PH 3074. ? go nach budh rí ar Israel tú `ne sis rex,' TSh. 8330. cid daitsiu ... nád bod latt curadmir Emna, LU 8140. cía lasmboth scīth ┐ lasmboth laind techt int slōgaid, TBC-I¹ 154.

(iii)

(a) bid (this form, which Thurn. ( GOI § 806 ) suggests may be an unstressed form of vn. buith, occurs regularly after amal, oldaas, is cumme, in doich, in comparative and equative clauses and in a few other instances. This would suit an ex. like Thes. ii 294 § 3 below but does not explain phrases where bid follow amal, is cumme, etc. It survives into Mid. Ir. but is somet. replaced by bed or bad, and in a few cases spreads to other types of sentence (amal bid is regularly folld. by acc. cf. mainbad, above): amal bid dia as though he were God, Wb. 26a7 . amal bid claind noclantis, Ml. 63b9 . amail bith ball di crist, Thes. ii 255.14 (Stowe M.). amal fid na derscaigthiu, Ml. 37b22 . amal bid inn accaldim deithidnig (leg. nd.), 35c27 . is cumme doib bid idalte domeltis, Wb. 10c3 . in doich bid saindóire dúnni, 10d1 . is nessa do inni lemm oldaas bid ar n-áinsem, 4b17 . ní lugu ... indáas bid praeceptóir asidindissed, Ml. 42b18 . arna tomnitisom bid do irgairiu cotulta, Wb. 25c12 (see above under (i) where this type of sentence occurs with bed in Wb. 13c2 and Ml. 40c17 ). ni meite bid machdad forgare forru, Sg. 161b12 . ba coru tra bid adnuntiabit nobeth híc , Ml. 45b14 . soilsidir bid hi lugburt, Thes. ii 294 § 3 ( SP iii ).

(b) amal bid oc caíned ... [no beth], Trip.² 87. amal bid do thecht secha, IT i 72.14 . amail bid a haongiun, Corm. Y 1059.37 . amal bid fótrond ..., LU 9099 (FB). ba doich lind bid din lucht forācaibset som, ZCP viii 313.25 . ba hé mo líthsa bid é do-chorad and, BDD² 494. asberat alaili bid di lucht na luinge ..., ZCP viii 313.23 . In a type of sentence where it did not occur in O. Ir.: flaith athuigh na bid flaith a athair whose father was not a chief, Laws ii 200.21 . nā tānic rīam nā īarum bīd (leg. bid) errdarcu, MacCongl. 45.28 . ar cend neich bid (budh, v.l.) éolchu ┐ bid síne andás, Ériu iv 126.15 . ingen bid chaime tochim, RC xxiv 198.24 . In the follg. exx. O. Ir. would show bid: amal bud he Crist, PH 129. mar bud, 4098 . amal bad a domun aile thíssad, TBFr. 278. is cumme lem bed (bid, v.l. App.) i taulchubu fhína no beth mo chend, TBFr. 47. in dōig bad ē Conchobur, TBC-I¹ 2758. (cf. also: ba doig bed n-ingcert, Ml. 61b15 ). dōig leam bad i ndiamraib ... nobeith, TBC-I¹ 884.

(iv) With ma (má),

(a) mad: mad mo ríar-sa dognethe and, Wb. 9d25 . mad forcenn libuir, Ml. 2d1 .

(b) mad, mád: mad meise con-ísed mo chomairle, BDD² 708. mád ina ṡláinti ind fir fil sund robad chomairche ar Ultaib ulib, LU 3303.

(v) With cía, ce although ,

(a) cid: ni pu imdu do in mann cid trén oc tecmallad `though he were,' Wb. 16c25 .

(b) cid: cid fín bárc do-téised treut, BDD² 740.

II Forms with ro-. ro- is rare with past subj. The instances are:

(a) act robad tairismech linni, Wb. 18d11 . ní ar maith friu ... act is corpad mithig lessom inducbál dia nóibaib, 4c37 .

(b) ? ingé (read perhaps itge, Ed.) ropad limsa ol sésim adpand do seinm tr. `I would crave a boon, said he, to play a tune,' Mon. Tall. 131.28 . acht corbad maithi a gnima, Ériu v 124.76 . amal ro bad pheccad leo as though they considered it a sin, PH 3232.

pl. 1

Abs.

(a) bimmis, bemmis : amal bimmis octarche `as if we were dregs,' Wb. 9a7 . amal bemmis bibdaid, Ml. 114d4 .

(b) amal bemís marb, PH 2967.

Conj.

(a) -bimmis : amal ni bimmis cutrummi frib, Wb. 17b16 . Ml. 63b1 . commimmis ecil hi fochidib, Wb. 29b16 . commimis less huili, 6b21 .

(b) -badar : acht co mbadar maithe díblínaib, TBC-LL¹ 35.

pl. 2 No instance.

pl. 3

Abs.

(a) bitis, betis: nírbu mou leu bríg a tobai indate bitis cranna doiscairi dufubaitis `than though they had been cutting down common trees,' Ml. 92d6 . donaib déedib betis chloithib, 131d11 . amal betis degmaini, 90a14 .

(b) bitis, betis, batis : amal bitis chóic ṡutralla, Trip.² 1448. ba bindithir ... ┐ betis téta mennchrot, BDD² 189. TBFr. 27. amal betís margretai, PH 2445. dicunt betis secht maic, ZCP viii 314.34 (Laud Gen.). asberat araile batis trī brāthir, ib. 331.14 (ib.). doruimenatar bádis fir ṡīthe, Trip.² 1112.

Conj.

(a) -btis, -ptis : comtis indbaid i n-iris, Wb. 10d33 . conabdis apstil, 5b15 . comtis ainmmnidi, Sg. 7b2 . coniptis erlama, Ml. 100c24 . maniptis mu charait, Ml. 73d1 . Sg. 120a1 . ni aisndet duaid airmdis hé iusti indí ..., Ml. 54a12 . airmtis ní etir, 79b11 . amtis forbristi ind ríg, 85d9 .

(b) -btis, -ptis : comtis secht maic, Trip.² 901. PH 7013. comdis sidhaighthi, ZCP xiii 254.12 . comtís comarda síat, TBC-LL¹ 5015. ba cóir ceniptis árdda do chongbala-su, Trip.² 1564. naptis messaiti, Ériu iv 24 § 10. diambtís rátha iat, MU² 376. diambtís craind, 434 . ciabtis cosmaile, SR 2892. ciapdis ganna, Anecd. ii 69.8 . ciamdis dimolta, i 21.5 . With amal betis under (a) above, cf. marbtís máirb as though they were dead, LU 9761. immarbdais meic do, 4097 .

With ma

(a) matis : matis huili conabdis apstil tantum `if it were all (the Jews) and not the apostles only,' Wb. 5b15 . matis mu namait, Ml. 73b1 .

(b) matis is replaced in Mid. Ir. by diambtís q.v., supra.

Fut.

s. 1

Abs.

(a) be : be sóir mo brethre `I shall be free as regards my word,' Wb. 4c18 . bé (biam, bum, v.ll.) sóir cech inbaid, Hy. iv 8.

(b) bea, bem, bam, bíam, bidam : bem (bea, v.l.) torbach[u]-sa duit-si oldās ..., Corm. Y 1059.30 = bam tarbach sa deit, Anecd. iv p. xiv.y . in hed bam beo, SR 3187. Ériu iv 142.z . bam tarb tnúith isna tressaib, IT iii 510 § 4. Anecd. i 12.7 . bam anoraigti-sea oc Dia, PH 2428. biam tigerna os cech drung, SR 855. bíam cúsa ... dot imdegail, LU 5027. bidam chusa, TBC-LL¹ 1049 (v.l., Eg.). bidam bithchuimnech, RC xvi 46 ( Dinds. 95 ). CCath. 3348. bídham tigerna fer an domain, 4046 .

Conj. (a) No instance.

(b) -pam : ni pam slán-sa ... conid n-accur, IT i 72.1 . nípam comchirtisea do neoch, LU 4248.

s. 2

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) ba, basa, bat, biat, bidat : ba baeth, SR 5955. ba bruiden ban ndérach, Metr. Dinds. iii 96.19 . bása bec bíaid úair | basa már iar tain, LU 9854. bat neirt ar do lochnamtib, LU 10423. bat (ba, v.l.) fornocht, Metr. Dinds. iii 96.4 . bat (ba, bad, v.ll.) dín ar gád, ib. 9 . bát nimidech, LU 9633. biat rīsiu co derb, PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 546 § 8 . § 15 . biat forscailtech, ib. § 17 ( LL 147a ). bidat úallach, ZCP vii 298.17 . LB 151a48 . bidhit neimedach, BNnÉ 93 § 204. toīsechu bia marb oldās bia meirb, PRIA iii 546 § 8 ( LL 147a9 ) (this is really the form of the subst. vb. but seems to be intended as copula, cf. biat, above).

Conj.

(a) Strachan ( Subst. Vb. l. 1316 ) gives : co mba soilse-siu, Wb. 22c3 (gl. inluminabit tibi Christus) but translates `so that thou mayest be,' Thes. i p. 639 which is probably correct.

(b) -ba, -bat : adbert fria drai ... ni bam rai (? leg. niba-m-drai) badechtsa mene dingba ..., BB 407a1 . da lecea tú Ísu ass, ni bat cara do Cessair, PH 2815.

s. 3

Abs.

(a) bid, bith : bid héet lib-si geinti do bith in hiris, Wb. 5a13 . bid cumma et riam, 18a13 . bith sechmadachte, Sg. 147b3 . bith flaithem intí Solam for saint, Ml. 90a9 .

(b) bid, bith, beith, bed, bud : bid nath n-airec fordarc, Ält. Ir. Dicht. ii 16.6 . bidsom fria toil `it (heaven) will be at their pleasure,' Mon. Tall. 141.17 . bid misi, Trip.² 1963. Laws i 6.z . bid calma, TBC-I¹ 2469. bid hē lā a phennati, MacCongl. 29.6 . PH 4032. ata lasna tuati beith lór dóib do ascnam nime acht doratat ní dona hanmchairtib, Mon. Tall. 141.15 . rochrúfemne ... ind pennit bes chóir fortsu. Bed cet ol D., 130.23 . With inf. pron. s. 2 : bidat eigen dola, Aisl. Tond. 101.x . ammarach bud maith do threóir, Anecd. i 39 § 114. ib. 17.18 . RC xxiv 194.7 . budh hē bērus an bāiri, ZCP xiii 17.27 . budh iomdha ann fós arracht ag eagcaoine, TSh. 4068.

Conj.

(a) -pa, -ba : nípa cosmuil frisin titacht tóisig, Wb. 25d13 . níba cuit adíll, 14a8 . níbbá i n-anus regaid int diruidigud, Sg. 36b1 . in corp i mba flaith in coimdiu, Wb. 9d3 . With inf. pron. s. 3 : nípa-dn-aidrech, 5c9 .

(b) -ba, -pa, -bo, -po, -bu, -pu, -b, -bad, -bud : níba ed bias de, Trip.² 453. BDD² 58. niba fír, ScM. § 11.2 . nipa mor do brig lais, Mon. Tall. 142.4 . admat na ba tíamdae, Fél. Prol. 294. nīpa mise, TBC-I¹ 2141. níbá fír sin, LU 8199. ár | día[m]bá lán Mag F., 3368 . With inf. pron. s. 2 : níbat écen nach n-aill, MU² 1037 (LU). ? nib amles, LU 3325 (tr. `it will be no harm,' SCC 117 ). toingimsa ... corob misi cētfer roficfa (b inserted later, Ed.), TBC-I¹ 2243. mani thuaslaicea isind chaisc nipo assa doib iarum, Mon. Tall. 132.17 . nipo fócrach, Ériu vii 219 § 2. nībo dirsan dait, TBC-I¹ 1048. nipu sén maith itir ... ni fu líth don fleid, FDG 121. nī bu inmuin, Bruchst. 60 § 134. níbu shirsan, TBFr. 370 (= nipi siursan, App. § 26 ). nī bad (ba, v.l.) fāilid, Bruchst. 40 § 95. bat righ uili iat gin co budh comṡaeglach, Anecd. ii 1.15 .

rel.

(a) bes`, bas` : in hed bes chobuir dó, Wb. 20c10 . bes lintae, Ml. 44d7 . hore bas fír quod dicam, Wb. 17d20 .

(b) bas`, bus` : Marcán ... bas dech do Uíb Garrchon, Trip.² 2191. félire bas (bus, v.l.) certu, Fél. Ep. 148. ro-fessar ... bas n-olc, LU 7566 (BDD). ni-sn-idnus sund nī bus siriu, TBC-I¹ 3104. inní bus comairle [lat-sa is sí bas chomairle] linne, Anecd. i 41.3 - 4 . cīan bus chumain, ZCP viii 119 § 4. an feadh bhus cumhain leó iad, TSh. 1256.

pl. 1

(a) bimmi ?, bemmi, bammi : isin chruth-sin bimmi nóib-ni, Wb. 3d27 (but see ZCP xxxii 120-21 ). 12c9 . bemmi caelestis, 13d15 . isamlid bami coeheredes , 4a17 .

(b) batin: batin aithrig is tír thall `we shall rue it,' Ériu i 68 § 3 (this is from a poem, occurring in H 3. 18 and LL, which Meyer ascribes to 9th cent. Perhaps one should take it as : ba don-aithrig it will be a matter of regret to us, but cf. atin budig de we are content, Anecd. i 5.18 = YBL 129b23 ).

pl. 2 ? folaich in mac, bar bibdaith bāis ind dia fessara Mac Con, ZCP viii 311.5 , CMMucr. 69 .

pl. 3

Abs.

(a) bit : bit hé na precepta cétni no pridchob doib, Wb. 17b20 . bit comṡuidichthi, Sg. 4b1 . bit comlin fri fér, Ml. 90b8 .

(b) bit, be(i)t, bat, biat, bidat : bit coirmmgnáithi do chomarpai, Trip.² 1565. bit fūaitne fīanna lib Luigne, Corm. Y 1018.46 . bit lia mairb ... andate a mbí, LU 7187 (BDD). bit lir bomand ega ... for lethchind, 7233 (ib.). beit fir móra ar macáin bic | ...bid daim ríata laíg ar mbó, LU 9587 - 9 . bed glana chenai, Mon. Tall. 130.1 . bet imnaraig, Anecd. ii 55.4 . bat mairb fir, IT iii 470.105 . bat lana, TBC-LL¹ 1055. ? in dóig bát dom éligudsa ón ? that they will be a cause of accusation to me (?), LU 3277 (obscure, perhaps bat is s. 2). biat mathi do chland, PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 546 § 9 ( LL 147a10 ). bidat gai géra, ib. 550 § 31. bidat marthanaig, LU 1998. bidat mo na huilc innas ..., CCath. 988.

Conj.

(a) -pat, -bat, -bet : nipat ferr, Wb. 12d28 . nibat litre, Sg. 6b23 . níbat briathra, Ml. 68c10 . a mbat n-airbirthi buith, 94d1 . anambet ecailsi, 15d7 .

(b) -pat, -bat, -pdat, -bad : nipat ili anmand eissi, Trip.² 934. ní bat buana, TBC-LL¹ 1692. nipdat duthaine, SR 8355. airm inbat budig do bēoil, MacCongl. 77.4 . im bad tíre ┐ feranna, Anecd. i 42.1 . ní bad sgíotha dot sgéulaibh | na Burcaigh, Studies 1919, 439 § 10 .

rel.

(a) beta` : beta hícthi, Wb. 3d29 . beta messi, Ml. 70a9 .

Sec. Fut.

s. 1

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) badam : cid andib badam slansa mad ail duitsiu, Ériu xii 166.13 (Tochm. Ét.).

Conj. -badam : [ba] meti nibadam beo d' ingnais rig M. `I were not likely to live,' Ériu x 190.16 ( LL 276a41 ).

s. 2

(a) No instance.

(b) ropadat, badat : díambad curadmir do chosnam i nEmain duit, ropadatren (for ropadat trén, Edd.) for ōcaib Emna, LU 6720. ar badat slanchommairgi-siu bar Ultaib, TBC-LL¹ 1165.

s. 3

I Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) ropad`, robad` ; ar ropad maith limsa labrad ilbelre dúibsi, Wb. 12c29 . Sg. 90b2 . robad bethu dom dían chomalninn, Wb. 3c28 . roppad diil tanaisi, Sg. 111b2 . dorairngred dano rombad oirdnide a chland, Wb. 2c12 .

(b) robad`, ropad`, rubad`; robud` : robad chongbail ... dó, Trip.² 1731. robad chomairche ar Ultaib ulib, LU 3303. asbert fria rubad torrach húad, 10601 . robud sía, ACL iii 304.16 . ropad chora, PH 2593. robad was later replaced by dobad : dobadh cōir, Feis Tighe Chonáin 130. dobudh aisg ar m'fhine tar m'ēisi sin, ML² 1413. dobudh mór an éagcóir, TSh. 4845. 2718 , which in turn gave way to the modal pret.

Conj. No conjunct ro- forms occur.

II Forms without ro-.

Abs. These are rare in the Glosses and do not occur in independent sentences, but become more usual later.

(a) bed` : conidfessed cia bed flaith inna diad, Ml. 89b7 . bed messe gl. ratum fore, 105b14 .

(b) bed`, bad`, bud` (bud seems not always to have been folld. by lenition, see ex. below from TSh.) : asbert fri Cassan bed n-ann a eiseirgi, Trip.² 828. ní bad toisigiu dún something that would be ..., Trip.² 117. Corm. Y 473. cia bad chōir do thabairt, TBC-I¹ 2203. BDD² 126. cia de bud ferr la hUltu ..., TBC-I¹ 692. ní bud fiú sain, Anecd. i 28 § 28. budh urlamh, Studies 1921, 75 § 15 . an bél dúnta as eadh budh ḟearr, IGT Decl. ex. 1285. budh dual, TSh. 1584. In independent sentences, where O. Ir. would show robad : bád maith limsa, LU 3354. faicthear 'n-a dhorus a dheilbh | 's badh solus aitreabh Ifeirn Hell would be radiant, DDána 60 § 37.

Conj.

(a) The forms without ro- supply the conjunct of both bed and robad. -bad`, -pad` : na bad eola inar cintaib, Wb. 33b21 . asbertis cipad a déne ind hesséirgi, 25b27 . níbad ṡamlaid, Sg. 4b4 .

(b) -bad`, -bud` (in the latest exx. there seems not to have been lenition) : imrāidset ... nīpad andsu, TBC-I¹ 1330. ni bad chained, TBC-LL¹ 34. na bud chalmu, 2063 . adubart-sa ... comadh fearr, Feis Tighe Chonáin 1132. ní bud liacha, BDD² 493. fá bud chasmail, PH 7544. nī bud cobair, Sitzungsb. Pr. Akad. 1919, 93 § 36 . do bhríogh gomadh cosmhail, TSh. 4766.

pl. 1 and 2 No instances.

pl. 3

I Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) robtis, roptis : epert ... robtis maithi for mbésa-si, Wb. 16b19 . roptis imdai piana donaib anmanaib, Ml. 15c8 .

(b) robtis, roptis : roptis fola ocus cro | mo der do marb Imblecho, AU i 138.15 . asbert roptis gallraig, Trip.² 2786. roptis ferra, Anecd. ii 53.14 . robtis (roptís, LU) do renga, TBC-I¹ 1182.

Conj. No instance.

II Forms without ro- :

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) be(i)tis, beidis : robad do chland-su betis comarpai ind, Trip.² 1710. beitis lir leamsa cendae fer ..., TBC-I¹ 3543. bad dōig lim beidis hē fir Themra, 3371 .

Conj. -btis, -ptis, -bdís : asbert P. nabtis toirthig, Trip.² 2455. connaptís bí, LU 9519. nibdís aingil diada, PH 1787.

Pret.

s. 1

I Forms without ro-.

Abs.

(a) basa : basa iudide ó écosc `I was a Jew in appearance,' Wb. 10d34 .

(b) ba(sa), bam(sa), basam : ba-sa cāem, Corm. Y 883.53 . ba-sa cu-sa tairdbi buiden, Anecd. iii 53.13 and 15 (Sia- burcharpat) = basa chausa ..., LU 9328. ba-sa cathach, Tec. Corm. § 8.8 . basa chúsa, LU 9326 , 9328 . bása chomrar, 9335 . bassa collid giallasa, 9318 . bam-sa cu-sa, Anecd. iii 53.10 . fam rí (bainrith, v.l.) ar énlaith Érenn, i 36 § 87 . ba-sa maoth fri maithi, ba-sam imnedach frimm tair, iii 53.20 . basam (bam-sa, bam-siu, v.ll.) dalta tair[i]si, ii 71.7 .

Conj.

(a) -psa : nipsa iudide ó béssaib, Wb. 10d35 . 17c2 . hore am apstal ... cainipsa sóir ce dognén cach ngním, 10c16 .

(b) -psa, -bsa, -ba, ? -bam, -msa, -sam : nipsa chúsa gabála lis, LU 9325 = nipsa cu-sa ..., Anecd. iii 53.10 . nipsa cell cin chlocc, ii 60.4 . nipsa (nirsam, nipsam, v.ll.) condirclech, Ériu ix 45 § 2. ciapsa reithenech, ib. (geinsam, ciamsam, robsam, rosam, gersam, gerbam, gerbhum, v.ll.) ciapsa duine ciapsa bled, LU 3003 = ciarsam ... ciarsam ..., Fél. 52.37 . domgní mūichnech ingnais Ērenn | diamsa cuimsech for which I (myself) was accountable (?), ZCP vii 309.24 . i mbsa dechenborach ... i mbsa fichtech, Tec. Corm. § 8.6 - 7 . imsa nāidi robsa nā[i]r, Ériu ii 16 § 5. nimsa cu-sa imlo[m]tha fuidhel, Anecd. iii 53.13 and 15 = nipsa cháusa ..., LU 9327. ? cach crích ar bam cend `where I was head,' PRIA III (3rd ser.) 550 § 35 ( LL 147a ). pecdach mé ósam macám, IGT Decl. ex. 376.

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) rupsa, ropsa, robsa, rob : rupsa frithortae-se, Wb. 33a12 . doménarsa ropsa beo, 3c27 . Ml. 49b12 . durumenar romsa dia ┐ rom bith-béu, 49b13 .

(b) ropsa, robsa, ropsam, robsam, robsum, robam, ropom : an airet ropsa béo, Trip.² 1434. ropsa altra dia aithair, Anecd. ii 71.4 . imsa nāidi robsa nā[i]r, Ériu ii 16 § 5. robsa ceile si do Ch., ZCP viii 545.7 . ropsam aithrech isin ngním-sin, PH 701. robsam fíadnaisech fodeirc, Ériu iv 153.4 . robsum flaith, BS 126.6 . Metr. Dinds. iii 310.85 . robam céle comadas, LU 3972. ropom tuire tend, PRIA III (3rd ser.) 550 § 35 ( LL 147a ). robam rí ar ó ngelChuind, IGT Decl. ex. 537.

Conj.

(a) -rbsa, -robsa, -rupsa, -rubsa : nirbsa dagduine i tossuch, Wb. 18c14 . anarbsa fuillectae-se, Ml. 127c17 . corupsa lán diib, 104d3 . annarobsa bithe, 45d6 . arromsa cumscaigthe, 46b9 . arrumsa immainse-se, 62c9 .

(b) -rsam (-rbsam) (the sense is very frequently pres. indic. a survival of the original perfect sense), -rbam : is mise Fintan fili, | nirsam écne óen-lindi, Metr. Dinds. i 4.42 . níorsum duine do éra, ML² 1959. nirsum drochlaech, ZCP viii 548.18 . níor sum (níor soim, níor shámh, ní rabhus, v.ll.) taithleach na n-each riamh, Ériu i 100.23 . gērsam snímhach Fiadat find, Ériu ii 95 § 4. gearsom glic nīr chrainn um ní, KMMisc. 350 § 7. corbam tualaingse, Anecd. i 10.17 . ciarbam treórach, nírbam timm, Metr. Dinds. iii 312.131 . Aisl. Tond. 96.4 . gerbham sáeirfher séimh, BS 28.10 . Brethnaigh níor bham caroid-si, Duan. F. i 87.y . or bham nóidiu since I was, LL 282a12 .

s. 2

I Forms without ro-.

Abs.

(a) No instance.

(b) ba, bat, basat : cia bátar do gníma intan basat (v.l.) gilla, Tec. Corm. § 8.2 . bat dín ar gád 's ar guba | bat fál is bat fidruba, Metr. Dinds. iii 96.9 - 10 (bad, ba, v.ll.). a chlaidib Cherbaill ... bát menic ac cur chatha, RC xx 9 §1 ( LL 47a50 ).

Conj.

(a) No instance.

(b) -bi: cot-ráncamar ó bim (órbat v.l.), BDD² 1173 (Ed's. note : `read ó bi mac (D), where bi seems pret. s. 2').

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) robsa, rubsa : huare romsa ugaire doib `because Thou wast a shepherd unto them,' Ml. 96d1 . arrumsa dite-siu, 103a4 .

(b) ropsa, rupsa, ropsat, robsat, ropat, robat, ropot: an tan rupsa Etain Echraidhe ... ba misi do cetmui[n]ter, Ériu xii 170.6 (Tochm. Ét.) (= ropsa, LU 10771 ). intan ropsa (ropsat, basat, v.ll.) gilla, Tec. Corm. § 8.2 . ropsat slan o chianaib dia fesmais `thou shouldst have been healed,' Ériu xii 166.12 (Tochm. Ét.) (= ropdat slán, LU 10746 (sec. fut.)). uair ropsat cara, PH 3099. LL 343d53 . intan robsat Cernach-sa, ZCP i 104.36 . ropsat fraechda, RC xx 12 § 16. ropot álaind ó chíanaib, IT iii 514 § 6. is derb ropat degairle, 482.280 . robat cara do cech cléir, 482.277 .

Conj.

(a) No instance.

(b) -rbsat, -rsat, -rsa, -rbat : ro-t-rathaig narbsat fírgaeth that you were not, SR 1318. nirbsat meirb, RC xx 12 § 16. nirsat neóit, TBC-LL¹ 43. lēir dam ... | nārsat cara do Chellach, CCellaig 447 (where the sense is pres. indic.). gérsa maeth-macámh ... i tús lai o chianaib thu, ZCP viii 529.12 . cot-ráncamar órbat (v.l., see n.) mac, BDD² 1173.

s. 3

I Forms without ro-.

Abs.

(a) ba, bu (once in Tur.) (gemination occurs after ba, see below) : ba frithorgon dó frithorgon cháich, Thes. ii 246.18 (Camb.). ba calar do galar caich, ib. 16 (do.). ba uissiu són quam inflatio , Wb. 9b1 (modal). 29d8 . ba hed ón ba chóir, Wb. 10b9 . aní ba choitchen, 50a3 . a mba cloithe `when he was overcome,' Ml. 32b2 . a mba ndiuscartae, 19c15 . ar ba P. dubert baithis du Chrimthunn, Thes. ii 242.9 (Ardm.). ba em carat `it were, indeed, the part of a friend,' Thes. i 3.4 . ar ba mmadach, Ml. 135a9 . ba mmo, 86d6 . (cf. ba mmebul lee, TBFr. 136 ). air bu ainm leusom maledictus do c[ec]h óin ..., Tur. 136.

(b) ba, bu, bo, be (once), pa, fa, fá, fo, bad, bud : ba slán iarom, Trip.² 1517. bá cubaid, 1516 (modal). ba lith mor la Colum cille, Mon. Tall. 156.7 . ba di Bretnaib di, Trip.² 707. rofitir in ben ba o Lomnae rofes, Corm. Y 1018.26 . Fél. Nov. 5. ba ferr a comaitecht ... oldaas a tuitim, IT i 75.6 (modal). ba mese ba sacart oc baistiud ind anma-sin fora athair, ScM. § 12.9 . nip sī sin adaig ba sāmam (rectius sh-) dōib, TBC-I¹ 211. BDD² 423. co torchratar bond fri bond ... ba sí tiget ind áirbaig such was the denseness of, TBC-I¹ 1996. cach nech ba siniu ┐ ba so, PH 104. in ti ba (?=ba a) tir `the person whose land it was,' Laws iv 4.29 Comm. With inf. pron. s. 3 : ba-id-n-imomain-side he was greatly afraid, TBC-I¹ 786. With suffixed -ch (= Lat. -que) (see Thurn., ZCP xiii 299f .) : do-luid tar feart a cedteallaig bach for fine forcomal `und es war eine gewaltsame Besitzergreifung gegen die Sippe,' Laws iv 16.22 (tr. Thurn., loc. cit.). bach ri Temrach, 178.13 . 16.22 . nī ticc dīa ēissi bu duilgi āer, MacCongl. 9.5 . ar bo fortachtaid dó día mboí i moxaini, Trip.² 254. bo ferr, BDD² 1320. a mbo ṡeiscc dind ḟolud, TBC-I¹ 1127. is aice bo doigh a mbith, no is e bo doich da fagbail, Laws iv 36.8 Comm. be sé sin trian macraidi Ulad, LU 5907. ol pa immaircede leis Loch nEchach, Trip.² 1956. pa menci, K. and H. § 1. pa hamru delp Fothith, ZCP xx 401.3 . The earlier instances of fa are mostly rel., but later it becomes freq. in non-rel. use. fá is the regular form in TSh. : is mé fa hairdbrethim binn, Anecd. i 28 § 30. 36 § 91 . curob é fa ri Connacht, v 21.25 . im orgain fa togaidhi do Ingcél i nHérinn, BDD² 423. as í fa banchele dó .i. Eithne ... fa díl ... leis hí, Ériu iii 150 § 1. beathadhach fá cosmhail ré mathghamhain, TSh. 1025. 3264 . (Cf. fa gairit limm beth ar Bóinn, Anecd. i 26.15 . Ériu iv 116 § 24. fa hadhbail re innisin an toran[n], Feis Tighe Chonáin 1841. IGT Decl. ex. 861. fá héigean, TSh. 2489. 5559 . 3715 ). ised sin fo lucht dō, Ériu ii 20 § 1. ri fo ferr sith, Ann. Conn. 1224 § 2. issed bad doig la C., Mon. Tall. 161.22 . ? bat (? bad) ead indas ind troiscti sin, 155.35 . bád chumma rom altsat Ulaid uli, LU 10305. do bríogh gurab é Eóin budh teó grádh, TSh. 10328. do bhríogh gurab é Ádhamh budh ceann fine, 9 .

Conj.

(a) -pu`, -bu`, -po`, -bo`, ? -p` (elision of vowel before initial vowel) : nípu accobor leiss, Wb. 14a22 . nípu séit samil, Thes. i 495.26 (Ardm.). Hy. v 7. nipu nach dernainn-se áem, Wb. 8a5 . Thes. i 495.4 (Ardm.). cepu ed adroilliset, Wb. 4c35 . ar nibu thacair, 33b13 . nibu techtae (`rectius: thechtae, but cf. 34c17 , 53d6 ,' Ed.), 100b22 . níbu machdath, Sg. 65a1 . conepertis ón nadmbu choir, Ml. 136b4 . in loc diambu thabarthi ermitiu feid, 22a4 . nipo chóim, Wb. 4b12 . nípo úaib act ba o apsatalib, 13a20 . napo chenéel, 5a14 . nibo cen fochidi, 24c19 . ? nip (`leg. nipu ? or is it subjunctive ?,' Ed.) ar irlami far cúrsagtha, 26b23 . 5b3 .

(b) -pu`, -bu`, -po`, -bo`, -p`, -b`, -ba`, -fa`, -bad (as lenition was somet. marked we may assume it was regular) : rofitir P. nípu chian, Trip.² 2866. LU 4974. Fél. Sept. 27. nīpu samlaid, TBC-I¹ 1280. napu díb lamaib, LL 123b2 . asrubart M. nibu moo, Mon. Tall. 133.10 . ni bu cād, Ält. Ir. Dicht. i 40 § 17. ni bu chul serci, IT i 77.2 . nī bu ṡanct-Brigit ṡúanach, Hy. v 21 ō bu becān, Ériu viii 164.7 . cíid iarom P. combu [ḟ]liuch a agad, Trip.² 1305. nabu cert, SR 3673. nīpo rom, TBC-I¹ 1728. dalēici sōn C., cobo (LU combo) thairis docher, 1737 . ni bo chomailt, AU i 110.8 . Fél. Prol. 114. BDD² 549. abaind letain nádbo domain, LU 1747 (ICM). combo chomsolus lá ┐ adaig, 8056 . iarfaigis dó cia diambo cheli, 8535 (FB). nī fo cīan, TBC-I¹ 485. nipsī sin adaig ba sāmam dōib, TBC-I¹ 211. nip seoit fo-fhiallach, Anecd. ii 57.z . ba fae leo nip n-ēn comadus ina n-ēill, Corm. Y 1059.18 . nīb sī t'opar comadhas, TBC-I¹ 785. nib sam, Anecd. i 13.14 . roluited ind scīn co nāb ālaind īarnamarach, Corm. Y 883.32 . níba s[h]uthain, TBFr. 5. comba samalta ┐ snāth ōir, TBC-I¹ 2027. comba comsolus lá ┐ adaig, LU 10125. co mba fliuch, BDD² 885. FDG 615. comba taí tastadach for Ultaib, MU² 119. PH 1082 (there is no instance here of lenition marked after comba). taitned fria in grían co bba forderg, BDD² 12. diamba Cholum coemdalta, LU 752. ni fa si do conair, YBL 174b14 . co nebairt co mbad mac don rig he, FDG 724.

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) rupu`, rubu`, ropu`, robu`, ropo`, robo` : rupu sí a rroilic, Wb. 33a22 . aní rupu thascide, Thes. ii 225.17 (Pcr.). rubu fer-som muintere, Wb. 33a5 . Essu rubu thoisech hi suidiu, Ml. 63b5 . ropu thol les a dénom, Ml. 71b2 . hore rombu thoissech, Wb. 33a20 . ar robbu digaim, Sg. 17a5 . robu foirbthe, Tur. 33. ropo thróg laiss, Wb. 21b5 . ropo thol, 14b3 . ropo chobair dond Érinn | tíchtu Patraicc, Hy. ii 15. amal rombo chuimse, Wb. 22a2 .

(b) ropu`, robu`, ropo`, robo`, rupa`, ropa`, roba`, rop`, rob`, rap`, ro bud ; do replacing ro : do bo`, do ba`, do bu`, dob`, do bud ; dorob (where the final vowel has dropped out the copula is nearly always folld. by a vowel or ḟ) : rob e a n-immed conna ... `such was their multitude that' ..., Thes. ii 298.9 ( Hy. i Introd. ). sádid echlaisc and ropu dos iarom, Trip.² 1851. TBFr. 11. ind ingen robu ṡiniu, Trip.² 1116. ropo cridiscél, Mon. Tall. 136.23 . ropo thír cāich, Hail Brigit § 2. ropo suthain, LU 1077. PH 1673. robo maith, Corm. Y 31. nirbo chucumsa ... robo chóir dál, LU 8750. ar rup[a] la Coirpre Crích Conaill, Trip.² 1724. ropa anaichnid, PH 5287. Mon. Tall. 136.20 . (asbert) ... romba si sainserc samdine hé, Mon. Tall. 150.14 . an romba (arrombúi, v.l.) dech do thimthagail, Corm. Y 1059.12 . is ar a deirc ... ro-ba buidech Dia do Abél, PH 5882. rop nem thened tír Hua Néill, BDD² 240 (= ropo, LU 6743 ). rop é fochond ná dilend, LU 129. rofidir ... rop si Etain, Ériu xii 154.2 . rob aille leo, Corm. Y 503. ScM. § 240. PH 1590. túaith rob ferr icht, Metr. Dinds. iii 310.88 . PH 68. uar rombi (ro-m-bī) ind fit cetne, Mon. Tall. 147.14 . rap aithrech, Ériu vii 229 § 75. dobo mana crimb chnáma, Anecd. i 31 § 50. dobo cléguin, Ériu iv 112 § 2. doba díchur flaithesa dō, ML² 1422. doba ferr linn, KMMisc. 320.4 . doba dhainmidh dhó a ndermad, IGT Decl. ex. 1180. dob áil, PH 7584. dob fhíor, Feis Tighe Chonáin 72. fa chloinn Uisnigh dob ḟearr clú, KMMisc. 356 § 4. dob fhearr liom go n-eagnuighidís (utinam saperent), TSh. 6857. 4957 (both modal). do búdh tusa cnoc na cclíar, KMMisc. 346 I § 2 . do budh [de] chloind Cuillinn ..., Feis Tighe Chonáin 1161. adharc ... dobudh faide ionā an adharc oile, TSh. 22. dorob ingnad in cuairt crecht, Ériu v 246.228 .

Conj.

(a) -r(o)bu`, -r(u)bu`, -rbo` (the exx. in which the vowel of ro is not syncopated are all from Ml.) : nírbu faás foruigéni, Wb. 13b7 . nírbu chuman leu, Ml. 124b5 . hóre nárbu bae, Wb. 5b12 . Ml. 60a12 . donarobu gnath techt for culu, 129d3 . corbu écen, Wb. 32c17 . Ml. 31b16 . corrobu bec, 131b12 . conrubu chrín, 99a2 . indí ... lasinrubu chumtabart, 102d4 . 131d11. nírbo sar leu ar cocéilsine, Wb. 19a1 . nirbo chuit eperte, 24c5 .

(b) -rbu`, -rpu`, -rpo`, -rbo`, rba`, -rob`, -rb`, -ra, -r`, -rsa(t), -rso : nírpu sía léu oldaas oenuair, Trip.² 2054. nirbu chían, LU 1756 (ICM). corbu réill, Trip.² 2136. ciarbu tholgdae, Fél. 125. fer fial ... diarmbu (sic) lan Temair, AU i 394. 13 (A.D. 878) . nírpo o chridiu, Trip.² 1562. nír bo thoirneach ..., BDD² 191. LU 915. corbo chonair letartha, TBC-I¹ 1887. gérbo tri haicmedha íatt, Anecd. v 20.25 . nírba maith, LU 315. nirba choir, Anecd. i 20.14 . PH 3078. adeirdis corba mac, Corm. Y 896.8 . gurbha (gur fa, v.l.) héigean dó, TSh. 2484. órba cindti forba a bethad dó, BColm. 96.4 . nī rob urāil, Bruchst. 37 § 87. nirb oróil, MacCongl. 111.7 . nírbh é, IGT Decl. ex. 1274. níorbh fheasach, TSh. 2973. nocorb áil, Trip.² 397. aided narb inmain, ScM. § 24d . ainm ... ionarb éigean sinne do shlánughadh, TSh. 2088. níra míad leo dul assin chrích co mbetís aidchi longphuirt inti, MU² 843. nīr mīad ... leis ind ūaburdelb ... tārfas dōib, TBC-I¹ 2020. nīr cōir, ACL iii 221.24 (modal). nir thim a ḟer, Ériu v 244.211 . Feis Tighe Chonáin 1203. níor ghrása na bronntanas na grása ... dá mbeith ..., Donlevy 214.y (modal). níor chían, TSh. 2479. cinnas nachar chomtig, LU 10316 (modal). créad is iontuigthe as sin, acht gur dhearbh leó ..., TSh. 653. cíar adbol a ndrong, LU 9395. ger mhór in ail, Anecd. i 29 § 36. teagh ar ar lia fear faire, PBocht 12 § 26. drong ... rér mhaith deighmheas do bheith ag an bpobal orra, TSh. 8926 (? modal). ón tráth fár dhearbh leis é féin d'éag, TSh. 2800. draig ... ór doilghe dul, Ériu ix 6.51 (modal). ónar thana lucht loingsi `by whom sea-roving crews are thinned,' Duan. F. i 81.9 . The ending -rsa, -rsad may have arisen on the analogy of the 1st and 2nd sg. -rsam, -rsat (qq.v. above) : derb leo nírsa meath don mac, Thurn. Zu Ir. Hss. 44 § 2. nirsa monar maca[i]n maith | dingbail in laich, 44 § 1. ailtir in mac ... gursa hoglach mor, 43.13 . carsa dúal don aithech-mhadudh ... tocht ... d'imrisin risin árchoin ?, ZCP viii 553.29 . ciarso thucait ro-dos-foglúais, LL 133b16 . TBC-LL¹ 1935. ciarsa dam `though it were a bull,' CRR § 5. brugaid ... darsat (? leg. darsa) comainm C., ZCP vii 307.17 , but cf. oglach darsad comainm E., viii 549.10 . Cf. pl. : carsad comhadha sin ?, 544.22 .

pl. 1

I No forms without ro- occur.

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) robummar : robumar cuindrichthi gl. erecti sumus, Ml. 43d6 . huare robummar bibdid-ni dait-siu, 62b5 .

(b) ropsar, ropar, robdar, robatar: ropsar marba meni beth Find, RC vii 302.183 . ropar cocle cridi. ropar caemthe caille. ropar fir chomdeirgide, LL 10510 (MS ropdar with d expunged) = TBC-LL² 3071-73 ; robdar TBC(C) 2127-29 , RC xi 29 § 54 ; robatar, TBC St. 2903 ; robadar, RC xi 29 § 54 .

Conj.

(a) -rbommar : nírbommar utmuill ... nírbommar tromdi gl. non inquieti fuimus, Wb. 26b14 .

(b) -rsar : cid sinni nirsar malla, RC vii 294.81 .

pl. 2 No instances.

pl. 3

I Forms without ro-.

Abs.

(a) batir, batar : iarsindí batir inricci du báas huili, Wb. 5c14 . batir athissi ... dait-siu, Ml. 90d17 . air batar carait, 31a3 . 23c16 . Hy. ii 6.

(b) batir, batar, bat : batir banbrugaid sōn ┐ batar maithi, Corm. Y 1018.14 . batir faelti, LU 10585. batir hé iarom bátár im Ch., 8161 . BDD² 398. bátir (batar, batir, v.ll.) Érenn ardae, Fél. June 25 . LU 1699 (ICM). bátir īalla bātar inde, MacCongl. 89.26 . forsin fer batair bech whose bees they were, Laws iv 178.15 . batar sinde rīadatar it was we, Corm. Y 698.37 . SR 4072. BDD² 19. batar imtholtanaig, LU 3244. bátár hé sin a imtechtai, 11030 . bāttar dóini carsam-ne, Otia i 122 § 3. § 4 . bat comluatha dana fri conaib, IT i 72.11 . bat failid uili de sin, RC xliii 24 § 22.

Conj.

(a) -btar, -ptar : nitat pecthi ... indechtso cebtar hé riam, Wb. 4a8 . ciaptar mora a pecthai-som, Ml. 98c5 . a namtar tuidchissi, Sg. 6a13 . amtar mbati `when they were drowned,' Ml. 84d5 .

(b) -btar, -ptar, -btor, -tar, -but : céptar bailci bressa, Fél. Prol. 74. ciabtar glain, SR 2421. cíaptar áilli, Fél. Prol. 133. níptar ecnaig, ib. Nov. 9. níbtar dermaill, Corm. Y 398 . nibdar dimdaig, SR 3550. BCC 66.8 . imtar láin ..., | imtar ilerda, SR (Greene) 4659 . amdar suidigthi ... forsin teinith, Trip.² 131. comtar mairb, SR 5111. LU 8373. PH 5479. comdar slána, Trip.² 157. immuscomarcair cibtar hē asked who they were, Corm. Y 1059.58 . gu mbut ōga a n-ocobair till their desires were fulfilled, ACL iii 3.12 .

II Forms with ro-.

Abs.

(a) robtar, roptar, robatar (Ml. only), robdar : nitat huili robtar tuicsi, Wb. 11a21 . hore romtar óis teglig, 7b13 . robtar beca, Ml. 90c25 . déde hí roptar bibdaid som, 124c2 . inna hí ruptar ardda, Thes. ii 11.42 (Bcr.). is follus romatar bibdaid som, Ml. 125b9 . 78b12 . rocretset ... romdar tosge maith doib nanní ..., 96b5 .

(b) robtar, roptar, raptar, robdar, robdur, ? ropat : ar robtar cosmaili, Trip.² 1297. Corm. Y 690.4 . robtar auctair in dana sin, Trip.² 328. LU 9602. SR 3449. robdar druid co mōreōlus, TBC-I¹ 835. Anecd. i 46.12 . ar ropdar mebhra laiss iat, ii 43.3 . arinni robdur ceithri uidhi, Laws i 262.4 . ropat móra do berta (? or leg. ropsat), IT iii 484.281 . ropsat comchuibde ar ceta, Ériu i 72 § 4. RC vii 294.82 . MR 214.16 . FDG 557. rapsat irlama, MU² 149. TBC-LL¹ 3243. Ériu i 72 § 4. robsat athlumha, BS 18.26 . robsad buana, ML² 2084. ZCP viii 539.17 . ? To this : na sluaig remi rosatr[i]uin (? leg. ropsat triuin), SR 3983.

Conj.

(a) -rubtar, -ruptar, -roptar : isuaignid ni rubtar gáitha for comairli, Wb. 18c6 . conruptar fadirci ind usci, Ml. 40d16 (MS. ɔ possibly for co L in which case ruptar could be abs., Ériu lvi 40 n. 56 ). ceruptar enartu, 49a17 . arrumtar doirthi, 34d10 . déde hí roptar bibdaid som, 124c2 .

(b) -rbtar, -rptar, -rtar, -rbat, -rpsat, -rsat, -psat, -bsat, -psatar : nírbtar humail fris, Trip.² 1976. Corm. Y 179. nírptar fáilti, BDD² 337. nirdar subaig, TBC-LL¹ 3242. ciarbat ile, PRIA iii (3rd ser.) 548 § 23 ( LL 147a ). garbat discailtig, TBC-LL¹ 544. gurbat daitinigh, RC xliii 75 § 75. Leb. Gab.(i) 118.1 . corbhat foithe, RC xliii 84 § 85. nirbat sathig (nirbot, nirbad, nirbo, v.ll.), Metr. Dinds. iii 78.24 . nirpsat [m'] airm[-si] can ulaig, Ériu i 72 § 2. nirsat tualaing a dhinghmhail, v 158.210 . nirsat methol a n-athól they were not a band in the second drinking ?, BCC 290.28 . a mbrughaidh nírsat bronuigh, Ériu iv 116 § 24. gursad luatha, RC xiv 28.12 . cersat mor, PH 250. da ghadaige ... darsat comanmann Dismus ┐ Iesmus, 2852 . cārsat comadha sin, ML² 1387. carsad, ZCP viii 544.22 . ciapsat guir fri crabud nglé, SR 8007. nibsad adbul a ḟir bain, Anecd. i 13.15 . batar gnima erred lat-sa, nipsatar gnima con, Anecd. iii 53.8 . In : gomsad daerbhesacha macneda Uladh. ZCP viii 546.7 . the form is pres. pl. 3 but the sense calls for sec. fut. pl. 3. Cf. 545.21 .

On buith as vn. of copula see GOI § 817. Cf. mo bith lomnocht, SR 1336. maso ḟír ... | for mbith iarmui do Abram, 3498 .

léimm

Cite this: eDIL s.v. léimm or dil.ie/29795

n, n. vn. of lingid. m. and f. IGT Decl. § 45.

(a) act of leaping, somet. act of moving (rapidly) (against), hence act of attacking: ba léim ro leblaingseom tarsin cathraig ammuich, LU 9077 ( FB 82 ). dammidethar fá dí día lémaim ┐ forémid, LU 9132 ( FB 88 ). focherdat a pupli i sudiu ┐ dotíagat día leimim inna carptib they come to jump it, LU 5216 ( TBC-I¹ 738 ). Cenel Eoghain do leim libh, / baire nach bia gan airimh that C. E. marches with you(?), Irish Texts ii 101 § 38 . deacair dom luing léim na tuinne, PBocht 1.26 . léim Teamhra ná tabhair d'aoidh `think not of rushing to T.,' DDána 105.23 . ag tocht dá léim coming to attack it(?), Aithd. D. 50.20 . mīlidh Chlāir Leamhna do léim, O'R. Poems 668 . inntleacht Meadhbha . . . / meallais mac . . . Damháin / do léim a chomhalta Con, DDána 104.20 . gan neart slóigh láinmhir dá léim attacking it, 119.15 . nach lamhthar . . . / léim na foraoise fásaigh `that no foe attack his wild lair', Aithd. D. 16.21 . lá don chraoisigh . . . / ag léim brogha, L. Cl. A. B. 239.74 . lucht léimthe léimeann gach tíre invaders(?), Keat. Poems 563 . gan léim eisde dhí dá diaigh without its smoke issuing from it(?), DDána 119.6 . ní asse linn ǽm léim dind béstatu et dind tinchosc inna ndóine for aisṅdíis di thuiste dúile `to leap from the morality and from the teaching of human beings to a declaration of the creation of the elements', Wb. 5c16 . bean ag léim le cóig gciallaibh / d'iarraidh Néill Óig `each lady, her five senses throbbing, seeks Niall Óg', Aithd. D. 15.24 . croidhe . . . / ag léim d'orghráin, Studies 1919, 257 § 10 . ag léim ó locht go locht, TSh. 1677 . léim thar uimhir éigcinnte to ignore(?), Content. vi 86.

(b) Folld. by words denoting strife, etc. rushing into: tú ag léim deabhtha is díchiollach, O'R. Poems 117 . ar léim gleóidh trē ghaillíat[haibh], 124 . ní lonn acht ag léim caithghliadh, DDána 117.39 . fear as leomhanda ag léim treas, 38 . ag léim gacha troda, 111.20 . Cf. léim fa ghaoibh géara `to charge against the sharp spears', Aithd. D. 30.33 .

(c) Freq. of passing from life to death: īar n-ar lēim ōr colainn crīn, ZCP vi 266 § 10 . go bfuair [sin] Tadg Luimnig léim till T. met his death(?), Caithr. Thoirdh. 122.6 . léim na huaidhe, PBocht 3.18 . léim fan lia, 2.6 . Cf. [dá cét b]liadan . . . / saegal F[inn ba fa]da in ré / co torchair gá léim aeisé, SG 150.31 .

(d) leap, bound : leim gl. saltus, Sg. 106b8 . saltus .i. l.¤ , Thr. Ir. Gl. 40.z . is inand saltus isin teangaidh laidianta ┐ léim isin Gaedailg, O'Gr. Cat. 301.26 . lēim .i. lū-ēim .i. lūud sēim hē, Corm. Y 835 . roretha, roléimenna, Tec. Corm. § 21.4 . la féimmed ind lemme dochúatár ind fir aile failing to make the jump, LU 9134 ( FB 88 ). ba dóig laisseom tra combad ó lémum dochúatár ind laith gaile tairse by leaping, LU 9131 ( FB 88 ). cleasaideacht is lēmenna, Ériu iv 174 § 8 . Cf. PH 892 . sitrech . . . na n-ech . . . ┐ a lemenda re gloraib na srian aca n-imnastad, TTebe 2332 . mo réim is rioth doill / fan bhioth do léim [loinn] `in eager haste', Aithd. D. 52.2 . l.¤ aithbe see aithbe. Fig. doiligh . . . / leanmhain [dá bhur] léimeannaibh vacillations, 79.11 . ? Cf. glor gan lacurán, gan léim, Hy Maine 132.28 . le n-a ngrádh ná tabhair léim do not contend for, Dánta Gr. 82.5 .

In chevilles: dia féil — ní léim ṅ-imḟann — / ascnam céim for caland no feeble progress, Fél. Dec. 31 . fa léim sodháin it was a fortunate step, DDána 113.5 . léim go luinne `bounding impetuously', Content. xxviii 29 . eistecht Mo Chutu léim ṅglan, LL 15562.

(e) beirid (do-beir) l.¤ leaps, bounds : da rugus léim suas iar sin, / a richt nathrach, Ériu iv 112 § 8. To Christ: rugais ocht léimeanna . . . léim a nimh, etc., Dán Dé xxix 18 - 19 . rugais léim . . . as an uaigh, 21 . léim do bhreith . . . a sádhaile na beatha so, TSh. 556.

(f) Of the gushing forth of water: an Múaid ag breith lémend lúidh, IGT Decl. ex. 1256 . léim buinne, L. Cl. A. B. 224.126 . tomhaidhm locha léim inbhir, Content. xxx 29 . san oidhche chéadna ro chlos / léim Bóinne `the springing forth of the Boinn', iv 30 .

(g) In nn. loc.: oc Leim ind eich, AU an. 586 . co Léim-mic-Neill, ii 212.17 . Léim an Eich, Keat. iii 1405. See also Hog. Onom.

Compd. ¤thelcun: agá lot ┐ agá léimthelgon `vexing him with plunging discharge of missiles', Caithr. Thoirdh. 23.16 .

See also s.vv. 2 bolg, 1 líne, 1 lige, lúth, 1 néim.

lúth

Cite this: eDIL s.v. lúth or dil.ie/31131
Last Revised: 2013

Forms: lútha, lúith, lúdh, luud, lúd, lúthu, láth

n g s. lútha, lúith. l.¤, lúdh m., IGT Decl. § 38 . Verbs § 83 . Also luud, lúd. ?a p. lúthu, LU 8675 ( FB 51 ). See láth. Orig. vn. of luïd, Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 571.

I As vn. act of moving : femidset lúd as nach leth, Metr. Dinds. ii 26.17 . lúd lúadrinna (sign of a good carpenter), Triads 118 . nír cuimciset luth a cos nó a lámh, CCath. 2100. ni bither fri lúd nadma na ratha uime, O'Curry 375 ( H 3.18, 208 ). dia coemsaitis a lama do luth if they were able to move their hands, CCath. 5692 . ro gab ac lúd reime (of lion) `began to sport', Grail 2086 . ic lúd fri araile, 2253 . ? Cf. ni codhnach araile luth anapta eipiltain an con, O'Curry 2525 ( Eg.88 f. 43 (44)b ). Of sentiment longing: do bhí a chroidhe ag l.¤ re na dhearbhrathair, Gen. xliii 30 . for (ar) l.¤ on the move : amal bis rothmol for luth, SR 199 . sailghe fada . . . ar luth fúithe, ALC ii 264.4 . a theanga . . . ar luth, MR 180.17 . a scor . . . ar l.¤ (leg. lúdh: úr) `at their speed', O'Gr. Cat. 474.19. eich ar l.¤, sról re sleghaibh, L. Cl. A. B. 100.191 . ar l.¤ ┐ ar luadhaill, TSh. 1677.

II

(a) power of movement, motion : is lúud leu teistiu fuile gl. veloces pedes eorum ad effundendum sanguinem, Wb. 2b1 . léim . . . .i. lūud sēim hē, Corm. Y 835 . bir co lúdh an automatic spit, Petrie's Tara 213.9 . lāth quasi luth [.i. iarsinní lúthas] `motion', Corm. Bodl. 10 . lūth ēoit futhachta glossed luthad do tre eút īar ndēnum fuiche de (one of four carnal sins), Anecd. v 25.3 . See fuiche. ilar n-én foleímdis tre lud eter na platantaib ordaib, BB 493b21 ( IT, ii2 99.1 `lustig', Alex. 597 ). re l.¤ éin, Duan. F. ii 368 § 22 . Of use of limbs: ma ro facad ní da luth isin cois `power', Laws iii 350.21 Comm . nim thá lúd hi cois no i llaim, LU 1256 ( Imr. Brain ii 288.3 ). lám argait co lánl.¤ cacha láma in cach meór (of silver hand of Nuadu), LL 1075 = BB 32b39 . laim airgid foair co luth cecai láma, RC xii 58 § 11 . mo chorp gan l.¤ , Keat. Poems 954 . l.¤ luaimneach a mhéar, 250 . tré iomad luith do bheith 'n-a chorp, Keat. ii 5216 . do thréig tu do l.¤ ┐ do neart, Oss. iv 2.3 . an mhuinghin . . . iona lúith (of King Cormac), Párl. na mB. 53 . Cf. perh. is mōr cosgar ruc le lūgh (: dūn), ZCP viii 229.11 .

Note also: ni duine iar fír he, acht diabul fo lúd duine in the guise of(?), LB 131b3 .

In various related senses: luth luas, Metr. Gl. Ff. 21 (v.l.). co rothóed in bó-sin / dá lóeg ar in l.¤ sin `because of her haste', Metr. Dinds. iv 70.18 . velocitatem .i. luth ōir bud lūaithi co mór . . . nā gaoth (of bodies of the glorious), RC xxviii 320 § 47 . ar imarcaid lúidh `excess of fleetness', MR 318.7 . Cf. fuluth .i. lūth foi, .i. utmall, Corm. Y 663. Feat: luth buadha glorious feat, Misc. Hag. Hib. 118.21 . in tsliasat tseng nó in glún geal / nachar mell lúgh d'a lingfeadh `never failed him in any athletic feat he might attempt', Ériu iv 218.12 . gasda a lúdh a dtrealam trom / leabar mong a súl rom ṡill, IGT Verbs ex. 739.

(b) In wider sense of vigour, power, energy : l.¤ Labrada, LU 3532 ( SCC 28 ) `the vehemence of L.', SGS vii 59 . l.¤ co ṅáni `power', Fél. Oct. 8 . la l.¤ aingel ngel / dobérthar nem dó power, LU 9861 . luth la fáebra, 8616 ( FB 46 ). l.¤ fiansa, TBC-LL¹ 5740 = luud fianna, TBC-I¹ 3423 (in rhetoric). in carpat . . . go ll.¤ go llúais, TBC-LL¹ 3374 . lassaid ar l.¤ lanésci, LU 7399 = BDD² 1027 . lingged ar failti . . . / David fria l.¤ (of D. dancing before the Ark of the Covenant), SR 6683. da cumuil dí dhóit ar luth ┐ nirt, Laws iv 362.1 Comm . fri l.¤ láech-Níall, Metr. Dinds. iv 222.8 . luth seirce sóerligi, LU 8328 ( FB 24 ). in Liath . . . co l.¤ ceithre crú, Comp. CC 102.2 . lúdh Fódla do-chíam na choinne, IGT Decl. ex. 1211. nirbo luth re letredh doib-suim ┐ nirbo turrac gan tubha, CCath. 5796 (prov. expressions describing weak opposition in battle). lúdh foda nach fuil n-a urd, Magauran 1278 `energy sustained but not methodical', Notes. o doficed a l.¤ lathair battle-fury, LU 6415 ( TBC-I¹ 1900 ). l.¤ lathair, TBC-LL¹ 1709 , 2559 . luth legha `a physician's strength' (name of letter ng in Briatharogham of Morann m. Máin), Auraic. 5561 . ní heasbaidh lúith ná láthair, Keat. Poems 1085. E. . . . co l.¤ leómain `with a lion's spirit', Metr. Dinds. iv 118.135 . l.¤ ┐ lámach dexterity and marksmanship: in mac rígh ba ferr l.¤ ┐ lámach, Acall. 223 . gan mac ríogh ná taoisigh ag fogluim lúith ná lámhaigh, Keat. iii 2771 . ní tacha lúid ná lámhaigh, O'Gr. Cat. 504.21 . ag dénaim lúidh ┐ lámuigh, 508.6 . See 2 lámach. Sustenance: lúth cethrae 'sustenance of cattle' Ériu xxxix 136 . lúth bech 'sustenance of bees' ibid . lúth lega 'sustenance of a leech' ibid .

g s. as attrib.: a gclesa lúith (leg. lúidh: búidh) athletics, O'Gr. Cat. 472.20 . almai énlaithe lúith speedy, LU 8662 ( FB 49 ). ra daṅgnigit drochti lúith di lúthechaib mobile, LL 239b1 ( TTr. 1675 ). raforbad ám in saethar sin co railaied for al-lind luith, LL 219a10 ( TTr. 144 ) (dock?). s dá dhá gealghlaic leabhra lúith nimble, Dánta Gr. 30.19 . baccain lūith, Celt. Rev. x 346.4 . cor luith, ZCP x 295.28 . a mhaighre lúidh learg Line active salmon (of prince), L. Cl. A. B. 121.43 . féitheach lúth (MS. lúith) a chuirp nimble muscles, Ériu v 180.300 . léim lúid (lúda) vigorous bound : ní a leith a chémend do-chúaidh / an Múaid ag breith lémend lúidh, IGT Decl. ex. 1256 . táinic soin dá léim lúdha / béim súla ┐ goin ghrádha, ex. 989 . rugais ocht léimeanna lúidh (addr. to Christ, of Incarnation etc.), Dán Dé xxix 18 . tucc mo chroidhe gan léim lúith, ACL iii 305 § 6 . eite lúith: eite lúidh na lachan the plumage by which it can fly, IGT Verbs ex. 102 . Transferred: eite lúidh fheirge t'oidhir `thy Son's swift-speeding anger', Aithd. D. 67.27 . linn lúith life-blood: a linn lúidh gur fhear t'oidhir (of Christ on the cross), 19 (`lake of life'). mo dhínchrios taobha-sa, mo lionn lúdha-sa (of prince), DDána 70.11 . lionn lúith na locht, TSh. 2318.

In chevilles: l.¤ ro fes, LL 259a22 . luth n-alta, SR 3031. diluth glan with clear vigour, 5913 .

(c) joy, rejoicing : rongab l.¤ 'ma lan-aicsin, Metr. Dinds. iv 24.14 . subuchus ┐ l.¤ , TTr.² 527 . fáth lúidh is fáth faitcheasa / dhúinn an tráth fa ttiocfasa, IGT Decl. ex. 1058 . rogab luth lanmór iarla Aimbri ar faiccsin a maic `great joy', ZCP vi 76.22 . a lúdh innte dá huaisleacht `the bright joy in her is part of her noble nature', O'Hara 3514 . ro gabh l.¤ ┐ forbfailtechus iad, BNnÉ 110 § 44 . In phrase is l.¤ la x x is eager (to), pleased (with): ni solum (.i. luth) leis dul i cert he is not eager to resort to law, O'Curry 431 ( H 3.18, p. 234 ). rob l.¤ leo-san sin, ZCP xiii 197.5 . tochd ar cuan mar nar l.¤ linn `a thing we liked not', Magauran 2850 . Cf. ba luthmenma (? leg. l.¤ menma) lasin imperi na scēla-sin, ZCP vi 274.10 . O'Conbuidi as lúd lind `who is dear to us', Hy Fiach. 260.16 . lút[h] la cridhi (cheville), Snedg. u. Mac R 10 § 23.

Appar. in sense of 1 lúithech in: cengailter luth da laime deise `fasten your right hand', Ériu viii 56.32 .

Compds. Usually alliterating. ¤chles. In pl.: lúth-clesa leinim `dexterous feats of a child', MR 294.9 . ¤ettech: a lán lúitheitigh, L. Cl. A. B. 98.136 . ¤ḟoimtiu: tri trenbeimenna . . . do luthḟoimittin a lama defensive vigour(?) `sinews'(?), MR 300.25 . ¤gáir, -e, see separate entry. ¤géc: a labhartha sa lúithghéaga, Ó Bruad. iii 2.10 . ¤glacc: ar lagad . . . a lam ┐ a luthghlac umpu, LL 409b4 . ¤graig: lán do lúithghreadhaibh, L. Cl. A. B. 94.2 . ¤léim: clesamnaig fri clesaib ┐ lúth-léimendaib, Alex. 469 . ¤lige: ? conlee M. . . . / l. la C. `will be a rigorous bed-fellow', Imr. Brain i 24 § 51 = l.¤ lige `effective intercourse', Murphy Lyrics 39.19 cf. luth seirce, LU 8328 above. ¤rochtain: lúthrochtain dúine Dé, Aithd. D. 76. 20 . Note also: ech luath lutlugmar, LL 189a18 . See , 1 luud.

mairnid

Cite this: eDIL s.v. mairnid or dil.ie/31414

Forms: marn-, no-do-mairn, nom-mera, nacha-romrat, nu-merad, ar-in-merad, ni-n-mēra, rot-mēra, num-mērat-sa, mmērat, ros-mert, nim-rumart-sa, mertamar, mertsam, me[r]tatar, mērthir, cotamert, dia-n-mert, mrath, brath, mairn-, r-ar-marnestar, mairnestar, ro mert, ro[m]-mert-sa

vb. The -n- belongs to the pres. stem, which is not represented in the Glosses and may have been marn- (occas. found in Mid.Ir.), see Thurn. Hdb. § 546.

Forms: Pres. 3 s. no-do-mairn, Laws ii 284.21 . Subj. pres. 3 s. cia nom-mera , Fianaig. 26.14 . 3 pl. nacha-romrat, Laws ii 262.3 . Subj. impf. 3 s. co nu-merad , Ml. 24c20 . ar-in-merad, ZCP ix 192 § 9. Fut. 2 s. ni-n-mēra, LL 252a30 ( TBFr. Med. & Mod.Ir. Ser. v, 405 ). 3 s. rot-mēra, SR 1710. 3 pl. num-mērat-sa, Ml. 140c1 . ? ni mmērat beshire, Wb. 30c20 (gl. ultra non proficient; `they shall deceive no further', Thes.: they will last, endure <maraid?). Pret. 3 s. ros-mert, SR 1673 , cf. 1712 , 2779 . nim-rumart-sa, Fianaig. 10 § 8. 1 pl. mertamar, TBC-I¹ 290. (s-pret.) ro mertsam , SR 3623. 3 pl. ro me[r]tatar , Ml. 75d5 . Pass. fut. s. mērthir, LL 346b54 = ZCP xi 86 § 40. ? Pret. s. cotamert, SR 3071. dia-n-mert, 5361 ; so Strachan, VSR p. 36 ; by Pedersen Vgl. Gr. ii 575 taken as act.; if the latter, the construction is impersonal. See other possible exx. below.

vn. O.Ir. mrath = Mid.Ir. brath.

In Mid.Ir. freq. treated as a weak vb., the stem mairn- being preserved in all tenses: pret. 3 s. r-ar-marnestar, TBC-LL¹ 3688. ro mairnestar , LU 1033.

(a) betrays, plays false; leaves in the lurch: gl. prodere, Ml. 24c20 , 140c1 ; refers to proditores, 75d5 . nodo-guin nodo-mairn (.i. doní in brath), Laws ii 284.21 . ni gonuit ni mairnit, ii 288.14 Comm. abbair fris, . . . marnas mērthir who betrays shall be betrayed, ZCP xi 86 § 40. ro mertsam cóem diar ngnáthaib, | ro recsam ar n-oenbráthair, SR 3623. co mera [mairfid v.l., leg. mairnfid] cach brathair araile, RC xxvi 40 § 207 . dia mert a ben Coinroí, ZCP iii 42 § 7. ni mairnd [leg. mairn] cairdiu, LU 3634 ( SCC 31 ). ar nā gona ┐ ar nā mairne fear fine fear n-anfine, H 3.18 p. 217 a ( O'Curry 385 ). slog do ching a timcheall cairn | is mac ainbthi no-dos-mairnn; | is e mo drai, ni mera, | mac De the son of God is my druid, he will not play (me) false, YBL 173b42 = SG 79 , cf. CS 561 , AFM i 194 (in both versions taken as: ním éra he will not refuse me). Iudas Scariath mert a Choimde who betrayed his Lord, Ériu ii 120 § 59. in duine mairnes in coimdid iar ndesmberecht Iudais, PH 5297. rom-mertabair . . . lécud mo námat chucum `ye have plotted to let', Ériu vi 148.48 . mani mairntae in chathir, TTr.² 1782. ni mad-lodmar dō, ol C., nā mertamar hUltu would that we had not gone there and left the Ulstermen in the lurch (open to attack), TBC-I¹ 290 = frismbertamar Ultu, O'Dav. 1020.

Deceives, deludes (with false appearances, promises, etc.), cozens, wheedles, misleads: nit-merad-su (.i. nit-mairnfed) sain he would not deceive thee (alluding to Cathbad's prophecies), TBC-LL¹ 1081. is trén ro-da-mert in scel ro chomarleicset their plans deluded them (of builders of Babel), SR 2779. cen bæth-rún ros-mairn immaig `without idle desire that lured him away', Metr. Dinds. iii 198. Cf. further: is tú th'aenur nachan-mairn[e]a . . . di cach athchomarc rolásum cucat thou art the only one who never fails (disappoints) me in any request, ACL iii 294 § 12. `Atchíu níro fastáis na firu' for C. `Ní mé rod-mert' (.i. ro follaig [sic leg.] cen in techtairecht do denam) or L. it is not I that flinched (shirked) it, BDD 36 (rodmeirt, rotmbert v.l.; leg. rotmert that failed thee?). The follg. exx. may represent pret. pass. (see above): coro thimart, cota-mert dó (= do) thochta i tír nEgept till they were beguiled into going (?), SR 3071. dian-mert fodéin . . . do berrad a mormuṅgga when he himself was beguiled into having his locks shorn (?), 5361 (of Samson). Cf. ro mert Labān . . . | indaban [leg. idnaib] forsrabi Rachial, 3029 (= L. was deceived by the simulated pangs of R.?).

(b) tells on, informs on (a person); reveals (a plan, etc.), not necessarily in bad sense: slán cach mairnes [mairne MSS.] mignima .i. bi slán dontí dogni faisneis . . . in drochgnima, O'Dav. 1272. mairnit na noím in námait n-arsata .i. diabul don athair nemdai (alluding to the prayer: `deliver us from the evil [one]'), PH 8006. coro máirned a athair intí Martain don rig (= prodente patre), Lat. Lives 87. ro mhairnseat d'Ua Neill an Calbhach do bheith fón innas sin, AFM v 1576.1 . In looser sense of revealing, making known: ised sin ro mairn in mag | ó fil a ainm co n-ardblad, Metr. Dinds. iii 426. ainm in míl . . . ro len in tír sin chaidche; ros-mairn ós áth cach enaig `it designated the spot', 428 . mar[n]aid do chiall cech sluag séim thy sense spies (perceives) every ethereal host, SCC 45 ; cf. cuimilt riú, mar mhairneas mé, ní fiú th'aighneas as I perceive, Content. xxii 20.

(c) confounds, baffles, brings to nought; cf. frisbert .i. ro mairnestar, LU 1033 = ro mairn, RC xx 274 § 101. cethri tomadmann . . . ní ros-mairn [rosbáid v.l.] mesce 'malle `strong drink (? poetic frenzy) hath not confounded them together' (i.e. mixed up their names), Metr. Dinds. iii 460. feib ro mairn a chrotha crí maidm . . . Locha Lindmuni `wrought the ruin of his shapely form', 450 . ar co fesad cid dia mboí ani nos-mert (rosmbert, not-fosd v.l.) what it was that balked them, RC xv 294 ( Dinds. 5 ). rosiacht in muc co Ceis Corind, conid ann ros-mert ` perished ', 477 ( Dinds. 77 ) = pass. pret.? co fail a lecht ar a lar | airm ro mert in mor-macamh, BB 405a38 (pass.?). ro[m]-mert-sa . . . aithle mo meic, | rom-thacht-sa cumga Eogain the loss of my son (?) has undone me, LL 146b42 = PRIA iii 544 § 21 (pass.?). dorochair in file . . . ro mairned co sír . . . ar ainmed ríg ro-Themra `he was betrayed (? destroyed) for blemishing', Metr. Dinds. ii 68. in tí triasarmairned in domun through whom the world was brought to nought (of Christ), LB 135b28 = Todd Lect. vi § 71 . With transference of obj.: ro mert Blathnait . . . in argain `by treachery brought about the slaughter', ZCP iii 42 § 8.

Load More Results